WorldWideScience

Sample records for included onboard gratuities

  1. 32 CFR 716.7 - Payment of the death gratuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certification and voucher for the death gratuity payment. The Comptroller General of the United States has... Certification and Voucher for Death Gratuity Payment, DD Form 397, in original and five copies, completing... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of the death gratuity. 716.7 Section 716...

  2. SU-E-J-215: Onboard Split PET Including the Effects of Attenuation, Scatter, and Random Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, N [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Kao, C [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Thomadsen, B; Mackie, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) using split PET geometry was investigated as an on-board system for functional imaging and PET marker tracking, specifically with tomotherapy. The open dual ring PET would allow measurement of both inter and intra-fractional variation, improving the delineation of tumor volume at any stage in the radiation treatment delivery process. We present results from data obtained using Monte Carlo simulations including the effects of attenuation, random events, and scatter. Methods: PET design was accomplished via Monte Carlo simulations with GATE, the Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography. Images were reconstructed using Software for Image Reconstruction (STIR) with a fully 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) image reconstruction technique. Results: Monte Carlo simulations of the split PET geometry indicate that including physical factors that degrade image quality such as attenuation, random events, and scatter still prove the feasibility of near real-time PET for both inter and intra-fractional radiation delivery. The image quality of scan times under 1 minute reveals that it is possible to utilize PET scanning and reconstruction during the treatment session intrafractionally. GATE also simulates the depth information but does not correct obliqueness of the path of line of response so the data is much more realistic than the data obtained with ray tracing. Conclusion: Onboard split PET with TomoTherapy can generate quality images under 1 minute scan times without the need to correct for attenuation, scatter, random events, or depth information of the interaction.

  3. 78 FR 36596 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Death Gratuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ...; Death Gratuity ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the Office of..., ``Death Gratuity,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for use in... FECA death gratuity benefit of up to $100,000 for eligible beneficiaries of Federal employees and Non...

  4. Determinants of Gratuity Size in the Czech Republic: Evidence from Four Inexpensive Restaurants in Brno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvasnička Michal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first study exploring what factors influence tipping in restaurants in the Czech Republic. It shows that the tipping norm evolved here into a form that has some features similar to the tipping norms known in the USA, Canada, and Israel, but there are also striking differences. As in the three countries, the gratuity increases with the bill size but the gratuity as percentage of the bill is much lower here. The bill size explains here a lower part of the gratuity variability too. Also, the service quality results in customers being more generous with their tips, and though the increase in gratuity seems to be small, it rises with a group size. Strikingly, the regular patrons tip significantly less in the Czech Republic and they stiff more often. This supports the hypothesis that the relationship between the customer frequency and the gratuity size is an artifact of a missing variable, and the regular patrons tip differently because they belong to a different social group than occasional customers. Also, the customers paying by card stiff more often here and the interaction between the amount on the bill and use of payment card is statistically insignificant. The group size lowers the percentage gratuity, which supports the diffusion of the responsibility hypothesis. There are differences between genders: Male customers leave bigger tips than female customers, and female waitresses earn more than their male colleagues. The time spent at the table, consumption of alcoholic beverage, and smoking do not change the gratuity size but it may be affected by the weather conditions. The customers tip less and stiff more often when they order a lunch special. They round the total expenditures, not the gratuities, which creates the magnitude effect.

  5. Advanced Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processor - SpaceCube 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Topics include an overview of On-board science data processing, software upset mitigation, on-board data reduction, on-board products, HyspIRI demonstration testbed, SpaceCube 2.0 block diagram, and processor comparison.

  6. Orienting and Onboarding Clinical Nurse Specialists: A Process Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mayra G; Watt, Jennifer L; Falder-Saeed, Karie; Lewis, Brennan; Patton, Lindsey

    Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) have a unique advanced practice role. This article describes a process useful in establishing a comprehensive orientation and onboarding program for a newly hired CNS. The project team used the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists core competencies as a guide to construct a process for effectively onboarding and orienting newly hired CNSs. Standardized documents were created for the orientation process including a competency checklist, needs assessment template, and professional evaluation goals. In addition, other documents were revised to streamline the orientation process. Standardizing the onboarding and orientation process has demonstrated favorable results. As of 2016, 3 CNSs have successfully been oriented and onboarded using the new process. Unique healthcare roles require special focus when onboarding and orienting into a healthcare system. The use of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists core competencies guided the project in establishing a successful orientation and onboarding process for newly hired CNSs.

  7. Using Onboard Telemetry for MAVEN Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Try; Trawny, Nikolas; Lee, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the spacecraft state has been traditional done using radiometric tracking data before and after the atmosphere drag pass. This paper describes our approach and results to include onboard telemetry measurements in addition to radiometric observables to refine the reconstructed trajectory estimate for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN). Uncertainties in the Mars atmosphere models, combined with non-continuous tracking degrade navigation accuracy, making MAVEN a key candidate for using onboard telemetry data to help complement its orbit determination process.

  8. Rapid Diagnostics of Onboard Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Thomas W.; Morris, John R.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Maimone, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping track of sequences onboard a spacecraft is challenging. When reviewing Event Verification Records (EVRs) of sequence executions on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER), operators often found themselves wondering which version of a named sequence the EVR corresponded to. The lack of this information drastically impacts the operators diagnostic capabilities as well as their situational awareness with respect to the commands the spacecraft has executed, since the EVRs do not provide argument values or explanatory comments. Having this information immediately available can be instrumental in diagnosing critical events and can significantly enhance the overall safety of the spacecraft. This software provides auditing capability that can eliminate that uncertainty while diagnosing critical conditions. Furthermore, the Restful interface provides a simple way for sequencing tools to automatically retrieve binary compiled sequence SCMFs (Space Command Message Files) on demand. It also enables developers to change the underlying database, while maintaining the same interface to the existing applications. The logging capabilities are also beneficial to operators when they are trying to recall how they solved a similar problem many days ago: this software enables automatic recovery of SCMF and RML (Robot Markup Language) sequence files directly from the command EVRs, eliminating the need for people to find and validate the corresponding sequences. To address the lack of auditing capability for sequences onboard a spacecraft during earlier missions, extensive logging support was added on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sequencing server. This server is responsible for generating all MSL binary SCMFs from RML input sequences. The sequencing server logs every SCMF it generates into a MySQL database, as well as the high-level RML file and dictionary name inputs used to create the SCMF. The SCMF is then indexed by a hash value that is automatically included in all command

  9. On-board processing of video image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    and evaluated. On-board there are six video cameras each capturing images of 1024times1024 pixels of 12 bpp at a frame rate of 15 fps, thus totalling 1080 Mbits/s. In comparison the average downlink data rate for these images is projected to be 50 kbit/s. This calls for efficient on-board processing to select...... and compress the data. Algorithms for on-board processing of the image data are presented as well as evaluation of the performance. The main processing steps are event detection, image cropping and image compression. The on-board processing requirements are also evaluated....... of the mission is to study transient luminous events (TLE) above severe thunderstorms: the sprites, jets and elves. Other atmospheric phenomena are also studied including aurora, gravity waves and meteors. As part of the ASIM Phase B study, on-board processing of data from the cameras is being developed...

  10. On-boarding the Middle Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnor, Mary

    The trend of promoting clinical experts into management roles continues. New middle managers need a transitional plan that includes support, mentoring, and direction from senior leaders, including the chief nursing officer (CNO). This case study demonstrates how the CNO of one organization collaborated with a faculty member colleague to develop and implement a yearlong personalized on-boarding program for a group of new nurse middle managers.

  11. Reference Architecture for High Dependability On-Board Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Esper, Alexandre; Zandin, Johan; Barbosa, Ricardo; Monteleone, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    The industrial process in the area of on-board computers is characterized by small production series of on- board computers (hardware and software) configuration items with little recurrence at unit or set level (e.g. computer equipment unit, set of interconnected redundant units). These small production series result into a reduced amount of statistical data related to dependability, which influence on the way on-board computers are specified, designed and verified. In the context of ESA harmonization policy for the deployment of enhanced and homogeneous industrial processes in the area of avionics embedded systems and on-board computers for the space industry, this study aimed at rationalizing the initiation phase of the development or procurement of on-board computers and at improving dependability assurance. This aim was achieved by establishing generic requirements for the procurement or development of on-board computers with a focus on well-defined reliability, availability, and maintainability requirements, as well as a generic methodology for planning, predicting and assessing the dependability of on- board computers hardware and software throughout their life cycle. It also provides guidelines for producing evidence material and arguments to support dependability assurance of on-board computers hardware and software throughout the complete lifecycle, including an assessment of feasibility aspects of the dependability assurance process and how the use of computer-aided environment can contribute to the on-board computer dependability assurance.

  12. On-board Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Steve; Stein, Cara; Graves, Sara J.

    Networks of remote sensors are becoming more common as technology improves and costs decline. In the past, a remote sensor was usually a device that collected data to be retrieved at a later time by some other mechanism. This collected data were usually processed well after the fact at a computer greatly removed from the in situ sensing location. This has begun to change as sensor technology, on-board processing, and network communication capabilities have increased and their prices have dropped. There has been an explosion in the number of sensors and sensing devices, not just around the world, but literally throughout the solar system. These sensors are not only becoming vastly more sophisticated, accurate, and detailed in the data they gather but they are also becoming cheaper, lighter, and smaller. At the same time, engineers have developed improved methods to embed computing systems, memory, storage, and communication capabilities into the platforms that host these sensors. Now, it is not unusual to see large networks of sensors working in cooperation with one another. Nor does it seem strange to see the autonomous operation of sensorbased systems, from space-based satellites to smart vacuum cleaners that keep our homes clean and robotic toys that help to entertain and educate our children. But access to sensor data and computing power is only part of the story. For all the power of these systems, there are still substantial limits to what they can accomplish. These include the well-known limits to current Artificial Intelligence capabilities and our limited ability to program the abstract concepts, goals, and improvisation needed for fully autonomous systems. But it also includes much more basic engineering problems such as lack of adequate power, communications bandwidth, and memory, as well as problems with the geolocation and real-time georeferencing required to integrate data from multiple sensors to be used together.

  13. On-board processing for telecommunications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuspl, P. P.; Dong, G.

    1991-11-01

    In this decade, communications satellite systems will probably face dramatic challenges from alternative transmission means. To balance and overcome such competition, and to prepare for new requirements, INTELSAT has developed several on-board processing techniques, including Satellite-Switched TDMA (SS-TDMA), Satellite-Switched FDMA (SS-FDMA), several Modulators/Demodulators (Modem), a Multicarrier Multiplexer and Demodulator MCDD), an International Business Service (IBS)/Intermediate Data Rate (IDR) BaseBand Processor (BBP), etc. Some proof-of-concept hardware and software were developed, and tested recently in the INTELSAT Technical Laboratories. These techniques and some test results are discussed.

  14. New On-board Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, R.

    Two new processor devices have been developed for the use on board of spacecrafts. An 8-bit 8032-microcontroller targets typical controlling applications in instruments and sub-systems, or could be used as a main processor on small satellites, whereas the LEON 32-bit SPARC processor can be used for high performance controlling and data processing tasks. The ADV80S32 is fully compliant to the Intel 80x1 architecture and instruction set, extended by additional peripherals, 512 bytes on-chip RAM and a bootstrap PROM, which allows downloading the application software using the CCSDS PacketWire pro- tocol. The memory controller provides a de-multiplexed address/data bus, and allows to access up to 16 MB data and 8 MB program RAM. The peripherals have been de- signed for the specific needs of a spacecraft, such as serial interfaces compatible to RS232, PacketWire and TTC-B-01, counters/timers for extended duration and a CRC calculation unit accelerating the CCSDS TM/TC protocol. The 0.5 um Atmel manu- facturing technology (MG2RT) provides latch-up and total dose immunity; SEU fault immunity is implemented by using SEU hardened Flip-Flops and EDAC protection of internal and external memories. The maximum clock frequency of 20 MHz allows a processing power of 3 MIPS. Engineering samples are available. For SW develop- ment, various SW packages for the 8051 architecture are on the market. The LEON processor implements a 32-bit SPARC V8 architecture, including all the multiply and divide instructions, complemented by a floating-point unit (FPU). It includes several standard peripherals, such as timers/watchdog, interrupt controller, UARTs, parallel I/Os and a memory controller, allowing to use 8, 16 and 32 bit PROM, SRAM or memory mapped I/O. With on-chip separate instruction and data caches, almost one instruction per clock cycle can be reached in some applications. A 33-MHz 32-bit PCI master/target interface and a PCI arbiter allow operating the device in a plug-in card

  15. Onboard photo: Astronaut Mae Jemison working in Spacelab-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) onboard photo of Astronaut Mae Jemison working in Spacelab-J module. Spacelab-J is a combined National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and NASA mission. The objectives included life sciences, microgravity and technology research.

  16. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-94) Mission Specialist Donald A. Thomas observes an experiment in the glovebox aboard the Spacelab Science Module. Thomas is looking through an eye-piece of a camcorder and recording his observations on tape for post-flight analysis. Other cameras inside the glovebox are also recording other angles of the experiment or downlinking video to the experiment teams on the ground. The glovebox is thought of as a safety cabinet with closed front and negative pressure differential to prevent spillage and contamination and allow for manipulation of the experiment sample when its containment has to be opened for observation, microscopy and photography. Although not visible in this view, the glovebox is equipped with windows on the top and each side for these observations.

  17. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  18. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  19. The Cognitive Onboard Operator Assistant Architecture, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a cognitively inspired architecture for deploying an automated intelligent onboard operator assistant. This assistant facilitates the onboard control...

  20. UAV ONBOARD GPS IN POSITIONING DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Tahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of ground control points is a critical issue in mapping field, especially for large scale mapping. The fast and rapid technique for ground control point’s establishment is very important for small budget projects. UAV onboard GPS has the ability to determine the point positioning. The objective of this research is to assess the accuracy of unmanned aerial vehicle onboard global positioning system in positioning determination. Therefore, this research used UAV onboard GPS as an alternative to determine the point positioning at the selected area. UAV is one of the powerful tools for data acquisition and it is used in many applications all over the world. This research concentrates on the error contributed from the UAV onboard GPS during observation. There are several points that have been used to study the pattern of positioning error. All errors were analyzed in world geodetic system 84- coordinate system, which is the basic coordinate system used by the global positioning system. Based on this research, the result of UAV onboard GPS positioning could be used in ground control point establishment with the specific error. In conclusion, accurate GCP establishment could be achieved using UAV onboard GPS by applying a specific correction based on this research.

  1. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  2. ADVANCES OF FLASH LIDAR DEVELOPMENT ONBOARD UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A small cost-low civilian UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - UAV platform usually requests that all carried components should be light in weight, small in volume, and efficient in energy. This paper presents the advance of a pre-mature of flash LiDAR system including laser emitting system, associate with the pulsed voltage technology. A complete laser emitting system, including laser diode, conic lens, alignment, divergence angle, etc., has been designed and implemented. The laser emitting system is first simulated and tested using 3D-Tool software, and then manufactured by an industrial company. In addition, a novel power supply topology based on two coupled coils, pulse generator circuit, and a fast switch, is proposed since several 100 V in voltage, 10-100 A in current, several hundred millisecond in pulse width is needed for flash LiDAR system onboard a small low-cost civilian UAV platform, and the traditional power supply had problems in efficiency and bulk. Finally, laser emitting and the power supply are assembled and tested. The size of laser footprint is 4398.031 mm x 4398.031 mm in x and y axes, respectively, when shitting from a flight height of 300 m, which is close to the theoretic size of 4.5 m x 4.5 m. The difference of 102 mm can meet the requirement of flash LiDAR data collection at a flight height of 300 m. Future work on extensive and on-going investigation and investments for a prototype of flash LiDAR system is drawn up as well.

  3. Dust Measurements Onboard the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Malaspina, D.; Poppe, A.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Szalay, J.

    2018-02-01

    A dust instrument onboard the Deep Space Gateway will revolutionize our understanding of the dust environment at 1 AU, help our understanding of the evolution of the solar system, and improve dust hazard models for the safety of crewed and robotic missions.

  4. 7 CFR 330.401 - Garbage generated onboard a conveyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage generated onboard a conveyance. 330.401...; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Garbage § 330.401 Garbage generated onboard a conveyance. (a) Applicability. This section applies to garbage generated onboard any means of conveyance during international or...

  5. Information on weather and sea conditions onboard polar cruise ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRÂNDUŞA CHIOTOROIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The arctic and Antarctic regions are difficult to navigate because of their severe maritime conditions. Weather forecast, forecast of the sea ice and icebergs dynamics are extremely important when planning ships routes and tourism activities including embarkation/disembarkation from boats or landing operations. New meteorological services have been created in the arctic region for broadcast purposes. The information provided by these services and received onboard ships is presented in this paper. A risk assessment should be considered for Polar Water operations such as maneuvering in ice covered waters, anchoring, shore landings etc.

  6. Fresh water generators onboard a floating platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Misra, B.M.; Sadhulkan, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    A dependable supply of fresh water is essential for any ocean going vessel. The operating and maintenance personnel on offshore platforms and marine structures also require a constant and regular supply of fresh water to meet their essential daily needs. A seawater thermal desalination unit onboard delivers good quality fresh water from seawater. The desalination units developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) suitable for ocean going vessels and offshore platforms have been discussed. Design considerations of such units with reference to floating platforms and corrosive environments have been presented. The feasibility of coupling a low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTVE) desalination plant suitable for an onboard floating platform to a PHWR nuclear power plant has also been discussed. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Two Years Onboard the MER Opportunity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, Tara; Anderson, Robert C.; Bornstein, Benjamin; Burl, Michael; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel; Judd, Michele; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system provides automated data collection for planetary rovers. AEGIS is currently being used onboard the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission's Opportunity to provide autonomous targeting of the MER Panoramic camera. Prior to AEGIS, targeted data was collected in a manual fashion where targets were manually identified in images transmitted to Earth and the rover had to remain in the same location for one to several communication cycles. AEGIS enables targeted data to be rapidly acquired with no delays for ground communication. Targets are selected by AEGIS through the use of onboard data analysis techniques that are guided by scientist-specified objectives. This paper provides an overview of the how AEGIS has been used on the Opportunity rover, focusing on usage that occurred during a 21 kilometer historic trek to the Mars Endeavour crater.

  8. Autonomous onboard optical processor for driving aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Mondher; Servel, Alain; Guibert, Laurent

    1995-01-01

    We take advantage of recent technological advances in the field of ferroelectric liquid crystal silicon back plane optoelectronic devices. These are well suited to perform massively parallel processing tasks. That choice enables the design of low cost vision systems and allows the implementation of an on-board system. We focus on transport applications such as road sign recognition. Preliminary in-car experimental results are presented.

  9. Gas monitoring onboard ISS using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisi, Michael; Stettner, Armin; Seurig, Roland; Honne, Atle; Witt, Johannes; Rebeyre, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    In the confined, enclosed environment of a spacecraft, the air quality must be monitored continuously in order to safeguard the crew's health. For this reason, OHB builds the ANITA2 (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) technology demonstrator for trace gas monitoring onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The measurement principle of ANITA2 is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technology with dedicated gas analysis software from the Norwegian partner SINTEF. This combination proved to provide high sensitivity, accuracy and precision for parallel measurements of 33 trace gases simultaneously onboard ISS by the precursor instrument ANITA1. The paper gives a technical overview about the opto-mechanical components of ANITA2, such as the interferometer, the reference Laser, the infrared source and the gas cell design and a quick overview about the gas analysis. ANITA2 is very well suited for measuring gas concentrations specifically but not limited to usage onboard spacecraft, as no consumables are required and measurements are performed autonomously. ANITA2 is a programme under the contract of the European Space Agency, and the air quality monitoring system is a stepping stone into the future, as a precursor system for manned exploration missions.

  10. Arctic summer school onboard an icebreaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Repina, Irina A.

    2014-05-01

    The International Arctic Research Center (IARC) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks conducted a summer school for PhD students, post-docs and early career scientists in August-September 2013, jointly with an arctic expedition as a part of NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) onboard the Russian research vessel "Akademik Fedorov". Both the summer school and NABOS expedition were funded by the National Science Foundation. The one-month long summer school brought together graduate students and young scientists with specialists in arctic oceanography and climate to convey to a new generation of scientists the opportunities and challenges of arctic climate observations and modeling. Young scientists gained hands-on experience during the field campaign and learned about key issues in arctic climate from observational, diagnostic, and modeling perspectives. The summer school consisted of background lectures, participation in fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were performed in collaboration with summer school instructors and members of the expedition. Key topics covered in the lectures included: - arctic climate: key characteristics and processes; - physical processes in the Arctic Ocean; - sea ice and the Arctic Ocean; - trace gases, aerosols, and chemistry: importance for climate changes; - feedbacks in the arctic system (e.g., surface albedo, clouds, water vapor, circulation); - arctic climate variations: past, ongoing, and projected; - global climate models: an overview. An outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum was writing a blog from the icebreaker with some very impressive statistics (results as of January 1, 2014): Total number of blog posts: 176 Blog posts written/contributed by scientists: 42 Blog views: 22,684 Comments: 1,215 Number of countries who viewed the blog: 89 (on 6 continents) The 33-day long NABOS expedition started on August 22, 2013 from Kirkenes, Norway. The vessel ("Akademik Fedorov") returned to

  11. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulwoo Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  12. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulwoo; Cho, Namhoon; Lee, Kyunghyun; Kim, Youdan

    2015-07-17

    To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  13. Onboard Photo of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This is an Apollo 17 onboard photo of an astronaut beside the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) on the lunar surface. Designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the Boeing Company, the LRV was first used on the Apollo 15 mission and increased the range of astronauts' mobility and productivity on the lunar surface. This lightweight electric car had battery power sufficient for about 55 miles. It weighed 462 pounds (77 pounds on the Moon) and could carry two suited astronauts, their gear, cameras, and several hundred pounds of bagged samples. The LRV's mobility was quite high. It could climb and descend slopes of about 25 degrees.

  14. Method of optimization onboard communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platoshin, G. A.; Selvesuk, N. I.; Semenov, M. E.; Novikov, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this article the optimization levels of onboard communication network (OCN) are proposed. We defined the basic parameters, which are necessary for the evaluation and comparison of modern OCN, we identified also a set of initial data for possible modeling of the OCN. We also proposed a mathematical technique for implementing the OCN optimization procedure. This technique is based on the principles and ideas of binary programming. It is shown that the binary programming technique allows to obtain an inherently optimal solution for the avionics tasks. An example of the proposed approach implementation to the problem of devices assignment in OCN is considered.

  15. Executive onboarding: ensuring the success of the newly hired department chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Warren E; Huang, Karen H C; Jones, Greg H

    2014-05-01

    The success of newly recruited medical school department chairs has become increasingly important for achievement of organizational goals. An effective onboarding program for these chairs can greatly facilitate early success, as well as satisfaction of the new hire with the position and the school. Onboarding programs can include traditional orientation items such as payroll signup and parking details, but should focus heavily on sharing organizational structure, culture, and how things get done. The goals of onboarding will be well served by implementation of three roles in the process. An Orientation Navigator can assist the new chair in the orientation phase, completing new employee documents and navigating the day-to-day challenges of working at the location. A Peer Mentor, generally a sitting chair, serves as both "buddy" and mentor, providing moral support as well as ensuring that the new chair gains an understanding of the people and processes important for getting things done. A Transition Mentor serves over a longer term as a sounding board and coach outside the peer group, assisting in a variety of ways to promote the chair's growth, development, and success as a leader. Finally, any onboarding process is significantly compromised without the active participation of the dean, meeting regularly with the chair to clarify expectations, promote assimilation, and solve problems. Successful onboarding begins with a mindfulness of the needs of the newly hired chair, and a well-designed and well-implemented plan will have wide-ranging benefits for the chair and the organization.

  16. A new on-board imaging treatment technique for palliative and emergency treatments in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Mareike

    2016-03-23

    This dissertation focuses on the use of on-board imaging systems as the basis for treatment planning, presenting an additional application for on-board images. A clinical workflow is developed to simulate, plan, and deliver a simple radiation oncology treatment rapidly, using 3D patient scans. The work focuses on an on-line dose planning and delivery process based on on-board images entirely performed with the patient set up on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator. This potentially reduces the time between patient simulation and treatment to about 30 minutes. The basis for correct dose calculation is the accurate image gray scale to tissue density calibration. The gray scale, which is defined in CT Numbers, is dependent on the energy spectrum of the beam. Therefore, an understanding of the physics characteristics of each on-board system is required to evaluate the impact on image quality, especially regarding the underlying cause of image noise, contrast, and non-uniformity. Modern on-board imaging systems, including kV and megavoltage (MV) cone beam (CB) CT as well as MV CT, are characterized in terms of image quality and stability. A library of phantom and patient CT images is used to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy for the on-board images. The dose calculation objective is to stay within 5% local dose differences compared to standard kV CT dose planning. The objective is met in many treatment cases. However, dose calculation accuracy depends on the anatomical treatment site. While on-board CT-based treatments of the head and extremities are predictable within 5% on all systems, lung tissue and air cavities may create local dose discrepancies of more than 5%. The image quality varies between the tested units. Consequently, the CT number-to-density calibration is defined independently for each system. In case of some imaging systems, the CT numbers of the images are dependent on the protocol used for on-board imaging, which defines the imaging dose

  17. On-Board Entry Trajectory Planning Expanded to Sub-orbital Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Shen, Zuojun

    2003-01-01

    A methodology for on-board planning of sub-orbital entry trajectories is developed. The algorithm is able to generate in a time frame consistent with on-board environment a three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) feasible entry trajectory, given the boundary conditions and vehicle modeling. This trajectory is then tracked by feedback guidance laws which issue guidance commands. The current trajectory planning algorithm complements the recently developed method for on-board 3DOF entry trajectory generation for orbital missions, and provides full-envelope autonomous adaptive entry guidance capability. The algorithm is validated and verified by extensive high fidelity simulations using a sub-orbital reusable launch vehicle model and difficult mission scenarios including failures and aborts.

  18. On-board entry trajectory planning for sub-orbital flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zuojun; Lu, Ping

    2005-03-01

    An algorithm for on-board planning of sub-orbital entry trajectories is presented. For entry vehicles with low lift-to-drag ratios and entering entry flight at sub-orbital speeds, this algorithm fills a gap left in a recently developed methodology for on-board generation of three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) entry trajectories. The algorithm developed in this paper is able to reliably generate a 3DOF feasible sub-orbital entry trajectory in a time frame compatible with on-board environment. The combination of this algorithm and an algorithm recently developed for orbital entry missions provides the capability for full-envelope autonomous adaptive entry guidance. The current algorithm is validated by extensive high fidelity simulations using a sub-orbital reusable launch vehicle model and difficult mission scenarios including failures and aborts.

  19. On-board digital signal processing technologies for present and future SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shuzo; Ohtani, Kohichi; Kohri, Takehru; Morikura, Masahiro; Umehira, Masahiro

    1988-09-01

    This paper surveys trends in digital and analog ICs and LSICs, including radiation hardness performance. An optimal selection of devices and suitable architectures for SCPC multicarrier demodulators is discussed. The results show good and clear guidelines for device and architecture selection for on-board signal processing at the present time and toward the year 2000. It is shown that, for on-board SCPC multicarrier demodulation, a transmultiplexer type channel divider and digital common demodulator has a good performance with a medium number of channels for regeneration.

  20. Flight Hardware Virtualization for On-Board Science Data Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize Hardware Virtualization technology to benefit on-board science data processing by investigating new real time embedded Hardware Virtualization solutions and...

  1. A Comprehensive Onboarding and Orientation Plan for Neurocritical Care Advanced Practice Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Tamra M; Dority, Jeremy; Fraser, Justin F; Hatton, Kevin W

    2018-04-04

    As the role of advanced practice providers (APPs) expands to include increasingly complex patient care within the intensive care unit, the educational needs of these providers must also be expanded. An onboarding process was designed for APPs in the neurocritical care service line. Onboarding for new APPs revolved around 5 specific areas: candidate selection, proctor assignment, 3-phased orientation process, remediation, and mentorship. To ensure effective training for APPs, using the most time-conscious approach, the backbone of the process is a structured curriculum. This was developed and integrated within the standard orientation and onboarding process. The curriculum design incorporated measurable learning goals, objective assessments of phased goal achievements, and opportunities for remediation. The neurocritical care service implemented an onboarding process in 2014. Four APPs (3 nurse practitioners and 1 physician assistant) were employed by the department before the implementation of the orientation program. The length of employment ranged from 1 to 4 years. Lack of clinical knowledge and/or sufficient training was cited as reasons for departure from the position in 2 of the 4 APPs, as either self-expression or peer evaluation. Since implementation of this program, 12 APPs have completed the program, of which 10 remain within the division, creating an 83% retention rate. The onboarding process, including a 3-phased, structured orientation plan for neurocritical care, has increased APP retention since its implementation. The educational model, along with proctoring and mentorship, has improved clinical knowledge and increased nurse practitioner retention. A larger-scale study would help to support the validity of this onboarding process.

  2. Data systems and computer science space data systems: Onboard networking and testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The technical objectives are to develop high-performance, space-qualifiable, onboard computing, storage, and networking technologies. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: justification; technology challenges; program description; and state-of-the-art assessment.

  3. Summary of experiments onboard Soviet biosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, S. O.; Ilyin, E. A.

    Physiological, morphological and biochemical studies of mammals flown onboard biosatellites of the series Cosmos revealed changes in their cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine and vestibular systems. Space flight resulted in moderate stress reactions, intralabyrinthine conflict information during movements and changes in fluid-electrolyte metabolism. Exposure to artificial gravity (1 g) decreased the level of myocardial, musculoskeletal and excretory changes, but disturbed the function of equilibrium. Studies with combined weightlessness and ionizing radiation demonstrated that weightlessness did not produce a significant modifying effect on radiation damage and postradiation recovery. Consistent changes in certain systems of animals and humans in weightlessness confirm the practical importance of biosatellite studies, which also contribute to the solution of general biology problems associated with gravity effects on life processes.

  4. Onboard Algorithms for Data Prioritization and Summarization of Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve A.; Hayden, David; Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Many current and future NASA missions are capable of collecting enormous amounts of data, of which only a small portion can be transmitted to Earth. Communications are limited due to distance, visibility constraints, and competing mission downlinks. Long missions and high-resolution, multispectral imaging devices easily produce data exceeding the available bandwidth. To address this situation computationally efficient algorithms were developed for analyzing science imagery onboard the spacecraft. These algorithms autonomously cluster the data into classes of similar imagery, enabling selective downlink of representatives of each class, and a map classifying the terrain imaged rather than the full dataset, reducing the volume of the downlinked data. A range of approaches was examined, including k-means clustering using image features based on color, texture, temporal, and spatial arrangement

  5. On-board processor orientated to low rate satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Luigi; Fournon, Fernando; del Re, Enrico

    ESA has undertaken the development of the baseband laboratory prototype of an experimental on-board processing satellite system orientated to complement the TST/SS-TDMA prototype for a wide range of low rate services (e.g., vocoded voice, low rate circuit switched data, packet data). The current prototype investigates a few basic techniques (such as synchronization, multiservice switching) which are primarily intended for mobile systems and can be extended to further applications (e.g., enhanced VSAT's). The baseline up-link includes a flexible mixture of SCPC and very low rate TDMA and the downlink is TDM, so that compatibility with ground cellular networks could be achieved eventually. These techniques are going to be validated by a comprehensive test-bed set-up and can evolve into field experiments.

  6. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...... taking into account whipping stresses. It is conceptually shown how such a method, which integrates onboard estimation of sea states, can be used to deduce decision support with respect to the accumulated fatigue damage in the hull girder.The paper firstly presents a set of measured full-scale wave...... method. This analysis verifies the applied multi-modal spectral analysis procedure for fatigue estimation for cases where hull girder flexibility plays a role.To obtain an automated prediction method for the fatigue damage rates it is in the second part of the paper shown how a combination of the full...

  7. Bent-Pipe Vs On-Board Processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Bent-Pipe Vs On-Board Processing. “Bent-Pipe” refers to satellites. that do not process the transmitted signal but merely relay it from one ground station to another. The On-Board Processing allows. Multi-beam frequency re-use which increases satellite raw capacity; ...

  8. Spacecube: A Family of Reconfigurable Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    SpaceCube is a family of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based on-board science data processing systems developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the SpaceCube program is to provide 10x to 100x improvements in on-board computing power while lowering relative power consumption and cost. SpaceCube is based on the Xilinx Virtex family of FPGAs, which include processor, FPGA logic and digital signal processing (DSP) resources. These processing elements are leveraged to produce a hybrid science data processing platform that accelerates the execution of algorithms by distributing computational functions to the most suitable elements. This approach enables the implementation of complex on-board functions that were previously limited to ground based systems, such as on-board product generation, data reduction, calibration, classification, eventfeature detection, data mining and real-time autonomous operations. The system is fully reconfigurable in flight, including data parameters, software and FPGA logic, through either ground commanding or autonomously in response to detected eventsfeatures in the instrument data stream.

  9. Memory-Efficient Onboard Rock Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael C.; Thompson, David R.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; deGranville, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Rockster-MER is an autonomous perception capability that was uploaded to the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in December 2009. This software provides the vision front end for a larger software system known as AEGIS (Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science), which was recently named 2011 NASA Software of the Year. As the first step in AEGIS, Rockster-MER analyzes an image captured by the rover, and detects and automatically identifies the boundary contours of rocks and regions of outcrop present in the scene. This initial segmentation step reduces the data volume from millions of pixels into hundreds (or fewer) of rock contours. Subsequent stages of AEGIS then prioritize the best rocks according to scientist- defined preferences and take high-resolution, follow-up observations. Rockster-MER has performed robustly from the outset on the Mars surface under challenging conditions. Rockster-MER is a specially adapted, embedded version of the original Rockster algorithm ("Rock Segmentation Through Edge Regrouping," (NPO- 44417) Software Tech Briefs, September 2008, p. 25). Although the new version performs the same basic task as the original code, the software has been (1) significantly upgraded to overcome the severe onboard re source limitations (CPU, memory, power, time) and (2) "bulletproofed" through code reviews and extensive testing and profiling to avoid the occurrence of faults. Because of the limited computational power of the RAD6000 flight processor on Opportunity (roughly two orders of magnitude slower than a modern workstation), the algorithm was heavily tuned to improve its speed. Several functional elements of the original algorithm were removed as a result of an extensive cost/benefit analysis conducted on a large set of archived rover images. The algorithm was also required to operate below a stringent 4MB high-water memory ceiling; hence, numerous tricks and strategies were introduced to reduce the memory footprint. Local filtering

  10. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  11. Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

  12. An on-board pedestrian detection and warning system with features of side pedestrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruzhong; Zhao, Yong; Wong, ChupChung; Chan, KwokPo; Xu, Jiayao; Wang, Xin'an

    2012-01-01

    Automotive Active Safety(AAS) is the main branch of intelligence automobile study and pedestrian detection is the key problem of AAS, because it is related with the casualties of most vehicle accidents. For on-board pedestrian detection algorithms, the main problem is to balance efficiency and accuracy to make the on-board system available in real scenes, so an on-board pedestrian detection and warning system with the algorithm considered the features of side pedestrian is proposed. The system includes two modules, pedestrian detecting and warning module. Haar feature and a cascade of stage classifiers trained by Adaboost are first applied, and then HOG feature and SVM classifier are used to refine false positives. To make these time-consuming algorithms available in real-time use, a divide-window method together with operator context scanning(OCS) method are applied to increase efficiency. To merge the velocity information of the automotive, the distance of the detected pedestrian is also obtained, so the system could judge if there is a potential danger for the pedestrian in the front. With a new dataset captured in urban environment with side pedestrians on zebra, the embedded system and its algorithm perform an on-board available result on side pedestrian detection.

  13. On-boarding and enculturation of new chief nursing officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcheller, Joyce A

    2011-05-01

    Given that chief nursing officers (CNOs) play a critical role in hospital organizations and require a diverse set of executive leadership and professional competencies, what competencies are most critical? What kind of support is needed for a leader who is new to this executive role? What is needed to successfully on-board an experienced leader who is new to the organization? How can a CNO demonstrate the unique value he/she brings to the executive "C" suite? The author presents findings from on-boarding 6 new CNOs by using an in-depth 360-degree process to assess competency, an on-boarding development road map, and a CNO scorecard.

  14. Management of the Space Station Freedom onboard local area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frank W.; Mitchell, Randy C.

    1991-01-01

    An operational approach is proposed to managing the Data Management System Local Area Network (LAN) on Space Station Freedom. An overview of the onboard LAN elements is presented first, followed by a proposal of the operational guidelines by which management of the onboard network may be effected. To implement the guidelines, a recommendation is then presented on a set of network management parameters which should be made available in the onboard Network Operating System Computer Software Configuration Item and Fiber Distributed Data Interface firmware. Finally, some implications for the implementation of the various network management elements are discussed.

  15. Autonomous On-Board Optical Navigation Beyond Earth Orbit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Investigate on-board optical navigation in three ways: 1) identify algorithms that can be used to analyze video information to determine location of celestial...

  16. Onboard Blackbody Calibrator Component Development for IR Remote Sensing Instrumentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this study is to apply and to provide a reliable, stable durable onboard blackbody calibrator to future Earth Science missions by infusing the new...

  17. Onboard Train Localization with Track Signatures: Towards GNSS Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Heirich, Oliver; Siebler, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Future railway applications, such as train-side collision avoidance, virtual coupling or autonomous train driving demand reliable and accurate train localization. We focus on exclusive onboard train localization without additional way-side infrastructure. Common approaches for onboard train localization are based on measurements of a global satellite navigation system (GNSS). Well-known methods for improved reliability and accuracy are the combination with inertial navigation systems...

  18. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  19. Evaluating the Onboarding Phase of Free-toPlay Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigert Petersen, Falko; Thomsen, Line Ebdrup; Mirza-Babaei, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    The first few minutes of play, commonly referred to as the onboarding phase, of Free-to-Play mobile games typically display a substantial churn rate among new players. It is therefore vital for designers to effectively evaluate this phase to investigate its satisfaction of player expectations....... This paper presents a study utilizing a lab-based mixed-methods approach in providing insights for evaluating the user experience of onboarding phases in mobile games. This includes an investigation into the contribution of physiological measures (Heart-Rate Variability and Galvanic Skin Conductance) as well...... as a range of self-reported proxy measures including: a) stimulated recall, engagement graphs, b) flow state survey and c) post-game experience questionnaire. These techniques were applied across 28 participants using three mobile Free-to-Play titles from different genres. This paper makes two important...

  20. Improving of technical characteristics of launch vehicles with liquid rocket engines using active onboard de-orbiting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the analysis of technical requirements (TR) for the development of modern space launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid rocket engines (LRE) is fulfilled in relation to the anthropogenic impact decreasing. Factual technical characteristics on the example of a promising type of rocket ;Soyuz-2.1.v.; are analyzed. Meeting the TR in relation to anthropogenic impact decrease based on the conventional design approach and the content of the onboard system does not prove to be efficient and leads to depreciation of the initial technical characteristics obtained at the first design stage if these requirements are not included. In this concern, it is shown that the implementation of additional active onboard de-orbiting system (AODS) of worked-off stages (WS) into the onboard LV stages systems allows to meet the TR related to the LV environmental characteristics, including fire-explosion safety. In some cases, the orbital payload mass increases.

  1. Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    to state and environment and in general can terminate the execution of a decomposition and attempt a new decomposition at any level in the hierarchy. This goal decomposition system is suitable for workstation, microprocessor and fpga implementation and thus is able to support the full range of prototyping activities, from mission design in the laboratory to development of the fpga firmware for the flight system. This approach is based on previous artificial intelligence work including (1) Brooks' subsumption architecture for robot control, (2) Firby's Reactive Action Package System (RAPS) for mediating between high level automated planning and low level execution and (3) hierarchical task networks for automated planning. Reactive goal decomposition hierarchies can be used for a wide variety of on-board autonomy applications including automating low level operation sequences (such as scheduling prerequisite operations, e.g., heaters, warm-up periods, monitoring power constraints), coordinating multiple spacecraft as in formation flying and constellations, robot manipulator operations, rendez-vous, docking, servicing, assembly, on-orbit maintenance, planetary rover operations, solar system and interstellar probes, intelligent science data gathering and disaster early warning. Goal decomposition hierarchies can support high level fault tolerance. Given models of on-board resources and goals to accomplish, the decomposition hierarchy could allocate resources to goals taking into account existing faults and in real-time reallocating resources as new faults arise. Resources to be modeled include memory (e.g., ROM, FPGA configuration memory, processor memory, payload instrument memory), processors, on-board and interspacecraft network nodes and links, sensors, actuators (e.g., attitude determination and control, guidance and navigation) and payload instruments. A goal decomposition hierarchy could be defined to map mission goals and tasks to available on-board resources. As

  2. Experiment in Onboard Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Single event upsets (SEUs) are a threat to any computing system running on hardware that has not been physically radiation hardened. In addition to mandating the use of performance-limited, hardened heritage equipment, prior techniques for dealing with the SEU problem often involved hardware-based error detection and correction (EDAC). With limited computing resources, software- based EDAC, or any more elaborate recovery methods, were often not feasible. Synthetic aperture radars (SARs), when operated in the space environment, are interesting due to their relevance to NASAs objectives, but problematic in the sense of producing prodigious amounts of raw data. Prior implementations of the SAR data processing algorithm have been too slow, too computationally intensive, and require too much application memory for onboard execution to be a realistic option when using the type of heritage processing technology described above. This standard C-language implementation of SAR data processing is distributed over many cores of a Tilera Multicore Processor, and employs novel Radiation Hardening by Software (RHBS) techniques designed to protect the component processes (one per core) and their shared application memory from the sort of SEUs expected in the space environment. The source code includes calls to Tilera APIs, and a specialized Tilera compiler is required to produce a Tilera executable. The compiled application reads input data describing the position and orientation of a radar platform, as well as its radar-burst data, over time and writes out processed data in a form that is useful for analysis of the radar observations.

  3. The Lyman-alpha Imager onboard Solar Polar Orbit Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoquan; Li, Haitao; Zhou, Sizhong; Jiang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Solar Polar ORbit Telescope (SPORT) was originally proposed in 2004 by the National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is currently being under background engineering study phase in China. SPORT will carry a suite of remote-sensing and in-situ instruments to observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar high-latitude magnetism, and the fast solar wind from a polar orbit around the Sun. The Lyman-alpha Imager (LMI) is one of the key remotesensing instruments onboard SPORT with 45arcmin FOV, 2000mm effective focal length and 1.4arcsec/pixel spatial resolution . The size of LMI is φ150×1000mm, and the weight is less than10kg, including the 7kg telescope tube and 3kg electronic box. There are three 121.6nm filters used in the LMI optical path, so the 98% spectral purity image of 121.6nm can be achieved. The 121.6nm solar Lyman-alpha line is produced in the chromosphere and very sensitive to plasma temperature, plasma velocity and magnetism variation in the chromosphere. Solar Lyman-alpha disk image is an ideal tracker for corona magnetism variation.

  4. Design of an onboard battery charger for an electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckford, Simon

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the design of an on-board battery charger for an electric car. There are already various battery charger units on the market. However, these are not specifically designed for this application, and consequently do not provide an ideal solution. Because these products are not specific to one application, and instead opt to cover a variety of briefs, they are not ideal. They also tend to be heavier and more expensive than if the charger was built specifically for one purpose. The main design considerations were that the charger should be compact and lightweight. It was also specified that the design should be able to operate using either the single-phase or three-phase AC supply. Before the design process for the battery charger could commence, it was necessary for the author to get an appreciation of power electronics, since he had no previous experience in the subject. The author focused his attention on areas of the subject most valuable to the project, including becoming familiar with the principle behind battery chargers. Once the required knowledge was obtained, the author could begin designing the charger. The majority of the design was actually undertaken using two software packages called MATLAB and Simulink, whilst also using the knowledge acquired. Regular discussions were had with the project team in order to ensure that the correct methodology was being used and a suitable design was duly developed. Possible further work was identified which could not be carried out within the time constraints of this project.

  5. A computer-controlled, on-board data acquisition system for wind-tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, H. J.; Cambra, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-controlled data acquisition system has been developed for the 40x80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. The system, consisting of several small onboard units installed in the model and a data-managing, data-displaying ground station, is capable of sampling up to 256 channels of raw data at a total sample rate of 128,000 samples/sec. Complete signal conditioning is contained within the on-board units. The sampling sequence and channel gain selection is completely random and under total control of the ground station. Outputs include a bar-graph display, digital-to-analog converters, and digital interface to the tunnel's central computer, an SEL 840MP. The system can be run stand-alone or under the control of the SEL 840MP.

  6. On-Board TL Dosimetry: Possibilities and Limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; PAzmandi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The paper shortly deals with application of TLDs for dosimetry of ISS, e.g. personal dosimetry, phantom measurements, mapping, monitoring and neutron dosimetry. The main characteristics of the on-board and ground evaluation are compared. The main advantages and disadvantages of the on-board evaluation are summarised. Finally the planned future improvements of the Pille system are discussed like development of an RS485 interface for alternative data transfer, introduction of smaller dosimeters (capsules), use of a more use-friendly display (80 characters), application of internal memory instead of memory card and improvement of the dosimeter evaluation (glow curve fit, background subtraction). (author)

  7. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Acquired Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements were made onboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2001). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn dosimeters during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers onboard the ISS.

  8. ROI-Based On-Board Compression for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Images on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Rossella; Guccione, Pietro

    2017-05-19

    In recent years, hyperspectral sensors for Earth remote sensing have become very popular. Such systems are able to provide the user with images having both spectral and spatial information. The current hyperspectral spaceborne sensors are able to capture large areas with increased spatial and spectral resolution. For this reason, the volume of acquired data needs to be reduced on board in order to avoid a low orbital duty cycle due to limited storage space. Recently, literature has focused the attention on efficient ways for on-board data compression. This topic is a challenging task due to the difficult environment (outer space) and due to the limited time, power and computing resources. Often, the hardware properties of Graphic Processing Units (GPU) have been adopted to reduce the processing time using parallel computing. The current work proposes a framework for on-board operation on a GPU, using NVIDIA's CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) architecture. The algorithm aims at performing on-board compression using the target's related strategy. In detail, the main operations are: the automatic recognition of land cover types or detection of events in near real time in regions of interest (this is a user related choice) with an unsupervised classifier; the compression of specific regions with space-variant different bit rates including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), wavelet and arithmetic coding; and data volume management to the Ground Station. Experiments are provided using a real dataset taken from an AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) airborne sensor in a harbor area.

