Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.
Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.
Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.
This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…
Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu
With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…
Hansen Edwards, Jette G.
The current study examines how and why speakers of English from multilingual contexts in Asia are identifying as native speakers of English. Eighteen participants from different contexts in Asia, including Singapore, Malaysia, India, Taiwan, and The Philippines, who self-identified as native speakers of English participated in hour-long interviews…
Full Text Available With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars’ attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research is conducted from the point of college students until recently. This paper focuses on Chinese college students’ perceptions of native English and non-native English in order to offer insights into the mainstream English language teaching in terms of its exclusive reference to English as a native language in China. This paper draws on the data contributed by 50 Chinese university students through questionnaires. The questionnaire responses displayed a superficial preference for native English and a potential inclination for non-native English in EFL classrooms. The article argues that factors behind the attitude point to the need of changing mainstream English teaching. Keywords: Native English, Non-native English, Chinese college students’ attitudes, mainstream English teaching
Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.
In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172
This book takes a new and holistic approach to fluency in English speech and differentiates between productive, perceptive, and nonverbal fluency. The in-depth corpus-based description of productive fluency points out major differences of how fluency is established in native and nonnative speech. It also reveals areas in which even highly advanced learners of English still deviate strongly from the native target norm and in which they have already approximated to it. Based on these findings, selected learners are subjected to native speakers' ratings of seven perceptive fluency variables in or
Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.
Walkinshaw, Ian; Duong, Oanh Thi Hoang
This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-speaker teachers rather than non-native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching…
Mezia Kemala Sari
Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.
Full Text Available The English language teaching industry in East and Southeast Asia subscribes to an assumption that native English-speaking teachers (NESTs are the gold standard of spoken and written language, whereas non-native English-speaking teachers (non-NESTs are inferior educators because they lack this innate linguistic skill. But does this premise correspond with the views of second language learners? This article reports on research carried out with university students in Vietnam and Japan exploring the advantages and disadvantages of learning English from NESTs and non-NESTs. Contrary to the above notion, our research illuminated a number of perceived advantages—and disadvantages—in both types of teachers. Students viewed NESTs as models of pronunciation and correct language use, as well as being repositories of cultural knowledge, but they also found NESTs poor at explaining grammar, and their different cultures created tension. Non-NESTs were perceived as good teachers of grammar, and had the ability to resort to the students’ first language when necessary. Students found classroom interaction with non-NESTs easier because of their shared culture. Non-NESTs’ pronunciation was often deemed inferior to that of NESTs, but also easier to comprehend. Some respondents advocated learning from both types of teachers, depending on learners’ proficiency and the skill being taught.
Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.
The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…
native English speaking adults toward explicit grammar instruction (EGI). The factors influencing those attitudes and perceptions are also explored. The data collected in this study indicate that adult English as a second language (ESL) students ...
De Mente, Boye
Native English-speakers use a large number of proverbs and colloquial expressions in their daily conversations. These common sayings, which evolved over the centuries, are like "codes" that reveal the cultural values and attitudes of the speakers. To fully understand and communicate in English, it's necessary to be familiar with these expressions and know how and when to use them. The Cheater's Guide to Speaking English like a Native is a shortcut to achieving that goal.
Shi, Lu-Feng; Koenig, Laura L
Non-native listeners do not recognize English sentences as effectively as native listeners, especially in noise. It is not entirely clear to what extent such group differences arise from differences in relative weight of semantic versus syntactic cues. This study quantified the use and weighting of these contextual cues via Boothroyd and Nittrouer's j and k factors. The j represents the probability of recognizing sentences with or without context, whereas the k represents the degree to which context improves recognition performance. Four groups of 13 normal-hearing young adult listeners participated. One group consisted of native English monolingual (EMN) listeners, whereas the other three consisted of non-native listeners contrasting in their language dominance and first language: English-dominant Russian-English, Russian-dominant Russian-English, and Spanish-dominant Spanish-English bilinguals. All listeners were presented three sets of four-word sentences: high-predictability sentences included both semantic and syntactic cues, low-predictability sentences included syntactic cues only, and zero-predictability sentences included neither semantic nor syntactic cues. Sentences were presented at 65 dB SPL binaurally in the presence of speech-spectrum noise at +3 dB SNR. Listeners orally repeated each sentence and recognition was calculated for individual words as well as the sentence as a whole. Comparable j values across groups for high-predictability, low-predictability, and zero-predictability sentences suggested that all listeners, native and non-native, utilized contextual cues to recognize English sentences. Analysis of the k factor indicated that non-native listeners took advantage of syntax as effectively as EMN listeners. However, only English-dominant bilinguals utilized semantics to the same extent as EMN listeners; semantics did not provide a significant benefit for the two non-English-dominant groups. When combined, semantics and syntax benefitted EMN
This study presents findings on three research agendas: (1) the difference between native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in students' attitudes toward and motivation for learning English, (2) the moderating effect of the type of class (i.e., English Conversation vs. Practical English) on the…
Clopper, Cynthia G.; Bradlow, Ann R.
