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Sample records for included odd-emotion dysregulation

  1. Reconsidering Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Alessandra; Covanti, Serena; Rossi Monti, Mario; Starcevic, Vladan

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to review the concept of emotion dysregulation, focusing on issues related to its definition, meanings and role in psychiatric disorders. Articles on emotion dysregulation published until May 2016 were identified through electronic database searches. Although there is no agreement about the definition of emotion dysregulation, the following five overlapping, not mutually exclusive dimensions of emotion dysregulation were identified: decreased emotional awareness, inadequate emotional reactivity, intense experience and expression of emotions, emotional rigidity and cognitive reappraisal difficulty. These dimensions characterise a number of psychiatric disorders in various proportions, with borderline personality disorder and eating disorders seemingly more affected than other conditions. The present review contributes to the literature by identifying the key components of emotion dysregulation and by showing how these permeate various forms of psychopathology. It also makes suggestions for improving research endeavours. Better understanding of the various dimensions of emotion dysregulation will have implications for clinical practice. Future research needs to address emotion dysregulation in all its multifaceted complexity so that it becomes clearer what the concept encompasses.

  2. Pediatric emotional dysregulation and behavioral disruptiveness treated with hypnosis: a time-series design.

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    Iglesias, Alex; Iglesias, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A case of pediatric oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with concomitant emotional dysregulation and secondary behavioral disruptiveness was treated with hypnosis by means of the hypnotic hold, a method adapted by the authors. An A-B-A-B time-series design with multiple replications was employed to measure the relationship of the hypnotic treatment to the dependent measure: episodes of emotional dysregulation with accompanying behavioral disruptiveness. The findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between the degree of change from phase to phase and the treatment. Follow-up at 6 months indicated a significant reduction of the frequency of targeted episodes of emotional dysregulation and behavioral disruptiveness at home.

  3. Effect of Methylphenidate on Emotional Dysregulation in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder + Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder.

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    Kutlu, Ayse; Akyol Ardic, Ulku; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2017-04-01

    Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first-line treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, but their effects on ED are not well studied. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on ED in ADHD + ODD/CD cases. A total of 118 ADHD + ODD/CD patients with a mean age of 9.0 ± 1.9 years were treated with MPH for 1 year. Also, parents of cases were recruited for a parent-training program, which initiated after first month of MPH treatment. Symptom severity was assessed at baseline and 12th month by Turgay Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale-Parent Form, Children Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18 years, and Parental Acceptance and Rejection Questionnaire-Mother Form. Emotional dysregulation (DESR + DP) was present in 85.6% of cases. Conduct disorder was significantly higher in patients with DP, whereas ODD was significantly higher in the DESR and non-ED groups (P disorders as ODD and CD, which are comorbid with ADHD. The MPH treatment is effective on ED independently from other clinical determinants.

  4. Emotion Dysregulation and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Prospective Study

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    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation deficits have been consistently linked to psychopathology in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology is unclear. This study examined the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation deficits and psychopathology in adolescents. Methods Emotion dysregulation and symptomatology (depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology) were assessed in a large, diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,065) at two time points separated by seven months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion dysregulation and symptoms of psychopathology. Results The three distinct emotion processes examined here (emotional understanding, dysregulated expression of sadness and anger, and ruminative responses to distress) formed a unitary latent emotion dysregulation factor. Emotion dysregulation predicted increases in anxiety symptoms, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology after controlling for baseline symptoms but did not predict depressive symptoms. In contrast, none of the four types of psychopathology predicted increases in emotion dysregulation after controlling for baseline emotion dysregulation. Conclusions Emotion dysregulation appears to be an important transdiagnostic factor that increases risk for a wide range of psychopathology outcomes in adolescence. These results suggest targets for preventive interventions during this developmental period of risk. PMID:21718967

  5. [Is emotional dysregulation a component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?].

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    Villemonteix, T; Purper-Ouakil, D; Romo, L

    2015-04-01

    the ventral striatum. Morphological alterations of the amygdala have also been reported in previous structural studies in children with ADHD. Emotional lability can result from different neurobiological mechanisms. In particular, bottom-up and top-down processes can be opposed. Bottom-up related emotional dysregulation involves an increased emotional reactivity, and is thought to be linked to the automatic evaluative activity of the amygdala. Top-down mechanisms are associated with the regulation of such activity, and rely on a prefrontal network including the lateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. Since various neuropsychological impairments and alterations in multiple brain networks have been implicated in the etiology of ADHD, contemporary models emphasize its neuropsychological heterogeneity. It is therefore likely that some but not all children with ADHD will exhibit neurobiological alterations in circuits dedicated to emotional regulation, possibly at different levels. Future research will have to identify the different causal pathways and to decide whether emotional lability represents a criterion to subtype ADHD diagnoses. Emotional dysregulation is now known to play a causal role regarding ADHD symptomatology. Along with executive functioning, reaction time variability and potentially delay aversion, emotional dysregulation should therefore be included in future theoretical models of ADHD, as well as in clinical practice when identifying the major impairments in this diagnostic group and when deciding therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative symptoms in a highly traumatized sample

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    Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Fani, Negar; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to multiple traumas has been shown to result in many negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Dissociation, which involves disruptions in memory, identity, and perceptions, may be a component of PTSD, particularly among individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Emotion regulation difficulties are also strongly associated with childhood trauma and emotion dysregulation may be a particularly important factor to consider in the development and maintenance of dissociative symptoms. The goal of the present study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dissociation in a sample of 154 (80% female, 97% African-American) adults recruited from a public, urban hospital. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, emotion dysregulation was measured using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and dissociation was measured using the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory. A linear regression analysis showed that both PTSD and emotion dysregulation were statistically significant predictors of dissociation even after controlling for trauma exposure. Alexithymia and an inability to use emotion regulation strategies in particular were predictive of dissociation above and beyond other predictor variables. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found that overall emotion dyregulation partially mediated the effect of PTSD symptoms on dissociative symptoms. Our results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be important in understanding the relation between PTSD and dissociative symptoms. Treatment approaches may consider a focus on training in emotional understanding and the development of adaptive regulation strategies as a way to address dissociative symptoms in PTSD patients. PMID:25573648

  7. Childhood trauma and eating psychopathology: a mediating role for dissociation and emotion dysregulation?

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    Moulton, Stuart J; Newman, Emily; Power, Kevin; Swanson, Vivien; Day, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood trauma and eating psychopathology using a multiple mediation model that included emotion dysregulation and dissociation as hypothesised mediators. 142 female undergraduate psychology students studying at two British Universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect), eating psychopathology, dissociation and emotion dysregulation. Multiple mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the study's proposed model. Results revealed that the multiple mediation model significantly predicted eating psychopathology. Additionally, both emotion dysregulation and dissociation were found to be significant mediators between childhood trauma and eating psychopathology. A specific indirect effect was observed between childhood emotional abuse and eating psychopathology through emotion dysregulation. Findings support previous research linking childhood trauma to eating psychopathology. They indicate that multiple forms of childhood trauma should be assessed for individuals with eating disorders. The possible maintaining role of emotion regulation processes should also be considered in the treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotion dysregulation and social competence: stability, change and predictive power.

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    Berkovits, L D; Baker, B L

    2014-08-01

    Social difficulties are closely linked to emotion dysregulation among children with typical development (TD). Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for poor social outcomes, but the relationship between social and emotional development within this population is not well understood. The current study examines the extent to which emotion dysregulation is related to social problems across middle childhood among children with TD or DD. Children with TD (IQ ≥ 85, n = 113) and children with DD (IQ ≤ 75, n = 61) participated in a longitudinal study. Annual assessments were completed at ages 7, 8 and 9 years. At each assessment, mothers reported on children's emotion dysregulation, and both mothers and teachers reported on children's social difficulties. Children with DD had higher levels of emotion dysregulation and social problems at each age than those with TD. Emotion dysregulation and social problems were significantly positively correlated within both TD and DD groups using mother report of social problems, and within the TD group using teacher report of social problems. Among children with TD, emotion dysregulation consistently predicted change in social problems from one year to the next. However, among children with DD, emotion dysregulation offered no unique prediction value above and beyond current social problems. Results suggested that the influence of emotion regulation abilities on social development may be a less salient pathway for children with DD. These children may have more influences, beyond emotion regulation, on their social behaviour, highlighting the importance of directly targeting social skill deficits among children with DD in order to ameliorate their social difficulties. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Emotion Dysregulation Mediates Between Childhood Emotional Abuse and Motives for Substance Use.

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    Barahmand, Usha; Khazaee, Ali; Hashjin, Goudarz Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relative mediating effects of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and motives for opiate use. Seventy four adolescent users of Tramadol, a synthetic opiate, were recruited from a boot camp for de-addiction and rehabilitation services for the study. Data were collected between May, 2014 and November, 2014. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, difficulties regulating emotions, impulsiveness and motives for substance use as well as a socio-demographic information sheet. The results of the current study indicate that types of abuse may be associated with particular outcomes and can inform treatment planning for substance users. Findings from bootstrap mediator analyses indicated that emotion dysregulation, but not impulsiveness, mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and expansion and enhancement motives for substance use. The current study provides preliminary evidence that difficulties regulating emotions may function as a mechanism linking prior childhood experiences of emotional abuse to subsequent motives for substance use. Clinical implications of these findings suggest that targeting emotion dysregulation problems may be an effective adjunct in the treatment of childhood emotional abuse adolescent victims at risk for substance use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Disordered eating and emotion dysregulation among adolescents and their parents.

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    Hansson, Erika; Daukantaité, Daiva; Johnsson, Per

    2017-04-04

    Research on the relationships between adolescent and parental disordered eating (DE) and emotion dysregulation is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether mothers' and fathers' own DE, as measured by SCOFF questionnaire, and emotion dysregulation, as measured by the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS), were associated with their daughters' or sons' DE and emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of shared family meals and possible parent-related predictors of adolescent DE were explored. The total sample comprised 1,265 adolescents (M age  = 16.19, SD = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years, 54.5% female) whose parents had received a self-report questionnaire via mail. Of these, 235 adolescents (18.6% of the total sample) whose parents completed the questionnaire were used in the analyses. Parents' responses were matched and compared with those of their child. Adolescent girls showed greater levels of DE overall than did their parents. Furthermore, DE was associated with emotion dysregulation among both adolescents and parents. Adolescent and parental emotion dysregulation was associated, although there were gender differences in the specifics of this relationship. The frequency of shared dinner meals was the only variable that was associated to DE and emotion dysregulation among adolescents, while parental eating disorder was the only variable that enhanced the probability of adolescent DE. The present study contributes to the literature by demonstrating that there are significant associations between parents and their adolescent children in terms of DE, emotion dysregulation, and shared family meals. Future studies should break down these relationships among mothers, fathers, girls, and boys to further clarify the specific associational, and possibly predictive, directions.

  11. Emotion Dysregulation Mediates the Relation between Mindfulness and Rejection Sensitivity.

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    Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, Carlo; Bizzi, Fabiola

    2015-09-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity (RS; the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to implied or overt interpersonal rejection) in psychopathology has mainly been studied with regard to borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study, we first sought to extend previous evidence of heightened RS in a clinical group with psychiatric disorders other than BPD, when compared with a community sample. Then, we tested whether emotion dysregulation and mindfulness were associated with RS in both sample, further hypothesizing that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relation between mindfulness deficits and RS. We adopted a cross-sectional design involving 191 psychiatric patients and 277 community participants (total N=468). All participants completed the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Our hypotheses were supported, with psychiatric patients reporting greater levels of rejection sensitivity and emotion dysregulation, and lower level of mindfulness. Mindfulness deficits and emotion dysregulation explained a significant amount of variance in RS, in both samples. Finally, bootstrap analyses revealed that mindfulness deficits played an indirect effect on RS through the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. In particular, two different patterns emerged. Among psychiatric patients, an impairment in the ability to assume a non-judgmental stance towards own thoughts and feelings was related to RS through the mediation of limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Conversely, in the community sample, overall emotion dysregulation mediated the effect of lack of attention and awareness for present activities and experience on RS. Longitudinal studies could help in delineating etiological models of RS, and the joint role of deficits in mindfulness and emotion regulation should inform treatment programs.

  12. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation.

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    Garofalo, Carlo; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Velotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197 individuals completed self-report measures of self-esteem level, emotion dysregulation, and trait aggression. Offenders reported lower levels of self-esteem than community participants, as well as greater levels of emotional nonacceptance and hostility. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the association between self-esteem level and aggression. In the offender sample, mediation models were significant for three of the four aspects of trait aggression that were considered. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the links that low self-esteem had with physical aggression, anger, and hostility. The same pattern (with the addition of full mediation for verbal aggression) was confirmed in the community sample. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation may play an important role in the connection between low self-esteem and aggression. Alternative models of the associations among these variables were tested and discussed. As a whole, the present results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that it may be beneficial to include emotion regulation modules as part of prevention and treatment programs for violent offenders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Six months methylphenidate treatment improves emotion dysregulation in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective study

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    Suzer Gamli I

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ipek Suzer Gamli,1 Aysegul Yolga Tahiroglu2 1Sanliurfa Education and Research Hospital, Eyyubiye, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Cukurova University School of Medicine, Saricam, Adana, Turkey Purpose: Individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD may suffer from emotional dysregulation (ED, although this symptom is not listed among the diagnostic criteria. Methylphenidate (MPH is useful in reducing emotional symptoms in ADHD. The aim of the present study was to determine both psychosocial risk factors and presence of ED in adolescents with ADHD before and after MPH treatment. Participants and methods: Eighty-two patients aged 12–18 years with ADHD were included as participants. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children – Present and Lifetime, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, sociodemographic form, and the Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury were administered. Results were compared before and after 6 months MPH treatment. Results: A significant improvement was detected on DERS for impulsivity (15.9±6.8 initial vs 14.2±6.5 final test, p<0.01 and total score (88.4±23.3 initial vs 82.4±2.7 final test, p<0.05 across all patients taking MPH regardless of subtype and sex. Despite treatment, a significant difference remained for impulsivity, strategies, and total score in patients with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD compared with those without ODD, but no difference was detected for conduct disorder comorbidity. In patients who self-harm, scores for goals, impulsivity, strategies, clarity, and total score were higher before treatment: furthermore, impulsivity and total score remained high after treatment. In maltreated patients, goals, impulsivity, strategies, and total scores were significantly higher before treatment; however, their symptoms were ameliorated after treatment with MPH. Conclusion: Individuals with

  14. Emotion dysregulation and dyadic conflict in depressed and typical adolescents: Evaluating concordance across psychophysiological and observational measures

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    Crowell, Sheila E.; Baucom, Brian R.; Yaptangco, Mona; Bride, Daniel; Hsiao, Ray; McCauley, Elizabeth; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2014-01-01

    Many depressed adolescents experience difficulty regulating their emotions. These emotion regulation difficulties appear to emerge in part from socialization processes within families and then generalize to other contexts. However, emotion dysregulation is typically assessed within the individual, rather than in the social relationships that shape and maintain dysregulation. In this study, we evaluated concordance of physiological and observational measures of emotion dysregulation during interpersonal conflict, using a multilevel actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). Participants were 75 mother-daughter dyads, including 50 depressed adolescents with or without a history of self-injury, and 25 typically developing controls. Behavior dysregulation was operationalized as observed aversiveness during a conflict discussion, and physiological dysregulation was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Results revealed different patterns of concordance for control versus depressed participants. Controls evidenced a concordant partner (between-person) effect, and showed increased physiological regulation during minutes when their partner was more aversive. In contrast, clinical dyad members displayed a concordant actor (within-person) effect, becoming simultaneously physiologically and behaviorally dysregulated. Results inform current understanding of emotion dysregulation across multiple levels of analysis. PMID:24607894

  15. Behavioral evidence of emotion dysregulation in binge eaters.

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    Eichen, Dawn M; Chen, Eunice; Boutelle, Kerri N; McCloskey, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    Binge eating is the most common disordered eating symptom and can lead to the development of obesity. Previous self-report research has supported the hypothesis that individuals who binge eat report greater levels of general emotion dysregulation, which may facilitate binge-eating behavior. However, to date, no study has experimentally tested the relation between binge eating history and in-vivo emotion dysregulation. To do this, a sample of female college students who either endorsed binge eating (n = 40) or denied the presence of any eating pathology (n = 47) completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and a behavioral distress tolerance task (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computer: PASAT-C) known to induce negative affect and distress. The binge eating group was 2.96 times more likely to quit the PASAT-C early (χ 2  = 5.04, p = 0.025) and reported greater irritability (F(1,84) = 7.09 p = 0.009) and frustration (F(1,84) = 5.00, p = 0.028) after completing the PASAT-C than controls, controlling for initial levels of these emotions. Furthermore, across the entire sample, quitting early was associated with greater emotion dysregulation on the DERS (r pb  = 0.342, p < 0.01). This study is the first to demonstrate that individuals who binge eat show in-vivo emotional dysregulation on a laboratory task. Future studies should examine the PASAT-C to determine its potential clinical utility for individuals with or at risk of developing binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emotion dysregulation and dyadic conflict in depressed and typical adolescents: evaluating concordance across psychophysiological and observational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E; Baucom, Brian R; Yaptangco, Mona; Bride, Daniel; Hsiao, Ray; McCauley, Elizabeth; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2014-04-01

    Many depressed adolescents experience difficulty in regulating their emotions. These emotion regulation difficulties appear to emerge in part from socialization processes within families and then generalize to other contexts. However, emotion dysregulation is typically assessed within the individual, rather than in the social relationships that shape and maintain dysregulation. In this study, we evaluated concordance of physiological and observational measures of emotion dysregulation during interpersonal conflict, using a multilevel actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). Participants were 75 mother-daughter dyads, including 50 depressed adolescents with or without a history of self-injury, and 25 typically developing controls. Behavior dysregulation was operationalized as observed aversiveness during a conflict discussion, and physiological dysregulation was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Results revealed different patterns of concordance for control versus depressed participants. Controls evidenced a concordant partner (between-person) effect, and showed increased physiological regulation during minutes when their partner was more aversive. In contrast, clinical dyad members displayed a concordant actor (within-person) effect, becoming simultaneously physiologically and behaviorally dysregulated. Results inform current understanding of emotion dysregulation across multiple levels of analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effectiveness of the Unified Protocol on Emotional Dysregulation and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Patients with Psychosomatic Disorders

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    Mina Mazaheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The unified treatment approach (UP is an emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in which the main object of treatment is emotional processes. The aim of the present research was to examine the effectiveness of The Unified Protocol (UP on emotional dysregulation and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in patients with psychosomatic disorders. Methods: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT, a unified treatment, with 12 weekly group sessions of 2 hours, was presented to 14 patients with psychosomatic complaints at the Subspecialty Center of Psychiatry in Isfahan in 2013. Pre- and post-intervention assessments were done by means of the self-report tests of Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ. Results: Significant reductions in post-test scores of total emotional dysregulation (P < 0.01 as well as the factors of non-acceptance (P < 0.05 and strategy (P < 0.01 were seen, while the other factors (goal, impulse, awareness, and clarity did not change. Moreover, a significant reduction was observed in the catastrophizing strategy score (P < 0.05, in comparison with other cognitive strategies. Conclusion: This pilot study including 14 patients with psychosomatic disorders indicates that the Unified treatment approach is an effective treatment in improvement of emotional dysregulation and in reduction of utilizing maladaptive cognitive strategies.

  18. Self-Concept Clarity and Emotion Dysregulation in Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.

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    Lear, Mary K; Pepper, Carolyn M

    2016-12-01

    Recent research has linked identity instability with engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; Claes, Luyckx, & Bijttebier, 2014; Claes et al., 2015). This study examined the relationship between self-concept clarity (SCC), an index of identity stability, and NSSI in a sample of 147 college students, using a cross-sectional survey design. The relationship between SCC and emotion dysregulation in NSSI severity was also examined. SCC was significantly negatively associated with NSSI engagement, as well as NSSI frequency and versatility, above negative affect or age. SCC fully accounted for the variance originally explained by emotion dysregulation in NSSI versatility. NSSI frequency was not significantly predicted by emotion regulation, but self-concept clarity reached marginal significance. These findings provide preliminary support for identity instability as a contributing factor to a relationship between emotion dysregulation and NSSI severity. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed.

  19. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

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    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Du, Yasong; Fan, Juan

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without behavioral problem and healthy children; the ADERQ assessed emotional regulation ability and others were used to assess executive function. Compared to normal children, the ODD group displayed significant differences in the scores of cognitive reappraisal, rumination, expressive suppression, and revealing of negative emotions, as well as in the score of cognitive reappraisal of positive emotions. WCST perseverative errors were well correlated with rumination of negative emotions (r=0.47). Logistic regression revealed that the minimum number of moves in the Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) test (one test in CANTAB) and negative emotion revealing, were strongly associated with ODD diagnosis. Children with ODD showed emotion dysregulation, with negative emotion dysregulation as the main feature. Emotion dysregulation and the lack of ability to plan lead to executive function deficits. The executive function deficits may guide us to understand the deep mechanism under ODD.

  20. Targeting emotion dysregulation in the treatment of self-injury.

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    Gratz, Kim L

    2007-11-01

    Clinically useful definitions of emotion regulation with respect to deliberate self-harm (referred to here as self-injury) focus on adaptive ways of responding to emotional distress rather than on the control of emotions or dampening of emotional arousal. According to one such definition, emotion regulation is a multifaceted construct involving a) the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions; b) ability to engage in goal-directed behaviors, and inhibit impulsive behaviors, when experiencing negative emotions; c) the flexible use of situationally appropriate strategies to modulate the intensity and/or duration of emotional responses rather than to eliminate emotions entirely; and d) willingness to experience negative emotions as part of pursuing meaningful activities in life (Gratz & Roemer, 2004). This article addresses the role of emotion dysregulation in self-injury and discusses two treatments for self-injury that explicitly focus on increasing emotion regulation. These treatments are based on the premise that the reduction of emotion dysregulation will decrease the need for maladaptive behaviors that function to regulate emotions, such as self-injury. A case illustration describing how one of these treatments (an acceptance-based, emotion regulation group therapy) is used to treat self-injury is provided.

  1. The impact of attachment security and emotion dysregulation on anxiety in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed...... to anxiety and that emotion dysregulation would help explain the association between attachment security and anxiety. Results showed that more securely attached youths reported less emotion dysregulation and that youths who had fewer emotion regulation difficulties experienced less anxiety. The association...... between attachment security and anxiety was mediated by emotion dysregulation. The model was confirmed for both children and adolescents. Findings are discussed with respect to theoretical implications, as well as future directions....

  2. Metacognitions or distress intolerance: The mediating role in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and problematic internet use.

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    Akbari, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    Given the relevance of problematic Internet use (PIU) to everyday life, its relationship to emotional dysregulation and the importance of metacognitions and distress intolerance in process and intermediaries research, this study examined which of metacognitions and distress intolerance acts as an intermediary between emotional dysregulation and PIU. In the current study, 413 undergraduate students from the University of Tehran, Iran (202 females; mean age = 20.13) voluntarily completed a questionnaire package which included the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30(, and Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS). The data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling by LISREL software. Significant correlations were found between PIU and emotional dysregulation and both distress intolerance and metacognitions ( P  intolerance. Also, these findings emphasize that distress intolerance has a more significant mediating role than metacognition in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and PIU.

  3. Emotional dysregulation and anxiety control in the psychopathological mechanism underlying drive for thinness

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    Francesca eFiore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotional dysregulation is a process which consists in mitigating, intensifying or maintaining a given emotion and is the trigger for some psychological disorders. Research has shown that a anxiety control plays an important role in emotional expression and regulation and, in addition, for anorexia nervosa and, more in general, in drive for thinness. Scientific literature suggests that in anorexia nervosa there is a core of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control as independent or third variables in a mediational regression model related to drive for thinness. 154 clinical individuals with anorexia participated in the study and all completed a set of self-report questionnaires: eating disorders inventory version 3 (EDI-3, DERS, and the anxiety control questionnaire (ACQ. The data confirmed a mediational model in which the relation between emotional dysregulation and drive for thinness is mediated by anxiety control. The current study partially supports a clinical model in which emotional dysregulation is a distal factor in eating disorders while the mediator variable anxiety control is a proximal factor in the psychopathological process underlying it.

  4. Can Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation in Youth Be Decoded from Functional Neuroimaging?

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    Liana C L Portugal

    included cerebellum, sensory-motor and fronto-limbic areas.The combination of pattern regression models and neuroimaging can help to determine the severity of behavioral and emotional dysregulation in youth at different time points.

  5. Emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology: A structural equation model.

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    Jennissen, Simone; Holl, Julia; Mai, Hannah; Wolff, Sebastian; Barnow, Sven

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the mediating effects of emotion dysregulation on the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology. An adult sample (N=701) from diverse backgrounds of psychopathology completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the negative affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a cross-sectional online survey. Correlational analyses showed that all types of child maltreatment were uniformly associated with emotion dysregulation, and dimensions of emotion dysregulation were strongly related to psychopathology. Limited access to strategies for emotion regulation emerged as the most powerful predictor. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation partially mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology, even after controlling for shared variance with negative affect. These findings emphasize the importance of emotion dysregulation as a possible mediating mechanism in the association between child maltreatment and later psychopathology. Additionally, interventions targeting specific emotion regulation strategies may be effective to reduce psychopathology in victims of child maltreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Family enmeshment, adolescent emotional dysregulation, and the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Katherine Little; Welsh, Deborah P; Darling, Nancy; Culpepper, Christi L

    2015-08-01

    Enmeshment plays a key role in many families' dysfunctional interactions and may be especially detrimental for adolescents. Sixty-four adolescents completed ratings of family enmeshment, perceived distress tolerance, an interpersonal challenge task, and mood ratings before and immediately after the task. Before and during the challenge task, adolescents' respiratory sinus arrhythmia (an indicator of cardiac vagal tone) was recorded. Associations were tested between adolescents' perceptions of family enmeshment and 3 aspects of adolescent emotional dysregulation. Adolescents who perceived higher family enmeshment also demonstrated greater emotional dysregulation in several domains: negative global appraisals of distress tolerance, stronger increase in subjective negative mood from baseline to postchallenge, lower baseline vagal tone, and vagal augmentation during the challenge task. Gender differences also emerged, such that girls reported more negative distress appraisals overall and enmeshed boys showed greater emotional dysregulation across analyses. Findings are discussed in terms of how clinicians may dynamically assess and treat enmeshment and emotional dysregulation in families with male and female adolescents. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Does Emotion Dysregulation Mediate the Association Between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and College Students' Social Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Andrew J; Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Studies demonstrate an association between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and social impairment, although no studies have tested possible mechanisms of this association. This study aimed to (a) examine SCT in relation to college students' social functioning; (b) test if SCT is significantly associated with emotion dysregulation beyond depressive, anxious, and ADHD symptoms; and (c) test if emotion dysregulation mediates the association between SCT symptoms and social impairment. College students (N = 158) completed measures of psychopathology symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and social functioning. Participants with elevated SCT (12%) had higher ADHD, depressive, and anxious symptoms in addition to poorer emotion regulation and social adjustment than participants without elevated SCT. Above and beyond other psychopathologies, SCT was significantly associated with social impairment but not general interpersonal functioning. SCT was also associated with emotion dysregulation, even after accounting for the expectedly strong association between depression and emotion dysregulation. Further analyses supported emotion dysregulation as a mediator of the association between SCT and social impairment. These findings are important for theoretical models of SCT and underscore the need for additional, longitudinal research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The cost of empathy: Parent-adolescent conflict predicts emotion dysregulation for highly empathic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim H J

    2017-09-01

    Empathy plays a key role in maintaining close relationships and promoting prosocial conflict resolution. However, research has not addressed the potential emotional cost of adolescents' high empathy, particularly when relationships are characterized by more frequent conflict. The present 6-year longitudinal study (N = 467) investigated whether conflict with parents predicted emotion dysregulation more strongly for high-empathy adolescents than for lower-empathy adolescents. Emotion dysregulation was operationalized at both the experiential level, using mood diary data collected for 3 weeks each year, and at the dispositional level, using annual self-report measures. In line with predictions, we found that more frequent adolescent-parent conflict predicted greater day-to-day mood variability and dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation for high-empathy adolescents, but not for average- and low-empathy adolescents. Mood variability and difficulties in emotion regulation, in turn, also predicted increased conflict with parents. These links were not moderated by empathy. Moreover, our research allowed for a novel investigation of the interplay between experiential and dispositional emotion dysregulation. Day-to-day mood variability predicted increasing dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation over time, which suggests that experiential dysregulation becomes consolidated into dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that, for high-empathy adolescents, conflict was a driver of this dysregulation consolidation process. Finally, emotion dysregulation played a role in overtime conflict maintenance for high-empathy adolescents. This suggests that, through emotion dysregulation, high empathy may paradoxically also contribute to maintaining negative adolescent-parent interactions. Our research indicates that high empathy comes at a cost when adolescent-parent relationships are characterized by greater negativity

  9. Emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between trauma exposure, post-migration living difficulties and psychological outcomes in traumatized refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Mueller, Julia; Morina, Naser

    2015-03-01

    While emotion dysregulation represents an important mechanism underpinning psychological responses to trauma, little research has investigated this in refugees. In the current study, we examined the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship between refugee experiences (trauma and living difficulties) and psychological outcomes. Participants were 134 traumatized treatment-seeking refugees who completed measures indexing trauma exposure, post-migration living difficulties, difficulties in emotion regulation, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and explosive anger. Findings revealed distinctive patterns of emotion dysregulation associated with each of these psychological disorders. Results also indicated that emotion regulation difficulties mediated the association between both trauma and psychological symptoms, and living difficulties and psychological symptoms. Limitations include a cross-sectional design and the use of measures that had not been validated across all cultural groups in this study. These findings underscore the key role of emotion dysregulation in psychological responses of refugees, and highlight potential directions for treatment interventions for traumatized refugees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  11. Gender moderates the relationship between attachment insecurities and emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, P.; D’Aguanno, M.; de Campora, G.; di Francescantonio, S.; Garofalo, C.; Giromini, L.; Petrocchi, C.; Terrasi, M.; Zavattini, G.C.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment styles and emotion regulation is well documented, and emotion dysregulation is considered characteristic of individuals with insecure attachment styles. Although gender differences in emotion regulation have often been reported, it is not clear whether the association

  12. Trajectories of depressive symptoms in foster youth transitioning into adulthood: the roles of emotion dysregulation and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Bailey, Brenda E; Santuzzi, Alecia M; Lilly, Michelle M

    2014-01-01

    Foster youth often experience considerable adversity both in and out of foster care, including histories of abuse and/or neglect, and further stressors within the foster system. These adverse experiences often occur at key developmental periods that can compromise emotional functioning and lead to posttraumatic symptomatology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotion dysregulation. In the face of difficult histories and ongoing mental health challenges, youth transitioning into adulthood may be particularly vulnerable to increases in depressive symptoms. We explored the trajectory of depressive symptoms in foster youth from age 17 to 19 using a piecewise linear growth model, examining the effects of PTSD and emotion dysregulation on youth's depressive symptoms over time. Results revealed depressive symptoms decreased from age 17 to 18 but increased from 18 to 19. PTSD and emotion dysregulation predicted greater baseline depressive symptoms and decreases in symptoms from age 17 to 18, whereas only PTSD predicted increases in depressive symptoms from 18 to 19. Females reported higher levels of depressive symptoms compared to males. Additionally, emotion dysregulation was a stronger predictor of depressive symptoms for females than males. Implications for service delivery for foster youth transitioning into adulthood are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The Relationship Between Emotion Dysregulation and Impulsive Aggression in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Shannon R; Menefee, Deleene S; Wanner, Jill; Teten Tharp, Andra; Kent, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    While Veterans in general are no more dangerous than the civilian population, Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have stronger associations with anger and hostility and certain forms of aggression, such as intimate partner violence, than civilians with PTSD. This is alarming because up to 21% of Veterans seeking Veterans Affairs (VA) health care are diagnosed with PTSD. Emotion regulation difficulties (emotion dysregulation) are also related to increased PTSD symptom severity and may play a role in aggressive behavior. Because the predominant form of aggression in PTSD appears to be the impulsive subtype, the authors sought to clarify the relationship between PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and impulsive aggression. We examined how emotion dysregulation influenced impulsive aggression in a Veteran sample (N = 479) seeking treatment for trauma sequelae. All Veterans completed measures that assessed demographic information, emotion dysregulation, aggression frequency and subtype, and PTSD symptoms. Men generally reported more aggression than women. The emotion dysregulation, aggression, and PTSD measures were significantly correlated. Two cross-sectional mediation models showed emotion dysregulation fully accounted for the relationship between PTSD and impulsive aggression (indirect path for men: b = .07, SE = .026, bias-correct and accelerated confidence interval [BCa CI] = [0.02, 0.13]; indirect path for women: b = .08, SE = .022, BCa CI = [0.05, 0.13]). PTSD can increase negative emotions yet does not always lead to aggressive behaviors. The ability to regulate emotions may be pivotal to inhibiting aggression in those with PTSD. PTSD interventions may benefit from augmentation with emotion regulation skills training. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Depressive Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Bulimic Symptoms in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah L.; Peterson, Claire M.; Fischer, Sarah; Markowitz, Jessica T.; Muir, Andrew B.; Laffel, Lori M.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation and bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the context of the diagnosis and treatment of T1D. Study participants were 103 youth in 2 distinct groups: newly diagnosed (New) or transitioning to pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]; “Pump”), who completed questionnaires regarding symptoms of depression, emotion dysregulation, and bulimia. Glycemic control (A1c), height, weight, and questionnaires were evaluated within 10 days of diagnosis (n = 58) or at education/clinic visit before starting insulin utilizing CSII (n = 45). In the newly diagnosed group, only depression accounted for significant variance in bulimia scores (β = .47, P symptoms and emotion dysregulation were associated with greater bulimic symptoms. Depressive symptoms and emotion dysregulation, an indicator of poor coping/behavioral control, could help explain adoption of disordered eating behaviors in youth with T1D who are transitioning to pump therapy. PMID:27137457

  15. The Mediating Role of Cognitive Flexibility, Shame and Emotion Dysregulation Between Neuroticism and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zarei

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: These findings suggest that for student depression, emotion dysregulation might be important and future intervention works can examine the effects of targeting emotion dysregulation among university students with high levels of neuroticism and/or depression.

  16. Dimensions of Emotion Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: A Conceptual Review of the Empirical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Kaye, Walter H.; Mitchell, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Several existing conceptual models and psychological interventions address or emphasize the role of emotion dysregulation in eating disorders. The current article uses Gratz and Roemer’s (2004) multidimensional model of emotion regulation and dysregulation as a clinically relevant framework to review the extant literature on emotion dysregulation in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Specifically, the dimensions reviewed include: (1) the flexible use of adaptive and situationally appropriate strategies to modulate the duration and/or intensity of emotional responses, (2) the ability to successfully inhibit impulsive behavior and maintain goal-directed behavior in the context of emotional distress, (3) awareness, clarity, and acceptance of emotional states, and (4) the willingness to experience emotional distress in the pursuit of meaningful activities. The current review suggests that both AN and BN are characterized by broad emotion regulation deficits, with difficulties in emotion regulation across the four dimensions found to characterize both AN and BN, although a small number of more specific difficulties may distinguish the two disorders. The review concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of the findings, as well as a summary of limitations of the existing empirical literature and suggestions for future research. PMID:26112760

  17. PTSD Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among College Students With a Trauma History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Jessica C; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Avery, Megan L; Bracken, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use, and alcohol-related consequences have been linked to emotion dysregulation. Sex differences exist in both emotion regulation dimensions and alcohol use patterns. This investigation examined facets of emotion dysregulation as potential mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences and whether differences may exist across sexes. Participants were 240 college students with a trauma history who reported using alcohol within the past three months and completed measures of PTSD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and negative affect. The six facets of emotion dysregulation were examined as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample and by sex. There were differences in sexes on several variables, with women reporting higher PTSD scores and lack of emotional awareness. Men reported significantly more drinks per week in a typical week and a heavy week. There were significant associations between the variables for the full sample, with PTSD showing associations with five facets of emotion dysregulation subscales: impulse control difficulties when upset, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, nonacceptance of emotional responses, lack of emotional clarity, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Alcohol-related consequences were associated with four aspects of emotion dysregulation: impulse control difficulties when upset, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Two aspects of emotion regulation, impulse control difficulties and difficulties engaging in goal directed behavior, mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample, even after adjusting for the effects of negative affect. When examined separately by

  18. Integrating Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Couple Therapy: A Couples Skills Group for Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Jennifer S.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2007-01-01

    Given the reciprocal influences of emotion dysregulation and relationship functioning, it is important to target such emotional difficulties within an interpersonal context. Treating emotion dysregulation within intimate relationships can offer valuable opportunities for both emotional and relationship difficulties to be addressed. This paper…

  19. Lifetime Sexual Victimization and Poor Risk Perception: Does Emotion Dysregulation Account for the Links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether and which facets of emotion dysregulation serve an intervening role in the association between prior victimization and risk perception in an analogue sexual assault vignette. Participants were 714 university women who completed self-report measures of sexual victimization, emotion dysregulation, and a…

  20. The role of social support on emotion dysregulation and Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Chan, Virginia W Y; Chan, Samuel W; Lau, Joseph T F

    2018-07-01

    Internet addiction is prevalent among adolescents and is associated with various negative outcomes. Relatively few studies examined the role of emotion dysregulation and social support on Internet addiction in this population. The present examined the association between emotion dysregulation, social support, and Internet addiction among junior secondary school students in Hong Kong. The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and Internet use on the relationship between social support and Internet addiction and the gender difference in such association were also tested. A total of 862 junior secondary school students (grade 7 to 8) from 4 schools completed a cross-sectional survey. 10.9% scored above the cut-off for Internet addiction based on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that social support was negatively related to emotion dysregulation and Internet usage, which in turn, were positively related to Internet addiction. Results from multi-group analysis by gender showed that the relationship between social support and emotion dysregulation, Internet usage, and Internet addiction, and those between emotion dysregulation and Internet addiction and between Internet usage and Internet addiction were stronger among female participants. Emotion dysregulation is a potential risk factor while social support is a potential protective factor for Internet addiction. The role of social support on emotion dysregulation and Internet addiction were stronger among female students. Gender-sensitive interventions on Internet Addiction for adolescents are warranted, such interventions should increase social support and improve emotion regulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Negative parental attribution and emotional dysregulation in Chinese early adolescents: Harsh fathering and harsh mothering as potential mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingzhong; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-21

    The current study examined the potential mediating roles of harsh fathering and harsh mothering in the association between negative parental attribution and emotional dysregulation in Chinese adolescents and explored the moderating role of child gender on this indirect association. 864 students (367 girls, mean age = 13.55 years) with their parents were recruited as participants from two middle schools in Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. The results demonstrated that both harsh fathering and harsh mothering could partially mediate the association between negative maternal attribution and child emotional dysregulation, whereas only harsh fathering could partially mediate the association between negative paternal attribution and child emotional dysregulation. Moreover, we found the moderating role of child gender only for the association between harsh fathering and child emotional dysregulation, in that harsh fathering could be associated with higher levels of emotional dysregulation in girls. These results shed light on efforts to prevent harsh parenting and child emotional dysregulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Pathogenesis and Treatment of Emotion Dysregulation in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Laddis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrollable emotional lability and impulsivity are a paramount phenomenon of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD. This paper aims to review theories that entertain emotion dysregulation as the core deficit of BPD and a key factor in the etiology of BPD, in order, then, to propose the author’s own theory, which arguably transcends certain limitations of the earlier ones. The author asserts that his psychodynamic theory explains the symptoms of BPD more thoroughly and it inspires a more parsimonious interpretation of brain imaging findings. In closing, the author draws implications of the proposed theory for clinical practice. He reports an efficacy study for treatment of emotion dysregulation based on that theory.

  3. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  4. The Impact of Alexithymia on Emotion Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Avery, Jade C; Jones, Michelle D; Anderson, Leslie K; Wierenga, Christina E; Kaye, Walter H

    2018-03-01

    Research supports that anorexia nervosa-restricting subtype (AN-R) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are associated with emotion regulation difficulties and alexithymia. However, the impact of diagnosis on the relationship between these constructs is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether eating disorder diagnosis moderated the association between admission alexithymia and emotion regulation through discharge. Adult patients with AN-R (n = 54) and BN (n = 60) completed assessments at treatment admission and discharge from a partial hospital program. Eating disorder diagnosis moderated the association between admission alexithymia levels and change in global emotion dysregulation, impulse control difficulties and access to emotion regulation strategies. At higher levels of admission alexithymia, there were no differences between AN-R and BN on emotion dysregulation, whereas at lower levels of alexithymia, AN-R patients demonstrated lower levels of emotion dysregulation. Results imply that difficulties with alexithymia appear to have a greater impact on emotion dysregulation for AN-R patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. The Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Emotional Dysregulation in Self Mutilation: An Investigation among Substance Dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Başak; Dağ, İhsan

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims to examine the role of emotion dysregulation and childhood maltreatment in self mutilation (SM) of substance dependent patients. Specifically, the present study examined whether emotion dysregulation and its dimensions, and childhood maltreatment and its dimensions were associated with SM. The relationship between emotion dysregulation and childhood maltreatment was also investigated. The sample of study consisted of 55 alcohol dependent and 24 opiate dependent patients (n=79). Substance dependence was diagnosed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I), Turkish version. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) were used. Findings indicated that substance dependents with SM and without SM were differentiated in terms of overall emotion dysregulation. Results also suggest the relevance of three specific dimensions of emotion dysregulation to SM: Difficulties engaging in goal-directed behaviors when experiencing negative emotions, difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors when experiencing negative emotions, and limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies. These dimensions were predicted from childhood emotional maltreatment and neglect. It is also revealed that substance dependents with SM had higher points than those without SM on emotional childhood maltreatment and neglect, physical childhood maltreatment. Results were supported by the literature suggested that self-mutilation functions as a emotional regulation strategy. Findings also suggested that self- mutilation is related to early relationships take place in family environment in which individuals grow up.

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Disordered Gambling: Assessing the Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Kim, Hyoun S; Dobson, Keith S; Hodgins, David C

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as sexual and physical abuse, have been established as risk factors for the development of disordered gambling. The underlying mechanism by which ACEs influence disordered gambling, however, remains unknown. The aims of the present research were to comprehensively investigate ten types of childhood adversity and their relationships to disordered gambling in adulthood, and to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. A sample of community gamblers (N = 414) completed self-report measures of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and gambling severity. Results revealed a significant association between all but one type (physical abuse) of ACEs and disordered gambling. Further, the results highlighted the cumulative impact of ACEs on gambling. Specifically, individuals who experienced three or more types of ACEs were more than three times as likely to report disordered gambling as compared to individuals with no history of childhood adversity. Importantly, as hypothesized, emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. Findings from this research describe the association between ACEs and gambling and indicate a causal link between childhood adversity and disordered gambling. Results suggest that treatment initiatives may do well to address both ACEs and emotion dysregulation in the treatment of problem gambling.

  7. Negative reinforcement eating expectancies, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaki, Jumi

    2009-09-01

    Research suggests that emotion dysregulation or difficulties in the modulation of emotional experience constitute risk for eating disorders. Recent work has also highlighted the role of certain eating-related cognitions, specifically expectations of negative emotional reinforcement from eating, in the development of disturbed eating patterns. However, it is unclear whether these expectancies are merely a dimension of a general inability to regulate emotions effectively or rather a unique cognitive-affective risk factor for the development of an eating disorder. This study examines the unique contribution of eating expectancies to symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) after controlling for two dimensions of emotion dysregulation (alexithymia and experiential avoidance) previously implicated in the phenomenology of eating disorders. Participants were 115 undergraduate women who self-reported demographics, alexithymia, experiential avoidance, eating expectancies, and symptoms of BN. Eating expectancies uniquely contributed 12.4% of the variance in symptoms of BN, F(2, 108) = 11.74, p symptoms of BN. These results suggest that individuals who expect eating to provide emotional relief may be especially susceptible to disordered eating. Findings are discussed in terms of emotional risk models and clinical interventions for BN.

  8. Dialectical behavior therapy skills use and emotion dysregulation in personality disorders and psychopathy: a community self-report study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsiu, Andrada D; Tkachuck, Mathew A

    2016-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a critical transdiagnostic mental health problem that needs to be further examined in personality disorders (PDs). The current study examined dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills use, emotion dysregulation, and dysfunctional coping among adults who endorsed symptoms of cluster B PDs and psychopathy. We hypothesized that skills taught in DBT and emotion dysregulation are useful for adults with PDs other than borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using a self-report questionnaire, we examined these constructs in three groups of community adults: those who reported symptoms consistent with borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 29), those who reported symptoms consistent with any other cluster B PD (N = 22), and those with no reported cluster B PD symptoms (N = 77) as measured by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 + . Both PD groups reported higher emotion dysregulation and dysfunctional coping when compared to the no PD group. Only the BPD group had significantly lower DBT skills use. DBT skills use was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but only before accounting for emotion dysregulation. When added to the regression model, emotion dysregulation was found to be a significant predictor of cluster B psychopathology but DBT skills use no longer had a significant effect. Across all groups, DBT skills use deficits and maladaptive coping, but not emotion dysregulation, predicted different facets of psychopathy. Emotion dysregulation and use of maladaptive coping are problems in cluster B PDs, outside of BPD, but not in psychopathy. Inability to use DBT skills may be unique to BPD. Because this study relied exclusively on self-report, this data is preliminary and warrants further investigation.

  9. Sexual victimization, fear of sexual powerlessness, and cognitive emotion dysregulation as barriers to sexual assertiveness in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Noga; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined sexual victimization and two barriers to young women's sexual assertiveness: fear of sexual powerlessness and cognitive emotion dysregulation. College women (N = 499) responded to surveys and indicated that fear of sexual powerlessness and, to a lesser extent, cognitive emotion dysregulation were barriers to sexual assertiveness. Compared with nonvictims, sexually victimized women had greater problems with sexual assertiveness, fear of sexual powerlessness, and cognitive emotion dysregulation. Among victims, fear of sexual powerlessness and emotion dysregulation interacted to impede sexual assertiveness. Findings support targeting identified barriers in interventions to improve sexual assertiveness and reduce risk for unwanted sexual experiences and sexual victimization.

  10. Emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems : The role of defensiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Velotti, Patrizia; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Kosson, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence that individual differences in defensiveness (typically measured with social desirability scales) may affect associations among self-report measures, little is known about the impact of defensiveness in the well-established relations between self-report emotion dysregulation and

  11. Confabulation: Developing the 'emotion dysregulation' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Salas, Christian E

    2017-02-01

    Confabulations offer unique opportunities for establishing the neurobiological basis of delusional thinking. As regards causal factors, a review of the confabulation literature suggests that neither amnesia nor executive impairment can be the sole (or perhaps even the primary) cause of all delusional beliefs - though they may act in concert with other factors. A key perspective in the modern literature is that many delusions have an emotionally positive or 'wishful' element, that may serve to modulate or manage emotional experience. Some authors have referred to this perspective as the 'emotion dysregulation' hypothesis. In this article we review the theoretical underpinnings of this approach, and develop the idea by suggesting that the positive aspects of confabulatory states may have a role in perpetuating the imbalance between cognitive control and emotion. We draw on existing evidence from fields outside neuropsychology, to argue for three main causal factors: that positive emotions are related to more global or schematic forms of cognitive processing; that positive emotions influence the accuracy of memory recollection; and that positive emotions make people more susceptible to false memories. These findings suggest that the emotions that we want to feel (or do not want to feel) can influence the way we reconstruct past experiences and generate a sense of self - a proposition that bears on a unified theory of delusional belief states. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social exposure and emotion dysregulation: Main effects in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Porter, Andrew C; Heiman, Ellen R; Cole, David A

    2017-10-01

    We examined the relation of interpersonal and media exposure to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among 340 university students in the southeastern United States (73.5% female, M age = 19.38 years, SD = 1.15). We also assessed interactions and main effects of each exposure and emotion dysregulation in relation to NSSI, testing the social learning hypothesis of NSSI. Most participants endorsed medium to high levels of exposure to NSSI via media sources. More than one-third of participants were somewhat or very familiar with someone who engaged in NSSI. Almost half reported occasional or frequent conversations about NSSI. Both exposure forms were significantly related to NSSI history. However, hurdle regression analyses revealed that interpersonal exposure and emotion dysregulation, but not media exposure, were significantly associated with NSSI history and frequency. We did not find evidence for an emotion dysregulation-by-interpersonal-exposure interaction. We discuss implications for theoretical models of NSSI, limitations, and future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  14. The detrimental effects of emotional process dysregulation on decision-making in substance dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anna; Taylor, Eleanor; Elliott, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Substance dependence is complex and multifactorial, with many distinct pathways involved in both the development and subsequent maintenance of addictive behaviors. Various cognitive mechanisms have been implicated, including impulsivity, compulsivity, and impaired decision-making. These mechanisms are modulated by emotional processes, resulting in increased likelihood of initial drug use, sustained substance dependence, and increased relapse during periods of abstinence. Emotional traits, such as sensation-seeking, are risk factors for substance use, and chronic drug use can result in further emotional dysregulation via effects on reward, motivation, and stress systems. We will explore theories of hyper and hypo sensitivity of the brain reward systems that may underpin motivational abnormalities and anhedonia. Disturbances in these systems contribute to the biasing of emotional processing toward cues related to drug use at the expense of natural rewards, which serves to maintain addictive behavior, via enhanced drug craving. We will additionally focus on the sensitization of the brain stress systems that result in negative affect states that continue into protracted abstinence that is may lead to compulsive drug-taking. We will explore how these emotional dysregulations impact upon decision-making controlled by goal-directed and habitual action selections systems, and, in combination with a failure of prefrontal inhibitory control, mediate maladaptive decision-making observed in substance dependent individuals such that they continue drug use in spite of negative consequences. An understanding of the emotional impacts on cognition in substance dependent individuals may guide the development of more effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:23162443

  15. Emotion regulation and aggression : The incremental contribution of alexithymia, impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation facets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Velotti, Patrizia; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has long emphasized the role of alexithymia and impulsivity to explain aggressive tendencies. Recently, a growing body of research seems to support the relevance of the broader construct of emotion dysregulation to understand aggression. The present study was the first to

  16. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  17. Preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation: specific aspects of borderline personality disorder or general dimensions of personality pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A; Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2013-08-01

    Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD.