  9. An Integrated Architecture for On-Board Aircraft Engine Performance Trend Monitoring and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics are closely related technologies that assist operators in managing the health of their gas turbine engine assets. Trend monitoring is the process of monitoring the gradual performance change that an aircraft engine will naturally incur over time due to turbomachinery deterioration, while gas path diagnostics is the process of detecting and isolating the occurrence of any faults impacting engine flow-path performance. Today, performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic functions are performed by a combination of on-board and off-board strategies. On-board engine control computers contain logic that monitors for anomalous engine operation in real-time. Off-board ground stations are used to conduct fleet-wide engine trend monitoring and fault diagnostics based on data collected from each engine each flight. Continuing advances in avionics are enabling the migration of portions of the ground-based functionality on-board, giving rise to more sophisticated on-board engine health management capabilities. This paper reviews the conventional engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic architecture commonly applied today, and presents a proposed enhanced on-board architecture for future applications. The enhanced architecture gains real-time access to an expanded quantity of engine parameters, and provides advanced on-board model-based estimation capabilities. The benefits of the enhanced architecture include the real-time continuous monitoring of engine health, the early diagnosis of fault conditions, and the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters. A future vision to advance the enhanced architecture is also presented and discussed

  10. ILWS program support by the OBSTANOVKA International Experiment onboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, S.; Korepanov, V.; Belyayev, S.; Lizunov, G.; Stanev, G.; Georgieva, K.; Kirov, B.; Gough, P.; Alleyne, H.; Balikhin, M.; Obstanovka Team

    International Living With a Star program is aimed at the creation of a global monitoring system allowing us to observe in a continuous way the Sun's activity and to follow its development and influence on numerous Earth structures - natural, industrial and especially human ones. Such an efficiently operating system has to include regular observations at every stage of the Sun-Earth interaction - from far space to the Earth's surface. The International Space Station (ISS) is well located as a long term ionospheric monitoring site. To this end, an international team headed by Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences agreed to create a system of space buoys and to install it onboard the Russian segment of ISS with the goal of studying the ISS environment (OBSTANOVKA in Russian). The "OBSTANOVKA-1" stage will be carried out first (launch in 2006) to provide a databank of electromagnetic fields and plasma-wave processes occurring in the ISS near-surface zone in order to study the plasma component features of near-Earth space. To achieve these goals the Plasma-Wave Complex (PWC) of scientific instrumentation will be created this year. The international cooperation (listed by the authors above) allows us not only to decrease the cost of instrumentation for every participating party but also to raise the scientific and technological level of the experiment. The main scientific premises of the OBSTANOVKA-1 experiment, realization schedule and a detailed description of PWC composition and measured parameters are given in this report. This work is partially supported by NSAU Contract No 1-02/03.

  11. On-board hydrogen generation for PEM fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderborgh, N. E.; Tafoya, J.; Inbody, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Fuel Cell Engineering, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles are considered by many as the transportation technology for the 21. century, primarily because of hydrogen`s high efficiency and zero, or near-zero emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. First generation hydrogen technology demonstrated the feasibility of using compressed hydrogen as automotive fuel, but these vehicles can also be operated with fuel utilized for on-board hydrogen generation. Available evidence suggest that perfecting this new technology would result in simplified refueling and extended vehicle range. This paper reviews the present state of the technology of generating hydrogen on-board, and concludes that at present, there is no clear `winner` between vehicles using stored hydrogen as fuel or vehicles which incorporate on-board hydrogen generation from stored fuel. Both approaches have specific merit, and both may be broadly employed. Indeed, valid economic arguments can be made that centralized hydrogen generation could be more attractive than on-board generation, however, in the view of this author, these arguments are not convincing. His view of the various suggestions about potential fuel sources for transportation in the 21. century (petroleum, liquid natural gas) is that each of these fuels involve having to deal with carbon, which means that new pathways must be invented for managing carbon dioxide. The challenge then is to develop technologies which will result in methane energy production without concurrent carbon dioxide emissions. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Wireless Communication onboard Spacecraft : Draadloze Communicatie aan boord van Ruimtevaartuigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amini, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on intra-spacecraft wireless communication as a solution for reducing the spacecraft onboard harness. Despite outstanding advances in aerospace industry, the cost of accessing space is still very high and the amount of engineering work required for spacecraft design and

  13. Dual Accelerometer Usage Strategy for Onboard Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; D'Souza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a dual accelerometer usage strategy for onboard space navigation. In the proposed algorithm the accelerometer is used to propagate the state when its value exceeds a threshold and it is used to estimate its errors otherwise. Numerical examples and comparison to other accelerometer usage schemes are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  14. Observation of TGFs and Relativistic Electron Precipitation in RELEC experiment on-board Vernov Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, M.I.; Svertilov, S.I.; Bogomolov, V.V.; Garipov, G.K.; Bogomolov, E.A. A.V.; Myagkova, I.N.; Klimov, P.A.; Prokhorov, A.V.; Klimov, S.I.; Grechko, T.V.; Grushin, V.A.; Vavilov, D.I.; Korepanov, V.E.; Belyaev, S.V.; Demidov, A.N.; Ferencz, Cs.; Bodnár, L.; Szegedi, P.; Rothkaehl, H.; Moravski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Experiment “RELEC” on-board satellite Vernov, launched July 2014, contains a suite of scientific instruments including gamma-spectrometer (0.01-3.0 MeV), spectrometer of electrons (0.2-15.0 MeV), UV (300-400 nm) and optic sl (600--800 nm) photometer and imager, radio wave low frequency (0.001 - 40.0 kHz) and high frequency (0.05 - 15.0 MHz) analyzers. Gamma and electron spectrometers were used to study transient events, including terrestrial gamma-flashes (TGFs) and precipitations of relativistic electrons from the Earth magnetosphere with ~15 mcs time resolution. Comparative correlating analysis of the data taken by the on-board instruments were made. First catalogue of TGFs detected by “RELEC” during is presented. Events that are included in this catalogue were selected by criterion of having at least 5 gamma-quanta during the time interval of 1 ms, simultaneously in at least two gamma-spectrometer detectors. TGFs included in this catalogue have a typical duration of about 400 microseconds, and in total contain from 10 to 40 gamma-quanta. For each selected for catalogue TGF candidate, we will show light curve and a correlating data of other instruments of “RELEC” on-board Vernov satellite. Results of observations of trapped, quasi-trapped and precipitated electron flux and spectral variations in different areas in the near-Earth space including low L-shells in wide dynamical range from ~1 up to 104 part/cm2s are discussed in this report. (author)

  15. Investigations onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1667

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Ilyin, E. A.

    The program of the 7-day flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1667 launched in July 1985 included experiments on two rhesus monkeys, ten Wistar SPF rats, ten newts, Drosophila flies, maize seedlings, lettuce sprouts, and unicellular organisms - Tetrahymena. The primate study demonstrated that transition to orbital flight was accompanied by a greater excitability of the vestibular apparatus and an increased linear blood flow velocity in the common carotid artery. The rat studies showed that atrophy of antigravity muscles and osteoporosis of limb bones developed even during short-term exposure to microgravity. The experiments on other living systems revealed no microgravity effects on the cell division rate, proliferative activity of cells of regenerating tissues and organs, energy metabolism of developing insects, structure or chemical composition of higher plant seedlings.

  16. On-board co2 capture and storage with metal organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-17

    In general, this disclosure describes method of capturing and storing CO2 on a vehicle. The method includes contacting an vehicle exhaust gas with one or more of a first metal organic framework (MOF) composition sufficient to separate CO2 from the exhaust gas, contacting the separated CO2 with one or more of a second MOF composition sufficient to store the CO2 and wherein the one or more first MOF composition comprises one or more SIFSIX-n-M MOF and wherein M is a metal and n is 2 or 3. Embodiments also describe an apparatus or system for capturing and storing CO2 onboard a vehicle.

  17. Processor breadboard for on-board RFI detection and mitigation in MetOp-SG radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen S.; Kovanen, Arhippa

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is an increasing threat to proper operation of space-borne Earth viewing microwave radiometer systems. There is a steady growth in active services, and tougher requirements to sensitivity and fidelity of future radiometer systems. Thus it has been decided...... that the next generation MetOp satellites must include some kind of RFI detection and mitigation system at Ku band. This paper describes a breadboard processor that detects and mitigates RFI on-board the satellite. Thus cleaned data can be generated in real time, and following suitable integration, downloaded...

  18. Fault-Tolerant Onboard Monitoring and Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran

    The purpose of this research project is to improve current onboard decision support systems. Special focus is on the onboard prediction of the instantaneous sea state. In this project a new approach to increasing the overall reliability of a monitoring and decision support system has been...... advice regarding speed and course changes to decrease the wave-induced loads. The SeaSense system is based on the combined use of a mathematical model and measurements from a set of sensors. The overall dependability of a shipboard monitoring and decision support system such as the SeaSense system can...... of a fault. A supervisory function determines the severity of the fault once its origin has been isolated and its magnitude estimated. Fault-tolerant Sensor Fusion means that the monitoring and decision support system can accommodate faults so that the overall system continues to satisfy its goal...

  19. Development of on-board fuel metering and sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth, Y.; Manikanta, B. S. S.; Thangaraja, J.; Bharanidaran, R.

    2017-11-01

    Usage of biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel fuel has a potential to reduce the tailpipe emissions and reduce the dependence on crude oil imports. Further, biodiesel fuels exhibit favourable greenhouse gas emission and energy balance characteristics. While fossil fuel technology is well established, the technological implications of biofuels particularly biodiesel is not clearly laid out. Hence, the objective is to provide an on-board metering control in selecting the different proportions of diesel and bio-diesel blends. An on-board fuel metering system is being developed using PID controller, stepper motors and a capacitance sensor. The accuracy was tested with the blends of propanol-1, diesel and are found to be within 1.3% error. The developed unit was tested in a twin cylinder diesel engine with biodiesel blended diesel fuel. There was a marginal increase (5%) in nitric oxide and 14% increase in smoke emission with 10% biodiesel blended diesel at part load conditions.

  20. Onboard Systems Record Unique Videos of Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ecliptic Enterprises Corporation, headquartered in Pasadena, California, provided onboard video systems for rocket and space shuttle launches before it was tasked by Ames Research Center to craft the Data Handling Unit that would control sensor instruments onboard the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecraft. The technological capabilities the company acquired on this project, as well as those gained developing a high-speed video system for monitoring the parachute deployments for the Orion Pad Abort Test Program at Dryden Flight Research Center, have enabled the company to offer high-speed and high-definition video for geosynchronous satellites and commercial space missions, providing remarkable footage that both informs engineers and inspires the imagination of the general public.

  1. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT. Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  2. On-Board Processor and Network Maturation for Ariane 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Rémi; Sautereau, Pierre; Sangaré, Jérémie; Disson, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    In the past three years, innovative avionic technologies for Ariane 6 were evaluated in the tail of three main programs involving various stakeholders: FLPP (Future Launcher Preparatory Program, from ESA), AXE (Avionic-X European, formerly Avionique-X, French public R&T program) and CNES R&T program relying on industrial partnerships. In each avionics’ domain, several technologies were compared, analyzed and tested regarding space launchers system expectations and constraints. Within the frame of on-board data handling, two technologies have been identified as promising: ARM based microprocessors for the computing units and TTEthernet for the on-board network. This paper presents the main outcomes of the data handling preparatory activities performed on the AXE platform in Airbus Defence and Space - Les Mureaux.

  3. Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard the Chang'e-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guang-You; Zhou, Bin; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhang, Qun-Ying; Shen, Shao-Xiang; Li, Yu-Xi; Guan, Hong-Fei; Tang, Chuan-Jun; Gao, Yun-Ze; Lu, Wei; Ye, Sheng-Bo; Han, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Jin; Wang, Shu-Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of the important scientific instruments onboard the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. Its scientific goals are the mapping of lunar regolith and detection of subsurface geologic structures. This paper describes the goals of the mission, as well as the basic principles, design, composition and achievements of the LPR. Finally, experiments on a glacier and the lunar surface are analyzed.

  4. FPGA Coprocessor Design for an Onboard Multi-Angle Spectro-Polarimetric Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-angle spectro-polarimetric imager (MSPI) is an advanced camera system currently under development at JPL for possible future consideration on a satellite-based Aerosol-Cloud-Environ - ment (ACE) interaction study. The light in the optical system is subjected to a complex modulation designed to make the overall system robust against many instrumental artifacts that have plagued such measurements in the past. This scheme involves two photoelastic modulators that are beating in a carefully selected pattern against each other. In order to properly sample this modulation pattern, each of the proposed nine cameras in the system needs to read out its imager array about 1,000 times per second. The onboard processing required to compress this data involves least-squares fits (LSFs) of Bessel functions to data from every pixel in realtime, thus requiring an onboard computing system with advanced data processing capabilities in excess of those commonly available for space flight. As a potential solution to meet the MSPI onboard processing requirements, an LSF algorithm was developed on the Xilinx Virtex-4FX60 field programmable gate array (FPGA). In addition to configurable hardware capability, this FPGA includes Power -PC405 microprocessors, which together enable a combination hardware/ software processing system. A laboratory demonstration was carried out based on a hardware/ software co-designed processing architecture that includes hardware-based data collection and least-squares fitting (computationally), and softwarebased transcendental function computation (algorithmically complex) on the FPGA. Initial results showed that these calculations can be handled using a combination of the Virtex- 4TM Power-PC core and the hardware fabric.

  5. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  6. An Autonomous Onboard Targeting Algorithm Using Finite Thrust Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarritt, Sara K.; Marchand, Belinda G.; Brown, Aaron J.; Tracy, William H.; Weeks, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    In earlier investigations, the adaptation and implementation of a modified two-level corrections (or targeting) process as the onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion is presented. The objective of that targeting algorithm is to generate the times of ignition and magnitudes of the required maneuvers such that the desired state at entry interface is achieved. In an actual onboard flight software implementation, these times of ignition and maneuvers are relayed onto Flight Control for command and execution. Although this process works well when the burn durations or burn arcs are small, this might not be the case during a contingency situation when lower thrust engines are employed to perform the maneuvers. Therefore, a new model for the two-level corrections process is formulated here to accommodate finite burn arcs. This paper presents the development and formulation of the finite burn two-level corrector, used as an onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion. A performance comparison between the impulsive and finite burn models is also presented. The present formulation ensures all entry constraints are met, without violating the available fuel budget, while allowing for low-thrust scenarios with long burn durations.

  7. An Autonomous Onboard Targeting Algorithm Using Finite Thrust Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarritt, Sara K.; Marchand, Belinda G.; Weeks, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    In earlier investigations, the adaptation and implementation of a modified two-level corrections process as the onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion is presented. The objective of that targeting algorithm is to generate the times of ignition and magnitudes of the required maneuvers such that the desired state at entry interface is achieved. In an actual onboard flight software implementation, these times of ignition and maneuvers are relayed onto Flight Control for command and execution. Although this process works well when the burn durations or burn arcs are small, this might not be the case during a contingency situation when lower thrust engines are employed to perform the maneuvers. Therefore, a new version of the modified two-level corrections process is formulated to handle the case of finite burn arcs. This paper presents the development and formulation of that finite burn modified two-level corrections process which can again be used as an onboard targeting algorithm for the Trans-Earth Injection phase of Orion. Additionally, performance results and a comparison between the two methods are presented. The finite burn two-level corrector formulation presented here ensures the entry constraints at entry interface are still met without violating the available fuel budget, while still accounting for much longer burn times in its design.

  8. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  9. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  10. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Modification of Federal Onboard Diagnostic Regulations for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks; Extension of Acceptance of California OBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action finalizes modifications to the federal on-board diagnostics regulations, including: harmonizing the emission levels above which a component or system is considered malfunctioning with those of the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  11. Science objectives of the magnetic field experiment onboard Aditya-L1 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vipin K.; Srivastava, Nandita; Ghosh, S. S.; Srikar, P. T.; Subhalakshmi, Krishnamoorthy

    2018-01-01

    The Aditya-L1 is first Indian solar mission scheduled to be placed in a halo orbit around the first Lagrangian point (L1) of Sun-Earth system in the year 2018-19. The approved scientific payloads onboard Aditya-L1 spacecraft includes a Fluxgate Digital Magnetometer (FGM) to measure the local magnetic field which is necessary to supplement the outcome of other scientific experiments onboard. The in-situ vector magnetic field data at L1 is essential for better understanding of the data provided by the particle and plasma analysis experiments, onboard Aditya-L1 mission. Also, the dynamics of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) can be better understood with the help of in-situ magnetic field data at the L1 point region. This data will also serve as crucial input for the short lead-time space weather forecasting models. The proposed FGM is a dual range magnetic sensor on a 6 m long boom mounted on the Sun viewing panel deck and configured to deploy along the negative roll direction of the spacecraft. Two sets of sensors (tri-axial each) are proposed to be mounted, one at the tip of boom (6 m from the spacecraft) and other, midway (3 m from the spacecraft). The main science objective of this experiment is to measure the magnitude and nature of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) locally and to study the disturbed magnetic conditions and extreme solar events by detecting the CME from Sun as a transient event. The proposed secondary science objectives are to study the impact of interplanetary structures and shock solar wind interaction on geo-space environment and to detect low frequency plasma waves emanating from the solar corona at L1 point. This will provide a better understanding on how the Sun affects interplanetary space. In this paper, we shall give the main scientific objectives of the magnetic field experiment and brief technical details of the FGM onboard Aditya-1 spacecraft.

  12. Onboard Data Processors for Planetary Ice-Penetrating Sounding Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, I. L.; Friesenhahn, R.; Gim, Y.; Wu, X.; Jordan, R.; Wang, C.; Clark, D.; Le, M.; Hand, K. P.; Plaut, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Among the many concerns faced by outer planetary missions, science data storage and transmission hold special significance. Such missions must contend with limited onboard storage, brief data downlink windows, and low downlink bandwidths. A potential solution to these issues lies in employing onboard data processors (OBPs) to convert raw data into products that are smaller and closely capture relevant scientific phenomena. In this paper, we present the implementation of two OBP architectures for ice-penetrating sounding radars tasked with exploring Europa and Ganymede. Our first architecture utilizes an unfocused processing algorithm extended from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS, Jordan et. al. 2009). Compared to downlinking raw data, we are able to reduce data volume by approximately 100 times through OBP usage. To ensure the viability of our approach, we have implemented, simulated, and synthesized this architecture using both VHDL and Matlab models (with fixed-point and floating-point arithmetic) in conjunction with Modelsim. Creation of a VHDL model of our processor is the principle step in transitioning to actual digital hardware, whether in a FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit), and successful simulation and synthesis strongly indicate feasibility. In addition, we examined the tradeoffs faced in the OBP between fixed-point accuracy, resource consumption, and data product fidelity. Our second architecture is based upon a focused fast back projection (FBP) algorithm that requires a modest amount of computing power and on-board memory while yielding high along-track resolution and improved slope detection capability. We present an overview of the algorithm and details of our implementation, also in VHDL. With the appropriate tradeoffs, the use of OBPs can significantly reduce data downlink requirements without sacrificing data product fidelity. Through the development

  13. On-board image compression for the RAE lunar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. H.; Lynch, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements, design, implementation, and flight performance of an on-board image compression system for the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-2 (RAE-2) spacecraft are described. The image to be compressed is a panoramic camera view of the long radio astronomy antenna booms used for gravity-gradient stabilization of the spacecraft. A compression ratio of 32 to 1 is obtained by a combination of scan line skipping and adaptive run-length coding. The compressed imagery data are convolutionally encoded for error protection. This image compression system occupies about 1000 cu cm and consumes 0.4 W.

  14. Advanced stellar compass - Onboard autonomous orbit determination, preliminary performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn

    2004-01-01

    several years and, furthermore, it is not failure tolerant. Nevertheless, to date, ground navigation has been the only viable solution. The technology breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the advanced stellar compass (ASC), might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities...... of this instrument, the authors have devised a method to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, onboard, and without a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performance obtained during the ground testing in August 2002 at the Mauna Kea...

  15. An onboard digital demodulator for regenerative SCPC satellite communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Koichi; Kato, Shuzo

    This paper proposes a digital demodulator with soft decision capability for on-board application. A prototype demodulator LSI, which handles a 64 kb/s SCPC channel, has been fabricated by using CMOS masterslice technology for reduction of hardware and power consumption. The proposed LSI demodulator requires a total number of 4 k gates and consumes power of 75 mW. Experimental results show that the prototype QPSK/OQPSK demodulator LSI has satisfactory bit error rate performance in conjunction with R = 1/2, k = 4 convolutional encoding and Viterbi decoding.

  16. Onboard Run-Time Goal Selection for Autonomous Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm for use onboard spacecraft and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  17. On-board system for physical and microphysical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravaut, M.; Allet, C.; Dole, B.; Gribkoff, A.; Schibler, P.; Charpentier, C.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the system of physical and microphysical measurement instrumentation on board the HUREL-DUBOIS HD 34 aircraft, built in cooperation with the Institut National d'Astronomie et de Geophysique (I.N.A.G.) and the Institut Geographique National (I.G.N.). The feasibility study of the system was carried out in the first half of 1978 and took shape in an on-site proving campaign in November 1979. As a result, the on-board system was able to participate in the BUGEY experimental campaign of March 1980, a glimpse of which is given in this report [fr

  18. Advanced On-Board Signal Procesor GaAs Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    forgetting voltage was VW =2.4-2.5 V. One important parameter Influencing memory cycle times is the minimum pulse width that can write or change the...MRDC41083-29FTR-7 Copy No. 25 0 4 ADVANCED ON-BOARD SIGNAL k) PROCESSOR GaAs MEMORY , FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD January 21, 1981 through...on the design and fabrication of a 256 bit static memory chip. The development of operational 256 bit memory arrays has been used on three mask sets

  19. Loss of Control Prevention and Recovery: Onboard Guidance, Control, and Systems Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) is one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. LOC accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. These LOC hazards include vehicle impairment conditions, external disturbances; vehicle upset conditions, and inappropriate crew actions or responses. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. NASA previously defined a comprehensive research and technology development approach for reducing LOC accidents and an associated integrated system concept. Onboard technologies for improved situation awareness, guidance, and control for LOC prevention and recovery are needed as part of this approach. Such systems should include: LOC hazards effects detection and mitigation; upset detection, prevention and recovery; and mitigation of combined hazards. NASA is conducting research in each of these areas. This paper provides an overview of this research, including the near-term LOC focus and associated analysis, as well as preliminary flight system architecture.

  20. An artificial intelligence approach to onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, P. C.; Abbott, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    Real-time onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis for aircraft applications, whether performed by the human pilot or by automation, presents many difficult problems. Quick response to failures may be critical, the pilot often must compensate for the failure while diagnosing it, his information about the state of the aircraft is often incomplete, and the behavior of the aircraft changes as the effect of the failure propagates through the system. A research effort was initiated to identify guidelines for automation of onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis and associated crew interfaces. The effort began by determining the flight crew's information requirements for fault monitoring and diagnosis and the various reasoning strategies they use. Based on this information, a conceptual architecture was developed for the fault monitoring and diagnosis process. This architecture represents an approach and a framework which, once incorporated with the necessary detail and knowledge, can be a fully operational fault monitoring and diagnosis system, as well as providing the basis for comparison of this approach to other fault monitoring and diagnosis concepts. The architecture encompasses all aspects of the aircraft's operation, including navigation, guidance and controls, and subsystem status. The portion of the architecture that encompasses subsystem monitoring and diagnosis was implemented for an aircraft turbofan engine to explore and demonstrate the AI concepts involved. This paper describes the architecture and the implementation for the engine subsystem.

  1. Real-Time On-Board Processing Validation of MSPI Ground Camera Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Decadal Survey identifies a multiangle, multispectral, high-accuracy polarization imager as one requirement for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission. JPL has been developing a Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) as a candidate to fill this need. A key technology development needed for MSPI is on-board signal processing to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program, JPL is solving the real-time data processing requirements to demonstrate, for the first time, how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16-channels for each of the 9 multiangle cameras in the spaceborne instrument can be reduced on-board to 0.45 Mbytes/sec. This will produce the intensity and polarization data needed to characterize aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Using the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA including PowerPC440 processors we have implemented a least squares fitting algorithm that extracts intensity and polarimetric parameters in real-time, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information.

  2. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  3. Random On-Board Pixel Sampling (ROPS) X-Ray Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos; Iaroshenko, O. [Los Alamos; Li, S. [Los Alamos; Liu, T. [Fermilab; Parab, N. [Argonne (main); Chen, W. W. [Purdue U.; Chu, P. [Los Alamos; Kenyon, G. [Los Alamos; Lipton, R. [Fermilab; Sun, K.-X. [Nevada U., Las Vegas

    2017-09-25

    Recent advances in compressed sensing theory and algorithms offer new possibilities for high-speed X-ray camera design. In many CMOS cameras, each pixel has an independent on-board circuit that includes an amplifier, noise rejection, signal shaper, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and optional in-pixel storage. When X-ray images are sparse, i.e., when one of the following cases is true: (a.) The number of pixels with true X-ray hits is much smaller than the total number of pixels; (b.) The X-ray information is redundant; or (c.) Some prior knowledge about the X-ray images exists, sparse sampling may be allowed. Here we first illustrate the feasibility of random on-board pixel sampling (ROPS) using an existing set of X-ray images, followed by a discussion about signal to noise as a function of pixel size. Next, we describe a possible circuit architecture to achieve random pixel access and in-pixel storage. The combination of a multilayer architecture, sparse on-chip sampling, and computational image techniques, is expected to facilitate the development and applications of high-speed X-ray camera technology.

  4. Tuning the Solar Dynamics Observatory Onboard Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Julie Kay; Harman, Rick; Carpenter, Russell; Poland, Devin

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched in 2010. SDO is a sun pointing semi-autonomous spacecraft in a geosynchronous orbit that allows nearly continuous observations of the sun. SDO is equipped with coarse sun sensors, two star trackers, a digital sun sensor, and three two-axis inertial reference units (IRU). The IRUs are temperature sensitive and were designed to operate in a stable thermal environment. Due to battery degradation concerns the IRU heaters were not used on SDO and the onboard filter was tuned to accommodate the noisier IRU data. Since launch currents have increased on two IRUs, one had to eventually be powered off. Recent ground tests on a battery similar to SDO indicated the heaters would have negligible impact on battery degradation, so in 2016 a decision was made to turn the heaters on. This paper presents the analysis and results of updating the filter tuning parameters onboard SDO with the IRUs now operating in their intended thermal environment.

  5. Onboard calibration and monitoring for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2012-01-01

    The SWIFT (Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies) instrument is a proposed space-based field-widened Doppler Michelson interferometer designed to measure stratospheric winds and ozone densities using a passive optical technique called Doppler Michelson imaging interferometry. The onboard calibration and monitoring procedures for the SWIFT instrument are described in this paper. Sample results of the simulations of onboard calibration measurements are presented and discussed. This paper also discusses the results of the derivation of the calibrations and monitoring requirements for the SWIFT instrument. SWIFT's measurement technique and viewing geometry are briefly described. The reference phase calibration and filter monitoring for the SWIFT instrument are two of the main critical design issues. In this paper it is shown that in order to meet SWIFT's science requirements, Michelson interferometer optical path difference monitoring corresponding to a phase calibration accuracy of ∼10 −3 radians, filter passband monitoring corresponding to phase accuracy of ∼5 × 10 −3 radians and a thermal stability of 10 −3 K s −1 are required. (paper)

  6. Identifying Onboarding Heuristics for Free-to-Play Mobile Games: A Mixed Methods Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Ebdrup; Weigert Petersen, Falko; Mirza-Babaei, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    a set of heuristics for the design of onboarding phases in mobile games is presented. The heuristics are identified by a lab-based mixed-methods experiment, utilizing lightweight psycho-physiological measures together with self-reported player responses, across three titles that cross the genres...... of puzzle games, base builders and arcade games, and utilize different onboarding phase design approaches. Results showcase how heuristics can be used to design engaging onboarding phases in mobile games....

  7. Flight Hardware Virtualization for On-Board Science Data Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize Hardware Virtualization technology to benefit on-board science data processing by investigating new real time embedded Hardware Virtualization solutions and...

  8. The Thermal Infrared Sensor onboard NASA's Mars 2020 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Perez-Izquierdo, J.; Sebastian, E.; Ramos, M.; Bravo, A.; Mazo, M.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover mission is scheduled for launch in July/August 2020 and will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) is one of the seven instruments onboard the rover [1] and has been designed to assess the environmental conditions across the rover traverse. MEDA will extend the current record of in-situ meteorological measurements at the surface [2] to other locations on Mars. The Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) [3] is one of the six sensors comprising MEDA. TIRS will use three downward-looking channels to measure (1) the surface skin temperature (with high heritage from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station onboard the Mars Science Laboratory mission [4]), (2) the upwelling thermal infrared radiation from the surface and (3) the reflected solar radiation at the surface, and two upward-looking channels to measure the (4) downwelling thermal infrared radiation at the surface and (5) the atmospheric temperature. In combination with other MEDA's sensors, TIRS will allow the quantification of the surface energy budget [5] and the determination of key geophysical properties of the terrain such as the albedo and thermal inertia with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Here we present a general description of the TIRS, with focus on its scientific requirements and results from field campaigns showing the performance of the different channels. References:[1] Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A. et al. (2014), MEDA: An environmental and meteorological package for Mars 2020, LPSC, 45, 2837. [2] Martínez, G.M. et al. (2017), The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity, Space Science Reviews, 1-44. [3] Pérez-Izquierdo, J. et al. (2017), The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) of the Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) Instrument onboard Mars 2020, IEEE. [4] Sebastián, E. et al. (2010), The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground

  9. Localized Density/Drag Prediction for Improved Onboard Orbit Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, N.; Lin, C.; Lovell, A.; Luck, J.; Chavez, F.

    Since the development of Luigi G. Jacchia's first density model in 1970 (J70), atmospheric density modeling has steadily focused on large monolithic codes that provide global density coverage. The most recent instantiation of the global density model is the Jacchia-Bowman 2008 (JB08) model developed by Bruce Bowman of the Air Force Space Command. As the models have evolved and improved, their complexity has grown as well. Where the J70 model required 2 indices and various time averages to determine density, the JB08 model requires 5 indices to determine density. Due to computational complexity, the number of real-time inputs required, and limited forecasting abilities, these models are not well suited for onboard satellite orbit propagation. In contrast to the global models, this paper proposes the development of a density prediction tool that is only concerned with the trajectory of a specific satellite. Since the orbital parameters of most low Earth orbiting satellites remain relatively constant in the short term, there is also minimal variation in the density profile observed by the satellite. Limiting the density model to a smaller orbit regime will also increase the ability to forecast the density along that orbital track. As a first step, this paper evaluates the feasibility of using a localized density prediction algorithm to generate the density profile that will be seen by satellite, allowing for high-accuracy orbit propagation with minimal or no input from the ground. The algorithm evaluated in this paper is a simple Yule-Walker auto-regressive filter that, given previously measured density values, provides predictions on the upcoming density profile. This first approach requires zero information about the satellite's current orbit, but does require an onboard method for determining the current, local density. Though this aspect of the onboard system is not analyzed here, it is envisioned that this current, local density (or equivalently drag acceleration

  10. Estimation of waves and ship responses using onboard measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh

    information. The model is tested on simulated data based on known unimodal and bimodal wave scenarios. The wave parameters in the output are then compared with the true wave parameters. In addition to the numerical experiments, two sets of full-scale measurements from container ships are analysed. Herein...... for tracking the evolution of the wave parameters during the voyage. This provides a prediction of the wave parameters, e.g. 20 minutes ahead of the measurements. Given the predicted parameters, a wave spectrum model and the transfer functions, forecasts of different wave-induced responses are made......This thesis focuses on estimation of waves and ship responses using ship-board measurements. This is useful for development of operational safety and performance efficiency in connection with the broader concept of onboard decision support systems. Estimation of sea state is studied using a set...

  11. A new model for understanding teamwork onboard: the shipmate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espevik, Roar; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold

    2013-01-01

    The increasing complexity onboard a ship underline the importance of crews that are able to coordinate and cooperate with each other to facilitate task objectives through a shared understanding of resources (e.g. team members' knowledge, skills and experience), the crew's goals, and the constrains under which they work. Rotation of personnel through 24/7 shift-work schedules and replacements often put crews ina position of having little or no previous history as a team. Findings from 3 studies indicated that unfamiliar teams used less efficient coordination strategies which reduced efficiency and increased levels of stress in situations where team members where experts on task, distributed or unknown to task and environment.Implications for staffing, safety and training are discussed.

  12. Onboard fuel processor for PEM fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Brian J.; Zhao, Jian L.; Ruffo, Michael; Khan, Rafey; Dattatraya, Druva; Dushman, Nathan [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc, 20 Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Beziat, Jean-Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien [Renault, Service 64240 - FR TCR GRA 0 75, Technocentre Renault - 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France)

    2007-07-15

    To lower vehicle greenhouse gas emissions, many automotive companies are exploring fuel cell technologies, which combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain issues, Renault and Nuvera Fuel Cells are developing an onboard fuel processor, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The fuel processor is now small enough and powerful enough for use on a vehicle. The catalysts and heat exchangers occupy 80 l and can be packaged with balance of plant controls components in a 150-l volume designed to fit under the vehicle. Recent systems can operate on gasoline, ethanol, and methanol with fuel inputs up to 200 kWth and hydrogen efficiencies above 77%. The startup time is now less than 4 min to lower the CO in the hydrogen stream to the target value for the fuel cell. (author)

  13. Safe Onboard Guidance and Control Under Probabilistic Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Lars James

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm was developed that determines the fuel-optimal spacecraft guidance trajectory that takes into account uncertainty, in order to guarantee that mission safety constraints are satisfied with the required probability. The algorithm uses convex optimization to solve for the optimal trajectory. Convex optimization is amenable to onboard solution due to its excellent convergence properties. The algorithm is novel because, unlike prior approaches, it does not require time-consuming evaluation of multivariate probability densities. Instead, it uses a new mathematical bounding approach to ensure that probability constraints are satisfied, and it is shown that the resulting optimization is convex. Empirical results show that the approach is many orders of magnitude less conservative than existing set conversion techniques, for a small penalty in computation time.

  14. Spatial distribution of absorbed dose onboard of International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spumy, F.; Tateyama, R.; Yasuda, N.; Kawashima, H.; Kurano, M.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Akatov, Yu.; Shurshakov, V.; Kobayashi, I.; Ohguchi, H.; Koguchi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The passive detectors (LD and PNTD) were exposed onboard of Russian Service Module Qn the International Space Station (ISS) from August 2004 to October 2005 (425 days). The detectors were located at 6 different positions inside the Service Module and also in 32 pockets on the surface of the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom located in crew cabin. Distribution of absorbed doses and dose equivalents measured with passive detectors, as well as LET spectra of fluences of registered particles, are presented as the function of detectors' location. The variation of dose characteristics for different locations can be up to factor of 2. In some cases, data measured with passive detectors are also compared with the data obtained by means of active instruments. (authors)

  15. Integration of passive driver-assistance systems with on-board vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V. V.; Poddubko, S. N.

    2018-02-01

    Implementation in OIAS such functions as driver’s state monitoring and high-precision calculation of the current navigation coordinates of the vehicle, modularity of the OIAS construction and the possible increase in the functionality through integration with other onboard systems has a promising development future. The development of intelligent transport systems and their components allows setting and solving fundamentally new tasks for the safety of human-to-machine transport systems, and the automatic analysis of heterogeneous information flows provides a synergistic effect. The analysis of cross-modal information exchange in human-machine transport systems, from uniform methodological points of view, will allow us, with an accuracy acceptable for solving applied problems, to form in real time an integrated assessment of the state of the basic components of the human-to-machine system and the dynamics in changing situation-centered environment, including the external environment, in their interrelations.

  16. Modeling Payload Stowage Impacts on Fire Risks On-Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Kellie e.; Brown, Patrick F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to determine the risks of fire on-board the ISS due to non-standard stowage. ISS stowage is constantly being reexamined for optimality. Non-standard stowage involves stowing items outside of rack drawers, and fire risk is a key concern and is heavily mitigated. A Methodology is needed to account for fire risk due to non-standard stowage to capture the risk. The contents include: 1) Fire Risk Background; 2) General Assumptions; 3) Modeling Techniques; 4) Event Sequence Diagram (ESD); 5) Qualitative Fire Analysis; 6) Sample Qualitative Results for Fire Risk; 7) Qualitative Stowage Analysis; 8) Sample Qualitative Results for Non-Standard Stowage; and 9) Quantitative Analysis Basic Event Data.

  17. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  18. On-board ammonia generation and exhaust after treatment system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Josh; Robel, Wade J.; Brown, Cory A.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.

    2010-03-30

    Often NOx selective catalysts that use ammonia to reduce NOx within exhaust to a harmless gas require on-board storage of ammonia which can be hazardous and inconvenient. In order to generate ammonia in exhaust, the present disclosure increases a NOx concentration in exhaust from at least one combustion chamber, at least in part, by injecting fuel in a predetermined increased NOx generation sequence that includes a first injection during non-auto ignition conditions and a second injection during auto ignition conditions. At least a portion of the NOx is converted to ammonia by passing at least a portion of the exhaust with the increased NOx concentration over an ammonia-producing catalyst.

  19. A novel approach for navigational guidance of ships using onboard monitoring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2011-01-01

    about on-site sea state parameters not necessarily is in complete agreement with the unknown and true wave parameters, normay the hydrodynamical models of the vessel give a perfect uantitatively description of the vessel in waves. The paper includes an analysis of full-scale motion easurements......A novel approach and conceptual ideas are outlined for risk-based navigational guidance of ships using decision support systems in combination with onboard, in-service monitoring systems. The guidance has as the main objective to advise on speed and/or course changes; in particular with focus...... on ship operations in rough weather. It is strived for to make use of a probabilistic framework considering the mathematical procedures that the guidance relies upon. The paper presents a novel conceptwhich has the possibility to increase the reliability of the provided guidance, although information...

  20. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Made Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements are made aboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2000). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Discussions related to hearing protection will also be included. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers aboard the ISS.

  1. Onboard Supervisor for the Ørsted Satellite Attitude Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing operational requirements for onboard autonomy in satellite control systems necessitates structural methods that support the design of a complete and reliable supervisory system.......The increasing operational requirements for onboard autonomy in satellite control systems necessitates structural methods that support the design of a complete and reliable supervisory system....

  2. An overview of CAFE credits and incorporation of the benefits of on-board carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report discusses the application of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) : credits that are currently available to vehicle manufacturers in the U.S., and the implications of : on-board carbon capture and sequestration (on-board CCS) on fu...

  3. 76 FR 13121 - Electronic On-Board Recorders and Hours of Service Supporting Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 385, 390, and 395 RIN 2126-AB20 Electronic On-Board Recorders and Hours of Service Supporting Documents AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... requested that FMCSA extend the comment period for the Electronic On-Board Recorder and Hours of Service...

  4. 77 FR 7562 - Electronic On-Board Recorders and Hours of Service Supporting Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... the Electronic On-Board Recorders and Hours of Service Supporting Documents rulemaking (EOBR 2) by... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 385, 390, and 395 RIN 2126-AB20 Electronic On-Board Recorders and Hours of Service Supporting Documents AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  5. Contribution of magnetic measurements onboard NetLander to Mars exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menvielle, M.; Musmann, G.; Kuhnke, F.

    2000-01-01

    possible contributions of magnetic measurements onboard the NetLander stations are presented. Intrinsic planetary field and remanent magnetisation investigations by means of magnetometers onboard a network of landers are first considered, and the information that can be thus derived on the Martian core...

  6. Incidence and predictors of onboard injuries among Sri Lankan flight attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational injuries among flight attendants have not been given appropriate attention in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of onboard injury among Sri Lankan flight attendants and to describe the determinants of onboard injury. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among Sri Lankan flight attendants. All flight attendants undergoing their annual health and first aid training were invited to participate. Flight attendants who flew continuously for a six-month period prior to data collection were included in the study sample. Recall history of injuries for a period of six months was recorded. Results The study sample consisted of 98 (30.4% male and 224 (69.6% female flight attendants. The mean age of the study sample was 31 years (SD = 8 and the average duration of service was 10 years (SD = 7. A total of 100 onboard falls, slips or trips in the previous six months were reported by 52 (16.1% respondents. Of the total sample, 128 (39.8% cabin crew members reported an injury in the six months preceding the study. This represents a total injury incidence of 795 per 1000 person per year. The leading causes of injury was pulling, pushing or lifting (60.2%. The commonest type of injuries were strains and sprains (52.3%. Turbulence related injuries were reported by 38 (29.7% flight attendants. The upper limbs (44.5% and the back (32% were the commonest sites affected. After controlling for other factors, female flight attendants had 2.9 times higher risk (95% CI 1.2–7.2 of sustaining and injury than males. Irrespective of sex, body weight less than 56 kilograms (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.8 and less than seven years of on board experience (OR 10.5, 95% CI 3.6–31.0 were associated with higher risk of injury. Conclusion Work related injury is a major occupational hazard to flight attendants. Appropriate preventive strategies are required to minimize them.

  7. Fiber optical sensing on-board communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, A.; Lemke, N. M. K.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.

    2017-11-01

    Striving constantly to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall cost of the classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board telecommunication satellites, OHB System (formerly Kayser-Threde) has introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. As a future spacecraft platform element, HSB relies on electrical remote sensor units as well as fiber-optical sensors, both of which can serially be connected in a bus architecture. HSB is a modular measurement system with many applications, also thanks to the opportunities posed by the digital I²C bus. The emphasis, however, is on the introduction of fiber optics and especially fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors as disruptive innovation for the company's satellite platforms. The light weight FBG sensors are directly inscribed in mechanically robust and radiation tolerant fibers, reducing the need for optical fiber connectors and splices to a minimum. Wherever an FBG sensor shall be used, the fiber is glued together with a corresponding temperature transducer to the satellites structure or to a subsystem. The transducer is necessary to provide decoupling of mechanical stress, but simultaneously ensure a high thermal conductivity. HSB has been developed in the frame of an ESA-ARTES program with European and German co-funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on-board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat). In this paper the Engineering Model development of HSB is presented and a Fiber-optical Sensor Multiplexer for a more flexible sensor bus architecture is introduced. The HSB system aims at telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geostationary orbit. It claims a high compatibility in terms of performance and interfaces with existing platforms while it was designed with future applications with increased radiation exposure already in mind. In its basic configuration HSB consists of four modules which are the Power Supply Unit, the HSB

  8. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    Matching the users application requirements with the more and more huge data streaming of the satellite missions is becoming very complex. But we need both of them. To face both the data management (memory availability) and their transmission (band availability) many recent R&D activities are studying the right way to move the data processing from the ground segment to the space segment by the development of the so-called On-board Payload Data Processing (OPDP). The space designer are trying to find new strategies to increase the on board computation capacity and its viability to overcome such limitations, memory and band, focusing the transmission of remote sensing information (not only data) towards their final use. Some typical applications which can benefit of the on board payload data processing include the automatic control of a satellites constellation which can modify its scheduled acquisitions directly on-board and according to the information extracted from the just acquired data, increasing, for example, the capability of monitoring a specific objective (such as oil spills, illegal traffic) with a greater versatility than a traditional ground segment workflow. The authors and their companies can count on a sound experience in design and development of open, modular and compact on-board processing systems. Actually they are involved in a program, the Space Payload Data Processing (SpacePDP) whose main objective is to develop an hardware and a software framework able to perform both the space mission standard tasks (sensors control, mass storage devices management, uplink and downlink) and the specific tasks required by each mission. SpacePDP is an Open and modular Payload Data Processing system, composed of Hardware and Software modules included a SDK. The whole system is characterised by flexible and customizable building blocks that form the system architectures and by a very easy way to be integrated in the missions by the SDK (a development

  9. On-board aircrew dosimetry using a semiconductor spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Spurny, F

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fields on board aircraft contain particles with energies up to a few hundred MeV. Many instruments have been tested to characterise these fields. This paper presents the results of studies on the use of an Si diode spectrometer to characterise these fields. The spectrometer has been in use since spring 2000 on more than 130 return flights to monitor and characterise the on-board field. During a Czech Airlines flight from Prague to New York it was possible to register the effects of an intense solar flare, (ground level event, GLE 60), which occurred on 15 April 2001. It was found that the number of deposition events registered was increased by about 70% and the dose in Si by a factor of 2.0 when compared with the presence of galactic cosmic rays alone. Directly measured data are interpreted with respect to on-earth reference field calibration (photons, CERN high-energy particles); it was found that this approach leads to encouraging results and should be followed up. (7 refs).

  10. The K9 On-Board Rover Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresina, John L.; Bualat, Maria; Fair, Michael; Washington, Richard; Wright, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the software architecture of NASA Ames Research Center s K9 rover. The goal of the onboard software architecture team was to develop a modular, flexible framework that would allow both high- and low-level control of the K9 hardware. Examples of low-level control are the simple drive or pan/tilt commands which are handled by the resource managers, and examples of high-level control are the command sequences which are handled by the conditional executive. In between these two control levels are complex behavioral commands which are handled by the pilot, such as drive to goal with obstacle avoidance or visually servo to a target. This paper presents the design of the architecture as of Fall 2000. We describe the state of the architecture implementation as well as its current evolution. An early version of the architecture was used for K9 operations during a dual-rover field experiment conducted by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from May 14 to May 16, 2000.

  11. Cosmic radiation dosimetry onboard aircrafts at the brazilian airspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, Claudio Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is the establishment of a dosimetric system for the aircrew in the domestic territory. A technique to perform measurements of ambient dose equivalent in aircrafts was developed. An active detector was evaluated for onboard aircraft use, testing its adequacy to this specific type of measurement as well as its susceptibility to the magnetic and electromagnetic interferences. The equipment was calibrated in standard radiation beams and in a special field of the European Laboratory CERN, that reproduces with great proximity the real spectrum in aircraft flight altitudes; it was also tested in several flights, in an Brazilian Air Force's aircraft. The results were evaluated and compared with those obtained from several computational programs for cosmic radiation estimates, with respect to its adequacy for use in the South American region. The program CARI-6 was selected to evaluate the estimated averaged effective doses for the aircrew who operate in this region. A statistical distribution of aircrew effective doses in South America and Caribe was made, and the results show that a great part of this aircrew members are subjected to annual effective doses that exceed the dose limits for the members of the public. Additionally, a preliminary passive dosemeter, based in thermoluminescent detectors, was proposed; international collaborations with United Kingdom and Italy were established for joint measurements of the ambient equivalent doses in aircrafts. (author)

  12. Research on lettuce growth technology onboard Chinese Tiangong II Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yunze; Guo, Shuangsheng; Zhao, Pisheng; Wang, Longji; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Bian, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Lettuce was grown in a space vegetable cultivation facility onboard the Tiangong Ⅱ Spacelab during October 18 to November 15, 2016, in order to testify the key cultivating technology in CELSS under spaceflight microgravity condition. Potable water was used for irrigation of rooting substrate and the SRF (slowly released fertilizer) offered mineral nutrition for plant growth. Water content and electric conductivity in rooting substrate were measured based on FDR(frequency domain reflectometry) principle applied first in spaceflight. Lettuce germinated with comparative growth vigor as the ground control, showing that the plants appeared to be not stressed by the spaceflight environment. Under microgravity, lettuce grew taller and showed deeper green color than the ground control. In addition, the phototropism of the on-orbit plants was more remarkable. The nearly 30-d spaceflight test verified the seed fixation technology and water& nutrition management technology, which manifests the feasibility of FDR being used for measuring moisture content and electric conductivity in rooting zone under microgravity. Furthermore, the edibility of the space-grown vegetable was proved, providing theoretical support for astronaut to consume the space vegetable in future manned spaceflight.

  13. Conceptual Design of the NISS onboard NEXTSat-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong-Seob Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The NISS onboard NEXTSat-1 is being developed by Korea astronomy and space science institute (KASI. For the study of the cosmic star formation history, the NISS performs the imaging spectroscopic observation in the near-infrared range for nearby galaxies, low background regions, star-forming regions and so on. It is designed to cover a wide field of view (2 × 2 deg and a wide wavelength range from 0.95 to 3.8 μm by using linear variable filters. In order to reduce the thermal noise, the telescope and the infrared sensor are cooled down to 200 K and 80 K, respectively. Evading a stray light outside the field of view and making the most use of limited space, the NISS adopts the off-axis reflective optical system. The primary and the secondary mirrors, the opto-mechanical part and the mechanical structure are designed to be made of aluminum material. It reduces the degradation of optical performance due to a thermal variation. This paper presents the study on the conceptual design of the NISS.

  14. Onboard Data Processor for Change-Detection Radar Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chien, Steve A.; Saatchi, Sasan S.; Clark, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A computer system denoted a change-detection onboard processor (CDOP) is being developed as a means of processing the digitized output of a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) apparatus aboard an aircraft or spacecraft to generate images showing changes that have occurred in the terrain below between repeat passes of the aircraft or spacecraft over the terrain. When fully developed, the CDOP is intended to be capable of generating SAR images and/or SAR differential interferograms in nearly real time. The CDOP is expected to be especially useful for understanding some large-scale natural phenomena and/or mitigating natural hazards: For example, it could be used for near-real-time observation of surface changes caused by floods, landslides, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, glaciers, and sea ice movements. It could also be used to observe such longer-term surface changes as those associated with growth of vegetation (relevant to estimation of wildfire fuel loads). The CDOP is, essentially, an interferometric SAR processor designed to operate aboard a radar platform.

  15. An onboard star catalog for satellite angular attitude estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzhilov, Ivan; Chernetsov, Andrey; Zakharov, Andrei; Kruzhilov, Svyatoslav

    2017-09-01

    Accuracy assessment of the satellite remote sensing depends on the angular attitude estimation precision. The 1 arc second error in attitude estimation causes 2.5-meter error in the accuracy derived from remote sensing data for the 500 km orbit. Different kind of momentum wheels, propulsions and sensors help correct spacecraft torque moment to stabilize it in the orbit. Star tracker is the most precise optical sensor for spacecraft angular attitude estimation. An onboard guide star catalog containing data for star pattern identification is essential for star tracker operating. The total number of stars, the faintest stellar magnitude, completeness and uniformity are the key specifications of a star catalog influencing many characteristic of a star tracker. The steps of creating guide star catalog are: instrumental stellar magnitude estimation with respect to the star tracker spectral response, clusterization of nearby stars, removing of unreliable stars and final star selection. An iterative algorithm for thinning down the catalog allows reducing appreciably the number of stars in the catalog and improving its uniformity. The key point of the algorithm is the lower bound evaluation of star number in the FOV (field of view) for every boresight position within a triangle area. The algorithm uses recursive quaternary division of the icosahedron for the celestial sphere tessellation. The correction methods of stellar aberration and star proper motion are discussed as well.

  16. On-Board Detection and Matching of Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a FPGA-based method for on-board detection and matching of the feature points. With the proposed method, a parallel processing model and a pipeline structure are presented to ensure a high frame rate at processing speed, but with a low power consumption. To save the FPGA resources and increase the processing speed, a model which combines the modified SURF detector and a BRIEF descriptor, is presented as well. Three pairs of images with different land coverages are used to evaluate the performance of FPGA-based implementation. The experiment results demonstrate that (1 when the image pairs with artificial features (such as buildings and roads, the performance of FPGA-based implementation is better than those image pairs with natural features (such as woods; (2 the proposed FPGA-based method is capable of ensuring the processing speed at a high frame rate, such as the speed of can achieve 304 fps under a 100 MHz clock frequency. The speedup of the proposed implementation is about 27 times higher than that when using the PC-based implementation.

  17. Testing the associations between different aspects of seafarers' employment contract and on-board internet access and their job and life satisfaction and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Penezić, Zvjezdan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test for associations between different aspects of contract and on-board internet access and seafarers' satisfaction and health. Altogether 298 Croatian seafarers, all officers, employed on cargo ships, with a minimum work experience of two years with their current shipping company, participated in an online survey. The questionnaire included sociodemographic items, questions relating to their employment contract and internet access, and measures of job satisfaction, life satisfaction, mental health, and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms. Their job- and lifesatisfaction levels were higher for shorter duration on board, favourable ratio of work to non-work days, and compliance with the employment contract regarding the changes to work and non-work days. Mental health differed likewise but only in relation to two aspects of the contract: on-board duration and compliance with the contract. The level of gastrointestinal symptoms was lower in cases of shorter on-board duration and compliance with the contract, and in seafarers who have free, unlimited internet access on board. Lower level of cardiovascular symptoms was found in seafarers with free, unlimited internet access on board. Our findings suggest that in promoting satisfaction and health in seafaring, attention should be given to reducing on-board duration, compliance with the contract, and internet accessibility on board.

  18. 48 CFR 970.0371-4 - Gratuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of... contractor is doing business, or proposing to do business, in accomplishing the work under the contract...

  19. Observation sequences and onboard data processing of Planet-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Ishi, N.; Ueno, M.; Hihara, H.; Abe, T.; Yamada, T.

    Planet-C or VCO Venus Climate Orbiter will carry 5 cameras IR1 IR 1micrometer camera IR2 IR 2micrometer camera UVI UV Imager LIR Long-IR camera and LAC Lightning and Airglow Camera in the UV-IR region to investigate atmospheric dynamics of Venus During 30 hr orbiting designed to quasi-synchronize to the super rotation of the Venus atmosphere 3 groups of scientific observations will be carried out i image acquisition of 4 cameras IR1 IR2 UVI LIR 20 min in 2 hrs ii LAC operation only when VCO is within Venus shadow and iii radio occultation These observation sequences will define the scientific outputs of VCO program but the sequences must be compromised with command telemetry downlink and thermal power conditions For maximizing science data downlink it must be well compressed and the compression efficiency and image quality have the significant scientific importance in the VCO program Images of 4 cameras IR1 2 and UVI 1Kx1K and LIR 240x240 will be compressed using JPEG2000 J2K standard J2K is selected because of a no block noise b efficiency c both reversible and irreversible d patent loyalty free and e already implemented as academic commercial software ICs and ASIC logic designs Data compression efficiencies of J2K are about 0 3 reversible and 0 1 sim 0 01 irreversible The DE Digital Electronics unit which controls 4 cameras and handles onboard data processing compression is under concept design stage It is concluded that the J2K data compression logics circuits using space

  20. Satellite on-board real-time SAR processor prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Harnisch, Bernd; Suess, Martin; Marchese, Linda; Bourqui, Pascal; Desnoyers, Nicholas; Legros, Mathieu; Guillot, Ludovic; Mercier, Luc; Châteauneuf, François

    2017-11-01

    A Compact Real-Time Optronic SAR Processor has been successfully developed and tested up to a Technology Readiness Level of 4 (TRL4), the breadboard validation in a laboratory environment. SAR, or Synthetic Aperture Radar, is an active system allowing day and night imaging independent of the cloud coverage of the planet. The SAR raw data is a set of complex data for range and azimuth, which cannot be compressed. Specifically, for planetary missions and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems with limited communication data rates this is a clear disadvantage. SAR images are typically processed electronically applying dedicated Fourier transformations. This, however, can also be performed optically in real-time. Originally the first SAR images were optically processed. The optical Fourier processor architecture provides inherent parallel computing capabilities allowing real-time SAR data processing and thus the ability for compression and strongly reduced communication bandwidth requirements for the satellite. SAR signal return data are in general complex data. Both amplitude and phase must be combined optically in the SAR processor for each range and azimuth pixel. Amplitude and phase are generated by dedicated spatial light modulators and superimposed by an optical relay set-up. The spatial light modulators display the full complex raw data information over a two-dimensional format, one for the azimuth and one for the range. Since the entire signal history is displayed at once, the processor operates in parallel yielding real-time performances, i.e. without resulting bottleneck. Processing of both azimuth and range information is performed in a single pass. This paper focuses on the onboard capabilities of the compact optical SAR processor prototype that allows in-orbit processing of SAR images. Examples of processed ENVISAT ASAR images are presented. Various SAR processor parameters such as processing capabilities, image quality (point target analysis), weight and

  1. Stitching images of dual-cameras onboard satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yonghua; Xu, Kai; Zhao, Ruishan; Zhang, Guo; Cheng, Kan; Zhou, Ping

    2017-06-01

    The way of installing dual-cameras on one satellite is adopted to further enlarge the imaging swath, thereby improving the efficiency of data capturing. In this case, stitching images of dual-cameras with high precision is a key step in the practical application. Due to the inadequate overlapping area of dual-cameras, stitching their images by classic methods may cause internal accuracy loss of the mosaic image. The reason is that classic methods estimate the geometric transformation of dual-cameras merely by a few unevenly distributed precise tie points in overlapping area of dual-cameras, which is similar to the case of using unevenly distributed ground control points (GCPs) in block adjustment. This paper proposed a new method to precisely stitch images of dual cameras without losing internal accuracy. First, a model was built to recover the relative geometric relation of dual-cameras and eliminate Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) distortions of each camera, then a virtual camera model depending on the calibrated geometric relation was adopted to achieve a seamless mosaic image. The panchromatic images of camera A and camera B onboard Yaogan-24 were collected as the experimental data. Experiment results show that the calibration accuracies of dual-cameras are better than 0.3 pixels, and the stitching accuracies can reach the sub-pixel level, ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 pixels. On the other hand, the positioning accuracies with GCPs of the mosaic image and of individual camera are better than 0.6 pixels and 0.5 pixels respectively, so the internal accuracy loss of the mosaic image only reaches 0.1 pixels, which can be neglected. This demonstrates that the proposed method can achieve seamless mosaic images without losing internal accuracy.

  2. Tracking the use of onboard safety technologies across the truck fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Transportation Safety Analysis and the Automotive Analysis Divisons at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) initiated the Onboard Safety Technologies project in 2007, supported by FMCSA, to collect detailed informa...

  3. Observations of Lunar Exospheric Helium with LAMP UV Spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, C.; Hurley, D. M.; Retherford, K. D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Feldman, P. D.; Pryor, W. R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K. E.

    2017-09-01

    We present results of the LAMP UV spectrograph onboard of the Lunar Recoinnasance Orbiter to study the temporal and spatial variations of helium in the lunar exosphere, and to constrain its source rate

  4. On-Board Thermal Management of Waste Heat from a High-Energy Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klatt, Nathan D

    2008-01-01

    The use of on-board high-energy devices such as megawatt lasers and microwave emitters requires aircraft system integration of thermal devices to either get rid of waste heat or utilize it in other areas of the aircraft...

  5. Advanced Hybrid On-Board Data Processor - SpaceCube 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop advanced on-board processing to meet the requirements of the Decadal Survey missions: advanced instruments (hyper-spectral, SAR, etc) require advanced...

  6. SpaceCube 2.0: An Advanced Hybrid Onboard Data Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michael; Flatley, Thomas; Godfrey, John; Geist, Alessandro; Espinosa, Daniel; Petrick, David

    2011-01-01

    The SpaceCube 2.0 is a compact, high performance, low-power onboard processing system that takes advantage of cutting-edge hybrid (CPU/FPGA/DSP) processing elements. The SpaceCube 2.0 design concept includes two commercial Virtex-5 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) parts protected by gradiation hardened by software" technology, and possesses exceptional size, weight, and power characteristics [5x5x7 in., 3.5 lb (approximately equal to 12.7 x 12.7 x 17.8 cm, 1.6 kg) 5-25 W, depending on the application fs required clock rate]. The two Virtex-5 FPGA parts are implemented in a unique back-toback configuration to maximize data transfer and computing performance. Draft computing power specifications for the SpaceCube 2.0 unit include four PowerPC 440s (1100 DMIPS each), 500+ DSP48Es (2x580 GMACS), 100+ LVDS high-speed serial I/Os (1.25 Gbps each), and 2x190 GFLOPS single-precision (65 GFLOPS double-precision) floating point performance. The SpaceCube 2.0 includes PROM memory for CPU boot, health and safety, and basic command and telemetry functionality; RAM memory for program execution; and FLASH/EEPROM memory to store algorithms and application code for the CPU, FPGA, and DSP processing elements. Program execution can be reconfigured in real time and algorithms can be updated, modified, and/or replaced at any point during the mission. Gigabit Ethernet, Spacewire, SATA and highspeed LVDS serial/parallel I/O channels are available for instrument/sensor data ingest, and mission-unique instrument interfaces can be accommodated using a compact PCI (cPCI) expansion card interface. The SpaceCube 2.0 can be utilized in NASA Earth Science, Helio/Astrophysics and Exploration missions, and Department of Defense satellites for onboard data processing. It can also be used in commercial communication and mapping satellites.

  7. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    the project included executing over 450 crew-hours of ISS real-time payload operations including a major onboard communications upgrade, SpaceX un-berth, a Soyuz launch, roll-out of ISS live video and interviews from the POIC, annual BCC certification and hurricane season, and ISS simulations and testing. Continuous ISS payload operations were possible during the PCA facility modifications with the reconfiguration of four control rooms and standup of two temporary control areas. Another major restriction to the project was an ongoing facility upgrade that included a NASA Headquarters mandated replacement of all electrical and mechanical systems and replacement of an external generator. These upgrades required a facility power outage during the PCA upgrades. The project also encompassed console layout designs and ordering, amenities selections and ordering, excessing of old equipment, moves, disposal of old IT equipment, camera installations, facility tour re-schedules, and contract justifications. These were just some of the tasks needed for a successful project. This paper describes the logistics and lessons learned in upgrading a control center capability in the middle of complex real-time operations. Combining the efficiencies of controller interaction and new technology infusion were prime drivers for this upgrade to handle the increased utilization of science research on ISS. The success of this project could not jeopardize the current operations while these facility upgrades occurred.

  8. All-digital multicarrier demodulators for on-board processing satellites in mobile communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wan Hung

    Economical operation of future satellite systems for mobile communications can only be fulfilled by using dedicated on-board processing satellites, which would allow both cheap earth terminals and lower space segment costs. With on-board modems and codecs, the up-link and down-link can be optimized separately. An attractive scheme is to use frequency-division multiple access/single chanel per carrier (FDMA/SCPC) on the up-link and time division multiplexing (TDM) on the down-link. This scheme allows mobile terminals to transmit a narrow band, low power signal, resulting in smaller dishes and high power amplifiers (HPA's) with lower output power. On the up-link, there are hundreds to thousands of FDM channels to be demodulated on-board. The most promising approach is the use of all-digital multicarrier demodulators (MCD's), where analog and digital hardware are efficiently shared among channels, and digital signal processing (DSP) is used at an early stage to take advantage of very large scale integration (VLSI) implementation. A MCD consists of a channellizer for separation of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) channels, followed by individual modulators for each channel. Major research areas in MCD's are in multirate DSP, and the optimal estimation for synchronization, which form the basis of the thesis. Complex signal theories are central to the development of structured approaches for the sampling and processing of bandpass signals, which are the foundations in both channellizer and demodulator design. In multirate DSP, polyphase theories replace many ad-hoc, tedious and error-prone design procedures. For example, a polyphase-matrix deep space network frequency and timing system (DFT) channellizer includes all efficient filter bank techniques as special cases. Also, a polyphase-lattice filter is derived, not only for sampling rate conversion, but also capable of sampling phase variation, which is required for symbol timing adjustment in all

  9. Technology for organization of the onboard system for processing and storage of ERS data for ultrasmall spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotov, Valery V.; Taganov, Alexander I.; Konkin, Yuriy V.; Kolesenkov, Aleksandr N.

    2017-10-01

    Task of processing and analysis of obtained Earth remote sensing data on ultra-small spacecraft board is actual taking into consideration significant expenditures of energy for data transfer and low productivity of computers. Thereby, there is an issue of effective and reliable storage of the general information flow obtained from onboard systems of information collection, including Earth remote sensing data, into a specialized data base. The paper has considered peculiarities of database management system operation with the multilevel memory structure. For storage of data in data base the format has been developed that describes a data base physical structure which contains required parameters for information loading. Such structure allows reducing a memory size occupied by data base because it is not necessary to store values of keys separately. The paper has shown architecture of the relational database management system oriented into embedment into the onboard ultra-small spacecraft software. Data base for storage of different information, including Earth remote sensing data, can be developed by means of such database management system for its following processing. Suggested database management system architecture has low requirements to power of the computer systems and memory resources on the ultra-small spacecraft board. Data integrity is ensured under input and change of the structured information.

  10. On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Herman, Andrew [CTS Corporation; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. The testing included controlled engine dynamometer evaluations, which characterized soot slip from various filter failure modes, as well as on-road fleet vehicle tests. The results show a high sensitivity to detect conditions resulting in soot leakage from the particulate filter, as well as potential for direct detection of structural failures including internal cracks and melted regions within the filter media itself. Furthermore, the measurements demonstrate, for the first time, the capability to employ a direct and continuous monitor of particulate filter diagnostics to both prevent and detect potential failure conditions in the field.

  11. Onboard Decision Making For a New Class of AUV Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, K.; McGann, C.; Py, F.; Thomas, H.; Henthorn, R.; McEwen, R.

    2007-12-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are an increasingly important tool for oceanographic research. They routinely and cost effectively sample the water column at depths far beyond what humans are capable of visiting. However, control of these platforms has relied on fixed sequences for execution of pre-planned actions limiting their effectiveness for measuring dynamic and episodic ocean phenomenon. At the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), we are developing an advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI) based control system to enable our AUV's to dynamically adapt to the environment by deliberating in-situ about mission plans while tracking onboard resource consumption, dealing with plan failures by allowing dynamic re-planning and being cognizant of vehicle health and safety in the course of executing science plans. Existing behavior-based approaches require an operator to script plans a priori while anticipating where and how the vehicle will transect the water column. While adequate for current needs to do routine pre-defined transects, it has limited flexibility in dealing with opportunistic science needs, is unable to deal with uncertainty in the oceanic environment and puts undue burden on the mission operators to manage complex interactions between behaviors. Our approach, informed by a decades worth of experience in intelligent control of NASA spacecraft, uses a constraint-based representation to manage mission goals, react to exogenous or endogenous failure conditions, respond to sensory feedback by using AI-based search techniques to sort thru a space of likely responses and picking one which is satisfies the completion of mission goals. The system encapsulates the long-standing notion of a sense-deliberate-act cycle at the heart of a control loop and reflects the goal-oriented nature of control allowing operators to specify abstract mission goals rather than detailed command sequences. To date we have tested T- REX (the Teleo

  12. THE TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARE OF ON-BOARD COMPUTERS OF AIR VESSEL TO ABSENCE OF UNDECLARED CAPABILITIES BY SIGNATURE-HEURISTIC WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ivanovich Petrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of civil aviation aircraft onboard computers data safety. Infor- mation security undeclared capabilities stand for technical equipment or software possibilities, which are not mentioned in the documentation. Documentation and tests content requirements are imposed during the software certification. Documentation requirements include documents composition and content of control (specification, description and program code, the source code. Test requirements include: static analysis of program codes (including the compliance of the sources with their loading modules monitoring; dynamic analysis of source code (including implementation of routes monitor- ing. Currently, there are no complex measures for checking onboard computer software. There are no rules and regulations that can allow controlling foreign production aircraft software, and the actual receiving of software is difficult. Consequently, the author suggests developing the basics of aviation rules and regulations, which allow to analyze the programs of CA aircraft onboard computers. If there are no software source codes the two approaches of code analysis are used: a structural static and dy- namic analysis of the source code; signature-heuristic analysis of potentially dangerous operations. Static analysis determines the behavior of the program by reading the program code (without running the program which is represented in the assembler language - disassembly listing. Program tracing is performed by the dynamic analysis. The analysis of aircraft software ability to detect undeclared capa- bilities using the interactive disassembler was considered in this article.

  13. A quality assurance program for the on-board imager[reg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Sua; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Hammoud, Rabih

    2006-01-01

    To develop a quality assurance (QA) program for the On-Board Imager (OBI) system and to summarize the results of these QA tests over extended periods from multiple institutions. Both the radiographic and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) mode of operation have been evaluated. The QA programs from four institutions have been combined to generate a series of tests for evaluating the performance of the On-Board Imager. The combined QA program consists of three parts: (1) safety and functionality (2) geometry, and (3) image quality. Safety and functionality tests evaluate the functionality of safety features and the clinical operation of the entire system during the tube warm-up. Geometry QA verifies the geometric accuracy and stability of the OBI/CBCT hardware/software. Image quality QA monitors spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity of the radiographic images. Image quality QA for CBCT includes tests for Hounsfield Unit (HU) linearity, HU uniformity, spatial linearity, and scan slice geometry, in addition. All safety and functionality tests passed on a daily basis. The average accuracy of the OBI isocenter was better than 1.5 mm with a range of variation of less than 1 mm over 8 months. The average accuracy of arm positions in the mechanical geometry QA was better than 1 mm, with a range of variation of less than 1 mm over 8 months. Measurements of other geometry QA tests showed stable results within tolerance throughout the test periods. Radiographic contrast sensitivity ranged between 2.2% and 3.2% and spatial resolution ranged between 1.25 and 1.6 lp/mm. Over four months the CBCT images showed stable spatial linearity, scan slice geometry, contrast resolution (1%; 6 lp/cm). The HU linearity was within ±40 HU for all measurements. By combining test methods from multiple institutions, we have developed a comprehensive, yet practical, set of QA tests for the OBI system. Use of the tests over extended periods show that the OBI system has reliable mechanical

  14. Prospective Architectures for Onboard vs Cloud-Based Decision Making for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Teubert, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates propsective architectures for decision-making in unmanned aerial systems. When these unmanned vehicles operate in urban environments, there are several sources of uncertainty that affect their behavior, and decision-making algorithms need to be robust to account for these different sources of uncertainty. It is important to account for several risk-factors that affect the flight of these unmanned systems, and facilitate decision-making by taking into consideration these various risk-factors. In addition, there are several technical challenges related to autonomous flight of unmanned aerial systems; these challenges include sensing, obstacle detection, path planning and navigation, trajectory generation and selection, etc. Many of these activities require significant computational power and in many situations, all of these activities need to be performed in real-time. In order to efficiently integrate these activities, it is important to develop a systematic architecture that can facilitate real-time decision-making. Four prospective architectures are discussed in this paper; on one end of the spectrum, the first architecture considers all activities/computations being performed onboard the vehicle whereas on the other end of the spectrum, the fourth and final architecture considers all activities/computations being performed in the cloud, using a new service known as Prognostics as a Service that is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The four different architectures are compared, their advantages and disadvantages are explained and conclusions are presented.

  15. Simulating and Detecting Radiation-Induced Errors for Onboard Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Bornstein, Benjamin; Granat, Robert; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft processors and memory are subjected to high radiation doses and therefore employ radiation-hardened components. However, these components are orders of magnitude more expensive than typical desktop components, and they lag years behind in terms of speed and size. We have integrated algorithm-based fault tolerance (ABFT) methods into onboard data analysis algorithms to detect radiation-induced errors, which ultimately may permit the use of spacecraft memory that need not be fully hardened, reducing cost and increasing capability at the same time. We have also developed a lightweight software radiation simulator, BITFLIPS, that permits evaluation of error detection strategies in a controlled fashion, including the specification of the radiation rate and selective exposure of individual data structures. Using BITFLIPS, we evaluated our error detection methods when using a support vector machine to analyze data collected by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. We found ABFT error detection for matrix multiplication is very successful, while error detection for Gaussian kernel computation still has room for improvement.

  16. HTML 5 Displays for On-Board Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Chandika

    2016-01-01

    During my Internship at NASA in the summer of 2016, I was assigned to a project which dealt with developing a web-server that would display telemetry and other system data using HTML 5, JavaScript, and CSS. By doing this, it would be possible to view the data across a variety of screen sizes, and establish a standard that could be used to simplify communication and software development between NASA and other countries. Utilizing a web- approach allowed us to add in more functionality, as well as make the displays more aesthetically pleasing for the users. When I was assigned to this project my main task was to first establish communication with the current display server. This display server would output data from the on-board systems in XML format. Once communication was established I was then asked to create a dynamic telemetry table web page that would update its header and change as new information came in. After this was completed, certain minor functionalities were added to the table such as a hide column and filter by system option. This was more for the purpose of making the table more useful for the users, as they can now filter and view relevant data. Finally my last task was to create a graphical system display for all the systems on the space craft. This was by far the most challenging part of my internship as finding a JavaScript library that was both free and contained useful functions to assist me in my task was difficult. In the end I was able to use the JointJs library and accomplish the task. With the help of my mentor and the HIVE lab team, we were able to establish stable communication with the display server. We also succeeded in creating a fully dynamic telemetry table and in developing a graphical system display for the advanced modular power system. Working in JSC for this internship has taught me a lot about coding in JavaScript and HTML 5. I was also introduced to the concept of developing software as a team, and exposed to the different

  17. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  18. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Haddock, Angie T.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  19. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  20. Implementing Temperature Supervision for the ALICE CRU Card Using the Onboard Microcontroller

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Bernabeu, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    We report on the first implementation of the thermal supervisory firmware for the onboard microcontroller on the ALICE CRU card. The Common Readout Unit (CRU) is a custom PCI Express FPGA card developed by “Centre Physique des Particules de Marseille” in collaboration of LHCb and ALICE. While the main effort has been focused on the development of the FPGA firmware that implements all the communication needs, there are several independent design tasks identified to ensure the safe operation of the CRU card under all possible conditions. One such task is to implement a robust local (on-board) temperature monitoring and safeguarding subsystem based on ATmega128 microcontroller. It will autonomously prevent the thermal damage of the card even if the remote HW monitoring and controlling functions (integrated in DCS) failed for any reason. Consequently, our main goal in this project will be implementing the temperature supervision using the onboard microcontroller.

  1. Aircrew exposure onboard a Czech airlines aircraft, individual monitoring of aircrew

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K. [Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry, Prague (Czech Republic); Ploc, O. [Czech Technical Univ., Dept. of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    The contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. The monitoring has been performed in the period May - December 2005, more than 500 individual flights have been followed. M.D.U.-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer was used, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. Total effective dose was about 12 mSv, the results obtained with dosimeters mentioned are analyzed and compared with the results of calculation performed with C.A.R.I. and E.P.C.A.R.D. codes. Individual monitoring of air crew members has been started in the Czech Republic since 1998 year. The results obtained during few last years are presented, general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. (authors)

  2. Use of On-Board Files for Telemetry Storage and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison, Bernard; Fourtier, Philippe; Sauvage, Francois; Hugues, Guillaume; Soumagne, Raymond

    2011-08-01

    The demand for an increasing of the autonomy level of the spacecraft leads to reduce the volume of telemetry data downloaded to the ground. In opposite there is a need for a higher level of observability. An elegant solution is to store a volume of data larger than the spacecraft is able to download. During the communication session, only a selection of stored data is downloaded thanks to an on-board processing able to discard the redundant or the not pertinent data. The use of on-board files facilitates the management of stored data.This paper describes the results of a CNES study that had the objectives to define an architecture concept, based on the use of on-board files, to validate it through a demonstrator and to analyse the impact on the spacecraft operations.

  3. Maritime DC Microgrids - A Combination of Microgrid Technologies and Maritime Onboard Power System for Future Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    alternative to the conventional AC power systems in the field of future maritime applications. Moreover, the inevitable cabin structure of maritime applications naturally separate the large-scale power system into several zonal parts. Furthermore, it is expected that the zonal parts can maintain autonomous......DC power distribution system is being considered as an attractive alternative to its traditional AC counterpart in many fields of applications and, in particular, for maritime onboard power systems. The adoption of DC power architecture would bring a broad range of benefits to the onboard power...... and coordination methods, and specific issues of maritime onboard power system, fuel efficiency optimization and systemic reconfiguration are outlined, referring to state-of-the-art realizations as well as to novel concept designs presently under development and investigation....

  4. Onboard digital signal processing technologies for present and future TDMA and SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shuzo; Arita, Takemi; Morita, Kozo

    1987-05-01

    Technologies for onboard TDMA equipment, burst modems, baseband switches, and SCPC multicarrier demodulators from the present to the year 2000 are discussed. Onboard TDMA equipment with a clock rate of lower than 100 MHz can presently be realized by parallel-processed CMOS/BULK LSICs, while for equipment with a clock rate greater than 100 MHz, bipolar devices are more appropriate. For carrier frequencies up to 2 GHz, modem implementation in monolithic microwave ICs is found to be most suitable. Single T-stage and T-S-T architectures are compared as potential baseband configurations. The total weight and power consumption for several suitable onboard SCPC demodulation schemes are investigated as a function of the number of channels to be regenerated.

  5. Evaluation of the use of on-board spacecraft energy storage for electric propulsion missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Palmer, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    On-board spacecraft energy storage represents an under utilized resource for some types of missions that also benefit from using relatively high specific impulse capability of electric propulsion. This resource can provide an appreciable fraction of the power required for operating the electric propulsion subsystem in some missions. The most probable mission requirement for utilization of this energy is that of geostationary satellites which have secondary batteries for operating at high power levels during eclipse. The study summarized in this report selected four examples of missions that could benefit from use of electric propulsion and on-board energy storage. Engineering analyses were performed to evaluate the mass saved and economic benefit expected when electric propulsion and on-board batteries perform some propulsion maneuvers that would conventionally be provided by chemical propulsion. For a given payload mass in geosynchronous orbit, use of electric propulsion in this manner typically provides a 10% reduction in spacecraft mass.

  6. STS-44 onboard (in-space) crew portrait features 'Trash Man' Hennen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for a second onboard (in-space) portrait on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. This portrait was intended to focus on Payload Specialist Thomas J. Hennen, holding extended duration orbiter (EDO) trash compactor handles, who earned the nickname, 'Trash Man' during the flight. It was Hennen who 'starred' in a brief onboard video production about the disposal of trash and waste. Others in the picture are (front row) Commander Frederick D. Gregory (left) and Mission Specialist (MS) James S. Voss and (back row left to right) MS Mario Runco, Jr, MS F. Story Musgrave, and Pilot Terence T. Henricks.

  7. Chang?E-5T Orbit Determination Using Onboard GPS Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Xing; Geng, Tao; Li, Wenwen; Zhao, Qile; Xie, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has played an important role in Space Service Volume, the region enclosing the altitudes above 3000 km up to 36,000 km. As an in-flight test for the feasibility as well as for the performance of GNSS-based satellite orbit determination (OD), the Chinese experimental lunar mission Chang?E-5T had been equipped with an onboard high-sensitivity GNSS receiver with GPS and GLONASS tracking capability. In this contribution, the 2-h onboard G...

  8. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  9. Exploiting Artificial Intelligence for Analysis and Data Selection on-board the Puerto Rico CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, J. E. S.; Bruhn, F.; Funk, P.; Isham, B.; Rincón-Charris, A. A.; Capo-Lugo, P.; Åhlén, L.

    2015-10-01

    CubeSat missions are constrained by the limited resources provided by the platform. Many payload providers have learned to cope with the low mass and power but the poor telemetry allocation remains a bottleneck. In the end, it is the data delivered to ground which determines the value of the mission. However, transmitting more data does not necessarily guarantee high value, since the value also depends on the data quality. By exploiting fast on-board computing and efficient artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for analysis and data selection one could optimize the usage of the telemetry link and so increase the value of the mission. In a pilot project, we attempt to do this on the Puerto Rico CubeSat, where science objectives include the acquisition of space weather data to aid better understanding of the Sun to Earth connection.

  10. Data Products From Particle Detectors On-Board NOAA's Newest Space Weather Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Onsager, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's newest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-16, was launched on 19 November 2016. Instrumentation on-board GOES-16 includes the new Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS), which has been collecting data since 8 January 2017. SEISS is composed of five magnetospheric particle sensor units: an electrostatic analyzer for measuring 30 eV - 30 keV ions and electrons (MPS-LO), a high energy particle sensor (MPS-HI) that measures keV to MeV electrons and protons, east and west facing Solar and Galactic Proton Sensor (SGPS) units with 13 differential channels between 1-500 MeV, and an Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) that measures 30 species of heavy ions (He-Ni) in five energy bands in the 10-200 MeV/nuc range. Measurement of low energy magnetospheric particles by MPS-LO and heavy ions by EHIS are new capabilities not previously flown on the GOES system. Real-time data from GOES-16 will support space weather monitoring and first-principles space weather modeling by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). Space weather level 2+ data products under development at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) include the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) Event Detection algorithm. Legacy components of the SEP event detection algorithm (currently produced by SWPC) include the Solar Radiation Storm Scales. New components will include, e.g., event fluences. New level 2+ data products also include the SEP event Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Algorithm, for transforming energy spectra from EHIS into LET spectra, and the Density and Temperature Moments and Spacecraft Charging algorithm. The moments and charging algorithm identifies electron and ion signatures of spacecraft surface (frame) charging in the MPS-LO fluxes. Densities and temperatures from MPS-LO will also be used to support a magnetopause crossing detection algorithm. The new data products will provide real-time indicators of potential radiation hazards for the satellite

  11. Measurement of dust optical depth using the solar irradiance sensor (SIS) onboard the ExoMars 2016 EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, D.; Arruego, I.; Apéstigue, V.; Jiménez, J. J.; Gómez, L.; Yela, M.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.

    2017-04-01

    The solar irradiance sensor (SIS) was included in the DREAMS package onboard the ExoMars 2016 Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module, and has been selected in the METEO meteorological station onboard the ExoMars 2020 Lander. This instrument is designed to measure at different time intervals the scattered flux or the sum of direct flux and scattered flux in UVA (315-400 nm) and NIR (700-1100 nm) bands. For SIS'16, these measurements are performed by a total of 3 sensors per band placed at the faces of a truncated tetrahedron with face inclination angles of 60°. The principal goal of SIS'16 design is to perform measurements of the dust opacity in UVA and NIR wavelengths ranges, crucial parameters in the understanding of the Martian dust cycle. The retrieval procedure is based on the use of radiative transfer simulations to reproduce SIS observations acquired during daytime as a function of dust opacity. Based on different sensitivity analysis, the retrieval procedure also requires to include as free parameters (1) the dust effective radius; (2) the dust effective variance; and (3) the imaginary part of the refractive index of dust particles in UVA band. We found that the imaginary part of the refractive index of dust particles does not have a big impact on NIR signal, and hence we can kept constant this parameter in the retrieval of dust opacity at this channel. In addition to dust opacity measurements, this instrument is also capable to detect and characterize clouds by looking at the time variation of the color index (CI), defined as the ratio between the observations in NIR and UVA channels, during daytime or twilight. By simulating CI signals with a radiative transfer model, the cloud opacity and cloud altitude (only during twilight) can be retrieved. Here the different retrieval procedures that are used to analyze SIS measurements, as well as the results obtained in different sensitivity analysis, are presented and discussed.

  12. 76 FR 31362 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Versatile Onboard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ...--Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors (Formerly Joint Venture To Perform Project Entitled... seq. (``the Act''), Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors (formerly Joint Venture to..., Earth Science Systems, LLC, WheatRidge, CO, has been added as a party to this venture. No other changes...

  13. 19 CFR 122.22 - Electronic manifest requirement for all individuals onboard private aircraft arriving in and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.22 Electronic manifest requirement for all individuals onboard private aircraft arriving in and departing from... individuals onboard private aircraft arriving in and departing from the United States; notice of arrival and...

  14. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J [Peoria, IL; Driscoll, James Joshua [Dunlap, IL; Coleman, Gerald N [Peterborough, GB

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  15. Paleomagnetism Onboard the IODP Research Vessel JOIDES Resolution: Recent Advances, Best Practices, and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G. D.; Morris, A.; Musgrave, R. J.; Zhao, X., , prof; Clement, B. M.; Evans, H. F.; Hastedt, M.; Houpt, D.; Mills, B.; Novak, B.; Petronotis, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    One of the largest openly available paleomagnetism databases is derived from paleomagnetic data acquired continuously along drill cores collected by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and its predecessors. The bulk of data are magnetic remanences measured using superconducting rock magnetometers (SRMs) with automated track systems and in-line alternating field (AF) demagnetization units produced by 2G Enterprises. Our goal in this study is to (1) report on the new SRM that was installed onboard the JOIDES Resolution in December 2016 prior to the start of IODP Expedition 366, (2) consider best practices that may aid shipboard scientists in collecting high quality data, and (3) discuss common pitfalls associated with using an SRM in the shipboard environment to measure a diverse range of lithologies collected in metal core barrels that pass through a relatively strongly magnetized drill string. From a series of tests conducted on the new SRM during a June 11-13, 2017 port call, our main conclusion was that the new magnetometer is functioning as designed. While overall its capabilities are comparable to the previous magnetometer, the new SRM does have several significant advances, including better flux counting, which allows more strongly magnetized rocks to be measured accurately. It also performs AF demagnetizations at high fields (up to 80 mT) without imparting spurious anhysteretic magnetizations, which was a common problem in the old SRM. A worrisome observation, and one that has been made in many shore-based labs, is that devices that emit radio-frequency electromagnetic waves, like actively transmitting cell phones, interfere significantly with SRM measurements. This pitfall will likely have to be addressed on all forthcoming cruises unless better electromagnetic shielding for the SQUID sensors can be found.

  16. EUV high resolution imager on-board solar orbiter: optical design and detector performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halain, J. P.; Mazzoli, A.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Stockman, Y.; Berghmans, D.; BenMoussa, A.; Auchère, F.

    2017-11-01

    The EUV high resolution imager (HRI) channel of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board Solar Orbiter will observe the solar atmospheric layers at 17.4 nm wavelength with a 200 km resolution. The HRI channel is based on a compact two mirrors off-axis design. The spectral selection is obtained by a multilayer coating deposited on the mirrors and by redundant Aluminum filters rejecting the visible and infrared light. The detector is a 2k x 2k array back-thinned silicon CMOS-APS with 10 μm pixel pitch, sensitive in the EUV wavelength range. Due to the instrument compactness and the constraints on the optical design, the channel performance is very sensitive to the manufacturing, alignments and settling errors. A trade-off between two optical layouts was therefore performed to select the final optical design and to improve the mirror mounts. The effect of diffraction by the filter mesh support and by the mirror diffusion has been included in the overall error budget. Manufacturing of mirror and mounts has started and will result in thermo-mechanical validation on the EUI instrument structural and thermal model (STM). Because of the limited channel entrance aperture and consequently the low input flux, the channel performance also relies on the detector EUV sensitivity, readout noise and dynamic range. Based on the characterization of a CMOS-APS back-side detector prototype, showing promising results, the EUI detector has been specified and is under development. These detectors will undergo a qualification program before being tested and integrated on the EUI instrument.

  17. Development of an on-board H2 storage and recovery system based on lithium borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Alkali metal borohydrides based on sodium and lithium, NaBH4 and LiBH4, have been evaluated as a potential hydrogen storage and recovery system for on-board vehicle use. The borohydride salts could be dissolved in water, followed by a hydrolytic reac...

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD AND ON-BOARD DEVICES FOR COLLISION AVOIDANCE WHEN OVERTAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podryhalo, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A method for improving the safety of overtaking maneuver by using the on-board collision avoidance system, which has an increased assessment reliability of safety of vehicles overtaking that move in the same direction is offered. The proposed system takes into account the main factors that affect the overtaking maneuver.

  19. On-Board File Management and Its Application in Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents the minimum functions required for an on-board file management system. We explore file manipulation processes and demonstrate how the file transfer along with the file management system will be utilized to support flight operations and data delivery.

  20. Study of X-ray transients with Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. C. RAMADEVI

    2018-02-10

    Feb 10, 2018 ... https://doi.org/10.1007/s12036-017-9506-1. Review. Study of X-ray transients with Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard. AstroSat. M. C. RAMADEVI1,∗. , B. T. RAVISHANKAR1, ABHILASH R. SARWADE1, S. VAISHALI1,. NIRMAL KUMAR IYER1, ANUJ NANDI1, V. GIRISH1, VIVEK KUMAR AGARWAL1,.

  1. The mirror module design for the cryogenic x-ray imaging spectrometer on-board ORIGIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Marco; Mineo, Teresa; Basso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    environments, from the first population III stars at z > 7 to the present large scale structures. The main instrument on-board ORIGIN will be a large format array of TES X-ray micro-calorimeters covering a FOV of 30' at the focal plane of a grazing incidence optical module with a focal length of 2.5 m...

  2. The CFRP primary structure of the MIRI instrument onboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J

    2004-01-01

    The design of the Primary Structure of the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) onboard the NASA/ESA James Webb Space Telescope will be presented. The main design driver is the energy flow from the 35 K "hot" satellite interface to the 7 K "cold" MIRI interface. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP...

  3. CALIBRATION OF MODIFIED LIULIN DETECTOR FOR COSMIC RADIATION MEASUREMENTS ON-BOARD AIRCRAFT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselová, Dagmar; Ambrožová, Iva; Krist, Pavel; Kubančák, Ján; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Ploc, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 489-492 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Liulin detector * on-board aircraft * cosmic radiation measurement Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  4. Forbush decrease effects on radiation dose received on-board aeroplanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantos, P.

    2005-01-01

    Doses received on-board aeroplanes during deep Forbush decreases (FDs) have been recently measured and published. Using an operational model of dose calculation, the effects on aviation dose of the FDs observed from 1981 to 2003 using neutron monitors are studied and a simplified method to estimate dose variations from galactic cosmic ray variations during FDs is derived. (authors)

  5. On-board conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, H.; Heinzelmann, G.; Struis, R.; Stucki, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether was investigated for application on-board a methanol fuelled vehicle. Several catalysts have been tested in a fixed bed reactor. Our approach is to develop a small and efficient reactor converting liquid MeOH under pressure and at low reaction temperatures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  6. GEROS-ISS: GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Cardellach, Estel; Bandeiras, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    GEROS-ISS stands for GNSS REflectometry, radio occultation, and scatterometry onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is a scientific experiment, successfully proposed to the European Space Agency in 2011. The experiment as the name indicates will be conducted on the ISS. The main focus...

  7. 77 FR 28772 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... determined that onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) technology is in widespread use throughout the motor... systems at gasoline dispensing facilities in nonattainment areas classified as Serious and above for the...-dispensing facilities (GDFs) in up to 19 states and the District of Columbia could seek to decommission and...

  8. 40 CFR 85.2222 - On-board diagnostic test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on-board diagnostic systems on 1996 and newer light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks shall consist... the unset readiness code(s) in question may be issued a passing certificate without being required to... lit malfunction indicator light (MIL) must be failed, though setting the unset readiness flags in...

  9. Recent cruise onboard R/V Sonne to the Carlsberg Ridge and the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.

    Ridge News 34 Vol. 17, 2008 natIonal neWs Recent cruise onboard R/V Sonne to the Carlsberg Ridge and the Andaman Sea The nIo-RVs2 cruise from 17 oct . - 1 Dec . 2007 was con- ducted as the second phase field program of the csIR (India) - network Program...

  10. Identifying Onboarding Heuristics for Free-to-Play Mobile Games: A Mixed Methods Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Ebdrup; Weigert Petersen, Falko; Mirza-Babaei, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    a set of heuristics for the design of onboarding phases in mobile games is presented. The heuristics are identified by a lab-based mixed-methods experiment, utilizing lightweight psycho-physiological measures together with self-reported player responses, across three titles that cross the genres...

  11. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    substantially by combining it with other technologies for automated, miniaturized, high-throughput biological measurements, such as fast sequencing, protein identification (proteomics) and metabolite profiling (metabolomics). Thus, the system can be integrated with other biomedical instruments in order to support and enhance telemedicine capability onboard ISS. NASA's mission includes sustained investment in critical research leading to effective countermeasures to minimize the risks associated with human spaceflight, and the use of appropriate technology to sustain space exploration at reasonable cost. Our integrated microarray technology is expected to fulfill these two critical requirements and to enable the scientific community to better understand and monitor the effects of the space environment on microorganisms and on the astronaut, in the process leveraging current capabilities and overcoming present limitations.

  12. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  13. Onboard diagnosis concepts for future vehicles. Fault diagnosis, energy and information management; Onboard-Diagnosekonzepte fuer zukuenftige Kraftfahrzeuge. Fehlerdiagnose, Energie- und Informationsmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeker, B.; Forchert, T. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The increase of electrical consumption in vehicles, makes the introduction of novel on-board-networks, along with integrated energy management necessary. In the future, besides the operation of standard electrical loads such as lamps, heatings and servo motors, a multitude of new functions for comfort will be desired. A part of these components already exists today in vehicles, in the form of a network of single applications, together with field buses. However, for future generations of vehicles, everything will still have to be calculated with a higher level of integration. Therefore, intelligent control, monitoring and diagnosis of on-board network components is essential. In future, mobile vehicle systems will result from the use of model based onboard diagnosis - systems and from the numerous advantages they hold over conventional diagnosis solutions. Optimised process chains along with integrated tool use, can ensure that an improvement in the depth of the diagnosis and in detailed fault information is attained. Together with a new diagnosis infrastructure in the area of customer service, and of vehicle services in the offboard area, customers acceptance and vehicle availability will be improved. (orig.) [German] Die Zunahme elektrischer Verbraucher im Kraftfahrzeug macht den Einsatz neuartiger Bordnetze mit integriertem Energiemanagement erforderlich. Neben dem Betrieb von elektrischen Standardverbrauchern wie Lampen, Heizungen und Stellmotoren werden in Zukunft eine Vielzahl neuer Komfortfunktionen verlangt. Ein Teil dieser Komponenten ist schon heute im Fahrzeug in Form von Inselloesungen mit Feldbussen vernetzt. Fuer zukuenftige Kraftfahrzeuggenerationen muss aber mit einem noch hoeheren Vernetzungsgrad gerechnet werden. Hierfuer wird eine intelligente Steuerung, Ueberwachung und Diagnose der Bordnetzkomponenten notwendig. In zukuenftigen mobilen Fahrzeugsystemen ergeben sich durch die Anwendung modellbasierter Onboard-Diagnosesysteme auch zahlreiche

  14. Wide-Field Gamma-Spectrometer BDRG: GRB Monitor On-Board the Lomonosov Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svertilov, S. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Amelushkin, A. M.; Barinova, V. O.; Galkin, V. I.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Petrov, V. L.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Lipunov, V. M.; Park, I. H.; Jeong, S.; Kim, M. B.

    2018-02-01

    The study of GRB prompt emissions (PE) is one of the main goals of the Lomonosov space mission. The payloads of the GRB monitor (BDRG) with the wide-field optical cameras (SHOK) and the ultra-fast flash observatory (UFFO) onboard the Lomonosov satellite are intended for the observation of GRBs, and in particular, their prompt emissions. The BDRG gamma-ray spectrometer is designed to obtain the temporal and spectral information of GRBs in the energy range of 10-3000 keV as well as to provide GRB triggers on several time scales (10 ms, 1 s and 20 s) for ground and space telescopes, including the UFFO and SHOK. The BDRG instrument consists of three identical detector boxes with axes shifted by 90° from each other. This configuration allows us to localize a GRB source in the sky with an accuracy of ˜ 2°. Each BDRG box contains a phoswich NaI(Tl)/CsI(Tl) scintillator detector. A thick CsI(Tl) crystal in size of \\varnothing 130 × 17 mm is placed underneath the NaI(Tl) as an active shield in the soft energy range and as the main detector in the hard energy range. The ratio of the CsI(Tl) to NaI(Tl) event rates at varying energies can be employed as an independent metric to distinguish legitimate GRB signals from false positives originating from electrons in near-Earth vicinities. The data from three detectors are collected in a BA BDRG information unit, which generates a GRB trigger and a set of data frames in output format. The scientific data output is ˜ 500 Mb per day, including ˜ 180 Mb of continuous data for events with durations in excess of 100 ms for 16 channels in each detector, detailed energy spectra, and sets of frames with ˜ 5 Mb of detailed information for each burst-like event. A number of pre-flight tests including those for the trigger algorithm and calibration were carried out to confirm the reliability of the BDRG for operation in space.

  15. Gamma-ray spectrometer onboard Chang'E-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T., E-mail: matao@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Key Laboratory of dark matter and space astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Chang, J.; Zhang, N.; Jian, W.; Cai, M.S.; Gong, Y.Z.; Tang, H.S.; Zhang, R.J.; Wang, N.S.; Yu, M.; Mao, J.P.; Hu, Y.M. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Key Laboratory of dark matter and space astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Xu, A.A.; Zhu, M.H. [MACAU University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Taipa, Macau (China)

    2013-10-21

    Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) is included in the payload of Chinese second lunar mission Chang'E-2 that has been launched in October 2010. Specific objectives of the GRS are to map abundance of O, Si, Fe, Ti, U, Th, K, and, perhaps, Mg, Al, and Ca, to depth of about 20 cm. The energy resolution and detection efficiency were improved compared with Chang'E-1 GRS. We will describe the design of GRS, which used LaBr{sub 3} for its main detector, and present its performance in this paper. Moreover, the initial result of Chang'E-2 GRS is reported.