  18. Anxiety among adults with a history of childhood adversity: Psychological resilience moderates the indirect effect of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been widely identified as risk factors for increased symptoms of anxiety across the lifespan. Little is known, however, about the processes by which ACEs set the stage for increased symptoms of anxiety in adulthood. The current study evaluated whether emotion dysregulation and psychological resilience influence the association between ACEs and symptoms of anxiety. A sample of adult primary care patients (N=4006) completed self-report measures related to ACEs, symptoms of anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience. A moderated mediation analysis showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the association between ACEs and anxiety symptoms, and that the strength of this effect varied as a function of psychological resilience. Specifically, the influence of ACEs on emotional dysregulation was stronger among individuals with low levels of psychological resilience than among those with high levels of psychological resilience. These findings remained significant when controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables in the model. Cross-sectional designs preclude inferences about causality and self-report data may be susceptible to reporting biases. Other psychological variables that may be relevant to the current results, such as protective factors in childhood, were not assessed. These results have implications for the conceptualization of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience in etiological models of anxiety. They also highlight the relevance of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience to the detection, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Posttraumatic stress and emotion dysregulation: Relationships with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Oglesby, Mary E; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results demonstrated that elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Just Breathe: The Effects of Emotional Dysregulation and Test Anxiety on GPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Samantha D.; Wasieleski, David T.; Whatley, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    College is considered to be one of the most evaluative and stressful times during a student's academic career. A student's inability to regulate emotions may be correlated with an increased level of test anxiety. Previous research has indicated significant relationships between emotional dysregulation and generalized anxiety disorders (e.g.,…

  1. The detrimental effects of emotional process dysregulation on decision making in substance dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eMurphy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Substance dependence is complex and multifactorial, with many distinct pathways involved in both the development and subsequent maintenance of addictive behaviours. Various cognitive mechanisms have been implicated, including impulsivity, compulsivity and impaired decision-making. These mechanisms are modulated by emotional processes, resulting in increased likelihood of initial drug use, sustained substance dependence, and increased relapse during periods of abstinence. Emotional traits, such as sensation seeking, are risk factors for substance use, and chronic drug use can result in further emotional dysregulation via effects on reward, motivation and stress systems. We will explore theories of hyper and hypo sensitivity of the brain reward systems that may underpin motivational abnormalities and anhedonia. Disturbances in these systems contribute to the biasing of emotional processing toward cues related to drug use at the expense of natural rewards, which serves to maintain addictive behaviour, via enhanced drug craving. We will additionally focus on the sensitization of the brain stress systems that result in negative affect states that continue into protracted abstinence that is may lead to compulsive drug taking. We will explore how these emotional dysregulations impact upon decision-making controlled by goal-directed and habitual action selections systems, and, in combination with a failure of prefrontal inhibitory control, mediate maladaptive decision-making observed in substance dependent individuals such that they continue drug use in spite of negative consequences. An understanding of the emotional impacts on cognition in substance dependent individuals may guide the development of more effective therapeutic interventions.

  2. Preoccupied Attachment and Emotional Dysregulation: Specific Aspects of Borderline Personality Disorder or General Dimensions of Personality Pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N.; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitrait-multimethod models, we examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Our findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934

  3. Exposure to Violence, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Borderline Personality Pathology Among Adolescents in Residential Psychiatric Treatment: The Influence of Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholdt, Kelly E; Weiss, Nicole H; Young, John; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to violence during adolescence is a highly prevalent phenomenon associated with a range of deleterious outcomes. Theoretical literature suggests that emotion dysregulation is one consequence of exposure to violence associated with the manifestation of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and borderline personality (BP) pathology. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine the mediating role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology in a sample of 144 adolescents (age 10- to 17-years; 51% male; 55% African American) admitted to a psychiatric residential treatment center. Exposure to violence was associated with greater emotion dysregulation, which, in turn, was associated with greater PTSS and BP pathology. Furthermore, emotion dysregulation mediated the associations between exposure to violence and both PTSS and BP pathology. Findings suggest the importance of assessing and treating emotion dysregulation among violence-exposed adolescents in psychiatric residential treatment.

  4. Main and interactive effects of emotion dysregulation and HIV symptom severity on quality of life among persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Charles P; Jardin, Charles; Sharp, Carla; Lemaire, Chad; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    HIV symptoms are associated with a poorer quality of life (QOL) among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Yet, there is little understanding of emotional factors that impact the relation between HIV symptom severity and QOL. The present study examined the main and interactive effects of emotion dysregulation and HIV symptom severity on multiple indices of QOL, including physical (impact of physical problems related to HIV), psychological (frequency of negative feelings), independence (necessity of medical treatment to function in daily life), social (feelings of acceptance), environmental (satisfaction with living conditions and medical care), and spiritual (fear of the future and death) among a sample of 74 PLWHA. Participants (72.9% male; mean age = 48.24, SD = 7.85) were recruited from AIDS Service Organizations in the United States. Results indicated that higher HIV symptom severity is significantly associated with lower physical and independence QOL, whereas higher emotion dysregulation is significantly associated with lower scores on all measured aspects of QOL. Additionally, results indicated that the interaction of emotion dysregulation and HIV symptom severity was significantly associated with both physical and environmental QOL. The form of the observed significant interactions indicated that HIV symptom severity was related to poorer QOL among those with lower (versus higher) emotion dysregulation. The present findings indicate that emotion dysregulation is related to QOL among PLWHA and may interact with HIV symptom severity to negatively impact certain aspects of QOL. Given the profound impact that HIV has on QOL, this finding is important in understanding these relations mechanistically, and may be important in the development of novel psychological treatment strategies.

  5. The effects of early positive parenting and developmental delay status on child emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norona, A N; Baker, B L

    2017-02-01

    Emotion regulation has been identified as a robust predictor of adaptive functioning across a variety of domains (Aldao et al. ). Furthermore, research examining early predictors of competence and deficits in ER suggests that factors internal to the individual (e.g. neuroregulatory reactivity, behavioural traits and cognitive ability) and external to the individual (e.g. caregiving styles and explicit ER training) contribute to the development of ER (Calkins ). Many studies have focused on internal sources or external sources; however, few have studied them simultaneously within one model, especially in studies examining children with developmental delays (DD). Here, we addressed this specific research gap and examined the contributions of one internal factor and one external factor on emotion dysregulation outcomes in middle childhood. Specifically, our current study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine prospective, predictive relationships between DD status, positive parenting at age 4 years and child emotion dysregulation at age 7 years. Participants were 151 families in the Collaborative Family Study, a longitudinal study of young children with and without DD. A positive parenting factor was composed of sensitivity and scaffolding scores from mother-child interactions at home and in the research centre at child age 4 years. A child dysregulation factor was composed of a dysregulation code from mother-child interactions and a parent-report measure of ER and lability/negativity at age 7 years. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that positive parenting would mediate the relationship between DD and child dysregulation. Mothers of children with DD exhibited fewer sensitive and scaffolding behaviours compared with mothers of typically developing children, and children with DD were more dysregulated on all measures of ER. SEM revealed that both DD status and early positive parenting predicted emotion dysregulation in middle childhood. Furthermore

  6. Developmental delay and emotion dysregulation: Predicting parent-child conflict across early to middle childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Willa A.; Noroña, Amanda N.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative risk research has increased understanding of how multiple risk factors impact various socioemotional and interpersonal outcomes across the life span. However, little is known about risk factors for parent-child conflict early in development, where identifying predictors of change could be highly salient for intervention. Given their established association with parent-child conflict, child developmental delay (DD) and emotion dysregulation were examined as predictors of change in conflict across early to middle childhood (ages 3 to 7 years). Participants (n=211) were part of a longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology in children with or without DD. Level of parent-child conflict was derived from naturalistic home observations, while child dysregulation was measured using an adapted CBCL-Emotion Dysregulation Index. PROCESS was used to examine the conditional interactive effects of delay status (typically developing, DD) and dysregulation on change in conflict from child ages 3 to 5 and 5 to 7 years. Across both of these timeframes, parent-child conflict increased only for families of children with both DD and high dysregulation, providing support for an interactive risk model of parent-child conflict. Findings are considered in the context of developmental transitions, and implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:28054804

  7. Developmental delay and emotion dysregulation: Predicting parent-child conflict across early to middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Willa A; Noroña, Amanda N; Baker, Bruce L

    2017-04-01

    Cumulative risk research has increased understanding of how multiple risk factors impact various socioemotional and interpersonal outcomes across the life span. However, little is known about risk factors for parent-child conflict early in development, where identifying predictors of change could be highly salient for intervention. Given their established association with parent-child conflict, child developmental delay (DD) and emotion dysregulation were examined as predictors of change in conflict across early to middle childhood (ages 3 to 7 years). Participants (n = 211) were part of a longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology in children with or without DD. Level of parent-child conflict was derived from naturalistic home observations, whereas child dysregulation was measured using an adapted CBCL-Emotion Dysregulation Index. PROCESS was used to examine the conditional interactive effects of delay status (typically developing, DD) and dysregulation on change in conflict from child ages 3 to 5 and 5 to 7 years. Across both of these timeframes, parent-child conflict increased only for families of children with both DD and high dysregulation, providing support for an interactive risk model of parent-child conflict. Findings are considered in the context of developmental transitions, and implications for intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The emotion dysregulation inventory: Psychometric properties and item response theory calibration in an autism spectrum disorder sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A; Yu, Lan; White, Susan W; Siegel, Matthew; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2018-04-06

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with prominent emotion dysregulation that requires treatment but can be difficult to measure. The Emotion Dysregulation Inventory (EDI) was created using methods developed by the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ) to capture observable indicators of poor emotion regulation. Caregivers of 1,755 youth with ASD completed 66 candidate EDI items, and the final 30 items were selected based on classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) analyses. The analyses identified two factors: (a) Reactivity, characterized by intense, rapidly escalating, sustained, and poorly regulated negative emotional reactions, and (b) Dysphoria, characterized by anhedonia, sadness, and nervousness. The final items did not show differential item functioning (DIF) based on gender, age, intellectual ability, or verbal ability. Because the final items were calibrated using IRT, even a small number of items offers high precision, minimizing respondent burden. IRT co-calibration of the EDI with related measures demonstrated its superiority in assessing the severity of emotion dysregulation with as few as seven items. Validity of the EDI was supported by expert review, its association with related constructs (e.g., anxiety and depression symptoms, aggression), higher scores in psychiatric inpatients with ASD compared to a community ASD sample, and demonstration of test-retest stability and sensitivity to change. In sum, the EDI provides an efficient and sensitive method to measure emotion dysregulation for clinical assessment, monitoring, and research in youth with ASD of any level of cognitive or verbal ability. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This paper describes a new measure of poor emotional control called the Emotion Dysregulation Inventory (EDI). Caregivers of 1,755 youth with ASD completed candidate items, and advanced statistical

  9. Investigating the role of dimensions of UPPS-P model of impulsivity and age increasing in men’s emotion dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Jebraeili

    2018-04-01

    Results: The findings showed that there were significant coloration between all dimensions of impulsivity, with the exception of sensation seeking, and age with emotion dysregulation. Results of regression analysis showed that dimensions of impulsivity and age have significant role in prediction of emotion dysregulation and explain 47 percent of total variance of it (F=40.67, P

  10. Emotional Abilities in Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): Impairments in Perspective-Taking and Understanding Mixed Emotions are Associated with High Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kearney, Richard; Salmon, Karen; Liwag, Maria; Fortune, Clare-Ann; Dawel, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of emotion abilities in disruptive children focus on emotion expression recognition. This study compared 74 children aged 4-8 years with ODD to 45 comparison children (33 healthy; 12 with an anxiety disorder) on behaviourally assessed measures of emotion perception, emotion perspective-taking, knowledge of emotions causes and understanding ambivalent emotions and on parent-reported cognitive and affective empathy. Adjusting for child's sex, age and expressive language ODD children showed a paucity in attributing causes to emotions but no other deficits relative to the comparison groups. ODD boys with high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CU) (n = 22) showed deficits relative to low CU ODD boys (n = 25) in emotion perspective-taking and in understanding ambivalent emotions. Low CU ODD boys did not differ from the healthy typically developing boys (n = 12). Impairments in emotion perceptive-taking and understanding mixed emotions in ODD boys are associated with the presence of a high level of CU.

  11. Emotional self-control and dysregulation: A dual-process analysis of pathways to externalizing/internalizing symptomatology and positive well-being in younger adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Simons, Jeffrey S; Sussman, Steve; Knight, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    There is little knowledge about how emotional regulation contributes to vulnerability versus resilience to substance use disorder. With younger adolescents, we studied the pathways through which emotion regulation attributes are related to predisposing factors for disorder. A sample of 3561 adolescents (M age 12.5 years) was surveyed. Measures for emotional self-control (regulation of sadness and anger), emotional dysregulation (angerability, affective lability, and rumination about sadness or anger), and behavioral self-control (planfulness and problem solving) were obtained. A structural model was analyzed with regulation attributes related to six intermediate variables that are established risk or protective factors for adolescent substance use (e.g., academic involvement, stressful life events). Criterion variables were externalizing and internalizing symptomatology and positive well-being. Indirect pathways were found from emotional regulation to symptomatology through academic competence, stressful events, and deviance-prone attitudes and cognitions. Direct effects were also found: from emotional dysregulation to externalizing and internalizing symptomatology; emotional self-control to well-being; and behavioral self-control (inverse) to externalizing symptomatology. Emotional self-control and emotional dysregulation had independent effects and different types of pathways. Adolescents scoring high on emotional dysregulation are at risk for substance dependence because of more externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Independently, youth with better behavioral and emotional self-control are at lower risk. This occurs partly through relations of regulation constructs to environmental variables that affect levels of symptomatology (e.g., stressful events, poor academic performance). Effects of emotion regulation were found at an early age, before the typical onset of substance disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  12. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa-Friedman, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emoti...

  13. Emotional preferences and goals and emotion dysregulation in children with Asperger's syndrome and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Gummerum, Michaela

    2018-02-05

    Emotion goals lie at the heart of emotion regulation, as people have to first decide what emotions they want to feel before engaging in emotion regulation. Given that children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) are characterized by exhibiting difficulties in emotion regulation, studying whether they display similar or different emotion goals compared to typically developing (TD) children may provide insightful information. Thirty AS and 30 TD children (10-12 years) reported about their general (i.e., how they want to feel in general) and contextualized (i.e., how they want to feel when confronting vs. collaborating with someone) emotion goals, and about their difficulties in emotion regulation through questionnaires. Results showed that both groups did not differ in their general emotional goals and in their contextualized emotion goals for happiness for collaboration and anger for confrontation. AS children only differed from TD children in a higher preference for sadness for collaboration and happiness for confrontation. These emotion goals predicted their difficulties to engage in goal-directed behaviour. The obtained results support the need to further study emotion goals as an aspect of emotion dysregulation, namely the difficulties to engage in goal-directed behaviour when experiencing different emotions. AS and TD children did not differ in their general emotion goals. AS and TD children did not vary in their preferences for happiness for collaboration and anger for confrontation. AS children only differed in a higher preference for sadness for collaboration and happiness for confrontation. Understanding emotion goals might help practitioners to develop better interventions. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Depressive Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Bulimic Symptoms in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Varying Interactions at Diagnosis and During Transition to Insulin Pump Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah L; Peterson, Claire M; Fischer, Sarah; Markowitz, Jessica T; Muir, Andrew B; Laffel, Lori M

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the associations between depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation and bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the context of the diagnosis and treatment of T1D. Study participants were 103 youth in 2 distinct groups: newly diagnosed (New) or transitioning to pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]; "Pump"), who completed questionnaires regarding symptoms of depression, emotion dysregulation, and bulimia. Glycemic control (A1c), height, weight, and questionnaires were evaluated within 10 days of diagnosis (n = 58) or at education/clinic visit before starting insulin utilizing CSII (n = 45). In the newly diagnosed group, only depression accounted for significant variance in bulimia scores (β = .47, P symptoms and emotion dysregulation were associated with greater bulimic symptoms. Depressive symptoms and emotion dysregulation, an indicator of poor coping/behavioral control, could help explain adoption of disordered eating behaviors in youth with T1D who are transitioning to pump therapy. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression : The mediating role of emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Holden, C.J.; Zeigler-Hill, V.; Velotti, P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197

  16. Impulsivity in borderline personality disorder: a matter of disturbed impulse control or a facet of emotional dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alexandra; Jacob, Gitta; Lieb, Klaus; Tüscher, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    Impulsivity is regarded as a clinical, diagnostic and pathophysiological hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Self-report measures of impulsivity consistently support the notion of higher impulsive traits in BPD patients as compared to healthy control subjects. Laboratory tests of impulsivity, i.e. neuropsychological tests of impulse control render weak and inconsistent results both across different cognitive components of impulse control and within the same cognitive component of impulse control. One important factor worsening impulsive behaviors and impulse control deficits in BPD is comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, emotional dysregulation interacts with impulse control especially for BPD salient emotions. In sum, although basic mechanisms of impulse control seem not to be disturbed in BPD, clinically well observed impulsive behaviors may be explained by comorbid ADHD or may be the consequence of dysregulation of BPD salient emotions.

  17. Measurement of Negativity Bias in Personal Narratives Using Corpus-Based Emotion Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shuki J.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a novel methodology for the measurement of negativity bias using positive and negative dictionaries of emotion words applied to autobiographical narratives. At odds with the cognitive theory of mood dysregulation, previous text-analytical studies have failed to find significant correlation between emotion dictionaries and…

  18. The Impact of Attachment Security and Emotion Dysregulation on Anxiety in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…

  19. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Is Better Conceptualized as a Disorder of Emotional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Monica; Quinn, Declan; Duncan, Don; Graham, Tom; Balbuena, Lloyd

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) can be differentiated into distinct subtypes associated with different outcomes in adulthood. We examined whether ODD is conceptually independent and coherent, and whether ODD and Conduct Disorder (CD) are expressions of the same core deficit. The data come from a sample of 4,380 children for whom SNAP rating scales were available. Parallel analysis was performed on the eight-item ODD diagnostic items and on the SNAP-90 scale. These were factor analyzed and the components were correlated. ODD has one underlying factor, whereas the parent-rated SNAP has nine underlying factors. ODD items grouped together with emotional lability and irritability items, which did not group with CD. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the separation of ODD and CD but not ODD and emotion dysregulation. The expanded ODD factor more likely captures a disorder of emotion regulation, rather than a disruptive behavior disorder.

  20. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…

  1. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantiene Schoorl

    Full Text Available Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD, children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1 to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC of 38 boys (8-12 years using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game, parent report and self-report, and 2 to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  2. Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and the Relation with Comorbid Autism Traits and Attention Deficit Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other psychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have emotion regulation difficulties too. On a behavioral level some overlap exists between these disorders and comorbidity is high. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: 1) to examine emotion regulation difficulties in 65 boys with ODD/CD in comparison to a non-clinical control group (NC) of 38 boys (8-12 years) using a performance measure (Ultimatum Game), parent report and self-report, and 2) to establish to what extent emotion regulation in the ODD/CD group was correlated with severity of autism and/or attention deficit traits. Results on the Ultimatum Game showed that the ODD/CD group rejected more ambiguous offers than the NC group, which is seen as an indication of poor emotion regulation. Parents also reported that the ODD/CD group experienced more emotion regulation problems in daily life than the NC group. In contrast to these cognitive and behavioral measures, self-reports did not reveal any difference, indicating that boys with ODD/CD do not perceive themselves as having impairments in regulating their emotions. Emotional decision making within the ODD/CD group was not related to variation in autism or attention deficit traits. These results support the idea that emotion dysregulation is an important problem within ODD/CD, yet boys with ODD/CD have reduced awareness of this.

  3. A Pilot Trial of Mindfulness Meditation Training for ADHD in Adulthood: Impact on Core Symptoms, Executive Functioning, and Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; McIntyre, Elizabeth M; English, Joseph S; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C; Kollins, Scott H

    2017-11-01

    Mindfulness meditation training is garnering increasing empirical interest as an intervention for ADHD in adulthood, although no studies of mindfulness as a standalone treatment have included a sample composed entirely of adults with ADHD or a comparison group. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of mindfulness meditation for ADHD, executive functioning (EF), and emotion dysregulation symptoms in an adult ADHD sample. Adults with ADHD were stratified by ADHD medication status and otherwise randomized into an 8-week group-based mindfulness treatment ( n = 11) or waitlist group ( n = 9). Treatment feasibility and acceptability were positive. In addition, self-reported ADHD and EF symptoms (assessed in the laboratory and ecological momentary assessment), clinician ratings of ADHD and EF symptoms, and self-reported emotion dysregulation improved for the treatment group relative to the waitlist group over time with large effect sizes. Improvement was not observed for EF tasks. Findings support preliminary treatment efficacy, though require larger trials.

  4. Correspondence between Physiological and Self-Report Measures of Emotion Dysregulation: A Longitudinal Investigation of Youth with and without Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Christina A.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Mead, Hilary K.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Several theoretical perspectives suggest that emotion dysregulation is a predisposing risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. Yet despite a rapidly evolving literature, difficulties with emotion regulation (ER) are often measured inconsistently across studies, with little regard to whether different approaches capture the same…

  5. Parental Interpersonal Sensitivity and Youth Social Problems: A Mediational Role for Child Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Jacob, Marni L.; Payne, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relations between parental interpersonal sensitivity and youth social problems and explored the mediational role of child emotion dysregulation. Mothers (N = 42; M age = 39.38) and fathers (N = 41; M age = 39.38) of youth aged 7-12 (N = 42; M age = 9.12) completed measures of their own interpersonal sensitivity and reported on…

  6. An evaluation of anxiety sensitivity, emotional dysregulation, and negative affectivity among daily cigarette smokers: relation to smoking motives and barriers to quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Leyro, Teresa M; Marshall, Erin C

    2008-12-01

    The present investigation evaluated the relations between anxiety sensitivity and motivational bases of cigarette smoking, as well as barriers to quitting smoking, above and beyond concurrent substance use, negative affectivity, and emotional dysregulation among a community sample of 189 daily cigarette smokers (46% women; M(age)=24.97 years, SD=9.78). Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to coping, addictive, and habitual smoking motives, as well as greater perceived barriers to quitting. These effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by concurrent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and discernable from shared variance with negative affectivity and emotional dysregulation. Emotional dysregulation was significantly related to stimulation, habitual, and sensorimotor smoking motives and greater perceived barriers to quitting, whereas negative affectivity was only significantly related to smoking for relaxation. These findings uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting anxiety sensitivity is an important and unique cognitive factor for better understanding clinically-relevant psychological processes related to cigarette smoking.

  7. Emotional memory in ADHD patients with and without comorbid ODD/CD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krauel, Kerstin; Duzel, Emrah; Hinrichs, Hermann; Rellum, Thomas; Santel, Stephanie; Baving, Lioba

    The present study investigated whether children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) show a memory bias for negative emotional pictures. Subjects participated in an incidental memory paradigm

  8. Initial Development of a Measure of Emotional Dysregulation for Individuals with Cluster B Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhill, Christina E.; Mulvey, Edward P.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders are at particular risk of violence toward self or others. Emotional dysregulation is likely to be a factor in such incidents and is a central issue addressed in therapies with personality-disordered individuals. This article reports findings from a study that developed an original 18-item…

  9. Lack of Resilience Is Related to Stress-Related Sleep Reactivity, Hyperarousal, and Emotion Dysregulation in Insomnia Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Moretto, Umberto; Novi, Martina; Masci, Isabella; Caruso, Danila; Drake, Christopher L; Riemann, Dieter

    2018-05-15

    According to the diathesis-stress model of insomnia, insomnia may develop in vulnerable individuals in response to stress. Resilience is a psychobiological factor that determines an individual's capacity to adapt successfully to stressful events and low resilience increases vulnerability for development of mental disorders. The aim was to explore resilience in subjects with insomnia and its relationship with the factors that contribute to its development and perpetuation. The study consisted of 58 subjects with Insomnia Disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and 38 good sleepers. Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), Pre-sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) were administered while taking into account psychiatric symptoms. Differences in means between groups were assessed using t test or Mann-Whitney U /Wilcoxon test. Linear/multivariable regression analyses and mediation analyses were performed. Subjects with insomnia (24 females, mean age 49 ± 2.1 years) had lower RSA and higher FIRST, DERS, and PSAS scores than good sleepers (22 females, mean age 47.2 ± 1.2 years). After controlling for anxiety/depressive symptoms, low resilience correlated with high stress-related sleep reactivity ( P = .004), pre-sleep cognitive hyperarousal ( P = .01) and emotion dysregulation ( P = .01). Emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between low resilience and cognitive hyperarousal (Z = 2.06, P = .03). Subjects with insomnia showed low resilience, which was related to high stress-related sleep reactivity, emotional dysregulation, and hyperarousal. If resilience helps to minimize the extent of pathogenesis in the developmental process, an early identification of vulnerable candidates should be useful for preventing insomnia development and maintenance. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 709. © 2018 American

  10. Typical patterns of disordered eating among Swedish adolescents: associations with emotion dysregulation, depression, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Erika; Daukantaitė, Daiva; Johnsson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Using the person-oriented approach, we determined the relationships between four indicators (restraint and eating, shape, and weight concerns) of disordered eating (DE), as measured by the self-reported Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), to identify typical DE patterns. We then related these patterns to clinical EDE-Q cut-off scores and emotion dysregulation, depression, self-esteem, and two categories of DE behaviors (≥2 or ≤1 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire). Typical patterns of DE were identified in a community sample of 1,265 Swedish adolescents ( M age  = 16.19, SD  = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years) using a cluster analysis. Separate analyses were performed for girls ( n  = 689) and boys ( n  = 576). The cluster analysis yielded a six-cluster solution for each gender. Four of the six clusters for girls and five for boys showed scores above the clinical cut-off on at least one of the four DE indicators. For girls, the two clusters that scored above the clinical cut-offs on all four DE indicators reported severe psychological problems, including high scores on emotion dysregulation and depression and low scores on self-esteem. In contrast, for boys, although two clusters reported above the clinical cut-off on all four indicators, only the cluster with exceedingly high scores on shape and weight concerns reported high emotion dysregulation and depression, and extremely low self-esteem. Furthermore, significantly more girls and boys in the most problematic DE clusters reported ≥2 "yes" responses on the SCOFF questionnaire (as opposed to ≤1 response), indicating clear signs of DE and severe psychological difficulties. We suspect that the various problematic DE patterns will require different paths back to a healthy diet. However, more research is needed to determine the developmental trajectories of these DE patterns and ensure more precise clinical cut-off scores, especially for boys. Comprehensive understanding

  11. Emotion regulation difficulties in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorders and the relation with comorbid autism traits and attention deficit traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed towards a link between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior in children. Emotion regulation difficulties are not specific for children with persistent aggression problems, i.e. oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (ODD/CD), children with other

  12. Wechsler profiles in referred children with intellectual giftedness: Associations with trait-anxiety, emotional dysregulation, and heterogeneity of Piaget-like reasoning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Speranza, Mario; Louis, Jacqueline; Fourneret, Pierre; Revol, Olivier; Baleyte, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    It is common that intellectually gifted children (IQ ≥ 130) are referred to paediatric or child neuropsychiatry clinics for socio-emotional problems and/or school underachievement or maladjustment. Among them, those displaying developmental asynchrony - a heterogeneous developmental pattern reflected in a significant verbal-performance discrepancy (SVPD) on Wechsler's intelligence profile - are thought to be more emotionally and behaviourally impaired than others. Our purpose was to investigate this clinical dichotomy using a cognitive psychopathological approach. Trait-anxiety and emotional dysregulation were investigated in two groups of referred gifted children (n = 107 and 136, respectively), a pilot-study of reasoning processes on extensive Piaget-like tasks was also performed in an additional small group (n = 12). Compared to those with a homogenous Wechsler profile, children with a SVPD exhibited: 1) a decreased prevalence of social preoccupation-anxiety (11.1% versus 27.4%; p emotional dysregulation (58.7% versus 41.3%; p emotional and behavioural problems in gifted children and call for further investigation of this profile. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emotional dysregulation in those with bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder and their comorbid expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Adam; Parker, Gordon; McClure, Georgia

    2016-11-01

    Differentiation of the bipolar disorders (BP) from a borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be challenging owing to shared features, with emotional dysregulation being the likely principal one. To assess differences in emotion regulation strategies in those with BP alone, BPD alone and those comorbid for both. We interviewed participants previously receiving a BP or BPD diagnosis, studying those who met DSM criteria for one or both conditions. The sample comprised 83 with bipolar disorder, 53 with BPD and 54 comorbid for both. Analyses established linear trends, with the greatest impairment in emotion regulation strategies in the comorbid group followed by the BPD group, and with the lowest in the BP group. Specific deficits in the comorbid group included impulsivity, difficulties with goal directed behaviour, and accessing strategies. A similar linear profile was quantified for maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies, weighted to catastrophizing and rumination. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies were superior in the bipolar group, without significant differences observed between the comorbid and BPD groups. Reliance on self-report measures; combined BP I and II participants limits generalisability of results to each bipolar sub-type; use of DSM diagnoses risking artefactual comorbidity; while there was an over-representation of females in all groups. Differences in emotion regulation strategies advance differentiation of those with either BP or BPD, while we identify the specificity of differing strategies to each condition and their synergic effect in those comorbid for both conditions. Study findings should assist the development and application of targeted strategies for those with either or both conditions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  15. Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K

    2007-02-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  16. Emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder and its influence on communication behavior and feelings in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Annemarie; Grosselli, Luna; Roepke, Stefan; Dziobek, Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunction in romantic relationships constitutes one of the most burdensome symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to ascertain how emotional dysregulation affects behavior and relationship related feelings of women with BPD in threatening conversations with their own romantic partner. Thirty couples in which the women were diagnosed with BPD and 34 healthy control (HC) couples were videotaped while discussing personally threatening (i.e., personal failure) and relationship-threatening (i.e., separation) themes. Third party raters evaluated stress and communication behaviors during the conversations. Relationship related feelings, i.e., closeness and relationship insecurity, were assessed by self-report. Overall, women with BPD were rated as more stressed in threatening situations than HC women and their partners, but not more stressed in relationship-threatening than personally threatening situations. A heightened stress response of women with BPD predicted more negative and less positive communication behaviors and a stronger decline in self-rated closeness to the partner compared to HC. Stress-induced increases in relationship insecurity were specific to women with BPD. Our results highlight the central role of emotional dysregulation in interpersonal dysfunctions of persons with BPD and the need to address individual emotion regulation strategies more explicitly in dyadic contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotion dysregulation and peer drinking norms uniquely predict alcohol-related problems via motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Raluca M; Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Murase, Hanako

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyvagal Theory and Developmental Psychopathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Conduct Problems from Preschool to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K.

    2007-01-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:17045726

  19. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Bones, Brian L; Chen, Gang; Rosen, Brooke H; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD) show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV) in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N=20), SMD (N=18), and HV (N=22) during "Aware" and "Non-aware" priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval) appeared (187 ms) before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms), followed by a mask (170 ms), and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth with bipolar disorder (BD and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N = 20, SMD (N = 18, and HV (N = 22 during “Aware” and “Non-aware” priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval appeared (187 ms before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms, followed by a mask (170 ms, and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders.

  1. Narrative representations of caregivers and emotion dysregulation as predictors of maltreated children's rejection by peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, A; Ryan, R M; Cicchetti, D

    2001-05-01

    This study examined whether maltreated children were more likely than nonmaltreated children to develop poor-quality representations of caregivers and whether these representations predicted children's rejection by peers. A narrative task assessing representations of mothers and fathers was administered to 76 maltreated and 45 nonmaltreated boys and girls (8-12 years old). Maltreated children's representations were more negative/constricted and less positive/coherent than those of nonmaltreated children. Maladaptive representations were associated with emotion dysregulation, aggression, and peer rejection, whereas positive/coherent representations were related to prosocial behavior and peer preference. Representations mediated maltreatment's effects on peer rejection in part by undermining emotion regulation. Findings suggest that representations of caregivers serve an important regulatory function in the peer relationships of at-risk children.

  2. Beliefs about emotions as a metacognitive construct: initial development of a self-report questionnaire measure and preliminary investigation in relation to emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Rachel; Cooper, Myra; Trefusis, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Metacognitive theory, amongst other theories, gives an important role to beliefs about mental states, including beliefs about emotions, in the maintenance of distress. Mentalization theory as well as the dialectical behaviour therapy and emotion-focused therapy literature specifies particular beliefs thought to be related to emotion dysregulation and therefore to a label of borderline personality disorder. The current study aimed to develop a questionnaire to measure the beliefs about emotions as specified by this literature and to test the relationship of this new measure to various aspects of emotion regulation in a non-clinical sample of 289 participants. A factor analysis extracted six factors, which described beliefs about emotions as (a) overwhelming and uncontrollable; (b) shameful and irrational; (c) invalid and meaningless; (d) useless; (e) damaging; and (f) contagious. The final measure showed some promising psychometric properties. All of the questionnaire subscales were related to aspects of emotion dysregulation including distress, borderline personality disorder symptoms and behaviours associated with dysregulation of emotion, suggesting that beliefs about emotions could be an important metacognitive construct involved in the ability to regulate emotions. Beliefs about emotions may be a useful direct or indirect target for treatment of difficulties regulating emotions, and this could be achieved through the use of various therapeutic modalities. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.

  4. Emotional dysregulation is a primary symptom in adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Chavanon, MiraLynn; Riechmann, Elke; Christiansen, Hanna

    2018-05-01

    Clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These seem to entail difficulties with emotionality, self-concept and emotion regulation in particular, along with the cardinal symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity for adult patients. Here, we probed a model that explicitly distinguished positive and negative affect, problems with self-concept and emotion regulation skills as distinct but correlating factors with the symptom domains of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Participants were 213 newly diagnosed adults with ADHD (62.9% male, mean age 33.5 years). Symptoms were assessed via self-report on the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales, a modified version of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Emotion Regulation Skill Questionnaire. A confirmatory factor analysis with the R package lavaan, using a robust Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLR) for non-normal data, was conducted to test our new non-hierarchical 7-factor model. All calculated model-fit statistics revealed good model-fit (χ 2 /df ratio = 2.03, robust RMSEA = .07). The SRMR in our model reached .089, indicating an acceptable model fit. Factor loadings on the postulated factors had salient loadings ≥ .31 except for one item on the hyperactivity factor. Latent factor associations were especially salient between emotional dysregulation and problems with self-concept, and also partially with impulsivity/emotional lability. The three models of ADHD and emotion regulation as suggested by Shaw et al. (2014) could not be disentangled in this study, though the overall results support the model with shared neurocognitive deficits. Further, we did not separately analyze ADHD with or without comorbid disorders. As our sample of clinical cases with ADHD is highly comorbid (47.9%), other disorders than ADHD might account for the emotion regulation deficits, though a sensitivity

  5. The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Pain and emotional dysregulation: Cellular memory due to pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Minoru; Watanabe, Moe; Hamada, Yusuke; Tamura, Hideki; Ikegami, Daigo; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Igarashi, Katsuhide

    2015-08-01

    Genetic factors are involved in determinants for the risk of psychiatric disorders, and neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Chronic pain stimuli and intense pain have effects at a cellular and/or gene expression level, and will eventually induce "cellular memory due to pain", which means that tissue damage, even if only transient, can elicit epigenetically abnormal transcription/translation and post-translational modification in related cells depending on the degree or kind of injury or associated conditions. Such cell memory/transformation due to pain can cause an abnormality in a fundamental intracellular response, such as a change in the three-dimensional structure of DNA, transcription, or translation. On the other hand, pain is a multidimensional experience with sensory-discriminative and motivational-affective components. Recent human brain imaging studies have examined differences in activity in the nucleus accumbens between controls and patients with chronic pain, and have revealed that the nucleus accumbens plays a role in predicting the value of a noxious stimulus and its offset, and in the consequent changes in the motivational state. In this review, we provide a very brief overview of a comprehensive understanding of chronic pain associated with emotional dysregulation due to transcriptional regulation, epigenetic modification and miRNA regulation.

  7. Clinical features and subjective/physiological responses to emotional stimuli in the presence of emotion dysregulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskiran, Candan; Karaismailoglu, Serkan; Cak Esen, Halime Tuna; Tuzun, Zeynep; Erdem, Aysen; Balkanci, Zeynep Dicle; Dolgun, Anil Barak; Cengel Kultur, Sadriye Ebru

    2018-05-01

    Emotion dysregulation (ED) has long been recognized in clinical descriptions of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but a renewed interest in ED has advanced research on the overlap between the two entities. Autonomic reactivity (AR) is a neurobiological correlate of emotion regulation; however, the association between ADHD and AR remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the clinical differences, AR, and subjective emotional responses to visual emotional stimuli in ADHD children with and without ED. School-aged ADHD children with (n = 28) and without (n = 20) ED, according to the definition of deficiency in emotional self-regulation (DESR), and healthy controls (n = 22) were interviewed by using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL) to screen frequent psychopathologies for these ages. All subjects were evaluated with Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 (CBCL), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), the School-Age Temperament Inventory (SATI), and Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48), which were completed by parents. To evaluate emotional responses, the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and the subjective and physiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate reactivity) to selected pictures were examined. Regarding clinically distinctive features, the ADHD+ED group differed from the ADHD-ED and the control groups in terms of having higher temperamental negative reactivity, more oppositional/conduct problems, and lower prosocial behaviors. In the AR measures, children in the ADHD+ED group rated unpleasant stimuli as more negative, but they still had lower heart rate reactivity (HRR) than the ADHD-ED and control groups; moreover, unlike the two other groups, the ADHD+ED group showed no differences in HRR between different emotional stimuli. The presented findings are unique in terms of their

  8. Comparing the DSM-5 construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and ICD-10 Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct in the UK Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (UK-LAMS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar-Ouriaghli, I; Milavic, G; Barton, R; Heaney, N; Fiori, F; Lievesley, K; Singh, J; Santosh, Paramala

    2018-05-05

    It is important to understand new diagnostic entities in classifications of psychopathology such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) (code F34.8) construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) and to compare it with possible equivalent disorders in other classificatory systems such as the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10), which has a category that superficially appears similar, that is, Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct (MDEC) (code F92). In this study, the United Kingdom (UK) arm (UK-LAMS) of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) supported Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) multi-site study was used to evaluate and retrospectively construct DMDD and MDEC diagnoses in order to compare them and understand the conditions they co-occur with, in order to improve the clinical understanding. In particular, the phenomenology of UK-LAMS participants (n = 117) was used to determine whether DMDD is a unique entity within the DSM-5. The findings showed that 24 of 68 participants with either DMDD or MDEC (35.3%) fulfilled both diagnostic criteria for DMDD and MDEC, suggesting that these entities do contain overlapping features, particularly symptoms relating to Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) and/or an anxiety disorder. The data also showed that most of the participants who met DMDD criteria also fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for ODD/CD, ADHD, followed by an anxiety disorder. In this context, this raises the issue whether DMDD is a unique construct or whether the symptomology for DMDD can be better explained as a specifier for ODD/CD and ADHD. Unlike DMDD, MDEC clearly specifies that the label should only be used if emotional and conduct disorders co-exist.

  9. Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saz P. Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is the ability to recruit processes to influence emotion generation. In recent years there has been mounting interest in how emotions are regulated at behavioural and neural levels, as well as in the relevance of emotional dysregulation to psychopathology. During adolescence, brain regions involved in affect generation and regulation, including the limbic system and prefrontal cortex, undergo protracted structural and functional development. Adolescence is also a time of increasing vulnerability to internalising and externalising psychopathologies associated with poor emotion regulation, including depression, anxiety and antisocial behaviour. It is therefore of particular interest to understand how emotion regulation develops over this time, and how this relates to ongoing brain development. However, to date relatively little research has addressed these questions directly. This review will discuss existing research in these areas in both typical adolescence and in adolescent psychopathology, and will highlight opportunities for future research. In particular, it is important to consider the social context in which adolescent emotion regulation develops. It is possible that while adolescence may be a time of vulnerability to emotional dysregulation, scaffolding the development of emotion regulation during this time may be a fruitful preventative target for psychopathology.

  10. The child behavior checklist dysregulation profile predicts adolescent DSM-5 pathological personality traits 4 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, Elien; Decuyper, Mieke; De Clercq, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Emotional dysregulation in childhood has been associated with various forms of later psychopathology, although no studies have investigated the personality related adolescent outcomes associated with early emotional dysregulation. The present study uses a typological approach to examine how the child behavior checklist-dysregulation profile (CBCL-DP) predicts DSM-5 pathological personality traits (as measured with the personality inventory for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5 or PID-5 by Krueger et al. (Psychol Med 2012)) across a time span of 4 years in a sample of 243 children aged 8-14 years (57.2 % girls). The results showed that children assigned to the CBCL-DP class are at risk for elevated scores on a wide range of DSM-5 personality pathology features, including higher scores on hostility, risk taking, deceitfulness, callousness, grandiosity, irresponsibility, impulsivity and manipulativeness. These results are discussed in the context of identifying early manifestations of persistent regulation problems, because of their enduring impact on a child's personality development.

  11. Dissociation, personality, suggestibility, alexithymia, and problems with emotional regulation: A correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the relationship between psychological and somatic dissociation and different personality and emotional variables, including suggestibility, alexithymia, and emotional regulation and dysregulation. The results with a sample of 355 partipants of a normal population reveal that there is a positive relationship between both types of dissociation, suggestibility and emotional dysregulation. Likewise, there were different patterns of personality associated both to psychological and somatic dissociation. Correlations found in this study put forward the importance to take into account both types of dissociactive symptoms, psychological and somatic ones.

  12. Characterizing Emotional Dysfunction in Borderline Personality, Major Depression, and their Co-occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Tull, Matthew T.; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to characterize patterns of emotional reactivity and dysregulation in borderline personality, depression, and their co-occurrence. In Study 1, 488 young adult women from the community were categorized into four groups based on self-reported major depressive disorder (MDD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms (Low BPD/Low MDD; Low BPD/High MDD; High BPD/Low MDD; High BPD/High MDD). Immediate and prolonged subjective emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor were assessed, and participants completed self-report and behavioral measures of emotion dysregulation. Study 2 extended these findings, examining emotional reactivity and dysregulation in a clinical population of 176 substance dependent patients with diagnoses of BPD and MDD and including a biological index of emotional reactivity. Results revealed greater prolonged fear reactivity in the High BPD/High MDD (vs. Low BPD/Low MDD) group in Study 1, and greater prolonged anxiety and negative affect reactivity in both High BPD groups (vs. Low BPD/Low MDD and Low BPD/High MDD groups) in Study 2 (but no differences in cortisol reactivity). Results also demonstrated greater subjective (but not behavioral) emotion dysregulation in the High BPD/High MDD (vs. Low BPD/Low MDD) group in Study 1 and both High BPD groups (vs. both Low BPD groups) in Study 2. Finally, the High BPD/High MDD group reported greater difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors compared with all other groups in Study 1 and the Low BPD groups in Study 2. Findings suggest that BPD pathology (but not MDD pathology alone) is characterized by greater prolonged emotional (especially anxiety/fear-related) reactivity and heightened emotion dysregulation. PMID:26343484

  13. Infant and toddler crying, sleeping and feeding problems and trajectories of dysregulated behavior across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Infant and toddler regulatory problems (RPs) including crying, sleeping and feeding, are a frequent concern for parents and have been associated with negative behavioral outcomes in early and middle childhood. Uncertain is whether infant and toddler RPs predict stable, trait-like dysregulated behavior across childhood. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). RPs at 6, 15-18, & 24-30 months and childhood dysregulated behavior at 4, 7, 8, & 9.5 years were assessed using mother report. Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) indicated that trajectories of childhood dysregulated behavior were stable over time. All single RPs (i.e., crying, sleeping & feeding problems) were significantly associated with childhood dysregulated behavior. For example, crying problems at 6 months after controlling for confounders (Odds Ratios; 95% Confidence Intervals): Moderate dysregulated behavior: OR = 1.50, 95% CI [1.09 to 2.06], high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.13, 95% CI [1.49 to 3.05] and very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.85, 95% CI [1.64 to 4.94]. Multiple RPs were especially strongly associated with dysregulated behavior. For example, the RP composite at 15-18 months: 1 RP, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.79, 95% CI [2.17 to 3.57], 2 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 3.46, 95% CI [2.38 to 5.01], 3 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 12.57, 95% CI [6.38 to 24.74]. These findings suggest that RPs in infants and toddlers predict stable dysregulated behavior trajectories across childhood. Interventions for early RPs could help prevent the development of chronic, highly dysregulated behavior.

  14. An Evaluation of Anxiety Sensitivity, Emotional Dysregulation, and Negative Affectivity among Daily Cigarette Smokers: Relation to Smoking Motives and Barriers to Quitting

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Vujanovic, Anka A.; Leyro, Teresa M.; Marshall, Erin C.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the relations between anxiety sensitivity and motivational bases of cigarette smoking, as well as barriers to quitting smoking, above and beyond concurrent substance use, negative affectivity, and emotional dysregulation among a community sample of 189 daily cigarette smokers (46% women; Mage = 24.97 years, SD = 9.78). Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to coping, addictive, and habitual smoking motives, as well as greater ...

  15. The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-05-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-reported emotional dysregulation but no impairment of emotional intelligence in borderline personality disorder: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beblo, Thomas; Pastuszak, Anna; Griepenstroh, Julia; Fernando, Silvia; Driessen, Martin; Schütz, Astrid; Rentzsch, Katrin; Schlosser, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Emotional dysfunction is a key feature of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) but emotional intelligence (EI) has rarely been investigated in this sample. This study aimed at an investigation of ability EI, general intelligence, and self-reported emotion regulation in BPD. We included 19 patients with BPD and 20 healthy control subjects in the study. EI was assessed by means of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test and the test of emotional intelligence. For the assessment of general intelligence, we administered the multidimensional "Leistungsprüfsystem-Kurzversion." The emotion regulation questionnaire and the difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale were used to assess emotion regulation. The patients with BPD did not exhibit impairments of ability EI and general intelligence but reported severe impairments in emotion regulation. Ability EI was related both to general intelligence (patients and controls) and to self-reported emotion regulation (patients). In conclusion, emotional dysfunction in BPD might primarily affect self-perceived behavior rather than abilities. Intense negative emotions in everyday life may trigger dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies in BPD although patients possess sufficient theoretical knowledge about optimal regulation strategies.

  17. Timing of birth: Parsimony favors strategic over dysregulated parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Goodman, Julia; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Falconi, April; Gemmill, Alison; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The "dysregulated parturition" narrative posits that the human stress response includes a cascade of hormones that "dysregulates" and accelerates parturition but provides questionable utility as a guide to understand or prevent preterm birth. We offer and test a "strategic parturition" narrative that not only predicts the excess preterm births that dysregulated parturition predicts but also makes testable, sex-specific predictions of the effect of stressful environments on the timing of birth among term pregnancies. We use interrupted time-series modeling of cohorts conceived over 101 months to test for lengthening of early term male gestations in stressed population. We use an event widely reported to have stressed Americans and to have increased the incidence of low birth weight and fetal death across the country-the terrorist attacks of September 2001. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of male infants conceived in December 2000 (i.e., at term in September 2001) being born early as opposed to full term fell below the value expected from those conceived in the 50 prior and 50 following months. We found that term male gestations exposed to the terrorist attacks exhibited 4% lower likelihood of early, as opposed to full or late, term birth. Strategic parturition explains observed data for which the dysregulated parturition narrative offers no prediction-the timing of birth among gestations stressed at term. Our narrative may help explain why findings from studies examining associations between population- and/or individual-level stressors and preterm birth are generally mixed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the pr....... Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.......Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim...... of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...