  16. Robotics On-Board Trainer (ROBoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve; Alexander, Greg

    2013-01-01

    ROBoT is an on-orbit version of the ground-based Dynamics Skills Trainer (DST) that astronauts use for training on a frequent basis. This software consists of two primary software groups. The first series of components is responsible for displaying the graphical scenes. The remaining components are responsible for simulating the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), the Japanese Experiment Module Remote Manipulator System (JEMRMS), and the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) Free Flyer Robotics Operations. The MSS simulation software includes: Robotic Workstation (RWS) simulation, a simulation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), a simulation of the ISS Command and Control System (CCS), and a portion of the Portable Computer System (PCS) software necessary for MSS operations. These components all run under the CentOS4.5 Linux operating system. The JEMRMS simulation software includes real-time, HIL, dynamics, manipulator multi-body dynamics, and a moving object contact model with Tricks discrete time scheduling. The JEMRMS DST will be used as a functional proficiency and skills trainer for flight crews. The HTV Free Flyer Robotics Operations simulation software adds a functional simulation of HTV vehicle controllers, sensors, and data to the MSS simulation software. These components are intended to support HTV ISS visiting vehicle analysis and training. The scene generation software will use DOUG (Dynamic On-orbit Ubiquitous Graphics) to render the graphical scenes. DOUG runs on a laptop running the CentOS4.5 Linux operating system. DOUG is an Open GL-based 3D computer graphics rendering package. It uses pre-built three-dimensional models of on-orbit ISS and space shuttle systems elements, and provides realtime views of various station and shuttle configurations.

  17. Real-Time On-Board Airborne Demonstration of High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Davis, Mitchell J.; Adams, James K.; Bowen, Stephen C.; Fay, James J.; Hutchinson, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program since April, 2012. The HOPS team recently completed two flight campaigns during the summer of 2014 on two different aircrafts with two different science instruments. The first flight campaign was in July, 2014 based at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA on the NASA's HU-25 aircraft. The science instrument that flew with HOPS was Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) funded by NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The second campaign was in August, 2014 based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) in Palmdale, CA on the NASA's DC-8 aircraft. HOPS flew with the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) instrument developed by Excelis Inc. The goal of the campaigns was to perform an end-to-end demonstration of the capabilities of the HOPS prototype system (HOPS COTS) while running the most computationally intensive part of the ASCENDS algorithm real-time on-board. The comparison of the two flight campaigns and the results of the functionality tests of the HOPS COTS are presented in this paper.

  18. Process for Upgrading Cognitive Assessment Capabilities Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picano, J. J.; Seaton, K. A.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Spaceflight poses varied and unique risks to the brain and cognitive functioning including radiation exposure, sleep disturbance, fatigue, fluid shifts (increased intracranial pressure), toxin exposure, elevated carbon dioxide, and traumatic brain injury, among others. These potential threats to cognitive functioning are capable of degrading performance and compromising mission success. Furthermore, the threats may increase in severity, and new types of threats may emerge for longer duration exploration missions. This presentation will describe the process used to identify gaps in our current approach, evaluate best practices in cognitive assessment, and transition new cognitive assessment tools to operational use. OVERVIEW: Risks to brain health and performance posed by spaceflight missions require sensitive tools to assess cognitive functioning of astronauts in flight. The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is the automated cognitive assessment tool currently deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS). WinSCAT provides astronauts and flight surgeons with objective data to monitor neurocognitive functioning. WinSCAT assesses 5 discrete cognitive domains, is sensitive to changes in cognitive functioning, and was designed to be completed in less than 15 minutes. However, WinSCAT does not probe other areas of cognitive functioning that might be important to mission success. Researchers recently have developed batteries that may expand current capabilities, such as increased sensitivity to subtle fluctuations in cognitive functioning. Therefore, we engaged in a systematic process review in order to improve upon our current capabilities and incorporate new advances in cognitive assessment. This process included a literature review on newer measures of neurocognitive assessment, surveys of operational flight surgeons at NASA regarding needs and gaps in our capabilities, and expert panel review of candidate cognitive

  19. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, S. E.; Lehman, J. R.; Frazier, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400degC. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  20. International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) Onboard Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research with the international partners. The participating space agencies included: NASA, the 14-nation European Space Agency (ESA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the French National Center of Space Studies (CNES), the German Space Agency and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DAR/DLR), and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Dedicated to the study of life and materials sciences in microgravity, the IML missions explored how life forms adapt to weightlessness and investigated how materials behave when processed in space. Both life and materials sciences benefited from the extended periods of microgravity available inside the Spacelab science module in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. In this photograph, Astronauts Stephen S. Oswald and Norman E. Thagard handle ampoules used in the Mercuric Iodide Crystal Growth (MICG) experiment. Mercury Iodide crystals have practical uses as sensitive x-ray and gamma-ray detectors. In addition to their exceptional electronic properties, these crystals can operate at room temperature rather than at the extremely low temperatures usually required by other materials. Because a bulky cooling system is urnecessary, these crystals could be useful in portable detector devices for nuclear power plant monitoring, natural resource prospecting, biomedical applications in diagnosis and therapy, and astronomical observation. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, IML-1 was launched on January 22, 1992 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery (STS-42 mission).

  1. On-board TLD measurements on MIR and ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Pazmandi, T.; Benton, E. R.; Reitz, G.; Akatov, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from dosimetric measurements made aboard the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS) using the Pille portable thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) system. This paper includes the dosimetry mapping and automatic readout (trapped and untrapped components) results from Mir and ISS. The mean dose rate in 2001-2003 was 7 μGy h -1 . Using the hourly measuring period in automatic mode, doses from both galactic (independent of South Atlantic Anomaly - SAA) and SAA components were determined during Euromir'95 experiment. The mean total dose rate was 12.5 μGy h -1 , while the SAA contribution was 6.2 μGy h -1 . A similar measurement was performed on ISS in 2001 and in 2003. Both the manual and automatic measurements show a significant decrease in dose rate in 2001 in comparison to 1995-1997 due to the change in solar activity. For determination of the high linear energy transfer contribution from the radiation field during the ISS mapping experiment, three CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) were co-located with each TL detector. Analysis of the combined TLD and PNTD measurements showed a typical mean TLD efficiency of 84%, a dose contribution -1 of 17%, and an average quality factor of 1.95. (authors)

  2. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  3. The MicrOmega Investigation Onboard Hayabusa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, J.-P.; Hamm, V.; Langevin, Y.; Pilorget, C.; Arondel, A.; Bouzit, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Darié, A.; Evesque, C.; Hansotte, J.; Gardien, V.; Gonnod, L.; Leclech, J.-C.; Meslier, L.; Redon, T.; Tamiatto, C.; Tosti, S.; Thoores, N.

    2017-07-01

    MicrOmega is a near-IR hyperspectral microscope designed to characterize in situ the texture and composition of the surface materials of the Hayabusa2 target asteroid. MicrOmega is implemented within the MASCOT lander (Ho et al. in Space Sci. Rev., 2016, this issue, doi:10.1007/s11214-016-0251-6). The spectral range (0.99-3.65 μm) and the spectral sampling (20 cm^{-1}) of MicrOmega have been chosen to allow the identification of most potential constituent minerals, ices and organics, within each 25 μm pixel of the 3.2× 3.2 mm2 FOV. Such an unprecedented characterization will (1) enable the identification of most major and minor phases, including the potential organic phases, and ascribe their mineralogical context, as a critical set of clues to decipher the origin and evolution of this primitive body, and (2) provide the ground truth for the orbital measurements as well as a reference for the analyses later performed on returned samples.

  4. Nanoporous Materials for the Onboard Storage of Natural Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Preuss, Kathrin; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2017-02-08

    Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources. Internal combustion engines (ignited or compression) require only slight modifications for use with natural gas; rather, the main problem is the relatively short driving distance of natural-gas-powered vehicles due to the lack of an appropriate storage method for the gas, which has a low energy density. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set some targets for NG storage capacity to obtain a reasonable driving range in automotive applications, ruling out the option of storing methane at cryogenic temperatures. In recent years, both academia and industry have foreseen the storage of natural gas by adsorption (ANG) in porous materials, at relatively low pressures and ambient temperatures, as a solution to this difficult problem. This review presents recent developments in the search for novel porous materials with high methane storage capacities. Within this scenario, both carbon-based materials and metal-organic frameworks are considered to be the most promising materials for natural gas storage, as they exhibit properties such as large surface areas and micropore volumes, that favor a high adsorption capacity for natural gas. Recent advancements, technological issues, advantages, and drawbacks involved in natural gas storage in these two classes of materials are also summarized. Further, an overview of the recent developments and technical challenges in storing natural gas as hydrates in wetted porous carbon materials is also included

  5. Hyperspectral Feature Detection Onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft using Superpixel Segmentation and Endmember Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Bornstein, Benjamin; Bue, Brian D.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We present a demonstration of onboard hyperspectral image processing with the potential to reduce mission downlink requirements. The system detects spectral endmembers and then uses them to map units of surface material. This summarizes the content of the scene, reveals spectral anomalies warranting fast response, and reduces data volume by two orders of magnitude. We have integrated this system into the Autonomous Science craft Experiment for operational use onboard the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Spacecraft. The system does not require prior knowledge about spectra of interest. We report on a series of trial overflights in which identical spacecraft commands are effective for autonomous spectral discovery and mapping for varied target features, scenes and imaging conditions.

  6. Alternative methods of fuel consumption metering based on the on-board diagnostics outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čupera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes alternative methods of fuel consumption measurement based on model with using the diagnostic outputs of engine control unit. On-board diagnosis (the second level, known as OBD-2 has been mandated by government regulation because of advanced damage control systems in newer cars. However, its signals can be used for accurate analyses of power or torque measurement. On-board diagnostics offers many various parameters such a spark advance, intake air temperature, coolant temperature, throttle position, air flow mass and so on. Many of them have been unavailable without using sophisticated and expensive instrumentation. In the article are described two ways of fuel consumption measuring which are based on intake air consumption and knowledge about air-fuel ratio. First of them is founded on voltage output of oxygen sensor, the second on short (long term fuel trim. As is shown at the end the second way gives more accurately results.

  7. Discussion on the kinematic orbit determination by the onboard GPS zero-differential phase observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zuo-Ya; Cai, Wu-San; Huang, Cheng; Cheng, Zong-Yi; Fegn, Chu-Gang

    2005-03-01

    Based on the geometric, dynamic and reduced dynamic precise orbit determination (POD), a kinematic POD by the onboard GPS zero-differential phase observations was discussed and programmed. It applies the observations of GPS receive onboard LEO (Low Earth Orbit) and the precise GPS ephemeris of IGS rather than the complicated dynamic models and ground observations. It is simple and convenient in computation, rapid and precise in orbit determination and could provide estimations of some dynamic parameters too. However, it is unable to predict the orbit. The coefficient matrix of the normal equation is very huge and so in its reverse it is divided into sub-matrixes and then is transformed into upper-triangular. As an example of application of this new method the CHAMP data are analyzed in order to estimate the precision of POD.

  8. The nutrient load from food waste generated onboard ships in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilewska-Bien, Magda; Granhag, Lena; Andersson, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The combination of the sensitive characteristics of the Baltic Sea and the intense maritime traffic makes the marine environment vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. The theoretical scenario calculated in this study shows that the annually generated food waste onboard ships in traffic in the Baltic Sea contains about 182tonnes of nitrogen and 34tonnes of phosphorus. Today, all food waste generated onboard can be legally discharged into the marine environment at a distance of 12NM from the nearest land. The annual load of nitrogen contained in the food waste corresponds to 52% of load of nitrogen from the ship-generated sewage. Future regulations for sewage discharge in the Baltic Sea will require significant reduction of total nitrogen and phosphorus released. The contribution of nutrients from food waste compared to sewage will therefore be relatively larger in the future, if food waste still can be legally discharged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Artificial Neural Networks Applications: from Aircraft Design Optimization to Orbiting Spacecraft On-board Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the recent applications of artificial neural networks taken from various works performed by the authors over the last four years at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This paper focuses mainly on two areas. First, artificial neural networks application in design and optimization of aircraft/engine propulsion systems to shorten the overall design cycle. Out of that specific application, a generic design tool was developed, which can be used for most design optimization process. Second, artificial neural networks application in monitoring the microgravity quality onboard the International Space Station, using on-board accelerometers for data acquisition. These two different applications are reviewed in this paper to show the broad applicability of artificial intelligence in various disciplines. The intent of this paper is not to give in-depth details of these two applications, but to show the need to combine different artificial intelligence techniques or algorithms in order to design an optimized or versatile system.

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ON-BOARD FISHING VESSEL HANDLING IN MERLUCCIUS MERLUCCIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Serratore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of different manipulation techniques applied on board fishing vessel, on the microbiological quality of the flesh of European hake (Merluccius merluccius during storage at +3°C ± 1°C for a time (T of 10 days after landing (T1-T10. Samples of fish were taken from a fishing vessel of the Adriatic Sea and from one of the Tyrrhenian Sea, treated on-board under different icing conditions: 1 a low ice/product weight ratio and 2 an optimal ice/product weight ratio, up to 1:3 (3. Spoilage bacteria as Total Bacterial Count (TBC and specific spoilage bacteria as Sulphide Producing Bacteria (SPB were enumerated in fish flesh as Colony Forming Units (CFU/g on Plate Count Agar and Lyngby Agar at 20°C for 3-5 days. TBC of the Adriatic fishes (gutted on-board resulted 103 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 104-105 at T10, whereas TBC of the Tyrrhenian fishes (not gutted on-board resulted 10-102 UFC/g at T2- T3, 103 at T6, and 104-105 at T10. SPB resulted 10- 102 UFC/g at T1-T6, and 103- 104 at T10, with absolute values higher in the Adriatic fishes, in respect with the Tyrrhenian fishes, and in the low icing conditions in respect with the optimal icing condition. At the experimented condition, the lowering of the microbiological quality of fish flesh during storage, seems to be more dependent on the gutting versus not gutting on-board practice rather than on the low versus optimal icing treatment.

  11. First in-Flight Radiometric Calibration of MUX and WFI on-Board CBERS-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Pinto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil and China have a long-term joint space based sensor program called China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS. The most recent satellite of this program (CBERS-4 was successfully launched on 7 December 2014. This work describes a complete procedure, along with the associated uncertainties, used to calculate the in-flight absolute calibration coefficients for the sensors Multispectral Camera (MUX and Wide-Field Imager (WFI on-board CBERS-4. Two absolute radiometric calibration techniques were applied: (i reflectance-based approach and (ii cross-calibration method. A specific site at Algodones Dunes region located in the southwestern portion of the United States of America was used as a reference surface. Radiometric ground and atmospheric measurements were carried out on 9 March 2015, when CBERS-4 passed over the region. In addition, a cross-calibration between both MUX and WFI on-board CBERS-4 and the Operational Land Imager (OLI on-board Landsat-8 was performed using the Libya-4 Pseudo Invariant Calibration Site. The gain coefficients are now available: 1.68, 1.62, 1.59 and 1.42 for MUX and 0.379, 0.498, 0.360 and 0.351 for WFI spectral bands blue, green, red and NIR, respectively, in units of (W/(m2·sr·μm/DN. These coefficients were determined with uncertainties lower than 3.5%. As a validation of these radiometric coefficients, cross-calibration was also undertaken. An evaluation of radiometric consistency was performed between the two instruments (MUX and WFI on-board CBERS-4 and with the well calibrated Landsat-7 ETM+. Results show that the reflectance values match in all the analogous spectral bands within the specified calibration uncertainties.

  12. The Importance of Food Onboard: Attitudes Amongst Air Travellers In North-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Samuel; Jones, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This report investigates passenger attitudes towards on-board catering in North East Asia. The study is based upon a stratified sample of 374 respondents interviewed at Incheon International Airport (ICN) in Seoul, Korea and assesses the level of importance of in-flight food products in the context of short haul international flights. The data collected through these questionnaires showed that factors such as ticket price, destination and various passenger demographics had an effect on...

  13. Compact Ocean Models Enable Onboard AUV Autonomy and Decentralized Adaptive Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ocean modeling and assimilation system that can be deployed on-board of an underwater vehicle. The developed system estimates a synoptic picture of...Award Number: N00014-10-1-0424 LONG-TERM GOALS Improve synoptic observations and enhance ocean prediction through development of new...ability of mobile agents to respond adaptively by providing them with a synoptic realization of the environment in the form of compact models of the

  14. Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard the Chang'e-3 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Guang-You; Zhou Bin; Ji Yi-Cai; Zhang Qun-Ying; Shen Shao-Xiang; Li Yu-Xi; Guan Hong-Fei; Tang Chuan-Jun; Gao Yun-Ze; Lu Wei; Ye Sheng-Bo; Han Hai-Dong; Zheng Jin; Wang Shu-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of the important scientific instruments onboard the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. Its scientific goals are the mapping of lunar regolith and detection of subsurface geologic structures. This paper describes the goals of the mission, as well as the basic principles, design, composition and achievements of the LPR. Finally, experiments on a glacier and the lunar surface are analyzed

  15. STS-47 crew poses for Official onboard (in space) portrait in SLJ module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 crewmembers assemble for their traditional onboard (in-flight) portrait in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Left to right (front) are Mission Specialist N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri; and (rear) Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, MS Jerome Apt, Commander Robert L. Gibson, and MS Mae C. Jemison.

  16. Bifurcation Analysis of a Non-linear On-Board Rotor-Bearing System

    OpenAIRE

    Dakel, M. Zaki; Baguet, Sébastien; Dufour, Régis

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The non-linear dynamic behavior of an on-board rotor mounted on hydrodynamic journal bearings and subject to rigid base excitations is investigated in this work. The proposed finite element rotor model takes into account the geometric asymmetry of shaft and/or rigid disk and considers six types of base deterministic motions (rotations and translations) and non-linear fluid film forces obtained from the Reynoldsequation. The equations of motion contain time-varying para...

  17. Investigation on the Dynamics of an On-Board Rotor-Bearing System

    OpenAIRE

    Dakel, M. Zaki; Baguet, Sébastien; Dufour, Régis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In ship and aircraft turbine rotors, the rotating mass unbalance and the different movements of the rotor base are among the main causes of vibrations in bending. The goal of this paper is to investigate the dynamic behavior of an on-board rotor under rigid base excitations. The modeling takes into consideration six types of base deterministic motions (rotations and translations) when the kinetic and strain energies in addition to the virtual work of the rotating flexi...

  18. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang; Harrison, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A new development of on-board data processing platform has been in progress at NASA Langley Research Center since April, 2012, and the overall review of such work is presented in this paper. The project is called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) and focuses on a high-speed scalable data processing platform for three particular National Research Council's Decadal Survey missions such as Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE), and Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) 3-D Winds. HOPS utilizes advanced general purpose computing with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based algorithm implementation techniques. The significance of HOPS is to enable high speed on-board data processing for current and future science missions with its reconfigurable and scalable data processing platform. A single HOPS processing board is expected to provide approximately 66 times faster data processing speed for ASCENDS, more than 70% reduction in both power and weight, and about two orders of cost reduction compared to the state-of-the-art (SOA) on-board data processing system. Such benchmark predictions are based on the data when HOPS was originally proposed in August, 2011. The details of these improvement measures are also presented. The two facets of HOPS development are identifying the most computationally intensive algorithm segments of each mission and implementing them in a FPGA-based data processing board. A general introduction of such facets is also the purpose of this paper.

  19. Spaceflight Systems Training: A Comparison and Contrasting of Techniques for Training Ground Operators and Onboard Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, Clinton; Fleming, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When developing techniques and products for instruction on manned spaceflight systems, training organizations are often faced with two very different customers: ground operators and onboard crewmembers. Frequently, instructional development focuses on one of these customers with the assumption that the other s needs will be met by default. Experience teaches us that differing approaches are required when developing training tailored to the specific needs of each customer. As a rule, ground operators require focused instruction on specific areas of expertise. Their knowledge should be of the details of the hardware, software, and operational techniques associated with that system. They often benefit from historical knowledge of how their system has operated over its lifetime. Since several different ground operators may be interfacing with the same system, each individual operator must understand the agreed-to principles by which that system will be run. In contrast, onboard crewmembers require a more broad, hands-on awareness of their operational environment. Their training should be developed with an understanding of the physical environment in which they live and work and the day-to-day tasks they are most likely to perform. Rarely do they require a deep understanding of the details of a system; it is often sufficient to teach them just enough to maintain situational awareness and perform basic tasks associated with maintenance and operation of onboard systems. Crewmembers may also develop unique onboard operational techniques that differ from preceding crews. They should be taught what flexibility they have in systems operations and how their specific habits can be communicated to ground support personnel. This paper will explore the techniques that can be employed when developing training for these unique customers. We will explore the history of International Space Station training development and how past efforts can guide us in creating training for users of

  20. Trend modelling of wave parameters and application in onboard prediction of ship responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, J. Juncher

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a trend analysis for prediction of sea state parameters onboard shipsduring voyages. Given those parameters, a JONSWAP model and also the transfer functions, prediction of wave induced ship responses are thus made. The procedure is tested with full-scale data of an in-service...... container ship. Comparison between predictions and the actual measurements, implies a good agreementin general. This method can be an efficient way to improve decision support on board ships....

  1. Study of X-ray transients with Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. C. RAMADEVI

    2018-02-10

    Feb 10, 2018 ... Abstract. Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard AstroSat is an X-ray sky monitor in the energy range 2.5–. 10keV. SSM scans the sky for X-ray transient sources in this energy range of interest. If an X-ray transient source is detected in outburst by SSM, the information will be provided to the astronomical ...

  2. On-Board Relative Bearing Estimation for Teams of Drones Using Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Basiri, Meysam; Schill, Felix Stephan; Lima, Pedro; Floreano, Dario

    2016-01-01

    In a team of autonomous drones, individual knowledge about the relative location of teammates is essential. Existing relative positioning solutions for teams of small drones mostly rely on external systems such as motion tracking cameras or GPS satellites that might not always be accessible. In this letter, we describe an onboard solution to measure the 3-D relative direction between drones using sound as the main source of information. First, we describe a method to measure the directions of...

  3. Solid and hazardous waste management practices onboard ocean going vessels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Yeddanapudi V R P P

    2012-01-01

    Shipping or carriage of goods play an important role in the development of human societies and international shipping industry, which carries 90% of the world trade, is the life blood of global economy. During ships operational activity a number of solid and hazardous wastes, also referred as garbage are produced from galleys, crew cabins and engine/deck departments stores. This review provides an overview of the current practices onboard and examines the evidence that links waste management plan regulations to shipping trade. With strict compliance to International Maritime Organization's MARPOL regulations, which prevents the pollution of sea from ships various discharges, well documented solid and hazardous waste management practices are being followed onboard ships. All ship board wastes are collected, segregated, stored and disposed of in appropriate locations, in accordance with shipping company's environmental protection policy and solid and hazardous waste management plan. For example, food residues are ground onboard and dropped into the sea as fish food. Cardboard and the like are burned onboard in incinerators. Glass is sorted into dark/light and deposited ashore, as are plastics, metal, tins, batteries, fluorescent tubes, etc. The residue from plastic incineration which is still considered as plastic is brought back to shore for disposal. New targets are being set up to reduce the volume of garbage generated and disposed of to shore facilities, and newer ships are using baling machines which compress cardboard etc into bales to be taken ashore. The garbage management and its control system work as a 'continual improvement' process to achieve new targets.

  4. Non-symmetric membership function for Fuzzy-based visual servoing onboard a UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Martínez Luna, Carol Viviana; Mondragon Bernal, Ivan Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the definition of non-symmetric membership function for Fuzzy controllers applied to a pan & tilt vision platform onboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. This improvement allows the controllers to have a more adaptive behavior to the non-linearities presented in an UAV. This implementation allows the UAV to follow objects in the environment by using Lucas-Kanade visual tracker, in spite of the aircraft vibrations, the movements of the objects and the aircraft, update has been ...

  5. TH-C-17A-12: Integrated CBCT and Optical Tomography System On-Board a Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K; Zhang, B; Eslami, S; Iordachita, I; Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Patterson, M [Hamilton Regional Cancer Ctr., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We present a newly developed on-board optical tomography system for SARRP. Innovative features include the compact design and fast acquisition optical method to perform 3D soft tissue radiation guidance. Because of the on-board feature and the combination of the CBCT, diffusive optical tomography (DOT), bioluminescence and fluorescence tomography (BLT and FT), this integrated system is expected to provide more accurate soft tissue guidance than an off-line system as well as highly sensitive functional imaging in preclinical research. Methods: Images are acquired in the order of CBCT, DOT and then BLT/FT, where the SARRP CBCT and DOT are used to provide the anatomical and optical properties information to enhance the subsequent BLT/FT optical reconstruction. The SARRP stage is redesigned to include 9 imbedded optical fibers in contact with the animal's skin. These fibers, connected to a white light lamp or laser, serve as the light sources for the DOT or FT, respectively. A CCD camera with f/1.4 lens and multi-spectral filter set is used as the optical detector and is mounted on a portable cart ready to dock into the SARRP. No radiation is delivered during optical image acquisition. A 3-way mirror system capable of 180 degree rotation around the animal reflects the optical signal to the camera at multiple projection angles. A special black-painted dome covers the stage and provides the light shielding. Results: Spontaneous metastatic bioluminescent liver and lung tumor models will be used to validate the 3D BLT reconstruction. To demonstrate the capability of our FT system, GastroSense750 fluorescence agent will be used to imaging the mouse stomach and intestinal region in 3D. Conclusion: We expect that this integrated CBCT and optical tomography on-board a SARRP will present new research opportunities for pre-clinical radiation research. Supported by NCI RO1-CA 158100.

  6. Stationary and on-board storage systems to enhance energy and cost efficiency of tramways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraolo, M.; Lutzemberger, G.

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays road transportation contributes in a large amount to the urban pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. One solution in urban environment, also in order to mitigate the effects of traffic jams, is the use of tramways. The most important bonus comes from the inherent reversibility of electric drives: energy can be sent back to the electricity source, while braking the vehicle. This can be done installing some storage device on-board trains, or in one or more points of the supply network. This paper analyses and compares the following variants: Stationary high-power lithium batteries. Stationary supercapacitors. High-power lithium batteries on-board trains. Supercapacitors on-board trains. When the storage system is constituted by a supercapacitor stack, it is mandatory to interpose between it and the line a DC/DC converter. On the contrary, the presence of the converter can be avoided, in case of lithium battery pack. This paper will make an evaluation of all these configurations, in a realistic case study, together with a cost/benefit analysis.

  7. CNES studies for on-board compression of high-resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut, Carole; Delaunay, Xavier; Latry, Christophe; Moury, Gilles

    2008-08-01

    Future high resolution instruments planned by CNES for space remote sensing missions will lead to higher bit rates because of the increase in resolution and dynamic range. For example, the ground resolution improvement induces a data rate multi-plied by 8 from SPOT4 to SPOT5 and by 28 to PLEIADES-HR. Lossy data compression with low complexity algorithms is then needed since compression ratio are always higher. New image compression algorithms have been used to increase their compression performance while complying with image quality requirements from the community of users and experts. Thus, DPCM algorithm used on-board SPOT4 was replaced by a DCT-based compressor on-board SPOT5. Recent compression algorithms such as PLEIADES-HR one use a wavelet-transform and a bit-plane encoder. But future compressors will have to be more powerful to reach higher compression ratios. New transforms are studied by CNES to exceed the DWT but a per-formance gap could be obtained with selective compression. This article gives an overview of CNES past and present studies of on-board compression algorithms for high-resolution images.

  8. Onboard autonomous mission re-planning for multi-satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zixuan; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an onboard autonomous mission re-planning system for Multi-Satellites System (MSS) to perform onboard re-planing in disruptive situations. The proposed re-planning system can deal with different potential emergency situations. This paper uses Multi-Objective Hybrid Dynamic Mutation Genetic Algorithm (MO-HDM GA) combined with re-planning techniques as the core algorithm. The Cyclically Re-planning Method (CRM) and the Near Real-time Re-planning Method (NRRM) are developed to meet different mission requirements. Simulations results show that both methods can provide feasible re-planning sequences under unforeseen situations. The comparisons illustrate that using the CRM is average 20% faster than the NRRM on computation time. However, by using the NRRM more raw data can be observed and transmitted than using the CRM within the same period. The usability of this onboard re-planning system is not limited to multi-satellite system. Other mission planning and re-planning problems related to autonomous multiple vehicles with similar demands are also applicable.

  9. Long-term monitoring of air crew exposure onboard of Czech Airlines aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Ploc, O.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First, the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. In the period May-December 2005, 494 individual flights have been followed using MDU-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. The results of measurements are analyzed and compared with those of calculation performed with CARI6 and EPCARD3.2 codes. Monitoring period represented about 4.6 times more than usual annual engagement of an aircrew (600 hours). Total effective dose during these 2 755 hours was between Il and 12 mSv, following the considered method of evaluation. Both the measuring and calculation methods correlate well. This fact leads to confirmation of the routine method evaluating the level of aircraft crew exposure using CARI6 code as correct for this purpose. Second, the results of individual monitoring of aircrew members obtained during few last years by this routine method are presented; general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. The contribution of aircrew exposure to total occupational exposure in the Czech Republic represents about 20%. (authors)

  10. Data Timing, Time Transfer and On-board Clock Monitoring for Space Astrometry with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klioner, Sergei A.; Geyer, Robin; Steidelmüller, Hagen; Butkevich, Alexey G.

    2017-11-01

    The paper discusses the problematic of data timing in the framework of the space astrometry mission Gaia. For various reasons related both to astrometry and to the measuring principles of the Gaia instrument it is mandatory to assign a highly stable and accurate time tag for each observational point. For this purpose Gaia has a Rb clock on board. That on-board clock is a free-running oscillator and must be regularly synchronized with TCB which is used as the underlying relativistic coordinate time scale in the whole Gaia data processing. To monitor the reading of the on-board clock with respect to TCB (or any other timescale) a one-way clock synchronization scheme is implemented. This scheme takes into account all known theoretical effects (e.g., relativity, tropospheric delay, etc.) and allows one both to monitor the health of the on-board clock and to create a clock model at the accuracy of better than 1 microsecond.

  11. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) onboard the HALO research aircraft during OMO-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Layal; Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on first results of VOC measurements during the OMO-Asia campaign that took place in summer 2015 on Cyprus and on the island of Gan (Maldives) to study the free-radical chemistry at higher altitudes during the Asian summer monsoon. The deployed instrument (KMS = Karlsruhe Mass Spectrometer) is based on a commercial PTRMS from Ionicon and was strongly modified for the use onboard the research aircraft HALO (a modified Gulfstream GV-550 having a ceiling altitude of ~15.5 km). By the construction of an aluminum vacuum system, the development of largely custom-made electronics and the use of light-weight pumps, the weight was reduced to ~55 kg compared to 120-130 kg of the commercial instrument. The KMS is in addition very robust and field-compliant. Before OMO-Asia the HALO payload was tested first during a technical field campaign OMO-EU which took place in Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) in winter 2015. During OMO-Asia the instrument was calibrated before and after each flight by diluting an external gas standard (Apel-Riemer Environmental, Inc. Denver, Colorado) containing ~1 ppm of 10 VOCs. The determined sensitivity for acetone was ~380 cps/ppb showing a variation of ±5% over a period of 8 weeks. The detection limit amounted to ~35 ppt for acetone at an integration time of 6 s. The measurements during all together 17 flights took place over a wide range of Asia, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman and Sri Lanka. Referring to the meteorological forecasts of carbon monoxide (CO), remnant of the Asia monsoon outflow was measured during some flights (e.g. over Oman). Acetone mixing ratios of up to ~1500 ppt and up to ~100 ppt of benzene were measured in the outflow of the plume. The gathered data shows a good correlation with the measurements taken with other instruments (e.g. CO measurements by Max Planck Institute for Chemistry). The poster will describe the instrument and the main features derived.

  12. Safeguard: Progress and Test Results for a Reliable Independent On-Board Safety Net for UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven D.; Dill, Evan T.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Gilabert, Russell V.

    2017-01-01

    As demands increase to use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a broad spectrum of commercial applications, regulatory authorities are examining how to safely integrate them without compromising safety or disrupting traditional airspace operations. For small UAS, several operational rules have been established; e.g., do not operate beyond visual line-of-sight, do not fly within five miles of a commercial airport, do not fly above 400 feet above ground level. Enforcing these rules is challenging for UAS, as evidenced by the number of incident reports received by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This paper reviews the development of an onboard system - Safeguard - designed to monitor and enforce conformance to a set of operational rules defined prior to flight (e.g., geospatial stay-out or stay-in regions, speed limits, and altitude constraints). Unlike typical geofencing or geo-limitation functions, Safeguard operates independently of the off-the-shelf UAS autopilot and is designed in a way that can be realized by a small set of verifiable functions to simplify compliance with existing standards for safety-critical systems (e.g. for spacecraft and manned commercial transportation aircraft systems). A framework is described that decouples the system from any other devices on the UAS as well as introduces complementary positioning source(s) for applications that require integrity and availability beyond what can be provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS). This paper summarizes the progress and test results for Safeguard research and development since presentation of the design concept at the 35th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC '16). Significant accomplishments include completion of software verification and validation in accordance with NASA standards for spacecraft systems (to Class B), development of improved hardware prototypes, development of a simulation platform that allows for hardware-in-the-loop testing and fast-time Monte Carlo

  13. Calibration of the Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXT) Onboard the ASTRO-H Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before landing on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 m, 229 m, and 305 m of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 m. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), FM1 or FM2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests were carried out, and optical quality of the telescopes has been confirmed. The optical and x-ray calibrations also include

  14. Network-based Parallel Retrieval Onboard Computing Environment for Sensor Systems Deployed on NASA Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions proposes to develop the Network-based Parallel Retrieval Onboard Computing Environment for Sensor Systems (nPROCESS) for deployment on...

  15. Development and Implementation of New Control Law for Vision Based Target Tracking System Onboard Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chong, Tay B

    2006-01-01

    ...) system onboard a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV). The new control law allows for coordinated SUAV guidance and vision-based target tracking of stationary and moving targets in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and measurements noise...

  16. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...... controllers. Local controllers implement these functions, which include PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, battery charging/discharging control, voltage control of DC bus for high-frequency inverter, and onboard battery charging control. By optimizing and matching parameters of transmitting...

  17. Evaluation of Crew-Centric Onboard Mission Operations Planning and Execution Tool: Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenius, S.; Marquez, J.; Korth, D.; Rosenbaum, M.; Deliz, Ivy; Kanefsky, Bob; Zheng, Jimin

    2018-01-01

    Currently, mission planning for the International Space Station (ISS) is largely affected by ground operators in mission control. The task of creating a week-long mission plan for ISS crew takes dozens of people multiple days to complete, and is often created far in advance of its execution. As such, re-planning or adapting to changing real-time constraints or emergent issues is similarly taxing. As we design for future mission operations concepts to other planets or areas with limited connectivity to Earth, more of these ground-based tasks will need to be handled autonomously by the crew onboard.There is a need for a highly usable (including low training time) tool that enables efficient self-scheduling and execution within a single package. The ISS Program has identified Playbook as a potential option. It already has high crew acceptance as a plan viewer from previous analogs and can now support a crew self-scheduling assessment on ISS or on another mission. The goals of this work, a collaboration between the Human Research Program and the ISS Program, are to inform the design of systems for more autonomous crew operations and provide a platform for research on crew autonomy for future deep space missions. Our second year of the research effort have included new insights on the crew self-scheduling sessions performed by the crew through use on the HERA (Human Exploration Research Analog) and NEEMO (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) analogs. Use on the NEEMO analog involved two self-scheduling strategies where the crew planned and executed two days of EVAs (Extra-Vehicular Activities). On HERA year two represented the first HERA campaign where we were able to perform research tasks. This involved selected flexible activities that the crew could schedule, mock timelines where the crew completed more complex planning exercises, usability evaluation of the crew self-scheduling features, and more insights into the limit of plan complexity that the crew

  18. Control of the Onboard Microgravity Environment and Extension of the Service Life of the Long-Term Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of control of the on-board microgravity environment in order to extend the service life of the long-term space station has been discussed. Software developed for the ISS and the results of identifying dynamic models and external impacts based on telemetry data have been presented. Proposals for controlling the onboard microgravity environment for future long-term space stations have been formulated.

  19. Software design for the VIS instrument onboard the Euclid mission: a multilayer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pezzuto, S.; Liu, S. J.; Giusi, G.; Li Causi, G.; Farina, M.; Cropper, M.; Denniston, J.; Niemi, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Euclid mission scientific payload is composed of two instruments: a VISible Imaging Instrument (VIS) and a Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument (NISP). Each instrument has its own control unit. The Instrument Command and Data Processing Unit (VI-CDPU) is the control unit of the VIS instrument. The VI-CDPU is connected directly to the spacecraft by means of a MIL-STD-1553B bus and to the satellite Mass Memory Unit via a SpaceWire link. All the internal interfaces are implemented via SpaceWire links and include 12 high speed lines for the data provided by the 36 focal plane CCDs readout electronics (ROEs) and one link to the Power and Mechanisms Control Unit (VI-PMCU). VI-CDPU is in charge of distributing commands to the instrument sub-systems, collecting their housekeeping parameters and monitoring their health status. Moreover, the unit has the task of acquiring, reordering, compressing and transferring the science data to the satellite Mass Memory. This last feature is probably the most challenging one for the VI-CDPU, since stringent constraints about the minimum lossless compression ratio, the maximum time for the compression execution and the maximum power consumption have to be satisfied. Therefore, an accurate performance analysis at hardware layer is necessary, which could delay too much the design and development of software. In order to mitigate this risk, in the multilayered design of software we decided to design a middleware layer that provides a set of APIs with the aim of hiding the implementation of the HW connected layer to the application one. The middleware is built on top of the Operating System layer (which includes the Real-Time OS that will be adopted) and the onboard Computer Hardware. The middleware itself has a multi-layer architecture composed of 4 layers: the Abstract RTOS Adapter Layer (AOSAL), the Speci_c RTOS Adapter Layer (SOSAL), the Common Patterns Layer (CPL), the Service Layer composed of two subgroups which

  20. Wavelet-Transform-Based Power Management of Hybrid Vehicles with Multiple On-board Energy Sources Including Fuel Cell, Battery and Ultracapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-12

    considered to be promising for application as distributed generation sources due to high efficiency and compactness [1-2], [21-24]. The PEMFC is...also a primary candidate for environment-friendly vehicles. The nomenclatures of the PEMFC are as follows: B , C : Constants to calculate the...0 O H H-O H-O 1 2 N I q q r r FU = (10) The block diagram of the PEMFC model based on the above equations is shown in Fig

  1. Lost in space: Onboard star identification using CCD star tracker data without an a priori attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, Eleanor A.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    There are many algorithms in use today which determine spacecraft attitude by identifying stars in the field of view of a star tracker. Some methods, which date from the early 1960's, compare the angular separation between observed stars with a small catalog. In the last 10 years, several methods have been developed which speed up the process and reduce the amount of memory needed, a key element to onboard attitude determination. However, each of these methods require some a priori knowledge of the spacecraft attitude. Although the Sun and magnetic field generally provide the necessary coarse attitude information, there are occasions when a spacecraft could get lost when it is not prudent to wait for sunlight. Also, the possibility of efficient attitude determination using only the highly accurate CCD star tracker could lead to fully autonomous spacecraft attitude determination. The need for redundant coarse sensors could thus be eliminated at substantial cost reduction. Some groups have extended their algorithms to implement a computation intense full sky scan. Some require large data bases. Both storage and speed are concerns for autonomous onboard systems. Neural network technology is even being explored by some as a possible solution, but because of the limited number of patterns that can be stored and large overhead, nothing concrete has resulted from these efforts. This paper presents an algorithm which, by descretizing the sky and filtering by visual magnitude of the brightness observed star, speeds up the lost in space star identification process while reducing the amount of necessary onboard computer storage compared to existing techniques.

  2. POD improvements of GALILEO satellites through the measurement of their non-gravitational accelerations by means of an onboard accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David M.; Santoli, Francesco; Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Lucente, Marco; Magnafico, Carmelo; Kalarus, Maciej; Zielinski, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Research Centre (SRC) of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) of Warsaw. The GALAC main objective is to provide the characteristics and performance of an onboard accelerometer able to improve the POD with respect to the current best results obtained through the modeling of the NGPs. The starting point of our activities has been the ISA accelerometer developed for the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. We will present our results of a preparatory work for GALAC concerning a first characterization of the main NGPs acting on the GALILEO spacecraft of second generation, including their (main) spectral content. Such results are used to preliminary fix the accelerometer measurement band, its sensitivity and physical characteristics in order to fit with the GALILEO spacecraft environment.

  3. On-board Model Predictive Control of a Quadrotor Helicopter: Design, Implementation, and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    experiments with an MPC controller for a quadrotor designed for inspections of a thermal power plant boiler. 1Parrot AR.Drone, http://ardrone2.parrot.com/ 1...Camera 1r Camera 12r ESC 1S ESC 4S WiFi APiFi ... On-board Quadrotor ... motors Figure A.1: High-level system diagram showing the main components...Roland Siegwart. 2012. “Aerial Service Robots for Visual Inspection of Thermal Power Plant Boiler Systems.” In 2nd Intl. Conf. on Applied Robotics for the

  4. Energy harvesting device for power generation onboard gravity-dropped weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Bridge, M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the development and construction of an energy harvesting device to provide a safe, reliable source of electrical energy onboard gravity-dropped weapons such as aerial bombs. The generators collect and store mechanical energy as the weapon falls away from the aircraft. Only after the weapon has fallen away from the aircraft is the stored mechanical energy released, generating electricity through a hybrid piezoelectric and electromagnetic generation method. The design, construction, and testing of the generator is discussed at length. Conceptual designs for integrating the described energy harvester alongside current and alternative sources of electrical power are also discussed.

  5. PW-Sat on-board flight computer, hardware and software design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdorf, Michal; Kurowski, Michal; Mosdorf, Lukasz; Cichocki, Andrzej; Mosdorf, Lukasz; Kocoń, Marcin

    2009-06-01

    Presented paper describes an inexpensive computer for CubeSat missions based on widely available commercial of-the-shelf components. Main requirements for the discussed project were: ability to handle satellite onboard data, platform flexibility and portability. Hardware design of the presented project is based on an ARM microcontroller that is able to run FreeRTOS real time kernel used as a base for software design. Presented project is a part of the PW-Sat satellite. It is scheduled to be launched during Vega maiden flight.

  6. Mapping distortion of detectors in UVIT onboard AstroSat observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, V.; Tandon, Shyam N.; Sriram, S.; Kumar, Amit; Postma, Joe

    2017-02-01

    Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) is one of the payloads onboard AstroSat, India's first multi-wavelength Astronomy mission. UVIT is primarily designed to make high resolution images in wide field, in three wavelength channels simultaneously: FUV (130-180 nm), NUV (200-300 nm) and VIS (320-550 nm). The intensified imagers used in UVIT suffer from distortions, and a correction is necessary for these to achieve good astrometry. In this article we describe the methodology and calculations used to estimate the distortions in ground calibrations.

  7. Radiation Environment in EARTH-MOON Space: Results from Radom Experiment Onboard CHANDRAYAAN-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadawale, S. V.; Goswami, J. N.; Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B. T.; Girish, V.

    2011-07-01

    The radiation monitor (RADOM) payload is a miniature dosimeter spectrometer onboard Chandrayaan-1 mission for monitoring the local radiation environment in near-Earth space and in lunar space. RADOM measured the total absorbed dose and spectrum of the deposited energy from high-energy particles in near-Earth space, en-route and in lunar orbit. RADOM was the first experiment to be switched on soon after the launch of Chandrayaan-1 and was operational till the end of the mission. This article summarizes the observations carried out by RADOM during the entire life time of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and some of the salient results.

  8. A concurrent on-board vision system for a mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Robot vision algorithms have been implemented on an 8-node NCUBE-AT hypercube system onboard a mobile robot (HERMIES) developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Images are digitized using a framegrabber mounted in a VME rack. Image processing and analysis are performed on the hypercube system. The vision system is integrated with robot navigation and control software, enabling the robot to find the front of a mockup control panel, move up to the panel, and read an analog meter. Among the concurrent algorithms used for image analysis are a new component labeling algorithm and a Hough transform algorithm with load balancing

  9. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  10. Future benefits and applications of intelligent on-board processing to VSAT services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Kwan, Robert K.; Edward, Ron; Faris, F.; Inukai, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The trends and roles of VSAT services in the year 2010 time frame are examined based on an overall network and service model for that period. An estimate of the VSAT traffic is then made and the service and general network requirements are identified. In order to accommodate these traffic needs, four satellite VSAT architectures based on the use of fixed or scanning multibeam antennas in conjunction with IF switching or onboard regeneration and baseband processing are suggested. The performance of each of these architectures is assessed and the key enabling technologies are identified.

  11. An onboard multi-channel demodulator LSI for regenerative SCPC satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Koichi; Kato, Shuzo

    This paper proposes a multichannel LSI demodulator with soft decision capability for onboard application. A prototype demodulator LSI which demodulates four 64 kb/s SCPC channels simultaneously has been fabricated by using CMOS masterslice technology for reduction of hardware and power consumption. The proposed LSI demodulator is composed of 14 k gates and consumes a power of 300 mW. Experimental results show that the prototype QPSK/OQPSK demodulator LSI has satisfactory Pe performance in conjunction with R = 1/2, K = 4 convolutional encoding and Viterbi decoding.

  12. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Joseph W.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Akhil, Abbas A.; Curgus, Dita B.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine proton exchange membrane fuel cells on-board commercial airplanes. ► We model the added fuel cell system’s effect on overall airplane performance. ► It is feasible to implement an on-board fuel cell system with current technology. ► Systems that maximize waste heat recovery are the best performing. ► Current PEM and H 2 storage technology results in an airplane performance penalty. -- Abstract: Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they could offer a performance advantage for the airplane when using today’s off-the-shelf technology. We also examine the effects of the fuel cell system on airplane performance with (1) different electrical loads, (2) different locations on the airplane, and (3) expected advances in fuel cell and hydrogen storage technologies. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic simulation, we found that an additional fuel cell system on a commercial airplane is technically feasible using current technology. Although applied to a Boeing 787-type airplane, the method presented is applicable to other airframes as well. Recovery and on-board use of the heat and water that is generated by the fuel cell is an important method to increase the benefit of such a system. The best performance is achieved when the fuel cell is coupled to a load that utilizes the full output of the fuel cell for the entire flight. The effects of location are small and location may be better determined by other considerations such as safety and modularity. Although the PEM fuel cell generates power more efficiently than the gas turbine generators currently used, when considering the effect of the fuel cell system on the airplane’s overall performance we found that an overall

  13. Validation of multi-channel scanning microwave radiometer onboard OCEANSAT - 1

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Harikrishnan, M.

    • ~ '. :.0- Proceedings ofCOT03, International Conference on Coastal and Ocean Technology, pp. 439-443 VALIDATION OF MULTI-CHANNEL SCANNING MICROWAVE RADIOMETER ONBOARD OCEANSAT - 1. P.M.Muraleedharan and T. Pankajakshan National Institute ofOceanography, Goa.... The 150 km grid is nearest in size to the spatial resolution of the 6.6 GHz channels. All the other frequency (and polarization) channels are generated in this grid (largest grid size). Hence this grid contains the geophysical data retrieved by. making use...

  14. On-board and Ground Visual Pose Estimation Techniques for UAV Control

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Luna, Carol Viviana; Mondragon Bernal, Ivan Fernando; Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Campoy Cervera, Pascual

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two techniques to control UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), based on visual information are presented. The first one is based on the detection and tracking of planar structures from an on-board camera, while the second one is based on the detection and 3D reconstruction of the position of the UAV based on an external camera system. Both strategies are tested with a VTOL (Vertical take-off and landing) UAV, and results show good behavior of the visual systems (precision in the es...

  15. New Material Overcomes a Long-Standing Challenge for Efficient, Onboard Storage of Hydrogen using Adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office

    2018-02-28

    The quest to develop a low cost material that efficiently stores hydrogen onboard fuel cell electric vehicles at low pressures and near room temperature has been pursued by U.S. Department of Energy since the early 2000s. This success story describes a recent early stage scientific breakthrough by researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that could open the door to achieving a material that offers a 300+ mile driving range with 5 minute refuels, while still only emitting water vapor at the tail pipe.

  16. Get Your Hotel Operations Team Onboard The Tricycle of Guest Service

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Doug

    2018-01-01

    As hospitality industry trainers know, using symbols and models can help trainees grasp abstract concepts and make seemingly-complex paradigms easy to understand. Seems like is a good time for the hotel industry to update its model, so let’s get your team onboard The Tricycle of Guest Service. When you think about it, a tricycle is a perfect model for a positive guest experience. For one, it has three wheels, just like the three components of a memorable guest stay. The back wheels repres...

  17. On-board imaging validation of optically guided stereotactic radiosurgery positioning system for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for paranasal sinus and skull base cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, Peter G; Loo, Billy W; Murphy, James D; Chu, Karen P M; Hsu, Annie; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-11-15

    To evaluate the positioning accuracy of an optical positioning system for stereotactic radiosurgery in a pilot experience of optically guided, conventionally fractionated, radiotherapy for paranasal sinus and skull base tumors. Before each daily radiotherapy session, the positioning of 28 patients was set up using an optical positioning system. After this initial setup, the patients underwent standard on-board imaging that included daily orthogonal kilovoltage images and weekly cone beam computed tomography scans. Daily translational shifts were made after comparing the on-board images with the treatment planning computed tomography scans. These daily translational shifts represented the daily positional error in the optical tracking system and were recorded during the treatment course. For 13 patients treated with smaller fields, a three-degree of freedom (3DOF) head positioner was used for more accurate setup. The mean positional error for the optically guided system in patients with and without the 3DOF head positioner was 1.4 ± 1.1 mm and 3.9 ± 1.6 mm, respectively (p 3DOF head positioner (p = .057). No positional drift was observed in the patients without the 3DOF head positioner. Our initial clinical experience with optically guided head-and-neck fractionated radiotherapy was promising and demonstrated clinical feasibility. The optically guided setup was especially useful when used in conjunction with the 3DOF head positioner and when it was recalibrated to the shifts using the weekly portal images. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-flux MFI-alumina hollow fibres: a membrane-based process for on-board CO2 capture from internal combustion vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    This work focuses on the conception and development of a membrane-based process for an on-board CO 2 capture/storage application. In a first part, we simulate an on-board CO 2 capture unit based on a membrane process for the case study of a heavy vehicle (≥3500 kg). This study includes an energy analysis of the impact of gas separation and compression on the required membrane surface and module volume, as well the autonomy of the storage unit and the energy overconsumption involved in the process. In a second part, we study the influence of the hollow-fibre support quality on the final intergrowth level of nano-composite MFI-alumina membranes. Special attention is devoted to the influence of the isomorphic substitution of silica by boron and germanium, and replacement of the counter-cation (proton) by other elements, on the CO 2 /N 2 separation and permeance properties. Next, a complete chapter has been devoted to the evaluation of the thermodynamic (adsorption) and kinetic (diffusion) parameters in the CO 2 /N 2 separation. Finally, we analyze the influence of standard pollutants (water, NO x , hydrocarbons) on the CO 2 separation properties of the synthesized membranes. (author)

  19. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, Saâdane; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2014-08-01

    On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO₂ were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm 2 ).

  1. Evaluation of on-board kV cone beam CT (CBCT)-based dose calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Schreibmann, Eduard; Li, Tianfang; Wang, Chuang; Xing, Lei

    2007-02-01

    On-board CBCT images are used to generate patient geometric models to assist patient setup. The image data can also, potentially, be used for dose reconstruction in combination with the fluence maps from treatment plan. Here we evaluate the achievable accuracy in using a kV CBCT for dose calculation. Relative electron density as a function of HU was obtained for both planning CT (pCT) and CBCT using a Catphan-600 calibration phantom. The CBCT calibration stability was monitored weekly for 8 consecutive weeks. A clinical treatment planning system was employed for pCT- and CBCT-based dose calculations and subsequent comparisons. Phantom and patient studies were carried out. In the former study, both Catphan-600 and pelvic phantoms were employed to evaluate the dosimetric performance of the full-fan and half-fan scanning modes. To evaluate the dosimetric influence of motion artefacts commonly seen in CBCT images, the Catphan-600 phantom was scanned with and without cyclic motion using the pCT and CBCT scanners. The doses computed based on the four sets of CT images (pCT and CBCT with/without motion) were compared quantitatively. The patient studies included a lung case and three prostate cases. The lung case was employed to further assess the adverse effect of intra-scan organ motion. Unlike the phantom study, the pCT of a patient is generally acquired at the time of simulation and the anatomy may be different from that of CBCT acquired at the time of treatment delivery because of organ deformation. To tackle the problem, we introduced a set of modified CBCT images (mCBCT) for each patient, which possesses the geometric information of the CBCT but the electronic density distribution mapped from the pCT with the help of a BSpline deformable image registration software. In the patient study, the dose computed with the mCBCT was used as a surrogate of the 'ground truth'. We found that the CBCT electron density calibration curve differs moderately from that of pCT. No

  2. Evaluation of on-board kV cone beam CT (CBCT)-based dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Schreibmann, Eduard; Li Tianfang; Wang Chuang; Xing Lei

    2007-01-01

    On-board CBCT images are used to generate patient geometric models to assist patient setup. The image data can also, potentially, be used for dose reconstruction in combination with the fluence maps from treatment plan. Here we evaluate the achievable accuracy in using a kV CBCT for dose calculation. Relative electron density as a function of HU was obtained for both planning CT (pCT) and CBCT using a Catphan-600 calibration phantom. The CBCT calibration stability was monitored weekly for 8 consecutive weeks. A clinical treatment planning system was employed for pCT- and CBCT-based dose calculations and subsequent comparisons. Phantom and patient studies were carried out. In the former study, both Catphan-600 and pelvic phantoms were employed to evaluate the dosimetric performance of the full-fan and half-fan scanning modes. To evaluate the dosimetric influence of motion artefacts commonly seen in CBCT images, the Catphan-600 phantom was scanned with and without cyclic motion using the pCT and CBCT scanners. The doses computed based on the four sets of CT images (pCT and CBCT with/without motion) were compared quantitatively. The patient studies included a lung case and three prostate cases. The lung case was employed to further assess the adverse effect of intra-scan organ motion. Unlike the phantom study, the pCT of a patient is generally acquired at the time of simulation and the anatomy may be different from that of CBCT acquired at the time of treatment delivery because of organ deformation. To tackle the problem, we introduced a set of modified CBCT images (mCBCT) for each patient, which possesses the geometric information of the CBCT but the electronic density distribution mapped from the pCT with the help of a BSpline deformable image registration software. In the patient study, the dose computed with the mCBCT was used as a surrogate of the 'ground truth'. We found that the CBCT electron density calibration curve differs moderately from that of pCT. No

  3. MERTIS: the thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, T.; Peter, G.; Walter, I.; Kopp, E.; Knollenberg, J.; Helbert, J.; Gebhardt, A.; Weber, I.; Hiesinger, Harry

    2017-11-01

    The MERTIS instrument is a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard of ESA's cornerstone mission BepiColombo to Mercury. MERTIS has four goals: the study of Mercury's surface composition, identification of rock-forming minerals, mapping of the surface mineralogy, and the study of the surface temperature variations and thermal inertia. MERTIS will provide detailed information about the mineralogical composition of Mercury's surface layer by measuring the spectral emittance in the spectral range from 7-14 μm at high spatial and spectral resolution. Furthermore MERTIS will obtain radiometric measurements in the spectral range from 7-40 μm to study the thermo-physical properties of the surface material. The MERTIS detector is based on an uncooled micro-bolometer array providing spectral separation and spatial resolution according to its 2-dimensional shape. The operation principle is characterized by intermediate scanning of the planet surface and three different calibration targets - free space view and two on-board black body sources. In the current project phase, the MERTIS Qualification Model (QM) is under a rigorous testing program. Besides a general overview of the instrument principles, the papers addresses major aspects of the instrument design, manufacturing and verification.

  4. Comparison of cosmic rays radiation detectors on-board commercial jet aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubančák, Ján; Ambrožová, Iva; Brabcová, Kateřina Pachnerová; Jakůbek, Jan; Kyselová, Dagmar; Ploc, Ondřej; Bemš, Július; Štěpán, Václav; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Aircrew members and passengers are exposed to increased rates of cosmic radiation on-board commercial jet aircraft. The annual effective doses of crew members often exceed limits for public, thus it is recommended to monitor them. In general, the doses are estimated via various computer codes and in some countries also verified by measurements. This paper describes a comparison of three cosmic rays detectors, namely of the (a) HAWK Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter; (b) Liulin semiconductor energy deposit spectrometer and (c) TIMEPIX silicon semiconductor pixel detector, exposed to radiation fields on-board commercial Czech Airlines company jet aircraft. Measurements were performed during passenger flights from Prague to Madrid, Oslo, Tbilisi, Yekaterinburg and Almaty, and back in July and August 2011. For all flights, energy deposit spectra and absorbed doses are presented. Measured absorbed dose and dose equivalent are compared with the EPCARD code calculations. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of all detectors are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  6. Evaluation of on-board diagnosis methods for three-way catalytic converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinoglou, Dimitrios N; Koltsakis, Grigorios C; Samaras, Zissis C

    2002-12-01

    On-board diagnosis (OBD) aims at detecting malfunctions of emission-related components of road vehicles. It is required by legislation in United States and the European Union, as it is considered to be beneficial for the reduction of vehicle-related air pollution. On-board diagnosis of the catalytic converter is a challenging task, as it relies on indirect assessments of catalyst activity. Several methods have been proposed for catalyst diagnosis, presenting a varying degree of correlation between the quantities used as OBD indexes and the actual tailpipe emissions. This paper evaluates two methods, with the support of mathematical modeling; in the first one, which is commonly used by vehicle manufacturers, malfunction detection relies on the oxygen storage properties of the catalyst, while in the second, detection relies on the heat released by the chemical reactions in the catalyst. Both are found to be sufficient for the diagnosis of catalytic converters for current legislation requirements. However, the thermal method presents higher sensitivity to low levels of catalyst deactivation and could therefore be more suitable for diagnosis of future, ultra-low-emitting vehicles.

  7. Onboard Data Compression of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimesh, Matthew A.; Moision, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments on spacecraft are capable of producing huge quantities of data. Onboard lossy data compression is commonly used to reduce the burden on the communication link. In this paper an overview is given of various SAR data compression techniques, along with an assessment of how much improvement is possible (and practical) and how to approach the problem of obtaining it. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments on spacecraft are capable of acquiring huge quantities of data. As a result, the available downlink rate and onboard storage capacity can be limiting factors in mission design for spacecraft with SAR instruments. This is true both for Earth-orbiting missions and missions to more distant targets such as Venus, Titan, and Europa. (Of course for missions beyond Earth orbit downlink rates are much lower and thus potentially much more limiting.) Typically spacecraft with SAR instruments use some form of data compression in order to reduce the storage size and/or downlink rate necessary to accommodate the SAR data. Our aim here is to give an overview of SAR data compression strategies that have been considered, and to assess the prospects for additional improvements.

  8. Low-cost human motion capture system for postural analysis onboard ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, Erica; Ackermann, Sebastiano; Del Pizzo, Silvio; Menna, Fabio; Troisi, Salvatore

    2011-07-01

    The study of human equilibrium, also known as postural stability, concerns different research sectors (medicine, kinesiology, biomechanics, robotics, sport) and is usually performed employing motion analysis techniques for recording human movements and posture. A wide range of techniques and methodologies has been developed, but the choice of instrumentations and sensors depends on the requirement of the specific application. Postural stability is a topic of great interest for the maritime community, since ship motions can make demanding and difficult the maintenance of the upright stance with hazardous consequences for the safety of people onboard. The need of capturing the motion of an individual standing on a ship during its daily service does not permit to employ optical systems commonly used for human motion analysis. These sensors are not designed for operating in disadvantageous environmental conditions (water, wetness, saltiness) and with not optimal lighting. The solution proposed in this study consists in a motion acquisition system that could be easily usable onboard ships. It makes use of two different methodologies: (I) motion capture with videogrammetry and (II) motion measurement with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The developed image-based motion capture system, made up of three low-cost, light and compact video cameras, was validated against a commercial optical system and then used for testing the reliability of the inertial sensors. In this paper, the whole process of planning, designing, calibrating, and assessing the accuracy of the motion capture system is reported and discussed. Results from the laboratory tests and preliminary campaigns in the field are presented.

  9. Mass minimization of a discrete regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for on-board energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojin; Xiao, Yu; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    RFC combined with solar photovoltaic (PV) array is the advanced technologic solution for on-board energy storage, e.g. land, sky, stratosphere and aerospace applications, due to its potential of achieving high specific energy. This paper focuses on mass modeling and calculation for a RFC system consisting of discrete electrochemical cell stacks (fuel cell and electrolyzer), together with fuel storage, a PV array, and a radiator. A nonlinear constrained optimization procedure is used to minimize the entire system mass, as well as to study the effect of operating conditions (e.g. current densities of fuel cell and electrolyzer) on the system mass. According to the state-of-the-art specific power of both electrochemical stacks, an energy storage system has been designed for the conditions of stratosphere applications and a rated power output of 12 kW. The calculation results show that the optimization of the current density of both stacks is of importance in designing the light weight on-board energy system.

  10. On-board three-dimensional constrained entry flight trajectory generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zuojun

    2002-08-01

    This dissertation presents a method for on-board generation of three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) constrained entry trajectory. Given any feasible entry conditions and terminal area energy management (TAEM) interface conditions, this method generates rapidly a 3DOF trajectory featuring a single bank-reversal that satisfies all the entry corridor constraints and meets the TAEM requirements with high precision. First, the longitudinal reference profiles for altitude, velocity, flight path angle, and the corresponding controls with respect to range-to-go, are designed using the quasi-equilibrium glide condition (QEGC). Terminal backward trajectory integration and initial descent approaches are used to make the longitudinal references intrinsically flyable. Then the 3DOF entry trajectory is completed by tracking the longitudinal references with the approximate receding-horizon control method, while the bank-reversal point is searched such that the TAEM heading and distance to the Heading Alignment Circle (HAC) requirements are satisfied within specified precision. For extreme entry cases that marginally allow a single bank-reversal or no bank-reversals, a terminal reference ground path tracking method and a terminal open-loop trajectory search method are developed respectively to complement the on-board 3DOF trajectory generation method. The overall computational load needed by this method for any entry trajectory design amounts to less than integrating the 3DOF trajectory five times on average. Simulations with the X-33 and X-38 vehicle models and a broad range of entry conditions and TAEM interface requirements demonstrate the desired performance of this method. The on-board entry guidance scheme is then completed and tested by integrating this trajectory generation method with a state of art reference trajectory regulation algorithm on a high fidelity simulation software developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Instead of preloading a reference trajectory, this

  11. INTEGRATED ON-BOARD COMPUTING SYSTEMS: PRESENT SITUATION REVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS ANALYSIS IN THE AVIATION INSTRUMENT-MAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Paramonov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with present situation review and analysis of development prospects for integrated on-board computing systems, used in the aviation instrument-making industry. The main attention is paid to the projects carried out in the framework of an integrated modular avionics. Hierarchical levels of module design, crates (onboard systems and aviation complexes are considered in detail. Examples of the existing products of our country and from abroad and their brief technical characteristics are given and voluminous bibliography on the subject matter as well.

  12. Design and optimization of a fiber optic data link for new generation on-board SAR processing architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminelli, Caterina; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Armenise, Mario N.; Iacomacci, Francesco; Pasquali, Franca; Formaro, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    A fiber optic digital link for on-board data handling is modeled, designed and optimized in this paper. Design requirements and constraints relevant to the link, which is in the frame of novel on-board processing architectures, are discussed. Two possible link configurations are investigated, showing their advantages and disadvantages. An accurate mathematical model of each link component and the entire system is reported and results of link simulation based on those models are presented. Finally, some details on the optimized design are provided.

  13. Event-Driven On-Board Software Using Priority-Based Communications Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowell, S.; Ward, R.; Plummer, C.

    This paper describes current projects being performed by SciSys in the area of the use of software agents, built using CORBA middleware and SOIF communications protocols, to improve operations within autonomous satellite/ground systems. These concepts have been developed and demonstrated in a series of experiments variously funded by ESA's Technology Flight Opportunity Initiative (TFO) and Leading Edge Technology for SMEs (LET-SME), and the British National Space Centre's (BNSC) National Technology Programme. In [1] it is proposed that on-board software should evolve to one that uses an architecture of loosely -coupled software agents, integrated using minimum Real- Time CORBA ORBs such as the SciSys microORB. Building on that, this paper considers the requirements such an architecture and implementation place on the underlying communication protocols (software and hardware) and how these may be met by the emerging CCSDS SOIF recommendations. 2. TRENDS AND ISSUES 2.

  14. Study of X-ray transients with Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard AstroSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadevi, M. C.; Ravishankar, B. T.; Sarwade, Abhilash R.; Vaishali, S.; Iyer, Nirmal Kumar; Nandi, Anuj; Girish, V.; Agarwal, Vivek Kumar; Baby, Blessy Elizabeth; Hasan, Mohammed; Seetha, S.; Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2018-02-01

    Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard AstroSat is an X-ray sky monitor in the energy range 2.5-10 keV. SSM scans the sky for X-ray transient sources in this energy range of interest. If an X-ray transient source is detected in outburst by SSM, the information will be provided to the astronomical community for follow-up observations to do a detailed study of the source in various other bands. SSM instrument, since its power-ON in orbit, has observed a number of X-ray sources. This paper discusses observations of few X-ray transients by SSM. The flux reported by SSM for few sources during its Performance Verification phase (PV phase) is studied and the results are discussed.

  15. Study on Equatorial Bubbles Detected by SPS IMS Onboard the Kompsat-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejeung Park

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Space Physics Sensor onboard the KOMPSAT-1, which was launched at 1999, had transmitted ionospheric data during the solar maximum from June 2000 to August 2001. When the KOMPSAT-1 has passed the equatorial region, equatorial bubbles, in which the electron density abruptly decreases, had frequently been detected. Statistical analysis of the data obtained during the entire operational period shows equatorial bubbles frequently occur across the Atlantic region where the geomagnetic field strength is weak. Also, equatorial bubbles occur more frequently for lower Kp index. The results are in good agreement with the previous observations by DMSP satellites and radio experiments at the Peruvian sector. The correlation between electron density and the electron temperature shows various behaviors from event to event.

  16. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  17. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joesph W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curgus, Dita B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  18. Detection of Organics at Mars: How Wet Chemistry Onboard SAM Helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Eigenbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars. Wet chemistry experiment allow organic components to be altered in such a way that improves there detection either by releasing the compounds from sample matricies or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter is particular important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, has onboard two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization and thermochemolysis. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in initial SAM results, and the implications of this detection.

  19. PAIRWISE-SVM FOR ON-BOARD URBAN ROAD LIDAR CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Shu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The common method of LiDAR classifications is Markov random fields (MRF. Based on construction of MRF energy function, spectral and directional features are extracted for on-board urban point clouds. The MRF energy function is consisted of unary and pairwise potentials. The unary terms are computed by SVM classifictaion. The initial labeling is mainly processed through geometrical shapes. The pairwise potential is estimated by Naïve Bayes. From training data, the probability of adjacent objects is computed by prior knowledge. The final labeling method is reweighted message-passing to minimization the energy function. The MRF model is difficult to process the large-scale misclassification. We propose a super-voxel clustering method for over-segment and grouping segment for large objects. Trees, poles ground, and building are classified in this paper. The experimental results show that this method improves the accuracy of classification and speed of computation.

  20. An On-Board TLD System for Dose Monitoring on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Bodnar, L.; Csoeke, A.; Hejja, I

    1999-07-01

    This institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) systems for spacecraft, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a small, compact TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A new implementation of the system will be placed on several segments of the ISS as the contribution of Hungary to this international enterprise. The well proven CaSO{sub 4}:Dy dosemeters will be used for routine dosimetry of the astronauts and in biological experiments. The mean LET value will be measured by LiF dosemeters while doses caused by neutrons are planned to be determined by {sup 6}LiF/{sup 7}LiF dosemeter pairs and moderators. A detailed description of the system is given. (author)

  1. An On-Board TLD System for Dose Monitoring on the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Bodnar, L.; Csoeke, A.; Hejja, I.

    1999-01-01

    This institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) systems for spacecraft, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a small, compact TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A new implementation of the system will be placed on several segments of the ISS as the contribution of Hungary to this international enterprise. The well proven CaSO 4 :Dy dosemeters will be used for routine dosimetry of the astronauts and in biological experiments. The mean LET value will be measured by LiF dosemeters while doses caused by neutrons are planned to be determined by 6 LiF/ 7 LiF dosemeter pairs and moderators. A detailed description of the system is given. (author)

  2. Characterization and selection of CZT detector modules for HEX experiment onboard Chandrayaan-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadawale, S.V.; Purohit, S.; Shanmugam, M.; Acharya, Y.B.; Goswami, J.N.; Sudhakar, M.; Sreekumar, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of characterization of a large sample of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector modules planned to be used for the HEX (High Energy X-ray spectrometer) experiment onboard India's first mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1. We procured forty modules from Orbotech Medical Solutions Ltd. and carried out a detailed characterization of each module at various temperatures and selected final nine detector modules for the flight model of HEX. Here we present the results of the characterization of all modules and the selection procedure for the HEX flight detector modules. These modules show 5-6% energy resolution (at 122 keV, for best 90% of pixels) at room temperature which is improved to ∼4% when these modules are cooled to sub-0 deg. C temperature. The gain and energy resolution were stable during the long duration tests.

  3. The Ionospheric Bubble Index deduced from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Noja, Max; Stolle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In the post-sunset tropical ionospheric F-region plasma density often exhibits depletions, which are usually called equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). In this paper we give an overview of the Swarm Level 2 Ionospheric Bubble Index (IBI), which is a standard scientific data of the Swarm mission....... This product called L2-IBI is generated from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm, and gives information as to whether a Swarm magnetic field observation is affected by EPBs. We validate the performance of the L2-IBI product by using magnetic field and plasma measurements from the CHAMP...... satellite, which provided observations similar to those of the Swarm. The L2-IBI product is of interest not only for ionospheric studies, but also for geomagnetic field modeling; modelers can de-select magnetic data which are affected by EPBs or other unphysical artifacts....

  4. The development of a computational platform to design and simulate on-board hydrogen storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    designs based on the tubular tank configuration with Ti1.1CrMn as the absorbing alloy. Results show that a shell and tube layout with metal hydride tubes of 2 mm inner diameter achieves the desired refueling time of 3 min and store a maximum of 3.1 kg of hydrogen in a 126 L tank, corresponding......A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the Dymola™ environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...... the vehicular tank within the frame of a complete refueling system. The two technologies that are integrated in the platform are solid-state hydrogen storage in the form of metal hydrides and compressed gas systems. In this work the computational platform is used to compare the storage performance of two tank...

  5. Engineering assessment of in situ sulfate production onboard aircraft at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.; Dykema, J. A.; Keith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Stratospheric injection of scattering aerosols has been proposed as a way to reduce global temperature increases by decreasing net atmospheric radiative forcing. Several methods have been suggested as a means of implementing solar geoengineering, and high altitude aircraft have been identified as an accessible means delivering sulfate aerosols to the lower and mid-stratosphere. This research initiative analyzes the design features of an onboard open cycle chemical plant capable of in situ sulfur to sulfate conversion, and compares the required mass to that of transporting pre-fabricated gaseous or liquid sulfate aerosol precursors. Scaling from aero-derivative gas turbine engines, commercial catalytic converters, and existing aerospace materials indicate that aircraft equipped with such a system could provide a substantial mass benefit compared to direct transport of compound sulfate products.

  6. Time Synchronization Strategy Between On-Board Computer and FIMS on STSAT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Woo Kwak

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available STSAT-1 was launched on sep. 2003 with the main payload of Far Ultra-violet Imaging Spectrograph(FIMS. The mission of FIMS is to observe universe and aurora. In this paper, we suggest a simple and reliable strategy adopted in STSAT-1 to synchronize time between On-board Computer(OBC and FIMS. For the characteristics of STSAT-1, this strategy is devised to maintain reliability of satellite system and to reduce implementation cost by using minimized electronic circuits. We suggested two methods with different synchronization resolutions to cope with unexpected faults in space. The backup method with low resolution can be activated when the main has some problems.

  7. Hydrogen production by onboard gasoline processing – Process simulation and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisaria, Vega; Smith, R.J. Byron

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Process flow sheet for an onboard fuel processor for 100 kW fuel cell output was simulated. • Gasoline fuel requirement was found to be 30.55 kg/hr. • The fuel processor efficiency was found to be 95.98%. • An heat integrated optimum flow sheet was developed. - Abstract: Fuel cell vehicles have reached the commercialization stage and hybrid vehicles are already on the road. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain critical issues in stand alone commercialization of the technology, researchers are developing onboard fuel processors, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The feasibility study of a 100 kW on board fuel processor based on gasoline fuel is carried out using process simulation. The steady state model has been developed with the help of Aspen HYSYS to analyze the fuel processor and total system performance. The components of the fuel processor are the fuel reforming unit, CO clean-up unit and auxiliary units. Optimization studies were carried out by analyzing the influence of various operating parameters such as oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio, temperature and pressure on the process equipments. From the steady state model optimization using Aspen HYSYS, an optimized reaction composition in terms of hydrogen production and carbon monoxide concentration corresponds to: oxygen to carbon ratio of 0.5 and steam to carbon ratio of 0.5. The fuel processor efficiency of 95.98% is obtained under these optimized conditions. The heat integration of the system using the composite curve, grand composite curve and utility composite curve were studied for the system. The most appropriate heat exchanger network from the generated ones was chosen and that was incorporated into the optimized flow sheet of the100 kW fuel processor. A completely heat integrated 100 kW fuel processor flow sheet using gasoline as fuel was thus successfully simulated and optimized

  8. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments: HOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.

  9. Mesospheric CO2 ice clouds on Mars observed by Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Sato, Y.; Giuranna, M.; Wolkenberg, P.; Sato, T. M.; Nakagawa, H.; Kasaba, Y.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated mesospheric CO2 ice clouds on Mars through analysis of near-infrared spectra acquired by Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) onboard the Mars Express (MEx) from MY 27 to MY 32. With the highest spectral resolution achieved thus far in the relevant spectral range among remote-sensing experiments orbiting Mars, PFS enables precise identification of the scattering peak of CO2 ice at the bottom of the 4.3 μm CO2 band. A total of 111 occurrences of CO2 ice cloud features have been detected over the period investigated. Data from the OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard MEx confirm all of PFS detections from times when OMEGA operated simultaneously with PFS. The spatial and seasonal distributions of the CO2 ice clouds detected by PFS are consistent with previous observations by other instruments. We find CO2 ice clouds between Ls = 0° and 140° in distinct longitudinal corridors around the equatorial region (± 20°N). Moreover, CO2 ice clouds were preferentially detected at the observational LT range between 15-16 h in MY 29. However, observational biases prevent from distinguishing local time dependency from inter-annual variation. PFS also enables us to investigate the shape of mesospheric CO2 ice cloud spectral features in detail. In all cases, peaks were found between 4.240 and 4.265 μm. Relatively small secondary peaks were occasionally observed around 4.28 μm (8 occurrences). These spectral features cannot be reproduced using our radiative transfer model, which may be because the available CO2 ice refractive indices are inappropriate for the mesospheric temperatures of Mars, or because of the assumption in our model that the CO2 ice crystals are spherical and composed by pure CO2 ice.

  10. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide in the Pacific by voluntary observing ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruise routes: from Japan to Oceania, the United States, Canada, and Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3–5 years. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  11. A New Algorithm for the On-Board Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Guerra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral sensors are able to provide information that is useful for many different applications. However, the huge amounts of data collected by these sensors are not exempt of drawbacks, especially in remote sensing environments where the hyperspectral images are collected on-board satellites and need to be transferred to the earth’s surface. In this situation, an efficient compression of the hyperspectral images is mandatory in order to save bandwidth and storage space. Lossless compression algorithms have been traditionally preferred, in order to preserve all the information present in the hyperspectral cube for scientific purposes, despite their limited compression ratio. Nevertheless, the increment in the data-rate of the new-generation sensors is making more critical the necessity of obtaining higher compression ratios, making it necessary to use lossy compression techniques. A new transform-based lossy compression algorithm, namely Lossy Compression Algorithm for Hyperspectral Image Systems (HyperLCA, is proposed in this manuscript. This compressor has been developed for achieving high compression ratios with a good compression performance at a reasonable computational burden. An extensive amount of experiments have been performed in order to evaluate the goodness of the proposed HyperLCA compressor using different calibrated and uncalibrated hyperspectral images from the AVIRIS and Hyperion sensors. The results provided by the proposed HyperLCA compressor have been evaluated and compared against those produced by the most relevant state-of-the-art compression solutions. The theoretical and experimental evidence indicates that the proposed algorithm represents an excellent option for lossy compressing hyperspectral images, especially for applications where the available computational resources are limited, such as on-board scenarios.

  12. Productivity of Mizuna Cultivated in the Space Greenhouse Onboard the Russian Module of the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    As stipulated by the science program of research into the processes of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction of higher plants in microgravity in view of their potential use in advanced life support systems, five experiments on Mizuna plants (Brassica rapa var. nipponisica) were performed using the Lada space greenhouse onboard the ISS Russian Module (RM) during Expeditions ISS-5, 17 and 20-22. One of the goals of the experiments was to evaluate the productivity of Mizuna plants grown at different levels of ISS RM air contamination. Mizuna plants were cultivated for 31 - 36 days when exposed to continuous illumination. The root growing medium was made of Turface enriched with a controlled release fertilizer Osmocote. In the course of the flight experiments major parameters of plant cultivation, total level of ISS RM air contamination and plant microbiological status were measured. The grown plants were returned to Earth as fresh or frozen samples. After the three last vegetation cycles the plants were harvested, packed and frozen at -80 0C in the MELFI freezer on the ISS U.S. Module and later returned to Earth onboard Space Shuttle. It was found that the productivity and morphometric (e.g., plant height and mass, number of leaves) parameters of the plants grown in space did not differ from those seen in ground controls. The T coefficient, which represents the total contamination level of ISS air), was 4 (ISS-5), 22 (ISS-17), 55 (ISS-20), 22 (ISS-21) and 28 (ISS-22) versus the norm of no more than 5. In summary, a significant increase in the total contamination level of the ISS RM air did not reduce the productivity of the leaf vegetable plant used in the flight experiments.

  13. Around the world with professor Vening Meinesz onboard the submarine K-XVIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Bart; Hanssen, Ramon; Vermeersen, Bert; Munnik, Michiel; Vlijm, Rozemarijn

    2015-04-01

    In November 1934, Den Helder, The Netherlands, the start of a remarkable voyage commenced. The Hr. Ms. K-XVIII, a Dutch submarine, was about to set sail to Soerabaya, Indonesia. Onboard was a Dutch professor, Felix Andries Vening Meinesz. He was able to measure the Earth's gravity field with similar precision as on land for the first time in history using his innovative pendulum apparatus. His ground breaking data and systematic way of working changed the way of performing scientific expeditions. With the Library of the TUDelft and "Stichting Academisch Erfgoed" (Academic Heritage Foundation), we revisit this particular expedition and use it as a stepping stone to web-based geodetic and geophysical education for students and the public. The K-XVIII sailed over spreading ridges, transform faults, hotspot volcanos, subduction zones and many more interesting geological structures, which are discussed in this application. The importance of geodetic research is heavily present along the complete voyage in the form of global geoid determination. Moreover, the precision of the observations onboard the K-XVIII are compared with current satellite gravimetry and prove to be remarkable accurate. The goal of the project is to make the several datasets of Vening Meinesz, his measurements, articles, media, old foto's and other objects of the K-XVIII voyage, accessible for the public. The user can follow the famous voyage from Den Helder to Soerabaya in an interactive web application, stopping at interesting geophysical or historical places in space and time. The user can learn about plate tectonics and its historical findings, study the equipment that Vening Meinesz used to observe the gravity field with extreme precision, and learn about the important collaboration between science and the Navy. Dive into the adventure of the geo-scientific research of professor Vening Meinesz.

  14. Determination of the spectral neutron fluence rate onboard aircraft by means of a passive Bonner sphere spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Vana, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Initiated by the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the exposure of aircraft crew to cosmic radiation has been included as occupational exposure in the European Council directive 96/29/Euratom. Of the complex mixed radiation field at aviation altitudes the neutron component can contribute more than 50 % to the biologically relevant dose equivalent and is, therefore, of great importance. Applying the multi-sphere moderation technique, Bonner sphere spectrometers (BSS) are currently the only instruments providing a sufficient response over several orders of energy up to GeV. As could be demonstrated by extensive experiments in a variety of reference radiation fields, charged particles significantly contribute to the count rate of active detectors such as 6 LiI-scintillators or 3 He-proportional counters, which are commonly employed as thermal neutron detectors inside the spheres. This limitation can be overcome with a passive BSS, which uses different types of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs): the thermal neutron-sensitive TLD-600 ( 6 LiF) and the thermal neutron-insensitive TLD-700 ( 7 LiF). Assuming identical responses of both types for the other radiation components, subtraction of the TLD-700 signal from the TLD-600 signal reveals a net signal from thermal neutrons. The passive BSS was calibrated in the CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF), which provides a neutron spectrum in reasonable agreement with that occurring at aviation altitudes. Measurements onboard aircraft were performed during a series of eight north-bound flights originating from Cologne. The results are compared with calculations of the neutron spectrum by means of the well-established Monte Carlo code FLUKA. (author)

  15. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  16. Study of the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko based on the ROSINA/RTOF instrument onboard Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, M.; Garnier, P.; Lasue, J.; Reme, H.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H. R.; Bieler, A. M.; Calmonte, U.; Fiethe, B.; Galli, A.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Jäckel, A.; Mall, U.; Le Roy, L.; Rubin, M.; Tzou, C. Y.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    The ROSETTA spacecraft of ESA is in the environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014. Among the experiments onboard the spacecraft, the ROSINA experiment (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) includes two mass spectrometers (DFMS and RTOF) to analyze the composition of neutrals and ions, and a pressure sensor (COPS) to monitor the density and velocity of neutrals in the coma [1]. We will here analyze and discuss the data of the ROSINA/RTOF instrument during the comet escort phase. The Reflectron-type Time-Of-Flight (RTOF) mass spectrometer possesses a wide mass range and a high temporal resolution [1,2]. It was designed to measure cometary neutral gas as well as cometary ions. A detailed description of the main volatiles (H2O, CO2, CO) dynamics and of the heterogeneities of the coma will then be provided. The influence of various parameters on the coma measurements is investigated on a statistical basis, with the parameters being distance to the comet, heliocentric distance, longitude and latitude of nadir point. Our analysis of the northern hemisphere summer season shows the presence of water vapor mostly in the illuminated northern hemisphere near the neck region with cyclic diurnal variations whereas CO2 was confined to the cold southern hemisphere with a more spatially homogeneous composition, in agreement with previous observations of 67P [2] or Hartley 2 [3]. A comparison will also be provided with the COPS total density and DFMS abundance measurements. [1] Balsiger et al., "ROSINA - Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis", Space Sci. Rev., 2007. [2] Scherer et al., "A novel principle for an ion mirror design in time-of-flight mass spectrometry," Int. Jou. Mass Spectr., 2006. [3] Hässig et al., "Time variability and heterogeneity in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko", Science, 2015. [4] A'Hearn et al., "EPOXI at comet Hartley 2", Science, 2011.

  17. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for crew members... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial...

  18. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for crew members... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial...

  19. Modelling Public Transport On-board Congestion: Comparing Schedule-based and Agent-based Assignment Approaches and their Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Hartl, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Transit systems are subject to congestion that influences system performance and level of service. The evaluation of measures to relieve congestion requires models that can capture their network effects and passengers' adaptation. In particular, on-board congestion leads to an increase of crowding

  20. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  1. On-Board Imaging Validation of Optically Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery Positioning System for Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Paranasal Sinus and Skull Base Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Murphy, James D.; Chu, Karen P.M.; Hsu, Annie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu, E-mail: Qle@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the positioning accuracy of an optical positioning system for stereotactic radiosurgery in a pilot experience of optically guided, conventionally fractionated, radiotherapy for paranasal sinus and skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: Before each daily radiotherapy session, the positioning of 28 patients was set up using an optical positioning system. After this initial setup, the patients underwent standard on-board imaging that included daily orthogonal kilovoltage images and weekly cone beam computed tomography scans. Daily translational shifts were made after comparing the on-board images with the treatment planning computed tomography scans. These daily translational shifts represented the daily positional error in the optical tracking system and were recorded during the treatment course. For 13 patients treated with smaller fields, a three-degree of freedom (3DOF) head positioner was used for more accurate setup. Results: The mean positional error for the optically guided system in patients with and without the 3DOF head positioner was 1.4 {+-} 1.1 mm and 3.9 {+-} 1.6 mm, respectively (p <.0001). The mean positional error drifted 0.11 mm/wk upward during the treatment course for patients using the 3DOF head positioner (p = .057). No positional drift was observed in the patients without the 3DOF head positioner. Conclusion: Our initial clinical experience with optically guided head-and-neck fractionated radiotherapy was promising and demonstrated clinical feasibility. The optically guided setup was especially useful when used in conjunction with the 3DOF head positioner and when it was recalibrated to the shifts using the weekly portal images.

  2. On-Board Video Recording Unravels Bird Behavior and Mortality Produced by High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio L. García de la Morena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large high-speed railway (HSR networks are planned for the near future to accomplish increased transport demand with low energy consumption. However, high-speed trains produce unknown avian mortality due to birds using the railway and being unable to avoid approaching trains. Safety and logistic difficulties have precluded until now mortality estimation in railways through carcass removal, but information technologies can overcome such problems. We present the results obtained with an experimental on-board system to record bird-train collisions composed by a frontal recording camera, a GPS navigation system and a data storage unit. An observer standing in the cabin behind the driver controlled the system and filled out a form with data of collisions and bird observations in front of the train. Photographs of the train front taken before and after each journey were used to improve the record of killed birds. Trains running the 321.7 km line between Madrid and Albacete (Spain at speeds up to 250–300 km/h were equipped with the system during 66 journeys along a year, totaling approximately 14,700 km of effective recording. The review of videos produced 1,090 bird observations, 29.4% of them corresponding to birds crossing the infrastructure under the catenary and thus facing collision risk. Recordings also showed that 37.7% bird crossings were of animals resting on some element of the infrastructure moments before the train arrival, and that the flight initiation distance of birds (mean ± SD was between 60 ± 33 m (passerines and 136 ± 49 m (raptors. Mortality in the railway was estimated to be 60.5 birds/km year on a line section with 53 runs per day and 26.1 birds/km year in a section with 25 runs per day. Our results are the first published estimation of bird mortality in a HSR and show the potential of information technologies to yield useful data for monitoring the impact of trains on birds via on-board recording systems. Moreover

  3. Fluid Physics Experiments onboard International Space Station: Through the Eyes of a Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Valentina

    Fluids are present everywhere in everyday life. They are also present as fuel, in support systems or as consumable in rockets and onboard of satellites and space stations. Everyone experiences every day that fluids are very sensitive to gravity: on Earth liquids flow downwards and gases mostly rise. Nowadays much of the interest of the scientific community is on studying the phenomena at microscales in so-called microfluidic systems. However, at smaller scales the experimental investigation of convective flows becomes increasingly difficult as the control parameter Ra scales with g L (3) (g; acceleration level, L: length scale). A unique alternative to the difficulty of investigating systems with small length scale on the ground is to reduce the gravity level g. In systems with interfaces, buoyancy forces are proportional to the volume of the liquid, while capillary forces act solely on the liquid surface. The importance of buoyancy diminishes either at very small scales or with reducing the acceleration level. Under the weightless conditions of space where buoyancy is virtually eliminated, other mechanisms such as capillary forces, diffusion, vibration, shear forces, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominating in the fluid behaviour. This is why research in space represents a powerful tool for scientific research in this field. Understanding how fluids work really matters and so does measuring their properties accurately. Presently, a number of scientific laboratories, as usual goes with multi-user instruments, are involved in fluid research on the ISS. The programme of fluid physics experiments on-board deals with capillary flows, diffusion, dynamics in complex fluids (foams, emulsions and granular matter), heat transfer processes with phase change, physics and physico-chemistry near or beyond the critical point and it also extends to combustion physics. The top-level objectives of fluid research in space are as follows: (i) to investigate fluid

  4. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  5. 30 CFR 706.18 - Gifts and gratuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the context of obvious family or personal relationships, such as those between the parents, children...) Unsolicited advertising or promotional material, such as pens, pencils, note pads, calendars and other items...

  6. 30 CFR 705.18 - Gifts and gratuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the context of obvious family or personal relationships, such as those between the parents, children...) Unsolicited advertising or promotional material, such as pens, pencils, note pads, calendars and other items...

  7. Onboard guidance system design for reusable launch vehicles in the terminal area energy management phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lingxia; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Y. M.; Li, Ping; Wang, Xinmin

    2018-02-01

    A terminal area energy management (TAEM) guidance system for an unpowered reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is proposed in this paper. The mathematical model representing the RLV gliding motion is provided, followed by a transformation of extracting the required dynamics for reference profile generation. Reference longitudinal profiles are conceived based on the capability of maximum dive and maximum glide that a RLV can perform. The trajectory is obtained by iterating the motion equations at each node of altitude, where the angle of attack and the flight-path angle are regarded as regulating variables. An onboard ground-track predictor is constructed to generate the current range-to-go and lateral commands online. Although the longitudinal profile generation requires pre-processing using the RLV aerodynamics, the ground-track prediction can be executed online. This makes the guidance scheme adaptable to abnormal conditions. Finally, the guidance law is designed to track the reference commands. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed guidance scheme is capable of guiding the RLV to the desired touchdown conditions.

  8. The study of a plasma jet injected by an on-board plasma thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebnev, I.A.; Ivanov, G.V.; Khodnenko, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The injection of a steady plasma jet into the ionosphere results in interactions which were studied in experiments conducted onboard two Meteor satellites in 1977-1979. The jet parameters at the propulsion system output were as follows: propulsive mass: Xe Xe (+) ion density at the nozzle section 3 x 10 to the 11th per cu cm plasma stream divergence: 20 degrees jet velocity: 10-12 km/cm ion energy: 130 eV electron temperature: 1 + 3 eV. A Bennett-type modified radio-frequency mass-spectrometer and a two-channel electromagnetic wave analyzer were used for the measurements. It was found that (1) the injected plasma jet propagation depends on the jet injection pitch angle (2) when the plasma jet was injected along the magnetic field, impactless jet spreading took place without considerable interaction with the ionospheric plasma (3) when the plasma jet was injected across the magnetic field, considerable interaction was observed between the plasma jet/ionospheric plasma and the earth's magnetic field and (4) electromagnetic fields were generated near the satellite by plasma jet interaction

  9. Validation of double Langmuir probe in-orbit performance onboard a nano-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejumola, Taiwo Raphael; Zarate Segura, Guillermo Wenceslao; Kim, Sangkyun; Khan, Arifur; Cho, Mengu

    2018-03-01

    Many plasma measurement systems have been proposed and used onboard different satellites to characterize space plasma. Most of these systems employed the technique of Langmuir probes either using the single or double probes methods. Recent growth of lean satellites has positioned it on advantage to be used for space science missions using Langmuir probes because of its simplicity and convenience. However, single Langmuir probes are not appropriate to be used on lean satellites because of their limited conducting area which leads to spacecraft charging and drift of the instrument's electrical ground during measurement. Double Langmuir probes technique can overcome this limitation, as a measurement reference in relation to the spacecraft is not required. A double Langmuir probe measurement system was designed and developed at Kyushu Institute of Technology for HORYU-IV satellite, which is a 10 kg, 30 cm cubic class lean satellite launched into Low Earth Orbit on 17th February 2016. This paper presents the on-orbit performance and validation of the double Langmuir probe measurement using actual on-orbit measured data and computer simulations.

  10. Evaluation of onboard hyperspectral-image compression techniques for a parallel push-broom sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briles, S.

    1996-04-01

    A single hyperspectral imaging sensor can produce frames with spatially-continuous rows of differing, but adjacent, spectral wavelength. If the frame sample-rate of the sensor is such that subsequent hyperspectral frames are spatially shifted by one row, then the sensor can be thought of as a parallel (in wavelength) push-broom sensor. An examination of data compression techniques for such a sensor is presented. The compression techniques are intended to be implemented onboard a space-based platform and to have implementation speeds that match the date rate of the sensor. Data partitions examined extend from individually operating on a single hyperspectral frame to operating on a data cube comprising the two spatial axes and the spectral axis. Compression algorithms investigated utilize JPEG-based image compression, wavelet-based compression and differential pulse code modulation. Algorithm performance is quantitatively presented in terms of root-mean-squared error and root-mean-squared correlation coefficient error. Implementation issues are considered in algorithm development.

  11. Multi-gigabit optical interconnects for next-generation on-board digital equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venet, Norbert; Favaro, Henri; Sotom, Michel; Maignan, Michel; Berthon, Jacques

    2017-11-01

    Parallel optical interconnects are experimentally assessed as a technology that may offer the high-throughput data communication capabilities required to the next-generation on-board digital processing units. An optical backplane interconnect was breadboarded, on the basis of a digital transparent processor that provides flexible connectivity and variable bandwidth in telecom missions with multi-beam antenna coverage. The unit selected for the demonstration required that more than tens of Gbit/s be supported by the backplane. The demonstration made use of commercial parallel optical link modules at 850 nm wavelength, with 12 channels running at up to 2.5 Gbit/s. A flexible optical fibre circuit was developed so as to route board-to-board connections. It was plugged to the optical transmitter and receiver modules through 12-fibre MPO connectors. BER below 10-14 and optical link budgets in excess of 12 dB were measured, which would enable to integrate broadcasting. Integration of the optical backplane interconnect was successfully demonstrated by validating the overall digital processor functionality.

  12. Designing on-Board Data Handling for EDF (Electric Ducted Fan) Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, A.; Faiz, L. A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The EDF (Electric Ducted Fan) rocket to launch requires a system of monitoring, tracking and controlling to allow the rocket to glide properly. One of the important components in the rocket is OBDH (On-Board Data Handling) which serves as a medium to perform commands and data processing. However, TTC (Telemetry, Tracking, and Command) are required to communicate between GCS (Ground Control Station) and OBDH on EDF rockets. So the design control system of EDF rockets and GCS for telemetry and telecommand needs to be made. In the design of integrated OBDH controller uses a lot of electronics modules, to know the behavior of rocket used IMU sensor (Inertial Measurement Unit) in which consist of 3-axis gyroscope sensor and Accelerometer 3-axis. To do tracking using GPS, compass sensor as a determinant of the direction of the rocket as well as a reference point on the z-axis of gyroscope sensor processing and used barometer sensors to measure the height of the rocket at the time of glide. The data can be known in real-time by sending data through radio modules at 2.4 GHz frequency using XBee-Pro S2B to GCS. By using windows filter, noises can be reduced, and it used to guarantee monitoring and controlling system can work properly.