  19. Maternal control and early child dysregulation: Moderating roles of ethnicity and child delay status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, B; Baker, B L

    2017-02-01

    Maternal controlling behaviour has been found to influence child development, particularly in behavioural and emotional regulation. Given the higher rates of interfering parent control found in mothers of children with developmental delays (DD) and Latina mothers, their children could be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional dysregulation. While studies generally support this increased risk for children with DD, findings for Latino children are mixed and often attributed to cultural models of child rearing. The present study sought to determine the moderating roles of child DD and mother ethnicity in determining the relationships between two types of parent control (supportive directiveness and interference) and child dysregulation over time. The present study, involving 178 3-year old children with DD (n = 80) or typical development (n = 98), examined observed parent control (directive versus interfering) of Latina and Anglo mothers as it relates to change in preschool child dysregulation over 2 years. Interfering parent control was greater for children with DD and also for Latino mothers. Supportive directive parenting generally related to relatively greater decline in child behaviour and emotion dysregulation over time, while interfering parenting generally related to less decline in child behaviour dysregulation over time. In Anglo but not Latino families, these relationships tended to vary as a function of child disability. Parent directives that support, rather than deter, ongoing child activity may promote positive regulatory development. These results particularly hold for children with DD and Latino families, and have implications for parenting practices and intervention. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Child Behavior Checklist-derived Scales in Children Clinically Referred for Emotional and Behavioural Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios Papachristou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently developed the Child Behavior Checklist-Mania Scale (CBCL-MS, a novel and short instrument for the assessment of mania-like symptoms in children and adolescents derived from the CBCL item pool and have demonstrated its construct validity and temporal stability in a longitudinal general population sample. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the construct validity of the 19-item CBCL-MS in a clinical sample and to compare its discriminatory ability to that of the 40-item CBCL-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP and the 34-item CBCL-Externalizing Scale. Methods: The study sample comprised 202 children, aged 7-12 years, diagnosed with DSM-defined Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Conduct Disorder (CD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD and mood and anxiety disorders based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. The construct validity of the CBCL-MS was tested by means of a confirmatory factor analysis. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves and logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex and age were used to assess the discriminatory ability relative to that of the (CBCL-DP and the CBCL-Externalizing Scale. Results: The CBCL-MS had excellent construct validity (CFI=0.97; TLI=0.96; RMSEA=0.04. Despite similar overall performance across scales, the clinical-range scores of the CBCL-DP and the CBCL-Externalizing Scale were associated with higher odds for ODD and CD while the clinical range scores for CBCL-MS were associated with higher odds for mood disorders. The overlap amongst the children who scored within the clinical range of each scale was over 90%. Conclusion: CBCL-MS has good construct validity in general population and clinical samples and is therefore suitable for both clinical practice and research.

  1. School readiness of maltreated preschoolers and later school achievement: The role of emotion regulation, language, and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlilio, Carlomagno C; Jones Harden, Brenda; Harring, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Guided by bio-ecological theory, this study aimed to: (1) identify heterogeneity in the developmental patterns of emotion regulation for maltreated preschool-aged children; (2) examine the role of gender, language, placement instability, cognitive stimulation, and emotional support on patterns of stability and change of emotion regulation over time; and (3) elucidate the role of emotion regulation/dysregulation patterns on later academic achievement. This study utilized data from the first cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Results using LCA and LTA models indicated stability and change in emotionally regulated vs. emotionally dysregulated latent classes across 4, 5, and 6 ½ years of age. Placement instability significantly increased the likelihood of being classified as emotionally dysregulated at wave 1. Moreover, children classified as emotionally dysregulated by age 6 ½ scored significantly lower than children who were classified as emotionally regulated on measures of reading and math achievement by age 10. Based on these findings, placement stability at first contact with CPS should be promoted in order to prevent cascading negative effects on emotion regulation. Additionally, children who are more emotionally dysregulated by the time they transition to formal schooling should receive increased socioemotional and socioemotional learning supports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotion regulation in mothers and young children faced with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Cohen, S; Ziv, Y; Achituv, M; Asulin-Peretz, L; Blanchard, T R; Schiff, M; Brom, D

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal emotion regulation as mediating the association between maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and children's emotional dysregulation in a community sample of 431 Israeli mothers and children exposed to trauma. Little is known about the specific pathways through which maternal posttraumatic symptoms and deficits in emotion regulation contribute to emotional dysregulation. Inspired by the intergenerational process of relational posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in which posttraumatic distress is transmitted from mothers to children, we suggest an analogous concept of relational emotion regulation, by which maternal emotion regulation problems may contribute to child emotion regulation deficits. Child emotion regulation problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP; T.M. Achenbach & I. Rescorla, 2000), which is comprised of three subscales of the CBCL: Attention, Aggression, and Anxiety/Depression. Maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (E.B. Foa, L. Cashman, L. Jaycox, & K. Perry, 1997) and maternal emotion regulation by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (K.L. Gratz & L. Roemer, 2004). Results showed that the child's emotion regulation problems were associated with both maternal posttraumatic symptoms and maternal emotion dysregulation. Further, maternal emotion regulation mediated the association between maternal posttraumatic symptoms and the child's regulation deficits. These findings highlight the central role of mothers' emotion regulation skills in the aftermath of trauma as it relates to children's emotion regulation skills. The degree of mothers' regulatory skills in the context of posttraumatic stress symptoms reflects a key process through which the intergenerational transmission of trauma may occur. Study results have critical implications for planning and developing clinical interventions geared toward the treatment of

  3. Distinct emotion regulation skills explain psychopathology and problems in social relationships following childhood emotional abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzenski, Sara R

    2018-03-22

    Efforts to differentiate between the developmental sequelae of childhood emotional abuse and childhood emotional neglect are critical to both research and practice efforts. As an oft-identified mechanism of the effects of child maltreatment on later adjustment, emotion dysregulation represents a key potential pathway. The present study explored a higher order factor model of specific emotion regulation skills, and the extent to which these skill sets would indicate distinct developmental pathways from unique emotional maltreatment experiences to multidomain adjustment. A sample of 500 ethnoracially diverse college students reported on their experiences. A two-factor model of emotion regulation skills based on subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was revealed. Significant indirect effects of childhood emotional abuse on psychopathology and problems in social relationships were found through response-focused difficulties in emotion regulation, whereas a significant indirect effect of childhood emotional neglect on problems in social relationships was found through antecedent-focused difficulties in emotion regulation. These results are consistent with theoretical models and empirical evidence suggesting differential effects of childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect, and provide an important indication for developing targeted interventions focusing on specific higher order emotion dysregulation skill clusters.

  4. The effects of mother's physical and emotional unavailability on emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, T

    1994-01-01

    stimulation (the mother) and thus fails to develop emotion regulation or organized behavioral and physiological rhythms. Finally, individual differences were discussed, including those related to maturity (e.g., prematurity) and temperament/personality (e.g., uninhibited/inhibited or externalizing/internalizing) and those deriving from degree of mother-infant mismatch, such as dissimilar temperaments. Further investigations are needed to determine how long the effects of such early dysregulation endure, how they affect the infant's long-term development, how their effect differs across individuals and across development, and whether they can be modified by early intervention. Eventually, with increasing age, developing skills, and diversity of experience, infants develop individualized regulatory styles. That process, and how it is affected by the mother's physical and emotional unavailability, also requires further investigation.

  5. Appetitive Motivation and Negative Emotion Reactivity among Remitted Depressed Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Wetter, Emily K.; Flory, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9–15; remitted depressed, n = 34; externalizing disordered without depression, n = 30, and healthy controls, n = 34) participated in a novel reward striving task designed to activate the appetitive/approach motivation system. Objective facial expressions of emotion were videotaped and coded throughout both failure (i.e., nonreward) and control (success and reward) conditions. Observational coding of facial expressions as well as youths’ subjective emotion reports showed that the remitted depressed youth specifically exhibited more negative emotional reactivity to failure in the reward striving task, but not the control condition. Neither externalizing disordered (i.e., ADHD, CD, and/ or ODD) nor control youth displayed greater negative emotional reactivity in either the failure or control condition. Findings suggest that depression among youth is related to dysregulated appetitive motivation and associated negative emotional reactivity after failing to achieve an important, self-relevant goal and not attaining reward. These deficits in reward processing appear to be specific to depression as externalizing disordered youth did not display negative emotional reactivity to failure after their appetitive motivation system was activated. PMID:22901275

  6. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  7. Proposed pathways to problematic drinking via post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and dissociative tendencies following child/adolescent sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanecky, Alicia K; McChargue, Dennis E; Tuliao, Antover P

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between early sexual abuse and college problem drinking was examined using an integration of the self-medication and vulnerability-stress models. Baseline survey data from parti-cipants (N = 213; 135 men and 78 college women) completing a mandated, brief alcohol intervention were utilized. Representative of the self-medication model, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated the early sexual abuse/problem drinking relationship. Two psychological vulnerability factors-emotion dysregulation and dissociative tendencies-were incorporated into self-medication findings via more advanced mediational models. Results highlighted that problem drinking increased as dissociative tendencies increased, and relations between the vulnerability factors and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were in an unexpected direction.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study of the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; McGough, James; Loo, Sandra; Doyle, Alysa E.; Wozniak, Janet; Wilens, Timothy E.; Smalley, Susan; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A potentially useful tool for understanding the distribution and determinants of emotional dysregulation in children is a Child Behavior Checklist profile, comprising the Attention Problems, Anxious/Depressed, and Aggressive Behavior clinical subscales (CBCL-DP). The CBCL-DP indexes a heritable trait that increases susceptibility for…

  9. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2010-01-01

    The progression from recreational drug use to drug addiction impacts multiple neurobiological processes and can be conceptualized as a transition from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms driving both drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Neurobiological mechanisms for negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state, involve changes in the brain reward system and recruitment of brain stress (or antireward) systems within forebrain structures, including the extended amygdala. These systems are hypothesized to be dysregulated by excessive drug intake and to contribute to allostatic changes in reinforcement mechanisms associated with addiction. Points of intersection between positive and negative motivational circuitry may further drive the compulsivity of drug addiction but also provide a rich neurobiological substrate for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20563312

  10. The dysregulated cluster in personality profiling research: Longitudinal stability and associations with bulimic behaviors and correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Jennifer D.; Klump, Kelly L.; Donnellan, M. Brent; McGue, Matthew; Iacono, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Among cluster analytic studies of the personality profiles associated with bulimia nervosa, a group of individuals characterized by emotional lability and behavioral dysregulation (i.e., a dysregulated cluster) has emerged most consistently. However, previous studies have all been cross-sectional and mostly used clinical samples. This study aimed to replicate associations between the dysregulated personality cluster and bulimic symptoms and related characteristics using a longitudinal, population-based sample. Participants were females assessed at ages 17 and 25 from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, clustered based on their personality traits. The Dysregulated cluster was successfully identified at both time points and was more stable across time than either the Resilient or Sensation Seeking clusters. Rates of bulimic symptoms and related behaviors (e.g., alcohol use problems) were also highest in the dysregulated group. Findings suggest that the dysregulated cluster is a relatively stable and robust profile that is associated with bulimic symptoms. PMID:23398096

  11. Parent emotion socialization and pre-adolescent's social and emotional adjustment: Moderating effects of autonomic nervous system reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Julia D; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2017-12-01

    This study examined whether measures of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to social stress moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children's social and emotional adjustment. Sixty-one children (9-13 years) completed a peer rejection task while their respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) and skin conductance level reactivity (SCL-R) were assessed. Parents' report of supportive and non-supportive reactions to their child's negative emotions served as measures of emotion socialization. Measures of children's social and emotional adjustment included: teacher-rated peer rejection, aggression, and prosocial behavior and parent-rated aggressive/dysregulated behavior and emotion regulation skills. Measures of children's ANS reactivity moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children's adjustment. Supportive responses were more protective for children evidencing RSA augmentation whereas non-supportive responses were more detrimental for children evidencing low SCL-R. Thus children's ANS reactivity during social stress may represent a biological vulnerability that influences sensitivity to parent emotion socialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional Awareness Moderates the Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John; Berenbaum, Howard

    2017-07-01

    To examine pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD), focusing on childhood abuse and emotional attention and clarity. Among 293 community residents (mean age = 43.1; 53.9% female), measured associations between the BPD symptom factors of disturbed relatedness, affective dysregulation, and behavioral dysregulation and (a) childhood abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual); (b) emotional attention and clarity; and (c) negative affect, using structured interviews, the Schedule for Non-Adaptive and Adaptive Personality-2, the Trait Meta Mood Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, respectively. All forms of childhood abuse were associated with BPD symptom factors. Emotional attention and clarity moderated the effects of childhood physical and emotional abuse on behavioral dysregulation and disturbed relatedness. All results held when controlling for negative affect. The relations between childhood abuse and BPD are robust. Emotional attention and clarity may help elucidate the links between childhood abuse and BPD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dysregulation of Pain- and Emotion-Related Networks in Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyang Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN is a severe neuropathic facial pain disorder associated with increased risks of anxiety and depression. Converging evidence suggests that chronic pain pathophysiology involves dysfunctional pain-related and emotion-related networks. However, whether these systems are also among the culprit networks for TN remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assess TN-related anatomical and functional brain anomalies in pain-related and emotion-related networks. We investigated differences in gray matter (GM volume and the related resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC between 29 classical TN patients and 34 matched healthy controls. Relationships between brain measurement alterations, clinical pain and emotional states were identified. A longitudinal observation was further conducted to determine whether alterations in the brain could renormalize following pain relief. Reduced GM volumes in the bilateral amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG and right insula were found in TN patients compared with healthy control subjects. Whole-brain rsFC analyses with the four above-mentioned anatomical regions as seeds identified three significantly altered functional circuits, including amygdala-DLPFC, amygdala-mPFC and amygdala-thalamus/putamen circuitry. The amygdala-DLPFC and amygdala-mPFC circuits were associated with clinical pain duration and emotional state ratings, respectively. Further longitudinal analysis found that rsFC strength abnormalities in two fronto-limbic circuits (left amygdala/left DLPFC and right amygdala/right PFC were resolved after pain relief. Together, structural and functional deficits in pain-related and emotion-related networks were associated with TN patients, as demonstrated by our multimodal results. Pain relief had protective effects on brain functional connectivity within fronto-limbic circuits. Our study provides novel insights into the pathophysiology of TN, which may ultimately facilitate advances in

  14. Discrete Emotion Regulation Strategy Repertoires and Parasympathetic Physiology Characterize Psychopathology Symptoms in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Camacho, Laura E.; Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-01

    Certain psychopathologies are often linked to dysregulation of specific emotions (e.g., anxiety is associated with dysregulation of fear), but few studies have examined how regulatory repertoires for specific emotions (e.g., the strategies a person uses to regulate fear) relate to psychopathology, and fewer still have examined this in childhood. A…

  15. Neurobiological evidence for attention bias to food, emotional dysregulation, disinhibition and deficient somatosensory awareness in obesity with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram-Friedman, Roni; Astbury, Nerys; Ochner, Christopher N; Contento, Isobel; Geliebter, Allan

    2018-02-01

    To refine the biobehavioral markers of binge eating disorder (BED). We conducted fMRI brain scans using images of high energy processed food (HEPF), low energy unprocessed food (LEUF), or non-foods (NF) in 42 adults (obese with BED [obese -BED; n=13] and obese with no BED [obese non-BED; n=29]) selected via ads. Two blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast maps were examined: food versus nonfood, and HEPF versus LEUF. In addition, score differences on the disinhibition scale were correlated with BOLD signals. food versus nonfood showed greater BOLD activity for BED in emotional, motivational and somatosensory brain areas: insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), Brodmann areas (BA) 19 & 32, inferior parietal lobule (IPL), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and lingual, postcentral, middle temporal and cuneate gyri (p≤0.005; k≥88). HEPF versus LEUF showed greater BOLD activity for BED in inhibitory brain regions: BA 6, middle and superior frontal gyri (pFood images elicited neural activity indicating attention bias (cuneate & PCG), emotion dysregulation (BA 19 & 32), and disinhibition (MFG, BA6 & SFG) in obese with BED. These may help tailor a treatment for the obesity with BED phenotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.A.; Levon, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Phenomenological approach is described, using it, energy spectra of odd-odd nucleus collective bands based on conflicting state of unpaired nucleons can be calculated. It is ascertained that in a conflicting bond unpaired nucleon acts as a spectator, i.e. energy spectra of collective bands in odd-odd nuclei are similar to the spectra of collective bands in heighbouring odd nuclei, which are based on the state of a strongly bound nucleon is included in the conflicting configuration

  17. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia: A Transdiagnostic Biomarker of Emotion Dysregulation and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)-mediated cardiac control—has emerged as a reliable peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation (ER). Reduced RSA and excessive RSA reactivity (i.e., withdrawal) to emotional challenge are observed consistently among individuals with poor ER capabilities, including those with various forms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, and those with specific psychopathological syndromes, including anxiety, phobias, attention problems, autism, callousness, conduct disorder, depression, non-suicidal self-injury, panic disorder, and trait hostility. Emerging evidence suggests that low RSA and excessive RSA reactivity index poor ER because they are downstream peripheral markers of prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. Poorly modulated inhibitory efferent pathways from the medial PFC to the PNS result in reduced RSA and excessive RSA reactivity. According to this perspective, RSA is a non-invasive proxy for poor executive control over behavior, which characterizes most forms of psychopathology. PMID:25866835

  18. Antireward, compulsivity, and addiction: seminal contributions of Dr. Athina Markou to motivational dysregulation in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F

    2017-05-01

    Addiction is defined as a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking that is hypothesized to derive from multiple sources of motivational dysregulation. Dr. Athina Markou made seminal contributions to our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction with her studies on the dysregulation of reward function using animal models with construct validity. Repeated overstimulation of the reward systems with drugs of abuse decreases reward function, characterized by brain stimulation reward and presumbably reflecting dysphoria-like states. The construct of negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state that is created by drug abstinence, is particularly relevant as a driving force in both the withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages of the addiction cycle. The negative emotional state that drives such negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from the dysregulation of key neurochemical circuits that drive incentive-salience/reward systems (dopamine, opioid peptides) in the ventral striatum and from the recruitment of brain stress systems (corticotropin-releasing factor, dynorphin) within the extended amygdala. As drug taking becomes compulsive-like, the factors that motivate behavior are hypothesized to shift to drug-seeking behavior that is driven not only by positive reinforcement but also by negative reinforcement. This shift in motivation is hypothesized to reflect the allostatic misregulation of hedonic tone such that drug taking makes the hedonic negative emotional state worse during the process of seeking temporary relief with compulsive drug taking.

  19. Maltreatment and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Chinese Children With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Mediating Role of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfeng; Lin, Xiuyun; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fang, Xiaoyi; Du, Hongfei; Wang, Zhonghui

    2016-11-01

    Maltreatment has negative effects on the parent-child relationship and the emotional and behavioral development of children. The current study aimed to examine the associations among maltreatment, parent-child relationship, and emotional and behavioral problems in Chinese children with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Participants in the study included 259 children with ODD and their 269 non-ODD counterparts from northern, eastern, and southwestern China. We also collected data from their teachers and fathers or mothers. The results showed that ODD children suffered more maltreatment and had more emotional and behavioral problems than their non-ODD peers. For all children (both ODD and non-ODD children), emotional abuse predicted emotional problems but not behavioral problems. Physical abuse predicted behavioral problems but not emotional problems. Parent-child relationship mediated the effects of emotional abuse and physical abuse on emotional problems among ODD children but not among non-ODD children. Implications for prevention of emotional and physical abuse and ODD in the Chinese cultural context are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Mirror neuron system based therapy for emotional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Hoff, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Mirror neuron system (MNS) represents one of the most important discoveries in the area of neuropsychology of past decades. More than 500 papers have been published in this area (PubMed), and the major functions of MNS include action understanding, imitation, empathy, all of which are critical for an individual to be social. Recent studies suggested that MNS can modulate emotion states possibly through the empathy mechanism. Here we propose that MNS-based therapies provide a non-invasive approach in treatments to emotional disorders that were observed in autism patients, post-stroke patients with depression as well as other mood dysregulation conditions.

  1. Weight-Related Correlates of Psychological Dysregulation in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Females with Severe Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E.; Zeller, Meg H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Methods Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI=48.71 kg/m2; Mage=18.29, R=15–21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Results Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3–4 times/week). Eating out was common (4–5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Conclusions Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may

  2. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Du, Yasong; Fan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. Methods The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with ...

  3. Discrepancies in Parents' and Children's Reports of Child Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…

  4. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, “why” an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific “how” details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  5. The Relationship between Emotion Regulation and Emotion Expression Styles with Bullying Behaviors in Adolescent Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Basharpoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Students bullying, especially in the adolescence period, is a prevalent problem in the schools, that emotional dysregulation is posed as a one cause of it. Considering this issue, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between emotion regulation and emotion expression styles with bullying behaviors in adolescent students.   Methods: The method of this study was correlation. Whole male students of secondary and high schools in Ardabil at 90-91 educational year comprised statistical population of this research. Two hundred thirty students, were selected by multistage cluster sampling method, responded to the questionnaires of bullying/victimization, emotion regulation and emotion expression. Gathered data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests.   Results: The results showed that victimization by bullying has positive relationship with cognitive reappraisal (r= 0.15, p<0.02, emotion suppression (r= 0.47, p<0.001, and positive expression (r= 0.25, p<0.02, but has negative relationship with impulse severity (r= -0.35, p<0.001, and negative emotion expression (r= -0.43, p<0.001. Furthermore bullying has a positive relationship with cognitive reappraisal (r= 0.14, p<0.03, impulse severity (r= 0.31, p<0.003, and negative expression (r= 0.29, p<0.001, but has negative relationship with emotion suppression (r= 0.28, p<0.001, and positive expression (r= 0.24, p<0.001. In sum emotion regulation and emotion expression styles explained 36 percent of the variance of the victimization by bullying and 19 percent of the variance of the bullying.   Conclusion: This research demonstrated that emotion dysregulation at the adolescent period plays important role in bullying and victimization, thus the training of emotion regulation abilities is suggested as the one of interventions methods for this behavioral problems.

  6. ODD irritability is associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior and not ADHD in chronic tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Marie-Claude G; Lespérance, Paul; Achim, André; Tellier, Geneviève; Diab, Sabrina; Rouleau, Guy A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Richer, Francois

    2014-12-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are often associated with a variety of behavioral comorbidities including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and temper outbursts. ODD is often associated with ADHD but its links to other symptoms of TS/CT is not as clear. This study examined whether the various symptoms of ODD were differentially linked to the various comorbidities in TS. A clinical sample of 135 children diagnosed with TS was evaluated through parent questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Regressions and structural equation modeling confirmed that ODD is multidimensional in a TS/CT sample and showed that OCB was associated with the irritability symptoms of ODD whereas ADHD was associated with the Headstrong symptoms of ODD. Results suggest that increased attention to the different facets of ODD may help improve our understanding of emotional symptoms in TS/CT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotional Dysregulation in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Validity, Predictability, Severity, and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbisiero, Salvatore; Mörstedt, Beatrice; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. However, this triad might not be able to explain the complete spectrum of ADHD symptoms, as emotional dysregulation (ED) frequently seems to accompany the disorder. The aim of this study was to further understand the role of ED in adult ADHD. The sample comprised 393 adults with ADHD without or with comorbidity, and 121 adults without ADHD or any other mental disorder. Additionally, the sample focused on ED. The contribution of core symptoms and the effect of comorbidity on ED were tested and the predictive value of ED for the ADHD diagnosis itself analyzed. Finally, all subjects were categorized into groups-No ADHD, ADHD, and ADHD + ED-to analyze the differences in the severity of ADHD symptomatology in the three groups. ED levels were found to be elevated in patients with ADHD. The core symptoms affected ED, and the ADHD diagnosis was predicted by ED. The addition of ED to a regression model with the core symptoms was shown to improve the predictability of the ADHD diagnosis. The presence of ED proved to be an indicator of the severity of adult ADHD independent of a present comorbidity. ED is a significant symptom in adult patients with ADHD and appears to be associated with ADHD itself. Whilst the presence of other mental disorders intensifies symptoms of ED, ED seems not to manifest solely as a consequence of comorbidity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dysregulation of Prefrontal Cortex-Mediated Slow-Evolving Limbic Dynamics Drives Stress-Induced Emotional Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Rainbo; Mague, Stephen D; Li, Qiang; Katz, Brittany M; Michel, Nadine; Lin, Lizhen; Wang, Joyce; David, Lisa K; Blount, Cameron; Chandy, Rithi; Carlson, David; Ulrich, Kyle; Carin, Lawrence; Dunson, David; Kumar, Sunil; Deisseroth, Karl; Moore, Scott D; Dzirasa, Kafui

    2016-07-20

    Circuits distributed across cortico-limbic brain regions compose the networks that mediate emotional behavior. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates ultraslow (stress-related illnesses including major depressive disorder (MDD). To uncover the mechanism whereby stress-induced changes in PFC circuitry alter emotional networks to yield pathology, we used a multi-disciplinary approach including in vivo recordings in mice and chronic social defeat stress. Our network model, inferred using machine learning, linked stress-induced behavioral pathology to the capacity of PFC to synchronize amygdala and VTA activity. Direct stimulation of PFC-amygdala circuitry with DREADDs normalized PFC-dependent limbic synchrony in stress-susceptible animals and restored normal behavior. In addition to providing insights into MDD mechanisms, our findings demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be used to identify the large-scale network changes that underlie complex emotional pathologies and the specific network nodes that can be used to develop targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors.

  10. Neural mechanisms of emotional regulation and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Gospic, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Emotions influence our perception and decision making. It is of great importance to understand the neurophysiology behind these processes as they influence human core functions. Moreover, knowledge within this field is required in order to develop new medical therapies for pathological conditions that involve dysregulation of emotions. In this thesis the neural mechanisms of emotional regulation and decision making were investigated using different pharmacological manipul...

  11. The clinical obesity maintenance model: an integration of psychological constructs including mood, emotional regulation, disordered overeating, habitual cluster behaviours, health literacy and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  12. Effects of Gene × Attachment Interaction on Adolescents’ Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Hostile Behavior Towards their Mothers during a Computer Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased emotionality and major changes in emotion regulation often elicited in autonomy-relevant situations. Both genetic as well as social factors may lead to inter-individual differences in emotional processes in adolescence. We investigated whether both 5-HTTLPR and attachment security influence adolescents’ observed emotionality, emotional dysregulation, and their aggressive hostile autonomy while interacting with their mothers. Eighty-eight adolescents at age 12 were observed in interaction with their mothers during a standardized, emotion eliciting computer game task. They were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR, a repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Concurrent attachment quality was assessed by the Late Childhood Attachment Interview (LCAI). Results revealed a significant gene × attachment effect showing that ss/sl carriers of 5-HTTLPR show increased emotional dysregulation and aggressive hostile autonomy towards their mothers. The results of the study suggest that secure attachment in adolescence moderates the genetically based higher tendency for emotional dysregulation and aggressive reactions to restrictions of autonomy during emotional social interactions with their mothers. PMID:27378877

  13. Effects of Gene × Attachment Interaction on Adolescents' Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Hostile Behavior Towards their Mothers during a Computer Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased emotionality and major changes in emotion regulation often elicited in autonomy-relevant situations. Both genetic as well as social factors may lead to inter-individual differences in emotional processes in adolescence. We investigated whether both 5-HTTLPR and attachment security influence adolescents' observed emotionality, emotional dysregulation, and their aggressive hostile autonomy while interacting with their mothers. Eighty-eight adolescents at age 12 were observed in interaction with their mothers during a standardized, emotion eliciting computer game task. They were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR, a repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Concurrent attachment quality was assessed by the Late Childhood Attachment Interview (LCAI). Results revealed a significant gene × attachment effect showing that ss/sl carriers of 5-HTTLPR show increased emotional dysregulation and aggressive hostile autonomy towards their mothers. The results of the study suggest that secure attachment in adolescence moderates the genetically based higher tendency for emotional dysregulation and aggressive reactions to restrictions of autonomy during emotional social interactions with their mothers.

  14. Effect of family structure and TPH2 G-703T on the stability of dysregulation profile throughout adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Maria; Bianchi, Valentina; Monzani, Dario; Beri, Silvana; Bellina, Monica; Greco, Andrea; Colombo, Paola; Tesei, Alessandra; Caldirola, Daniela; Giorda, Roberto; Perna, Giampaolo; Molteni, Massimo

    2016-01-15

    Two different polymorphisms (TPH2 G-703T and 5-HTTLPR) involved in the serotonergic pathway have been reported to play a role, both alone and in interaction with the environment, in early and adult emotion regulation. As most of these studies are cross-sectional, we know little about the impact of these polymorphisms over time, particularly during adolescence. Because we were interested in the effects of these polymorphisms and environment (i.e., family structure) at different time-points on the emotional dysregulation profile, we performed a path analysis model in a general adolescent population sample of a five-year follow-up study. We found a high stability of Dysregulation Profile problems independently from the examined allelic variants. We also found that early family structure directly influences the levels of dysregulation problems in early adolescence, both alone and in interaction with TPH2, suggesting the presence of a gene-environment interaction effect. Furthermore, we found that in adolescents homozygous for the TPH2 G allele, the effect of the early family structure remains active during late adolescence, albeit mediated by earlier emotional problems. The high attrition rate, the use of only one source on behavioral problems of adolescents, and the focus on a single polymorphism in the investigated genes could limit the generalizability of the present results. These results suggest that early family structure could play a significant role in the development and maintenance of emotional and behavioral problems not only in early adolescence but also in late-adolescence, although this effect was mediated and moderated by behavioral and genetic variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of dopamine gene variants, emotion dysregulation and ADHD in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Pinsonneault, Julia K; Perlman, Greg; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of dopaminergic gene variants with emotion dysregulation (EMD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3/DAT1) polymorphisms (intron8 5/6 VNTR, 3'-UTR 9/10 VNTR, rs27072 in the 3'-UTR) and one dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) variant (rs2283265) were selected for genotyping based on à priori evidence of regulatory activity or, in the case of DAT1 9/10 VNTR, commonly reported associations with ADHD. A sample of 110 children with ASD was assessed with a rigorously validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. Global EMD severity (parents' ratings) was associated with DAT1 intron8 (ηp(2)=.063) and rs2283265 (ηp(2)=.044). Findings for DAT1 intron8 were also significant for two EMD subscales, generalized anxiety (ηp(2)=.065) and depression (ηp(2)=.059), and for DRD2 rs2283265, depression (ηp(2)=.053). DRD2 rs2283265 was associated with teachers' global ratings of ADHD (ηp(2)=.052). DAT1 intron8 was associated with parent-rated hyperactivity (ηp(2)=.045) and both DAT1 9/10 VNTR (ηp(2)=.105) and DRD2 rs2283265 (ηp(2)=.069) were associated with teacher-rated inattention. These findings suggest that dopaminergic gene polymorphisms may modulate EMD and ADHD symptoms in children with ASD but require replication with larger independent samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parametric modulation of neural activity by emotion in youth with bipolar disorder, youth with severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Muhrer, Eli J; Rosen, Brooke H; Bones, Brian L; Reynolds, Richard C; Deveney, Christen M; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-12-01

    CONTEXT Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, nonepisodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation [SMD]) exhibit amygdala dysfunction during facial emotion processing. However, studies have not compared such patients with each other and with comparison individuals in neural responsiveness to subtle changes in facial emotion; the ability to process such changes is important for social cognition. To evaluate this, we used a novel, parametrically designed faces paradigm. OBJECTIVE To compare activation in the amygdala and across the brain in BD patients, SMD patients, and healthy volunteers (HVs). DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Government research institute. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-seven youths (19 BD, 15 SMD, and 23 HVs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Blood oxygenation level-dependent data. Neutral faces were morphed with angry and happy faces in 25% intervals; static facial stimuli appeared for 3000 milliseconds. Participants performed hostility or nonemotional facial feature (ie, nose width) ratings. The slope of blood oxygenation level-dependent activity was calculated across neutral-to-angry and neutral-to-happy facial stimuli. RESULTS In HVs, but not BD or SMD participants, there was a positive association between left amygdala activity and anger on the face. In the neutral-to-happy whole-brain analysis, BD and SMD participants modulated parietal, temporal, and medial-frontal areas differently from each other and from that in HVs; with increasing facial happiness, SMD patients demonstrated increased, and BD patients decreased, activity in the parietal, temporal, and frontal regions. CONCLUSIONS Youth with BD or SMD differ from HVs in modulation of amygdala activity in response to small changes in facial anger displays. In contrast, individuals with BD or SMD show distinct perturbations in regions mediating attention and face processing in association with changes in the emotional intensity of facial happiness displays. These findings demonstrate

  17. Emotion regulation and substance use frequency in women with substance dependence and borderline personality disorder receiving dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Seth R; Perepletchikova, Francheska; Holtzman, Kevin; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) identifies emotion dysregulation as central to the dangerous impulsivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) including substance use disorders, and DBT targets improved emotion regulation as a primary mechanism of change. However, improved emotion regulation with DBT and associations between such improvement and behavioral outcomes such as substance use has not been previously reported. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess for improvement in emotion regulation and to examine the relationship between improvements in the emotion regulation and substance use problems following DBT treatment. Emotion regulation as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, depressed mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and their associations with substance use frequency were investigated in 27 women with substance dependence and BPD receiving 20 weeks of DBT in an academic community outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Results indicated improved emotion regulation, improved mood, and decreased substance use frequency. Further, emotion regulation improvement, but not improved mood, explained the variance of decreased substance use frequency. This is the first study to demonstrate improved emotion regulation in BPD patients treated with DBT and to show that improved emotion regulation can account for increased behavioral control in BPD patients. SIGNIFICANCE AND FUTURE RESEARCH: Emotion regulation assessment is recommended for future studies to further clarify the etiology and maintenance of disorders associated with emotional dysregulation such as BPD and substance dependence and to further explore emotion regulation as a potential mechanism of change for clinical interventions.

  18. Dysregulated left inferior parietal activity in schizophrenia and depression: functional connectivity and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika I. Müller

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inferior parietal cortex (IPC is a heterogeneous region that is known to be involved in a multitude of diverse different tasks and processes, though its contribution to these often-complex functions is yet poorly understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that patients with depression failed to deactivate the left IPC during processing of congruent audiovisual information. We now found the same dysregulation (same region and condition in schizophrenia. By using task-independent (resting state and task-dependent (MACM analyses we aimed at characterizing this particular region with regard to its connectivity and function. Across both approaches, results revealed functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal seed region with bilateral IPC, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PrC/PCC, medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, left middle frontal (MFG as well as inferior frontal (IFG gyrus. Network-level functional characterization further revealed that on the one hand, all interconnected regions are part of a network involved in memory processes. On the other hand, sub-networks are formed when emotion, language, social cognition and reasoning processes are required. Thus, the IPC-region that is dysregulated in both depression and schizophrenia is functionally connected to a network of regions which, depending on task demands may form sub-networks. These results therefore indicate that dysregulation of left IPC in depression and schizophrenia might not only be connected to deficits in audiovisual integration, but is possibly also associated to impaired memory and deficits in emotion processing in these patient groups.

  19. The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Raman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM. It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  20. Weight-related correlates of psychological dysregulation in adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E; Zeller, Meg H

    2016-04-01

    Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI = 48.71 kg/m(2); Mage = 18.29, R = 15-21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3-4 times/week). Eating out was common (4-5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may have a multidimensional

  1. Emotion malleability beliefs, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: Integrating affective and clinical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Elizabeth T; Dovidio, John F; Joormann, Jutta; Clark, Margaret S

    2016-04-01

    Beliefs that individuals hold about whether emotions are malleable or fixed, also referred to as emotion malleability beliefs, may play a crucial role in individuals' emotional experiences and their engagement in changing their emotions. The current review integrates affective science and clinical science perspectives to provide a comprehensive review of how emotion malleability beliefs relate to emotionality, emotion regulation, and specific clinical disorders and treatment. Specifically, we discuss how holding more malleable views of emotion could be associated with more active emotion regulation efforts, greater motivation to engage in active regulatory efforts, more effort expended regulating emotions, and lower levels of pathological distress. In addition, we explain how extending emotion malleability beliefs into the clinical domain can complement and extend current conceptualizations of major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. This may prove important given the increasingly central role emotion dysregulation has been given in conceptualization and intervention for these psychiatric conditions. Additionally, discussion focuses on how emotion beliefs could be more explicitly addressed in existing cognitive therapies. Promising future directions for research are identified throughout the review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health....... response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using...... cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological...

  3. Socio-emotional development following very preterm birth: pathways to psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eMontagna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset.Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity.However, the aetiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies.Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological and psychosocial factors.

  4. The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Vascular dysregulation refers to the regulation of blood flow that is not adapted to the needs of the respective tissue. We distinguish primary vascular dysregulation (PVD, formerly called vasospastic syndrome) and secondary vascular dysregulation (SVD). Subjects with PVD tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, increased pain sensitivity, prolonged sleep onset time, altered gene expression in the lymphocytes, signs of oxidative stress, slightly increased endothelin-1 plasma level, low body mass index and often diffuse and fluctuating visual field defects. Coldness, emotional or mechanical stress and starving can provoke symptoms. Virtually all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. In subjects with PVD, retinal vessels are stiffer and more irregular, and both neurovascular coupling and autoregulation capacity are reduced while retinal venous pressure is often increased. Subjects with PVD have increased risk for normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve compartment syndrome, central serous choroidopathy, Susac syndrome, retinal artery and vein occlusions and anterior ischaemic neuropathy without atherosclerosis. Further characteristics are their weaker blood–brain and blood-retinal barriers and the higher prevalence of optic disc haemorrhages and activated astrocytes. Subjects with PVD tend to suffer more often from tinnitus, muscle cramps, migraine with aura and silent myocardial ischaemic and are at greater risk for altitude sickness. While the main cause of vascular dysregulation is vascular endotheliopathy, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is also involved. In contrast, SVD occurs in the context of other diseases such as multiple sclerosis, retrobulbar neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and giant cell arteritis. Taking into consideration the high prevalence of PVD in the population and potentially linked pathologies, in the current article, the authors provide

  5. Emotion regulation in schema therapy and dialectical behavior therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fassbinder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Schema therapy (ST and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross’ process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g. lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect. These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogues and imagery rescripting.

  6. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567

  7. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baweja R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raman Baweja, Susan D Mayes, Usman Hameed, James G Waxmonsky Department of Psychiatry, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5. It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. Keywords: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent irritability, temper outbursts 

  8. Vibrational-rotational model of odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.V.; Guseva, T.V.; Tamberg, Yu.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    The rotational vibrational (RV) model of odd nuclei is generalized to odd-odd nuclei. The hamiltonian, wave functions and matrix elements of the RV-model of odd-odd nuclei are obtained. The expressions obtained for matrix elements of the RV-model of odd-odd nuclei can be used to study the role of vibrational additions in low-lying two-particle states of odd-odd deformed nuclei. Such calculations permit to study more correctly the residual neutron-proton interaction of valent nucleons with respect to collectivization effects

  9. Emotional non-acceptance links early life stress and blunted cortisol reactivity to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cărnuţă, Mihai; Crişan, Liviu G; Vulturar, Romana; Opre, Adrian; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been recently associated with blunted cortisol reactivity and emotion dysregulation, but no study until now examined whether these characteristics are related. The main goal of this study was to examine the potential mediator role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between ELS and cortisol reactivity to social threat. Only women who were free of psychiatric and endocrine disorders, had regular menstrual cycle and did not use oral contraceptives were selected for this study (N=62). After filling in ELS and multidimensional emotion dysregulation measures, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test during which cortisol and autonomic responses were assessed. Most participants (85.5%) reported one or more major stressful events (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, major parental conflicts, death of a family or close friend, severe illness) experienced before age 17. ELS was negatively associated with cortisol reactivity and positively associated with skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity, but it did not influence heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In addition, ELS was positively related to emotional non-acceptance (i.e., a tendency to develop secondary emotional responses to one's negative emotions), and the latter was negatively related to cortisol responses and positively related to SCL responses. Bootstrapping analyses indicated that emotional non-acceptance was a significant mediator in the relationships between ELS and both cortisol and SCL responses. Emotional non-acceptance is thus one of the psychological mechanisms underlying blunted cortisol and increased sympathetic reactivity in young healthy volunteers with a history of ELS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the Association of Deliberate Self-Harm With Emotional Relief Using a Novel Implicit Association Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Tull, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing consensus that negative reinforcement in the form of emotional relief plays a key role in the maintenance of deliberate self-harm (DSH), most of the research in this area has relied exclusively on self-report measures of the perceived motives for and emotional consequences of DSH. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to extend extant research on the role of emotional relief in DSH by examining the strength of the association of DSH with emotional relief using a novel version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The strength of the DSH-relief association among both participants with (vs. without) DSH and self-harming participants with (vs. without) BPD, as well as its associations with relevant clinical constructs (including DSH characteristics, self-reported motives for DSH, BPD pathology, and emotion dysregulation and avoidance) were examined in a community sample of young adults (113 with recent recurrent DSH; 135 without DSH). As hypothesized, results revealed stronger associations between DSH and relief among participants with versus without DSH, as well as among DSH participants with versus without BPD. Moreover, the strength of the DSH-relief association was positively associated with DSH frequency and versatility (both lifetime and at 6-month follow-up), BPD pathology, emotion dysregulation, experiential avoidance, and self-reported emotion relief motives for DSH. Findings provide support for theories emphasizing the role of emotional relief in DSH (particularly among individuals with BPD), as well as the construct validity, predictive utility, and incremental validity (relative to self-reported emotion relief motives) of this IAT. PMID:26147069

  11. Testing the effectiveness of 3D film for laboratory-based studies of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bride, Daniel L; Crowell, Sheila E; Baucom, Brian R; Kaufman, Erin A; O'Connor, Caitlin G; Skidmore, Chloe R; Yaptangco, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychology and affective neuroscience often relies on film as a standardized and reliable method for evoking emotion. However, clip validation is not undertaken regularly. This presents a challenge for research with adolescent and young adult samples who are exposed routinely to high-definition (HD) three-dimensional (3D) stimuli and may not respond to older, validated film clips. Studies with young people inform understanding of emotional development, dysregulated affect, and psychopathology, making it critical to assess whether technological advances improve the study of emotion. In the present study, we examine whether 3D film is more evocative than 2D using a tightly controlled within-subjects design. Participants (n  =  408) viewed clips during a concurrent psychophysiological assessment. Results indicate that both 2D and 3D technology are highly effective tools for emotion elicitation. However, 3D does not add incremental benefit over 2D, even when individual differences in anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and novelty seeking are considered.

  12. Testing the effectiveness of 3D film for laboratory-based studies of emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Bride

    Full Text Available Research in psychology and affective neuroscience often relies on film as a standardized and reliable method for evoking emotion. However, clip validation is not undertaken regularly. This presents a challenge for research with adolescent and young adult samples who are exposed routinely to high-definition (HD three-dimensional (3D stimuli and may not respond to older, validated film clips. Studies with young people inform understanding of emotional development, dysregulated affect, and psychopathology, making it critical to assess whether technological advances improve the study of emotion. In the present study, we examine whether 3D film is more evocative than 2D using a tightly controlled within-subjects design. Participants (n  =  408 viewed clips during a concurrent psychophysiological assessment. Results indicate that both 2D and 3D technology are highly effective tools for emotion elicitation. However, 3D does not add incremental benefit over 2D, even when individual differences in anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and novelty seeking are considered.

  13. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated…

  14. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  15. A meta-analysis on the association between emotional awareness and borderline personality pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Youri P.M.J.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2017-01-01

    Theories on borderline personality pathology (BPP) suggest that characteristic emotional dysregulation is due to low levels of emotional awareness or alexithymia. This study is the first meta-analysis to systematically review and analyze the evidence. A systematic search of the literature was

  16. A meta-analysis on the association between emotional awareness and borderline personality pathology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Youri Petrus Marinus Johannes; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Theories on borderline personality pathology (BPP) suggest that characteristic emotional dysregulation is due to low levels of emotional awareness or alexithymia. This study is the first meta-analysis to systematically review and analyze the evidence. A systematic search of the literature was

  17. Emotion Generation and Emotion Regulation: One or Two Depends on Your Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, James J.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Emotion regulation has the odd distinction of being a wildly popular construct whose scientific existence is in considerable doubt. In this article, we discuss the confusion about whether emotion generation and emotion regulation can and should be distinguished from one another. We describe a continuum of perspectives on emotion, and highlight how different (often mutually incompatible) perspectives on emotion lead to different views about whether emotion generation and emotion regulation can...

  18. Commingling effect of gynoid and android fat patterns on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, I S; Seale, J P; Lyn, R

    2015-05-18

    To determine the independent and commingling effect of android and gynoid percent fat (measured using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults. The 2005-2006 data (n=1802) from the United States National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used in this study. Associations of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence with risks of cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated using prevalence odds ratios from logistic regression analyses. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was more highly correlated with cardiometabolic dysregulation than android percent fat, gynoid percent fat or body mass index. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with much greater odds of cardiometabolic risk factors than either android or gynoid adiposities. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.42-2.93), 1.48 (95% CI=1.32-1.91), 1.61 (95% CI=1.50-1.89), 3.56 (95% CI=2.91-4.11) and 1.86 (95% CI=1.49-1.96) increased odds of elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Normal weight subjects who present with both android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks. Both android and gynoid fat accumulations should be considered in developing public health strategies for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in normal weight subjects.

  19. Associations Between Childhood Abuse, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Implicit Emotion Regulation Deficits: Evidence From a Low-Income, Inner-City Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Abigail; Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; Bradley, Bekh; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including increased risk for development of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of the present study was to examine associations between child abuse, PTSD symptoms, and performance on an emotional conflict regulation task that assesses implicit emotion regulation abilities. The sample consisted of 67 (94% African American) females recruited from a public, urban hospital. Childhood abuse was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and PTSD was measured using the modified PTSD Symptom Scale. Task accuracy and implicit emotion regulation were measured through an emotional conflict regulation behavioral task. A multivariate analysis of covariance showed that exposure to moderate to severe childhood abuse was significantly related to worse emotional conflict regulation scores independent of current PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and adult trauma exposure, suggesting a deficit in implicit emotion regulation. We also found an interaction between PTSD symptoms and abuse exposure in predicting accuracy on the behavioral task; high levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with poorer task accuracy among individuals who reported moderate to severe exposure to childhood abuse. However, no relationship between implicit emotion regulation abilities and overall PTSD symptom severity was found. This study provides preliminary evidence of an implicit emotion regulation deficit for individuals exposed to significant childhood abuse and further supports the growing evidence that addressing various aspects of emotion dysregulation, such as awareness of emotions and strategies to manage strong emotions, in the context of treatment would be valuable.

  20. Emotional Processing in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvak, Michael K.; Sege, Christopher T.; Sloan, Denise M.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Litz, Brett T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) would exhibit augmented emotional responses to picture stimuli after being challenged with an ideographic interpersonal conflict script. Participants were 24 adults diagnosed with BPD, 23 adults diagnosed with obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), and 28 normal controls. Participants viewed emotionally evocative pictures before and after listening to the interpersonal script while a variety of physiological measures were recorded. Findings indicated that the interpersonal script was effective in eliciting enduring emotional responses from the BPD group relative to the control groups. However, despite the effectiveness of the interpersonal challenge task, there were no group differences in emotional responding to the affect eliciting stimuli. The findings underscore the complexities involved in examining emotional dysregulation in BPD in a laboratory setting. PMID:22449065

  1. Equanimity to Excess: Inhibiting the Expression of Negative Emotion Is Associated with Depression Symptoms in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Hinze, Amanda; Babinski, Dara

    2009-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is often invoked as an important construct for understanding risk for psychopathology, but specificity of domains of emotion regulation in clinically relevant research is often lacking. In the present study Gross' (2001) model of emotion regulation is used to generate hypotheses regarding the relative contribution of two…

  2. BSN Program Admittance Criteria: Should Emotional Intelligence Be Included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify and monitor emotions and remain aware of how emotions affect thoughts and actions. Emotional intelligence has been discussed as a better predictor of personal and occupational success than performance on intellectual intelligence tests. Despite the importance of one's emotional intelligence, BSN (Bachelor of Science in Nursing) nursing schools routinely admit candidates based on the student's cumulative college course grade point average (GPA). Nursing is a profession that requires one's ability to empathize, care, and react in emotionally sound manners. Is the GPA enough to determine if a student will evolve into a professional nurse? This article will explore the routine admittance criteria for BSN nursing programs and propose the concept of using the emotional intelligence tool as an adjunct to the cumulative college course GPA. The emotional intelligence theory will be identified and applied to the nursing profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Emotion dysregulation and amygdala dopamine D2-type receptor availability in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Kyoji; Ghahremani, Dara G; Payer, Doris E; Robertson, Chelsea L; Dean, Andy C; Mandelkern, Mark A; London, Edythe D

    2016-04-01

    Individuals who use methamphetamine chronically exhibit emotional and dopaminergic neurochemical deficits. Although the amygdala has an important role in emotion processing and receives dopaminergic innervation, little is known about how dopamine transmission in this region contributes to emotion regulation. This investigation aimed to evaluate emotion regulation in subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence, and to test for a relationship between self-reports of difficulty in emotion regulation and D2-type dopamine receptor availability in the amygdala. Ninety-four methamphetamine-using and 102 healthy-control subjects completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS); 33 of those who used methamphetamine completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). A subset of 27 methamphetamine-group and 20 control-group subjects completed positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride to assay amygdala D2-type dopamine receptor availability, measured as binding potential (BPND). The methamphetamine group scored higher than the control group on the DERS total score (pmethamphetamine group. The DERS total score was positively correlated with amygdala BPND in both groups and the combined group of participants (combined: r=0.331, p=0.02), and the groups did not differ in this relationship. These findings highlight problems with emotion regulation linked to methamphetamine use, possibly contributing to personal and interpersonal behavioral problems. They also suggest that D2-type dopamine receptors in the amygdala contribute to emotion regulation in both healthy and methamphetamine-using subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Developmental Neuroscience of Borderline Pathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Social Baseline Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy E.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Uyeji, Lauren; Coan, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research has linked poor emotion regulation abilities with dysfunctional frontolimbic circuitry. Consistent with this, research on borderline personality disorder (BPD) finds that frontolimbic dysfunction is a predominant neural substrate underlying the disorder. Emotion regulation is profoundly compromised in BPD.…

  5. Regional gray matter density associated with emotional conflict resolution: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z; Wei, D; Xue, S; Du, X; Hitchman, G; Qiu, J

    2014-09-05

    Successful emotion regulation is a fundamental prerequisite for well-being and dysregulation may lead to psychopathology. The ability to inhibit spontaneous emotions while behaving in accordance with desired goals is an important dimension of emotion regulation and can be measured using emotional conflict resolution tasks. Few studies have investigated the gray matter correlates underlying successful emotional conflict resolution at the whole-brain level. We had 190 adults complete an emotional conflict resolution task (face-word task) and examined the brain regions significantly correlated with successful emotional conflict resolution using voxel-based morphometry. We found successful emotional conflict resolution was associated with increased regional gray matter density in widely distributed brain regions. These regions included the dorsal anterior cingulate/dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, amygdala, ventral striatum, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus and fusiform face area. Together, our results indicate that individual differences in emotional conflict resolution ability may be attributed to regional structural differences across widely distributed brain regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation: An fMRI Study of Cognitive Reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    McRae, Kateri; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Mauss, Iris B.; Gabrieli, John J. D.; Gross, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we asked male and female particip...