  13. Real Time Corner Detection for Miniaturized Electro-Optical Sensors Onboard Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moccia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the target detection algorithm for the image processor of a vision-based system that is installed onboard an unmanned helicopter. It has been developed in the framework of a project of the French national aerospace research center Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA which aims at developing an air-to-ground target tracking mission in an unknown urban environment. In particular, the image processor must detect targets and estimate ground motion in proximity of the detected target position. Concerning the target detection function, the analysis has dealt with realizing a corner detection algorithm and selecting the best choices in terms of edge detection methods, filtering size and type and the more suitable criterion of detection of the points of interest in order to obtain a very fast algorithm which fulfills the computation load requirements. The compared criteria are the Harris-Stephen and the Shi-Tomasi, ones, which are the most widely used in literature among those based on intensity. Experimental results which illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm and demonstrate that the detection time is fully compliant with the requirements of the real-time system are discussed.

  14. Real Time Corner Detection for Miniaturized Electro-Optical Sensors Onboard Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Lidia; Carton, Patrick; Accardo, Domenico; Fasano, Giancarmine; Moccia, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the target detection algorithm for the image processor of a vision-based system that is installed onboard an unmanned helicopter. It has been developed in the framework of a project of the French national aerospace research center Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) which aims at developing an air-to-ground target tracking mission in an unknown urban environment. In particular, the image processor must detect targets and estimate ground motion in proximity of the detected target position. Concerning the target detection function, the analysis has dealt with realizing a corner detection algorithm and selecting the best choices in terms of edge detection methods, filtering size and type and the more suitable criterion of detection of the points of interest in order to obtain a very fast algorithm which fulfills the computation load requirements. The compared criteria are the Harris-Stephen and the Shi-Tomasi, ones, which are the most widely used in literature among those based on intensity. Experimental results which illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm and demonstrate that the detection time is fully compliant with the requirements of the real-time system are discussed. PMID:22368499

  15. An anytime branch and bound algorithm for agile earth observation satellite onboard scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaogeng; Chen, Yuning; Tan, Yuejin

    2017-11-01

    To fulfill the mission of targets recognition over sea, a bi-satellite cluster composed of an autonomous low resolution satellite (LRS) leading the formation for targets detection and a trailing agile high resolution satellite (HRS) for targets recognition is considered. This paper focuses on the development of a method that is able to generate a schedule plan onboard the HRS taking into account the information received from the LRS, which amounts to solving an agile earth observation satellite (AEOS) scheduling problem. The main contributions of this paper are two folds: a mathematical model for formulating the AEOS scheduling problem, and an anytime branch and bound algorithm for problem solution. Experimental results on a set of representative scenarios show that the proposed algorithm is effective which promotes significantly the bi-satellite cluster to improve the efficiency of targets recognition over sea as opposed to traditional methods where a large number of satellites are required to work coordinately. In particular, in a scenario over a 500 km × 2000 km sea area involving 25 targets, the performance of the bi-satellite cluster amounts to the coordination of 30 high resolution satellites.

  16. Hall-Effect Based Semi-Fast AC On-Board Charging Equipment for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented. PMID:22163697

  17. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  18. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  19. Development of a 32-channel ASIC for an X-ray APD detector onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Makoto; Harita, Shohei; Sugita, Satoshi; Yatsu, Yoichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Tomida, Hiroshi; Isobe, Naoki; Ueno, Shiro; Mihara, Tatehiro; Serino, Motoko; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Takanori; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hatori, Satoshi; Kume, Kyo; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    We report on the design and performance of a mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in order to detect hard X-ray emissions in a wide energy band onboard the International Space Station. To realize wide-band detection from 20 keV to 1 MeV, we use Ce:GAGG scintillators, each coupled to an APD, with low-noise front-end electronics capable of achieving a minimum energy detection threshold of 20 keV. The developed ASIC has the ability to read out 32-channel APD signals using 0.35 μm CMOS technology, and an analog amplifier at the input stage is designed to suppress the capacitive noise primarily arising from the large detector capacitance of the APDs. The ASIC achieves a performance of 2099 e- + 1.5 e-/pF at root mean square (RMS) with a wide 300 fC dynamic range. Coupling a reverse-type APD with a Ce:GAGG scintillator, we obtain an energy resolution of 6.7% (FWHM) at 662 keV and a minimum detectable energy of 20 keV at room temperature (20 °C). Furthermore, we examine the radiation tolerance for space applications by using a 90 MeV proton beam, confirming that the ASIC is free of single-event effects and can operate properly without serious degradation in analog and digital processing.

  20. New Density Estimates Derived Using Accelerometers On-board the CHAMP and GRACE Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez, H. C.; Mehta, P. M.; Walker, A. C.; Sutton, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric mass densities derived from accelerometers on-board satellites such as CHAMP and GRACE are crucial in gaining insight into open science questions about the dynamic coupling between space weather events and the upper atmosphere. Recent advances in physics-based satellite drag coefficient modeling allow derivation of new density data sets. This paper uses the physics-based satellite drag coefficient models for CHAMP and GRACE to derive new estimates for the neutral atmospheric density. Results show an average difference of 14-18% for CHAMP and 9-24% for GRACE between the new and existing data sets depending on the space weather conditions (i.e. solar and geomagnetic activity levels). The newly derived densities are also compared with existing models and the results are presented. These densities are expected to be useful to the wider scientific community for validating the development of physics-based models and helping to answer open scientific questions regarding our understanding of upper atmosphere dynamics such as the sensitivity of temporal and global density variations to solar and geomagnetic forcing.

  1. Development strategies for the satellite flight software on-board Meteosat Third Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipaldi, Massimo; Legendre, Cedric; Koopmann, Olliver; Ferraguto, Massimo; Wenker, Ralf; D'Angelo, Gianni

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, satellites are becoming increasingly software dependent. Satellite Flight Software (FSW), that is to say, the application software running on the satellite main On-Board Computer (OBC), plays a relevant role in implementing complex space mission requirements. In this paper, we examine relevant technical approaches and programmatic strategies adopted for the development of the Meteosat Third Generation Satellite (MTG) FSW. To begin with, we present its layered model-based architecture, and the means for ensuring a robust and reliable interaction among the FSW components. Then, we focus on the selection of an effective software development life cycle model. In particular, by combining plan-driven and agile approaches, we can fulfill the need of having preliminary SW versions. They can be used for the elicitation of complex system-level requirements as well as for the initial satellite integration and testing activities. Another important aspect can be identified in the testing activities. Indeed, very demanding quality requirements have to be fulfilled in satellite SW applications. This manuscript proposes a test automation framework, which uses an XML-based test procedure language independent of the underlying test environment. Finally, a short overview of the MTG FSW sizing and timing budgets concludes the paper.

  2. Electromagnetic Field Interference on Transmission Lines due to On-Board Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekwon Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the available space in the board of a mobile device becomes smaller and more compact, circuit elements and transmission lines are arranged in very close proximity, especially from the antennas which are usually installed on the same board. Due to the various on-board antennas which are designed in small space, the transmission lines on the board are electromagnetically interfered, resulting in the performance degradation of the circuit. So the engineers and circuit designers should find the least interfered place for the transmission lines and components to minimize the electromagnetic interferences. This paper discusses and presents a methodology to find the least sensitive position in the induced current distribution as well as in the noise power delivered from the antenna. For this purpose some vertical, horizontal, and bent transmission lines with antenna on the same board are designed and fabricated with and without common ground, and the transferred powers to the transmission lines were measured and were also simulated using a full-wave simulator. The results predicted by the EM simulation model were successfully confirmed through the measurement of S-parameters in the experimental setup, which shows the validness of the suggested analysis method.

  3. Reception conditions of low frequency (LF) transmitter signals onboard DEMETER micro-satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Biagi, P. F.; Al-Haddad, E.; Galopeaud, P. H. M.; Besser, B.; Wolbang, D.; Prattes, G.; Eichelberger, H.; Stangle, G.; Parrot, M.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    2017-12-01

    We analyse the flux density variation associated to low frequency (LF) broadcasting transmitters observed by the ICE electric field experiment onboard DEMETER micro-satellite, observed from 01st Jan. to 09th Dec. 2010. We select five stations localized around the Mediterranean and the Black seas: Tipaza (252 kHz, 02°28'E, 36°33'N, Algeria), Roumoules (216 kHz, 06°08'E, 43°47'N, Monte Carlo), Polatli (180 kHz, 32°25'E, 39°45'N, Turkey), Nadour (171 kHz, 02°55'W, 35°02'N, Morocco) and Brasov (153 kHz, 25°36'E, 45°40', Romania). The detection of the LF transmitter signals by DEMETER micro-satellite is found to depend on the radiated power, the emitted frequency, and the orbit paths with regard to the location of the stations. This leads us to characterize the reception condition of the LF signals and to define time intervals where the detection probability is high. We show that LF signal are regularly recorded, each 12 days, when the satellite is above the broadcasting station. The signal intensity levels are principally significant during the solar activity. Hence we find that the solar and the geomagnetic activities are slightly correlated to the maxima of LF signal as recorded by DEMETER. Also we note a drop of the intensity level several days before the occurrence of earthquakes in/around the Mediterranean and Black seas.

  4. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  5. Hypersonic wind-tunnel free-flying experiments with onboard instrumentation

    KAUST Repository

    Mudford, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic wind-tunnel testing with "free-flight" models unconnected to a sting ensures that sting/wake flow interactions do not compromise aerodynamic coefficient measurements. The development of miniaturized electronics has allowed the demonstration of a variant of a new method for the acquisition of hypersonic model motion data using onboard accelerometers, gyroscopes, and a microcontroller. This method is demonstrated in a Mach 6 wind-tunnel flow, whose duration and pitot pressure are sufficient for the model to move a body length or more and turn through a significant angle. The results are compared with those obtained from video analysis of the model motion, the existing method favored for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients in similar hypersonic wind-tunnel facilities. The results from the two methods are in good agreement. The new method shows considerable promise for reliable measurement of aerodynamic coefficients, particularly because the data obtained are in more directly applicable forms of accelerations and rates of turn, rather than the model position and attitude obtained from the earlier visualization method. The ideal may be to have both methods operating together.

  6. Measurement of dose equivalent distribution on-board commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubancak, J.; Ambrozova, I.; Ploc, O.; Pachnerova Brabcova, K.; Stepan, V.; Uchihori, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The annual effective doses of aircrew members often exceed the limit of 1 mSv for the public due to the increased level of cosmic radiation at the flight altitudes, and thus, it is recommended to monitor them [International Commission on Radiation Protection. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Ann. ICRP 21(1-3), (1991)]. According to the Monte Carlo simulations [Battistoni, G., Ferrari, A., Pelliccioni, M. and Villari, R. Evaluation of the doses to aircrew members taking into consideration the aircraft structures. Adv. Space Res. 36, 1645-1652 (2005) and Ferrari, A., Pelliccioni, M. and Villari, R. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 108(2), 91-105 (2004)], the ambient dose equivalent rate H*(10) depends on the location in the aircraft. The aim of this article is to experimentally evaluate H*(10) on-board selected types of aircraft. The authors found that H*(10) values are higher in the front and the back of the cabin and lesser in the middle of the cabin. Moreover, total dosimetry characteristics obtained in this way are in a reasonable agreement with other data, in particular with the above-mentioned simulations. (authors)

  7. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  8. Hall-Effect Based Semi-Fast AC On-Board Charging Equipment for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva González-Romera

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  9. Development of Standard Samples for on-board Calibration of a New Planetary X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreißigacker, Anne; Köhler, Eberhard; Fabel, Oliver; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    At the Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing research group at Freie Universität Berlin an SCD-based X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer is being developed to be employed on planetary orbiters to conduct direct, passive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence measurements of planetary surfaces through measuring the emitted X-Ray fluorescence induced by solar x-rays and high energy particles. Because the Sun is a highly variable radiation source, the intensity of solar X-Ray radiation has to be monitored constantly to allow for comparison and signal calibration of X-Ray radiation from lunar surface materials. Measurements are obtained by indirectly monitoring incident solar x-rays emitted from a calibration sample. This has the additional advantage of minimizing the risk of detector overload and damage during extreme solar events such as high-energy solar flares and particle storms as only the sample targets receive the higher radiation load directly (while the monitor is never directly pointing towards the Sun). Quantitative data are being obtained and can be subsequently analysed through synchronous measurement of fluorescence of the Moon's surface by the XRF-S main instrument and the emitted x-ray fluorescence of calibration samples by the XRF-S-ISM (Indirect Solar Monitor). We are currently developing requirements for 3 sample tiles for onboard correction and calibration of XRF-S, each with an area of 3-9 cm2 and a maximum weight of 45 g. This includes development of design concepts, determination of techniques for sample manufacturing, manufacturing and testing of prototypes and statistical analysis of measurement characteristics and quantification of error sources for the advanced prototypes and final samples. Apart from using natural rock samples as calibration sample, we are currently investigating techniques for sample manufacturing including laser sintering of rock-glass on metals, SiO2-stabilized mineral-powders, or artificial volcanic glass. High precision

  10. Laboratory and numerical simulations of the PP-SESAME instrument onboard Philae/ROSETTA for measuring cometary surface permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, M.; Le Gall, A. A.; Caujolle-Bert, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Lethuilier, A.; Schmidt, W.; Grard, R.; Witasse, O.; Seidensticker, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring the complex permittivity of planetary surfaces provides insigth into their chemical composition and physical state. This can be done using a Mutual Impedance (MI) which consists in a four-electrode array generally (but not necessarily) in contact with the ground, working at a fixed frequency in the ELF-VLF (Extremely Low Frequency-Very Low Frequency) range with a dedicated electronic system [1]. The Permittivity Probe (PP) as part of the SESAME experiment onboard of the Philae/ROSETTA cometary lander relies on the MI concept. However the PP design had to be accomadated to the severe constraints of the Rosetta mission. In particular, parts of the landing gear (LG) and of other instruments are used as electrodes, introducing influences on the measurements to that need to be considered. Unfortunately, as it was not possible to perform it before launch, the calibration of the full system remains to be done. In order to prepare the analysis of PP data, a reduced size mockup of the LG built in DLR (Cologne, Germany) as well as a mockup-in-size of the instrument including a setup for Philae conductive body have been used for calibration tests in LATMOS (Guyancourt, France). Two configurations have been tested: i) tests as the instrument is in open space, as far as possible from walls, ceiling and floor, ii) Tests as the instrument is placed at several heights from a conductive floor. Such configurations aim at reproducing PP operations during the descent to the comet and the phase of first ground measurements. This would provide, together with numerical simulations under COMSOL™ a full model of the PP-SESAME instrument on Philae for the descent and first ground measurements configuration. Then slight corrections to this model would be possible using the in-flight calibration data to receive from the flight model during the descent on the comet. In this paper, we will present and discuss the results obtained with both nominal and reduced-in-size LGs in free

  11. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  12. Using ergonomics digital human modeling in evaluation of workplaces design and prevention of occupational hazards onboard fishing vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Álvarez Casado, Enrique; Tello Sandoval, Sonia; Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to present methods for improving the occupational health and safety of Spanish fishermen, and for redesigning the workplace onboard small fishing vessels. To achieve its objective, the research project was designed in four steps: First, the equipment and procedures for catching, handling, and storing fish was studied. Second, the work postures of all the fishermen were simulated and assessed by using an ergonomic digital human modeling system (ManneQuin Pro). Third, the wo...

  13. Dosimetry and microdosimetry using LET spectrometer based on the track-etch detector: radiotherapy bremsstrahlung beam, onboard aircraft radiation field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jadrníčková, Iva; Spurný, František

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2006), s. 421-429 ISSN 0033-8451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : linear energy transfer * bremsstrahlung beam * onboard aircraft Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  14. On-Boarding a New Chief Nursing Officer to Lead a Magnet Redesignation Visit: The Value of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Kathy; Batcheller, Joyce A

    2016-01-01

    The chief nursing officer (CNO) is a critical senior executive in a hospital and serves as the architect of patient care. Recruiting, hiring, and on-boarding a new CNO present a challenge for any facility. Stakes are higher when the facility is replacing a CNO in the midst of its Magnet redesignation. How does a facility ensure success under these circumstances? This case study demonstrates how one organization was successful in meeting this challenge.

  15. Sample Processing technique onboard ExoMars (MOMA) to analyze organic compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Sternberg, R.; Szopa, C.; Coll, P. J.; Brault, A.; Pinnick, V.; Siljeström, S.; Raulin, F.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; MOMA Team

    2011-12-01

    With the aim of separating and detecting organic compounds from Martian soil onboard the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment of the ExoMars 2018 upcoming joint ESA/NASA mission, we have developed three different space compatible sample preparation techniques compatible with space missions, able to extract and analyze by GC-MS a wide range of volatile and refractory compounds, including chirality analysis. Then, a sample processing utilizing three derivatization/extraction reactions has been carried out. The first reaction is based on a silyl reagent N-Methyl-N- (Tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) [1], the second one, N,N-Dimethylformamide Dimethylacetal (DMF-DMA) [2,3] is dedicated to the chirality detection and the third one is a thermochemolysis based on the use of tetramethylammoniumhydroxide (TMAH). The sample processing system is performed in an oven, dedicated to the MOMA experiment containing the solid sample (50-100mg). The internal temperature of the oven ranges from 20 to 900 °C. The extraction step is achieved by using thermodesorption in the range of 100 to 300°C for 5 to 20 min. Then, the chemical derivatization of the extracted compounds is performed directly on the soil sample by using a derivatyization capsule which contains a mixture of MTBSTFA-DMF or DMF-DMA solution when enantiomeric separation is required. By decreasing the polarity of the targeted molecules, this step allows their volatilization at a temperature below 250°C without any thermal degradation. Once derivatized, the volatile target molecules are trapped in a chemical trap and promptly desorbed into the gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. Thermochemolysis is directly performed in the oven at 400°C during 5 min with a 25% (w/w) methanol solution of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Then, pyrolysis in the presence of TMAH allows both an efficient cleavage of polar bonds and the subsequent methylation of COOH, OH and NH2 groups, hence

  16. THE METHOD OF FORMING A RATIONAL ASPECT OF THE ONBOARD COMPLEX OF RADAR DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Guseynov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the problem of increasing the efficiency by reducing the visibility of aircraft and installing radio interference on the radio-electronic systems of the air defense complex is substantiated. The main characteristics of the on-board electronic radio protection system of an unmanned aerial vehicle are determined. When designing a low-visibility aircraft, it is advisable to simultaneously solve three-level tasks – the formation of a technical task for the design of aircraft, technical proposals and design sketches. In solving the problems of the first level, operational-tactical, flight-technical characteristics of the aircraft are analyzed and requirements for indicators of visibility are justified, the second one – a matrix of alternative design solutions is formed and rational structural solutions for the airborne complex and aircraft appearance as a whole are determined, the third one determines optimal design -Ballistic, geometric design parameters of technical solutions and aircraft in general. The statement of the problem is formulated in the article. A block diagram of the analysis of design solutions for the placement of an active noise station on board an unmanned aerial vehicle and optimization of their parameters based on a complex "cost-effectiveness" criterion is given. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the influence of alternative technical solutions on low visibility and their design parameters on geometric, aerodynamic, energy, ballistic, thermal characteristics, mass, cost, indicators of visibility and combat effectiveness. The structural and logical scheme for solving the problem for a given technical assignment for the design of an unmanned aerial vehicle includes the following steps: the formation of the initial information and the development of a "support" version of the aircraft structure; formation of a morphological matrix of design decisions on aircraft; compatibility assessment

  17. On-board hydrogen generation for transport applications: the HotSpot™ methanol processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Neil; Ellis, Suzanne R.; Frost, Jonathan C.; Golunski, Stanislaw E.; van Keulen, Arjan N. J.; Lindewald, Nicklas G.; Reinkingh, Jessica G.

    In the absence of a hydrogen infrastructure, development of effective on-board fuel processors is likely to be critical to the commercialisation of fuel-cell cars. The HotSpot™ reactor converts methanol, water and air in a single compact catalyst bed into a reformate containing mainly CO2 and hydrogen (and unreacted nitrogen). The process occurs by a combination of exothermic partial oxidation and endothermic steam reforming of methanol, to produce 750 l of hydrogen per hour from a 245-cm3 reactor. The relative contribution of each reaction can be tuned to match the system requirements at a given time. Scale-up is achieved by the parallel combination of the required number of individual HotSpot reactors, which are fed from a central manifold. Using this modular design, the start-up and transient characteristics of a large fuel-processor are identical to that of a single reactor. When vaporised liquid feed and air are introduced into cold reactors, 100% output is achieved in 50 s; subsequent changes in throughput result in instantaneous changes in output. Surplus energy within the fuel-cell powertrain can be directed to the manifold, where it can be used to vaporise the liquid feeds and so promote steam reforming, resulting in high system efficiency. The small amount of CO that is produced by the HotSpot reactions is attenuated to <10 ppm by a catalytic clean-up unit. The HotSpot concept and CO clean-up strategy are not limited to the processing of methanol, but are being applied to other organic fuels.

  18. Onboard Robust Visual Tracking for UAVs Using a Reliable Global-Local Object Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changhong; Duan, Ran; Kircali, Dogan; Kayacan, Erdal

    2016-08-31

    In this paper, we present a novel onboard robust visual algorithm for long-term arbitrary 2D and 3D object tracking using a reliable global-local object model for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications, e.g., autonomous tracking and chasing a moving target. The first main approach in this novel algorithm is the use of a global matching and local tracking approach. In other words, the algorithm initially finds feature correspondences in a way that an improved binary descriptor is developed for global feature matching and an iterative Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm is employed for local feature tracking. The second main module is the use of an efficient local geometric filter (LGF), which handles outlier feature correspondences based on a new forward-backward pairwise dissimilarity measure, thereby maintaining pairwise geometric consistency. In the proposed LGF module, a hierarchical agglomerative clustering, i.e., bottom-up aggregation, is applied using an effective single-link method. The third proposed module is a heuristic local outlier factor (to the best of our knowledge, it is utilized for the first time to deal with outlier features in a visual tracking application), which further maximizes the representation of the target object in which we formulate outlier feature detection as a binary classification problem with the output features of the LGF module. Extensive UAV flight experiments show that the proposed visual tracker achieves real-time frame rates of more than thirty-five frames per second on an i7 processor with 640 × 512 image resolution and outperforms the most popular state-of-the-art trackers favorably in terms of robustness, efficiency and accuracy.

  19. Quality Assessment of DSMs Produced from UAV Flights Georeferenced with On-Board RTK Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Forlani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution Digital Surface Models (DSMs from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs imagery with accuracy better than 10 cm open new possibilities in geosciences and engineering. The accuracy of such DSMs depends on the number and distribution of ground control points (GCPs. Placing and measuring GCPs are often the most time-consuming on-site tasks in a UAV project. Safety or accessibility concerns may impede their proper placement, so either costlier techniques must be used, or a less accurate DSM is obtained. Photogrammetric blocks flown by drones with on-board receivers capable of RTK (real-time kinematic positioning do not need GCPs, as camera stations at exposure time can be determined with cm-level accuracy, and used to georeference the block and control its deformations. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the repeatability of DSM generation from several blocks acquired with a RTK-enabled drone, where differential corrections were sent from a local master station or a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS. Four different flights for each RTK mode were executed over a test field, according to the same flight plan. DSM generation was performed with three block control configurations: GCP only, camera stations only, and with camera stations and one GCP. The results show that irrespective of the RTK mode, the first and third configurations provide the best DSM inner consistency. The average range of the elevation discrepancies among the DSMs in such cases is about 6 cm (2.5 GSD, ground sampling density for a 10-cm resolution DSM. Using camera stations only, the average range is almost twice as large (4.7 GSD. The average DSM accuracy, which was verified on checkpoints, turned out to be about 2.1 GSD with the first and third configurations, and 3.7 GSD with camera stations only.

  20. On-Orbit Performance of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, J. T.; Baldner, C. S.; Bush, R. I.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2018-03-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument is a major component of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft. Since commencement of full regular science operations on 1 May 2010, HMI has operated with remarkable continuity, e.g. during the more than five years of the SDO prime mission that ended 30 September 2015, HMI collected 98.4% of all possible 45-second velocity maps; minimizing gaps in these full-disk Dopplergrams is crucial for helioseismology. HMI velocity, intensity, and magnetic-field measurements are used in numerous investigations, so understanding the quality of the data is important. This article describes the calibration measurements used to track the performance of the HMI instrument, and it details trends in important instrument parameters during the prime mission. Regular calibration sequences provide information used to improve and update the calibration of HMI data. The set-point temperature of the instrument front window and optical bench is adjusted regularly to maintain instrument focus, and changes in the temperature-control scheme have been made to improve stability in the observable quantities. The exposure time has been changed to compensate for a 20% decrease in instrument throughput. Measurements of the performance of the shutter and tuning mechanisms show that they are aging as expected and continue to perform according to specification. Parameters of the tunable optical-filter elements are regularly adjusted to account for drifts in the central wavelength. Frequent measurements of changing CCD-camera characteristics, such as gain and flat field, are used to calibrate the observations. Infrequent expected events such as eclipses, transits, and spacecraft off-points interrupt regular instrument operations and provide the opportunity to perform additional calibration. Onboard instrument anomalies are rare and seem to occur quite uniformly in time. The instrument continues to perform very well.

  1. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field intensity differences between ASM and VFM instruments onboard Swarm constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michelis, Paola; Tozzi, Roberta; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    From the very first measurements made by the magnetometers onboard Swarm satellites launched by European Space Agency (ESA) in late 2013, it emerged a discrepancy between scalar and vector measurements. An accurate analysis of this phenomenon brought to build an empirical model of the disturbance, highly correlated with the Sun incidence angle, and to correct vector data accordingly. The empirical model adopted by ESA results in a significant decrease in the amplitude of the disturbance affecting VFM measurements so greatly improving the vector magnetic data quality. This study is focused on the characterization of the difference between magnetic field intensity measured by the absolute scalar magnetometer (ASM) and that reconstructed using the vector field magnetometer (VFM) installed on Swarm constellation. Applying empirical mode decomposition method, we find the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) associated with ASM-VFM total intensity differences obtained with data both uncorrected and corrected for the disturbance correlated with the Sun incidence angle. Surprisingly, no differences are found in the nature of the IMFs embedded in the analyzed signals, being these IMFs characterized by the same dominant periodicities before and after correction. The effect of correction manifests in the decrease in the energy associated with some IMFs contributing to corrected data. Some IMFs identified by analyzing the ASM-VFM intensity discrepancy are characterized by the same dominant periodicities of those obtained by analyzing the temperature fluctuations of the VFM electronic unit. Thus, the disturbance correlated with the Sun incidence angle could be still present in the corrected magnetic data. Furthermore, the ASM-VFM total intensity difference and the VFM electronic unit temperature display a maximal shared information with a time delay that depends on local time. Taken together, these findings may help to relate the features of the observed VFM-ASM total intensity

  2. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has completed its fixed base activities on-board the ISS and is scheduled to receive its climbing legs in early 2014. In its continuing line of firsts, the R2 torso finished up its on-orbit activities on its stanchion with the manipulation of space blanket materials and performed multiple tasks under teleoperation control by IVA astronauts. The successful completion of these two IVA experiments is a key step in Robonaut's progression towards an EVA capability. Integration with the legs and climbing inside the ISS will provide another important part of the experience that R2 will need prior to performing tasks on the outside of ISS. In support of these on-orbit activities, R2 has been traversing across handrails in simulated zero-g environments and working with EVA tools and equipment on the ground to determine manipulation strategies for an EVA Robonaut. R2 made significant advances in robotic manipulation of deformable materials in space while working with its softgoods task panel. This panel features quarter turn latches that secure a space blanket to the task panel structure. The space blanket covers two cloth cubes that are attached with Velcro to the structure. R2 was able to open and close the latches, pull back the blanket, and remove the cube underneath. R2 simulated cleaning up an EVA worksite as well, by replacing the cube and reattaching the blanket. In order to interact with the softgoods panel, R2 has both autonomously and with a human in the loop identified and localized these deformable objects. Using stereo color cameras, R2 identified characteristic elements on the softgoods panel then extracted the location and orientation of the object in its field of view using stereo disparity and kinematic transforms. R2 used both vision processing and supervisory control to successfully accomplish this important task. Teleoperation is a key capability for Robonaut's effectiveness as an EVA system. To build proficiency, crewmembers have

  3. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310873754; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid

  4. The performance evaluation test for prototype model of Longwave Infrared Imager (LIR) onboard PLANET-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Makoto; Imamura, Takeshi

    The PLANET-C mission, which is one of the future planetary missions of Japan, aims at understanding the atmospheric circulation of Venus. Meteorological information will be obtained by globally mapping clouds and minor constituents successively with four imagers at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, and radio occultation experiments will provide vertical profiles of the atmospheric temperature. These systematic, continuous remote observations will provide us with an unprecedented large data set of the Venusian atmospheric dynamics. The Longwave Infrared Imager (LIR), which mounts a commercial uncooled micro-bolometer array (UMBA), is one of four imagers onboard the spacecraft and detects thermal emission from the top of the sulfur dioxide cloud in a rather wide wavelength region of 8-12 µm to map the cloud-top temperature which is typically as low as 230 K. Unlike other imagers, LIR is able to take images of both dayside and nightside with equal quality and accuracy. The cloud-top temperature map will reflect the cloud height distribution in which a few hundred meters of difference in cloud height corresponds to temperature difference of 0.3 K. In order to detect the cloud height difference of a few hundred meters, LIR requires a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 0.3 K. The commercial UMBA camera is typically used for observing room-temperature targets, and thus the electronics and the driving parameters have been optimized for low temperature-targets. Images of blackbody targets in room temperature (˜300 K) and low temperature (˜230 K) have been acquired in a vacuum environment using a prototype model of LIR, showing that the NETD of 0.2 K and 0.8 K are achieved in room temperature and low temperature, respectively. Although the NETD at the low temperature is 4 times worse than the case for the room temperature, we expect that the requirement of N ET D < 0.3 K for a low-temperature target will be achieved by averaging several tens of images

  5. Monitoring sleepiness with on-board electrophysiological recordings for preventing sleep-deprived traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Chen, Zhe; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Bekiaris, Evangelos; Maglaveras, Nikos

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study is the development and evaluation of efficient neurophysiological signal statistics, which may assess the driver's alertness level and serve as potential indicators of sleepiness in the design of an on-board countermeasure system. Multichannel EEG, EOG, EMG, and ECG were recorded from sleep-deprived subjects exposed to real field driving conditions. A number of severe driving errors occurred during the experiments. The analysis was performed in two main dimensions: the macroscopic analysis that estimates the on-going temporal evolution of physiological measurements during the driving task, and the microscopic event analysis that focuses on the physiological measurements' alterations just before, during, and after the driving errors. Two independent neurophysiologists visually interpreted the measurements. The EEG data were analyzed by using both linear and non-linear analysis tools. We observed the occurrence of brief paroxysmal bursts of alpha activity and an increased synchrony among EEG channels before the driving errors. The alpha relative band ratio (RBR) significantly increased, and the Cross Approximate Entropy that quantifies the synchrony among channels also significantly decreased before the driving errors. Quantitative EEG analysis revealed significant variations of RBR by driving time in the frequency bands of delta, alpha, beta, and gamma. Most of the estimated EEG statistics, such as the Shannon Entropy, Kullback-Leibler Entropy, Coherence, and Cross-Approximate Entropy, were significantly affected by driving time. We also observed an alteration of eyes blinking duration by increased driving time and a significant increase of eye blinks' number and duration before driving errors. EEG and EOG are promising neurophysiological indicators of driver sleepiness and have the potential of monitoring sleepiness in occupational settings incorporated in a sleepiness countermeasure device. The occurrence of brief paroxysmal bursts of

  6. Updates on the background estimates for the X-IFU instrument onboard of the ATHENA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; D'Andrea, M.; Piro, L.; Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.; Mineo, T.; D'Ai, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Jacquey, C.; Laurenza, M.; Laurent, P.

    2016-07-01

    ATHENA is the second large mission in ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, with a launch foreseen in 2028 towards the L2 orbit. The mission addresses the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe", by coupling a high-performance X-ray Telescope with two complementary focal-plane instruments. One of these, the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) is a TES based kilo-pixel array, providing spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV at 6 keV) over a 5 arcmin FoV. The background for this kind of detectors accounts for several components: the diffuse Cosmic Xray Background, the low energy particles ( 100 MeV) crossing the spacecraft and reaching the focal plane from every direction. In particular, these high energy particles lose energy in the materials they cross, creating secondaries along their path that can induce an additional background component. Each one of these components is under study of a team dedicated to the background issues regarding the X-IFU, with the aim to reduce their impact on the instrumental performances. This task is particularly challenging, given the lack of data on the background of X-ray detectors in L2, the uncertainties on the particle environment to be expected in such orbit, and the reliability of the models used in the Monte Carlo background computations. As a consequence, the activities addressed by the group range from the reanalysis of the data of previous missions like XMMNewton, to the characterization of the L2 environment by data analysis of the particle monitors onboard of satellites present in the Earth magnetotail, to the characterization of solar events and their occurrence, and to the validation of the physical models involved in the Monte Carlo simulations. All these activities will allow to develop a set of reliable simulations to predict, analyze and find effective solutions to reduce the particle background experienced by the X-IFU, ultimately satisfying the scientific requirement that enables the science of

  7. On-Board Imager-based MammoSite treatment verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicka, Jadwiga; Yankelevich, Rafael; Iorio, Stephen; Tinger, Alfred

    2007-11-01

    Contemporary radiation oncology departments are often lacking a conventional simulator due to common use of virtual simulation and recent implementation of image guided radiation therapy. A protocol based on MammoSite method was developed using CT based planning, a Source Position Simulator (SPS) with a Simulator Wire and a linear accelerator based On-Board Imager (OBI) for daily verification. After MammoSite balloon implantation, the patient undergoes a CT study. The images are evaluated for tissue conformance, balloon symmetry, and balloon surface to skin distance according to the departmental procedure. Prior to the CT study the SPS is attached to the transfer tube that in turn is attached to the balloon catheter. The length from the indexer to the first dwell position is measured using the simulator wire with X-ray markers. After the CT study is performed, the data set is sent to the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and to the Nucletron PLATO brachytherapy planning system. The reference digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of anterior and lateral setup fields are created using Eclipse TPS and are immediately available on the OBI console via the Varian Vision integrated system. The source dwell position coinciding with the balloon center is identified in the CT dataset, followed by the offset calculation, catheter reconstruction, dose points placement and dwell time calculation. OBI fluoroscopy images are acquired and marked as initial. Prior to each treatment fraction balloon diameter and symmetry are evaluated using OBI fluoroscopy and tools available on the OBI console. Acquired images are compared with reference DRRs and/or initial OBI images. The whole process from initial evaluation to daily verification is filmless and does not undermine the precision of the procedure. This verification time does not exceed 10 min. The balloon diameter correlates well (within 1 mm) between initial CT and OBI verification images. The balloon symmetry is

  8. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) onboard the Europa Clipper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Joseph H.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Kasper, Justin C.; Rymer, Abigail; Case, Anthony; Battista, Corina; Cochrane, Corey; Coren, David; Crew, Alexander; Grey, Matthew; Jia, Xianzhe; Khurana, Krishan; Kim, Cindy; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Korth, Haje; Krupp, Norbert; Paty, Carol; Roussos, Elias; Stevens, Michael; Slavin, James A.; Smith, Howard T.; Saur, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    Europa is embedded in a complex Jovian magnetospheric plasma, which rotates with the tilted planetary field and interacts dynamically with Europa’s ionosphere affecting the magnetic induction signal. Plasma from Io’s temporally varying torus diffuses outward and mixes with the charged particles in Europa’s own torus producing highly variable plasma conditions. Onboard the Europa Clipper spacecraft the Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) works in conjunction with the Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG) investigation to probe Europa’s subsurface ocean. This investigation exploits currents induced in Europa’s interior by the moon’s exposure to variable magnetic fields in the Jovian system to infer properties of Europa’s subsurface ocean such as its depth, thickness, and conductivity. This technique was successfully applied to Galileo observations and demonstrated that Europa indeed has a subsurface ocean. While these Galileo observations contributed to the renewed interest in Europa, due to limitations in the observations the results raised major questions that remain unanswered. PIMS will greatly refine our understanding of Europa’s global liquid ocean by accounting for contributions to the magnetic field from plasma currents.The Europa Clipper mission is equipped with a sophisticated suite of 9 instruments to study Europa's interior and ocean, geology, chemistry, and habitability from a Jupiter orbiting spacecraft. PIMS on Europa Clipper is a Faraday Cup based plasma instrument whose heritage dates back to the Voyager spacecraft. PIMS will measure the plasma that populates Jupiter’s magnetosphere and Europa’s ionosphere. The science goals of PIMS are to: 1) estimate the ocean salinity and thickness by determining Europa’s magnetic induction response, corrected for plasma contributions; 2) assess mechanisms responsible for weathering and releasing material from Europa’s surface into the atmosphere and

  9. Fiducial-Based Translational Localization Accuracy of Electromagnetic Tracking System and On-Board Kilovoltage Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Malinowski, Kathleen; Hubenshmidt, James; Dimmer, Steve; Mayse, Martin L.; Bradley, Jeffrey; Chaudhari, Amir; Lechleiter, Kirsten; Goddu, Sree Krishna Murty; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel A.; Parikh, Parag

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Calypso medical four-dimensional localization system uses AC electromagnetics, which do not require ionizing radiation, for accurate, real-time tumor tracking. This investigation compared the static and dynamic tracking accuracy of this system to that of an on-board imaging kilovoltage X-ray system for concurrent use of the two systems. Methods and Materials: The localization accuracies of a kilovoltage imaging system and a continuous electromagnetic tracking system were compared. Using an in-house developed four-dimensional stage, quality-assurance fixture containing three radiofrequency transponders was positioned at a series of static locations and then moved through the ellipsoidal and nonuniform continuous paths. The transponder positions were tracked concurrently by the Calypso system. For static localization, the transponders were localized using portal images and digitally reconstructed radiographs by commercial matching software. For dynamic localization, the transponders were fluoroscopically imaged, and their positions were determined retrospectively using custom-written image processing programs. The localization data sets were synchronized with and compared to the known quality assurance fixture positions. The experiment was repeated to retrospectively track three transponders implanted in a canine lung. Results: The root mean square error of the on-board imaging and Calypso systems was 0.1 cm and 0.0 cm, respectively, for static localization, 0.22 mm and 0.33 mm for dynamic phantom positioning, and 0.42 mm for the canine study. Conclusion: The results showed that both localization systems provide submillimeter accuracy. The Calypso and on-board imaging tracking systems offer distinct sets of advantages and, given their compatibility, patients could benefit from the complementary nature of the two systems when used concurrently

  10. TH-C-17A-06: A Hardware Implementation and Evaluation of Robotic SPECT: Toward Molecular Imaging Onboard Radiation Therapy Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, S; Touch, M; Bowsher, J; Yin, F; Cheng, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch. The system has potential for on-board functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was developed utilizing a Digirad 2020tc detector and a KUKA KR150-L110 robot. An imaging study was performed with the PET CT Phantom, which includes 5 spheres: 10, 13, 17, 22 and 28 mm in diameter. Sphere-tobackground concentration ratio was 6:1 of Tc99m. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired with a parallel-hole collimator and a single pinhole collimator. The robotic system navigated the detector tracing the flat-top table to maintain the closest possible proximity to the phantom. For image reconstruction, detector trajectories were described by six parameters: radius-of-rotation, x and z detector shifts, and detector rotation θ, tilt ϕ and twist γ. These six parameters were obtained from the robotic system by calibrating the robot base and tool coordinates. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector-to-COR (center-ofrotation) distance. In acquisitions with background at 1/6th sphere activity concentration, photopeak contamination was heavy, yet the 17, 22, and 28 mm diameter spheres were readily observed with the parallel hole imaging, and the single, targeted sphere (28 mm diameter) was readily observed in the pinhole region-of-interest (ROI) imaging. Conclusion: Onboard SPECT could be achieved by a robot maneuvering a SPECT detector about patients in position for radiation therapy on a flat-top couch. The robot inherent coordinate frame could be an effective means to estimate detector pose for use in SPECT image reconstruction. PHS/NIH/NCI grant R21-CA156390-01A1

  11. In flight ground control of high drag satellites utilizing on-board accelerometer data and rapid orbit prediction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. J.; Velez, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    High drag satellites frequently require precise verification of orbital maneuvers and the accurate prediction of perigee height. An in-flight ground support system designed to monitor and compute orbital state and maneuvers is described. The use of on-board three-axis accelerometer data in a flight support software system to perform on-line maneuver analysis and atmospheric model updating is discussed. In addition, automated analytic techniques to rapidly and accurately predict perigee height following a maneuver are described, as well as semianalytic averaging techniques designed to predict a decaying orbital state for mission control.

  12. Preflight performance measurements of a monolithic Ge:Ga array detector for the Far-Infrared Surveyor onboard ASTRO-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahata, Mai; Matsuura, Shuji; Makiuti, Shin'ichiro; Patrashin, Mikhail A.; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Fujiwara, Mikio; Doi, Yasuo; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Hirao, Takanori; Watabe, Toyoki; Shibai, Hiroshi

    2004-10-01

    We present pre-flight performance of a monolithic Ge:Ga array detector for Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) onboard the ASTRO-F satellite. The primary purpose of the ASTRO-F mission is to perform an all-sky survey in four photometric bands form 50-200 um. For shorter half of this spectral range, 50-110 um, we have developed the monolithic Ge:Ga array which is directly connected to a cryogenic readout electronics (CRE) with the indium-bump technology. In order to investigate the point-source detectability in the survey observation, we carry out a simulation experiment. The experiment was done by taking a image of moving pinholes located on the focal plane of the FIS optics. A clear image without any distortion was obtained, but the size of point source image is slightly larger than expected. We estimate the detection limit in the survey observation by taking account of all detector properties including the imaging performance. The results show that the detector sensitivity is sufficiently high to meet the requirement of the ASTRO-F mission.

  13. Catalytic on-board hydrogen production from methanol and ammonia for mobile application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerijanto, H.

    2008-08-15

    This PhD thesis deals with the catalytic hydrogen production for mobile application, for example for the use in fuel cells for electric cars. Electric powered buses with fuel cells as driving system are well known, but the secure hydrogen storage in adequate amounts for long distance drive is still a topic of discussion. Methanol is an excellent hydrogen carrier. First of all it has a high H:C ratio and therefore a high energy density. Secondly the operating temperature of steam reforming of methanol is comparatively low (250 C) and there is no risk of coking since methanol has no C-C bond. Thirdly methanol is a liquid, which means that the present gasoline infrastructure can be used. For the further development of catalysts and for the construction of a reformer it is very important to characterize the catalysts very well. For the dimensioning and the control of an on-board production of hydrogen it is essential to draw accurately on the thermodynamic, chemical and kinetic data of the reaction. At the first part of this work the mesoporous Cu/ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}-catalysts with various copper contents were characterized and their long-term stability and selectivity were investigated, and the kinetic data were determined. Carbon monoxide is generated by reforming of carbon containing material. This process is undesired since CO poisons the Pt electrode of the fuel cell. The separation of hydrogen by metal membranes is technically feasible and a high purity of hydrogen can be obtained. However, due to their high density this procedure is not favourable because of its energy loss. In this study a concept is presented, which enables an autothermal mode by application of ceramic membrane and simultaneously could help to deal with the CO problem. The search for an absolutely selective catalyst is uncertain. The production of CO can be neither chemically nor thermodynamically excluded, if carbon is present in the hydrogen carrier. Since enrichment or separation are

  14. Agile deployment and code coverage testing metrics of the boot software on-board Solar Orbiter's Energetic Particle Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Pablo; da Silva, Antonio; Polo, Óscar R.; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2018-02-01

    In this day and age, successful embedded critical software needs agile and continuous development and testing procedures. This paper presents the overall testing and code coverage metrics obtained during the unit testing procedure carried out to verify the correctness of the boot software that will run in the Instrument Control Unit (ICU) of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on-board Solar Orbiter. The ICU boot software is a critical part of the project so its verification should be addressed at an early development stage, so any test case missed in this process may affect the quality of the overall on-board software. According to the European Cooperation for Space Standardization ESA standards, testing this kind of critical software must cover 100% of the source code statement and decision paths. This leads to the complete testing of fault tolerance and recovery mechanisms that have to resolve every possible memory corruption or communication error brought about by the space environment. The introduced procedure enables fault injection from the beginning of the development process and enables to fulfill the exigent code coverage demands on the boot software.

  15. An adaptive multi-spline refinement algorithm in simulation based sailboat trajectory optimization using onboard multi-core computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębski Roman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new dynamic programming based parallel algorithm adapted to on-board heterogeneous computers for simulation based trajectory optimization is studied in the context of “high-performance sailing”. The algorithm uses a new discrete space of continuously differentiable functions called the multi-splines as its search space representation. A basic version of the algorithm is presented in detail (pseudo-code, time and space complexity, search space auto-adaptation properties. Possible extensions of the basic algorithm are also described. The presented experimental results show that contemporary heterogeneous on-board computers can be effectively used for solving simulation based trajectory optimization problems. These computers can be considered micro high performance computing (HPC platforms-they offer high performance while remaining energy and cost efficient. The simulation based approach can potentially give highly accurate results since the mathematical model that the simulator is built upon may be as complex as required. The approach described is applicable to many trajectory optimization problems due to its black-box represented performance measure and use of OpenCL.

  16. Assessment of the possible contribution of space ties on-board GNSS satellites to the terrestrial reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Rebischung, Paul; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2018-04-01

    The realization of the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF) is currently based on the data provided by four space geodetic techniques. The accuracy of the different technique-dependent materializations of the frame physical parameters (origin and scale) varies according to the nature of the relevant observables and to the impact of technique-specific errors. A reliable computation of the ITRF requires combining the different inputs, so that the strengths of each technique can compensate for the weaknesses of the others. This combination, however, can only be performed providing some additional information which allows tying together the independent technique networks. At present, the links used for that purpose are topometric surveys (local/terrestrial ties) available at ITRF sites hosting instruments of different techniques. In principle, a possible alternative could be offered by spacecrafts accommodating the positioning payloads of multiple geodetic techniques realizing their co-location in orbit (space ties). In this paper, the GNSS-SLR space ties on-board GPS and GLONASS satellites are thoroughly examined in the framework of global reference frame computations. The investigation focuses on the quality of the realized physical frame parameters. According to the achieved results, the space ties on-board GNSS satellites cannot, at present, substitute terrestrial ties in the computation of the ITRF. The study is completed by a series of synthetic simulations investigating the impact that substantial improvements in the volume and quality of SLR observations to GNSS satellites would have on the precision of the GNSS frame parameters.