  7. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Meditation for Treating Affective Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie T. Y. Leung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the “mindfulness” component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of “compassion” into current psychotherapeutic approaches.

  8. Impact of oppositional defiant disorder dimensions on the temporal ordering of conduct problems and depression across childhood and adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8 through 16 years) from 1215 participants of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. A series of autoregressive path models were tested that included ODD-Emotion Dysregulation (ODD-ED) and ODD-Defiance, as time-varying covariates on CD predicting depression severity in the following year, and vice versa. Conduct problems, depression, and ODD dimensions were relatively stable throughout childhood and adolescence, and a moderate degree of covariance was observed between these variables. Path analyses showed that CD often preceded depression across this developmental period, although the effect sizes were small. There was less consistent prediction from depression to CD. The overlap between ODD-ED and CD partially explained the prospective relations from CD to depression, whereas these paths were fully explained by the overlap between ODD-ED and depression. The overlap between ODD-Defiance and CD did not account for the prospective relations from CD to depression. In contrast, the overlap between ODD-Defiance and depression accounted for virtually all paths from CD to depression. Accounting for the overlap between ODD dimensions and both CD and depression eliminated all significant predictive paths. Symptoms of CD tend to precede depression in girls during childhood and adolescence. However, covariance between depression and both ODD-ED and ODD-Defiance accounts for these prospective relations. ODD dimensions should be assessed when evaluating risk for comorbid depression in girls with conduct problems, and emotion dysregulation and defiance aspects of ODD should be identified as targets for treatment in order to prevent depression in the future. © 2011 The

  9. Dynamical symmetries for odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent work for developing dynamical symmetries and supersymmetries is reviewed. An accurate description of odd-odd nuclei requires inclusion of the fermion-fermion force (the residual interaction) and the distinguishing of fermion configurations which are particle like and those which are hole like. A parabolic dependence of the proton-neutron multiplet in odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. It is shown that a group structure for Bose-Fermi symmetries can be embedded in a supergroup. These methods are used to predict level schemes for Au-196 and Au-198. 11 refs., 3 figs

  10. Odd things, in odd places, in odd races | Ferndale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odd things, in odd places, in odd races. L Ferndale, R Wise, S R Thomson. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Gastroenterology Vol. 5 (3) 2007: pp. 9-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v5i3.30737 · AJOL African Journals ...

  11. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Equanimity to Excess: Inhibiting the Expression of Negative Emotion is Associated with Depression Symptoms in Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Hinze, Amanda; Babinski, Dara

    2009-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is often invoked as an important construct for understanding risk for psychopathology, but specificity of domains of emotion regulation in clinically relevant research is often lacking. In the present study Gross’ (2001) model of emotion regulation is used to generate hypotheses regarding the relative contribution of two specific types of deficits in emotion regulation, inhibited and disinhibited expression of negative emotion, to individual differences in depressive sym...

  13. Random interactions, isospin, and the ground states of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Volya, Alexander; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    It was recently shown that the ground state quantum numbers of even-even nuclei have a high probability to be reproduced by an ensemble of random but rotationally invariant two-body interactions. In the present work we extend these investigations to odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, considering in particular the isospin effects. Studying the realistic shell model as well as the single-j model, we show that random interactions have a tendency to assign the lowest possible total angular momentum and isospin to the ground state. In the sd shell model this reproduces correctly the isospin but not the spin quantum numbers of actual odd-odd nuclei. An odd-even staggering effect in probability of various ground state quantum numbers is present for even-even and odd-odd nuclei, while it is smeared out for odd-A nuclei. The observed regularities suggest the underlying mechanism of bosonlike pairing of fermionic pairs in T=0 and T=1 states generated by the off-diagonal matrix elements of random interactions. The relation to the models of random spin interactions is briefly discussed

  14. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,

  15. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder in a Community Mental Health Clinic: Prevalence, Comorbidity and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Youngstrom, Jennifer K; Findling, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) added a new diagnosis of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) to depressive disorders. This study examines the prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates of the new disorder, with a particular focus on its overlap with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), with which DMDD shares core symptoms. Data were obtained from 597 youth 6-18 years of age who participated in a systematic assessment of symptoms offered to all intakes at a community mental health center (sample accrued from July 2003 to March 2008). Assessment included diagnostic, symptomatic, and functional measures. DMDD was diagnosed using a post-hoc definition from item-level ratings on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children that closely matches the DSM-5 definition. Caregivers rated youth on the Child Behavior Checklist. Approximately 31% of youth met the operational definition of DMDD, and 40% had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) diagnoses of ODD. Youth with DMDD almost always had ODD (odds ratio [OR] = 53.84) and displayed higher rates of comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder than youth without DMDD. Caregivers of youth with DMDD reported more symptoms of aggressive behavior, rule-breaking, social problems, anxiety/depression, attention problems, and thought problems than all other youth without DMDD. Compared with youth with ODD, youth with DMDD were not significantly different in terms of categorical or dimensional approaches to comorbidity and impairment. The new diagnosis of DMDD might be common in community mental health clinics. Youth with DMDD displayed more severe symptoms and poorer functioning than youth without DMDD. However, DMDD almost entirely overlaps with ODD and youth with DMDD were not significantly different than youth with ODD. These findings raise concerns

  16. Always on guard: emotion regulation in women with borderline personality disorder compared to nonpatient controls and patients with cluster-C personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zutphen, Linda; Siep, Nicolette; Jacob, Gitta A; Domes, Gregor; Sprenger, Andreas; Willenborg, Bastian; Goebel, R.; Arntz, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotion dysregulation; however, it is unclear whether this is restricted to negative emotional stimuli or to what degree this is specific to BPD. We investigated neural correlates of hypothesized increased emotional sensitivity

  17. Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: Insights from Neurobiological, Psychological, and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Guendelman, Simón; Medeiros, Sebastián; Rampes, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological corr...

  18. Projected shell model study of odd-odd f-p-g shell proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, R.; Sheikh, J.A.; Sun, Y.; Jain, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    A systematic study of two-quasiparticle bands of the proton-rich odd-odd nuclei in the mass A∼70-80 region is performed using the projected shell model approach. The study includes Br, Rb, and Y isotopes with N=Z+2 and Z+4. We describe the energy spectra and electromagnetic transition strengths in terms of the configuration mixing of the angular-momentum projected multi-quasiparticle states. Signature splitting and signature inversion in the rotational bands are discussed and are shown to be well described. A preliminary study of the odd-odd N=Z nucleus 74 Rb, using the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking is also presented

  19. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on the attentional bias to emotional stimuli in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Leppanen, Jenni; Leslie, Monica; Treasure, Janet

    2018-05-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by binge eating and emotional dysregulation including increased negative affectivity (anger, anxiety). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oxytocin on attentional processes towards anger in patients with BN. The study design consisted of a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject crossover, single dose experiment. Sixty-four women (31 patients with BN and 33 healthy comparisons) completed self-reported measures to evaluate emotional difficulties and were administered a single dose of intranasal oxytocin (40IU) or placebo followed by a visual probe detection task to examine attentional orienting to angry or happy faces. Patients with BN reported higher emotional dysregulation and more difficulties in controlling anger compared to the healthy comparison group. Patients with BN and the healthy women exhibited similar attentional bias to angry faces in the placebo condition. Intranasal oxytocin reduced the attentional bias towards angry faces in both the BN patients and the healthy women. We found that a single dose of oxytocin reduced vigilance towards angry faces in patients with BN as well as healthy women. The results showed that patients with BN are not different from healthy women in terms of vigilance towards threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Irritability and Anxiety With the Neural Mechanisms of Implicit Face Emotion Processing in Youths With Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Joel; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kim, Pilyoung; Chen, Gang; Yi, Jennifer; Donahue, Laura; Brotman, Melissa A; Towbin, Kenneth E; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity complicates clinical care and confounds efforts to elucidate the pathophysiology of commonly occurring symptoms in youths. To our knowledge, few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of 2 continuously distributed traits on brain-behavior relationships in children with psychopathology. To determine shared and unique effects of 2 major dimensions of child psychopathology, irritability and anxiety, on neural responses to facial emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study in a large, well-characterized clinical sample at a research clinic at the National Institute of Mental Health. The referred sample included youths ages 8 to 17 years, 93 youths with anxiety, disruptive mood dysregulation, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and 22 healthy youths. The child's irritability and anxiety were rated by both parent and child on the Affective Reactivity Index and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, respectively. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, neural response was measured across the brain during gender labeling of varying intensities of angry, happy, or fearful face emotions. In mixed-effects analyses, the shared and unique effects of irritability and anxiety were tested on amygdala functional connectivity and activation to face emotions. The mean (SD) age of participants was 13.2 (2.6) years; of the 115 included, 64 were male. Irritability and/or anxiety influenced amygdala connectivity to the prefrontal and temporal cortex. Specifically, irritability and anxiety jointly influenced left amygdala to left medial prefrontal cortex connectivity during face emotion viewing (F4,888 = 9.20; P differences in neural response to face emotions in several areas (F2, 888 ≥ 13.45; all P emotion dysregulation when very anxious and irritable youth process threat-related faces. Activation in the ventral visual circuitry suggests a mechanism

  1. SI-SHY: Dysregulated Fear in Toddlerhood Predicts Kindergarten Social Withdrawal through Protective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2014-05-01

    Two recent advances in the study of fearful temperament (behavioral inhibition) include the validation of dysregulated fear as a temperamental construct that more specifically predicts later social withdrawal and anxiety, and the use of conceptual and statistical models that place parenting as a mechanism of development from temperament to these outcomes. The current study further advances these areas by examining whether protective parenting mediated the relation between dysregulated fear in toddlerhood and social withdrawal in kindergarten. Participants included 93 toddlers and their mothers, who engaged in laboratory tasks assessing traditional fearful temperament, dysregulated fear, and protective parenting. When children reached kindergarten, they returned to the laboratory for a multimethod assessment of social withdrawal. Results confirmed the hypothesis that dysregulated fear predicted social withdrawal through protective parenting, and this occurred above and beyond the effect of traditional fearful temperament. These findings bolster support for the use of dysregulated fear as a temperamental construct related to, but perhaps more discerning of risk than traditionally measured fearful temperament/behavioral inhibition and highlight the importance of transactional influences between the individual and the caregiving environment in the development of social withdrawal.

  2. SI-SHY: Dysregulated Fear in Toddlerhood Predicts Kindergarten Social Withdrawal through Protective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Two recent advances in the study of fearful temperament (behavioral inhibition) include the validation of dysregulated fear as a temperamental construct that more specifically predicts later social withdrawal and anxiety, and the use of conceptual and statistical models that place parenting as a mechanism of development from temperament to these outcomes. The current study further advances these areas by examining whether protective parenting mediated the relation between dysregulated fear in toddlerhood and social withdrawal in kindergarten. Participants included 93 toddlers and their mothers, who engaged in laboratory tasks assessing traditional fearful temperament, dysregulated fear, and protective parenting. When children reached kindergarten, they returned to the laboratory for a multimethod assessment of social withdrawal. Results confirmed the hypothesis that dysregulated fear predicted social withdrawal through protective parenting, and this occurred above and beyond the effect of traditional fearful temperament. These findings bolster support for the use of dysregulated fear as a temperamental construct related to, but perhaps more discerning of risk than traditionally measured fearful temperament/behavioral inhibition and highlight the importance of transactional influences between the individual and the caregiving environment in the development of social withdrawal. PMID:25242893

  3. A Meta-analysis on the Association Between Emotional Awareness and Borderline Personality Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Youri P M J; Westerhof, Gerben J; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2017-06-01

    Theories on borderline personality pathology (BPP) suggest that characteristic emotional dysregulation is due to low levels of emotional awareness or alexithymia. This study is the first meta-analysis to systematically review and analyze the evidence. A systematic search of the literature was performed using PsycInfo, Web of Science/MEDLINE, and Scopus. The term "borderline personality disorder" was searched for in conjunction with "emotional awareness," "emotional self-awareness," "emotion recognition," "alexithymia," "emotional processing," "emotional granularity," "emotional intelligence," or "emotion regulation." All references in the included studies were reviewed for additional relevant articles. Thirty-nine studies were then evaluated in a random effects meta-analysis to assess the association between BPP and emotional awareness. An overall moderate positive association between BPP and emotional awareness was significant (r = 0.359; 95% CI [0.283, 0.431]; Z = 8.678; p emotional awareness and those using alexithymia instruments. The strongest associations with regard to aspects of alexithymia were found for difficulties in identifying and describing emotions rather than externally oriented thinking. The results corroborate a moderate relationship between low emotional awareness and BPP. However, the mono-method self-report used in almost all studies is found problematic and precludes drawing definite conclusions. Since leading psychotherapeutic treatments strongly focus on increasing emotional awareness, future research should address this issue and further examine to what extent low levels of emotional awareness, particularly alexithymia, can be treated.

  4. Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: Insights from Neurobiological, Psychological, and Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Simón; Medeiros, Sebastián; Rampes, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological correlates across different empirically derived models of research, including dispositional mindfulness, mindfulness induction, MBIs, and expert meditators in relation to emotion regulation. From the perspective of recent findings in the neuroscience of emotion regulation, we discuss the interplay of top-down and bottom-up emotion regulation mechanisms associated with different mindfulness models. From a phenomenological and cognitive perspective, authors have argued that mindfulness elicits a “mindful emotion regulation” strategy; however, from a clinical perspective, this construct has not been properly differentiated from other strategies and interventions within MBIs. In this context we propose the distinction between top-down and bottom-up mindfulness based emotion regulation strategies. Furthermore, we propose an embodied emotion regulation framework as a multilevel approach for understanding psychobiological changes due to mindfulness meditation regarding its effect on emotion regulation. Finally, based on clinical neuroscientific evidence on mindfulness, we open perspectives and dialogues regarding commonalities and differences between MBIs and other psychotherapeutic strategies for emotion regulation. PMID:28321194

  5. Epigenetic Dysregulation in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thian-Sze Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer with poor prognosis. Patients with laryngeal carcinoma usually present late leading to the reduced treatment efficacy and high rate of recurrence. Despite the advance in the use of molecular markers for monitoring human cancers in the past decades, there are still no reliable markers for use to screen laryngeal carcinoma and follow the patients after treatment. Epigenetics emerged as an important field in understanding the biology of the human malignancies. Epigenetic alterations refer to the dysregulation of gene, which do not involve the alterations of the DNA sequence. Major epigenetic changes including methylation imbalance, histone modification, and small RNA dysregulation could play a role in the development of human malignancies. Global epigenetic change is now regarded as a molecular signature of cancer. The characteristics and behavior of a cancer could be predicted based on the specific epigenetic pattern. We here provide a review on the understanding of epigenetic dysregulation in laryngeal carcinoma. Further knowledge on the initiation and progression of laryngeal carcinoma at epigenetic level could promote the translation of the knowledge to clinical use.

  6. Brain network dysregulation, emotion, and complaints after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horn, Harm J; Liemburg, Edith J; Scheenen, Myrthe E; de Koning, Myrthe E; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Spikman, Jacoba M; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2016-04-01

    To assess the role of brain networks in emotion regulation and post-traumatic complaints in the sub-acute phase after non-complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Fifty-four patients with mTBI (34 with and 20 without complaints) and 20 healthy controls (group-matched for age, sex, education, and handedness) were included. Resting-state fMRI was performed at four weeks post-injury. Static and dynamic functional connectivity were studied within and between the default mode, executive (frontoparietal and bilateral frontal network), and salience network. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D). Regarding within-network functional connectivity, none of the selected brain networks were different between groups. Regarding between-network interactions, patients with complaints exhibited lower functional connectivity between the bilateral frontal and salience network compared to patients without complaints. In the total patient group, higher HADS-D scores were related to lower functional connectivity between the bilateral frontal network and both the right frontoparietal and salience network, and to higher connectivity between the right frontoparietal and salience network. Furthermore, whereas higher HADS-D scores were associated with lower connectivity within the parietal midline areas of the bilateral frontal network, higher HADS-A scores were related to lower connectivity within medial prefrontal areas of the bilateral frontal network. Functional interactions of the executive and salience networks were related to emotion regulation and complaints after mTBI, with a key role for the bilateral frontal network. These findings may have implications for future studies on the effect of psychological interventions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Narrative-Emotion Process Coding System 2.0: A multi-methodological approach to identifying and assessing narrative-emotion process markers in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Lynne E; Boritz, Tali; Bryntwick, Emily; Carpenter, Naomi; Macaulay, Christianne; Khattra, Jasmine

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that it is not simply the expression of emotion or emotional arousal in session that is important, but rather it is the reflective processing of emergent, adaptive emotions, arising in the context of personal storytelling and/or Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) interventions, that is associated with change. To enhance narrative-emotion integration specifically in EFT, Angus and Greenberg originally identified a set of eight clinically derived narrative-emotion integration markers were originally identified for the implementation of process-guiding therapeutic responses. Further evaluation and testing by the Angus Narrative-Emotion Marker Lab resulted in the identification of 10 empirically validated Narrative-Emotion Process (N-EP) markers that are included in the Narrative-Emotion Process Coding System Version 2.0 (NEPCS 2.0). Based on empirical research findings, individual markers are clustered into Problem (e.g., stuckness in repetitive story patterns, over-controlled or dysregulated emotion, lack of reflectivity), Transition (e.g., reflective, access to adaptive emotions and new emotional plotlines, heightened narrative and emotion integration), and Change (e.g., new story outcomes and self-narrative discovery, and co-construction and re-conceptualization) subgroups. To date, research using the NEPCS 2.0 has investigated the proportion and pattern of narrative-emotion markers in Emotion-Focused, Client-Centered, and Cognitive Therapy for Major Depression, Motivational Interviewing plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and EFT for Complex Trauma. Results have consistently identified significantly higher proportions of N-EP Transition and Change markers, and productive shifts, in mid- and late phase sessions, for clients who achieved recovery by treatment termination. Recovery is consistently associated with client storytelling that is emotionally engaged, reflective, and evidencing new story outcomes and self

  8. Neural Correlates of Irritability in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Brotman, Melissa A; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are clinically and pathophysiologically distinct, yet irritability can be a clinical feature of both illnesses. The authors examine whether the neural mechanisms mediating irritability differ between bipolar disorder and DMDD, using a face emotion labeling paradigm because such labeling is deficient in both patient groups. The authors hypothesized that during face emotion labeling, irritability would be associated with dysfunctional activation in the amygdala and other temporal and prefrontal regions in both disorders, but that the nature of these associations would differ between DMDD and bipolar disorder. During functional MRI acquisition, 71 youths (25 with DMDD, 24 with bipolar disorder, and 22 healthy youths) performed a labeling task with happy, fearful, and angry faces of varying emotional intensity. Participants with DMDD and bipolar disorder showed similar levels of irritability and did not differ from each other or from healthy youths in face emotion labeling accuracy. Irritability correlated with amygdala activity across all intensities for all emotions in the DMDD group; such correlation was present in the bipolar disorder group only for fearful faces. In the ventral visual stream, associations between neural activity and irritability were found more consistently in the DMDD group than in the bipolar disorder group, especially in response to ambiguous angry faces. These results suggest diagnostic specificity in the neural correlates of irritability, a symptom of both DMDD and bipolar disorder. Such evidence of distinct neural correlates suggests the need to evaluate different approaches to treating irritability in the two disorders.

  9. Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.D.; Gandhi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic dipole moments of odd-odd lanthanides. Collective model of odd-odd nuclei is applied to predict the magnetic dipole moments, (μ) of odd-odd lanthanides. A simplified version of expression for μ based on diagonalisation of Hamiltonian (subsequent use of eigenvectors to compute μ) is developed for cases of ground state as well as excited states using no configuration mixing and is applied to the cases of odd-odd lanthanides. The formulae applied to the eleven (11) cases of ground states show significant improvement over the results obtained using shell model. Configuration mixing and coriolis coupling is expected to cause further improvement in the results. On comparing the earlier work in this direction the present analysis has clarified that in the expression μ the projection factors have different signs for the case I=Ωp - Ωn and I=Ωn - Ωp, and sign of μ is negative in general in the second case while it is positive in all others of spin projection alignments. Although the general expression holds for excited states as well but in lanthanide region, the experimental reports of magnetic dipole moments of excite states (band heads of higher rational sequences) are not available except in case of five (5) neutron resonance states which cannot be handled on the basis of the present approach with no configuration mixing. Although in the present discussion, the model could not be applied to excited states but the systematics of change in its magnitude with increasing spin at higher rational states is very well understood. The particle part supressed under faster rotation of the nuclear core and thus finally at higher spin I, the value μ is given by μ=g c I (same as in case of even-even nuclei). These systematics are to be verified whenever enough data for higher excited states are available. (author). 11 refs

  10. Microglial Dysregulation in OCD, Tourette Syndrome, and PANDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Frick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that immune dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, Tourette syndrome, and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS. The mechanistic details of this pathophysiology, however, remain unclear. Here we focus on one particular component of the immune system: microglia, the brain’s resident immune cells. The role of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases has been understood in terms of classic, inflammatory activation, which may be both a consequence and a cause of neuronal damage. In OCD and Tourette syndrome, which are not characterized by frank neural degeneration, the potential role of microglial dysregulation is much less clear. Here we review the evidence for a neuroinflammatory etiology and microglial dysregulation in OCD, Tourette syndrome, and PANDAS. We also explore new hypotheses as to the potential contributions of microglial abnormalities to pathophysiology, beyond neuroinflammation, including failures in neuroprotection, lack of support for neuronal survival, and abnormalities in synaptic pruning. Recent advances in neuroimaging and animal model work are creating new opportunities to elucidate these issues.

  11. Microglial Dysregulation in OCD, Tourette Syndrome, and PANDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that immune dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Tourette syndrome, and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). The mechanistic details of this pathophysiology, however, remain unclear. Here we focus on one particular component of the immune system: microglia, the brain's resident immune cells. The role of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases has been understood in terms of classic, inflammatory activation, which may be both a consequence and a cause of neuronal damage. In OCD and Tourette syndrome, which are not characterized by frank neural degeneration, the potential role of microglial dysregulation is much less clear. Here we review the evidence for a neuroinflammatory etiology and microglial dysregulation in OCD, Tourette syndrome, and PANDAS. We also explore new hypotheses as to the potential contributions of microglial abnormalities to pathophysiology, beyond neuroinflammation, including failures in neuroprotection, lack of support for neuronal survival, and abnormalities in synaptic pruning. Recent advances in neuroimaging and animal model work are creating new opportunities to elucidate these issues. PMID:28053994

  12. Abnormalities in the structural covariance of emotion regulation networks in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawang; Sun, Hui; Wang, Chao; Yu, Lin; Li, Yilan; Peng, Hongjun; Lu, Xiaobing; Hu, Qingmao; Ning, Yuping; Jiang, Tianzi; Xu, Jinping; Wang, Jiaojian

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown. Thus, in this study, we adopted a structural covariance method based on gray matter volume to investigate the brain morphological abnormalities within the emotion regulation networks in a large cohort of 65 MDD patients and 65 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A permutation test with p covariance connectivity strengths between MDD patients and healthy controls. The structural covariance analysis revealed an increased correlation strength of gray matter volume between the left angular gyrus and the left amygdala and between the right angular gyrus and the right amygdala, as well as a decreased correlation strength of the gray matter volume between the right angular gyrus and the posterior cingulate cortex in MDD. Our findings support the notion that emotion dysregulation is an underlying mechanism of MDD by revealing disrupted structural covariance patterns in the emotion regulation network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived maternal autonomy-support and early adolescent emotion regulation: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Brenning, Katrijn; Soenens, Bart; Van Petegem, Stijn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between perceived maternal autonomy-supportive parenting and early adolescents' use of three emotion regulation (ER) styles: emotional integration, suppressive regulation, and dysregulation. We tested whether perceived maternal autonomy support predicted changes in ER and whether these ER styles, in turn, related to changes in adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem). Participants (N= 311, mean age at Time 1 = 12.04) reported on per...

  14. Neurostructural abnormalities associated with axes of emotion dysregulation in generalized anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Makovac

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results distinguish neural structures associated with impaired capacity for cognitive, attentional and physiological disengagement from worry, suggesting that aberrant competition between these levels of emotional regulation is intrinsic to symptom expression in GAD.

  15. Coulomb Excitation of Odd-Mass and Odd-Odd Cu Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE and Miniball

    CERN Multimedia

    Lauer, M; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the properties of the odd-mass and the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu nuclei applying the Coulomb excitation technique and using the REX-ISOLDE facility coupled to the Miniball array. The results from the Coulex experiments accomplished at REX-ISOLDE after its upgrade to 3 MeV/u during the last year have shown the power of this method and its importance in order to obtain information on the collective properties of even-even nuclei. Performing an experiment on the odd-mass and on the odd-odd neutron-rich Cu isotopes in the vicinity of N=40 should allow us to determine and interpret the effective proton and neutron charges in the region and to unravel the lowest proton-neutron multiplets in $^{68,70}$Cu. This experiment can take the advantage of the unique opportunity to accelerate isomerically separated beams using the RILIS ion source at ISOLDE.

  16. Enhanced Positive Emotional Reactivity Undermines Empathy in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Y. Hua

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by profound changes in emotions and empathy. Although most patients with bvFTD become less sensitive to negative emotional cues, some patients become more sensitive to positive emotional stimuli. We investigated whether dysregulated positive emotions in bvFTD undermine empathy by making it difficult for patients to share (emotional empathy, recognize (cognitive empathy, and respond (real-world empathy to emotions in others. Fifty-one participants (26 patients with bvFTD and 25 healthy controls viewed photographs of neutral, positive, negative, and self-conscious emotional faces and then identified the emotions displayed in the photographs. We used facial electromyography to measure automatic, sub-visible activity in two facial muscles during the task: Zygomaticus major (ZM, which is active during positive emotional reactions (i.e., smiling, and Corrugator supercilii (CS, which is active during negative emotional reactions (i.e., frowning. Participants rated their baseline positive and negative emotional experience before the task, and informants rated participants' real-world empathic behavior on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. The majority of participants also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. A mixed effects model found a significant diagnosis X trial interaction: patients with bvFTD showed greater ZM reactivity to neutral, negative (disgust and surprise, self-conscious (proud, and positive (happy faces than healthy controls. There was no main effect of diagnosis or diagnosis X trial interaction on CS reactivity. Compared to healthy controls, patients with bvFTD had impaired emotion recognition. Multiple regression analyses revealed that greater ZM reactivity predicted worse negative emotion recognition and worse real-world empathy. At baseline, positive emotional experience was higher in bvFTD than healthy controls and also

  17. Effects of Gene × Attachment Interaction on Adolescents’ Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Hostile Behavior Towards their Mothers during a Computer Game

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Peter; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased emotionality and major changes in emotion regulation often elicited in autonomy-relevant situations. Both genetic as well as social factors may lead to inter-individual differences in emotional processes in adolescence. We investigated whether both 5-HTTLPR and attachment security influence adolescents? observed emotionality, emotional dysregulation, and their aggressive hostile autonomy while interacting with their mothers. Eighty-eight adolescents at age 1...

  18. Emotional symptoms among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette K; Nielsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    level. RESULTS: Schoolchildren from low (odds ratio (OR) 1.70, 95% CI: 1.33-2.17) and medium (OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.22-1.85) occupational social class (OSC), girls (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.13-1.56) and schoolchildren exposed to bullying (OR 3.82, 95% CI: 2.71-5.40), had increased odds for emotional symptoms....... A negative classroom climate was associated with emotional symptoms (OR 1.29, 95% CI: 0.99-1.69) and so was being part of classrooms with a high prevalence of bullying (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.0-1.60). CONCLUSION: Female sex, low OSC, single parent family, exposure to bullying and a high prevalence of bullying...

  19. A non-linear association between self-reported negative emotional response to stress and subsequent allostatic load: prospective results from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-11-01

    Previous research suggests that high levels of negative emotions may affect health. However, it is likely that the absence of an emotional response following stressful events may also be problematic. Accordingly, we investigated whether a non-linear association exists between negative emotional response to major life events and allostatic load, a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Study sample was 6764 British civil service workers from the Whitehall II cohort. Negative emotional response was assessed by self-report at baseline. Allostatic load was calculated using cardiovascular, metabolic and immune function biomarkers at three clinical follow-up examinations. A non-linear association between negative emotional response and allostatic load was observed: being at either extreme end of the distribution of negative emotional response increased the risk of physiological dysregulation. Allostatic load also increased with age, but the association between negative emotional response and allostatic load remained stable over time. These results provide evidence for a more nuanced understanding of the role of negative emotions in long-term physical health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of the serotonin receptor subtypes 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 and its interaction in emotional learning and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiedl, O.; Pappa, E.; Konradssson-Geuken, A.; Ogren, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is a multifunctional neurotransmitter innervating cortical and limbic areas involved in cognition and emotional regulation. Dysregulation of serotonergic transmission is associated with emotional and cognitive deficits in psychiatric patients and animal models.

  1. Emotional, Neurohormonal, and Hemodynamic Responses to Mental Stress in Tako-Tsubo Cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, Loes; Szabo, Balazs M.; van Dammen, Lotte; Wonnink, Wally; Jakobs, Bernadette S.; Bosch, Jos A.; Kop, Willem J.

    2015-01-01

    Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle and symptoms and signs mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The high catecholamine levels int the acute phase of TTC and common emotional triggers suggest a dysregulated stress response system. This study

  2. Emotional, neurohormonal and hemodynamic responses to mental stress in Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, L.; Szabó, B.M.; van Dammen, L.; Wonnink-de Jonge, W.F.; Jacobs, B.S.; Bosch, J.A.; Kop, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle and symptoms and signs mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The high catecholamine levels in the acute phase of TTC and common emotional triggers suggest a dysregulated stress response system. This study

  3. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  4. Dysregulated sexuality and high sexual desire: distinct constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Jason; Christoff, Kalina; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2010-10-01

    The literature on dysregulated sexuality, whether theoretical, clinical or empirical, has failed to differentiate the construct from high sexual desire. In this study, we tested three hypotheses which addressed this issue. A sample of 6458 men and 7938 women, some of whom had sought treatment for sexual compulsivity, addiction or impulsivity, completed an online survey comprised of various sexuality measures. Men and women who reported having sought treatment scored significantly higher on measures of dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire. For men, women, and those who had sought treatment, dysregulated sexuality was associated with increased sexual desire. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor model, indicating that, in both male and female participants, dysregulated sexuality and sexual desire variables loaded onto a single underlying factor. The results of this study suggest that dysregulated sexuality, as currently conceptualized, labelled, and measured, may simply be a marker of high sexual desire and the distress associated with managing a high degree of sexual thoughts, feelings, and needs.

  5. Acute Stress Dysregulates the LPP ERP Response to Emotional Pictures and Impairs Sustained Attention: Time-Sensitive Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Rima A; Fernandez, Mercedes; Banks, Jonathan B; Acosta, Juliana; Tartar, Jaime L

    2015-05-20

    Stress can increase emotional vigilance at the cost of a decrease in attention towards non-emotional stimuli. However, the time-dependent effects of acute stress on emotion processing are uncertain. We tested the effects of acute stress on subsequent emotion processing up to 40 min following an acute stressor. Our measure of emotion processing was the late positive potential (LPP) component of the visual event-related potential (ERP), and our measure of non-emotional attention was the sustained attention to response task (SART). We also measured cortisol levels before and after the socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT) induction. We found that the effects of stress on the LPP ERP emotion measure were time sensitive. Specifically, the LPP ERP was only altered in the late time-point (30-40 min post-stress) when cortisol was at its highest level. Here, the LPP no longer discriminated between the emotional and non-emotional picture categories, most likely because neutral pictures were perceived as emotional. Moreover, compared to the non-stress condition, the stress-condition showed impaired performance on the SART. Our results support the idea that a limit in attention resources after an emotional stressor is associated with the brain incorrectly processing non-emotional stimuli as emotional and interferes with sustained attention.

  6. Mindfulness meditation improves emotion regulation and reduces drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    The core clinical symptoms of addiction include an enhanced incentive for drug taking (craving), impaired self-control (impulsivity and compulsivity), emotional dysregulation (negative mood) and increased stress reactivity. Symptoms related to impaired self-control involve reduced activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), adjacent prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain areas. Behavioral training such as mindfulness meditation can increase the function of control networks including those leading to improved emotion regulation and thus may be a promising approach for the treatment of addiction. In a series of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we tested whether increased ACC/mPFC activity is related to better self-control abilities in executive functions, emotion regulation and stress response in healthy and addicted populations. After a brief mindfulness training (Integrative Body-Mind Training, IBMT), we used the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Profile of Mood States (POMS) to measure emotion regulation, salivary cortisol for the stress response and fMRI for brain functional and DTI structural changes. Relaxation training was used to serve as an active control. In both smokers and nonsmokers, improved self-control abilities in emotion regulation and stress reduction were found after training and these changes were related to increased ACC/mPFC activity following training. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced ACC/mPFC activity in the self-control network before training, and these deficits were ameliorated after training. These results indicate that promoting emotion regulation and improving ACC/mPFC brain activity can help for addiction prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A multi-method laboratory investigation of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation abilities in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janice R; Fitzpatrick, Skye; Metcalfe, Rebecca K; McMain, Shelley

    2016-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is conceptualized as a disorder of heightened emotional reactivity and difficulties with emotion regulation. However, findings regarding emotional reactivity in BPD are mixed and there are limited studies examining emotion regulation capabilities in this population. Twenty-five individuals with BPD and 30 healthy controls (HCs) engaged in a baseline assessment followed by the presentation of neutral and BPD-relevant negative images. Participants were instructed to react as they naturally would to the image, or to use a mindfulness-based or distraction-based strategy to feel less negative. Self-reported and physiological (i.e., heart rate, electrodermal activity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) measures were collected. Compared with the HCs, the BPD group exhibited elevated heart rate and reduced respiratory sinus arrhythmia at baseline. However, there were no differences in emotional reactivity in self-report or physiological indices between the two groups. In addition, the BPD group did not exhibit deficits in the ability to implement either emotion regulation strategy, with the exception that the BPD group reported less positive emotions while distracting compared with the HCs. This study is limited by a small sample size and the inclusion of a medicated BPD sample. Emotion dysregulation in BPD might be better accounted for by abnormal baseline emotional functioning rather than heightened emotional reactivity or deficits in emotion regulation. Treatments for BPD might be enhanced by directly targeting resting state emotional functioning rather than emotional reactions or regulatory attempts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanti Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders.

  9. Subjective emotional over-arousal to neutral social scenes in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralanova, Evelina; Haralanov, Svetlozar; Beraldi, Anna; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2012-02-01

    From the clinical practice and some experimental studies, it is apparent that paranoid schizophrenia patients tend to assign emotional salience to neutral social stimuli. This aberrant cognitive bias has been conceptualized to result from increased emotional arousal, but direct empirical data are scarce. The aim of the present study was to quantify the subjective emotional arousal (SEA) evoked by emotionally non-salient (neutral) compared to emotionally salient (negative) social stimuli in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Thirty male inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia psychosis and 30 demographically matched healthy controls rated their level of SEA in response to neutral and negative social scenes from the International Affective Picture System and the Munich Affective Picture System. Schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls had an increased overall SEA level. This relatively higher SEA was evoked only by the neutral but not by the negative social scenes. To our knowledge, the present study is the first designed to directly demonstrate subjective emotional over-arousal to neutral social scenes in paranoid schizophrenia. This finding might explain previous clinical and experimental data and could be viewed as the missing link between the primary neurobiological and secondary psychological mechanisms of paranoid psychotic-symptom formation. Furthermore, despite being very short and easy to perform, the task we used appeared to be sensitive enough to reveal emotional dysregulation, in terms of emotional disinhibition/hyperactivation in paranoid schizophrenia patients. Thus, it could have further research and clinical applications, including as a neurobehavioral probe for imaging studies.

  10. A Model-Based Cluster Analysis of Maternal Emotion Regulation and Relations to Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Whitehead, Monica; Davis, Molly; Morelen, Diana; Suveg, Cynthia

    2017-10-15

    In a diverse community sample of mothers (N = 108) and their preschool-aged children (M age  = 3.50 years), this study conducted person-oriented analyses of maternal emotion regulation (ER) based on a multimethod assessment incorporating physiological, observational, and self-report indicators. A model-based cluster analysis was applied to five indicators of maternal ER: maternal self-report, observed negative affect in a parent-child interaction, baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and RSA suppression across two laboratory tasks. Model-based cluster analyses revealed four maternal ER profiles, including a group of mothers with average ER functioning, characterized by socioeconomic advantage and more positive parenting behavior. A dysregulated cluster demonstrated the greatest challenges with parenting and dyadic interactions. Two clusters of intermediate dysregulation were also identified. Implications for assessment and applications to parenting interventions are discussed. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  11. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  12. Methods of, and Reasons for, Emotional Expression and Control in Children with Internalizing, Externalizing, and Somatic Problems in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Martini, Tanya S.; Raval, Pratiksha H.

    2010-01-01

    Although cross-cultural research concerning children's emotions is growing, few studies have examined emotion dysregulation in culturally diverse populations. This study compared 6- to 8-year-old children's reported methods of expressing and controlling anger, sadness, and physical pain, and their justifications for doing so across four groups in…

  13. Dextromethorphan-quinidine-responsive pseudobulbar affect (PBA): psychopharmacological model for wide-ranging disorders of emotional expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The symptoms of emotional dysregulation associated with the syndrome known as pseudobulbar affect (PBA) can be effectively treated by the sigma, glutamate, and serotonergic agent dextromethorphan combined with quinidine. If the same brain circuits affected in PBA are also compromised in related disorders of emotional expression, dextromethorphan-quinidine and other novel sigma-glutamate-serotonin agents could prove to be novel psychopharmacologic treatments for these conditions as well.

  14. The Role of Emotion Regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder RH: Emotion Regulation in ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Herrington, John; Siegel, Matthew; Scarpa, Angela; Maddox, Brenna B.; Scahill, Lawrence; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with amplified emotional responses and poor emotional control, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This paper provides a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding compromised emotion regulation (ER) in ASD. Method After defining ER and related constructs, methods to study ER were reviewed with special consideration on how to apply these approaches to ASD. Against the backdrop of cognitive characteristics in ASD and existing ER theories, available research was examined to identify likely contributors to emotional dysregulation in ASD. Results Little is currently known about ER in youth with ASD. Some mechanisms that contribute to poor ER in ASD may be shared with other clinical populations (e.g., physiological arousal, degree of negative and positive affect, alterations in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex), whereas other mechanisms may be more unique to ASD (e.g., differences in information processing/perception, cognitive factors (e.g., rigidity), less goal-directed behavior and more disorganized emotion in ASD). Conclusions Although assignment of concomitant psychiatric diagnoses is warranted in some cases, poor ER may be inherent in ASD and may provide a more parsimonious conceptualization for the many associated socio-emotional and behavioral problems in this population. Further study of ER in youth with ASD may identify meaningful subgroups of patients and lead to more effective individualized treatments. PMID:23800481

  15. Alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency make distinct contributions to dysregulated drinking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbanee, Jason M; Stritzke, Werner G K; Wiers, Reinout W; MacLeod, Colin

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether alcohol-related biases in selective-attention and action tendency uniquely or concurrently predict the ability to regulate alcohol consumption. Two groups of undergraduate social drinkers (total n = 55) who differed in their ability to regulate their alcohol consumption completed a novel Selective-Attention/Action-Tendency Task (SA/ATT), which assessed separately alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency. University of Western Australia, Australia. Dysregulated drinking was operationalized as a self-reported high level of alcohol consumption on the Alcohol Consumption Questionnaire, and a high desire to reduce consumption on the Brief Readiness to Change Algorithm. Selective attention and action tendency were assessed using the SA/ATT, working memory was assessed using the operation-span task and participant characteristics were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results indicated that (i) there was no significant association between alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency, r = 0.16, P = 0.274, and (ii) biases towards alcohol, in both selective attention, β = 1.01, odds ratio = 2.74, P = 0.022, and action tendency, β = 1.24, odds ratio = 3.45, P = 0.015, predicted independent variance in dysregulated-drinker status. Biases in selective attention and action tendency appear to be distinct mechanisms that contribute independently to difficulty regulating alcohol consumption. Treatment components that could be combined to target both mechanisms could enhance treatment outcomes for alcohol-use disorders. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Alteration of complex negative emotions induced by music in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choppin, Sabine; Trost, Wiebke; Dondaine, Thibaut; Millet, Bruno; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Robert, Gabriel; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown bipolar disorder to be characterized by dysregulation of emotion processing, including biases in facial expression recognition that is most prevalent during depressive and manic states. Very few studies have examined induced emotions when patients are in a euthymic phase, and there has been no research on complex emotions. We therefore set out to test emotional hyperreactivity in response to musical excerpts inducing complex emotions in bipolar disorder during euthymia. We recruited 21 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in a euthymic phase and 21 matched healthy controls. Participants first rated their emotional reactivity on two validated self-report scales (ERS and MAThyS). They then rated their music-induced emotions on nine continuous scales. The targeted emotions were wonder, power, melancholy and tension. We used a specific generalized linear mixed model to analyze the behavioral data. We found that participants in the euthymic bipolar group experienced more intense complex negative emotions than controls when the musical excerpts induced wonder. Moreover, patients exhibited greater emotional reactivity in daily life (ERS). Finally, a greater experience of tension while listening to positive music seemed to be mediated by greater emotional reactivity and a deficit in executive functions. The heterogeneity of the BD group in terms of clinical characteristics may have influenced the results. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder exhibit more complex negative emotions than controls in response to positive music. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotion Regulation Training for Training Warfighters with Combat Related PTSD Using Real Time fMRI and EEG Assisted Neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0607 TITLE: Emotion Regulation Training for Treating Warfighters with Combat-Related PTSD Using Real-Time fMRI...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Emotion Regulation Training for Treating Warfighters with Combat...emphasize dysregulation of the amygdala, which is involved in the regulation of PTSD-relevant emotions . We are utilizing real-time functional magnetic

  18. A controlled approach to the emotional dilution of the Stroop effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Fackrell

    Full Text Available We re-examined a modified emotional Stroop task that included an additional colour-word alongside the emotional word, providing the response conflict of the traditional Stroop task. Negative emotionally salient (i.e. unpleasant' words are claimed to capture attention, producing a smaller Stroop effect for negative words compared to neutral words; this phenomenon is called the emotional dilution of the Stroop effect. To address previous limitations, this study compared negative words with lexically matched neutral words in a powered sample of 45 participants. Results demonstrated an emotional Stroop effect (slower colour-naming responses for negative words and a traditional Stroop effect but not an emotional dilution of the Stroop effect. This finding is at odds with claims that other processing resources are diminished through the failure to disengage attention from emotional information. No matter how attention towards emotional information builds up over time, our findings indicate that attentional resources are not fully captured by negative words.

  19. Emotional Demands at Work and the Risk of Clinical Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Kolstad, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    of clinical depression were diagnosed. Emotional demands were examined as perceived and content-related emotional demands, individually reported and work-unit based. Support, meaningful work, and enrichment were considered as potential effect modifiers. Results: Individually reported perceived emotional......Objective: This study is a 2-year follow-up study of different dimensions of work-related emotional demands as a predictor for clinical depression. Methods: In a two-wave study, 3224 (72%) public employees from 474 work-units participated twice by filling in questionnaires. Sixty-Two cases...... demands predicted depression (odds ratio: 1.40; 95% confidence intervals: 1.02 to 1.92). The work-unit based odds ratio was in the same direction, though not significant. Content-related emotional demands did not predict depression. Support, meaningful work, and enrichment did not modify the results...

  20. Emotional Incongruence of Facial Expression and Voice Tone Investigated with Event-Related Brain Potentials of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Arai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Human emotions are perceived from multi-modal information including facial expression and voice tone. We aimed to investigate development of neural mechanism for cross-modal perception of emotions. We presented congruent and incongruent combinations of facial expression (happy and voice tone (happy or angry, and measured EEG to analyze event-related brain potentials for 8-10 month-old infants and adults. Ten repetitions of 10 trials were presented in random order for each participant. Half of them performed 20% congruent (happy face with happy voice and 80% incongruent (happy face with angry voice trials, and the others performed 80% congruent and 20% incongruent trials. We employed the oddball paradigm, but did not instruct participants to count a target. The odd-ball (infrequent stimulus increased the amplitude of P2 and delayed its latency for infants in comparison with the frequent stimulus. When the odd-ball stimulus was also emotionally incongruent, P2 amplitude was more increased and its latency was more delayed than for the odd-ball and emotionally congruent stimulus. However, we did not find difference of P2 amplitude or latency for adults between conditions. These results suggested that the 8–10 month-old infants already have a neural basis for detecting emotional incongruence of facial expression and voice tone.

  1. Prefrontal and amygdala engagement during emotional reactivity and regulation in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jacklynn M; Phan, K Luan; Kennedy, Amy E; Shankman, Stewart A; Langenecker, Scott A; Klumpp, Heide

    2017-08-15

    Emotion dysregulation is prominent in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), characterized clinically by exaggerated reactivity to negative stimuli and difficulty in down-regulating this response. Although limited research implicates frontolimbic disturbances in GAD, whether neural aberrations occur during emotional reactivity, regulation, or both is not well understood. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 30 individuals with GAD and 30 healthy controls (HC) completed a well-validated explicit emotion regulation task designed to measure emotional reactivity and regulation of reactivity. During the task, participants viewed negative images ('Look-Negative' condition) and, on some trials, used a cognitive strategy to reduce negative affective response ('Reappraise' condition). Results from an Analysis of Variance corrected for whole brain multiple comparisons showed a significant group x condition interaction in the left amygdala and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Results from post-hoc analyses showed that the GAD group engaged these regions to a greater extent than HCs during Look-Negative but not Reappraise. Behaviorally, the GAD group reported feeling more negative than the HC group in each condition, although both groups reported reduced negative affect following regulation. As comorbidity was permitted, the presence of concurrent disorders, like other anxiety disorders and depression, detracts our ability to classify neural engagement particular to GAD alone. Individuals with GAD exhibited over-engagement of amygdala and frontal regions during the viewing of negative images, compared to HCs. Together, these aberrations may indicate that deficits in emotional reactivity rather than regulation contribute to emotion dysregulation in those with GAD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. High-spin level scheme of odd-odd 142Pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Minliang; Zhang Yuhu; Zhou Xiaohong; He Jianjun; Guo Yingxiang; Lei Xiangguo; Huang Wenxue; Liu Zhong; Luo Yixiao; Feng Xichen; Zhang Shuangquan; Xu Xiao; Zheng Yong; Luo Wanju

    2002-01-01

    The level structure of doubly odd nucleus 142 Pm has been studied via the 128 Te( 19 F, 5nγ) 142 Pm reaction in the energy region from 75 to 95 MeV. In-beam γ rays were measured including the excited function, γ-ray singles and γ-γ coincidences in experiment. The level scheme of 142 Pm has been extended up to excitation energy of 7030.0 keV including 25 new γ rays and 13 new levels. Based on the measured γ-ray anisotropies, the level spins in 142 Pm have been suggested

  3. Emotional Intolerance and Core Features of Anorexia Nervosa: A Dynamic Interaction during Inpatient Treatment? Results from a Longitudinal Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Stadnitski, Tatjana; Wesche, Daniela; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schwab, Michael; Wild, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of emotion dysregulation with regard to the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is increasingly discussed. It is both assumed that AN symptoms have an impact on difficulties in tolerating aversive emotions and that—conversely—emotion dysregulation influences AN. To date, such conclusions are drawn on the basis of cross-sectional data not allowing for inferences on the temporal dynamics. The current study investigates the longitudinal interaction between emotional intolerance and core AN symptoms over the course of inpatient treatment by comparing patients with high (BMIintolerance and their AN-specific cognitions and behaviours. The temporal dynamics between emotional intolerance and these variables were analysed using a multivariate time series approach. Results The time series of the processes under investigation adequately reflected the individual treatment courses. The majority of significant linear time trends was found for HSS patients. Most importantly, analysis revealed significant temporal interactions between emotional intolerance and AN symptoms in almost 70% of HSS patients. Thereby, up to 37% of variance in eating restraint and up to 23% in weight concern could be attributed to changes in emotional intolerance. Conclusions The findings support the notion that intolerable unpleasant emotions in severely affected AN patients influence their psychopathology. Additionally, time series analysis outlined the inter-individual heterogeneity of psychosomatic treatment courses of AN patients. PMID:27191959

  4. The quartet theory: Implications for autism spectrum disorder. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Samson, Andrea C.; Gross, James J.