  17. Onboard tagging for real-time quality assessment of photoplethysmograms acquired by a wireless reflectance pulse oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejia; Warren, Steve; Natarajan, Balasubramaniam

    2012-02-01

    Onboard assessment of photoplethysmogram (PPG) quality could reduce unnecessary data transmission on battery-powered wireless pulse oximeters and improve the viability of the electronic patient records to which these data are stored. These algorithms show promise to increase the intelligence level of former "dumb" medical devices: devices that acquire and forward data but leave data interpretation to the clinician or host system. To this end, the authors have developed a unique onboard feature detection algorithm to assess the quality of PPGs acquired with a custom reflectance mode, wireless pulse oximeter. The algorithm uses a Bayesian hypothesis testing method to analyze four features extracted from raw and decimated PPG data in order to determine whether the original data comprise valid PPG waveforms or whether they are corrupted by motion or other environmental influences. Based on these results, the algorithm further calculates heart rate and blood oxygen saturation from a "compact representation" structure. PPG data were collected from 47 subjects to train the feature detection algorithm and to gauge their performance. A MATLAB interface was also developed to visualize the features extracted, the algorithm flow, and the decision results, where all algorithm-related parameters and decisions were ascertained on the wireless unit prior to transmission. For the data sets acquired here, the algorithm was 99% effective in identifying clean, usable PPGs versus nonsaturated data that did not demonstrate meaningful pulsatile waveshapes, PPGs corrupted by motion artifact, and data affected by signal saturation.

  18. Analysis of On-Board Photovoltaics for a Battery Electric Bus and Their Impact on Battery Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Mallon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-duty electric powertrains provide a potential solution to the high emissions and low fuel economy of trucks, buses, and other heavy-duty vehicles. However, the cost, weight, and lifespan of electric vehicle batteries limit the implementation of such vehicles. This paper proposes supplementing the battery with on-board photovoltaic modules. In this paper, a bus model is created to analyze the impact of on-board photovoltaics on electric bus range and battery lifespan. Photovoltaic systems that cover the bus roof and bus sides are considered. The bus model is simulated on a suburban bus drive cycle on a bus route in Davis, CA, USA for a representative sample of yearly weather conditions. Roof-mounted panels increased vehicle driving range by 4.7% on average annually, while roof and side modules together increased driving range by 8.9%. However, variations in weather conditions meant that this additional range was not reliably available. For constant vehicle range, rooftop photovoltaic modules extended battery cycle life by up to 10% while modules on both the roof and sides extended battery cycle life by up to 19%. Although side-mounted photovoltaics increased cycle life and range, they were less weight- and cost-effective compared to the roof-mounted panels.

  19. Onboard Inert Gas Generation System/Onboard Oxygen Gas Generation System (OBIGGS/OBOGS) Study. Part 2; Gas Separation Technology--State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Thomas L.; Eklund, Thor I.; Haack, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    This purpose of this contract study task was to investigate the State of the Art in Gas Separation Technologies utilized for separating air into both nitrogen and oxygen gases for potential applications on commercial aircraft. The intended applications included: nitrogen gas for fuel tank inerting, cargo compartment fire protection, and emergency oxygen for passenger and crew use in the event of loss of cabin pressure. The approach was to investigate three principle methods of gas separation: Hollow Fiber Membrane (HFM), Ceramic Membrane (CM), and liquefaction: Total Atmospheric Liquefaction of Oxygen and Nitrogen (TALON). Additional data on the performance of molecular sieve pressure swing adsorption (PSA) systems was also collected and discussed. Performance comparisons of these technologies are contained in the body of the report.

  20. Sample-Data Modeling of a Zero Voltage Transition DC-DC Converter for On-Board Battery Charger in EV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. Granados-Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery charger is a key device in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. On-board and off-board topologies are available in the market. Lightweight, small, high performance, and simple control are desired characteristics for on-board chargers. Moreover, isolated single-phase topologies are the most common system in Level 1 battery charger topologies. Following this trend, this paper proposes a sampled-data modelling strategy of a zero voltage transition (ZVT DC-DC converter for an on-board battery charger. A piece-wise linear analysis of the converter is the basis of the technique presented such that a large-signal model and, therefore, a small-signal model of the converter are derived. Numerical and simulation results of a 250 W test rig validate the model.

  1. WE-AB-303-09: Rapid Projection Computations for On-Board Digital Tomosynthesis in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X; Pitsianis, N; Yin, FF; Ren, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate fast and accurate iterative volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle on-board projections. Methods: Intrafraction motion hinders the clinical applicability of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The LIVE system may impact clinical practice by recovering volumetric information via Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS), thus entailing low time and radiation dose for image acquisition during treatment. The DTS is estimated as a deformation of prior CT via iterative registration with on-board images; this shifts the challenge to the computational domain, owing largely to repeated projection computations across iterations. We address this issue by composing efficient digital projection operators from their constituent parts. This allows us to separate the static (projection geometry) and dynamic (volume/image data) parts of projection operations by means of pre-computations, enabling fast on-board processing, while also relaxing constraints on underlying numerical models (e.g. regridding interpolation kernels). Further decoupling the projectors into simpler ones ensures the incurred memory overhead remains low, within the capacity of a single GPU. These operators depend only on the treatment plan and may be reused across iterations and patients. The dynamic processing load is kept to a minimum and maps well to the GPU computational model. Results: We have integrated efficient, pre-computable modules for volumetric ray-casting and FDK-based back-projection with the LIVE processing pipeline. Our results show a 60x acceleration of the DTS computations, compared to the previous version, using a single GPU; presently, reconstruction is attained within a couple of minutes. The present implementation allows for significant flexibility in terms of the numerical and operational projection model; we are investigating the benefit of further optimizations and accurate digital projection sub

  2. WE-AB-303-09: Rapid Projection Computations for On-Board Digital Tomosynthesis in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Pitsianis, N [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Yin, FF; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To facilitate fast and accurate iterative volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle on-board projections. Methods: Intrafraction motion hinders the clinical applicability of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The LIVE system may impact clinical practice by recovering volumetric information via Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS), thus entailing low time and radiation dose for image acquisition during treatment. The DTS is estimated as a deformation of prior CT via iterative registration with on-board images; this shifts the challenge to the computational domain, owing largely to repeated projection computations across iterations. We address this issue by composing efficient digital projection operators from their constituent parts. This allows us to separate the static (projection geometry) and dynamic (volume/image data) parts of projection operations by means of pre-computations, enabling fast on-board processing, while also relaxing constraints on underlying numerical models (e.g. regridding interpolation kernels). Further decoupling the projectors into simpler ones ensures the incurred memory overhead remains low, within the capacity of a single GPU. These operators depend only on the treatment plan and may be reused across iterations and patients. The dynamic processing load is kept to a minimum and maps well to the GPU computational model. Results: We have integrated efficient, pre-computable modules for volumetric ray-casting and FDK-based back-projection with the LIVE processing pipeline. Our results show a 60x acceleration of the DTS computations, compared to the previous version, using a single GPU; presently, reconstruction is attained within a couple of minutes. The present implementation allows for significant flexibility in terms of the numerical and operational projection model; we are investigating the benefit of further optimizations and accurate digital projection sub

  3. Methods of thermal-to-electric energy conversion in on-board nuclear power plants for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushkarskij, A.S.; Okhotin, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    The present state and prospects for development of space programmes of the USSR and the USA, as well as of a number of countries of Europe and Asia, and of international programmes, provide for a steady rise in the need for on-board energy supply of space objects. The solution of both scientific and technical problems, as well as of the problem of survival on-board the spacecraft, depends to a considerable extent upon such energy supplies. Nuclear sources of heat such as reactors or radioisotopes and energy converters, which feature a number of advantages for autonomous power supply over solar cells and fuel cells, have already been operated, or been designed and developed for use as on-board power sources for the execution of some space programmes. Major difficulties are now presented by the problem of developing converter units for space applications that would be both reliable in operation and economical with regard to their power and weight. The review discusses methods for the conversion of nuclear heat to electricity in spaceborne power systems. For a better understanding of processes occurring in dynamic converters, namely, gas-turbine and vapour-turbine ones, brief consideration is given to their thermodynamic cycles, and, in the case of direct conversion methods such as thermoelectric, thermionic and magnetohydrodynamic ones, to the physical principles underlying such methods. Conversion diagrams are considered, basic characteristics of the existing or projected nuclear power plants for space applications are combined in tables, and an attempt is made to compare these characteristics to determine the place of such power plants in space power engineering. The review is intended for large sections of scientists, engineers and state employees concerned with this problem, and aims at presenting in condensed and general form the current state of the problem. The bibliography has been compiled to cover the major works published during the last five years on the

  4. Onboard screening dockside testing as a new means of managing paralytic shellfish poisoning risks in federally closed waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Conrad, Stephen; DiStefano, Paul; Vanegas, Camilo; Wallace, David; Jensen, Pete; Hickey, J. Michael; Cenci, Florence; Pitt, Jaclyn; Deardorff, Dave; Rubio, Fernando; Easy, Dorothy; Donovan, Mary Anne; Laycock, Maurice; Rouse, Debbie; Mullen, John

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of seafood contaminated with naturally occurring neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish toxins. To protect public health from this potentially fatal syndrome, harvesting closures are implemented when toxins exceed the regulatory action level. Traditional monitoring programs established by state shellfish authorities allow for timely closures in state waters with minimal negative impacts on industry. However, such monitoring programs are not feasible in federal offshore waters given their distance from shore and the range of their spatial coverage. Thus innovative management strategies were investigated for these offshore resources. Georges Bank, an offshore resource with an estimated market value of more than 3 billion in Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs, has been closed to harvesting following a temporary ban in 1989 and a subsequent indefinite closure in 1990 due to the risk of PSP. As a means of managing this risk and allowing harvest of safe shellfish from this important resource, the Onboard Screening Dockside Testing Protocol (referred to as the Protocol) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), state shellfish control authorities, and industry. The Protocol, which sets forth control measures to ensure product safety and public health protection, was endorsed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) for pilot testing. Briefly, the pilot study Protocol required that (1) the fishing vessel receive a permit from NMFS to harvest in closed waters, (2) a miniμm of five shellfish samples per intended harvest lot be tested for PSP toxins onboard, and (3) harvesting only occur when the samples tested from the intended fishing area are negative using the Jellett Rapid Tests or Abraxis Shipboard ELISA kits. Finally, product landed under the Protocol was confirmed to be safe for consumption

  5. WE-G-BRD-06: Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Estimated Based On Prior Knowledge for On-Board Target Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique to generate on-board VC-MRI using patient prior 4D-MRI, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI for real-time 3D target verification of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-expiration phase images of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation are used as patient prior images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract 3 major respiratory deformation patterns from the Deformation Field Maps (DFMs) generated between end-expiration phase and all other phases. On-board 2D-cine MRI images are acquired in the axial view. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI at the end-expiration phase. The DFM is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by matching the corresponding 2D slice of the estimated VC-MRI with the acquired single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT (a computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from a real liver cancer patient. The 3D-MRI at every phase except end-expiration phase was used to simulate the ground-truth on-board VC-MRI at different instances, and the center-tumor slice was selected to simulate the on-board 2D-cine images. Results: Image subtraction of ground truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground truth with prior image. Excellent agreement between profiles was achieved. The normalized cross correlation coefficients between the estimated and ground-truth in the axial, coronal and sagittal views for each time step were >= 0.982, 0.905, 0.961 for XCAT data and >= 0.998, 0.911, 0.9541 for patient data. For XCAT data, the maximum-Volume-Percent-Difference between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes was 1.6% and the maximum-Center-of-Mass-Shift was 0.9 mm. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrated the feasibility to estimate real-time VC-MRI for on-board

  6. Performance verification and system integration tests of the pulse shape processor for the soft x-ray spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sawako; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Seta, Hiromi; Shimoda, Yuya; Yamaguchi, Sunao; Uehara, Sho; Terada, Yukikatsu; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2014-07-01

    The soft X-ray spectrometer (SXS) aboard ASTRO-H is equipped with dedicated digital signal processing units called pulse shape processors (PSPs). The X-ray microcalorimeter system SXS has 36 sensor pixels, which are operated at 50 mK to measure heat input of X-ray photons and realize an energy resolution of 7 eV FWHM in the range 0.3-12.0 keV. Front-end signal processing electronics are used to filter and amplify the electrical pulse output from the sensor and for analog-to-digital conversion. The digitized pulses from the 36 pixels are multiplexed and are sent to the PSP over low-voltage differential signaling lines. Each of two identical PSP units consists of an FPGA board, which assists the hardware logic, and two CPU boards, which assist the onboard software. The FPGA board triggers at every pixel event and stores the triggering information as a pulse waveform in the installed memory. The CPU boards read the event data to evaluate pulse heights by an optimal filtering algorithm. The evaluated X-ray photon data (including the pixel ID, energy, and arrival time information) are transferred to the satellite data recorder along with event quality information. The PSP units have been developed and tested with the engineering model (EM) and the flight model. Utilizing the EM PSP, we successfully verified the entire hardware system and the basic software design of the PSPs, including their communication capability and signal processing performance. In this paper, we show the key metrics of the EM test, such as accuracy and synchronicity of sampling clocks, event grading capability, and resultant energy resolution.

  7. Early On-Orbit Performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite Onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changyong; DeLuccia, Frank J.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Weng, Fuzhong

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is one of the key environmental remote-sensing instruments onboard the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership spacecraft, which was successfully launched on October 28, 2011 from the Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Following a series of spacecraft and sensor activation operations, the VIIRS nadir door was opened on November 21, 2011. The first VIIRS image acquired signifies a new generation of operational moderate resolution-imaging capabilities following the legacy of the advanced very high-resolution radiometer series on NOAA satellites and Terra and Aqua Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for NASA's Earth Observing system. VIIRS provides significant enhancements to the operational environmental monitoring and numerical weather forecasting, with 22 imaging and radiometric bands covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 12.5 microns, providing the sensor data records for 23 environmental data records including aerosol, cloud properties, fire, albedo, snow and ice, vegetation, sea surface temperature, ocean color, and nigh-time visible-light-related applications. Preliminary results from the on-orbit verification in the postlaunch check-out and intensive calibration and validation have shown that VIIRS is performing well and producing high-quality images. This paper provides an overview of the onorbit performance of VIIRS, the calibration/validation (cal/val) activities and methodologies used. It presents an assessment of the sensor initial on-orbit calibration and performance based on the efforts from the VIIRS-SDR team. Known anomalies, issues, and future calibration efforts, including the long-term monitoring, and intercalibration are also discussed.

  8. The Close-Up Imager Onboard the ESA ExoMars Rover: Objectives, Description, Operations, and Science Validation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Jean-Luc; Westall, Frances; Hofmann, Beda A.; Spray, John; Cockell, Charles; Kempe, Stephan; Griffiths, Andrew D.; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Colangeli, Luigi; Koschny, Detlef; Föllmi, Karl; Verrecchia, Eric; Diamond, Larryn; Josset, Marie; Javaux, Emmanuelle J.; Esposito, Francesca; Gunn, Matthew; Souchon-Leitner, Audrey L.; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Korablev, Oleg; Erkman, Suren; Paar, Gerhard; Ulamec, Stephan; Foucher, Frédéric; Martin, Philippe; Verhaeghe, Antoine; Tanevski, Mitko; Vago, Jorge L.

    2017-07-01

    The Close-Up Imager (CLUPI) onboard the ESA ExoMars Rover is a powerful high-resolution color camera specifically designed for close-up observations. Its accommodation on the movable drill allows multiple positioning. The science objectives of the instrument are geological characterization of rocks in terms of texture, structure, and color and the search for potential morphological biosignatures. We present the CLUPI science objectives, performance, and technical description, followed by a description of the instrument's planned operations strategy during the mission on Mars. CLUPI will contribute to the rover mission by surveying the geological environment, acquiring close-up images of outcrops, observing the drilling area, inspecting the top portion of the drill borehole (and deposited fines), monitoring drilling operations, and imaging samples collected by the drill. A status of the current development and planned science validation activities is also given.

  9. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Advancement of the MSPI On-Board Processing Platform for the ACE Decadal Survey Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Wilson, Thor O.

    2011-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-5QV is a new Single-event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) device that is targeted as the spaceborne processor for the NASA Decadal Survey Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission's Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) instrument, currently under development at JPL. A key technology needed for MSPI is on-board processing (OBP) to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's ESTO1 AIST2 Program, JPL is demonstrating how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16 channels for each of the 9 multi-angle cameras can be reduced to 0.45 Mbytes/sec, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information. This is done via a least-squares fitting algorithm implemented on the Virtex-5 FPGA operating in real-time on the raw video data stream.

  10. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Zheng, Lei; Su, Yan; Fang, Guang-You; Zhou, Bin; Feng, Jian-Qing; Xing, Shu-Guo; Dai, Shun; Li, Jun-Duo; Ji, Yi-Cai; Gao, Yun-Ze; Xiao, Yuan; Li, Chun-Lai

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm.

  11. Performance evaluation of lunar penetrating radar onboard the rover of CE-3 probe based on results from ground experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bo; Zheng Lei; Su Yan; Feng Jian-Qing; Xing Shu-Guo; Dai Shun; Li Jun-Duo; Xiao Yuan; Li Chun-Lai; Fang Guang-You; Zhou Bin; Ji Yi-Cai; Gao Yun-Ze

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) onboard the rover that is part of the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission was firstly utilized to obtain in situ measurements about geological structure on the lunar surface and the thickness of the lunar regolith, which are key elements for studying the evolutional history of lunar crust. Because penetration depth and resolution of LPR are related to the scientific objectives of this mission, a series of ground-based experiments using LPR was carried out, and results of the experimental data were obtained in a glacial area located in the northwest region of China. The results show that the penetration depth of the first channel antenna used for LPR is over 79 m with a resolution of 2.8 m, and that for the second channel antenna is over 50.8 m with a resolution of 17.1 cm

  12. Measuring Algorithm for the Distance to a Preceding Vehicle on Curve Road Using On-Board Monocular Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guizhen; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Yunpeng; Wun, Xinkai; Wang, Pengcheng

    2015-12-01

    Due to more severe challenges of traffic safety problems, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) has received widespread attention. Measuring the distance to a preceding vehicle is important for ADAS. However, the existing algorithm focuses more on straight road sections than on curve measurements. In this paper, we present a novel measuring algorithm for the distance to a preceding vehicle on a curve road using on-board monocular camera. Firstly, the characteristics of driving on the curve road is analyzed and the recognition of the preceding vehicle road area is proposed. Then, the vehicle detection and distance measuring algorithms are investigated. We have verified these algorithms on real road driving. The experimental results show that this method proposed in the paper can detect the preceding vehicle on curve roads and accurately calculate the longitudinal distance and horizontal distance to the preceding vehicle.

  13. Vibration Isolation System for Cryocoolers of Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) Onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoh; Yasuda, Susumu; Ishimura, Kosei; Iwata, Naoko; Okamoto, Atsushi; Sato, Yoichi; Ogawa, Mina; Sawada, Makoto; Kawano, Taro; Obara, Shingo; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H (named Hitomi after launch) is a micro-calorimeter-type spectrometer, installed in a dewar to be cooled at 50 mK. The energy resolution of the SXS engineering model suffered from micro-vibration from cryocoolers mounted on the dewar. This is mitigated for the flight model by introducing vibration isolation systems between the cryocoolers and the dewar. The detector performance of the flight model was verified before launch of the spacecraft in both ambient condition and thermal-vac condition, showing no detectable degradation in energy resolution. The in-orbit performance was also consistent with that on ground, indicating that the cryocoolers were not damaged by launch environment. The design and performance of the vibration isolation system along with the mechanism of how the micro-vibration could degrade the cryogenic detector is shown.

  14. Remote Synchronization Simulation of Onboard Crystal Oscillator for QZSS Using L1/L2/L5 Signals for Error Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Iwata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new error adjustment method for remote synchronization of the onboard crystal oscillator for the quasi-zenith satellite system (QZSS using three different frequency positioning signals (L1/L2/L5 is proposed. The error adjustment method that uses L1/L2 positioning signals was demonstrated in the past. In both methods, the frequency-dependent part and the frequency-independent part were considered separately, and the total time information delay was estimated. By adopting L1/L2/L5, synchronization was improved by approximately 15% compared with that using L1/L2 and approximately 10% compared with that using L1/L5 and a synchronization error of less than 0.77 nanosecond was realized.

  15. Ergonomic problems regarding the interactive touch input via screens in onboard and ground-based flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhausen, K. P.; Gaertner, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    A significant problem concerning the integration of display and switching functions is related to the fact that numerous informative data which have to be processed by man must be read from only a few display devices. A satisfactory ergonomic design of integrated display devices and keyboards is in many cases difficult, because not all functions which can be displayed and selected are simultaneously available. A technical solution which provides an integration of display and functional elements on the basis of the highest flexibility is obtained by using a cathode ray tube with a touch-sensitive screen. The employment of an integrated data input/output system is demonstrated for the cases of onboard and ground-based flight control. Ergonomic studies conducted to investigate the suitability of an employment of touch-sensitive screens are also discussed.

  16. Assessment of polycarbonate filter in a molecular analytical system for the microbiological quality monitoring of recycled waters onboard ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechy-Loizeau, Anne-Laure; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Abaibou, Hafid

    2015-07-01

    On the ISS, as on Earth, water is an essential element for life and its quality control on a regular basis allows to ensure the health of the crew and the integrity of equipment. Currently, microbial water analysis onboard ISS still relies on the traditional culture-based microbiology methods. Molecular methods based on the amplification of nucleic acids for microbiological analysis of water quality show enormous potential and are considered as the best alternative to culture-based methods. For this reason, the Midass, a fully integrated and automated prototype was designed conjointly by ESA and bioMérieux for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of air. The prototype allows air sampling, sample processing and the amplification/detection of nucleic acids. We describe herein the proof of principle of an analytical approach based on molecular biology that could fulfill the ESA's need for a rapid monitoring of the microbiological quality of recycled water onboard ISS. Both concentration and recovery of microorganisms are the main critical steps when the microfiltration technology is used for water analysis. Among filters recommended standards for monitoring the microbiological quality of the water, the polycarbonate filter was fully in line with the requirements of the ISO 7704-1985 standard in terms of efficacy of capture and recovery of bacteria. Moreover, this filter does not retain nucleic acids on the surface and has no inhibitory effect on their downstream processing steps such as purification and amplification/detection. Although the Midass system was designed for the treatment of air samples, the first results on the integration of PC filters were encouraging. Nevertheless, system modifications are needed to better adapt the Midass system for the monitoring of the microbiological water quality. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Limb clouds and dust on Mars from images obtained by the Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Chen-Chen, H.; Ordoñez-Etxeberria, I.; Hueso, R.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Garro, A.; Cardesín-Moinelo, A.; Titov, D.; Wood, S.

    2018-01-01

    The Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard the Mars Express (MEx) spacecraft is a simple camera aimed to monitor the release of the Beagle-2 lander on Mars Express and later used for public outreach. Here, we employ VMC as a scientific instrument to study and characterize high altitude aerosols events (dust and condensates) observed at the Martian limb. More than 21,000 images taken between 2007 and 2016 have been examined to detect and characterize elevated layers of dust in the limb, dust storms and clouds. We report a total of 18 events for which we give their main properties (areographic location, maximum altitude, limb projected size, Martian solar longitude and local time of occurrence). The top altitudes of these phenomena ranged from 40 to 85 km and their horizontal extent at the limb ranged from 120 to 2000 km. They mostly occurred at Equatorial and Tropical latitudes (between ∼30°N and 30°S) at morning and afternoon local times in the southern fall and northern winter seasons. None of them are related to the orographic clouds that typically form around volcanoes. Three of these events have been studied in detail using simultaneous images taken by the MARCI instrument onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and studying the properties of the atmosphere using the predictions from the Mars Climate Database (MCD) General Circulation Model. This has allowed us to determine the three-dimensional structure and nature of these events, with one of them being a regional dust storm and the two others water ice clouds. Analyses based on MCD and/or MARCI images for the other cases studied indicate that the rest of the events correspond most probably to water ice clouds.

  18. Contiguous polarisation spectra of the Earth from 300-850 nm measured by GOME-2 onboard MetOp-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstra, L. G.; Lang, R.; Munro, R.; Aben, I.; Stammes, P.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present the first contiguous high-resolution spectra of the Earth's polarisation observed by a satellite instrument. The measurements of the Stokes fraction Q/I are performed by the spectrometer GOME-2 onboard the MetOp-A satellite. Polarisation measurements by GOME-2 are performed by onboard polarisation measurement devices (PMDs) and the high-resolution measurements discussed in this paper are taken in the special "PMD RAW" mode of operation. The spectral resolution of these PMD RAW polarisation measurements varies from 3 nm in the ultraviolet (UV) to 35 nm in the near-infrared wavelength range. We first compare measurements of the polarisation from cloud-free scenes with radiative transfer calculations for a number of cases. We find good agreement but also a spectral discrepancy at 800 nm, which we attribute to remaining imperfections in the calibration key data. Secondly, we study the polarisation of scenes with special scattering geometries that normally lead to near-zero Q/I. The GOME-2 polarisation spectra indeed show this behaviour and confirm the existence of the small discrepancy found earlier. Thirdly, we study the Earth polarisation for a variety of scenes. This provides a blueprint of Q/I over land and sea surfaces for various degrees of cloud cover. Fourthly, we compare the spectral dependence of measurements of Q/I in the UV with the generalised distribution function that was proposed in the past (Schutgens and Stammes, 2002) to describe the shape of the UV polarisation spectrum. The GOME-2 data confirm that these functions match the spectral behaviour captured by the GOME-2 PMD RAW mode.

  19. Contiguous polarisation spectra of the Earth from 300 to 850 nm measured by GOME-2 onboard MetOp-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstra, L. G.; Lang, R.; Munro, R.; Aben, I.; Stammes, P.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we present the first contiguous high-resolution spectra of the Earth's polarisation observed by a satellite instrument. The measurements of the Stokes fraction Q/I are performed by the spectrometer GOME-2 onboard the MetOp-A satellite. Polarisation measurements by GOME-2 are performed by onboard polarisation measurement devices (PMDs) and the high-resolution measurements discussed in this paper are taken in the special "PMD RAW" mode of operation. The spectral resolution of these PMD RAW polarisation measurements varies from 3 nm in the ultraviolet (UV) to 35 nm in the near-infrared wavelength range. We first compare measurements of the polarisation from cloud-free scenes with radiative transfer calculations for a number of cases. We find good agreement but also a spectral discrepancy at 800 nm, which we attribute to remaining imperfections in the calibration key data. Secondly, we study the polarisation of scenes with special scattering geometries that normally lead to near-zero Q/I. The GOME-2 polarisation spectra indeed show this behaviour and confirm the existence of the small discrepancy found earlier. Thirdly, we study the Earth polarisation for a variety of scenes. This provides a blueprint of Q/I over land and sea surfaces for various degrees of cloud cover. Fourthly, we compare the spectral dependence of measurements of Q/I in the UV with the generalised distribution function proposed by Schutgens and Stammes (2002) to describe the shape of the UV polarisation spectrum. The GOME-2 data confirm that these functions match the spectral behaviour captured by the GOME-2 PMD RAW mode.

  20. Arrays of Remote Autonomous Sensors Using On-Board Hybrid Power Supplies, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is significant need for arrays of miniature sensors that are completely wireless. Ideally these sensors would be built as an integrated device, including...

  1. In situ characterization of martian materials and detection of organic compounds with the MOMA investigation onboard the ExoMars rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Grubisic, A.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Li, X.; Kaplan, D.; Pinnick, V. T.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S.; Goesmann, F.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-based observations (e.g., via the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility) and in situ investigations, including flybys (e.g., Mariner Program), orbiters (most recently MAVEN and ExoMars TGO), stationary landers (i.e., Viking, Pathfinder and Phoenix), and mobile rovers (i.e., Sojourner, Spirit/Opportunity and Curiosity), have enabled the progressive exploration of the Martian surface. Evidence for liquid water, manifest as hydrated and amorphous materials representative of alteration products of primary minerals/lithologies, and geomorphological features such as recurring slope lineae (RSL), valley networks and open-basin lakes, indicates that Mars may have hosted habitable environments, at least on local scales (temporally and spatially). However, the preservation potential of molecular biosignatures in the upper meter(s) of the surface is limited by destructive cosmic radiation and oxidative chemical reactions. Moreover, the determination of indigenous versus exogenous origins, and biotic versus abiotic formation mechanisms of detected organic material, provide additional challenges for future missions to the red planet. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) onboard the ExoMars rover, set to launch in 2020, provides an unprecedented opportunity to discover unambiguous indicators of life. The MOMA instrument will investigate the compositions of materials collected during multiple vertical surveys, extending as deep as two meters below the surface, via: i) gas chromatography mass spectrometry, a method geared towards the detection of volatile organics and the determination of molecular chirality, mapping to previous in situ Mars investigations; and, ii) laser desorption mass spectrometry, a technique commonly employed in research laboratories to detect larger, more refractory organic materials, but a first for spaceflight applications. Selective ion excitation and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques support the isolation and disambiguation of complex

  2. Airborne measurements of reactive organic trace gases in the atmosphere - with a focus on PTR-MS measurements onboard NASA's flying laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven Arne; Feil, Stefan; Hanel, Gernot; Jordan, Alfons; Mutschlechner, Paul; Crawford, James H.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Millet, Dylan

    2017-04-01

    Reactive organic gases (ROGs) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry as they affect the rates of ozone production, particle formation and growth, and oxidant consumption. Measurements of ROGs are analytically challenging because of their large variety and low concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere, and because they are easily affected by measurement artefacts. On aircraft, ROGs are typically measured by canister sampling followed by off-line analysis in the laboratory, fast online gas chromatography or online chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In this work, we will briefly sum up the state-of-the-art in this field before focusing on proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and its deployment onboard NASA's airborne science laboratories. We will show how airborne PTR-MS was successfully used in NASA missions for characterizing emissions of ROGs from point sources, for following the photochemical evolution of ROGs in a biomass burning plume, for determining biosphere-atmosphere fluxes of selected ROGs and for validating satellite data. We will also present the airborne PTR-MS instrument in its most recent evolution which includes a radiofrequency ion funnel and ion guide combined with a compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer and discuss its superior performance characteristics. The development of the airborne PTR-MS instrument was supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit) through the Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP) of the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) (grants #833451, #847967). This work was also partly supported by NASA under grant #NNX14AP89G.

  3. HySDeP: a computational platform for on-board hydrogen storage systems – hybrid high-pressure solid-state and gaseous storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the DymolaTM environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...

  4. 40 CFR 86.010-18 - On-board Diagnostics for engines used in applications greater than 14,000 pounds GVWR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... onboard computer's memory. A malfunction indicator light (MIL) must also be activated as specified in... amber (yellow) in color; the use of red for the OBD-related MIL is prohibited. More than one general...-home mode of operation causes a overt indication (e.g., activation of a red engine shut-down warning...

  5. Effects of on-board storage and electrical stunning of wild cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on brain and heart activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Digre, H.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Aursand, I.G.; Grimso, L.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Cod and haddock captured with commercial trawling gear were taken immediately after landing on deck to on-board storage in dry bins for measuring brain and heart activity, and behaviour. Other groups were first stored in holding tanks and then electrically stunned with a prototype "dry stunner". For

  6. Heating and cooling system for an on-board gas adsorbent storage vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburello, David A.; Anton, Donald L.; Hardy, Bruce J.; Corgnale, Claudio

    2017-06-20

    In one aspect, a system for controlling the temperature within a gas adsorbent storage vessel of a vehicle may include an air conditioning system forming a continuous flow loop of heat exchange fluid that is cycled between a heated flow and a cooled flow. The system may also include at least one fluid by-pass line extending at least partially within the gas adsorbent storage vessel. The fluid by-pass line(s) may be configured to receive a by-pass flow including at least a portion of the heated flow or the cooled flow of the heat exchange fluid at one or more input locations and expel the by-pass flow back into the continuous flow loop at one or more output locations, wherein the by-pass flow is directed through the gas adsorbent storage vessel via the by-pass line(s) so as to adjust an internal temperature within the gas adsorbent storage vessel.

  7. 40 CFR 85.2231 - On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance... evaluation status of supported monitors (test complete/test not complete) in Mode $01 PID $01, as well as be... have the capability to include bi-directional communication for control of the evaporative canister...

  8. Data systems and computer science space data systems: Onboard memory and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: technical objectives; technology challenges; state-of-the-art assessment; mass storage comparison; SODR drive and system concepts; program description; vertical Bloch line (VBL) device concept; relationship to external programs; and backup charts for memory and storage.

  9. Contribution of magnetic measurements onboard NetLander to Mars exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menvielle, M.; Musmann, G.; Kuhnke, F.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the international cooperation for Mars exploration, a set of 4 NetLanders developed by an European consortium is expected to land on the planet during the forthcoming years. Among other instruments, the geophysical package of each lander will include a magnetometer. The different...

  10. 76 FR 20611 - Electronic On-Board Recorders and Hours of Service Supporting Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... the comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review... have had regarding harassment, including coercion by carriers to evade the HOS regulations; Whether... coercion; and Whether additional regulations or guidance from FMCSA are necessary to ensure EOBR devices...

  11. Calibration and modelling of the SODART-OXS Bragg spectrometer onboard the SRG satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halm, Ingolf; Wiebicke, Hans-Joachim; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1998-01-01

    The SODART X-ray telescope includes an Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OXS) providing a high energy resolving power by Bragg reflection upon crystals. To cover a wide energy range, 3 types of natural crystals (LiF, Si, RAP) and a Co/C multilayer structure upon Si are used in the ranges 5-11 keV, 2...

  12. 76 FR 41731 - Air Quality: Widespread Use for Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery and Stage II Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... required to have ORVR, including motorcycles and incomplete heavy-duty gasoline powered truck chassis... Stage II provisions from a SIP. B. Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems When an automobile or other vehicle... from the automobile fill pipe into the underground storage tank. An advantage of this type of system is...

  13. Image processing for hazard recognition in on-board weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Wallace E. (Inventor); Rand, Timothy W. (Inventor); Uckun, Serdar (Inventor); Ruokangas, Corinne C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of providing weather radar images to a user includes obtaining radar image data corresponding to a weather radar image to be displayed. The radar image data is image processed to identify a feature of the weather radar image which is potentially indicative of a hazardous weather condition. The weather radar image is displayed to the user along with a notification of the existence of the feature which is potentially indicative of the hazardous weather condition. Notification can take the form of textual information regarding the feature, including feature type and proximity information. Notification can also take the form of visually highlighting the feature, for example by forming a visual border around the feature. Other forms of notification can also be used.

  14. Postlaunch assessment of the response versus scan angle for the thermal emissive bands of visible infrared imaging radiometer suite on-board the Suomi national polar-orbiting partnership satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwofu

    2017-10-01

    The visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) is a key sensor carried on the Suomi national polar-orbiting partnership (S-NPP) satellite, which was launched in October 2011. It has several on-board calibration components, including a solar diffuser and a solar diffuser stability monitor for the reflective solar bands, a V-groove blackbody for the thermal emissive bands (TEB), and a space view port for background subtraction. These on-board calibrators are located at fixed scan angles. The VIIRS response versus scan angle (RVS) was characterized prelaunch in lab ambient conditions and is currently used to characterize the on-orbit response for all scan angles relative to the calibrator scan angle. Since the RVS is vitally important to the quality of calibrated radiance products, several independent studies were performed to analyze the prelaunch RVS measurement data. A spacecraft level pitch maneuver was scheduled during the first 3 months of intensive Cal/Val. The S-NPP pitch maneuver provided a rare opportunity for VIIRS to make observations of deep space over the entire range of Earth view scan angles, which can be used to characterize the TEB RVS. This study provides our analysis of the pitch maneuver data and assessment of the derived TEB RVS by comparison with prelaunch results. In addition, the stability of the RVS after the first 5 years of operation is examined using observed brightness temperatures (BT) over a clear ocean at various angles of incidence (AOI). To reduce the impact of variations in the BT measurements, the daily overpasses collected over the ocean are screened for cloud contamination, normalized to the results obtained at the blackbody AOI, and averaged each year.

  15. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  16. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  17. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  18. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  19. A new compact and low cost Langmuir Probe and associated onboard data handling system for CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, Polinaya; Domingos, Sinval; Paredes, Andres; Abrahão Dos Santos, Walter

    2016-07-01

    A new compact and low cost Langmuir Probe and associated onboard data handling system are being developed at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais for launching on board one of the future 2U CubeSat missions. The system is a simplified and compacted version of the Langmuir Probe payloads launched on board several Brazilian SONDA III rockets and also developed for the Brazilian scientific satellites SACI-1 and SACI-2. The onboard data handling system will have the dual functions of preprocessing the data collected by the Langmuir Probe and acting as the interface between the experiment and the on board computer. The Langmuir Probe sensor in the form of two rectangular stainless steel strips of total surface area of approximately 80cm2 will be deployed soon after the injection of the CubeSat into orbit. A sweep voltage varying linearly from 0V to 3.0V in about 1.5 seconds and then remaining fixed at 3.0V for 1 second will be applied to the LP sensor to obtain both the electron density and electron temperature. A high sensitivity preamplifier will be used to convert the sensor current expected to be in the range of a few nano amperes to a few micro amperes into a varying potential. In order to cover the large dynamic range of the expected sensor current the preamplifier output will be further amplified by a logarithmic amplifier before being sampled and sent to the data handling system. The data handling system is projected to handle 8 analog channels and 4 digital words of 8 bits each. The incoming data will be stored in a RAM and later sent to the on board computer using a serial RS422 communication protocol. The interface unit will process the telecommands received from the on board computer. The interface is also projected to do FFT analysis of the LP sensor data and send the averaged FFT spectral amplitudes in place of the original unprocessed data. The system details are presented here.

  20. Calibration of the Microcalorimeter Spectrometer On-Board the Hitomi (Astro-H) Observatory (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. E.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Chiao, M. P.; Fujimoto, R.; Haas, D.; Den Herder, J.-W.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Hitomi Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was a pioneering non-dispersive imaging x-ray spectrometer with 5 eV FWHM energy resolution, consisting of an array of 36 silicon-thermistor microcalorimeters at the focus of a high-throughput soft x-ray telescope. The instrument enabled astrophysical plasma diagnostics in the 0.3-12 keV band. We introduce the SXS calibration strategy and corresponding ground calibration measurements that took place from 2012-2015, including both the characterization of the microcalorimeter array and measurements of the x-ray transmission of optical blocking filters.

  1. Probing the internal structure of asteroids with seismic instruments on-board cubesat platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, N.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.

    2014-04-01

    We present recent scientific and technical studies performed at ISAE in order to understand the interest and feasibility of deploying a seismometer at the surface of an asteroid using a cubesat platform. First, the scientific justification of performing such measurements is studied by simulating the seismic signals expected at an asteroid's surface, particularly those resulting from micro-meteoroid impacts. Then, the signal characteristics are extracted to produce requirements on the scientific payload. Some crucial technical aspects are also explored including first order thermal computations and experiments to understand the dynamics of the platform deployment and the subsequent movements under seismic waves in a reduced-gravity environment.

  2. Onboard Nonlinear Engine Sensor and Component Fault Diagnosis and Isolation Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    A method detects and isolates in-flight sensor, actuator, and component faults for advanced propulsion systems. In sharp contrast to many conventional methods, which deal with either sensor fault or component fault, but not both, this method considers sensor fault, actuator fault, and component fault under one systemic and unified framework. The proposed solution consists of two main components: a bank of real-time, nonlinear adaptive fault diagnostic estimators for residual generation, and a residual evaluation module that includes adaptive thresholds and a Transferable Belief Model (TBM)-based residual evaluation scheme. By employing a nonlinear adaptive learning architecture, the developed approach is capable of directly dealing with nonlinear engine models and nonlinear faults without the need of linearization. Software modules have been developed and evaluated with the NASA C-MAPSS engine model. Several typical engine-fault modes, including a subset of sensor/actuator/components faults, were tested with a mild transient operation scenario. The simulation results demonstrated that the algorithm was able to successfully detect and isolate all simulated faults as long as the fault magnitudes were larger than the minimum detectable/isolable sizes, and no misdiagnosis occurred

  3. Enantioselective Analysis in instruments onboard ROSETTA/PHILAE and ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan; Thiemann, Wolfram; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Goesmann, Fred

    It has been suggested a number of times in the past, to look for chirality as a biomarker. So far, for lack of appropriate instrumentation, space missions have never included enantioselective analysis. The distinction between enantiomers is of crucial importance to the question of the origin of the very first (pre)biotic molecules. If molecules detected in situ on another celestial body were found to exhibit a chiral bias, this would mean that at least partial asymmetric synthesis could take place abiotically. If this chiral bias should be found to be near 100For the currently flying ESA mission ROSETTA an enantioselective instrument was built, to try for the first time to detect and separate chiral molecules in situ. This instrument is COSAC, the Cometary Sampling and Acquisition Experiment, an enantioselective GCMS device[1,2], which is included in the lander PHLIAE that will eventually in 2014 land on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A similar but even more powerful type of enantioselective GC-MS is in preparation for ESA's ExoMars mission. This instrument is part of MOMA, the Mars Organic Molecules Analyser. It has the objective of identifying and quantifying chiral organic molecules in surface and subsurface samples of Mars. Currently ExoMars is scheduled for 2018. The newly developed enantioselective technique utilized by both COSAC and MOMA will be described, including sample acquisition, derivatization, and separation in space-resistant chiral stationary capillary columns with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection. Results of enantioselective analyses of representative test samples with special emphasis on amino acids[3], the building blocks of protein polymers, will be presented and we will discuss potential results of space missions Rosetta and ExoMars. [1] Thiemann W.H.-P., Meierhenrich U.: ESA Mission ROSETTA Will Probe for Chirality of Cometary Amino Acids. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 31 (2001), 199-210. [2

  4. Autonomous estimation of Allan variance coefficients of onboard fiber optic gyro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Ningfang; Yuan Rui; Jin Jing, E-mail: rayleing@139.com [School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Satellite motion included in gyro output disturbs the estimation of Allan variance coefficients of fiber optic gyro on board. Moreover, as a standard method for noise analysis of fiber optic gyro, Allan variance has too large offline computational effort and data storages to be applied to online estimation. In addition, with the development of deep space exploration, it is urged that satellite requires more autonomy including autonomous fault diagnosis and reconfiguration. To overcome the barriers and meet satellite autonomy, we present a new autonomous method for estimation of Allan variance coefficients including rate ramp, rate random walk, bias instability, angular random walk and quantization noise coefficients. In the method, we calculate differences between angle increments of star sensor and gyro to remove satellite motion from gyro output, and propose a state-space model using nonlinear adaptive filter technique for quantities previously measured from offline data techniques such as the Allan variance method. Simulations show the method correctly estimates Allan variance coefficients, R = 2.7965exp-4 {sup 0}/h{sup 2}, K = 1.1714exp-3 {sup 0}/h{sup 1.5}, B = 1.3185exp-3 {sup 0}/h, N = 5.982exp-4 {sup 0}/h{sup 0.5} and Q = 5.197exp-7 {sup 0} in real time, and tracks degradation of gyro performance from initail values, R = 0.651 {sup 0}/h{sup 2}, K = 0.801 {sup 0}/h{sup 1.5}, B = 0.385 {sup 0}/h, N = 0.0874 {sup 0}/h{sup 0.5} and Q = 8.085exp-5 {sup 0}, to final estimations, R = 9.548 {sup 0}/h{sup 2}, K = 9.524 {sup 0}/h{sup 1.5}, B = 2.234 {sup 0}/h, N = 0.5594 {sup 0}/h{sup 0.5} and Q = 5.113exp-4 {sup 0}, due to gamma radiation in space. The technique proposed here effectively isolates satellite motion, and requires no data storage and any supports from the ground.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  6. New Leakage Current Particulate Matter Sensor for On-Board Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and principle of the new leakage current particulate matter (PM sensor are introduced and further study is performed on the PM sensor with the combination of numerical simulation and bench test. High voltage electrode, conductive shell, and heaters are all built-in. Based on the principle of Venturi tube and maze structure design, this sensor can detect transient PM concentrations. Internal flow field of the sensor and distribution condition of PM inside the sensor are analyzed through gas-solid two-phase flow numerical simulation. The experiment was also carried out on the whole sensor system (including mechanical and electronic circuit part and the output signals were analyzed. The results of simulation and experiment reveal the possibility of PM concentration (mass detection by the sensor.

  7. Performance evaluation of a miniature magnetic sector mass spectrometer onboard a satellite in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meiru; Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun; Wang, Yongjun; Sun, Wenjun; Pei, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Meng; Sheng, Xuemin; Zhao, Lan; Li, Yanwu

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid development of space technology in China, it is urgent to use mass spectrometer to detect the space environment. In this work, a space miniature magnetic sector mass spectrometer is evaluated, which consists of three subsystems: (1) physical unit, (2) electric control unit, (3) and high voltage power. It has 90° magnetic sector-field analyzer with double trajectory, in which a trajectory measurement range is from 1 to 12 amu, the other range is from 6 to 90 amu.The mass spectrometer has two work models, one is used to measure space neutral gas when the filament of mass spectrometer ion source turned on, the other is used to measure space charged ions when the filament turned off. The absolute resolution of this device is less than 1 amu, the minimum detectable ion current is about 10 -13  A, and the sensitivity is 10 -6  A/Pa (N 2 ). Its overall size is 170 mm × 165 mm × 170 mm, its weight is 4.5 kg, and its power consumption is 18 W. A series of environmental adaptability tests, including high and low temperature cycle, shock, vibration, thermal vacuum cycle, were carried out on the ground before launching, and sensitivity and peak position were also calibrated on the ground. In November 2012, the mass spectrometer was carried by an experimental satellite to 499 km sun synchronization and is still working right now. It successfully detected the atmosphere compositions both in the satellite orbit and gas-emitted from satellite, including O, He, 12 CO 2 , 13 CO 2 , H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , H 2 O, and so on.

  8. The implementation of aerial object recognition algorithm based on contour descriptor in FPGA-based on-board vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, Pavel; Smirnov, Sergey; Strotov, Valery

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the aerial object recognition algorithm for on-board and stationary vision system. Suggested algorithm is intended to recognize the objects of a specific kind using the set of the reference objects defined by 3D models. The proposed algorithm based on the outer contour descriptor building. The algorithm consists of two stages: learning and recognition. Learning stage is devoted to the exploring of reference objects. Using 3D models we can build the database containing training images by rendering the 3D model from viewpoints evenly distributed on a sphere. Sphere points distribution is made by the geosphere principle. Gathered training image set is used for calculating descriptors, which will be used in the recognition stage of the algorithm. The recognition stage is focusing on estimating the similarity of the captured object and the reference objects by matching an observed image descriptor and the reference object descriptors. The experimental research was performed using a set of the models of the aircraft of the different types (airplanes, helicopters, UAVs). The proposed orientation estimation algorithm showed good accuracy in all case studies. The real-time performance of the algorithm in FPGA-based vision system was demonstrated.

  9. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piotr Pawlowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  10. On-Board State-of-Health Estimation at a Wide Ambient Temperature Range in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansi Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-health (SOH estimation method for electric vehicles (EVs is presented with three main advantages: (1 it provides joint estimation of cell’s aging states in terms of power and energy (i.e., SOHP and SOHE—because the determination of SOHP and SOHE can be reduced to the estimation of the ohmic resistance increase and capacity loss, respectively, the ohmic resistance at nominal temperature will be taken as a health indicator, and the capacity loss is estimated based on a mechanistic model that is developed to describe the correlation between resistance increase and capacity loss; (2 it has wide applicability to various ambient temperatures—to eliminate the effects of temperature on the resistance, another mechanistic model about the resistance against temperature is presented, which can normalize the resistance at various temperatures to its standard value at the nominal temperature; and (3 it needs low computational efforts for on-board application—based on a linear equation of cell’s dynamic behaviors, the recursive least-squares (RLS algorithm is used for the resistance estimation. Based on the designed performance and validation experiments, respectively, the coefficients of the models are determined and the accuracy of the proposed method is verified. The results at different aging states and temperatures show good accuracy and reliability.