    2015-06-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication deficits as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors [1]. Specific deficits include failure to initiate reciprocal social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication difficulties, decreased sensitivity to social and emotional cues, and limited perspective-taking abilities. Social withdrawal, avoidance or indifference to affection or physical contact, lack of eye contact, and decreased joint attention and facial responsiveness are also common [2]. In addition to these core features, there is a growing body of literature that describes problematic patterns of emotional reactivity (increased negative and decreased positive emotions) and emotion regulation (increased use of maladaptive and decreased use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies) [3-5]. The present comment seeks to link difficulties in socio-emotional domains to the Quartet Theory of Human Emotions by mapping characteristic ASD social deficits and emotion dysregulation onto two of the affect systems described in this theory: the hippocampal and orbitofrontal-centered systems.

  5. Emotional, neurohormonal, and hemodynamic responses to mental stress in Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Loes; Szabó, Balázs M; van Dammen, Lotte; Wonnink, Wally; Jakobs, Bernadette S; Bosch, Jos A; Kop, Willem J

    2015-06-01

    Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle and symptoms and signs mimicking acute myocardial infarction. The high catecholamine levels in the acute phase of TTC and common emotional triggers suggest a dysregulated stress response system. This study examined whether patients with TTC show exaggerated emotional, neurohormonal, and hemodynamic responses to mental stress. Patients with TTC (n = 18; mean age 68.3 ± 11.7, 78% women) and 2 comparison groups (healthy controls, n = 19; mean age 60.0 ± 7.6, 68% women; chronic heart failure, n = 19; mean age 68.8 ± 10.1, 68% women) performed a structured mental stress task (anger recall and mental arithmetic) and low-grade exercise with repeated assessments of negative emotions, neurohormones (catecholamines: norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol), echocardiography, blood pressure, and heart rate. TTC was associated with higher norepinephrine (520.7 ± 125.5 vs 407.9 ± 155.3 pg/ml, p = 0.021) and dopamine (16.2 ± 10.3 vs 10.3 ± 3.9 pg/ml, p = 0.027) levels during mental stress and relatively low emotional arousal (p stress and exercise were elevated in TTC compared with healthy controls. No evidence was found for a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or hemodynamic responses. Patients with TTC showed blunted emotional arousal to mental stress. This study suggests that catecholamine hyper-reactivity and not emotional hyper-reactivity to stress is likely to play a role in myocardial vulnerability in TTC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Isomeric structures in neutron-rich odd-odd Pm (Z = 61) isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, P.C.; Singh, B.; Jain, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Each of the heavier odd-odd isotopes, namely, 152 Pm, 154 Pm and 156 Pm, have multiple low-lying isomers, almost all of them with undefined configuration and also undefined energy placement. Present investigations attempt credible characterization of the isomers using a simplified two-quasiparticle rotor model which has been widely employed for description of odd-odd deformed nuclei

  7. Childhood traumatization by primary caretaker and affect dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affect regulation is often compromised as a result of early life interpersonal traumatization and disruption in caregiving relationships like in situations where the caretaker is emotionally, sexually or physically abusing the child. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood attachment-related psychological trauma and affect dysregulation. We evaluated the relationship of retrospectively recalled childhood traumatization by primary caretaker(s (TPC and affect dysregulation in 472 adult psychiatric patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD, somatoform disorder (SoD, both BPD and SoD, or disorders other than BPD or SoD, using the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, the self-report version of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress, the Self-rating Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (SRIP and the Traumatic Experiences Checklist. Almost two-thirds of participants reported having experienced childhood TPC, ranging from approximately 50% of patients with SoD or other psychiatric disorders to more than 75% of patients with comorbid BPD + SoD. Underregulation of affect was associated with emotional TPC and TPC occurring in developmental epoch 0–6 years. Over-regulation of affect was associated with physical TPC. Childhood trauma by a primary caretaker is prevalent among psychiatric patients, particularly those with BPD, and differentially associated with underand over-regulation of affect depending on the type of traumatic exposure.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  8. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of 170 Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements

  9. Benchmarking pathway interaction network for colorectal cancer to identify dysregulated pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wang

    Full Text Available Different pathways act synergistically to participate in many biological processes. Thus, the purpose of our study was to extract dysregulated pathways to investigate the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC based on the functional dependency among pathways. Protein-protein interaction (PPI information and pathway data were retrieved from STRING and Reactome databases, respectively. After genes were aligned to the pathways, each pathway activity was calculated using the principal component analysis (PCA method, and the seed pathway was discovered. Subsequently, we constructed the pathway interaction network (PIN, where each node represented a biological pathway based on gene expression profile, PPI data, as well as pathways. Dysregulated pathways were then selected from the PIN according to classification performance and seed pathway. A PIN including 11,960 interactions was constructed to identify dysregulated pathways. Interestingly, the interaction of mRNA splicing and mRNA splicing-major pathway had the highest score of 719.8167. Maximum change of the activity score between CRC and normal samples appeared in the pathway of DNA replication, which was selected as the seed pathway. Starting with this seed pathway, a pathway set containing 30 dysregulated pathways was obtained with an area under the curve score of 0.8598. The pathway of mRNA splicing, mRNA splicing-major pathway, and RNA polymerase I had the maximum genes of 107. Moreover, we found that these 30 pathways had crosstalks with each other. The results suggest that these dysregulated pathways might be used as biomarkers to diagnose CRC.

  10. Emotion (Dys)regulation and Links to Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical depression is a significant mental health problem that is associated with personal suffering and impaired functioning. These effects underscore the continuing need for new approaches that can inform researchers and clinicians when designing interventions. We propose that individual differences in the self-regulation of sadness and distress provide an important link between stress, depressed mood, and the onset of depressive disorder, and that if we have a better understanding of the ways children successfully manage negative emotions, we can better prevent and treat pediatric depression. In this article, we therefore examine the normative development of responses that children use to attenuate sadness, and aspects of the neurobiological infrastructure that both enable and constrain such self-regulatory efforts. We also address the emerging literature on affect regulation among children at familial risk for depressive disorders. We conclude that problems with adaptively self-regulating sadness and distress represent one pathway that can lead to juvenile-onset depression. And we need integrated, developmental studies of the psychosocial and neurobiological aspects of self-regulatory responses to sadness and distress in order to better understand this process, and to design age-sensitive intervention strategies for pediatric depression. PMID:20721304

  11. The dark side of emotion: the addiction perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F

    2015-04-15

    Emotions are "feeling" states and classic physiological emotive responses that are interpreted based on the history of the organism and the context. Motivation is a persistent state that leads to organized activity. Both are intervening variables and intimately related and have neural representations in the brain. The present thesis is that drugs of abuse elicit powerful emotions that can be interwoven conceptually into this framework. Such emotions range from pronounced euphoria to a devastating negative emotional state that in the extreme can create a break with homeostasis and thus an allostatic hedonic state that has been considered key to the etiology and maintenance of the pathophysiology of addiction. Drug addiction can be defined as a three-stage cycle-binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation-that involves allostatic changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Two primary sources of reinforcement, positive and negative reinforcement, have been hypothesized to play a role in this allostatic process. The negative emotional state that drives negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain incentive salience and stress systems. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only decreases in incentive salience system function in the ventral striatum (within-system opponent processes) but also recruitment of the brain stress systems mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), dynorphin-κ opioid systems, and norepinephrine, vasopressin, hypocretin, and substance P in the extended amygdala (between-system opponent processes). Neuropeptide Y, a powerful anti-stress neurotransmitter, has a profile of action on compulsive-like responding for drugs similar to a CRF1 receptor antagonist. Other stress buffers include nociceptin and endocannabinoids, which may also work through interactions with the extended amygdala. The thesis argued

  12. The dark side of emotion: the addiction perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Emotions are “feeling” states and classic physiological emotive responses that are interpreted based on the history of the organism and the context. Motivation is a persistent state that leads to organized activity. Both are intervening variables and intimately related and have neural representations in the brain. The present thesis is that drugs of abuse elicit powerful emotions that can be interwoven conceptually into this framework. Such emotions range from pronounced euphoria to a devastating negative emotional state that in the extreme can create a break with homeostasis and thus an allostatic hedonic state that has been considered key to the etiology and maintenance of the pathophysiology of addiction. Drug addiction can be defined as a three-stage cycle—binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation—that involves allostatic changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Two primary sources of reinforcement, positive and negative reinforcement, have been hypothesized to play a role in this allostatic process. The negative emotional state that drives negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain incentive salience and stress systems. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only decreases in incentive salience system function in the ventral striatum (within-system opponent processes) but also recruitment of the brain stress systems mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), dynorphin-κ opioid systems, and norepinephrine, vasopressin, hypocretin, and substance P in the extended amygdala (between-system opponent processes). Neuropeptide Y, a powerful anti-stress neurotransmitter, has a profile of action on compulsive-like responding for drugs similar to a CRF1 antagonist. Other stress buffers include nociceptin and endocannabinoids, which may also work through interactions with the extended amygdala. The thesis argued

  13. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz Afshari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group. Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms, Children′s Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software package (v. 20. Results: CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children′s reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping

  14. Emotional regulation and bodily sensation: interoceptive awareness is intact in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nova; McGowan, John; Minati, Ludovico; Critchley, Hugo D

    2013-08-01

    Emotional dysregulation is a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Theoretical models suggest that deficits in labeling physiological sensations of emotion contribute to affective instability in BPD. Interoceptive awareness refers to the ability to perceive changes in internal bodily states, and is linked to the subjective experience and control of emotions. The authors tested whether differences in interoceptive awareness accounted for emotional instability in BPD. Patients diagnosed with BPD (n = 24) were compared to healthy controls (n = 30) on two established measures of interoceptive awareness, a heartbeat perception task and a heartbeat monitoring task. Contrary to their hypothesis, the authors observed no significant differences in objective measures of interoceptive awareness. Their findings provide strong evidence against the notion that difficulties in emotional regulation in BPD are connected to differences in interoceptive awareness.

  15. Factor Structure and Initial Validation of a Multidimensional Measure of Difficulties in the Regulation of Positive Emotions: The DERS-Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Gratz, Kim L; Lavender, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties are a transdiagnostic construct relevant to numerous clinical difficulties. Although the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) is a multidimensional measure of maladaptive ways of responding to emotions, it focuses on difficulties with the regulation of negative emotions and does not assess emotion dysregulation in the form of problematic responding to positive emotions. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a measure of clinically relevant difficulties in the regulation of positive emotions (DERS-Positive). Findings revealed a three-factor structure and supported the internal consistency and construct validity of the total and subscale scores. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Perceived Invalidation of Emotion Scale (PIES): Development and psychometric properties of a novel measure of current emotion invalidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Melissa J; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2018-05-24

    Emotion invalidation is theoretically and empirically associated with mental and physical health problems. However, existing measures of invalidation focus on past (e.g., childhood) invalidation and/or do not specifically emphasize invalidation of emotion. In this article, the authors articulate a clarified operational definition of emotion invalidation and use that definition as the foundation for development of a new measure of current perceived emotion invalidation across a series of five studies. Study 1 was a qualitative investigation of people's experiences with emotional invalidation from which we generated items. An initial item pool was vetted by expert reviewers in Study 2 and examined via exploratory factor analysis in Study 3 within both college student and online samples. The scale was reduced to 10 items via confirmatory factor analysis in Study 4, resulting in a brief but psychometrically promising measure, the Perceived Invalidation of Emotion Scale (PIES). A short-term longitudinal investigation (Study 5) revealed that PIES scores had strong test-retest reliability, and that greater perceived emotion invalidation was associated with greater emotion dysregulation, borderline features and symptoms of emotional distress. In addition, the PIES predicted changes in relational health and psychological health over a 1-month period. The current set of studies thus presents a psychometrically promising and practical measure of perceived emotion invalidation that can provide a foundation for future research in this burgeoning area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Neural correlates of emotional distractibility in bipolar disorder patients, unaffected relatives, and individuals with hypomanic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Heissler, Janine; Schönfelder, Sandra; Forneck, Johanna; Wessa, Michèle

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological deficits and emotion dysregulation are present in symptomatic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. However, there is little evidence on how cognitive functioning is influenced by emotion, what the neural correlates of emotional distraction effects are, and whether such deficits are a consequence or a precursor of the disorder. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate these questions. fMRI was used first to localize the neural network specific to a certain cognitive task (mental arithmetic) and then to test the effect of emotional distractors on this network. Euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (N=22), two populations at high risk for developing the disorder (unaffected first-degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder [N=17]), and healthy participants with hypomanic personality traits [N=22]) were tested, along with three age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy comparison groups (N=22, N=17, N=24, respectively). There were no differences in performance or activation in the task network for mental arithmetic. However, while all participants exhibited slower responses when emotional distractors were present, this response slowing was greatly enlarged in bipolar patients. Similarly, task-related activation was generally increased under emotional distraction; however, bipolar patients exhibited a further increase in right parietal activation that correlated positively with the response slowing effect. The results suggest that emotional dysregulation leads to exacerbated neuropsychological deficits in bipolar patients, as evidenced by behavioral slowing and task-related hyperactivation. The lack of such a deficit in high-risk populations suggests that it occurs only after disease onset, rather than representing a vulnerability marker.

  18. Neural correlates of the individual emotional Stroop in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Beblo, Thomas; Mertens, Markus; Kreisel, Stefan; Toepper, Max; Driessen, Martin; Woermann, Friedrich G

    2009-05-01

    Emotional dysregulation is a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with altered inhibitory functions having suggested as being crucial. The anterior cingulate cortex and further prefrontal brain regions are crucial for response inhibition. The regulation of emotions is ensured via inhibitory control over the amygdala. The present study aimed to investigate neural correlates of response inhibition in BPD by using an emotional Stroop paradigm extending the task to word stimuli which were related to stressful life events. Twenty BPD patients and 20 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the individual emotional Stroop task. A block design was used with the following word type conditions: neutral words, general negative words, and individual negative words. The individual negative words were recruited from a prior interview conducted with each participant. While BPD patients had overall slower reaction times in the Stroop task compared to healthy controls, there was no increased slowing with emotional interference. Controls exhibited significant fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent signal increases in the anterior cingulate cortex as well as in frontal cortex contrasting generally negative vs. neutral and individual negative vs. neutral conditions, respectively. BPD patients did not show equivalent signal changes. These results provide further evidence for a dysfunctional network of brain areas in BPD, including the ACC and frontal brain regions. These areas are crucial for the regulation of stress and emotions, the core problems of BPD patients.

  19. Abnormal deactivation of the inferior frontal gyrus during implicit emotion processing in youth with bipolar disorder: attenuated by medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeman, Danella M; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A; Fournier, Jay C; Bonar, Lisa; Perlman, Susan B; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Holland, Scott K; Kowatch, Robert A; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M; Arnold, L Eugene; Fristad, Mary A; Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A; Findling, Robert L; Drevets, Wayne; Phillips, Mary L

    2014-11-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of youth with bipolar disorder (BD) have identified abnormalities in emotion regulation circuitry. Using data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms Cohort (a clinical sample recruited for behavioral and emotional dysregulation), we examined the impact of BD and medication on activation in these regions. Functional neuroimaging data were obtained from 15 youth with BD who currently were unmedicated with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic (U-BD), 19 youth with medicated BD (M-BD), a non-bipolar clinical sample with high rates of disruptive behavioral disorders (non-BD, n = 59), and 29 healthy controls (HC) while they were shown task-irrelevant morphing emotional faces and shapes. Whole brain analysis was used to identify clusters that showed differential activation to emotion vs. shapes across group. To assess pair-wise comparisons and potential confounders, mean activation data were extracted only from clusters within regions previously implicated in emotion regulation (including amygdala and ventral prefrontal regions). A cluster in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) showed group differences to emotion vs. shapes (159 voxels, corrected p abnormally decreased right IFG activation to negative emotions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Odd Structures Are Odd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2017), s. 1567-1580 ISSN 0188-7009 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : graded vector space * monoidal structure * Odd endomorphism operad Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00006-016-0720-8

  1. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... Chat on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (Archived Transcript) Research and ... Journal Articles: References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  2. Quasiparticle features and level statistics of odd-odd nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Nanpu; Zheng Renrong; Zhu Shunquan

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y are calculated by using the axially symmetric rotor plus quasiparticles model. The two standard statistical tests of Random-Matrix Theory such as the distribution function p(s) of the nearest-neighbor level spacings (NNS) and the spectral rigidity Δ 3 are used to explore the statistical properties of the energy levels. By analyzing the properties of p(s) and Δ 3 under various conditions, the authors find that the quasiparticle features mainly affect the statistical properties of the odd-odd nucleus 84 Y through the recoil term and the Coriolis force in this theoretical mode, and that the chaotic degree of the energy levels decreases with the decreasing of the Fermi energy and the energy-gap parameters. The effect of the recoil term is small while the Coriolis force plays a major role in the spectral structure of 84 Y

  3. Clinical characteristics and mental health outcomes for women admitted to an Australian Mother-Baby Unit: a focus on borderline personality disorder and emotional dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Chris; Girke, Teresa; Tottman, Charlotte; Williams, Anne Sved

    2015-12-01

    To describe the clinical population of women admitted to a Mother-Baby Unit in Adelaide, South Australia and to evaluate changes during admission in both Axes I and II diagnoses of maternal mental health, and in mother-infant relationships. Both clinical and self-report assessments of maternal mental health were made at admission and discharge, and self-report comparisons of the mother-infant relationship. Depressive illnesses (46.2%) were found to be the most prevalent conditions leading to admission, with rates of psychosis (10.3%) and bipolar disorder (3.4%) being lower. A high incidence of borderline personality disorder (23.1%) was found clinically, with almost half the admitted women showing features of borderline personality disorder on a self-report measure at admission. Significant improvements in maternal mental health and the mother-infant relationship were found at the time of discharge. Admission to this Mother-Baby Unit on mothers' self-report scales showed improvement in mothers' mental health and the relationship that they have with their infant. Given the high prevalence of borderline personality disorder and emotional dysregulation identified within the population, treatment implications and possible consequences for the infant are discussed for this client group. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  4. Dysregulated miR-183 inhibits migration in breast cancer cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowery, Aoife J

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of fundamental cellular functions has placed them at the fore of ongoing investigations into the processes underlying carcinogenesis. MiRNA expression patterns have been shown to be dysregulated in numerous human malignancies, including breast cancer, suggesting their probable involvement as novel classes of oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes. The identification of differentially expressed miRNAs and elucidation of their functional roles may provide insight into the complex and diverse molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis. MiR-183 is located on chromosome 7q32 and is part of a miRNA family which are dysregulated in numerous cancers. The aims of this study were to further examine the expression and functional role of miR-183 in breast cancer.

  5. A Positive Affective Neuroendocrinology (PANE Approach to Reward and Behavioral Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eWelker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging lines of research suggest that both testosterone and maladaptive reward processing can modulate behavioral dysregulation. Yet to date, no integrative account has been provided that systematically explains neuroendocrine function, dysregulation of reward, and behavioral dysregulation in a unified perspective. This is particularly important given specific neuroendocrine systems are potential mechanisms underlying and giving rise to reward-relevant behaviors. In this review, we propose a forward thinking approach to study the mechanisms of reward and behavioral dysregulation from a positive affective neuroendocrinology (PANE perspective. This approach holds that testosterone increases reward processing, which increases the likelihood of behavioral dysregulation. Additionally, the PANE framework holds that reward processing mediates the effects of testosterone on behavioral dysregulation. We also explore sources of potential sex differences and the roles of age, cortisol, and individual differences within the PANE framework. Finally, we discuss future prospects for research questions and methodology in the emerging field of affective neuroendocrinology.

  6. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  7. Pediatric Obesity-Related Asthma: The Role of Metabolic Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Greally, John M; Rastogi, Deepa

    2016-05-01

    The burden of obesity-related asthma among children, particularly among ethnic minorities, necessitates an improved understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms. Although obesity is an independent risk factor for asthma, not all obese children develop asthma. Several recent studies have elucidated mechanisms, including the role of diet, sedentary lifestyle, mechanical fat load, and adiposity-mediated inflammation that may underlie the obese asthma pathophysiology. Here, we review these recent studies and emerging scientific evidence that suggest metabolic dysregulation may play a role in pediatric obesity-related asthma. We also review the genetic and epigenetic factors that may underlie susceptibility to metabolic dysregulation and associated pulmonary morbidity among children. Lastly, we identify knowledge gaps that need further exploration to better define pathways that will allow development of primary preventive strategies for obesity-related asthma in children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Emotional regulation difficulties and premenstrual symptoms among Israeli students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Inbal; Dan, Rotem; Segman, Ronen; Evron, Ron; Laufer, Sofia; Goelman, Gadi; Bonne, Omer; Canetti, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) reported to affect 3-8 % of women of reproductive age and resulting in marked emotional and occupational impairment. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of PMDD is largely unknown, and patients remain mostly undiagnosed and poorly treated. It has been suggested that PMDD is a manifestation of underlying depressive disorder which is associated with the inability to regulate emotions in an adaptive manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that women with PMDD would exhibit increased difficulty with emotional regulation. A total of 648 female Israeli college students were assessed by the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Of these women, 166 (25.6 %) met the criteria for PMS. Sixty-four (9.9 %) suffered from PMDD. More emotion regulation deficits were observed in the PMDD and PMS groups compared to the control group. Furthermore, there were more emotional regulation deficits among the predominantly psychological and mixed symptom subtype compared to the predominantly physical symptom subtype group. This is the first study to report an association between emotional dysregulation and PMDD. These findings may lead to development of more individually tailored treatment protocols focused on improving emotional regulation techniques.

  9. Emotion, cognitive load and learning outcomes during simulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Teteris, Elise; Baxter, Heather; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Simulation training has emerged as an effective way to complement clinical training of medical students. Yet outcomes from simulation training must be considered suboptimal when 25-30% of students fail to recognise a cardiac murmur on which they were trained 1 hour previously. There are several possible explanations for failure to improve following simulation training, which include the impact of heightened emotions on learning and cognitive overload caused by interactivity with high-fidelity simulators. This study was conducted to assess emotion during simulation training and to explore the relationships between emotion and cognitive load, and diagnostic performance. We trained 84 Year 1 medical students on a scenario of chest pain caused by symptomatic aortic stenosis. After training, students were asked to rate their emotional state and cognitive load. We then provided training on a dyspnoea scenario before asking participants to diagnose the murmur in which they had been trained (aortic stenosis) and a novel murmur (mitral regurgitation). We used factor analysis to identify the principal components of emotion, and then studied the associations between these components of emotion and cognitive load and diagnostic performance. We identified two principal components of emotion, which we felt represented invigoration and tranquillity. Both of these were associated with cognitive load with adjusted regression coefficients of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.99; p = 0.001) and - 0.44 (95% CI - 0.77 to - 0.10; p = 0.009), respectively. We found a significant negative association between cognitive load and the odds of subsequently identifying the trained murmur (odds ratio 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67; p = 0.004). We found that increased invigoration and reduced tranquillity during simulation training were associated with increased cognitive load, and that the likelihood of correctly identifying a trained murmur declined with increasing cognitive load. Further

  10. Effects of dialectical behaviour therapy-mindfulness training on emotional reactivity in borderline personality disorder: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu-Soler, Albert; Pascual, Juan C; Borràs, Xavier; Portella, Maria J; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Armario, Antonio; Alvarez, Enric; Pérez, Víctor; Soler, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Emotional dysregulation has been proposed as a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Mindfulness techniques taught in dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) appear to be effective in reducing affective symptoms and may enhance emotion regulation in BPD patients. In the present study, we assessed whether 10 weeks of DBT-mindfulness (DBT-M) training added to general psychiatric management (GPM) could improve emotion regulation in BPD patients. A total of 35 patients with BPD were included and sequentially assigned to GPM (n = 17) or GPM plus DBT-M (n = 18). Participants underwent a negative emotion induction procedure (presentation of standardized unpleasant images) both pre-intervention and post-intervention. Clinical evaluation was also performed before and after treatment. No differences were observed in emotional response at the post-treatment session. However, patients in the DBT-M group showed greater improvement in clinical symptoms. Formal mindfulness practice was positively correlated with clinical improvements and lower self-reported emotional reactivity. Our preliminary results suggest that mindfulness training reduces some psychiatric symptoms but may not have a clear effect on how patients respond to emotional stimuli in an experimental setting. No clear effect of mindfulness training was observed on emotional response to a negative emotion induction procedure. Application of the DBT-M module jointly to GPM induced better clinical outcomes than GPM alone. Formal mindfulness practice showed a positive impact on emotion regulation and clinical improvement. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder Symptoms and Association with Oppositional Defiant and Other Disorders in a General Population Child Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan D; Waxmonsky, James D; Calhoun, Susan L; Bixler, Edward O

    2016-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5) diagnosis, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), has generated appreciable controversy since its inception, primarily in regard to its validity as a distinct disorder from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The goal of our study was to determine if the two DSM-5 DMDD symptoms (persistently irritable or angry mood and severe recurrent temper outbursts) occurred independently of other disorders, particularly ODD. Other DSM-5 DMDD criteria were not assessed. Maternal ratings of the two DMDD symptoms, clinical diagnosis of ODD using DSM-5 symptom criteria, and psychological problem scores (anxiety, depression, oppositional behavior, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) on the Pediatric Behavior Scale were analyzed in a population sample, 6-12 years of age (n = 665). The prevalence of DMDD symptoms (irritable-angry mood and temper outbursts both rated by mothers as often or very often a problem) was 9%. In all, 92% of children with DMDD symptoms had ODD, and 66% of children with ODD had DMDD symptoms, indicating that it is very unlikely to have DMDD symptoms without ODD, but that ODD can occur without DMDD symptoms. Comorbid psychological problems (anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and ADHD) in addition to ODD did not increase the risk of having DMDD symptoms beyond that for ODD alone. Only 3% of children with psychological problems other than ODD had DMDD symptoms. Our general population findings are similar to those for a psychiatric sample, suggesting that DMDD cannot be differentiated from ODD based on symptomatology. Therefore, it is important to assess all DSM criteria and to examine for comorbid psychopathology when considering a diagnosis of DMDD. Our results support the recommendation made by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11) panel of experts that DMDD symptoms may be

  13. Impact of Psychosocial Environment on Young Children's Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Petraviciene, Inga; Balseviciene, Birute

    2017-10-24

    Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children's mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4-6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children's mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4-6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51-3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children's emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  14. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Chouker, A.; Feuerecker, M.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the use of 14 day undersea missions as a possible analog for short duration spaceflight for the study of immune system dysregulation. Sixteen subjects from the the NASA Extreme Enviro nment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 12, 13 and 14 missions were studied for immune system dysregulation. The assays that are presented in this poster are the Virleukocyte subsets, the T Cell functions, and the intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles. Other assays were performed, but are not included in this presntation.

  15. Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L.; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent neuroscience models suggest that addictive behavior occurs when environmental stressors and drug-relevant cues activate a cycle of cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological mechanisms, including dysregulated interactions between bottom-up and top-down neural processes, that compel the user to seek out and use drugs. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) target pathogenic mechanisms of the risk chain linking stress and addiction. This review describes how MBIs may target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning to uncouple drug-use triggers from conditioned appetitive responses; reducing cue-reactivity and increasing cognitive control over craving; attenuating physiological stress reactivity through parasympathetic activation; and increasing savoring to restore natural reward processing. Treatment and research implications of our neurocognitive framework are presented. We conclude by offering a temporally sequenced description of neurocognitive processes targeted by MBIs through a hypothetical case study. Our neurocognitive framework has implications for the optimization of addiction treatment with MBIs. PMID:24454293

  16. The Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile in Preschool Children: A Broad Dysregulation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, Sanne Barbara; Deutz, Marike Hester Francisca; Deković, Maja; Bunte, Tessa; Schoemaker, Kim; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Prinzie, Peter; van Baar, Anneloes; Matthys, Walter

    2015-07-01

    Children with concurrent impairments in regulating affect, behavior, and cognition can be identified with the Anxious/Depressed, Aggressive Behavior, and Attention Problems scales (or AAA scales) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Jointly, these scales form the Dysregulation Profile (DP). Despite persuasive evidence that DP is a marker for severe developmental problems, no consensus exists on the preferred conceptualization and operationalization of DP in preschool years. We addressed this concern by testing and validating the factor structure of DP in a group of predominantly clinically referred preschool children. Participants were 247 children (195 boys and 52 girls), aged 3.5 to 5.5 years. Children were assessed at baseline and 18 months later, using parent and teacher reports, a clinical interview with parents, behavioral observations, and neuropsychological tasks. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a bifactor model, with a general DP factor and 3 specific factors representing the AAA scales, fitted the data better than a second-order model and a one-factor model for both parent-reported and teacher-reported child problem behavior. Criterion validity analyses showed that the DP factor was concurrently and longitudinally associated with markers of dysregulation and clinically relevant criteria, whereas the specific factors representing the AAA scales were more differentially related to those criteria. DP is best conceptualized as a broad syndrome of dysregulation that exists in addition to the specific syndromes as represented by the AAA scales. Implications for researchers and clinicians are discussed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotional Abuse History and Migraine Among Young Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Add Health Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E; Karmakar, Monita; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr A

    2017-01-01

    To define and examine the relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and migraine among young adults. Headache and migraine have been linked to childhood abuse in numerous studies, but there is incomplete characterization of headache types, and limited assessment of abuse types and frequency. Only one population-based study has examined the relationship between emotional abuse and migraine. None have investigated the temporal relationship between onset of abuse and of migraine. We analyzed data from 14,356 adults aged 24-32 years in Wave 4, which is a cross-sectional subset of the longitudinal Add Health study. Participants were queried regarding abuse (emotional, physical and sexual) during childhood, diagnosis of migraine, depression and anxiety by healthcare providers, and symptoms of current depression. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between childhood abuse and migraine, controlling for socio-demographic factors, current depression, and lifetime diagnosis of anxiety and depression. About 14% (n = 2040) of respondents reported migraine. Participants with migraine (vs no migraine) reported significantly higher rates of childhood abuse overall (60.6% vs 48.9%), including emotional (57.8% vs 45.4%), sexual (8.4% vs 4.6%) and physical (22.4% vs 17.9%) abuse. Emotional abuse had a stronger association with migraine (odds ratio [OR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-1.85) when compared with physical (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.89-1.68) and sexual abuse (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.93-1.68), adjusting for socio-demographic factors. The emotional abuse-migraine association remained even when controlling for lifetime diagnosis of depression and anxiety (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.19-1.57) and for current depression (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.30-1.67). The odds of migraine increased with increasing number of abuse types reported. There was a U-shaped distribution of odds of migraine associated with frequency of occurrences of emotional abuse, peaking at one time

  18. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for 238 Np, 244 Am, and 250 Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K

    2015-05-25

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI experts for structuring and planning EI development. Finally, we make 9 recommendations' to inform the process of including EI in pharmacy curricula.

  20. Immune System Dysregulation, Viral Reactivation and Stress During Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a study that was conducted to ascertain if the immune system dysregulation, viral reactivation and stress from short duration space flight were a result of the stress of landing and readjustment to gravity. The objectives of the study were to replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; address lack of in-flight data: (i.e., determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation); determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  1. A Serious Videogame as an Additional Therapy Tool for Training Emotional Regulation and Impulsivity Control in Severe Gambling Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    T?rrega, Salom?; Castro-Carreras, Laia; Fern?ndez-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Giner-Bartolom?, Cristina; Aymam?, Neus; G?mez-Pe?a, M?nica; Santamar?a, Juan J.; Forcano, Laura; Steward, Trevor; Mench?n, Jos? M.; Jim?nez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gambling disorder (GD) is characterized by a significant lack of self-control and is associated with impulsivity-related personality traits. It is also linked to deficits in emotional regulation and frequently co-occurs with anxiety and depression symptoms. There is also evidence that emotional dysregulation may play a mediatory role between GD and psychopathological symptomatology. Few studies have reported the outcomes of psychological interventions that specifically address the...

  2. Does self-efficacy mediate the association between socioeconomic background and emotional symptoms among schoolchildren?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Nielsen, Line

    2016-01-01

    in the association between occupational social class (OSC) and emotional symptoms. METHODS: Data stem from the cross-sectional Health Behavior in School-aged Children-Methodology Development Survey 2012 (HBSC-MDS) conducted among 11-15-year old schoolchildren in two Danish municipalities. Participation rate was 76.......8 % of 5165 enrolled schoolchildren, n = 3969. RESULTS: Low OSC is associated with higher odds of daily emotional symptoms and low selfefficacy. Schoolchildren with low self-efficacy have higher odds for daily emotional symptoms. We find a strong and statistically significant direct effect between low OSC...

  3. Structure and symmetries of odd-odd triaxial nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Colaba, Mumbai (India); Bhat, G.H. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Govt. Degree College Kulgam, Department of Physics, Kulgam (India); Sheikh, J.A. [University of Kashmir, Department of Physics, Srinagar (India); Cluster University of Srinagar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2017-05-15

    Rotational spectra of odd-odd Rh and Ag isotopes are investigated with the primary motivation to search for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon in these nuclei. The experimental results obtained on the degenerate dipole bands of some of these isotopes using a large array of gamma detectors are discussed and studied using the triaxial projected shell (TPSM) approach. It is shown that, first of all, to reproduce the odd-even staggering of the known yrast bands of these nuclei, large triaxial deformation is needed. This large triaxial deformation also gives rise to doublet band structures in many of these studied nuclei. The observed doublet bands in these isotopes are shown to be reproduced reasonably well by the TPSM calculations. Further, the TPSM calculations for neutron-rich nuclei indicate that the ideal manifestation of the chirality can be realised in {sup 106}Rh and {sup 112}Ag, where the doublet bands have similar electromagnetic properties along with small differences in excitation energies. (orig.)

  4. Empathy in adolescence: Relations with emotion awareness and social roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffe, Carolien; Camodeca, Marina

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed at gaining a better understanding of the individual differences contributing to feelings of empathy in adolescents. Therefore, we examined the extent to which emotion awareness (e.g., recognizing and appreciating one's own and the emotions of others) and a tendency for certain social roles (e.g., helping or teasing peers when being bullied) are related to adolescents' levels of empathy. The sample was comprised of 182 adolescents aged between 11 and 16. Empathy and emotion awareness were assessed using self-report measures. Peer reports were used to indicate adolescents' different social roles: Bullying, defending the victim, and outsider behaviour. Outcomes demonstrated that evaluating one's own and the emotions of others, and more defending nominations were associated with both affective and cognitive empathy, whereas aspects of emotion awareness which are linked with internalizing symptoms were related to empathic distress, suggesting maladaptive emotion appraisal. Furthermore, outsider behaviour was associated with empathic distress, emphasizing a self-focused orientation. In contrast, more bullying was negatively associated with cognitive empathy. Overall, these outcomes demonstrate that, besides social roles, emotion awareness is an important factor for adaptive empathic reactions, whereas emotion dysregulation might cause distress when witnessing the negative feelings of others. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Conflicting Coupling of Unpaired Nucleons and the Structure of Collective Bands in Odd-Odd Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levon, A.I.; Pasternak, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei is discussed. A very simple explanation is suggested for the damping of the energy spacing of the lowest levels in the rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei with the 'conflicting' coupling of an odd proton and an odd neutron comparative to those of the bands based on the state of a strongly coupled particle in the neighboring odd nucleus entering the 'conflicting' configuration.

  6. Impact of Psychosocial Environment on Young Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children’s mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4–6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children’s mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4–6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51–3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  7. Unique associations among emotion dysregulation dimensions and aggressive tendencies : A multi-site study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, Patrizia; Casselman, Robert B.; Garofalo, C.; McKenzie, Melissa D.

    2017-01-01

    While problems with emotion regulation (ER) have long been associated with internalizing symptoms, only recently has an ER framework been applied to the study of aggression. Therefore, little is known about the unique and independent associations between specific domains of the ER construct and

  8. Admiration for Virtue: Neuroscientific Perspectives on a Motivating Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Sylvan, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Social emotions like admiration for another person's virtue are often associated with a desire to be virtuous one's self, and to engage in meaningful and socially relevant activities against any odds (Haidt & Seder, 2007). These emotions can profoundly inspire us, sometimes motivating our most significant life-course decisions. Yet despite the…

  9. Lack of guilt, guilt, and shame: a multi-informant study on the relations between self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Heijmans, Jolina; van Hulten, Sandra; Kaanen, Linsy; Oerlemans, Birgit; Stikkelbroeck, Tessa; Tielemans, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between dysregulations in self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents. For this purpose, parent-, teacher-, and self-report Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment data of 1000 youth aged 4-18 years was analyzed as this instrument not only provides information on the intensity levels of lack of guilt, guilt, and shame, but also on the severity of various types of psychopathology. The results first of all indicated that dysregulations of self-conscious emotions were more common in this clinical sample than in the general population. Further, a consistent pattern was found with regard to the relationships between self-conscious emotions and childhood psychopathology. That is, lack of guilt was predominantly associated with oppositional defiant and conduct (i.e., externalizing) problems, while guilt and shame were primarily linked with affective and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) problems. By and large, these findings confirm what has been found in non-clinical youth, and suggest that self-conscious emotions play a small but significant role in the psychopathology of children and adolescents.

  10. Yoga and Emotion Regulation in High School Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A. Daly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Middle adolescents (15–17 years old are prone to increased risk taking and emotional instability. Emotion dysregulation contributes to a variety of psychosocial difficulties in this population. A discipline such as yoga offered during school may increase emotion regulation, but research in this area is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of a yoga intervention on the emotion regulation of high school students as compared to physical education (PE. In addition, the potential mediating effects of mindful attention, self-compassion, and body awareness on the relationship between yoga and emotion regulation were examined. High school students were randomized to participate in a 16-week yoga intervention (n=19 or regular PE (n=18. Pre-post data analyses revealed that emotion regulation increased significantly in the yoga group as compared to the PE group (F (1,32 = 7.50, p=.01, and eta2 = .19. No significant relationship was discovered between the changes in emotion regulation and the proposed mediating variables. Preliminary results suggest that yoga increases emotion regulation capacities of middle adolescents and provides benefits beyond that of PE alone.

  11. Study on the high-spin states and signature inversion of odd-odd nucleus 170Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Zhou Hongyu; Sun Huibin; Lu Jingbin; Zhao Guangyi; Yin Lichang; Liu Yunzuo

    2002-01-01

    The high-spin states of odd-odd nucleus 170 Ta were populated via the 155 Gd( 19 F, 4n) 170 Ta reaction with beam energy of 97 MeV provided by the HI-13 tandem accelerator of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Three rotational bands have been pushed to higher spin states and the signature inversion point of the semidecoupled band based on the πh 9/2 1/2 - [541] direct x νi 13/2 configuration has been observed to be 19.5 ℎ. The systematic features of the signature inversion in semidecoupled bands in odd-odd rare earth nuclei were summarized. The systematic differences of signature inversion, especially the difference in the energy splitting between the yrast hands and the semidecoupled hands in odd-odd rare earth nuclei are pointed out and discussed for the first time. It seems that p-n interaction between the odd proton and odd neutron in the odd-odd nuclei plays an important role

  12. Staphylococcal enterotoxins stimulate lymphoma-associated immune dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn Frej; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Lindahl, Lise Maria

    2014-01-01

    a cascade of events involving cell-cell and asymmetric cytokine interactions between malignant and benign T cells, which stimulated the malignant T cells to express high levels of IL-10. Much evidence supports that malignant activation of the Stat3/IL-10 axis plays a key role in driving the immune...... dysregulation and severe immunodeficiency that characteristically develops in CTCL patients. The present findings thereby establish a novel link between SEs and immune dysregulation in CTCL strengthening the rationale for antibiotic treatment of colonized patients with severe or progressive disease....

  13. Emotion regulation in context: the jealousy complex between young siblings and its relations with child and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; McElwain, Nancy L; Miller, Alison L

    2002-01-01

    Jealousy is a social emotion that has received little attention by developmental researchers. The current study examined sibling jealousy and its relations to child and family characteristics in 60 families with a 16-month-old toddler and an older preschool-age sibling. Sibling jealousy was elicited in social triads consisting of a parent (mother or father) and the two siblings. Positive marital relationship quality (i.e., love and relationship maintenance) was a particularly strong predictor of the older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy reactions in the mother sessions. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers was linked to the child's temperament, whereas older siblings' jealous affect with mothers was related to the child's emotional understanding. Younger siblings displayed more behavioral dysregulation in the mother-sibling triads if there was greater sibling rivalry reported by mothers. Session order (i.e., which sibling was challenged first in the jealousy paradigm) had a strong effect on both the affect and behavioral dysregulation displayed by the older and younger siblings. Results are discussed with respect to the need for future research to consider social relationships as developmental contexts for young children's emotion regulation.

  14. Cell cycle pathway dysregulation in human keratinocytes during chronic exposure to low arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Laila; Waigel, Sabine; Jala, Venkatakrishna; Jenkins, Samantha F; States, J Christopher

    2017-09-15

    Arsenic is naturally prevalent in the earth's crust and widely distributed in air and water. Chronic low arsenic exposure is associated with several cancers in vivo, including skin cancer, and with transformation in vitro of cell lines including immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Arsenic also is associated with cell cycle dysregulation at different exposure levels in multiple cell lines. In this work, we analyzed gene expression in HaCaT cells to gain an understanding of gene expression changes contributing to transformation at an early time point. HaCaT cells were exposed to 0 or 100nM NaAsO 2 for 7weeks. Total RNA was purified and analyzed by microarray hybridization. Differential expression with fold change≥|1.5| and p-value≤0.05 was determined using Partek Genomic Suite™ and pathway and network analyses using MetaCore™ software (FDR≤0.05). Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. 644 mRNAs were differentially expressed. Cell cycle/cell cycle regulation pathways predominated in the list of dysregulated pathways. Genes involved in replication origin licensing were enriched in the network. Cell cycle assay analysis showed an increase in G2/M compartment in arsenite-exposed cells. Arsenite exposure induced differential gene expression indicating dysregulation of cell cycle control, which was confirmed by cell cycle analysis. The results suggest that cell cycle dysregulation is an early event in transformation manifested in cells unable to transit G2/M efficiently. Further study at later time points will reveal additional changes in gene expression related to transformation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Cannabinoid Transmission in Emotional Memory Formation: Implications for Addiction and Schizophrenia

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    Huibing eTan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both basic and clinical research demonstrates an important role for endocannabinoid (ECB signaling in the processing of emotionally salient information, learning and memory. Cannabinoid transmission within neural circuits involved in emotional processing has been shown to modulate the acquisition, recall and extinction of emotionally salient memories and importantly, can strongly modulate the emotional salience of incoming sensory information. Two neural regions in particular, the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA, play important roles in emotional regulation and contain high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, both regions show profound abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and schizophrenia. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that cannabinoid transmission functionally interacts with dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter system that is of exceptional importance for both addictive behaviours and the neuropsychopathology of disorders like schizophrenia. Research in our laboratory has focused on how cannabinoid transmission both within and extrinsic to the mesolimbic DA system, including the BLAmPFC circuitry, can modulate both rewarding and aversive emotional information. In this review, we will summarize clinical and basic neuroscience research demonstrating the importance of cannabinoid signaling within this neural circuitry. In particular, evidence will be reviewed emphasizing the importance of cannabinoid signaling within the BLAmPFC circuitry in the context of emotional salience processing, memory formation and memory-related plasticity. We propose that aberrant states of hyper or hypoactive ECB signaling within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit may lead to dysregulation of mesocorticolimbic DA transmission controlling the processing of emotionally salient information. These disturbances may in turn lead to emotional processing

  16. Dysregulated Fear in Toddlerhood Predicts Kindergarten Social Withdrawal through Protective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Two recent advances in the study of fearful temperament (behavioural inhibition) include the validation of dysregulated fear as a temperamental construct that more specifically predicts later social withdrawal and anxiety, and the use of conceptual and statistical models that place parenting as a mechanism of development from temperament to these…

  17. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Classi Peter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the impact of co-occurring social and emotional difficulties on missed school days and healthcare utilization among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and were based on parental proxy responses to questions in the Sample Child Core, which includes questions on demographics, health, healthcare treatment, and social and emotional status as measured by questions about depression, anxiety, and phobias, as well as items from the brief version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between co-occurring social and emotional difficulties with missed school days and healthcare utilization, adjusting for demographics. Results Of the 5896 children aged 6–17 years in the 2007 NHIS, 432 (7.3% had ADHD, based on parental report. Children with ADHD and comorbid depression, anxiety, or phobias had significantly greater odds of experiencing > 2 weeks of missed school days, ≥ 6 visits to a healthcare provider (HCP, and ≥ 2 visits to the ER, compared with ADHD children without those comorbidities (OR range: 2.1 to 10.4. Significantly greater odds of missed school days, HCP visits, and ER visits were also experienced by children with ADHD who were worried, unhappy/depressed, or having emotional difficulties as assessed by the SDQ, compared with ADHD children without those difficulties (OR range: 2.2 to 4.4. Conclusions In children with ADHD, the presence of social and emotional problems resulted in greater odds of missed school days and healthcare utilization. These findings should be viewed in light of the limited nature of the parent-report measures used to assess social and emotional problems.

  18. Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.

    2017-06-01

    The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.

  19. Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation: An fMRI Study of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Kateri; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mauss, Iris B; Gabrieli, John J D; Gross, James J

    2008-04-01

    Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we asked male and female participants to use a cognitive emotion regulation strategy (reappraisal) to down-regulate their emotional responses to negatively valenced pictures. Behaviorally, men and women evidenced comparable decreases in negative emotion experience. Neurally, however, gender differences emerged. Compared with women, men showed (a) lesser increases in prefrontal regions that are associated with reappraisal, (b) greater decreases in the amygdala, which is associated with emotional responding, and (c) lesser engagement of ventral striatal regions, which are associated with reward processing. We consider two non-competing explanations for these differences. First, men may expend less effort when using cognitive regulation, perhaps due to greater use of automatic emotion regulation. Second, women may use positive emotions in the service of reappraising negative emotions to a greater degree. We then consider the implications of gender differences in emotion regulation for understanding gender differences in emotional processing in general, and gender differences in affective disorders.

  20. The relationship between emotional regulation and eating behaviour: a multidimensional analysis of obesity psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micanti, Fausta; Iasevoli, Felice; Cucciniello, Claudia; Costabile, Raimondo; Loiarro, Giuseppe; Pecoraro, Giuseppe; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Rossetti, GianLuca; Galletta, Diana

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to show that the differences among eating behaviours are related to the emotional dysregulation connected to the mental dimensions being part of the obese psychopathology. Eating behaviours can be considered a diagnostic feature at the initial screening for determining the obesity treatment: nutritional or bariatric surgery. 1828 Obese subjects underwent psychiatric assessment before entering obesity nutritional treatment or bariatric surgery following the multidisciplinary programme. 1121 subjects were selected and enrolled in this study: 850 were inpatients visited or hospitalised at the Obesity Centre or at the Bariatric Surgery Units, 271 were outpatients visited at the Eating Disorder and Obesity Unit. Psychiatric examination was used to exclude psychiatric disorders and investigate eating behaviours distinguished on the basis of food intake rhythm in: gorging, snacking, grazing and binge. They are related to the mental dimensions: impulsiveness, body image, mood and anxiety, taking part in the emotional regulation system. Specific psychometric tools were used to investigate the different mental dimensions of the single eating behaviours and their differences. Statistical analysis of the psychopathological features was performed using ANOVA, ANCOVA, Levene test, Bonferroni's and Tamhane post hoc test. Significance was set at p analysis shows significant differences of psychopathology among all the eating behaviours and an increase in the emotional dysregulation determining maladaptive behaviours. Eating behaviours are connected to the balance of the different features of mental dimensions implicated in the emotional regulation system. They could provide significant clinical information and therefore be part of the obesity diagnostic criteria and therapeutic programme.

  1. Enhanced emotional interference on working memory performance in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Ivo; Domes, Gregor; Havenstein, Carolin; Berger, Christoph; Schulze, Lars; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2011-09-01

    Subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from both executive dysfunction and deficits in emotion regulation. However, up to now, there has been no research demonstrating a clear impact of emotional dysregulation on cognitive performance in subjects with ADHD. Male and female adults with ADHD (n=39) and gender- and IQ-matched control subjects (n=40) performed an emotional working memory task (n-back task). In the background of the task, we presented neutral and negative stimuli varied in emotional saliency (negative pictures with low saliency, negative pictures with high saliency), but subjects were instructed to ignore these pictures and to process the working memory task as quickly and as accurately as possible. Compared to control subjects, ADHD patients showed both a general working memory deficit and enhanced distractability by emotionally salient stimuli in terms of lower n-back performance accuracy. In particular, while controls showed impaired WM performance when presented with highly arousing negative background pictures, a comparable decrement was observed in the ADHD group already with lowly arousing pictures. Our results suggest that difficulties in suppressing attention towards emotionally laden stimuli might result from deficient executive control in ADHD.

  2. Gender-specific disruptions in emotion processing in younger adults with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sara L; Langenecker, Scott A; Deldin, Patricia J; Rapport, Lisa J; Nielson, Kristy A; Kade, Allison M; Own, Lawrence S; Akil, Huda; Young, Elizabeth A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2009-01-01

    One of the principal theories regarding the biological basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) implicates a dysregulation of emotion-processing circuitry. Gender differences in how emotions are processed and relative experience with emotion processing might help to explain some of the disparities in the prevalence of MDD between women and men. This study sought to explore how gender and depression status relate to emotion processing. This study employed a 2 (MDD status) x 2 (gender) factorial design to explore differences in classifications of posed facial emotional expressions (N=151). For errors, there was an interaction between gender and depression status. Women with MDD made more errors than did nondepressed women and men with MDD, particularly for fearful and sad stimuli (Ps women with MDD compared to nondepressed women (P=.01). Men with MDD, conversely, performed similarly to control men (P=.61). These results provide novel and intriguing evidence that depression in younger adults (emotion processing in women as compared to men. This interaction could be driven by neurobiological and social learning mechanisms, or interactions between them, and may underlie differences in the prevalence of depression in women and men. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Description of low-lying states in odd-odd deformed nuclei taking account of the coupling with core rotations and vibrations. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasil, J.; Hrivnacova, I.; Nesterenko, V.O.

    1990-01-01

    The microscopic approach for description of low-lyinig states in deformed odd-odd nuclei is formulated as a generalization of the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM) with including the rotational degrees of freedom and n-p interaction between external nucleons into the QPM. In comparison with other models, the approach proposed includes all three the most important effects coupling with rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of doubly-even core and p-n interaction mentioned above even treates them on the microscopic base. 36 refs

  4. Organizing awareness and increasing emotion regulation: revising chair work in emotion-focused therapy for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Alberta E; Greenberg, Leslie S

    2012-02-01

    Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) is an empirically supported treatment that may have potential as a stage-two treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Specific aspects of BPD--the tendency to experience fluctuating self-states; weakness in meta-cognitive or reflective functioning; and the tendency for self-states to be organized by presently occurring interpersonal processes--present challenges to applying some EFT interventions with this population. In particular, even within a highly attuned, validating and accepting empathic relationship, clients with BPD may have difficulty with the usual manualizations of chair work interventions. This is because these interventions often employ polarization and intensification of experience in order to activate adaptive alternate emotional resources and self organizations. For the client with borderline personality disorder, these interventions may be counter-productive, emotionally dysregulating and disorganizing. EFT chair work, however, also has the potential to provide structure to the borderline clients experience of self, to stimulate metacognitive awareness, provide an alive experience of the process of polarization, attenuate emotional activation, and increase the experience of self-coherence. This article describes the development of stepwise approximations of EFT two-chair intervention for self-critical splits. It outlines potential stages of two-chair work as well as intervention principles important for productive chair work with this population. The EFT change principles of awareness, expression regulation, reflection, transformation, and corrective experience still centrally apply. However, several additional strategies are discussed to scaffold clients' capacity to both experience and regulate emotion.

  5. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Signature inversion of the semi-decoupled band in the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Yang Chunxiang; Zhou Hongyu; Sun Huibin; Lu Jingbin; Zhao Guangyi; Yin Lichang; Liu Yunzuo

    2001-01-01

    The high-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 170 Ta have been studied by the 155 Gd( 19 F, 4n) 170 Ta reaction at the beam energy of 97 MeV. The α = 1 sequence of the semi-decoupled band has been pushed to higher-spin states and the signature inversion point was observed at 19.5 ℎ. the results are compared with those of the neighbouring odd-odd nuclei

  7. Personality styles in a non-clinical sample : The role of emotion dysregulation and impulsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, P.; Garofalo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of personality and personality disorders are increasingly considering the centrality of emotion regulation and its dimensions. Impulsivity as well is recognized as a personality trait underlying diverse symptom presentations. Although research in this field has mainly regarded borderline

  8. Reappraisal deficits promote craving and emotional distress among chronic pain patients at risk for prescription opioid misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Hanley, Adam W; Bedford, Carter E; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Howard, Matthew O; Nakamura, Yoshio; Donaldson, Gary W; Froeliger, Brett

    2018-06-04

    A subset of chronic pain patients misuse prescription opioids as a means of regulating negative emotions. However, opioid misuse may result in deficits in emotion regulation strategies like reappraisal by virtue of the deleterious effects of chronic opioid exposure. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in reappraisal use among chronic pain patients at risk for opioid misuse and those who report taking opioids as prescribed. A sample of 127 pain patients receiving chronic opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy were classified as at risk for opioid misuse (n = 62) or taking opioids as prescribed (n = 65) using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) characterized use of emotion regulation strategies including reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants also reported levels of opioid craving, emotional distress, and pain severity. Patients at risk for opioid misuse reported significantly less reappraisal use (M = 25.31, SD = 7.33) than those who reportedly took opioids as prescribed (M = 30.28, SD = 7.50), p<.001, but did differ with regard to suppression strategies. Reduced reappraisal use was associated with higher opioid craving and emotional distress that mediated the association between reappraisal deficits and opioid misuse risk. Further, there was a significant indirect effect of opioid misuse on emotional distress via reappraisal use. Opioid misuse risk was associated with reduced use of reappraisal, which in turn was associated with dysregulated negative emotions and increased appetitive drive towards consuming opioids. Studying individual differences in emotion regulation may yield efficacious intervention and prevention approaches to stem the rising tide of the prescription opioid crisis.

  9. Dialectical behavior therapy alters emotion regulation and amygdala activity in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; Carpenter, David; Tang, Cheuk Y; Goldstein, Kim E; Avedon, Jennifer; Fernandez, Nicolas; Mascitelli, Kathryn A; Blair, Nicholas J; New, Antonia S; Triebwasser, Joseph; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A

    2014-10-01

    Siever and Davis' (1991) psychobiological framework of borderline personality disorder (BPD) identifies affective instability (AI) as a core dimension characterized by prolonged and intense emotional reactivity. Recently, deficient amygdala habituation, defined as a change in response to repeated relative to novel unpleasant pictures within a session, has emerged as a biological correlate of AI in BPD. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an evidence-based treatment, targets AI by teaching emotion-regulation skills. This study tested the hypothesis that BPD patients would exhibit decreased amygdala activation and improved habituation, as well as improved emotion regulation with standard 12-month DBT. Event-related fMRI was obtained pre- and post-12-months of standard-DBT in unmedicated BPD patients. Healthy controls (HCs) were studied as a benchmark for normal amygdala activity and change over time (n = 11 per diagnostic-group). During each scan, participants viewed an intermixed series of unpleasant, neutral and pleasant pictures presented twice (novel, repeat). Change in emotion regulation was measured with the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation (DERS) scale. fMRI results showed the predicted Group × Time interaction: compared with HCs, BPD patients exhibited decreased amygdala activation with treatment. This post-treatment amygdala reduction in BPD was observed for all three pictures types, but particularly marked in the left hemisphere and during repeated-emotional pictures. Emotion regulation measured with the DERS significantly improved with DBT in BPD patients. Improved amygdala habituation to repeated-unpleasant pictures in patients was associated with improved overall emotional regulation measured by the DERS (total score and emotion regulation strategy use subscale). These findings have promising treatment implications and support the notion that DBT targets amygdala hyperactivity-part of the disturbed neural circuitry underlying emotional dysregulation

  10. Fostering parents' emotion regulation through a sibling-focused experimental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Niyantri; Engle, Jennifer M; McElwain, Nancy L; Kramer, Laurie

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we assessed whether an intervention designed to improve children's sibling relationships, the More Fun with Sisters and Brothers program (MFWSB), may also help parents manage their emotions more effectively. Families with at least 2 children between the ages of 4 and 8 years were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 50) or wait-list control (n = 34) group. Parents completed pre- and posttest questionnaires on sibling warmth and agonism, their emotion regulation during sibling conflict, and their global emotion regulation styles. Program participation had a direct effect on 3 of the 4 emotion regulation outcomes for mothers. Mothers in the intervention versus control group reported lower levels of dysregulation and suppression and higher levels of reappraisal at posttest, controlling for pretest regulation scores. Additionally, path models examining posttest responses showed that participation in MFWSB led to lower levels of maternal and paternal negative reactivity in the sibling context via lower levels of sibling agonism, controlling for pretest levels of negative reactivity. Alternate path models, with parents' emotion regulation as mechanisms linking MFWSB and sibling relationship quality, were tested but not supported. Results highlight the value of a sibling-focused intervention for promoting parents' abilities to regulate their emotions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The cost of empathy : Parent-adolescent conflict predicts emotion dysregulation for highly empathic youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lissa, C.J.; Hawk, S.T.; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, S.J.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    Empathy plays a key role in maintaining close relationships and promoting prosocial conflict resolution. However, research has not addressed the potential emotional cost of adolescents' high empathy, particularly when relationships are characterized by more frequent conflict. The present 6-year

  12. The association between concealing emotions at work and medical utilization in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Jung, Pil Kyun; Kim, Inah; Won, Jong-Uk; Roh, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between concealing emotions at work and medical utilization. Data from the 2007-2009 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) was used, 7,094 participants (3,837 males, 3,257 females) aged between 20 and 54 who were economically active and completed all necessary questionnaire items were included. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for differences in hospitalization, outpatient visits, and pharmaceutical drug use between those who concealed their emotions and those who did not were investigated using logistic regression models with and without gender stratification. Among those who concealed their emotions (n = 2,763), 47.4% were females, and 50.1% had chronic disease. In addition, 9.7% of the concealing emotions group had been hospitalized within the last year, 24.8% had been outpatients in the last two weeks, and 28.3% had used pharmaceutical drugs in the last two weeks. All ORs represent the odds of belonging to the concealing emotions group over the non-concealing emotions group. After adjustment for individual, occupational, socioeconomic and disease factors, the adjusted ORs (95% CI) in hospitalization are 1.29 (1.08 ~ 1.53) in the total population, 1.25 (0.98 ~ 1.60) in males and 1.30 (1.02 ~ 1.66) in females, in outpatient visits are 1.15 (1.02 ~ 1.29) in the total population, 1.05 (0.88 ~ 1.24) in males and 1.25 (1.06 ~ 1.47) in females and in pharmaceutical drug use are 1.12 (1.01 ~ 1.25) in the total population, 1.08 (0.92 ~ 1.27) in males and 1.14 (0.98 ~ 1.33) in females. Those who concealed their emotions at work were more likely to use medical services. Moreover, the health effects of concealing emotions at work might be more detrimental in women than in men.

  13. Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus 130Eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patial Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions. Results for the two probable ground states (1+ and 2+ of the proton emitter 130Eu are discussed. With our calculations, we confirm the proton emitting state to be the Iπ = 1+ state, irrespective of the strength of the Coriolis interaction. This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive.

  14. Emotional intensity reduces later generalized anxiety disorder symptoms when fear of anxiety and negative problem-solving appraisal are low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yoshinori; Sugiura, Tomoko

    2015-08-01

    While research based on the emotion dysregulation model indicates a positive relationship between intense emotions and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, emotion-focused intervention involves the use of techniques to enhance emotional experiences, based on the notion that GAD patients are engaging in avoidance strategies. To reveal the conditions under which intense emotions lead to reduced GAD symptoms, we designed a longitudinal study to monitor changes in GAD symptoms among students (N = 129) over 3 months. Our focus was on possible moderators of the effect of emotional intensity. Results indicated that when fear of emotions and negative appraisals about problem solving were low, negative emotional intensity reduced later GAD symptoms. Moreover, under the condition of high responsibility to continue thinking, emotional intensity tended to reduce later GAD symptoms. Results suggest that reduced fear of emotions and reduced negative appraisals about problem solving may enhance the use of emotional processing techniques (e.g., emotional exposure). The interaction between responsibility to continue thinking and emotional intensity requires further examination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. A systematic study of odd-odd Gallium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegro, P.R.P.; Medina, N.H.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Ribas, R.V.; Cybulska, E.W.; Seale, W.A.; Zagatto, V.A.B.; Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Silveira, M.A.G.; Tabor, S.; Bender, P.; Tripathi, V.; Baby, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Recently, many studies have been published attempting to explain the role of the 0g 9/2 orbital in the high spin excited states of nuclei in the region of the mass A=50-80, especially very neutron rich nuclei like, for example 59-66 Fe [1], 65,67 Cu [2], 70,80 Ge [3,4] nuclei and those with odd mass number like As, Ge and Ga [5]. Stefanescu et al. [6] demonstrated the presence of bands in the neutron-rich isotopes Ga formed from excitation of a proton to the 0g 9/2 orbital and Cheal et al. [7] revealed, from the study of the spins and moments of the ground state, changes in nuclear structure of the odd Ga isotopes between N = 40 and N 50, indicating a change in the energy gap between the 0g 9/2 orbital and the pf shell. In this work, we have performed a systematic study of odd-odd 64,66,68,70 Ga nuclei to examine the behavior of the 0g 9/2 orbital with an increasing number of neutrons. We have compared the predictions of the Large Scale Shell Model, obtained using the Antoine code [8] with the FPG [9] and JUN45 [10] effective interactions, with the experimental results obtained with in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments performed at University of Sao Paulo using SACI-PERERE spectrometer and at Florida State University using the Clover Array System. We have also performed calculations to study 67 Ge, an odd nucleus in the same mass region, in order to verify the behavior of the effective interactions in a nucleus without the proton-neutron interaction. [1] S. Lunardi. et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 034303 (2007). [2] C. J. Chiara et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 024309 (2012). [3] M. Sugawara et al., Phys. Rev. C 81, 024309 (2010). [4] H. Iwasaki.et al., Phys. Rev. C 78, 021304(R) (2008). [5] N. Yoshinaga et al. Phys. Rev. C 78, 044320 (2008). [6] I. Stefanescu et al., Phys. Rev. C 79, 064302 (2009). [7] B. Cheal et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 252502 (2010). [8] E. Caurier and F. Nowacki, Acta Phys. Polonica B 30, 705 (1999). [9] O. Sorlin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett

  16. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Dysregulation in cortical reactivity to emotional faces in PTSD patients with high dissociation symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Klimova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Predominant dissociation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by restricted affective responses to positive stimuli. To date, no studies have examined neural responses to a range of emotional expressions in PTSD with high dissociative symptoms. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that PTSD patients with high dissociative symptoms will display increased event-related potential (ERP amplitudes in early components (N1, P1 to threatening faces (angry, fearful, and reduced later ERP amplitudes (Vertex Positive Potential (VPP, P3 to happy faces compared to PTSD patients with low dissociative symptoms. Methods: Thirty-nine civilians with PTSD were classified as high dissociative (n=16 or low dissociative (n=23 according to their responses on the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale. ERPs were recorded, whilst participants viewed emotional (happy, angry, fear and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. Results: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed significantly increased N120 amplitude to the majority of facial expressions (neutral, happy, and angry compared to low dissociative PTSD patients under conscious and preconscious conditions. The high dissociative PTSD group had significantly reduced VPP amplitude to happy faces in the conscious condition. Conclusion: High dissociative PTSD patients displayed increased early (preconscious cortical responses to emotional stimuli, and specific reductions to happy facial expressions in later (conscious, face-specific components compared to low dissociative PTSD patients. Dissociation in PTSD may act to increase initial pre-attentive processing of affective stimuli, and specifically reduce cortical reactivity to happy faces when consciously processing these stimuli.

  18. Mosaic epigenetic dysregulation of ectodermal cells in autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther R Berko

    Full Text Available DNA mutational events are increasingly being identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, but the potential additional role of dysregulation of the epigenome in the pathogenesis of the condition remains unclear. The epigenome is of interest as a possible mediator of environmental effects during development, encoding a cellular memory reflected by altered function of progeny cells. Advanced maternal age (AMA is associated with an increased risk of having a child with ASD for reasons that are not understood. To explore whether AMA involves covert aneuploidy or epigenetic dysregulation leading to ASD in the offspring, we tested a homogeneous ectodermal cell type from 47 individuals with ASD compared with 48 typically developing (TD controls born to mothers of ≥35 years, using a quantitative genome-wide DNA methylation assay. We show that DNA methylation patterns are dysregulated in ectodermal cells in these individuals, having accounted for confounding effects due to subject age, sex and ancestral haplotype. We did not find mosaic aneuploidy or copy number variability to occur at differentially-methylated regions in these subjects. Of note, the loci with distinctive DNA methylation were found at genes expressed in the brain and encoding protein products significantly enriched for interactions with those produced by known ASD-causing genes, representing a perturbation by epigenomic dysregulation of the same networks compromised by DNA mutational mechanisms. The results indicate the presence of a mosaic subpopulation of epigenetically-dysregulated, ectodermally-derived cells in subjects with ASD. The epigenetic dysregulation observed in these ASD subjects born to older mothers may be associated with aging parental gametes, environmental influences during embryogenesis or could be the consequence of mutations of the chromatin regulatory genes increasingly implicated in ASD. The results indicate that epigenetic dysregulatory mechanisms may complement

  19. Influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, R.R.; Luo, X.D.; Timar, J.; Sohler, S.; Nyako, B.M.; Zolnai, L.; Paul, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Signature inversion in the A ∼ 100 region has been reported earlier only in the case of the odd-odd 98 Rh nucleus. Our studies on the 100-103 Rh isotopes and a close inspection of the known πg 9/2 νh 11/ 2 bands of the Rh (Z = 45) and Ag (Z = 47) isotopes revealed that the signature splitting effects, earlier considered as quenchings of signature splitting, are not only quenchings but signature inversions. Indeed, the energetically favored signature at low spins in these πg 9/2 νh 11/2 bands is the α = 1 branch (odd spins) instead of the expected α = 0 branch (even spins). The systematic occurrence of signature inversion in this mass region is discussed in Refs. together with attempts to understand its behavior qualitatively. Among many attempts for interpreting the mechanism of signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei, a model using an axially symmetric rotor plus two quasi-particles has already been successfully applied to describe the observed signature inversions in the A ∼ 80 and A ∼ 160 mass regions. According to this model the signature inversion is caused by the competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. Such calculations have been also successfully applied to the π g9/2 νh 11/2 bands in the odd-odd 98 Rh and 102 Rh nuclei. Recent observations of chiral band structures in the nearby Rh nuclei suggest a possibility of triaxiality in these nuclei, too. In the present work we examined the possible influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and compared the results with the experimental data of 98 Rh and 102 Rh. The calculations provided a better agreement with the experiment than the axially symmetric calculations. Compared to the axially symmetric case, the triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high-spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the

  20. The Cost of Empathy: Parent-Adolescent Conflict Predicts Emotion Dysregulation for Highly Empathic Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lissa, Caspar J.; Hawk, Skyler T.; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Empathy plays a key role in maintaining close relationships and promoting prosocial conflict resolution. However, research has not addressed the potential emotional cost of adolescents' high empathy, particularly when relationships are characterized by more frequent conflict. The present 6-year longitudinal study (N = 467) investigated whether…

  1. Acute stress induces hyperacusis in women with high levels of emotional exhaustion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hasson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE. METHODS: Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23-71 years. Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression, were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA. Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording. RESULTS: There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA. However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5-6.5 dB. Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. CONCLUSION: Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems.

  2. Acute stress induces hyperacusis in women with high levels of emotional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23-71 years). Multivariate analyses (ordered logistic regression), were used to calculate odds ratios, including interacting or confounding effects of age, gender, ear wax and hearing loss (PTA). Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess possible differences in mean ULLs between EE groups pre- and post-acute stress task (a combination of cold pressor, emotional Stroop and Social stress/video recording). There were no baseline differences in mean ULLs between the three EE groups (one-way ANOVA). However, after the acute stress exposure there were significant differences in ULL means between the EE-groups in women. Post-hoc analyses showed that the differences in mean ULLs were between those with high vs. low EE (range 5.5-6.5 dB). Similar results were found for frequencies 0.5 and 1 kHz. The results demonstrate that women with high EE-levels display hyperacusis after an acute stress task. The odds of having hyperacusis were 2.5 (2 kHz, right ear; left ns) and 2.2 (4 kHz, right ear; left ns) times higher among those with high EE compared to those with low levels. All these results are adjusted for age, hearing loss and ear wax. Women with high levels of emotional exhaustion become more sensitive to sound after an acute stress task. This novel finding highlights the importance of including emotional exhaustion in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing problems.

  3. Bursts of Self-Conscious Emotions in the Daily Lives of Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Ram, Nilam; Pincus, Aaron L; Rebar, Amanda L

    Self-conscious emotions play a role in regulating daily achievement strivings, social behavior, and health, but little is known about the processes underlying their daily manifestation. Emerging adults (n = 182) completed daily diaries for eight days and multilevel models were estimated to evaluate whether, how much, and why their emotions varied from day-to-day. Within-person variation in authentic pride was normally-distributed across people and days whereas the other emotions were burst-like and characterized by zero-inflated, negative binomial distributions. Perceiving social interactions as generally communal increased the odds of hubristic pride activation and reduced the odds of guilt activation; daily communal behavior reduced guilt intensity. Results illuminated processes through which meaning about the self-in-relation-to-others is constructed during a critical period of development.

  4. Appetitive motivation and negative emotion reactivity among remitted depressed youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L; Wetter, Emily K; Flory, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9-15; remitted depressed, n = 34; externalizing disordered without depression, n = 30; and healthy controls, n = 34) participated in a novel reward striving task designed to activate the appetitive/approach motivation system. Objective facial expressions of emotion were videotaped and coded throughout both failure (i.e., nonreward) and control (success and reward) conditions. Observational coding of facial expressions as well as youths' subjective emotion reports showed that the remitted depressed youth specifically exhibited more negative emotional reactivity to failure in the reward striving task, but not the control condition. Neither externalizing disordered (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder) nor control youth displayed greater negative emotional reactivity in either the failure or control condition. Findings suggest that depression among youth is related to dysregulated appetitive motivation and associated negative emotional reactivity after failing to achieve an important, self-relevant goal and not attaining reward. These deficits in reward processing appear to be specific to depression as externalizing disordered youth did not display negative emotional reactivity to failure after their appetitive motivation system was activated.

  5. Emotion modulation of the startle reflex in essential tremor: Blunted reactivity to unpleasant and pleasant pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafo, Jacob A; Mikos, Ania; Mangal, Paul C; Scott, Bonnie M; Trifilio, Erin; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Essential tremor is a highly prevalent movement disorder characterized by kinetic tremor and mild cognitive-executive changes. These features are commonly attributed to abnormal cerebellar changes, resulting in disruption of cerebellar-thalamo-cortical networks. Less attention has been paid to alterations in basic emotion processing in essential tremor, despite known cerebellar-limbic interconnectivity. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a psychophysiologic index of emotional reactivity, the emotion modulated startle reflex, would be muted in individuals with essential tremor relative to controls. Participants included 19 essential tremor patients and 18 controls, who viewed standard sets of unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral pictures for six seconds each. During picture viewing, white noise bursts were binaurally presented to elicit startle eyeblinks measured over the orbicularis oculi. Consistent with past literature, controls' startle eyeblink responses were modulated according to picture valence (unpleasant > neutral > pleasant). In essential tremor participants, startle eyeblinks were not modulated by emotion. This modulation failure was not due to medication effects, nor was it due to abnormal appraisal of emotional picture content. Neuroanatomically, it remains unclear whether diminished startle modulation in essential tremor is secondary to aberrant cerebellar input to the amygdala, which is involved in priming the startle response in emotional contexts, or due to more direct disruption between the cerebellum and brainstem startle circuitry. If the former is correct, these findings may be the first to reveal dysregulation of emotional networks in essential tremor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dysregulation of angiopoietins is associated with placental malaria and low birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlee L Silver

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental malaria (PM is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including low birth weight (LBW. However, the precise mechanisms by which PM induces LBW are poorly defined. Based on the essential role of angiopoietin (ANG-1 and -2 in normal placental vascular development, we hypothesized that PM may result in the dysregulation of angiopoietins and thereby contribute to LBW outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a mouse model of PM, we show that Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection of pregnant mice resulted in dysregulated angiopoietin levels and fetal growth restriction. PM lead to decreased ANG-1, increased ANG-2, and an elevated ratio of ANG-2/ANG-1 in the placenta and the serum. These observations were extended to malaria-exposed pregnant women: In a study of primigravid women prospectively followed over the course of pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum infection was associated with a decrease in maternal plasma ANG-1 levels (P = 0.031 and an increase in the ANG-2:ANG-1 ratio (P = 0.048. ANG-1 levels recovered with successful treatment of peripheral parasitemia (P = 0.010. In a cross-sectional study of primigravidae at delivery, angiopoietin dysregulation was associated with PM (P = 0.002 and LBW (P = 0.041. Women with PM who delivered LBW infants had increased ANG-2:ANG-1 ratios (P = 0.002 compared to uninfected women delivering normal birth weight infants. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that dysregulation of angiopoietins is associated with PM and LBW outcomes, and suggest that ANG-1 and ANG-2 levels may be clinically informative biomarkers to identify P. falciparum-infected mothers at risk of LBW deliveries.

  7. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early

  8. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for

  9. Dysregulated behaviors in bulimia nervosa: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara Freire Brito César; Martins, C.; Brandão, Isabel; Torres, António Roma; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) is often related to self-control difficulties and to dysregulated behaviours. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of self-injurious behaviour, suicide attempts, and other dysregulated behaviours in BN, using two control groups (a healthy group and a general psychiatric group), and also to examine the association between these behaviours and alleged sexual abuse in BN.Method: Women (N = 233) aged between 13 and 38 years old were evaluated using a semi-st...

  10. Opposing effects of perceptual versus working memory load on emotional distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Tamara P; Logie, Kyle; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2016-10-01

    Throughout our day-to-day activities, we are subjected to numerous stimuli that compete for our attention; consequently, we must prioritize stimuli for further processing and influence over behaviour. Previous research has demonstrated that the extent to which task-irrelevant distractors are processed is mediated by the nature of the cognitive task, and the level of processing load. Importantly though, the interaction between cognitive task, processing load, and emotional distractor processing remains unclear. This is a particularly important question given the unique ways that emotion interacts with attention, and the fact that some other forms of processing load have been shown to reduce emotional distractor encoding. In the present study, participants were presented with emotional distractors during a perceptual and working memory task, under varying levels of load. In Experiment 1, we showed that the impact of emotional distractors on behaviour was reduced under conditions of high relative to low perceptual load. However, in sharp contrast, high working memory load was associated with increased emotional distraction. Importantly, these results were replicated in Experiment 2. Overall, the impact of processing load on emotional distraction varies according to the cognitive function being performed. These results raise the intriguing possibility that working memory operations deplete some of the cognitive resources needed to control the impact of emotion on behaviour. The findings, therefore, may have important implications for clinical populations featuring cognitive dysfunction and emotional dysregulation.

  11. Dysregulated pH in Tumor Microenvironment Checkmates Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dysregulation of pH by cancerous cells of solid tumors is able to create a unique milieu that is in favor of progression, invasion and metastasis as well as chemo-/immuno-resistance traits of solid tumors. Bioelements involved in pH dysregulation provide new set of oncotargets, inhibition of which may result in better clinical outcome. Methods: To study the impacts of pH dysregulation, we investigated the tumor development and progression in relation with Warburg effect, glycolysis and formation of aberrant tumor microenvironment. Results: The upregulation of glucose transporter GLUT-1 and several enzymes involve in glycolysis exacerbates this phenomenon. The accumulation of lactic acids in cancer cells provokes upregulation of several transport machineries (MCT-1, NHE-1, CA IX and H+ pump V-ATPase resulting in reinforced efflux of proton into extracellular fluid. This deviant event makes pH to be settled at 7.4 and 6.6 respectively in cancer cells cytoplasm and extracellular fluid within the tumor microenvironment, which in return triggers secretion of lysosomal components (various enzymes in acidic milieu with pH 5 into cytoplasm. All these anomalous phenomena make tumor microenvironment (TME to be exposed to cocktail of various enzymes with acidic pH, upon which extracellular matrix (ECM can be remodeled and even deformed, resulting in emergence of a complex viscose TME with high interstitial fluid pressure. Conclusion: It seems that pH dysregulation is able to remodel various physiologic functions and make solid tumors to become much more invasive and metastatic. It also can cause undesired resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Hence, cancer therapy needs to be reinforced using specific inhibitors of bioelements involved in pH dysregulation of TME in solid tumors.

  12. The Betting Odds Rating System: Using soccer forecasts to forecast soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Fabian; Memmert, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Betting odds are frequently found to outperform mathematical models in sports related forecasting tasks, however the factors contributing to betting odds are not fully traceable and in contrast to rating-based forecasts no straightforward measure of team-specific quality is deducible from the betting odds. The present study investigates the approach of combining the methods of mathematical models and the information included in betting odds. A soccer forecasting model based on the well-known ELO rating system and taking advantage of betting odds as a source of information is presented. Data from almost 15.000 soccer matches (seasons 2007/2008 until 2016/2017) are used, including both domestic matches (English Premier League, German Bundesliga, Spanish Primera Division and Italian Serie A) and international matches (UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europe League). The novel betting odds based ELO model is shown to outperform classic ELO models, thus demonstrating that betting odds prior to a match contain more relevant information than the result of the match itself. It is shown how the novel model can help to gain valuable insights into the quality of soccer teams and its development over time, thus having a practical benefit in performance analysis. Moreover, it is argued that network based approaches might help in further improving rating and forecasting methods.

  13. Expressed Emotion, Shame, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Jessica; Martin, Graham

    2018-04-30

    A cross-sectional study examining relationships between perceived family Expressed Emotion and shame, emotional involvement, depression, anxiety, stress and non-suicidal self-injury, in 264 community and online adults (21.6% male). We compared self-injurers with non-self-injurers, and current with past self-injurers. Self-injurers experienced more family Expressed Emotion (EE) than non-injurers ( t (254) = −3.24, p = 0.001), linear contrasts explaining 6% of between-groups variability ( F (2, 254) = 7.36, p = 0.001, η² = 0.06). Differences in EE between current and past self-injurers were not significant. Overall shame accounted for 33% of between-groups variance ( F (2, 252) = 61.99, p < 0.001, η² = 0.33), with linear contrasts indicating self-injurers experienced higher levels compared to non-injurers ( t (252) = −8.23, p < 0.001). Current self-injurers reported higher overall shame than past self-injurers ( t (252) = 6.78, p < 0.001). In further logistic regression, emotional involvement and overall shame were the only significant predictors of self-injury status. With every one-unit increase in emotional involvement, odds of currently engaging in self-injury decreased by a factor of 0.860. Conversely, a one-unit increase in overall shame was associated with an increase in the odds of being a current self-injurer by a factor of 1.05. The findings have important treatment implications for engaging key family members in intervention and prevention efforts.

  14. Expressed Emotion, Shame, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study examining relationships between perceived family Expressed Emotion and shame, emotional involvement, depression, anxiety, stress and non-suicidal self-injury, in 264 community and online adults (21.6% male. We compared self-injurers with non-self-injurers, and current with past self-injurers. Self-injurers experienced more family Expressed Emotion (EE than non-injurers (t(254 = −3.24, p = 0.001, linear contrasts explaining 6% of between-groups variability (F(2, 254 = 7.36, p = 0.001, η2 = 0.06. Differences in EE between current and past self-injurers were not significant. Overall shame accounted for 33% of between-groups variance (F(2, 252 = 61.99, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.33, with linear contrasts indicating self-injurers experienced higher levels compared to non-injurers (t(252 = −8.23, p < 0.001. Current self-injurers reported higher overall shame than past self-injurers (t(252 = 6.78, p < 0.001. In further logistic regression, emotional involvement and overall shame were the only significant predictors of self-injury status. With every one-unit increase in emotional involvement, odds of currently engaging in self-injury decreased by a factor of 0.860. Conversely, a one-unit increase in overall shame was associated with an increase in the odds of being a current self-injurer by a factor of 1.05. The findings have important treatment implications for engaging key family members in intervention and prevention efforts.

  15. Dynamics of neuronal circuits in addiction: reward, antireward, and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, G F

    2009-05-01

    Drug addiction is conceptualized as chronic, relapsing compulsive use of drugs with significant dysregulation of brain hedonic systems. Compulsive drug use is accompanied by decreased function of brain substrates for drug positive reinforcement and recruitment of brain substrates mediating the negative reinforcement of motivational withdrawal. The neural substrates for motivational withdrawal ("dark side" of addiction) involve recruitment of elements of the extended amygdala and the brain stress systems, including corticotropin-releasing factor and norepinephrine. These changes, combined with decreased reward function, are hypothesized to persist in the form of an allostatic state that forms a powerful motivational background for relapse. Relapse also involves a key role for the basolateral amygdala in mediating the motivational effects of stimuli previously paired with drug seeking and drug motivational withdrawal. The basolateral amygdala has a key role in mediating emotional memories in general. The hypothesis argued here is that brain stress systems activated by the motivational consequences of drug withdrawal can not only form the basis for negative reinforcement that drives drug seeking, but also potentiate associative mechanisms that perpetuate the emotional state and help drive the allostatic state of addiction.

  16. Emotions as pragmatic and epistemic actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilutzky, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that emotions in social contexts and their intentionality may be conceived of as pragmatic or epistemic actions. That is, emotions are often aimed at achieving certain goals within a social context, so that they resemble pragmatic actions; and in other cases emotions can be plausibly construed as acts of probing the social environment so as to extract or uncover important information, thus complying with the functions of epistemic actions (cf. Kirsh and Maglio, 1994). This view of emotions stands at odds with the wide-held conception that emotions' intentionality can be cashed out in terms of representations of value. On such a position, emotions' intentionality has only a mind-to-world direction of fit while any world-to-mind direction of fit is deemed secondary or is even outrightly denied. However, acknowledging that emotions (qua actions) also have a world-to-mind direction fit has several advantages over the typical rendition of emotions as representations of value, such as accounting for emotions' sensitivity to contextual factors, variations in emotion expression and, importantly, assessing the appropriateness of emotional reactions. To substantiate this claim, several cases of emotions in social contexts are discussed, as the social dimension of emotions highlights that emotions are inherently ways of interacting with one's social environment. In sum, the construal of emotions in social contexts as pragmatic or epistemic actions yields a more fine-grained and accurate understanding of emotions' intentionality and their roles in social contexts than the insistence on a purely mind-to-world direction of fit. PMID:26578999

  17. Bipolar disorder: a neural network perspective on a disorder of emotion and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessa, Michèle; Kanske, Philipp; Linke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, chronic disease with a heritability of 60-80%. BD is frequently misdiagnosed due to phenomenological overlap with other psychopathologies, an important issue that calls for the identification of biological and psychological vulnerability and disease markers. Altered structural and functional connectivity, mainly between limbic and prefrontal brain areas, have been proposed to underlie emotional and motivational dysregulation in BD and might represent relevant vulnerability and disease markers. In the present laboratory review we discuss functional and structural neuroimaging findings on emotional and motivational dysregulation from our research group in BD patients and healthy individuals at risk to develop BD. As a main result of our studies, we observed altered orbitofrontal and limbic activity and reduced connectivity between dorsal prefrontal and limbic brain regions, as well as reduced integrity of fiber tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical brain structures in BD patients and high-risk individuals. Our results provide novel insights into pathophysiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder. The current laboratory review provides a specific view of our group on altered brain connectivity and underlying psychological processes in bipolar disorder based on our own work, integrating relevant findings from others. Thereby we attempt to advance neuropsychobiological models of BD.

  18. Differences in emotion processing in patients with essential and secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Silla M; Lemogne, Cédric; Roch, Bernard; Laurent, Stéphane; Plouin, Pierre-François; Lane, Richard D

    2010-05-01

    An impaired ability to experience and express emotions, known as alexithymia, has previously been associated with hypertension. Alexithymia and related emotion-processing variables, however, have never been examined as a function of the type of hypertension, essential (EH) or secondary (SH). Our working hypothesis was that if dysregulated emotional processes play a key neurobiological role in EH, they would be less present in hypertension due to specific medical causes or SH. A total of 98 consecutive hypertensive patients (73 EH, 25 SH) with similar blood pressure levels completed two complementary measures of emotion processing: the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). After controlling for confounding variables, LEAS score was lower in EH than SH (estimated means: 46.4 vs. 52.0; P = 0.028; effect size 0.52). TAS-20 scores did not differentiate EH from SH, but the differences were in the expected direction, with an effect size of 0.34 for TAS-20 total score. Neither psychometric measure was associated with the duration of hypertension or the presence of cardiovascular (CV) complications. These results are consistent with a contribution of an emotional or psychosomatic component in EH and may have practical implications for the nonpharmacological management of hypertension. They also demonstrate the utility of complementary measures of emotion processing in medically ill patients.

  19. First observation of yrast band in odd-odd 162Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.H.; Yuan, G.J.; Liu, X.A.

    1996-01-01

    High spin states of the odd-odd 162 Lu nucleus have been studied via 147 Sm( 19 F, 4nγ) 162 Lu reaction at 95MeV beam energy. Level scheme for yrast band based on π[h 11/2 ] υ[i 13/2 ] quasiparticle configuration was established up to I π =(23 - ) for the first time. This band shows the signature inversion in energy before backbending generally appeared in this mass region. It is stressed that the signature splitting in 162 Lu is larger than that in the 160 Tm nucleus. (orig.)

  20. Odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubov, A A [Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tanaka, Y [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Asano, Y [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Tanuma, Y [Institute of Physics, Kanagawa University, 3-7-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan)], E-mail: a.golubov@utwente.nl

    2009-04-22

    We review the theory of odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures, where an odd-frequency pairing component is induced near interfaces. A general description of the superconducting proximity effect in a normal metal or a ferromagnet attached to an unconventional superconductor (S) is given within quasiclassical kinetic theory for various types of symmetry state in S. Various possible symmetry classes in a superconductor are considered which are consistent with the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity (ESE) state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity (ETO) state, odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity (OTE) state and odd-frequency spin-singlet odd-parity (OSO) state. As an example, we consider a junction between a diffusive normal metal (DN) and a p-wave superconductor (even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity symmetry), where the pairing amplitude in DN belongs to an odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity symmetry class. We also discuss the manifestation of odd-frequency pairing in conventional superconductor/normal (S/N) proximity systems and its relation to the classical McMillan-Rowell oscillations.

  1. Predictors of treatment response to an adjunctive emotion regulation group therapy for deliberate self-harm among women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Tull, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence for the efficacy of several treatments for deliberate self-harm (DSH) within borderline personality disorder (BPD), predictors of response to these treatments remain unknown. This study examined baseline demographic, clinical, and diagnostic predictors of treatment response to an adjunctive emotion regulation group therapy (ERGT) for DSH among women with BPD. A recent RCT provided evidence for the efficacy of this ERGT (relative to a treatment-as-usual only waitlist condition). Participants in this study include the full intent-to-treat sample who began ERGT (across treatment and waitlist conditions; n = 51). Baseline diagnostic and clinical data were collected at the initial assessment, and outcome measures of DSH and self-destructive behaviors, emotion dysregulation/avoidance, and BPD symptoms (among others) were administered at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3- and 9-months posttreatment. Notably, both demographic variables and characteristics of participants' ongoing therapy in the community had minimal impact on treatment response. However, several indicators of greater severity in domains relevant to this ERGT (i.e., baseline emotion dysregulation and BPD criteria, lifetime and recent DSH, and past-year hospitalization and suicide attempts) predicted better responses during treatment and follow-up across the primary targets of treatment. Likewise, several co-occurring disorders (i.e., social phobia, panic disorder, and a cluster B personality disorder) predicted greater improvements in BPD symptoms during treatment or follow-up. Finally, although co-occurring generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and cluster A and C personality disorders were associated with poorer treatment response during follow-up, most of these effects reflected a lack of continued improvements during this period (vs. worsening of symptoms).

  2. Functional Dysregulation of CDC42 Causes Diverse Developmental Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Simone; Krumbach, Oliver H F; Pantaleoni, Francesca; Coppola, Simona; Amin, Ehsan; Pannone, Luca; Nouri, Kazem; Farina, Luciapia; Dvorsky, Radovan; Lepri, Francesca; Buchholzer, Marcel; Konopatzki, Raphael; Walsh, Laurence; Payne, Katelyn; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Vergano, Samantha Schrier; Langley, Katherine G; Larsen, Douglas; Farwell, Kelly D; Tang, Sha; Mroske, Cameron; Gallotta, Ivan; Di Schiavi, Elia; Della Monica, Matteo; Lugli, Licia; Rossi, Cesare; Seri, Marco; Cocchi, Guido; Henderson, Lindsay; Baskin, Berivan; Alders, Mariëlle; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dupuis, Lucie; Nickerson, Deborah A; Chong, Jessica X; Meeks, Naomi; Brown, Kathleen; Causey, Tahnee; Cho, Megan T; Demuth, Stephanie; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Gelb, Bruce D; Bamshad, Michael J; Zenker, Martin; Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza; Hennekam, Raoul C; Tartaglia, Marco; Mirzaa, Ghayda M

    2018-01-17

    Exome sequencing has markedly enhanced the discovery of genes implicated in Mendelian disorders, particularly for individuals in whom a known clinical entity could not be assigned. This has led to the recognition that phenotypic heterogeneity resulting from allelic mutations occurs more commonly than previously appreciated. Here, we report that missense variants in CDC42, a gene encoding a small GTPase functioning as an intracellular signaling node, underlie a clinically heterogeneous group of phenotypes characterized by variable growth dysregulation, facial dysmorphism, and neurodevelopmental, immunological, and hematological anomalies, including a phenotype resembling Noonan syndrome, a developmental disorder caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. In silico, in vitro, and in vivo analyses demonstrate that mutations variably perturb CDC42 function by altering the switch between the active and inactive states of the GTPase and/or affecting CDC42 interaction with effectors, and differentially disturb cellular and developmental processes. These findings reveal the remarkably variable impact that dominantly acting CDC42 mutations have on cell function and development, creating challenges in syndrome definition, and exemplify the importance of functional profiling for syndrome recognition and delineation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Amygdala hypersensitivity in response to emotional faces in Tourette's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Irene; Kellermann, Thilo; Stöcker, Tony; Kircher, Tilo; Habel, Ute; Shah, Jon N; Schneider, Frank

    2010-10-01

    Tourette's syndrome is characterised by motor and vocal tics as well as a high level of impulsivity and emotional dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies point to structural changes of the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex and parts of the limbic system. However, there is no link between behavioural symptoms and the structural changes in the amygdala. One aspect of daily social interaction is the perception of emotional facial expressions, closely linked to amgydala function. We therefore investigated via fMRI the implicit discrimination of six emotional facial expressions in 19 adult Tourette's patients. In comparison to healthy control group, Tourette's patients showed significantly higher amygdala activation, especially pronounced for fearful, angry and neutral expressions. The BOLD-activity of the left amygdala correlated negatively with the personality trait extraversion. We will discuss these findings as a result of either deficient frontal inhibition due to structural changes or a desynchronization in the interaction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical network within structures of the limbic system. Our data show an altered pattern of implicit emotion discrimination and emphasize the need to consider motor and non-motor symptoms in Tourette's syndrome in the choice of both behavioural and pharmacological treatment.

  4. High-Spin States in Odd-Odd N=Z {sup 46}V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, C.D.; Bentley, M.A.; Appelbe, D.E.; Bark, R.A.; Cullen, D.M.; Erturk, S.; Maj. A.; Sheikh, J.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1999-12-31

    High-spin states up to the F{sub 7/2}-shell band termination at J{pi}=15+ have been observed for the first time in the odd-odd N=Z=23 nucleous {sup 46}V. The new level scheme has two separate structures corresponding to spherical and prolate shapes. A rotational band has very similar energies to the yrast sequence in {sup 46}Ti and is therefore assumed to be a T=1 configuration.

  5. The specificity and the development of social-emotional competence in a multi-ethnic-classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Herold, Ulf; Joraschky, Peter; von Wyl, Agnes; Cierpka, Manfred

    2009-05-28

    Ethnic diversity in schools increases due to globalization. Thus, the children's social-emotional competence development must be considered in the context of a multi-ethnic classroom. In this study, the social-emotional competence of 65 Asian-American and Latin-American children was observed at the beginning and the end of their kindergarten year. Initially, significant differences existed among these ethnic groups in respect to moral reasoning. Furthermore, the male children showed more dysregulated aggression but the female children implemented more moral reasoning than their male counterparts. These ethnic specificities did not disappear over the course of the year. In addition, a significant change in avoidance strategies as well as expressed emotions in the narrative took place over the course of one year. Ethnic specificity in social-emotional competence does exist independent of gender at the beginning as well as at the end of the kindergarten year in a multi-ethnic kindergarten classroom.

  6. Revisiting the even-odd staggering in fission-fragment yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caamano, M.; Rejmund, F.; Schmidt, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    The even-odd staggering observed in the experimental fission-fragment nuclear-charge yields is investigated over a wide systematics of fission fragments measured at Lohengrin in direct kinematics and at GSI in inverse kinematics. The general increase of the even-odd staggering in the fission-fragment charge yields towards asymmetric charge splits is explained by the absorption of the unpaired nucleons by the heavy fragment. As a consequence, the well established trend of even-odd staggering in the fission fragment charge yields to decrease with the fissility is attributed in part to the asymmetry evolution of the charge distribution. This interpretation is strongly supported by the data measured at GSI, which cover the complete charge distribution and include precise yields at symmetry. They reveal that the even-odd effect around symmetry remains constant over a large range of fissility. (authors)

  7. Processing and regulation of negative emotions in anorexia nervosa: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Seidel

    Full Text Available Theoretical models and recent advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN have increasingly focused on the role of alterations in the processing and regulation of emotions. To date, however, our understanding of these changes is still limited and reports of emotional dysregulation in AN have been based largely on self-report data, and there is a relative lack of objective experimental evidence or neurobiological data.The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study investigated the hemodynamic correlates of passive viewing and voluntary downregulation of negative emotions by means of the reappraisal strategy detachment in AN patients. Detachment is regarded as adaptive regulation strategy associated with a reduction in emotion-related amygdala activity and increased recruitment of prefrontal brain regions associated with cognitive control processes. Emotion regulation efficacy was assessed via behavioral arousal ratings and fMRI activation elicited by an established experimental paradigm including negative images. Participants were instructed to either simply view emotional pictures or detach themselves from feelings triggered by the stimuli.The sample consisted of 36 predominantly adolescent female AN patients and a pairwise age-matched healthy control group. Behavioral and neuroimaging data analyses indicated a reduction of arousal and amygdala activity during the regulation condition for both patients and controls. However, compared with controls, individuals with AN showed increased activation in the amygdala as well as in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC during the passive viewing of aversive compared with neutral pictures.These results extend previous findings indicative of altered processing of salient emotional stimuli in AN, but do not point to a general deficit in the voluntary regulation of negative emotions. Increased dlPFC activation in AN during passive viewing of negative stimuli is in line with

  8. High-spin states in odd-odd 106,108,110,112Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiades, N.; Cizewski, J.A.; Kruecken, R.; McNabb, D.P.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Younes, W.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.