  11. Development and verification of signal processing system of avalanche photo diode for the active shields onboard ASTRO-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, M., E-mail: ohno@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawano, T.; Edahiro, I.; Shirakawa, H.; Ohashi, N.; Okada, C.; Habata, S.; Katsuta, J.; Tanaka, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Mizuno, T.; Fukazawa, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Miyake, K.; Ono, K.; Kato, Y.; Furuta, Y.; Murota, Y.; Okuda, K. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    The hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector onboard ASTRO-H demonstrate high sensitivity to hard X-ray (5–80 keV) and soft gamma-rays (60–600 keV), respectively. To reduce the background, both instruments are actively shielded by large, thick Bismuth Germanate scintillators. We have developed the signal processing system of the avalanche photodiode in the BGO active shields and have demonstrated its effectiveness after assembly in the flight model of the HXI/SGD sensor and after integration into the satellite. The energy threshold achieved is about 150 keV and anti-coincidence efficiency for cosmic-ray events is almost 100%. Installed in the BGO active shield, the developed signal processing system successfully reduces the room background level of the main detector. - Highlights: • A detail of development of signal processing system for ASTRO-H is presented. • Digital filer with FPGA instead of discrete analog circuit is applied. • Expected performance is verified after integration of the satellite.

  12. A review on on-board challenges of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Wasikur

    2017-06-01

    The attempt of the review is to realize on-board hydrogen storage technologies concerning magnesium based solid-state matrix to allow fuel cell devices to facilitate sufficient storage capacity, cost, safety and performance requirements to be competitive with current vehicles. Hydrogen, a potential and clean fuel, can be applied in the state-of-the-art technology of `zero emission' vehicles. Hydrogen economy infrastructure both for stationary and mobile purposes is complicated due to its critical physico-chemical properties and materials play crucial roles in every stage of hydrogen production to utilization in fuel cells in achieving high conversion efficiency, safety and robustness of the technologies involved. Moreover, traditional hydrogen storage facilities are rather complicated due to its anomalous properties such as highly porous solids and polymers have intrinsic microporosity, which is the foremost favorable characteristics of fast kinetics and reversibility, but the major drawback is the low storage capacity. In contrast, metal hydrides and complex hydrides have high hydrogen storage capacity but thermodynamically unfavorable. Therefore, hydrogen storage is a real challenge to realize `hydrogen economy' that will solve the critical issues of humanity such as energy depletion, greenhouse emission, air pollution and ultimately climate change. Magnesium based materials, particularly magnesium hydride (MgH2) has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its high gravimetric and volumetric capacity as well as environmentally benign properties to work the grand challenge out.

  13. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things. PMID:26506357

  14. The pre-flight calibration setup of the instrument SIMBIO-SYS onboard the mission BepiColombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, F.; Rodriguez-Ferreira, J.; Arondel, A.; Dassas, K.; Eng, P.; Lami, P.; Langevin, Y.; Longval, Y.; Pradel, P.; Dami, M.

    2015-11-01

    BepiColombo, an European Space Agency (ESA) mission being conducted in cooperation with the Japan space agency, will explore Mercury with a set of eleven instruments onboard the spacecraft Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Among them, SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument that will provide images and spectra in the 400-2000 nm wavelength range of the entire surface of Mercury. Pre-flight calibration of the SYMBIO-SYS instrument is mandatory for reliable scientific interpretation of images and spectra returned from the planet Mercury. This paper presents the calibration device designed and implemented for the specific requirements of this instrument. It mainly consists of a thermal vacuum chamber simulating the space environment, an optical bench collecting calibration sources and optical elements that simulate the conditions of Mercury observations, mechanical interfaces used for positioning the three channels inside the vacuum chamber, thermal interfaces to explore the operating temperatures, computer interfaces that allow to communicate with both the instrument and the calibration elements and synchronize the calibrations sequences with the status of the calibration device. As the major goal is the characterization of the radiometric performances of the three channels of SIMBIO-SYS, radiometric performances of the test setup evaluated by simulations and measurements are emphasized.

  15. Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M

    2010-08-01

    Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose.

  16. Extra Dose Due to Extravehicular Activity During the NASA4 Mission, Measured by an On-Board TLD System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO 4 :Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 μGy.h -1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET. (author)

  17. Harvesting entropy for random number generation for internet of things constrained devices using on-board sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-10-22

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  18. Porous plug phase separator and superfluid film flow suppression system for the soft x-ray spectrometer onboard Hitomi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; DiPirro, Michael; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kanao, Kenichi; Kimball, Mark; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Murakami, Masahide; Noda, Hirofumi; Ohashi, Takaya; Okamoto, Atsushi; Satoh, Yohichi; Sato, Kosuke; Shirron, Peter; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yoshida, Seiji

    2018-01-01

    When using superfluid helium in low-gravity environments, porous plug phase separators are commonly used to vent boil-off gas while confining the bulk liquid to the tank. Invariably, there is a flow of superfluid film from the perimeter of the porous plug down the vent line. For the soft x-ray spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi), its approximately 30-liter helium supply has a lifetime requirement of more than 3 years. A nominal vent rate is estimated as ˜30 μg/s, equivalent to ˜0.7 mW heat load. It is, therefore, critical to suppress any film flow whose evaporation would not provide direct cooling of the remaining liquid helium. That is, the porous plug vent system must be designed to both minimize film flow and to ensure maximum extraction of latent heat from the film. The design goal for Hitomi is to reduce the film flow losses to exchanger, and knife-edge devices. Design, on-ground testing results, and in-orbit performance are described.

  19. Extra Dose Due to Extravehicular Activity During the NASA4 Mission, Measured by an On-Board TLD System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I. [Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-07-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO{sub 4}:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 {mu}Gy.h{sup -1} at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET. (author)

  20. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  1. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  2. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  3. A High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solution for On-Board Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Boscaino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide-input, low-voltage, and high-current applications are addressed. A single-ended isolated topology which improves the power efficiency, reduces both switching and conduction losses, and heavily lowers the system cost is presented. During each switching cycle, the transformer core reset is provided. The traditional tradeoff between the maximum allowable duty-cycle and the reset voltage is avoided and the off-voltage of active switches is clamped to the input voltage. Therefore, the system cost is heavily reduced and the converter is well suited for wide-input applications. Zero-voltage switching is achieved for active switches, and the power efficiency is greatly improved. In the output mesh, an inductor is included making the converter suitable for high-current, low-voltage applications. Since the active clamp forward converter is the closest competitor of the proposed converter, a comparison is provided as well. In this paper, the steady-state and small-signal analysis of the proposed converter is presented. Design examples are provided for further applications. Simulation and experimental results are shown to validate the great advantages brought by the proposed topology.

  4. [On-board medical support system (MSS) of flights of promising aerospace sets (design)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Bednenko, V S

    2010-01-01

    It was suggested as the main compositive fractions MSS to consider the base system of automated evaluation of blood redistribution (BR) in body means of crew members protection and prophylaxis (CMPP) of unfavourable effects of flight factors to organism and also the automated circuit of CMPP' control. The advanced MSS includes 4 original measuring channels for registration of the base physiologic indices (electrocardiogram, venous-arterial pulsegram of neck vessels, reogram of head, earlap vessels pulsegram) the dynamic of which allows to determine with the help of computer the BR-integral parameter. The CMPP automated control circuit unites the separate protecting means in common system and executes the individual selection of regimes and CM PP-composition in accord with, first of all, body reactions manifestation and, secondly, individual physiologic status of spaceman. As CMPP was selected the negative pressure production around lower body part. Approlation of constructed active laboratory engineering mock-up MSS has performed investigations with participation of 29 subjects (Volunteers) under the modeling of hemodynamic shifts, developing in human body in short-term antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), as well as, in combined effect of antiorthostatic hypokinesia (-10 degrees), Coriolis acceleration and optokinetic stimulation. Results of investigations have showed, that the use of advanced MSS gives the indices of operator professional activity on the average of 17-32% under the decrease of hemodynamic stressful.

  5. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Murata

    Full Text Available To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS. We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment ("Medaka Osteoclast" was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4 and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation-reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114, and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation.

  6. Detection of gamma-ray bursts with the ECLAIRs instrument onboard the space mission SVOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antier-Farfar, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1970's, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are amazing cosmic phenomena appearing randomly on the sky and releasing large amounts of energy mainly through gamma-ray emission. Although their origin is still under debate, they are believed to be produced by some of the most violent explosions in the Universe leading to the formation of stellar black-holes. GRBs are detected by their prompt emission, an intense short burst of gamma-rays (from a few milliseconds to few minutes), and are followed by a lived-afterglow emission observed on longer timescales from the X-ray to the radio domain. My thesis participates to the development of the SVOM mission, which a Chinese-French mission to be launched in 2021, devoted to the study of GRBs and involving space and ground instruments. My work is focussed on the main instrument ECLAIRs, a hard X-ray coded mask imaging camera, in charge of the near real-time detection and localization of the prompt emission of GRBs. During my thesis, I studied the scientific performances of ECLAIRs and in particular the number of GRBs expected to be detected by ECLAIRs and their characteristics. For this purpose, I performed simulations using the prototypes of the embedded trigger algorithms combined with the model of the ECLAIRs instrument. The input data of the simulations include a background model and a synthetic population of gamma-ray bursts generated from existing catalogs (CGRO, HETE-2, Fermi and Swift). As a result, I estimated precisely the ECLAIRs detection efficiency of the algorithms and I predicted the number of GRBs to be detected by ECLAIRs: 40 to 70 GRBs per year. Moreover, the study highlighted that ECLAIRs will be particularly sensitive to the X-ray rich GRB population. My thesis provided additional studies about the localization performance, the rate of false alarm and the characteristics of the triggers of the algorithms. Finally, I also proposed two new methods for the detection of GRBs.The preliminary

  7. Opportunities for Geoscience Research Onboard Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, W.; Beerer, I.; Stephens, K.; Griffith, J.; Persall, W.; Tizard, J.

    2012-12-01

    Virgin Galactic has developed a reusable spaceplane, called SpaceShipTwo (SS2), designed to make routine voyages into suborbital space. SS2 is air-launched from a jet aircraft at an altitude of 50,000 ft. before igniting its rocket motor engine. The vehicle reaches a maximum apogee as high as 110 km before gliding to a conventional runway landing. With the ability to fly multiple times per week, SS2 will be capable of providing routine access to a rarely sampled and poorly understood region of the atmosphere and ionosphere, making it a valuable platform for geoscience research. With a payload capacity up to 1300 lbs., SS2 provides access to space and the upper atmosphere for substantially larger payloads than sounding rockets and at a dramatically lower cost than orbital satellites. The main cabin provides as much as 500 cubic ft. of useable volume in a shirt-sleeve environment and payload mounting interfaces that are compatible with standard architectures, such as Middeck Lockers, Cargo Transfer Bags, and server racks. A flight test engineer will be available on board to operate payloads during flight. In the future, SS2 will also offer a variety of external payload mounting locations, enabling researchers to make frequent in situ measurements in the mesosphere (50-90 km), lower thermosphere (above 80 km), and lower ionosphere (above 60 km). SS2 may also offer optical quality windows, allowing optical investigations from main cabin payloads. Researchers will have access to their payloads until just hours before flight and within three hours post-flight. While commercial operations will begin out of Spaceport America in New Mexico, SS2 may eventually be able to launch from a variety of geographic locations. Funding to develop and fly payloads for SS2 is currently available through many NASA programs including the Flight Opportunities Program and the Game Changing Development Program. Virgin Galactic expects the SS2 research platform to enable significant progress

  8. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station Hardware and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly, logging more than 620 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) which accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample-Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400 C. Once an SCA is installed, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via

  9. [STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF THE LYMPH TISSUE OF MICE LYMPHATIC NODES FOLLOWING THE 30-DAY FLIGHT ONBOARD SPACECRAFT BION-M1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulekbaeva, L E; Demchenko, G A; Ilyin, E A; Erofeeva, L M

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the lymph tissue of mesenteric and cervical lymphatic nodes in C57BL/6N mice after the 30-day orbital flight onboard biosatellite Bion-M1. Histological and morphometric investigations revealed changes in the ratio of the nodes structural-functional zones and microstructure. Reductions in reticular cells, plasmocytes, macrophages and blasts in the nodes point to degradation of both humoral and cellular immunity.

  10. Continuous monitoring of the lunar or Martian subsurface using on-board pattern recognition and neural processing of Rover geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Charles E.; Boyd, Richard V.; Sternberg, Ben K.

    1991-01-01

    The overall aim is to provide base technology for an automated vision system for on-board interpretation of geophysical data. During the first year's work, it was demonstrated that geophysical data can be treated as patterns and interpreted using single neural networks. Current research is developing an integrated vision system comprising neural networks, algorithmic preprocessing, and expert knowledge. This system is to be tested incrementally using synthetic geophysical patterns, laboratory generated geophysical patterns, and field geophysical patterns.

  11. Development of an onboard system to measure the on-road driving pattern for developing motorcycle driving cycle in Khon Kaen city, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Seedam, Atthapol; Satiennam, Thaned; Radpukdee, Thana; Satiennam, Wichuda

    2015-01-01

    This study developed an onboard system to measure the on-road driving pattern for a motorcycle driving cycle in Khon Kaen city, Thailand. The developed system, validated with high accuracy results, could measure and record a driving pattern, i.e. a speed profile of a driving motorcycle. The selected motorcycle was driven along selected routes in Khon Kaen city under the existing traffic conditions to collect the on-road driving pattern. The Khon Kaen motorcycle driving cycle (KMDC) was develo...

  12. Education and Outreach from the JOIDES Resolution during IODP Expedition 360 : linking onboard research and classroom activities during and after the Expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, M.; Zhang, J.; Kavanagh, L.; Martinez, A. O.; Expedition 360 Scientists, I.

    2016-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) expeditions provide an excellent opportunity for onboard Education Officers (EO) to communicate and disseminate exciting shipboard research and discoveries to students around the world. During expedition 360, the EOs carried out 140 live webcasts, using different strategies to create an effective link between both students and scientists. Below are examples of strategies we used: -Primary school: The Beauty of Gabbro! and Life in the rocks! During the webcasts, students could virtually tour the ship, interview scientists, and see and discuss samples of the cored gabbro and minerals in thin sections. Artistic contextualization by J. Zhang, facilitated these activities. Moreover, highlighting the search for microbes in the Earth's crust , was particularly successful in engaging the students. -Middle and High school: Fun and relationships in science. Students were able to email expert scientists in the scientific discipline they chose to research and interview them during a live webcast. Some students created a song about the expedition. "on the boat - cup song - IODP project" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qex-w9aSV7c-University: Travels, research and the everyday life of professors onboard. We used webcasts to connect with universities in France, Japan and Italy, to create vibrant interactions between students and scientists that enabled students to get closer to their professors and understand better the life of onboard researchers. In collaboration with the science party we developed new strategies to keep in touch with students after completion of the cruise. We generated teaching kits consisting of pedaqgoical sets of pictures, exercises using onboard data, a continuously updated map "tracking geologists", and live webcasts to be organized from laboratories to schools. We already have had enthusiastic feedback from teachers that took part in our webcasts and the challenge is to continue to foster the

  13. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  14. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  15. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  16. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  17. Caliste-SO: the x-ray spectrometer unit of the STIX instrument onboard the Solar Orbiter space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris, Aline; Limousin, Olivier; Gevin, Olivier; Vassal, Marie-Cécile; Soufflet, Fabrice; Fiant, Nicolas; Bednarzik, Martin; Wild, Christopher; Stutz, Stefan; Birrer, Guy; Blondel, Claire; Le Mer, Isabelle; Huynh, Duc-Dat; Donati, Modeste; Grimm, Oliver; Commichau, Volker; Hurford, Gordon; Krucker, Säm.; Gonzalez, François; Billot, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Caliste-SO is a hybrid detector integrating in a volume of 12 × 14 × 18 mm3 a 1 mm-thick CdTe pixel detector, a frontend IDeF-X HD ASIC and passive parts to perform high resolution spectroscopy in the 4-200 keV energy range with high count rate capability (104-105 photons/s/cm2). The detector hybridization concept was designed by CEA and 3DPlus to realize CdTe cameras for space astronomy missions with various pixel patterns. For the STIX instrument onboard the Solar Orbiter mission, the imaging system is made by 32 collimators that sample the visibilities of the spatial Fourier transform and doesn't require fine pitch pixels. The Al-Schottky CdTe detectors produced by Acrorad are then patterned and tested by the Paul Scherrer Institute to produce 12 pixels surrounded by a guard ring within 1 cm2. Electrical and spectroscopic performance tests of the Caliste-SO samples are performed in France at key manufacturing steps, before sending the samples to the principal investigator to mount them in the Detector Electronics Module of STIX in front of each collimator. Four samples were produced in 2013 to be part of the STIX engineering model. Best pixels show an energy resolution of 0.7 keV FWHM at 6 keV (1 keV resolution requirement for STIX) and a low-level detection threshold below 3 keV (4 keV requirement for STIX). The paper describes the design and the production of Caliste-SO and focuses on main performance tests performed so far to characterize the spectrometer unit.

  18. SU-E-I-79: Effect of Number of Pinholes in Onboard Robotic Multi-Pinhole SPECT System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touch, M; Bowsher, J; Yan, S; Yin, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of number of pinholes for a novel Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system for onboard molecular and functional imaging. Methods: Comparison studies were performed using simulation for the 49-pinhole SPECT system and a series of reductions in number of pinholes. Trajectories about the breast of a supine patient were considered. Minimum distances, radii of rotation (RORs), were determined by requirements to fully view the region of interest (ROI) and to avoid collision between the detector and the patient. Reductions in RORs translate into improvements in sensitivity. Starting from the 49-pinhole system, pinholes were removed pod by pod. The furthest two end pods in the Sup-Inf direction were removed first for their higher likelihood of alleviating the collision avoidance criteria. After iterating through different combinations of pinhole pods, and selecting three combinations, the corresponding RORs were used to analytically calculate sensitivities. Results: Based on the Methods procedure, 3 combination of pods removal were identified: 1) Superior peripheral pod 2) Inferior peripheral pod 3) both pods. RORs were reduced at only one multi-pinhole stop. Analytic calculation showed that sensitivities were reduced from 0.032 for the 49-pinhole system to 0.028 for 42-pinhole and to 0.023 for 39-pinhole system respectively. The sensitivity per pinhole detector was approximately the same for all three cases. Conclusion: For the trajectories considered, only minimal improvements in RORs were identified by removing pinhole pods. Consequently, sensitivities decreased in proportion to the number of pinholes. Studies of other anatomical sites are needed to determine if in some cases sensitivity per pinhole can be improved by removing some pinholes. PHS/NIH/NCI grant R21-CA156390-01A1

  19. Thermal Reactivity Of Organic Molecules With Perchlorates And The Detection Of Organics In Mars Samples With SAM Onboard Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, C.; Millan, M.; Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Guzman, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.

    2017-12-01

    The search for organic molecules at the Mars surface is a key objective to assess the potential for habitability of the planet and to find biomarkers. Both the past Viking landers and the Curiosity rover of today carry onboard instruments based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with the aim to analyze the content of organics present in soil or rock samples. These instruments analyze the volatile compounds released from the samples submitted to thermal or chemical treatments. Even though these sample preparation processes are commonly used on Earth for their efficient extraction of organic materials from mineral matrixes, the presence of oxychlorines recently discovered in the Mars soil [1, 2] makes the process for space applications more complex and the results more difficult to interpret. Indeed, the release of volatile inorganic reactive molecules from oxychlorines during the sample heating process induces reactions of chlorination and oxidation of the organic molecules. For this reason, in an effort to contribute to the interpretation of the results obtained with the Viking/GCMS, and the MSL/SAM experiment our team currently operates on Mars, we started to study systematically the thermal reactivity of a series of organic molecules, of interest for Mars and life purposes, mixed with oxychlorines either detected or potentially present in the soil of Mars [3]. In this presentation, we will mainly focus on two sets of results that were obtained while studying the reactivity of calcium perchlorates with polyaromatic hydrocarbons, amino acids and carboxylic acids under pyrolytic conditions similar to those used in the SAM experiment. First of all, we will show the dependence of reactivity on the temperature of sublimation and decomposition of the individual components in the mixture and, secondly, we will discuss the detection of aromatic chlorinated species by SAM in samples collected at the Cumberland site from the results obtained in this study

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL OPERATION FOR ONBOARD COMPLEXES AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS OF AVIONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Viktorovich Kuznetsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern aircraft are equipped with complicated systems and complexes of avionics. Aircraft and its avionics tech- nical operation process is observed as a process with changing of operation states. Mathematical models of avionics pro- cesses and systems of technical operation are represented as Markov chains, Markov and semi-Markov processes. The pur- pose is to develop the graph-models of avionics technical operation processes, describing their work in flight, as well as during maintenance on the ground in the various systems of technical operation. The graph-models of processes and sys- tems of on-board complexes and functional avionics systems in flight are proposed. They are based on the state tables. The models are specified for the various technical operation systems: the system with control of the reliability level, the system with parameters control and the system with resource control. The events, which cause the avionics complexes and func- tional systems change their technical state, are failures and faults of built-in test equipment. Avionics system of technical operation with reliability level control is applicable for objects with constant or slowly varying in time failure rate. Avion- ics system of technical operation with resource control is mainly used for objects with increasing over time failure rate. Avionics system of technical operation with parameters control is used for objects with increasing over time failure rate and with generalized parameters, which can provide forecasting and assign the borders of before-fail technical states. The pro- posed formal graphical approach avionics complexes and systems models designing is the basis for models and complex systems and facilities construction, both for a single aircraft and for an airline aircraft fleet, or even for the entire aircraft fleet of some specific type. The ultimate graph-models for avionics in various systems of technical operation permit the beginning of

  1. Challenges and Solutions for GNSS Receivers onboard LEO Satellites Traveling through the Ionosphere during Space Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Y.; Xu, D.; Yang, R.; Jiao, Y.; Rino, C.; Carrano, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation discusses challenges imposed on GNSS receiver carrier-tracking loop for receivers onboard LEO satellites traveling through ionosphere during space weather events and techniques that mitigate the effects. Recent studies show that the ESA's swarm satellites experienced a total loss of GPS signals in areas known for frequent occurrence of ionosphere plasma irregularities. The same phenomena have been observed in other satellite missions. More robust GNSS receiver technologies are needed to improve the navigation capabilities for future LEO satellite missions. A major challenge to characterize GNSS signals traversing ionospheric plasma structures to reach a LEO satellite is the lack of data. To overcome this challenge, we utilized a physics-based GNSS scintillation signal simulator to generate simulated data for analysis and algorithm development. The simulator relies on real scintillation data collected by ground-based receivers as the initializer to generate a realization of ionosphere irregularity structure statistical distribution. A user specifies desired satellite orbit, signal modulation scheme, receiver platform dynamics, and receiver front-end hardware design. These inputs are used to establish the signal propagation geometry to allow interception of the disturbed signal by a realistic GNSS receiver. The simulator results showed that plasma structures lead to strong disturbances on GNSS signals reaching a LEO platform. The disturbances are characterized by simultaneous deep amplitude fades and extremely rapid carrier phase fluctuations. The carrier phase rate is orders of magnitude higher than the ones experienced by receivers on the ground. Such high carrier dynamics far exceeds the range that can be tolerated by the bandwidth of a typical GNSS receiver. The deep amplitude fades further exacerbate the problem. Based on the simulator outputs, we established models of the disturbed signal parameters. These models are used in an adaptive

  2. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, A; Mueller, C; Reinecke, H

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CIμ-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CIμ-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CIμ-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH 4 . Combining the CIμ-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CIμ-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CIμ-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CIμ-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 . The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm 2 ) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH 4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours

  3. On-board fault diagnostics for fly-by-light flight control systems using neural network flight processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, James M., Sr.; Cushing, John; Bond, William E.; Nunes, Steve

    1996-10-01

    Fly-by-Light control systems offer higher performance for fighter and transport aircraft, with efficient fiber optic data transmission, electric control surface actuation, and multi-channel high capacity centralized processing combining to provide maximum aircraft flight control system handling qualities and safety. The key to efficient support for these vehicles is timely and accurate fault diagnostics of all control system components. These diagnostic tests are best conducted during flight when all facts relating to the failure are present. The resulting data can be used by the ground crew for efficient repair and turnaround of the aircraft, saving time and money in support costs. These difficult to diagnose (Cannot Duplicate) fault indications average 40 - 50% of maintenance activities on today's fighter and transport aircraft, adding significantly to fleet support cost. Fiber optic data transmission can support a wealth of data for fault monitoring; the most efficient method of fault diagnostics is accurate modeling of the component response under normal and failed conditions for use in comparison with the actual component flight data. Neural Network hardware processors offer an efficient and cost-effective method to install fault diagnostics in flight systems, permitting on-board diagnostic modeling of very complex subsystems. Task 2C of the ARPA FLASH program is a design demonstration of this diagnostics approach, using the very high speed computation of the Adaptive Solutions Neural Network processor to monitor an advanced Electrohydrostatic control surface actuator linked through a AS-1773A fiber optic bus. This paper describes the design approach and projected performance of this on-line diagnostics system.

  4. Preflight Calibration Test Results for Optical Navigation Camera Telescope (ONC-T) Onboard the Hayabusa2 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, S.; Suzuki, H.; Takamatsu, T.; Cho, Y.; Yasuda, T.; Yamada, M.; Sawada, H.; Honda, R.; Morota, T.; Honda, C.; Sato, M.; Okumura, Y.; Shibasaki, K.; Ikezawa, S.; Sugita, S.

    2017-07-01

    The optical navigation camera telescope (ONC-T) is a telescopic framing camera with seven colors onboard the Hayabusa2 spacecraft launched on December 3, 2014. The main objectives of this instrument are to optically navigate the spacecraft to asteroid Ryugu and to conduct multi-band mapping the asteroid. We conducted performance tests of the instrument before its installation on the spacecraft. We evaluated the dark current and bias level, obtained data on the dependency of the dark current on the temperature of the charge-coupled device (CCD). The bias level depends strongly on the temperature of the electronics package but only weakly on the CCD temperature. The dark-reference data, which is obtained simultaneously with observation data, can be used for estimation of the dark current and bias level. A long front hood is used for ONC-T to reduce the stray light at the expense of flatness in the peripheral area of the field of view (FOV). The central area in FOV has a flat sensitivity, and the limb darkening has been measured with an integrating sphere. The ONC-T has a wheel with seven bandpass filters and a panchromatic glass window. We measured the spectral sensitivity using an integrating sphere and obtained the sensitivity of all the pixels. We also measured the point-spread function using a star simulator. Measurement results indicate that the full width at half maximum is less than two pixels for all the bandpass filters and in the temperature range expected in the mission phase except for short periods of time during touchdowns.

  5. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  6. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  7. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  8. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...

  9. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  10. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  11. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  12. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  13. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  14. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  15. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  16. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  17. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  18. Power generation method including membrane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  19. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  20. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  1. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-11-03

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  3. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  4. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  5. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  6. Searching for amino-acid homochirality on Mars with the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) onboard ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, C.; Sternberg, R.; Brault, A.; Szopa, C.; Claude-Geffroy, C.; Coll, P. J.; Grand, N.; Raulin, F.; Pinick, V.; Goesmann, F.

    2012-12-01

    The joint ESA-Roscosmos Exo-Mars-2018 rover mission plans to seek the signs of a past or a present life on Mars. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment onboard theExoMars rover will be a key analytical tool in providing molecular information from Mars solid samples, with a specific focus on the characterization of their organic content. In this purpose, one of MOMA's main instruments is a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), which provides a unique ability to characterize a broad range of compounds and allow chemical analyses on volatile and refractory species. The challenge with the analysis of this refractory matter embedded in soil is their primary extraction before their analysis by GC-MS. Since the extraction of organic matter is not possible by liquid solvent extraction, we have developed a method based on the thermodesorption and subsequent derivatization of the organic molecules. The goal of the thermodesorption is to extract the organic matter by heating the sample quickly enough not to degrade its organic content. One of the main focuses is to determine the chirality of this organic matter, notably amino acids. Indeed, on Earth, homochirality of molecules is an indicator for the presence of life. Amino acids appear to bear only the left-handed form (L) in living system. However, other refractory compounds can raise interest: nucleobases, carboxylic acids and PAHs are among molecules supported by life as we know it, and all of them can display chirality. The intrinsic chirality of molecules being thermosensitive, the thermodesorption parameters have been adjusted to occur within a range of temperatures from 150 °C to 300 °C over a period of 30 s to 10 min, depending on the chemical compound. Under these conditions, we have shown that amino acids are not degraded and that their chirality is preserved. Once extracted, refractory molecules with labile hydrogens (e.g. amino acids, nucleobases, carboxylic acids, etc.) are derivatized

  7. Estimates of forest height in the Amazon basin using radar altimeter data of SARIN mode onboard Cryosat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Forest height is an important parameter for global carbon cycle studies. New technologies are required since the end of the operation ofGeoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (IceSat) in 2009. CryoSat-2 is a European Space Agencyenvironmental research satellite which was launched in April 2010.The SIRAL (SAR Interferometer Radar Altimeter) on board CryoSat-2 provides three operational modes for different observational requirements. Before the launch of Icesat2 around July 2016, CryoSat data represents a unique source of information on regional-to-global scale forest canopy height.We propose to use radar altimetry waveforms from the synthetic aperture/interferometric (SARin) mode to estimate canopy height in the Amazon basin. To understand the relation between canopy structure and the SIRAL waveform in Ku band, a 3D model was developed and implemented based on a Lidar model by introducingthe scattering items from crown, trunk and ground surface at Ku band. The vertical distribution of tree crown volume within a SIRAL footprint was calculated from its 3-D stand model by summing the volumes of all tree crown cells at the same height from the ground. The preliminary comparisons between simulated and measured SIRAL waveforms show that the model captures the major characteristics of the SIRAL signature. Cryosat waveform data of SARin mode and from June, 2011 to June, 2012 (cycle 04) is used to retrieve canopy height at Amazon basin under Cryosat groundtrack. The canopy height is derived by extracting the key points of vegetation and ground returns after noise estimation. Because of lack of field tree height measurement in 2012 at Amazon, we validated the results using the field measurements at four areas (the km 67 camp, the km 77 camp, Ruropolis, the Taoajos river) of Tapajos National Forest, Brazil in November 1999, and compared the results with the canopy height estimation from previous studies using Laser

  8. Winds in the Middle Cloud Deck From the Near-IR Imaging by the Venus Monitoring Camera Onboard Venus Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatuntsev, I. V.; Patsaeva, M. V.; Titov, D. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Turin, A. V.; Fedorova, A. A.; Markiewicz, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    For more than 8 years the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard the Venus Express orbiter performed continuous imaging of the Venus cloud layer in UV, visible and near-IR filters. We applied the correlation approach to sequences of the near-IR images at 965 nm to track cloud features and determine the wind field in the middle and lower cloud (49-57 km). From the VMC images that spanned from December of 2006 through August of 2013 we derived zonal and meridional components of the wind field. In low-to-middle latitudes (5-65°S) the velocity of the retrograde zonal wind was found to be 68-70 m/s. The meridional wind velocity slowly decreases from peak value of +5.8 ± 1.2 m/s at 15°S to 0 at 65-70°S. The mean meridional speed has a positive sign at 5-65°S suggesting equatorward flow. This result, together with the earlier measurements of the poleward flow at the cloud tops, indicates the presence of a closed Hadley cell in the altitude range 55-65 km. Long-term variations of zonal and meridional velocity components were found during 1,200 Earth days of observation. At 20° ± 5°S the zonal wind speed increases from -67.18 ± 1.81 m/s to -77.30 ± 2.49 m/s. The meridional wind gradually increases from +1.30 ± 1.82 m/s to +8.53 ± 2.14 m/s. Following Bertaux et al. (2016) we attribute this long-term trend to the influence from the surface topography on the dynamical process in the atmosphere via the upward propagation of gravity waves that became apparent in the VMC observations due to slow drift of the Venus Express orbit over Aphrodite Terra.

  9. GIADA onboard Rosetta characterising comet 67/PChuryumov-Gerasimenko dust environment inbound to and outbound from perihelion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Rotundi, Alessandra; Fulle, Marco

    2016-07-01

    GIADA (Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator) is an in-situ instrument onboard Rosetta monitoring the dust environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. GIADA is composed of 3 sub-systems: 1) the Grain Detection System, based on particle detection through light scattering; 2) the Impact Sensor, measuring particle momentum; 3) the Micro-Balances System, constituted of 5 quartz crystal microbalances, providing cumulated dust from different directions. From the combination of the measurements performed by the three subsystems we retrieve: the number, the mass, the momentum, the speed of individual dust particles and the cumulative dust flux emitted from the comet nucleus. We will present the coma dust environment as observed by GIADA during the pre-landing and escort phases of the Rosetta space mission. GIADA was able to detect temporal and spatial variation of dust density distribution and to disentangle different types of impacting dust particles. Specific high dust spatial density sectors of the coma have been identified and their evolution with respect to the heliocentric distance was studied. From August 2014 to December 2015, i.e. inbound, at and outbound perihelion, Rosetta performed different trajectories around the nucleus and flybys with different close approach distances, different coordinates of the sub-spacecraft point and different observing geometry (phase angle), allowed GIADA to characterize the dust environment within the 67P/C-G coma and its temporal variation. Acknowledgements. GIADA was built by a consortium led by the Univ. Napoli "Parthenope" & INAF- Oss. Astr. Capodimonte, IT, in collaboration with the Inst. de Astrofisica de Andalucia, ES, Selex-ES s.p.a. and SENER. GIADA is presently managed & operated by Ist. di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali-INAF, IT. GIADA was funded and managed by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, IT, with a support of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science MEC, ES. GIADA was developed from a PI proposal

  10. GIADA On-Board Rosetta: Early Dust Grain Detections and Dust Coma Characterization of Comet 67P/C-G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundi, A.; Della Corte, V.; Accolla, M.; Ferrari, M.; Ivanovski, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Sordini, R.; Palumbo, P.; Colangeli, L.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez, J.; Fulle, M.; Bussoletti, E.; Crifo, J. F.; Esposito, F.; Green, S.; Grün, E.; Lamy, P. L.; McDonnell, T.; Mennella, V.; Molina, A.; Moreno, F.; Ortiz, J. L.; Palomba, E.; Perrin, J. M.; Rodrigo, R.; Weissman, P. R.; Zakharov, V.; Zarnecki, J.

    2014-12-01

    GIADA (Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator) flying on-board Rosetta is devoted to study the cometary dust environment of 67P/Churiumov-Gerasimenko. GIADA is composed of 3 sub-systems: the GDS (Grain Detection System), based on grain detection through light scattering; an IS (Impact Sensor), giving momentum measurement detecting the impact on a sensed plate connected with 5 piezoelectric sensors; the MBS (MicroBalances System), constituted of 5 Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCMs), giving cumulative deposited dust mass by measuring the variations of the sensors' frequency. The combination of the measurements performed by these 3 subsystems provides: the number, the mass, the momentum and the velocity distribution of dust grains emitted from the cometary nucleus.No prior in situ dust dynamical measurements at these close distances from the nucleus and starting from such large heliocentric distances are available up to date. We present here the first results obtained from the beginning of the Rosetta scientific phase. We will report dust grains early detection at about 800 km from the nucleus in August 2014 and the following measurements that allowed us characterizing the 67P/C-G dust environment at distances less than 100 km from the nucleus and single grains dynamical properties. Acknowledgements. GIADA was built by a consortium led by the Univ. Napoli "Parthenope" & INAF-Oss. Astr. Capodimonte, IT, in collaboration with the Inst. de Astrofisica de Andalucia, ES, Selex-ES s.p.a. and SENER. GIADA is presently managed & operated by Ist. di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali-INAF, IT. GIADA was funded and managed by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, IT, with a support of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science MEC, ES. GIADA was developped from a PI proposal supported by the University of Kent; sci. & tech. contribution given by CISAS, IT, Lab. d'Astr. Spat., FR, and Institutions from UK, IT, FR, DE and USA. We thank the RSGS/ESAC, RMOC/ESOC & Rosetta Project

  11. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  12. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  13. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  14. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  15. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  16. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C

    2010-02-01

    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  18. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  19. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  20. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  1. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  2. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  3. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  4. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)

  5. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  6. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Resection of thymoma should include nodal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weksler, Benny; Pennathur, Arjun; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Nason, Katie S

    2015-03-01

    Thymoma is best treated by surgical resection; however, no clear guidelines have been created regarding lymph node sampling at the time of resection. Additionally, the prognostic implications of nodal metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic implications of nodal metastases in thymoma. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients who underwent surgical resection of thymoma with documented pathologic examination of lymph nodes. The impact of nodal status on survival and thymoma staging was examined. We identified 442 patients who underwent thymoma resection with pathologic evaluation of 1 or more lymph nodes. A median of 2 nodes were sampled per patient. Fifty-nine patients (59 of 442, 13.3%) had ≥ 1 positive node. Patients with positive nodes were younger and had smaller tumors than node-negative patients. Median survival in the node-positive patients was 98 months, compared with 144 months in node-negative patients (P = .013). In multivariable analysis, the presence of positive nodes had a significant, independent, adverse impact on survival (hazard ratio 1.945, 95% confidence interval 1.296-2.919, P = .001). The presence of nodal metastases resulted in a change in classification to a higher stage in 80% of patients, the majority from Masaoka-Koga stage III to stage IV. Nodal status seems to be an important prognostic factor in patients with thymoma. Until the prognostic significance of nodal metastases is better understood, surgical therapy for thymoma should include sampling of regional lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Onboard Science Insights and Vehicle Dynamics from Scale-Model Trials of the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Capsule at Laguna Negra, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D; Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2016-11-21

    A scale model of the proposed Titan Mare Explorer capsule was deployed at the Planetary Lake Lander field site at Laguna Negra, Chile. The tests served to calibrate models of wind-driven drift of the capsule and to understand its attitude motion in the wave field, as well as to identify dynamic and acoustic signatures of shoreline approach. This information enables formulation of onboard trigger criteria for near-shore science data acquisition. Key Words: Titan-Vehicle dynamics-Science autonomy-Lake. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

  9. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  10. The DOSIS -Experiment onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station -Overview and first mission results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Kürner, Christine; Burmeister, Sünke; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Horwacik, Tomasz; Vanhavere, Filip; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Pálfalvi, József K.; O'Sullivan, Denis; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kodaira, Satoshi; Yukihara, Eduardo; Benton, Eric; Zapp, Neal; Gaza, Ramona; Zhou, Dazhuang; Semones, Edward; Roed, Yvonne; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long dura-tion human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. The DOSIS (Dose Distribution inside the ISS) experiment, under the project and science lead of DLR, aims for the spatial and tempo-ral measurement of the radiation field parameters inside the European Columbus laboratory onboard the International Space Station. This goal is achieved by applying a combination of passive (Thermo-and Optical luminescence detectors and Nuclear track etch detectors) and active (silicon telescope) radiation detectors. The passive radiation detectors -so called pas-sive detector packages (PDP) are mounted at eleven positions within the Columbus laboratory -aiming for a spatial dose distribution measurement of the absorbed dose, the linear energy transfer spectra and the dose equivalent with an average exposure time of six months. Two active silicon telescopes -so called Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTEL 1 and DOSTEL 2) together with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) are mounted within the DOSIS Main Box at a fixed loca-tion beneath the European Physiology Module (EPM) rack. The DOSTEL 1 and DOSTEL 2 detectors are positioned at a 90 angle to each other for a precise measurement of the temporal and spatial variation of the radiation field, especially during crossing of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The DOSIS hardware was launched with the

  11. Predicting adult pulmonary ventilation volume and wearing complianceby on-board accelerometry during personal level exposure assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes, C. E.; Chillrud, S. N.; Haskell, W. L.; Intille, S. S.; Albinali, F.; Rosenberger, M. E.

    2012-09-01

    BackgroundMetabolic functions typically increase with human activity, but optimal methods to characterize activity levels for real-time predictions of ventilation volume (l min-1) during exposure assessments have not been available. Could tiny, triaxial accelerometers be incorporated into personal level monitors to define periods of acceptable wearing compliance, and allow the exposures (μg m-3) to be extended to potential doses in μg min-1 kg-1 of body weight? ObjectivesIn a pilot effort, we tested: 1) whether appropriately-processed accelerometer data could be utilized to predict compliance and in linear regressions to predict ventilation volumes in real-time as an on-board component of personal level exposure sensor systems, and 2) whether locating the exposure monitors on the chest in the breathing zone, provided comparable accelerometric data to other locations more typically utilized (waist, thigh, wrist, etc.). MethodsPrototype exposure monitors from RTI International and Columbia University were worn on the chest by a pilot cohort of adults while conducting an array of scripted activities (all oral-nasal ventilation volumes in-situ. For the subset of participants with complete data (n = 22), linear regressions were constructed (processed accelerometric variable versus ventilation rate) for each participant and exposure monitor type, and Pearson correlations computed to compare across scenarios. ResultsTriaxial accelerometer data were demonstrated to be adequately sensitive indicators for predicting exposure monitor wearing compliance. Strong linear correlations (R values from 0.77 to 0.99) were observed for all participants for both exposure sensor accelerometer variables against ventilation volume for recumbent, sedentary, and ambulatory activities with MET values ˜<6. The RTI monitors mean R value of 0.91 was slightly higher than the Columbia monitors mean of 0.86 due to utilizing a 20 Hz data rate instead of a slower 1 Hz rate. A nominal mean

  12. On Gamma Ray Instrument On-Board Data Processing Real-Time Computational Algorithm for Cosmic Ray Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Hunter, Stanley D.; Hanu, Andrei R.; Sheets, Teresa B.

    2016-01-01

    gamma ray events and the problem is to detect and reject the much more voluminous cosmic ray projections, so that the remaining science data can be telemetered to the ground over the constrained communication link. The state-of-the-art in cosmic rays detection and rejection does not provide an adequate computational solution. This paper presents a novel approach to the AdEPT on-board data processing burdened with the CR detection top pole bottleneck problem. This paper is introducing the data processing object, demonstrates object segmentation and distribution for processing among many processing elements (PEs) and presents solution algorithm for the processing bottleneck - the CR-Algorithm. The algorithm is based on the a priori knowledge that a CR pierces the entire instrument pressure vessel. This phenomenon is also the basis for a straightforward CR simulator, allowing the CR-Algorithm performance testing. Parallel processing of the readout image's (2(N+M) - 4) peripheral voxels is detecting all CRs, resulting in O(n) computational complexity. This algorithm near real-time performance is making AdEPT class spaceflight instruments feasible.

  13. Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weikersheimer, Patricia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reducing the idling of long-haul heavy-duty trucks has long been recognized as a particularly low-hanging fruit of fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. The displacement of about 10 hours of diesel idling every day, for most days of the year, for as many as a million long-haul trucks has very clear benefits. This report considers the costs and return on investment (ROI) for idling reduction (IR) equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space (EPS) equipment owners. For the truck owners, the key variables examined are idling hours to be displaced (generally 1,000 to 2,000 hours per year) and the price of fuel ($0 to $5/gal). The ideal IR option would provide complete services in varied climates in any location and offer the best ROI on trucks that log many idling hours. For trucks that have fewer idling hours, options with a fixed cost per hour (i.e., EPS) might be most attractive if they were available to all, or even most, truck drivers. EPS, however, is particularly cost effective for trucks on prescribed routes with a need for regular, extended stops at terminals. (EPS is also called truck stop electrification, or TSE.) The analysis shows that all IR options save money when fuel costs more than $2/gal. For trucks requiring bunk heat, a simple heater (plug-in or diesel) is almost always the most costeffective way to provide heat, even if the truck is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) or is parked at a single-system EPS location. For trucks requiring bunk air-conditioning, the use of single-system EPS is most cost effective for those logging fewer idling hours. Even for trucks with higher idling hours, the cost of EPS may be about the same as that for on-board air-conditioning. Clearly, trucks’ locations and seasonal factors—and the availability of EPS— are significant in the choice of “best fit” IR equipment for truck owners. This report also considers costs and payback for owners of EPS infrastructure. An industry that 5

  14. On-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol for high temperature PEM fuel cells: Comparison of autothermal reforming and steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan; Wörner, Antje

    2011-03-01

    In the 21st century biofuels will play an important role as alternative fuels in the transportation sector. In this paper different reforming options (steam reforming (SR) and autothermal reforming (ATR)) for the on-board conversion of bioethanol and biodiesel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells are investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. Special emphasis is placed on thermal heat integration. Methyl-oleate (C19H36O2) is chosen as reference substance for biodiesel. Bioethanol is represented by ethanol (C2H5OH). For the steam reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 75.6% (76.3%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 3. For the autothermal reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 74.1% (75.1%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 2 and λ = 0.36 (0.35). Taking into account the better dynamic behaviour and lower system complexity of the reforming concept based on ATR, autothermal reforming in combination with a water gas shift reactor is considered as the preferred option for on-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the simulation results optimum operating conditions for a novel 5 kW biofuel processor are derived.

  15. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  16. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  17. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  18. Stabilization of the 12 V onboard power supply. Ultracapacitors in start-stop systems; Stabilisierung des 12-V-Bordnetzes. Ultrakondensatoren in Start-Stopp-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, Rainer; Gilch, Markus [Unit Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Regensburg (Germany). Div. Powertrain Business; Auer, Juergen; Wieser, Christoph [Maxwell Technologies GmbH, Gilching (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The market of start-stop systems is growing fast and so strongly, that vehicle manufacturers want to remedy weaknesses, which they had accepted approvingly in the beginning. The lack of capacity of the AGM batteries limited considerably the operation and the active times of start-stop. Continental is now announcing a voltage stabilizing system for the 12 V onboard power supply to be ready for serial production, in order to remedy weaknesses. The supplier falls back onto improved double layer capacitors by Maxwell. In addition to the reduction of components of the current short-term memory, the production processes were optimized, which are meant to make the capacitor more reliable and more cost-effective during operation. (orig.)

  19. Vicarious calibration of the solar reflection channels of radiometers onboard satellites through the field campaigns with measurements of refractive index and size distribution of aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, K.

    A comparative study on vicarious calibration for the solar reflection channels of radiometers onboard satellite through the field campaigns between with and without measurements of refractive index and size distribution of aerosols is made. In particular, it is noticed that the influence due to soot from the cars exhaust has to be care about for the test sites near by a heavy trafficked roads. It is found that the 0.1% inclusion of soot induces around 10% vicarious calibration error so that it is better to measure refractive index properly at the test site. It is found that the vicarious calibration coefficients with the field campaigns at the different test site, Ivanpah (near road) and Railroad (distant from road) shows approximately 10% discrepancy. It seems that one of the possible causes for the difference is the influence due to soot from cars exhaust.

  20. Bright eruptive events polarimeter nanosatellite project: definition and performances of a spectro-imaging instrument onboard a nanosatellite payload for solar flares studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triou, Henri Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Nanosatellites are currently essentially aimed at training students in the frame of university projects or used as technological demonstrators. As for now, less than one fifth of the nanosatellites have a scientific interest. However, due to the standardization and miniaturization of satellite subsystems such as AOCS and RF systems (onboard X and S band antennas), the nanosatellite platforms can reach performances in terms of attitude control, pointing stability and data transfer at the level needed for scientific missions. In this paper, we present the analysis (definition and performances) of a payload for solar flares studies. Based on miniaturized and high performance X-rays pixelated detectors (Caliste HD), this payload is designed for the observation of solar flares of all classes and will allow photometry, spectroscopy and possibly polarimetry on such events. We show that it can be accommodated on a nanosatellite (CubeSat type) and be operated within the constraints associated to this type of satellites.