    2003-01-01

    The level structures of 106,108,110,112 Rh have been studied in the fission of the compound system formed in three different heavy-ion induced reactions. Sequences of five transitions, together with weak crossover transitions, have been assigned to each isotope based on coincidences with known transitions in the complementary fragments. Comparison with the lighter odd-odd Rh isotopes supports assignment of these sequences as the yrast bands built on the πg 9/2 xνh 11/2 configuration

  9. Long working hours and emotional well-being in korean manufacturing industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ki; Kang, Dong-Mug; Yun, Myeong-Ja; Park, Shin-Goo; Song, Jae-Seok; Lee, Sang-Gil

    2013-12-05

    Korea is well known for its long work hours amongst employees. Because workers of the manufacturing industry are constantly exposed to extended work hours, this study was based on how long work hours affect their emotional well-being. The analysis was done using the secondary Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS). Long work hours were defined to be more than 48 hours, and they were subcategorized into units of 52 hours and 60 hours. Based on the WHO (five) well-being index, emotional state was subdivided into three groups - reference group, low-mood group, and possible depression group- where 28 points and 50 points were division points, and two groups were compared at a time. Association between long work hours and emotional state was analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Working for extended working hours in the manufacturing industry showed a statistically significant increase (t test p work-related characteristics were fixed as controlled variables, as work hours increased the odds ratio of the possible depression group increased compared to the reference group, and especially the odds ratio was 2.73 times increased for work hours between 48-52 and 4.09 times increased for 60 hours or more and both were statistically significant. In comparing the low-mood group and possible depression group, as work hours increased the odds ratio increased to 1.73, 2.39, and 4.16 times, and all work hours from working 48-52 hours, 53-60 hours, and 60 hours or more were statistically significant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis also showed that among the reference group and possible group, the possible depression group was statistically significant as odds ratio increased to 2.94 times in working 53-60 hours, and 4.35 times in 60 hours or more. Long work hours have an adverse effect on emotional well-being. A more diversified research towards variables that affect long work hours and emotional well-being and how they interact with each

  10. Effective neutron-proton interaction in rare earth odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, Jean-Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The effective neutron-proton interaction V(np) in the rare earth odd-odd deformed nuclei is studied. The parameters of the effective interaction are determined from least square fits of calculated matrix elements compared to the ones extracted from experiment. These fits show the existence of a long range repulsive component as well the importance of the even term of the tensor part of V(np). Some informations are obtained concerning the influence of the choice of the sample of experimental data, of the average field and finally, of the radial shape of the effective interaction. Some predictions are made concerning as yet unconfirmed V(np) matrix elements [fr

  11. Aetiological pathways to Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in early adolescence: childhood dysregulated behaviour, maladaptive parenting and bully victimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Hall, James; Strauss, Vicky Y; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories for the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that both individual features (e.g., childhood dysregulated behaviour) and negative environmental experiences (e.g., maladaptive parenting, peer victimisation) may lead to the development of BPD symptoms during adolescence. Few prospective studies have examined potential aetiological pathways involving these two factors. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We assessed mother-reported childhood dysregulated behaviour at 4, 7 and 8 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); maladaptive parenting (maternal hitting, punishment, and hostility) at 8 to 9 years; and bully victimisation (child and mother report) at 8, 9 and 10 years. BPD symptoms were assessed at 11 years using the UK Childhood Interview for DSM-IV BPD. Control variables included adolescent depression (assessed with the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-SMFQ) and psychotic symptoms (assessed with the Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview-PLIKS) at 11 to 14 years, and mother's exposure to family adversity during pregnancy (assessed with the Family Adversity Scale-FAI). In unadjusted logistic regression analyses, childhood dysregulated behaviour and all environmental risk factors (i.e., family adversity, maladaptive parenting, and bully victimisation) were significantly associated with BPD symptoms at 11 years. Within structural equation modelling controlling for all associations simultaneously, family adversity and male sex significantly predicted dysregulated behaviour across childhood, while bully victimisation significantly predicted BPD, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Children displaying dysregulated behaviour across childhood were significantly more likely to experience maladaptive parenting (β = 0.075, p  bullying (β = 0.097, p  < 0.001). While significant indirect associations

  12. Emotional eating and temperamental traits in Eating Disorders: A dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Francesco; Mannucci, Edoardo; Gemignani, Sara; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Fioravanti, Giulia; Ricca, Valdo

    2018-03-23

    Growing evidence shows that temperamental features and emotional dysregulation are linked to Eating Disorders (EDs). Aim of this study was to explore the possible relationship between temperament and emotional eating (EE) from a dimensional standpoint, and the association of specific temperamental dimensions with overeating triggered by specific emotions. We enrolled 253 women with Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder. Of those, 189 (74.7%), 73 (28.8%), and 80 (31.6%) reported binge eating, purging, or restrictive behaviors, respectively (the categories are not mutually exclusive). Participants completed the Emotional Eating Scale (EES), the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Higher Persistence scores were found in the Restriction group, while the Binge group reported lower Persistence and higher Novelty Seeking scores. The Purge group showed lower Reward Dependence, Self Directedness and Cooperativeness scores. Patients with Purge also reported lower BMI and higher scores on EDE-Q restriction and eating concern subscales as well as higher scores for all SCL 90-R subscales. Patterns of association between temperamental traits and specific emotions were found in each group. Therefore, some temperamental features could be considered predictors of specific associations between emotions and the tendency to eat. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. LOFT advanced control room operator diagnostic and display system (ODDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.G.; Robb, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor Facility in Idaho includes a highly instrumented nuclear reactor operated by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing nuclear safety requirements. The results of the development and installation into LOFT of an Operator Diagnostic and Display System (ODDS) are presented. The ODDS is a computer-based graphics display system centered around a PRIME 550 computer with several RAMTEK color graphic display units located within the control room and available to the reactor operators. Use of computer-based color graphics to aid the reactor operator is discussed. A detailed hardware description of the LOFT data system and the ODDS is presented. Methods and problems of backfitting the ODDS equipment into the LOFT plant are discussed

  14. Always on guard: emotion regulation in women with borderline personality disorder compared to nonpatient controls and patients with cluster-C personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zutphen, Linda; Siep, Nicolette; Jacob, Gitta A.; Domes, Gregor; Sprenger, Andreas; Willenborg, Bastian; Goebel, Rainer; Arntz, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotion dysregulation; however, it is unclear whether this is restricted to negative emotional stimuli or to what degree this is specific to BPD. We investigated neural correlates of hypothesized increased emotional sensitivity and impaired emotion regulation in patients with BPD. Methods During functional MRI (fMRI) scanning, patients with BPD, non-patient controls and patients with cluster-C personality disorder completed an emotion regulation task, including negative, positive and erotic social pictures. Results We included 55 patients with BPD, 42 nonpatient controls and 24 patients with cluster-C personality disorder in our analyses. Passive viewing of negative stimuli resulted in greater activity in the anterior insula, temporoparietal junction and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with BPD than in nonpatient controls. The increased activity in the anterior insula and temporoparietal junction was also present when patients with BPD viewed positive stimuli. During regulation of negative stimuli compared with passive viewing, nonpatient controls showed greater activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. Patients with BPD did not show this increase in activity. Limitations Findings cannot be generalized to men, and patients represented a heterogeneous group regarding comorbid diagnoses and medication. Conclusion When looking at emotional stimuli, patients with BPD showed a unique pattern of activity, suggesting an increase in brain activity involved in emotion generation. In the case of negative stimuli this is accompanied by increased activity in regulation areas. In contrast, increase of regulation processes seems absent when patients with BPD are explicitly instructed to regulate. Results of diagnosis specificity support a dimensional rather than a dichotomous differentiation between

  15. High-Spin Structure in Odd-Odd 160Lu Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lie-Lin; Lu Jing-Bin; Yang Dong; Ma Ke-Yan; Yin Li-Chang; Zhou Yin-Hang; Wu Xiao-Guang; Wen Shu-Xian; Li Guang-Sheng; Yang Chun-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The high-spin states of 160 Lu are populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction 144 Sm( 19 F,3n) 160 Lu at beam energies of 90 and 106 MeV. A new level scheme of 160 Lu is established. A possible isomeric state based on the πh 11/2 νh 9/2 configuration is observed. The new decoupled band with the configuration of πd 3/2 [411]1/2 + νi 13/2 [660]1/2 + is established, and the configurations of these similar decoupled bands in the neighboring odd-odd 162−166 Lu nuclei are suggested. A positive parity coupled band is assigned as the πd 5/2 [402]5/2 + νi 13/2 [660]1/2 + configuration. (nuclear physics)

  16. The core-quasiparticle model for odd-odd nuclei and applications to candidates for gamma-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strottman, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    A reliable estimate of the properties of isomers that may be viable candidates for a gamma-ray laser requires the use of the most accurate save functions possible. The majority of models that have been used to estimate the properties of isomers are applicable to only selected regions of the nuclear mass table. In particular, the Bohr-Mottelson model of odd-A and odd-odd nuclei will fail if the even-even core is not strongly deformed or if the deformations are changing strongly as a function of mass. This paper reports how the problem is overcome in a new core- quasiparticle model for odd-odd nuclei. The model introduces the pairing interaction ab initio; the odd-A states are mixtures of particle and hole states. The core may be soft towards deformation or axial asymmetry and may change rapidly as a function of mass. Thus, the model is ideally suited for application to the region of transitional nuclei such as the Te, La, and Os regions

  17. Social Media Use and Perceived Emotional Support Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E.; Lin, Liu yi; Bowman, Nicholas; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Low emotional support is associated with poor health outcomes. Engagement with face-to-face social networks is one way of increasing emotional support. However, it is not yet known whether engagement with proliferating electronic social networks is similarly associated with increased emotional support. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between social media use and perceived emotional support in a large, nationally-representative sample. In October 2014, we collected data from 1,796 U.S. adults ages 19-32. We assessed social media use using both total time spent and frequency of visits to each of the 11 most popular social media platforms. Our dependent variable was perceived emotional support as measured by the brief Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) emotional support scale. A multivariable model including all sociodemographic covariates and accounting for survey weights demonstrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of time on social media, being in the highest quartile (spending two or more hours per day) was significantly associated with decreased odds of having higher perceived emotional support (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40, 0.94). However, compared with those in the lowest quartile, being in the highest quartile regarding frequency of social media use was not significantly associated with perceived emotional support (AOR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.09). In conclusion, while the cross-sectional nature of these data hinder inference regarding directionality, it seems that heavy users of social media may actually feel less and not more emotional support. PMID:26613936

  18. Gamow-Teller decay of T = 1 nuclei to odd-odd N = Z nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisetskiy, A F [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Gelberg, A [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Institute of Physical and Chemical Reasearch (RIKEN), Wako, 351-0198 (Japan); Brentano, P von [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, 50937 Cologne (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Transition strengths of Gamow-Teller decay of T{sub z} = {+-}1 nuclei to N = Z odd-odd nuclei have been calculated in a two-nucleon approximation for spherical and deformed nuclei. The results obtained for the latter are quite close to the values obtained by full-space shell-model calculations and to the experiment.

  19. Magnetic dipole moments of deformed odd-odd nuclei up to 2p-1f shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V P; Verma, A K; Gandhi, R; Sharma, S D [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1981-02-01

    The expression for magnetic moments for the states comprising ground state configurations of odd-odd nuclei has been simplified by excluding mixing of other nucleonic configurations. This is contrary to Sharma's and Davidson's results which had been obtained by diagonalizing state matrices for a set of parameters using Davidov and Filippov's non-axial rotor model. According to the relative directions of spins of unpaired odd nucleons, the nuclei have been classified under four categories-an exercise not attempted till now. The calculations have been done with various quenching factors depending upon the relative spin orientations of odd nucleons. For most of the nuclei, the results show considerable improvement over those of Gallagher and Moszkowski and of Sharma.

  20. The Trend Odds Model for Ordinal Data‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Ana W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values (Peterson and Harrell, 1990). We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, where the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points. We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal, and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion. We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc Nlmixed, and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes. We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical dataset is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a Swine Influenza example where the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. PMID:23225520

  1. The trend odds model for ordinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Ana W; Dawson, Jeffrey D

    2013-06-15

    Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values. We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, wherein the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points. We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal, and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion. We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc NLMIXED and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes. We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical data set is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a swine influenza example wherein the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. No miR quirk: dysregulation of microRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Philip Y; Szafranska-Schwarzbach, Anna E; Schlageter, Annette M; Andruss, Bernard F; Weiss, Glen J

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression with tissue-specific expression profiles. Dysregulation of microRNAs has been shown to play a role in carcinogenesis. Although progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers, pancreatic cancer remains an intractable public health problem, causing 6.58% of cancer deaths despite making up less than 3% of cancer diagnoses in the United States. No screening, diagnostic or imaging techniques exist with the sensitivity to detect pancreatic cancer in its early, operable stages. Risk factors include numerous inherited syndromes, diabetes mellitus, and hepatitis C virus infection. Here we review the literature regarding dysregulation of microRNA expression in native pancreas, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (the dominant form of pancreatic cancer), and its risk factors to illuminate the biology and progression of this disease. We explore promising evidence for the use of microRNAs as prognostic and diagnostic tools, and discuss emerging reports on microRNA therapeutics.

  3. Power spectrum scale invariance identifies prefrontal dysregulation in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Anca R; Rubin, Denis; Strey, Helmut H; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2012-07-01

    Theory and experimental evidence suggest that complex living systems function close to the boundary of chaos, with erroneous organization to an improper dynamical range (too stiff or chaotic) underlying system-wide dysregulation and disease. We hypothesized that erroneous organization might therefore also characterize paranoid schizophrenia, via optimization abnormalities in the prefrontal-limbic circuit regulating emotion. To test this, we acquired fMRI scans from 35 subjects (N = 9 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and N = 26 healthy controls), while they viewed affect-valent stimuli. To quantify dynamic regulation, we analyzed the power spectrum scale invariance (PSSI) of fMRI time-courses and computed the geometry of time-delay (Poincaré) maps, a measure of variability. Patients and controls showed distinct PSSI in two clusters (k(1) : Z = 4.3215, P = 0.00002 and k(2) : Z = 3.9441, P = 0.00008), localized to the orbitofrontal/medial prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10), represented by β close to white noise in patients (β ≈ 0) and in the pink noise range in controls (β ≈ -1). Interpreting the meaning of PSSI differences, the Poincaré maps indicated less variability in patients than controls (Z = -1.9437, P = 0.05 for k(1) ; Z = -2.5099, P = 0.01 for k(2) ). That the dynamics identified Brodmann Area 10 is consistent with previous schizophrenia research, which implicates this area in deficits of working memory, executive functioning, emotional regulation and underlying biological abnormalities in synaptic (glutamatergic) transmission. Our results additionally cohere with a large body of work finding pink noise to be the normal range of central function at the synaptic, cellular, and small network levels, and suggest that patients show less supple responsivity of this region. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Family Mode Deactivation Therapy in a Residential Setting: Treating Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Multi-Axial Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Zeiter, J. Scott; Houston, Marsha Ann

    2008-01-01

    Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) has been shown to be an effective treatment for a variety of adolescent disorders including emotional dysregulation, behavioral dysregulation, physical aggression, sexual aggression, and many harmful symptoms of anxiety and traumatic stress. MDT Family Therapy has been effective in reducing family disharmony in case…

  5. Emotion regulation's relationships with depression, anxiety and stress due to imagined smartphone and social media loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D; Hall, Brian J; Erwin, Meredith Claycomb

    2018-03-01

    A sample of 359 students participated in a web survey, administered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) as a pre-test. We subsequently randomly assigned subjects to either 1) a smart phone loss group or 2) social media accounts loss group. We asked them to imagine losing two days' access to the technology in their respective group, and rate associated symptoms using the DASS-21. Compared to subjects in the smartphone loss group, social media loss subjects evidenced stronger relations between suppressive emotion regulation with depression, anxiety and stress from imagined loss. Controlling for age and gender, social media loss subjects' increased use of suppression, and decreased use of cognitive reappraisal in emotion regulation, were related to depression, stress and (for suppression only) anxiety due to imagined lost social media. Emotion regulation was not related to psychopathology for subjects in the smartphone loss scenario. Results suggest that emotion dysregulation may be associated with psychopathology from social media loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is n...

  7. Aldosterone dysregulation with aging predicts renal vascular function and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jenifer M; Underwood, Patricia C; Ferri, Claudio; Hopkins, Paul N; Williams, Gordon H; Adler, Gail K; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-06-01

    Aging and abnormal aldosterone regulation are both associated with vascular disease. We hypothesized that aldosterone dysregulation influences the age-related risk of renal vascular and cardiovascular disease. We conducted an analysis of 562 subjects who underwent detailed investigations under conditions of liberal and restricted dietary sodium intake (1124 visits) in the General Clinical Research Center. Aldosterone regulation was characterized by the ratio of maximal suppression to stimulation (supine serum aldosterone on a liberal sodium diet divided by the same measure on a restricted sodium diet). We previously demonstrated that higher levels of this Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI) indicate greater aldosterone dysregulation. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was determined via p-aminohippurate clearance to assess basal renal hemodynamics and the renal vascular responses to dietary sodium manipulation and angiotensin II infusion. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score. In univariate linear regression, older age (β=-4.60; Page and SASSI, where the inverse relationship between SASSI and RPF was most apparent with older age (Page may interact to mediate renal vascular disease. Our findings suggest that the combination of aldosterone dysregulation and renal vascular dysfunction could additively increase the risk of future cardiovascular outcomes; therefore, aldosterone dysregulation may represent a modifiable mechanism of age-related vascular disease.

  8. Boson and fermion degrees of freedom in the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM: Odd-odd nuclear spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamical symmetry group Sp(12, R) of the Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM) is extended to the orthosymplectic group OSp(2Ω/12, R) in order to incorporate fermion degrees of freedom. The structure of even-even nuclei is used as a core on which the collective excitations of the neighboring odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei are build on. Hence, the spectra of odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei arise as a result of the coupling of the fermion degrees of freedom, specified by the fermion sector SOF (2Ω) to the boson core, whose states belong to an Sp(12, R) irreducible representation. The orthosymplectic dynamical symmetry is applied for the simultaneous description of the spectra of some neighboring nuclei from rare earth region. The theoretical predictions for different low-lying collective bands with positive and negative parity are compared with the experiment. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the model and its boson-fermion extension.

  9. Relationship between concealment of emotions at work and musculoskeletal symptoms: results from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyungyong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Ryu, Ji Young

    2018-05-11

    In this study, we explored the relationship between concealing emotions at work and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean workers using data from a national, population-based survey. Data were obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey in 2011. We investigated the prevalence of three musculoskeletal symptoms ("back pain", "pain in the upper extremities", and "pain in the lower extremities"). Multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed to determine odds ratios (ORs) for musculoskeletal symptoms according to concealing emotions at work, adjusting for socioeconomic factors. In both sexes, the emotion-concealing group showed a significantly higher prevalence of "pain in the upper extremities" and "pain in the lower extremities" than the non-emotion-concealing group. For back pain, male - but not female - workers who concealed their emotions showed a higher prevalence than their non-emotion-concealing counterparts; the difference was statistically significant. Adjusted ORs for musculoskeletal symptoms (excluding "back pain" for female workers) in the emotion-concealing group were significantly higher. Our study suggests that concealment of emotions is closely associated with musculoskeletal symptoms, and the work environment should operate in consideration not only of the physical health work condition of workers but also of their emotional efforts including concealing emotion at work.

  10. Quartetting in even-even and odd-odd N=Z nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, M.; Sandulescu, N.

    2018-02-01

    We report on a microscopic description of even-even N = Z nuclei in a formalism of quartets. Quartets are four-body correlated structures characterized by isospin T and angular momentum J. We show that the ground state correlations induced by a realistic shell model interaction can be well accounted for in terms of a restricted set of T = 0 low-J quartets, the J = 0 one playing by far a leading role among them. A conceptually similar description of odd-odd self-conjugate nuclei is given in terms of two distinct families of building blocks, one formed by the same T = 0 quartets employed for the even-even systems and the other by collective pairs with either T = 0 or T = 1. Some applications of this formalism are discussed for nuclei in the sd shell.

  11. Increased odds and predictive rates of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and observed sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, Victor A; Arce Rentería, Miguel; Maiman, Moshe; Slugh, Mitch; Gazzola, Deana M; Nadkarni, Siddhartha S; Barr, William B

    2017-07-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a self-report instrument, previously shown to differentiate patients with epileptic seizures (ES) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). At present, the odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations in PNES patients, as well as the diagnostic predictive value of such scale elevations, remain largely unexplored. This can be of clinical utility, particularly when a diagnosis is uncertain. After looking at mean group differences, we applied contingency table derived odds ratios to a sample of ES (n=92) and PNES (n=77) patients from a video EEG (vEEG) monitoring unit. We also looked at the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), as well as the false discovery rate (FDR) and false omission rate (FOR) for scales found to have increased odds of elevation in PNES patients. This was completed for the overall sample, as well as the sample stratified by sex. The odds of elevations related to somatic concerns, negative mood, and suicidal ideation in the PNES sample ranged from 2 to 5 times more likely. Female PNES patients had 3-6 times greater odds of such scale elevations, while male PNES patients had odds of 5-15 times more likely. PPV rates ranged from 53.66% to 84.62%, while NPV rates ranged from 47.52% to 90.91%. FDR across scales ranged from 15.38% to 50%, while the FOR ranged from 9.09% to 52.47%. Consistent with prior research, PNES patients have greater odds of MMPI-2-RF scale elevations, particularly related to somatic concerns and mood disturbance. Female PNES patients endorsed greater emotional distress, including endorsement of suicide related items. Elevations of these scales could aid in differentiating PNES from ES patients, although caution is warranted due to the possibility of both false positives and the incorrect omissions of PNES cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gamow-Teller transitions and proton-neutron pair correlation in N =Z odd-odd p -shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2017-10-01

    We have studied the Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions from N =Z +2 neighbors to N =Z odd-odd nuclei in the p -shell region by using isospin-projected and β γ -constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics combined with the generator coordinate method. The calculated GT transition strengths from 0+1 states to 1+0 states such as 6He(01+1 ) →6Li(11+0 ) , 10Be(01+1 ) →10B(11+0 ) , and 14C(01+1 ) →14N(12+0 ) exhaust more than 50% of the sum rule. These N =Z +2 initial states and N =Z odd-odd final states are found to dominantly have S =0 ,T =1 n n pairs and S =1 ,T =0 p n pairs, respectively. Based on the two-nucleon (N N ) pair picture, we can understand the concentration of the GT strengths as the spin-isospin-flip transition n n (S =0 ,T =1 )→p n (S =1 ,T =0 ) in L S coupling. The GT transition can be a good probe to identify the spin-isospin partner states with n n pairs and p n pairs of N =Z +2 and N =Z odd-odd nuclei, respectively.

  13. The specificity of emotional switching in borderline personality disorder in comparison to other clinical groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Marlies; Bohus, Martin; Santangelo, Philip S; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Trull, Timothy J; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In an attempt to better understand the nature of emotion dysregulation in the daily lives of persons with a borderline personality disorder (BPD), Houben et al. (2016) recently identified emotional switching, which refers to the tendency to make large changes between positive and negative emotional states over time, as a possible defining characteristic of the emotion dynamics observed in BPD. The goal of this study was to examine the specificity of these previous findings in 2 samples by comparing BPD patients (N = 43 in sample 1; N = 81 in sample 2) to patients with bulimia nervosa (N = 20), posttraumatic stress disorder (N = 28), or healthy controls (N = 28) in sample 1, and to patients with depressive disorder (N = 50) in sample 2, with respect to measures of emotional switching. Analyses of these 2 experience sampling datasets revealed that contrary to expectations, BPD patients did not differ from the clinical groups regarding their mere tendency to switch between positive and negative emotional states on consecutive moments over time and regarding the magnitude of such changes between positive and negative emotional states over time. However, all clinical groups did differ from healthy controls regarding all switch measures in dataset 1. These results indicate that emotional switching, similar to other more traditional indicators of overall changes in emotional intensity in daily life, might reflect a feature of emotional responding characterizing a range of disorders with mood disturbances. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Investigating multiple dysregulated pathways in rheumatoid arthritis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xian-Dong Song

    2018-03-09

    Mar 9, 2018 ... 5Department of Kidney Internal Medicine, Hongqi Hospital of ... on the gene expression profile, pathway data, and PPI information. ... controls. These 10 dysregulated pathways might be potential ... a significant burden on the healthcare systems (Yamada ... The risk of adverse effects and expensive treat-.

  15. Calculation of β-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1996-01-01

    In order to study β-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider β-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured β-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on β-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of β-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the β-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the β spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  16. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  17. Democracy against the odds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    Why have a number of poor countries sustained electoral democracy against the odds? The extant literature on democracy and democratization consistently points to the importance of socioeconomic development and democratic neighboring countries, in particular, as important prerequisites for a stable...... demonstrates the enormous potential of political parties and civil society in processes of democratization. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Hvorfor opretholder en række fattige lande en demokratisk styreform imod alle odds? Demokratiforskere forventer, at et land må have et...

  18. Depression and reduced heart rate variability after cardiac surgery: the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Favretto, Giuseppe; Gasparotto, Renata; Palomba, Daniela

    2014-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), as an index of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning, is reduced by depression after cardiac surgery, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood. Poor emotion regulation as a core symptom of depression has also been associated with altered ANS functioning. The present study aimed to examine whether emotion dysregulation could be a mediator of the depression-reduced HRV relationship observed after cardiac surgery. Self-reported emotion regulation and four-minute HRV were measured in 25 depressed and 43 nondepressed patients after cardiac surgery. Mediation analysis was conducted to evaluate emotion regulation as a mediator of the depression-reduced HRV relationship. Compared to nondepressed patients, those with depression showed lower standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (pbehavior partially mediated the effect of depression on LF n.u. and HF n.u. Results confirmed previous findings showing that depression is associated with reduced HRV, especially a reduced vagal tone and a sympathovagal imbalance, after cardiac surgery. This study also provides preliminary evidence that increased trait levels of suppression of emotion-expressive behavior may mediate the depression-related sympathovagal imbalance after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of triaxiality on the signature inversion in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Renrong; Zhu Shunquan; Luo Xiangdong; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Paul, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of signature inversion in the πg 9/2 νh 11/2 bands of odd-odd 98,102 Rh nuclei is studied. Calculations are performed by using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and are compared with the experimentally observed signature inversions. The calculations reproduce well the observations and suggest that, in these bands, the signature inversion can be interpreted mainly as a competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. The triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the signature inversion point to higher spin at large triaxial deformation

  20. The emotional and academic consequences of parental conditional regard: comparing conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support as parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi; Niemiec, Christopher P; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    The authors conducted 2 studies of 9th-grade Israeli adolescents (169 in Study 1, 156 in Study 2) to compare the parenting practices of conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support using data from multiple reporters. Two socialization domains were studied: emotion control and academics. Results were consistent with the self-determination theory model of internalization, which posits that (a) conditional negative regard predicts feelings of resentment toward parents, which then predict dysregulation of negative emotions and academic disengagement; (b) conditional positive regard predicts feelings of internal compulsion, which then predict suppressive regulation of negative emotions and grade-focused academic engagement; and (c) autonomy support predicts sense of choice, which then predicts integrated regulation of negative emotions and interest-focused academic engagement. These findings suggest that even parents' use of conditional positive regard as a socialization practice has adverse emotional and academic consequences, relative to autonomy support.

  1. Facing Complaining Customer and Suppressed Emotion at Worksite Related to Sleep Disturbance in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung Shil; Lee, Wanhyung; Hong, Kwanyoung; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei Jin; Yoon, Jin Ha

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of facing complaining customer and suppressed emotion at worksite on sleep disturbance among working population. We enrolled 13,066 paid workers (male = 6,839, female = 6,227, age Working Condition Survey (2011). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sleep disturbance occurrence were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Among workers in working environments where they always engage complaining customers had a significantly higher risk for sleep disturbance than rarely group (The OR [95% CI]; 5.46 [3.43-8.68] in male, 5.59 [3.30-9.46] in female workers). The OR (95% CI) for sleep disturbance was 1.78 (1.16-2.73) and 1.63 (1.02-2.63), for the male and female groups always suppressing their emotions at the workplace compared with those rarely group. Compared to those who both rarely engaged complaining customers and rarely suppressed their emotions at work, the OR (CI) for sleep disturbance was 9.66 (4.34-20.80) and 10.17 (4.46-22.07), for men and women always exposed to both factors. Sleep disturbance was affected by interactions of both emotional demands (engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace). The level of emotional demand, including engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace is significantly associated with sleep disturbance among Korean working population.

  2. An examination of the roles of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder on emotion regulation strategies of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Lauren M; Roy, Alicia M; Southwick, Steven M; Fichtenholtz, Harlan M

    2016-09-01

    Theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate emotional processes, including difficulties utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies, as critical to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND) veterans report high levels of combat exposure and PTSD. We aimed to extend findings suggesting that emotion regulation difficulties are a function of PTSD, rather than combat trauma exposure or common comorbidities, to OIF/OEF/OND veterans, in order to inform models of PTSD risk and recovery that can be applied to returning veterans. We tested differences in emotion regulation, measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, among trauma-exposed veterans with (n = 24) or without PTSD (n = 22) and healthy civilian comparison participants (n = 27) using multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and demographic variables (age, sex, and ethnicity). Veterans with PTSD reported more use of expressive suppression and more difficulties with emotion regulation than veterans without PTSD and healthy comparison participants. Groups did not differ on cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest the key role of PTSD above and beyond trauma exposure, depression, and anxiety in specific aspects of emotion dysregulation among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Interventions that help veterans expand and diversify their emotion regulation skills may serve as helpful adjunctive treatments for PTSD among OIF/OEF/OND veterans.

  3. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DEGAS: de novo discovery of dysregulated pathways in human diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ulitsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular studies of the human disease transcriptome typically involve a search for genes whose expression is significantly dysregulated in sick individuals compared to healthy controls. Recent studies have found that only a small number of the genes in human disease-related pathways show consistent dysregulation in sick individuals. However, those studies found that some pathway genes are affected in most sick individuals, but genes can differ among individuals. While a pathway is usually defined as a set of genes known to share a specific function, pathway boundaries are frequently difficult to assign, and methods that rely on such definition cannot discover novel pathways. Protein interaction networks can potentially be used to overcome these problems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present DEGAS (DysrEgulated Gene set Analysis via Subnetworks, a method for identifying connected gene subnetworks significantly enriched for genes that are dysregulated in specimens of a disease. We applied DEGAS to seven human diseases and obtained statistically significant results that appear to home in on compact pathways enriched with hallmarks of the diseases. In Parkinson's disease, we provide novel evidence for involvement of mRNA splicing, cell proliferation, and the 14-3-3 complex in the disease progression. DEGAS is available as part of the MATISSE software package (http://acgt.cs.tau.ac.il/matisse. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The subnetworks identified by DEGAS can provide a signature of the disease potentially useful for diagnosis, pinpoint possible pathways affected by the disease, and suggest targets for drug intervention.

  5. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysregulation, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD syndrome): A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Micó, S; Marcos Oltra, A M; de Murcia Lemauviel, S; Ruiz Pruneda, R; Martínez Ferrández, C; Domingo Jiménez, R

    ROHHAD syndrome (rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysregulation, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation) is a rare and complex disease, presenting in previously healthy children at the age of 2-4 years. Up to 40% of cases are associated with neural crest tumours. We present the case of a 2-year-old girl with symptoms of rapidly progressing obesity, who a few months later developed hypothalamic dysfunction with severe electrolyte imbalance, behaviour disorder, hypoventilation, and severe autonomic dysregulation, among other symptoms. Although the pathophysiology of this syndrome remains unclear, an autoimmune hypothesis has been proposed for ROHHAD. Therefore, after obtaining a limited response to intravenous immunoglobulins, we decided to test the response to a high dose cyclophosphamide (low dose was not effective either). Unfortunately our patient experienced many severe complications (among them central pontine myelinolysis, from which the patient recovered, and failure to wean from the ventilator requiring tracheostomy and long term ventilation) that required a prolonged ICU stay. Although her behaviour improved, our patient unfortunately died suddenly at home at the age of 5 due to respiratory pathology. ROHHAD syndrome is a rare and little-known disease which requires a multidisciplinary approach because it involves complex symptoms and multiple organ system involvement. Alveolar hypoventilation should be identified early and appropriate treatment should be started promptly for the best possible outcome. Immunomodulatory treatment with immunoglobulins, cyclophosphamide, or rituximab has previously resulted in symptom improvement in some cases. Because of the low incidence of the syndrome, multi-centre studies must be carried out in order to gather more accurate information about ROHHAD pathophysiology and design an appropriate therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  6. Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Propper

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT, affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demanding the processing and representation of emotional and/or motivational states, and for predicting trait-related affective/motivational orientations. The precise nature of the relationship between TMT and brain physiology, however, remains elusive. Indeed the limited extant research has sampled different participant populations and employed largely different procedures and measures, making for seemingly discrepant findings and implications. We propose, however, that many of these discrepancies can be resolved by considering how emotional states map onto motivational systems, and further examining how validated methods for inducing lateralized brain activity might affect TMT.

  7. Immune System Dysregulation and Latent Herpesvirus Reactivation During Winterover at Concordia Station, Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Feuerecker, M.; Salam, A. P.; Rybka, A.; Stowe, R. P.; Morrels, M.; Meta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Quintens, Roel; Thieme, U.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Immune system dysregulation occurs during spaceflight and consists of altered peripheral leukocyte distribution, reductions in immunocyte function and altered cytokine production profiles. Causes may include stress, confinement, isolation, and disrupted circadian rhythms. All of these factors may be replicated to some degree in terrestrial environments. NASA is currently evaluating the potential for a ground-based analog for immune dysregulation, which would have utility for mechanistic investigations and countermeasures evaluation. For ground-based space physiology research, the choice of terrestrial analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over, consisting of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation and disrupted circadian rhythms, is potentially a good ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Of all Antarctica bases, the French-Italian Concordia Station, may be the most appropriate to replicate spaceflight/exploration conditions. Concordia is an interior base located in harsh environmental conditions, and has been constructed to house small, international crews in a station-environment similar to what should be experienced by deep space astronauts. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assessed innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivation and stress factors during Concordia winterover deployment. The study was conducted over two winterover missions in 2009 and 2010. Final study data from NASA participation in these missions will be presented.

  8. Cross-population validation of statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Legault, Véronique; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    Measuring physiological dysregulation during aging could be a key tool both to understand underlying aging mechanisms and to predict clinical outcomes in patients. However, most existing indices are either circular or hard to interpret biologically. Recently, we showed that statistical distance of 14 common blood biomarkers (a measure of how strange an individual's biomarker profile is) was associated with age and mortality in the WHAS II data set, validating its use as a measure of physiological dysregulation. Here, we extend the analyses to other data sets (WHAS I and InCHIANTI) to assess the stability of the measure across populations. We found that the statistical criteria used to determine the original 14 biomarkers produced diverging results across populations; in other words, had we started with a different data set, we would have chosen a different set of markers. Nonetheless, the same 14 markers (or the subset of 12 available for InCHIANTI) produced highly similar predictions of age and mortality. We include analyses of all combinatorial subsets of the markers and show that results do not depend much on biomarker choice or data set, but that more markers produce a stronger signal. We conclude that statistical distance as a measure of physiological dysregulation is stable across populations in Europe and North America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental pollutants and dysregulation of male puberty--a comparison among species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Ulf; Ljungvall, Karl

    2014-04-01

    The scientific literature on altered onset of puberty predominantly involves studies on females. This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of environmental pollutants in dysregulation of male puberty in humans, laboratory rodents and farm animals. The methods used to determine the onset of puberty are well developed in humans and farm animals, and standardized across studies in humans. In laboratory rodents standardized external morphological endpoints are used. There is an increasing weight of evidence from epidemiological studies in humans, as well as from experiments in animals, indicating that environmental pollutants dysregulate puberty in males. Most data are from studies on "classical" persistent environmental pollutants. Assessing the effect of multichemical environmental pollution on dysregulation of puberty in humans is more challenging; further solid epidemiological data would likely contribute most to our understanding, especially if combined with systematically collected field-data from selected wildlife. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Emotion Dysregulation, and Non-suicidal Self-Injury Engagement in Young Adults: An Application of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, A Ann; Heath, Nancy L; Mills, Devin J

    2016-03-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a public health concern that affects young adults at alarming rates. The present study examines the role of satisfaction of self-determination theory's three basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness in young adults' NSSI engagement. University students who reported ever having engaged in NSSI (n = 40, 85 % female; Mage = 20.10, SD = 1.66) reported significantly lower levels of the satisfaction of all three needs, as well as more difficulties with all aspects of emotion regulation (non-acceptance of emotional responses, difficulty engaging in goal directed behavior, impulse control, lack of emotional awareness, limited access to regulation strategies, lack of emotional clarity), compared to students with no history of NSSI (n = 46, 91 % female; Mage = 19.79, SD = 1.37). Results of a logistic regression analysis revealed that need satisfaction added to the prediction of NSSI group membership after controlling for the effects of emotion regulation. Satisfaction of the need for competence and limited access to emotion regulation strategies accounted for significant variance in NSSI in the final model. The findings suggest that self-determination theory may be a useful framework under which to conceptualize NSSI and that the need for competence may be particularly salient for University students.

  11. A controlled study of attachment representations and emotion regulation in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Serena Pace

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several recent studies highlighted that both attachment insecurity and emotion regulation difficulties form a key part of conceptual models of anorexia nervosa (AN, but they had never been analyzed in the same controlled study. Method: This study examined the attachment states of mind, assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI, and emotion regulation difficulties, measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, among 25 girls with AN diagnosis aged 14-18 years (M age=16.52, SD= 1.23, and 25 general population controls, matched for gender, age, years of education and SES. Results. The AN group reported both significantly higher attachment insecurity (75% vs 46%, Fisher Exact Test, p=.04, dismissing (Ds in particular (χ²=6.41, df=2, p=.03, and difficulties with emotion regulation than non-clinical controls. Two AAI’s scales connected to Ds classification – idealization of mother and lack of recall – were significantly correlated to lack of emotional awareness and clarity. Conclusions. Our results provide support for conceptualization of AN emphasizing the role of attachment insecurity and emotional dysregulation in the development and maintenance of this restrictive type of eating disorder. These findings may have implications for treatment programs which may prove more fruitful integrating attachment-based intervention with clinical work focused on development of emotion regulation abilities.

  12. Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    A linear odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. It is revealed that the bracket, which corresponds to a semi-simple Lie group, has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, the second and the third orders with respect to Grassmann derivatives, in contrast with the canonical odd Poisson bracket having the only Grassmann-odd nilpotent differential Δ-operator of the second order. It is shown that these Δ-like operators together with a Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yaqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Teaching and Research Section of Maths and Physics, Guangzhou Commanding Academy of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Guangzhou, 510440 (China); Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  14. Emotion regulation in interpersonal problems: the role of cognitive-emotional complexity, emotion regulation goals, and expressivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Abby Heckman; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2008-03-01

    Young, middle-aged, and older adults' emotion regulation strategies in interpersonal problems were examined. Participants imagined themselves in anger- or sadness-eliciting situations with a close friend. Factor analyses of a new questionnaire supported a 4-factor model of emotion regulation strategies, including passivity, expressing emotions, seeking emotional information or support, and solving the problem. Results suggest that age differences in emotion regulation (such as older adults' increased endorsement of passive emotion regulation relative to young adults) are partially due to older adults' decreased ability to integrate emotion and cognition, increased prioritization of emotion regulation goals, and decreased tendency to express anger. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Parental Socialization of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children's emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children's emotions, (b) socializers' discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers' expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children's emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children's expression of emotion are associated with children's negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

  16. Covariant Density Functionals: time-odd channel investigated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.

    2009-01-01

    The description of exotic nuclear systems and phenomena requires a detailed understanding of all channels of density functional theories. The role of time-odd mean fields, their evidence in experiment, and an accurate description of these fields are subject of current interest. Recent studies advanced the understanding of these fields in energy density functional theories based on the Skyrme force [1,2]. Time-odd mean fields are related to nuclear magnetism in covariant density functional (CDF) theories [3]. They arise from space-like components of vector mesons and Lorentz invariance requires that their coupling strengths are identical to that of time-like components. There were only few limited efforts to understand the role of time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory [4,5]. For example, the microscopic role of nuclear magnetism and its impact on rotational properties of nuclei has been studied in Ref. [5]. It is known that time-odd mean fields modify the angular momentum content of the single-particle orbitals and thus the moments of inertia, effective alignments, alignment gains at the band crossings and other physical observables. We aim on more detailed and systematic understanding of the role of time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory. This investigation covers both rotating and non-rotating systems. It is shown that contrary to the Skyrme energy density functionals time-odd mean fields of CDF theory always provide additional binding in the systems with broken time-reversal symmetry (rotating nuclei, odd mass nuclei). This additional binding increases with spin and has its maximum exactly at the terminating state [6], where it can reach several MeV. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the properties of rotating systems has been studied in a systematic way (as a function of particle number and deformation) across the nuclear chart [7]. In addition, this contribution extends these studies to non-rotating systems such as

  17. Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and job satisfaction among physicians in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psilopanagioti, Aristea; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Mourtou, Efstratia; Niakas, Dimitris

    2012-12-17

    There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector. Recently, in the "emotionally charged" healthcare field, emotional intelligence and emotional labor have both emerged as research tools, rather than just as theoretical concepts, influencing various organizational parameters including job satisfaction. The present study aimed at investigating the relationships, direct and/or indirect, between emotional intelligence, the surface acting component of emotional labor, and job satisfaction in medical staff working in tertiary healthcare. Data were collected from 130 physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: a) the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, which assessed the four dimensions of emotional intelligence, i.e. Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others' Emotion Appraisal, Use of Emotion, and Regulation of Emotion, b) the General Index of Job Satisfaction, and c) the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (surface acting component). Emotional intelligence (Use of Emotion dimension) was significantly and positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=.42, peffect was moderated by gender. Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that surface acting could predict job satisfaction over and above emotional intelligence dimensions. The results of the present study may contribute to the better understanding of emotion-related parameters that affect the work process with a view to increasing the quality of service in the health sector.

  18. Association between Emotional Symptoms and Job Demands in an Asian Electronics Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Lieh; Guo, Yue Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jui; Chu, Po-Ching

    2017-09-19

    Various work-related issues including mental health have been described for the electronic industry. Although East Asian countries play important roles in the electronics industry, the association between job demands and emotional symptoms has been rarely examined. The present study recruited 603 workers from either office or clean room environments in an electronics factory in Taiwan. Their personal factors, work-related factors, and emotional symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. The symptoms of depression and hostility were reported in 24.88% and 24.38% of the subjects, respectively, while 14.93% reported both. A multivariate analysis showed that, overall, women workers were more likely to have emotional symptoms than male workers (odds ration (OR) = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.02-2.18). Among clean room workers, working under high pressure (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.05-3.21), conflicting demands (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.30-3.57), and social isolation at work (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.23-7.30) were associated with emotional symptoms. The findings suggest that in the Asian electronics industry, for women, working under high pressure, conflicting demands, and social isolation at work are risk factors for emotional symptoms, especially for clean room workers. Further large-scale, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm and prevent the mental health problems in this fast-evolving, highly competitive industry.

  19. Effectiveness of tobacco control television advertisements with different types of emotional content on tobacco use in England, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, M; Langley, T; Lewis, S; Richardson, S; Szatkowski, L; McNeill, A; Gilmore, A B

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of tobacco control television advertisements with positive and negative emotional content on adult smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption. Analysis of monthly cross-sectional surveys using generalised additive models. England. 60 000 adults aged 18 years or over living in England and interviewed in the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey from 2004 to 2010. Current smoking status, daily cigarette consumption, tobacco control gross rating points (GRPs-a measure of per capita advertising exposure), cigarette costliness, concurrent tobacco control policies, sociodemographic variables. After adjusting for cigarette costliness, other tobacco control policies and individual characteristics, we found that a 400-point increase in positive emotive GRPs was associated with 7% lower odds of smoking (odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98) 1 month later and a similar increase in negative emotive GRPs was significantly associated with 4% lower odds of smoking (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.999) 2 months later. An increase in negative emotive GRPs from 0 to 400 was also associated with a significant 3.3% (95% CI 1.1 to 5.6) decrease in average cigarette consumption. There was no evidence that the association between positive emotive GRPs and the outcomes differed depending on the intensity of negative emotive GRPs (and vice versa). This is the first study to explore the effects of campaigns with different types of emotive content on adult smoking prevalence and consumption. It suggests that both types of campaign (positive and negative) are effective in reducing smoking prevalence, whereas consumption among smokers was only affected by campaigns evoking negative emotions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Close relations to parents and emotional symptoms among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, Bjørn E; Koushede, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between trustful communication with parents and frequency of emotional symptoms in schoolchildren and whether this relationship was modified by the family's socio-economic position. METHODS: Pooled data (n = 15,646) from the Danish Health Behaviour...... in School-aged Children surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010 were analysed by multilevel multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 8 % of all schoolchildren reported emotional symptoms almost daily. Odds ratio for daily symptoms was 2.1 (1.8-2.4) for children without trustful communication with parents compared...... to children with trustful communication. This association appears unaffected by family occupational class. A substantial socio-economic gradient in emotional symptoms persisted, independent of parent-child communication. CONCLUSIONS: Trustful communication with parents might have a fundamental importance...

  1. Content-specific gender differences in emotion ratings from early to late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Patrick; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of gender differences in emotion has attracted much attention given the potential ramifications on our understanding of sexual differences in disorders involving emotion dysregulation. Yet, research on content-specific gender differences across adulthood in emotional responding is lacking. The aims of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to investigate to what extent gender differences in the self-reported emotional experience are content specific. Second, we sought to determine whether gender differences are stable across the adult lifespan. We assessed valence and arousal ratings of 14 picture series, each of a different content, in 94 men and 118 women aged 20 to 81. Compared to women, men reacted more positively to erotic images, whereas women rated low-arousing pleasant family scenes and landscapes as particularly positive. Women displayed a disposition to respond with greater defensive activation (i.e., more negative valence and higher arousal), in particular to the most arousing unpleasant contents. Importantly, significant interactions between gender and age were not found for any single content. This study makes a novel contribution by showing that gender differences in the affective experiences in response to different contents persist across the adult lifespan. These findings support the "stability hypothesis" of gender differences across age. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Sarah L; Nelson, Sarah L

    2008-01-01

    Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studied with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus at or near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via different nuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrance channel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' model is nearly identical for the two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, the exit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs; cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrance channel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusion leading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35 ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' theory

  3. Nuclear structure of the N = Z odd - odd nuclei around N=28 closed shell interpreted with IBFFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragulescu, E.; Serbanut, G. C.; Serbanut, I.

    2001-01-01

    In the very recent years the knowledge of the level structure at lower and higher energies in the fpg shell N=Z nuclei has renewed a growing interest due to major improvements in the theoretical techniques. Going away from closed shell, the shell model calculations rapidly exhaust computer capabilities and we must resort to the model observed on collective phenomena. The fpg odd-odd N = Z nuclei close to the doubly magic 56 Ni nucleus are good candidates to investigate the competition between collective and single-particle excitations. Here part of the results obtained from an exhaustive systematic study of the self conjugate doubly-odd nuclei with A > 62: 62 Ga and 66 As nuclei using the interacting - boson - fermion - fermion - model (IBFFM) is presented. The odd-odd nuclei are described in the framework of the IBFFM by coupling valence shell proton and neutron quasiparticles to even-even core described in the interacting - boson model. In the first step of the calculations the core parameters for 60 Zn and 64 Ge cores were fitted to the energies of their excited states. In the second step of calculations, we have adjusted the IBFM proton Hamiltonian to the low - lying levels of 63 Ga and 67 As nuclei and IBFM neutron Hamiltonian of low - lying levels of 61 Zn and 65 Ge nuclei involved in the cases of the structure of odd-odd 62 Ga and 66 As nuclei. We have finally calculated the level spectra and electromagnetic properties of above mentioned nuclei. The IBFFM positive - parity energy spectra are compared with experimental ones. The calculations show a reasonable agreement with experimental data and existing shell - model calculations. (authors)

  4. Reports of adolescent emotion regulation and school engagement mediating the relation between parenting and adolescent functioning in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V; Ward, Rose M; Raval, Pratiksha H; Trivedi, Shwetang S

    2017-02-07

    Much like other parts of Asia, late adolescence in India is a particularly stressful time with academic pressures of a highly competitive examination system that determines future occupational success. The present study examined interrelations among reports of parenting, adolescents' regulation of academics-related emotions, school engagement, adolescent socio-emotional functioning and state-exam performance. Four hundred and fifty 10th and 12th graders from suburban high schools in India participated, along with their mothers. At the beginning of the school year, mothers completed measures of parenting, and adolescents completed measures of emotion regulation, school engagement and behaviour problems. At the end of the school year, grades from state exams were obtained from the schools. A multiple mediator model was tested using structural equation modelling. Authoritarian parenting was positively related to adolescent behaviour problems, but not adolescent state-exam performance. Maternal non-supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion were indirectly positively related to adolescent behaviour problems through adolescent emotion dysregulation. Adolescent school engagement mediated the positive relation between maternal supportive responses to adolescent negative emotion and adolescent state-exam performance. These findings underscore the relevance of adolescent emotions for their academic functioning, with implications for the development of interventions for those who struggle during these highly stressful years. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Psychological Predictors of Aggressive Behavior Among Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanile, Cristina; Matera, Camilla; Nerini, Amanda; Puddu, Luisa; Raffagnino, Rosalba

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relationships among attitude toward violence, self-esteem, emotion dysregulation, anger, and aggression in community men and women and male inmates. Overall, 166 community men, 197 community women, and 100 male inmates completed a battery of questionnaires containing self-reported measures. Self-esteem and attitude toward violence were significant predictors of aggressive behavior, with emotion dysregulation mediating the relationship between self-esteem and the criterion variable. Anger mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior only among community people. Among men, inmates reported a more favorable attitude toward violence, lower self-esteem, higher emotion dysregulation, more aggressive behaviors, and a lower tendency to get angry. Women showed a less favorable attitude toward violence, lower self-esteem, higher emotion dysregulation, and a higher tendency for anger than men, while no differences emerged for aggressive behavior. These findings suggest that self-related constructs and emotion regulation strategies represent key processes associated with aggressive behavior among all participants, while the role of anger is more prominent in community people. To reduce aggressive tendencies, treatment and prevention interventions might increase self-esteem, emotion regulation skills, and one's ability to direct anger toward other goals. Moreover, programs aimed at changing attitudes toward violence could be useful.

  6. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent ODD symptoms in young adult men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2013-01-01

    Background ODD is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Method Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7 to 12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Results Controlling for parent reported symptoms of ADHD, CD, depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Conclusion ODD is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. PMID:24117754

  7. Dysregulation of coronary microvascular reactivity in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuru; Neverve, Jodi; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Schwaiger, Markus; Bengel, Frank M. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Abletshauser, Claudia [Department of Medicine, Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Standl, Eberhard [Institut fuer Diabetesforschung, Munich (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    In diabetic patients, a number of studies have suggested an impairment of vascular reactivity in response to vasodilatory stimuli. The pattern of dysregulation at the coronary microcirculatory level, however, has not been clearly defined. Thus, it was the aim of this study to characterise coronary microvascular function non-invasively in a homogeneous group of asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients. In 46 patients with type 2 diabetes, myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified at baseline, in response to cold pressor test (CPT) and during adenosine-mediated vasodilation using positron emission tomography and nitrogen-13 ammonia. None of the patients had been treated with insulin, and none had symptoms of cardiac disease. Decreased MBF during CPT, indicating microvascular dysregulation, was observed in 16 patients (CPT-), while 30 patients demonstrated increased MBF during CPT (CPT+). Response to CPT was mildly, but significantly correlated with response to adenosine (r=0.44, P=0.0035). There was no difference in HbA1c, serum lipid levels or serum endothelial markers between the groups. Microvascular dysregulation in the CPT- group was associated with elevated baseline MBF (P<0.0001), reduced baseline vascular resistance (P=0.0026) and an abnormal increase in resistance during CPT (P=0.0002). In conclusion, coronary microvascular dysregulation is present in approximately one-third of asymptomatic, non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Elevated baseline blood flow and reduced microvascular resistance at rest are characteristics of this dysregulation. These data suggest a state of activation of endothelial-dependent vasodilation at baseline which appears to limit the flow response to stress conditions. (orig.)

  8. [Cognition-Emotion Interactions and Psychopathic Personality: Distinct Pathways to Antisocial and Violent Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn

    Researchers have long acknowledged heterogeneity among persons who exhibit antisocial and violent behaviours. The study of psychopathic personality or psychopathy can help elucidate this heterogeneity through examination of the different facets that constitute this disorder. In particular, the distinct correlates of the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy suggest at least two possible pathways to antisocial behaviours. Building on basic studies in cognitive and affective neuroscience, we provide a focused, non-comprehensive review of work identifying the biopsychological mechanisms involved in these two pathways, with special attention to studies using event-related potential (ERP) methods. In specific, a series of studies are discussed which examined affective and cognitive processes that may distinguish offenders high on psychopathic traits from other offenders, with emphasis on alterations in emotion-cognition interactions related to each factor of psychopathy. The set of findings reviewed highlight a central conclusion: Factor 1 represents a pathway involving reduced emotional responding, exacerbated by attentional abnormalities, that make for a more deliberate and emotionally insensitive offender profile. In contrast, Factor 2 characterizes a pathway marked by emotional and behavioural dysregulation and cognitive control dysfunctions, particularly in emotional contexts. Implications for identifying etiological processes and the further understanding of antisocial and violent behaviours are discussed.

  9. Schizophrenia-Related Microdeletion Impairs Emotional Memory through MicroRNA-Dependent Disruption of Thalamic Inputs to the Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yeon Eom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections. This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs. This deficit in thalamo-LA synaptic transmission is sufficient to cause fear memory deficits. Our results suggest that dysregulation of the Dgcr8–Drd2 mechanism at thalamic inputs to the amygdala underlies emotional memory deficits in 22q11DS.

  10. Schizophrenia-Related Microdeletion Impairs Emotional Memory through MicroRNA-Dependent Disruption of Thalamic Inputs to the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae-Yeon; Bayazitov, Ildar T; Anderson, Kara; Yu, Jing; Zakharenko, Stanislav S

    2017-05-23

    Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at high risk of developing psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11DS and schizophrenia are impaired in emotional memory, anticipating, recalling, and assigning a correct context to emotions. The neuronal circuits responsible for these emotional memory deficits are unknown. Here, we show that 22q11DS mouse models have disrupted synaptic transmission at thalamic inputs to the lateral amygdala (thalamo-LA projections). This synaptic deficit is caused by haploinsufficiency of the 22q11DS gene Dgcr8, which is involved in microRNA processing, and is mediated by the increased dopamine receptor Drd2 levels in the thalamus and by reduced probability of glutamate release from thalamic inputs. This deficit in thalamo-LA synaptic transmission is sufficient to cause fear memory deficits. Our results suggest that dysregulation of the Dgcr8-Drd2 mechanism at thalamic inputs to the amygdala underlies emotional memory deficits in 22q11DS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Odd-odd neutron-excess nuclei from the magicity region close to 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhina, K.I.; Isakov, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    This is the second publication in a series devoted to theoretical study of neutron-excess nuclei close to the doubly magic nuclide 132 Sn. Odd-odd nuclei from this region are considered by using the quasi-boson approximation. Energy level spectra, electromagnetic transition probabilities, and β-decay properties of nuclei are analyzed. Among other things, the renormalization of the axial-vector constant in the nucleus is determined. Numerical calculations are made for 134 Sb, 130 In, 132 Sb, and 132 In nuclides. Whenever possible, the results are compared with experimental data. 33 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  12. Linking emotional distress to unhealthy sleep duration: analysis of the 2009 National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas AA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Azizi A Seixas,1 Joao V Nunes,2 Collins O Airhihenbuwa,3 Natasha J Williams,1 Seithikurippu Ratnas Pandi-Perumal,1 Caryl C James,4 Girardin Jean-Louis11Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Department of Population Health, Division of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, 2Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City College of New York, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA; 4Department of Sociology, Psychology and Social Work, The University of the West Indies, Mona, JamaicaObjective: The objective of the study was to examine the independent association of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep duration (defined as <7 or >8 hours.Methods: Data from the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, a cross-sectional household survey, were analyzed to investigate the associations of emotional distress with unhealthy sleep durations, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health risks, and chronic diseases through hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis.Participants: A total of 27,731 participants (age range 18–85 years from the NHIS 2009 dataset were interviewed.Measures: Unhealthy sleep duration is defined as sleep duration <7 or >8 hours, whereas healthy sleep is defined as sleep duration lasting for 7–8 hours. Emotional distress is based on the Kessler 6 Non-Specific Distress Battery, which assesses the frequency of feeling sad, nervous, restless, hopeless, worthless, and burdened, over a 30-day period.Results: Of the sample, 51.7% were female; 83.1% were white and 16.9% were black. Eleven percent experienced emotional distress and 37.6% reported unhealthy sleep. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals with emotional distress had 55% greater odds of reporting unhealthy sleep (odds ratio [OR] =1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.42, 1.68, P<0.001.Conclusion: Emotional distress, an important proxy for

  13. Cerebral Correlates of Abnormal Emotion Conflict Processing in Euthymic Bipolar Patients: A Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Pauline; Polosan, Mircea; Pichat, Cédric; Bougerol, Thierry; Baciu, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder experience cognitive and emotional impairment that may persist even during the euthymic state of the disease. These persistent symptoms in bipolar patients (BP) may be characterized by disturbances of emotion regulation and related fronto-limbic brain circuitry. The present study aims to investigate the modulation of fronto-limbic activity and connectivity in BP by the processing of emotional conflict. Fourteen euthymic BP and 13 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a word-face emotional Stroop task designed to dissociate the monitoring/generation of emotional conflict from its resolution. Functional connectivity was determined by means of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) approach. Relative to HS, BP were slower to process incongruent stimuli, reflecting higher amount of behavioral interference during emotional Stroop. Furthermore, BP showed decreased activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the monitoring and a lack of bilateral amygdala deactivation during the resolution of the emotional conflict. In addition, during conflict monitoring, BP showed abnormal positive connectivity between the right DLPFC and several regions of the default mode network. Overall, our results highlighted dysfunctional processing of the emotion conflict in euthymic BP that may be subtended by abnormal activity and connectivity of the DLPFC during the conflict monitoring, which, in turn, leads to failure of amygdala deactivation during the resolution of the conflict. Emotional dysregulation in BP may be underpinned by a lack of top-down cognitive control and a difficulty to focus on the task due to persistent self-oriented attention.

  14. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengnan; He, Weiqi; Zhan, Lei; Qi, Zhengyang; Zhu, Chuanlin; Luo, Wenbo; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  15. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Yi

    Full Text Available Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  16. Amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate connectivity during an emotional working memory task in borderline personality disorder patients with interpersonal trauma history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegret eKrause-Utz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion dysregulation and stress-related cognitive disturbances including dissociation are key features of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD. Previous research suggests that amygdala hyperreactivity along with a failure to activate frontal brain areas implicated in inhibitory control (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex, ACC may underlie core symptoms of BPD. However, studies investigating interactions of fronto-limbic brain areas during cognitive inhibition of interfering emotional stimuli in BPD patients are still needed. Moreover, very little is known about how dissociation modulates fronto-limbic connectivity during emotional distraction in BPD. We used Psychophysiological Interaction (PPI to analyse amygdala and dorsal ACC (dACC connectivity in 22 un-medicated BPD patients with interpersonal trauma history and 22 healthy controls (HC, who performed a working memory task, while either no distractors or neutral vs. negative interpersonal pictures were presented. A measure of state dissociation was used to predict amygdala as well as dACC connectivity in the BPD group. During emotional distraction, both groups showed disrupted amygdala connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which was more pronounced in the BPD group. Patients further showed stronger amygdala-hippocampus and dACC-insula connectivity during emotional interference and demonstrated a stronger coupling of the dACC with nodes of the default mode network (e.g. posterior cingulate. Dissociation positively predicted amygdala-dACC connectivity and negatively predicted dACC connectivity with insula and posterior cingulate. Our results suggest aberrant connectivity patterns involving brain regions associated with emotion processing, salience detection, and self-referential processes, which may be modulated by dissociation, in BPD. Findings might be related to difficulties in shifting attention away from external (distracting emotional stimuli as well as internal emotional states

  17. Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, and job satisfaction among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psilopanagioti Aristea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector. Recently, in the “emotionally charged” healthcare field, emotional intelligence and emotional labor have both emerged as research tools, rather than just as theoretical concepts, influencing various organizational parameters including job satisfaction. The present study aimed at investigating the relationships, direct and/or indirect, between emotional intelligence, the surface acting component of emotional labor, and job satisfaction in medical staff working in tertiary healthcare. Methods Data were collected from 130 physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: a the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, which assessed the four dimensions of emotional intelligence, i.e. Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others’ Emotion Appraisal, Use of Emotion, and Regulation of Emotion, b the General Index of Job Satisfaction, and c the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (surface acting component. Results Emotional intelligence (Use of Emotion dimension was significantly and positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=.42, p, whereas a significant negative correlation between surface acting and job satisfaction was observed (r=−.39, p. Furthermore, Self-Emotion Appraisal was negatively correlated with surface acting (r=−.20, p. Self-Emotion Appraisal was found to influence job satisfaction both directly and indirectly through surface acting, while this indirect effect was moderated by gender. Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that surface acting could predict job satisfaction over and above emotional intelligence dimensions. Conclusions The results of the present

  18. Motivation, emotion regulation, and the latent structure of psychopathology: An integrative and convergent historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Zisner, Aimee

    2017-09-01

    Motivational models of psychopathology have long been advanced by psychophysiologists, and have provided key insights into neurobiological mechanisms of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. These accounts emphasize individual differences in activity and reactivity of bottom-up, subcortical neural systems of approach and avoidance in affecting behavior. Largely independent literatures emphasize the roles of top-down, cortical deficits in emotion regulation and executive function in conferring vulnerability to psychopathology. To date however, few models effectively integrate functions performed by bottom-up emotion generation system with those performed by top-down emotion regulation systems in accounting for alternative expressions of psychopathology. In this article, we present such a model, and describe how it accommodates the well replicated bifactor structure of psychopathology. We describe how excessive approach motivation maps directly into externalizing liability, how excessive passive avoidance motivation maps directly into internalizing liability, and how emotion dysregulation and executive function map onto general liability. This approach is consistent with the Research Domain Criteria initiative, which assumes that a limited number of brain systems interact to confer vulnerability to many if not most forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Emotional Self-Regulation of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Smartwatches for Monitoring and Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Torrado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the needs of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD to have a pervasive, feasible and non-stigmatizing form of assistance in their emotional self-regulation, in order to ease certain behavioral issues that undermine their mental health throughout their life. We argue the potential of recent widespread wearables, and more specifically smartwatches, to achieve this goal. Then, a smartwatch system that implements a wide range of self-regulation strategies and infers outburst patterns from physiological signals and movement is presented, along with an authoring tool for smartphones that is to be used by caregivers or family members to create and edit these strategies, in an adaptive way. We conducted an intensive experiment with two individuals with ASD who showed varied, representative behavioral responses to their emotional dysregulation. Both users were able to employ effective, customized emotional self-regulation strategies by means of the system, recovering from the majority of mild stress episodes and temper tantrums experienced in the nine days of experiment in their classroom.

  20. Sexual harassment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescence: stronger associations among boys than girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-08-01

    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.

  1. Covariant heterotic strings and odd self-dual lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, W.; Luest, D.

    1987-01-01

    We investigate the implications of modular invariance for covariantly formulated heterotic strings. It is shown that modular invariant heterotic strings are characterized by odd self-dual lorentzian lattices which include charges of the bosonized superconformal ghosts. The proof of modular invariance involves the anomaly in the ghost number current in a crucial way. (orig.)

  2. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 184}Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P.C. [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Department of Physics, Prasanthinilayam (India)

    2016-02-15

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus {sub 73}{sup 184}Ta{sub 111} is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from {sup 184}Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that {sup 184}Hf (Q{sub β} = 1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β -branches to {sup 184}Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak (1f{sup u}) β -branches populating J{sup π} = 2{sup -} levels in {sup 184}Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying (E{sub x} = 260(40) keV) high-spin (J{sup π} = 10{sup -}) long-lived isomer in this nucleus. (orig.)

  3. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes $^{106, 108}$In

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, A; Blazhev, A; Van de Walle, J; Weisshaar, D; Zielinska, M; Tveten, G M; Marsh, B A; Siem, S; Gorska, M; Engeland, T; Hurst, A M; Cederkall, J; Finke, F; Iwanicki, J; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Davinson, T; Eberth, J; Sletten, G; Mierzejewski, J; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Butler, P A; Fahlander, C; Stefanescu, I; Koester, U; Ivanov, O; Wenander, F; Voulot, D

    2010-01-01

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes In-106,In-108 have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu d(5/2) and pi g(9/2)(-1) circle times nu g7/2 multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed gamma-ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6(+) ground state in In-106. This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in In-108 is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B(E2) val...

  4. Emotional Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Questioning Bullies: Does It Differ from Straight Bullies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrates that young people involved in bullying are at greater risk for poor emotional health outcomes, but this association may not be consistent for youth of different sexual orientations. Understanding the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth may suggest important opportunities for intervention and prevention. This study, therefore, examines whether involvement with bullying is differentially associated with emotional well-being across sexual orientation. Survey data were collected from a large statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade students in 2013 (N = 79,039, 49.8% female, 74.6% white). Logistic regression tested associations between sexual orientation, physical or relational bullying perpetration and five measures of emotional health. In the full sample, those reporting bullying perpetration had significantly elevated odds of emotional health problems. However, interaction terms and stratified models indicated that in nine out of ten physical bullying models and two out of ten relational bullying models, perpetration was not as strongly associated with poor emotional health among LGBQ adolescents as it was among heterosexual youth. Possible explanations for this finding include unhealthy coping strategies or masking one's own vulnerable status as LGBQ. Continued efforts to prevent bullying are needed for all youth.

  5. "PREVALENCE, MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS AND BIRTH OUTCOME OF PHYSICAL, SEXUAL AND EMOTIONAL DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DURING PREGNANCY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faramarzi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy varies widely in different societies. To assess the incidence of self-reported physical, emotional and sexual violence in pregnancy and describe the association with maternal complication and birth outcomes, 3275 women who gave birth to live-born infants from October 2002 to November 2003 were assessed for self-reported violence in postpartum units of Obstetrics Department of Babol university of Medical Sciences. Outcome data included maternal antenatal hospitalizations, labor and delivery complications and low birth weights and preterm births. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between violence, maternal morbidity and birth outcomes. The prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional domestic violence was respectively 9.1%, 30.8% and 19.2%. Compared with those not reporting physical, sexual and emotional violence, women who did were more likely to deliver by cesarean and to have abnormal progress of labor, premature rupture of membranes, low birth weight, preterm birth and any hospitalization before delivery. Prevalence of physical, emotional or sexual violence during pregnancy was high and was associated with adverse fetal and maternal conditions. These findings support routine screening for physical, emotional and sexual violence in pregnancy and postpartum period to prevent consequences of domestic violence.

  6. Combined pharmacotherapy-multimodal psychotherapy in children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Manfredi, Azzurra; Brovedani, Paola; Pisano, Simone; Muratori, Pietro

    2016-04-30

    Although multi-component psychotherapeutic interventions are first-line treatments for Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), pharmacotherapy is often associated for more severe patients. Our aim was to explore effectiveness of an associated pharmacotherapy in referred children with DBD receiving a one-year psychotherapeutic intervention. Aggression, callous unemotional (CU) traits and emotional dysregulation were outcome measures. The sample included 144 children, aged 8-12 years, 41 (29%) with an ADHD comorbidity. Fifty-five (38%) patients received an additional pharmacotherapy with one medication, methylphenidate, a second generation antipsychotic, or a mood stabilizer. Data were collected before and after the one-year treatment. According to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), aggressive behaviors, rule-breaking behaviors and emotional dysregulation improved in the whole group, as well as parent- and child-reported CU traits. The hierarchical regression model showed that additional pharmacotherapy significantly predicted lower scores at the CBCL aggressive behaviors and emotional dysregulation, but not CU traits at the end of the treatment. The interaction between methylphenidate and ADHD comorbidity predicted lower aggressive behaviors after the treatment. In summary, this naturalistic investigation suggest that an additional pharmacotherapy significantly improved aggression and emotional dysregulation, but not CU traits. When ADHD was comorbid, methylphenidate was more effective than antipsychotics or mood stabilizers in reducing aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei 102,l04Nb by using PSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yongsheng; Hu Wentao; Feng Youliang; Wang Jinbao; Yu Shaoying; Shen Caiwan

    2012-01-01

    The Projected Shell Model (PSM) is used to study the low energy scheme of the neutron-rich normal-deformed isotopes of odd-odd nuclei 102,104 Nb. The quasiparticle configuration is assigned. The theoretical calculations of the energy band of 102,104 Nb could well reproduce the experimental data. It is shown that PSM is a valid method for studying the low energy scheme of heavy nuclei. (authors)

  8. Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Sarah L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studiedwith the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus ator near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via differentnuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrancechannel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's"Fusion By Diffusion" model is nearly identical forthe two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, theexit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs' cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrancechannel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusionleading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35$+19\\atop{-9}$ ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki

  9. Odd-frequency pairing in superconducting heterostructures .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, A. A.; Tanaka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Asano, Y.

    2007-03-01

    We present a general theory of the proximity effect in junctions between unconventional superconductors and diffusive normal metals (DN) or ferromagnets (DF). We consider all possible symmetry classes in a superconductor allowed by the Pauli principle: even-frequency spin-singlet even-parity state, even-frequency spin-triplet odd-parity state, odd-frequency spin-triplet even-parity state and odd-frequency spin-singlet odd-parity state. For each of the above states, symmetry and spectral properties of the induced pair amplitude in the DN (DF) are determined. The cases of junctions with spin-singlet s- and d-wave superconductors and spin-triplet p-wave superconductors are adressed in detail. We discuss the interplay between the proximity effect and midgap Andreev bound states arising at interfaces in unconventional (d- or p-wave) junctions. The most striking property is the odd-frequency symmetry of the pairing amplitude induced in DN (DF) in contacts with p-wave superconductors. This leads to zero-energy singularity in the density of states and to anomalous screening of an external magnetic field. Peculiarities of Josephson effect in d- or p-wave junctions are discussed. Experiments are suggested to detect an order parameter symmetry using heterostructures with unconventional superconductors.

  10. Optimal Versus Realized Trajectories of Physiological Dysregulation in Aging and Their Relation to Sex-Specific Mortality Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbeev, Konstantin G; Cohen, Alan A; Arbeeva, Liubov S

    2016-01-01

    dysregulation is related to different aging-related characteristics such as decline in stress resistance and adaptive capacity (which typically are not observed in the data and thus can be analyzed only indirectly), and, ultimately, to estimate how such dynamic relationships increase mortality risk with age. We...... substantial sex differences in these processes, with women becoming dysregulated more quickly but with men showing a much greater sensitivity to dysregulation in terms of mortality risk....

  11. Signature inversion in doubly odd 124La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, H.J.; Paul, E.S.; Boston, A.J.; Choy, P.T.W.; Nolan, P.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Davids, C.N.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R.; Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; Chiara, C.J.; Fossan, D.B.; Koike, T.; LaFosse, D.R.; Starosta, K.; Fletcher, A.M.; Smith, J.F.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kelsall, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    High-spin states have been studied in neutron-deficient 57 124 La 67 , populated through the 64 Zn( 64 Zn,3pn) reaction at 260 MeV. The Gammasphere γ-ray spectrometer has been used in conjunction with the Microball charged-particle detector, the Neutron Shell, and the Argonne Fragment Mass Analyzer, in order to select evaporation residues of interest. The known band structures have been extended and new bands found. Most of the bands are linked together, allowing more consistent spin and parity assignments. Comparison of band properties to cranking calculations has allowed configuration assignments to be made and includes the first identification of the g 9/2 proton-hole in an odd-odd lanthanum isotope. Two bands have been assigned a πh 11/2 xνh 11/2 structure; the yrast one exhibits a signature inversion in its level energies below I=18.5(ℎ/2π), while the excited one exhibits a signature inversion above I=18.5(ℎ/2π)

  12. A novel statistical approach shows evidence for multi-system physiological dysregulation during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Yong, Jian; Seplaki, Christopher L; Fülöp, Tamàs; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Fried, Linda P

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have identified many biomarkers that are associated with aging and related outcomes, but the relevance of these markers for underlying processes and their relationship to hypothesized systemic dysregulation is not clear. We address this gap by presenting a novel method for measuring dysregulation via the joint distribution of multiple biomarkers and assessing associations of dysregulation with age and mortality. Using longitudinal data from the Women's Health and Aging Study, we selected a 14-marker subset from 63 blood measures: those that diverged from the baseline population mean with age. For the 14 markers and all combinatorial sub-subsets we calculated a multivariate distance called the Mahalanobis distance (MHBD) for all observations, indicating how "strange" each individual's biomarker profile was relative to the baseline population mean. In most models, MHBD correlated positively with age, MHBD increased within individuals over time, and higher MHBD predicted higher risk of subsequent mortality. Predictive power increased as more variables were incorporated into the calculation of MHBD. Biomarkers from multiple systems were implicated. These results support hypotheses of simultaneous dysregulation in multiple systems and confirm the need for longitudinal, multivariate approaches to understanding biomarkers in aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Level Density In Interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion Model (IBFFM) Of The Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik

    2007-01-01

    The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM total level density is fitted by Gaussian and its tail is also fitted by Bethe formula and constant temperature Fermi gas model

  14. Longitudinal Patterns of Autonomic Nervous System Responding to Emotion Evocation among Children with Conduct Problems and/or Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Karen C.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2012-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) and depression co-occur at far greater levels than chance, despite largely separate diagnostic criteria. One potential shared mechanism of this comorbidity is emotion dysregulation, which characterizes both internalizing and externalizing disorders. Previous research demonstrates that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)—a peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation—is attenuated among children with CD, and among children with depression. However, few studies have examined biomarkers of emotion regulation as a function of heterotypic comorbidity. We evaluated longitudinal patterns of RSA and RSA reactivity to emotion evocation across three annual assessments among 207 children diagnosed at ages 8–12 years with CD (n=30), depression (n=28), comorbid CD and depression (n=80), or no psychiatric condition (n=69). Using continuous symptom counts as predictors, Depression × CD interactions were observed for both Time 1 resting RSA and Time 1 RSA reactivity. Conduct disorder, depression, and their interaction were all associated with low resting RSA at Time 1. In addition, concurrently elevated CD and depression scores predicted the greatest RSA reactivity to emotion evocation. Psychopathology scores were unrelated to developmental changes in RSA and RSA reactivity over time. PMID:22826111

  15. The odd side of torsion geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and study a notion of `Sasaki with torsion structure' (ST) as an odd-dimensional analogue of Kähler with torsion geometry (KT). These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd-dimensional compact Lie group is sho...

  16. Facets of emotional awareness and associations with emotion regulation and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2015-06-01

    Emotion theories posit that effective emotion regulation depends upon the nuanced information provided by emotional awareness; attending to and understanding one's own emotions. Additionally, the strong associations between facets of emotional awareness and various forms of psychopathology may be partially attributable to associations with emotion regulation. These logically compelling hypotheses are largely uninvestigated, including which facets compose emotional awareness and how they relate to emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology. We used exploratory structural equation modeling of individual difference measures among a large adult sample (n = 919) recruited online. Results distinguished 4 facets of emotional awareness (type clarity, source clarity, involuntary attention to emotion, and voluntary attention to emotion) that were differentially associated with expressive suppression, acceptance of emotions, and cognitive reappraisal. Facets were associated with depression both directly and indirectly via associations with emotion regulation strategies. We discuss implications for theory and research on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  18. Dysregulated metabolism contributes to oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschey, Matthew D.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Diehl, Anna Mae E.; Drew, Janice E.; Frezza, Christian; Green, Michelle F.; Jones, Lee W.; Ko, Young H.; Le, Anne; Lea, Michael A.; Locasale, Jason W.; Longo, Valter D.; Lyssiotis, Costas A.; McDonnell, Eoin; Mehrmohamadi, Mahya; Michelotti, Gregory; Muralidhar, Vinayak; Murphy, Michael P.; Pedersen, Peter L.; Poore, Brad; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.; Sivanand, Sharanya; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Wellen, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a disease characterized by unrestrained cellular proliferation. In order to sustain growth, cancer cells undergo a complex metabolic rearrangement characterized by changes in metabolic pathways involved in energy production and biosynthetic processes. The relevance of the metabolic transformation of cancer cells has been recently included in the updated version of the review “Hallmarks of Cancer”, where the dysregulation of cellular metabolism was included as an emerging hallmark. While several lines of evidence suggest that metabolic rewiring is orchestrated by the concerted action of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, in some circumstances altered metabolism can play a primary role in oncogenesis. Recently, mutations of cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes involved in key metabolic pathways have been associated with hereditary and sporadic forms of cancer. Together, these results suggest that aberrant metabolism, once seen just as an epiphenomenon of oncogenic reprogramming, plays a key role in oncogenesis with the power to control both genetic and epigenetic events in cells. In this review, we discuss the relationship between metabolism and cancer, as part of a larger effort to identify a broad-spectrum of therapeutic approaches. We focus on major alterations in nutrient metabolism and the emerging link between metabolism and epigenetics. Finally, we discuss potential strategies to manipulate metabolism in cancer and tradeoffs that should be considered. More research on the suite of metabolic alterations in cancer holds the potential to discover novel approaches to treat it. PMID:26454069

  19. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. It is revealed that this bracket has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, second and third orders with respect to the Grassmann derivatives. It is shown that these Δ-like operators, together with the Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket, form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra

  20. Dysregulated Pathway Identification of Alzheimer's Disease Based on Internal Correlation Analysis of Genes and Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Mou, Xiaoyang; Di, Benteng; Deng, Jin; Zhong, Ruxing; Wang, Shuaiqun

    2017-11-20

    Dysregulated pathway identification is an important task which can gain insight into the underlying biological processes of disease. Current pathway-identification methods focus on a set of co-expression genes and single pathways and ignore the correlation between genes and pathways. The method proposed in this study, takes into account the internal correlations not only between genes but also pathways to identifying dysregulated pathways related to Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. In order to find the significantly differential genes for AD, mutual information (MI) is used to measure interdependencies between genes other than expression valves. Then, by integrating the topology information from KEGG, the significant pathways involved in the feature genes are identified. Next, the distance correlation (DC) is applied to measure the pairwise pathway crosstalks since DC has the advantage of detecting nonlinear correlations when compared to Pearson correlation. Finally, the pathway pairs with significantly different correlations between normal and AD samples are known as dysregulated pathways. The molecular biology analysis demonstrated that many dysregulated pathways related to AD pathogenesis have been discovered successfully by the internal correlation detection. Furthermore, the insights of the dysregulated pathways in the development and deterioration of AD will help to find new effective target genes and provide important theoretical guidance for drug design. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Testing predictions of the emotion regulation model of binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Therese E; Singleton, Christopher; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2017-11-01

    The emotion regulation (ER) model of binge eating posits that individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED) experience more intense emotions and greater difficulties in ER than individuals without BED, leading them to binge eat as a means of regulating emotions. According to this model, individuals with BED should report greater difficulties in ER than their non-BED counterparts, the severity of these difficulties should be positively associated with BED symptoms, and this association should be stronger when individuals experience persistent negative emotions (i.e., depression). Studies examining these hypotheses, however, have been limited. Data were collected from adults meeting the DSM 5 criteria for BED (n = 71; 93% female) and no history of an eating disorder (NED; n =  79; 83.5% female). Participants completed self-report measures of difficulties in ER, eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, and depression. Individuals with BED reported greater difficulties in ER compared to those with NED. Moreover, difficulties in ER predicted unique variance in binge frequency and ED psychopathology in BED. Depression moderated the association between ER difficulties and binge frequency such that emotion dysregulation and binge frequency were positively associated in those reporting high, but not low, depression levels. The association between difficulties in ER and ED pathology in BED suggests that treatments focusing on improving ER skills may be effective in treating this ED; however, the moderating effect of depression underscores the need for research on individual differences and treatment moderators. These findings suggest the importance of ER in understanding and treating BED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Self perception of empathy in schizophrenia: emotion recognition, insight, and symptoms predict degree of self and interviewer agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kravetz, Shlomo; Kent, Jerillyn S; Roe, David

    2013-04-30

    Many with schizophrenia have been found to experience difficulties recognizing a range of their own mental states including memories and emotions. While there is some evidence that the self perception of empathy in schizophrenia is often at odds with objective observations, little is known about the correlates of rates of concordance between self and rater assessments of empathy for this group. To explore this issue we gathered self and rater assessments of empathy in addition to assessments of emotion recognition using the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, insight using the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, and symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale from 91 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Results revealed that participants with better emotion recognition, better insight, fewer positive symptoms and fewer depressive symptoms produced self ratings of empathy which were more strongly correlated with assessments of empathy performed by raters than participants with greater deficits in these domains. Results suggest that deficits in emotion recognition along with poor insight and higher levels of positive and depressive symptoms may affect the degree of agreement between self and rater assessments of empathy in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Immune System Dysregulation and Herpesvirus Reactivation Persist During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Mehta, S.; Stowe, R. P.; Uchakin, P.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews a study that is designed to address immune system dysregulation and the risk to crewmembers in long duration exploration class missions. This study will address these objectives: (1) Determine the status of adaptive immunity physiological stress, viral immunity, latent herpesvirus reactivation in astronauts during 6 month missions to the International Space Station; (2) determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and (3) determine an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. The study anticipates 17 subjects, and for this presentation, (midpoint study data) 10 subjects are reviewed.

  5. Adult attachment style and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...

  6. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.

    1998-04-16

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.

  7. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHARZEEV, D.; PISARSKI, R.D.; TYTGAT, M.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N r a rrow ∞. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T d , is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero θ--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T d . Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the ηprime meson, and especially the η meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as η r a rrow π 0 π 0 , are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define

  8. Odd Shape Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jo Ann; Wells, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The Odd Shape Out task was an open-ended problem that engaged students in comparing shapes based on their properties. Four teachers submitted the work of 116 students from across the country. This article compares various student's responses to the task. The problem allowed for differentiation, as shown by the many different ways that students…

  9. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Michael H.; Fierke, Kerry K.; Sucher, Brandon J.; Janke, Kristin K.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI exper...

  10. Dysregulation of RNA Mediated Gene Expression in Motor Neuron Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Inês do Carmo G; Rehorst, Wiebke A; Kye, Min Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate an important role for RNA-mediated gene expression in motor neuron diseases, including ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and SMA (spinal muscular atrophy). ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder, whereby SMA or "children's Lou Gehrig's disease" is considered a pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder. Despite the difference in genetic causes, both ALS and SMA share common phenotypes; dysfunction/loss of motor neurons that eventually leads to muscle weakness and atrophy. With advanced techniques in molecular genetics and cell biology, current data suggest that these two distinct motor neuron diseases share more than phenotypes; ALS and SMA have similar cellular pathological mechanisms including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and dysregulation in RNA-mediated gene expression. Here, we will discuss the current findings on these two diseases with specific focus on RNA-mediated gene regulation including miRNA expression, pre-mRNA processing and RNA binding proteins.

  11. Emotional availability, understanding emotions, and recognition of facial emotions in obese mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Sarah; von Klitzing, Kai; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Herpertz, Sarah; Schütz, Astrid; Klein, Annette M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has identified mother-child relationships of low quality as possible risk factors for childhood obesity. However, it remains open how mothers' own obesity influences the quality of mother-child interaction, and particularly emotional availability (EA). Also unclear is the influence of maternal emotional competencies, i.e. understanding emotions and recognizing facial emotions. This study aimed to (1) investigate differences between obese and normal-weight mothers regarding mother-child EA, maternal understanding emotions and recognition of facial emotions, and (2) explore how maternal emotional competencies and maternal weight interact with each other in predicting EA. A better understanding of these associations could inform strategies of obesity prevention especially in children at risk. We assessed EA, understanding emotions and recognition of facial emotions in 73 obese versus 73 normal-weight mothers, and their children aged 6 to 47 months (Mchild age=24.49, 80 females). Obese mothers showed lower EA and understanding emotions. Mothers' normal weight and their ability to understand emotions were positively associated with EA. The ability to recognize facial emotions was positively associated with EA in obese but not in normal-weight mothers. Maternal weight status indirectly influenced EA through its effect on understanding emotions. Maternal emotional competencies may play an important role for establishing high EA in interaction with the child. Children of obese mothers experience lower EA, which may contribute to overweight development. We suggest including elements that aim to improve maternal emotional competencies and mother-child EA in prevention or intervention programmes targeting childhood obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness emotion focused therapy approach on cognitive emotion regulation on emotional breakdown girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Karaminezhad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Love Trauma refers to a state of frustration and humiliation felt by the person who is rejected by his/her beloved. The present study was aimed at studying the effectiveness of Emotion-Focused Approach for cognitive emotion regulation of female university students who experienced Love Trauma. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research including a pre-test, a post-test, and a follow-up test with the control group. The statistical population included all female students of Ahvaz universities who had experienced Love Trauma in 2014-2015. The total number of participants was 22, out of which 11 participants (who showed willingness were chosen for the experimental group. The remaining 11 participants were placed in the control group. The Love Trauma Inventory and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were used as the instruments of the research. All participants answered both questionnaires. Then the members of experimental group received the treatment intervention during eight personal 60-minute sessions held twice a week. After that, both groups answered CERQ again. One month after the experiment, the follow-up test was conducted for both groups. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics and Multivariable Analyze of Covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The findings indicated that the Emotion-Focused Approach in the post-test and follow-up test has provoked more positive strategies for cognitive emotion regulation in the experimental group in comparison with the control group Conclusion: Since love and other feelings associated with Love Trauma are classified under the category of emotions, the Emotionally-Focused Therapy can have a significant influence on the cognitive emotion regulation of female students suffering from Love Trauma.

  13. Systematic identification of core transcription factors mediating dysregulated links bridging inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows a tight link between inflammation and cancer. However, comprehensive identification of pivotal transcription factors (i.e., core TFs mediating the dysregulated links remains challenging, mainly due to a lack of samples that can effectively reflect the connections between inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here, we constructed a series of TF-mediated regulatory networks from a large compendium of expression profiling of normal colonic tissues, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs and colorectal cancer (CRC, which contains 1201 samples in total, and then proposed a network-based approach to characterize potential links bridging inflammation and cancer. For this purpose, we computed significantly dysregulated relationships between inflammation and their linked cancer networks, and then 24 core TFs with their dysregulated genes were identified. Collectively, our approach provides us with quite important insight into inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, which could also be applied to identify functionally dysregulated relationships mediating the links between other different disease phenotypes.

  14. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting poses risk for infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M; Su, Jinni; Calkins, Susan D; O'Brien, Marion; Supple, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    The extent to which indices of maternal physiological arousal (skin conductance augmentation) and regulation (vagal withdrawal) while parenting predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems directly or indirectly via maternal sensitivity was examined in a sample of 259 mothers and their infants. Two covariates, maternal self-reported emotional risk and Adult Attachment Interview attachment coherence were assessed prenatally. Mothers' physiological arousal and regulation were measured during parenting tasks when infants were 6 months old. Maternal sensitivity was observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were 6 and 14 months old, and an average sensitivity score was calculated. Attachment disorganization was observed during the Strange Situation when infants were 14 months old, and mothers reported on infants' behavior problems when infants were 27 months old. Over and above covariates, mothers' arousal and regulation while parenting interacted to predict infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems such that maternal arousal was associated with higher attachment disorganization and behavior problems when maternal regulation was low but not when maternal regulation was high. This effect was direct and not explained by maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that maternal physiological dysregulation while parenting places infants at risk for psychopathology.

  16. Investigating multiple dysregulated pathways in rheumatoid arthritis based on pathway interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xian-Dong; Song, Xian-Xu; Liu, Gui-Bo; Ren, Chun-Hui; Sun, Yuan-Bo; Liu, Ke-Xin; Liu, Bo; Liang, Shuang; Zhu, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    The traditional methods of identifying biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have focussed on the differentially expressed pathways or individual pathways, which however, neglect the interactions between pathways. To better understand the pathogenesis of RA, we aimed to identify dysregulated pathway sets using a pathway interaction network (PIN), which considered interactions among pathways. Firstly, RA-related gene expression profile data, protein-protein interactions (PPI) data and pathway data were taken up from the corresponding databases. Secondly, principal component analysis method was used to calculate the pathway activity of each of the pathway, and then a seed pathway was identified using data gleaned from the pathway activity. A PIN was then constructed based on the gene expression profile, pathway data, and PPI information. Finally, the dysregulated pathways were extracted from the PIN based on the seed pathway using the method of support vector machines and an area under the curve (AUC) index. The PIN comprised of a total of 854 pathways and 1064 pathway interactions. The greatest change in the activity score between RA and control samples was observed in the pathway of epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which was extracted and regarded as the seed pathway. Starting with this seed pathway, one maximum pathway set containing 10 dysregulated pathways was extracted from the PIN, having an AUC of 0.8249, and the result indicated that this pathway set could distinguish RA from the controls. These 10 dysregulated pathways might be potential biomarkers for RA diagnosis and treatment in the future.

  17. Positive Emotion Facilitates Cognitive Flexibility: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility is the ability to switch rapidly between multiple goals. By using a task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated how positive emotion affected cognitive flexibility and the underlying neural mechanisms. After viewing pictures of different emotional valence (positive, negative, or neutral, participants discriminated whether a target digit in a specific color was odd or even. After a series of trials, the color of target stimuli was changed, i.e., the switch condition. Switch costs were measured by the increase of reaction times (RTs in the switch trials compared to those in the repeat trials. Behavior results indicated that switch costs significantly decreased in the positive emotional condition, and increased in the negative emotional condition, compared with those in the neutral condition. Imaging data revealed enhanced activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC in switch trials than those in repeat trials. Moreover, the interaction between emotion (positive, negative, neutral and trial type (repeat vs. switch was significant. For switch trials, the activation of dACC decreased significantly in the positive condition, while increased significantly in the negative condition compared to neutral condition. By contrast, for repeat trials, no significant difference was observed for the activation of dACC among three emotional conditions. Our results showed that positive emotions could increase the cognitive flexibility and reduce the conflict by decreasing the activation of dACC.

  18. Highly-distorted and doubly-decoupled rotational bands in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarris, W.C.; Olivier, W.A.; Rios, A.; Hampton, C.; Chou, Wentsae; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1991-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions induce large amounts of angular momentum; hence, they selectively populate rotationally-aligned particle states in compound nuclei. Such states tend to deexcite through similar states connected by large coriolis matrix elements, resulting in relatively few - but highly distorted - bands in the lower-energy portions of odd-odd spectra. The extreme cases of this are doubly-decoupled, K ∼ 1 (π 1/2 x ν 1/2) bands, whose γ transitions are the most intense in spectra from many light Re and Ir nuclei. The authors made a two-pronged assault on such bands, studying them via different HI reactions at different laboratories and using interacting-boson (IBFFA) calculations to aid in sorting them out. The authors are beginning to understand the types of (primarily coriolis) distortions involved and hope to grasp a handle on aspects of the p-n residual interaction, although the coriolis distortions are large enough to mask much of the latter. They also discuss similar but complementary effects in the light Pr region

  19. The odd-proton effects on the potential energy surfaces of odd mass Tl, Au, Ir and Re isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    De Wieclawik, W; Larsson, S E; Leander, G; Vieu, C; Dionisio, J S

    1976-01-01

    The total potential energy surfaces of thallium, gold, iridium and rhenium odd mass isotopes are calculated microscopically as functions of the quadrupole deformation, epsilon /sub 2/, when the odd protons occupy definite orbitals. The nuclear shapes and the static equilibrium deformations of these nuclei are deduced from the results of these calculations for the proton orbitals nearest to the Fermi level. The influence of the hexadecapole deformation, epsilon /sub 4/, on these results is investigated too. Finally, a few experimental data available for these odd mass nuclei are correlated to the corresponding theoretical results. (16 refs).

  20. The evens and odds of CMB anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppuso, A.; Kitazawa, N.; Lattanzi, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.; Sagnotti, A.

    2018-06-01

    The lack of power of large-angle CMB anisotropies is known to increase its statistical significance at higher Galactic latitudes, where a string-inspired pre-inflationary scale Δ can also be detected. Considering the Planck 2015 data, and relying largely on a Bayesian approach, we show that the effect is mostly driven by the even - ℓ harmonic multipoles with ℓ ≲ 20, which appear sizably suppressed in a way that is robust with respect to Galactic masking, along with the corresponding detections of Δ. On the other hand, the first odd - ℓ multipoles are only suppressed at high Galactic latitudes. We investigate this behavior in different sky masks, constraining Δ through even and odd multipoles, and we elaborate on possible implications. We include low- ℓ polarization data which, despite being noise-limited, help in attaining confidence levels of about 3 σ in the detection of Δ. We also show by direct forecasts that a future all-sky E-mode cosmic-variance-limited polarization survey may push the constraining power for Δ beyond 5 σ.

  1. Timing of first exposure to maternal depression and adolescent emotional disorder in a national Canadian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyuri Naicker

    Full Text Available Correlations have been reported between behavioral and cognitive outcomes in adolescence and exposure to maternal depression during the first postpartum year, but the effects of timing of maternal depression during subsequent exposure periods have rarely been controlled for. This study aims to methodically investigate the importance of timing of initial exposure to maternal depression with respect to adolescent mental health outcomes.This study used data on 937 children from the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY, a nationally-representative longitudinal survey established in 1994 by Statistics Canada. Ordinal logistic regression was used to confirm associations between adolescent emotional disorder (at 12-13 years and initial exposure to maternal depression during 2-year intervals from birth to adolescence. Following their initial exposure to maternal depression, children were dropped from subsequent cycles. Stressful life events, chronic health conditions, maternal alcohol use, maternal marital status, gender, and SES were included as covariates.The results indicated that adolescents who were initially exposed to maternal depression between the ages of 2-3 years and 4-5 years had a two-fold increase in odds of emotional disorder. No increase in odds was observed in those initially exposed during the first postpartum year or later in childhood.The results demonstrate that a sensitive period of initial exposure to maternal depression may occur between the ages of 2 and 5, and not during the first year of life indicated by previous research. These findings are congruent with the literature on emotional and behavioral development in early childhood.

  2. Pathway Interaction Network Analysis Identifies Dysregulated Pathways in Human Monocytes Infected by Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wufeng Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we aimed to extract dysregulated pathways in human monocytes infected by Listeria monocytogenes (LM based on pathway interaction network (PIN which presented the functional dependency between pathways. After genes were aligned to the pathways, principal component analysis (PCA was used to calculate the pathway activity for each pathway, followed by detecting seed pathway. A PIN was constructed based on gene expression profile, protein-protein interactions (PPIs, and cellular pathways. Identifying dysregulated pathways from the PIN was performed relying on seed pathway and classification accuracy. To evaluate whether the PIN method was feasible or not, we compared the introduced method with standard network centrality measures. The pathway of RNA polymerase II pretranscription events was selected as the seed pathway. Taking this seed pathway as start, one pathway set (9 dysregulated pathways with AUC score of 1.00 was identified. Among the 5 hub pathways obtained using standard network centrality measures, 4 pathways were the common ones between the two methods. RNA polymerase II transcription and DNA replication owned a higher number of pathway genes and DEGs. These dysregulated pathways work together to influence the progression of LM infection, and they will be available as biomarkers to diagnose LM infection.

  3. Odd nitrogen production by meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C.; Menees, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The process by which odd nitrogen species (atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide) are formed during atmospheric entry of meteoroids is analyzed theoretically. An ablating meteoroid is assumed to be a point source of mass with a continuum regime evolving in its wake. The amounts of odd nitrogen species, produced by high-temperature reactions of air in the continuum wake, are calculated by numerical integration of chemical rate equations. Flow properties are assumed to be uniform across the wake, and 29 reactions involving five neutral species and five singly ionized species are considered, as well as vibrational and electron temperature nonequilibrium phenomena. The results, when they are summed over the observed mass, velocity, and entry-angle distribution of meteoroids, provide odd-nitrogen-species annual global production rates as functions of altitude. The peak production of nitric oxide is found to occur at an altitude of about 85 km; atomic nitrogen production peaks at about 95 km. The total annual rate for nitric oxide is 40 million kg; for atomic nitrogen it is 170 million kg.

  4. Attention Biases Towards and Away from Threat Mark the Relation between Early Dysregulated Fear and the Later Emergence of Social Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Santiago; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E; Buss, Kristin A

    2015-08-01

    Fearful temperament, mostly studied as behavioral inhibition (BI), has been extensively associated with social withdrawal in childhood and the later emergence of anxiety disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (SAD). Recent studies have characterized a distinct type of fearful temperament marked by high levels of fear in low threat situations - labeled dysregulated fear. Dysregulated fear has been related to SAD over and above risks associated with BI. However, the mechanism by which dysregulated fear is related to SAD has not been studied. Cognitive mechanisms, such as attentional bias towards threat, may be a possible conduit. We examined differences in attentional bias towards threat in six-year-olds who displayed a pattern of dysregulated fear at age two (N = 23) compared with children who did not display dysregulated fear (N = 33). Moreover, we examined the concurrent relation between attentional bias and social withdrawal. Results indicated that children characterized by dysregulated fear showed a significant bias away from threat, and that this bias was significantly different from the children without dysregulated fear, who showed no significant bias. Moreover, attentional bias towards threat was positively related to social withdrawal only for the dysregulated fear group. These results are discussed in consideration of the existing knowledge of attentional bias to threat in the developmental and pediatric anxiety literatures, as well as recent studies that find important heterogeneity in attentional bias.

  5. Promotion of smoking cessation with emotional and/or graphic antismoking advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Nonnemaker, James M; Kamyab, Kian; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2012-11-01

    Antismoking campaigns can be effective in promoting cessation, but less is known about the dose of advertising related to behavioral change among adult smokers, which types of messages are most effective, and effects on populations disproportionately affected by tobacco use. To assess the impact of emotional and/or graphic antismoking TV advertisements on quit attempts in the past 12 months among adult smokers in New York State. Individual-level data come from the 2003 through 2010 New York Adult Tobacco Surveys. The influence of exposure to antismoking advertisements overall, emotional and/or graphic advertisements, and other types of advertisements on reported attempts to stop smoking was examined. Exposure was measured by self-reported confirmed recall and market-level gross rating points. Analyses conducted in Spring 2012 included 8780 smokers and were stratified by desire to quit, income, and education. Both measures of exposure to antismoking advertisements are positively associated with an increased odds of making a quit attempt among all smokers, among smokers who want to quit, and among smokers in different household income brackets (advertisements is positively associated with making quit attempts among smokers overall and by desire to quit, income, and education. Exposure to advertisements without strong negative emotions or graphic images had no effect. Strongly emotional and graphic antismoking advertisements are effective in increasing population-level quit attempts among adult smokers. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Stress and autonomic dysregulation in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, H-C; Schellberg, D; Mueller, K; Bieber, C; Zipfel, S; Eich, W

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate to what extent the orthostatic dysregulation of FMS patients can be attributed primarily to reduced baroreceptor-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system and whether a hyporeactive sympathetic nervous system can also be confirmed for mental stress. A total of 28 patients with primary FMS were examined and compared with 15 healthy subjects. Diagnostic investigations of the autonomic nervous system were based on measuring HRV in frequency range and assessing spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (sBRS) under mental stress and passive orthostatism. Both under orthostatic and mental stress FMS patients exhibited reduced activation of the sympathetic nervous system as measured by the spectral power of HRV in the low-frequency range and the mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate. The present study provided no indications for dysregulation of sBRS. The results obtained confirm the hypothesis of a hyporeactive stress system in FMS patients for both peripherally and centrally mediated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.

  7. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and