Most second language acquisition research focuses on linguistic structures, and less research has examined the acquisition of sociolinguistic patterns. The current study explored the perceptual classification of regional dialects of American English by native and non-native listeners using a free classification task. Results revealed similar classification strategies for the native and non-native listeners. However, the native listeners were more accurate overall than the non-native listeners. In addition, the non-native listeners were less able to make use of constellations of cues to accurately classify the talkers by dialect. However, the non-native listeners were able to attend to cues that were either phonologically or sociolinguistically relevant in their native language. These results suggest that non-native listeners can use information in the speech signal to classify talkers by regional dialect, but that their lack of signal-independent cultural knowledge about variation in the second language leads to less accurate classification performance. PMID:20161400
Anchimbe, Eric A.
Full Text Available This paper discusses English language teaching (ELT around the world, and argues that as a profession, it should emphasise pedagogical competence rather than native-speaker requirement in the recruitment of teachers in English as a foreign language (EFL and English as a second language (ESL contexts. It establishes that being a native speaker does not make one automatically a competent speaker or, of that matter, a competent teacher of the language. It observes that on many grounds, including physical, sociocultural, technological and economic changes in the world as well as the status of English as official and national language in many post-colonial regions, the distinction between native and non-native speakers is no longer valid.
Doel, W.Z. van den
This study is the first ever to employ a large-scale Internet survey to investigate priorities in English pronunciation training. Well over 500 native speakers from throughout the English-speaking world, including North America, the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, were asked to detect and
The purpose of the study is to investigate similarities and differences in the use of politeness strategies in formulating requests between Dutch learners of English, native speakers of Dutch and native speakers of English. A second objective was to gain more insights into the influence of
Singhasak, Piyahathai; Methitham, Phongsakorn
This study aims at examining Thainess as a writing strategy used in non-literary texts written by non-professional bilingual writers. These writers are advanced language learners who are pursuing their Master's degree in English. Seven English narratives of their language learning experiences were analyzed based on Kachruvian's framework of…
Fourali, Chahid El-Hak
This study establishes a quantitative and qualitative difference in the pattern of text processing of native and non native speakers of English. The psychological nature of this difference is explored in five studies. They reveal the following influences. 1 - Non-native speakers are disadvantaged when text processing relies on mental operations which are based on schema representations of the language e.g. assumption, evaluation and interpretation. They are not disadva...
Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students’ critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) when incorporated into English teacher education programs. It can help aspiring NNESTs to grow awareness of the political and sociocultural implications of EFL teaching, to foster their critica...
This article speaks to teachers who have been paired with native speakers (NSs) who have never taught before, and the feelings of frustration, discouragement, and nervousness on the teacher's behalf that can occur as a result. In order to effectively tackle this situation, teachers need to work together with the NSs. Teachers in this scenario…
Zhou, Li; Fan, Zhi-zhong
Recent decades have witnessed a growing number of native English speakers teaching English in Chinese classroom. However, their teaching does not gain expected ends. Extensive studies have found that the mismatch between learning styles and teaching styles is a possible reason for this phenomenon. This paper aims to investigate whether the…
Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…
Full Text Available The Native Speaker Fallacy, a commonly held belief that Native English Speaker Teachers (NESTs are inherently better than Non-NESTs, has long been questioned by ELT researchers. However, this belief still stands strong in the general public. This research looks to understand how much a teacher’s nativeness affects a student’s attitude towards them, as well as the underlying reasons for their attitudes. Sixty seven respondents in two groups were asked to watch an animated teaching video, after which they completed a questionnaire that used Likert-scales to assess comprehensibility, clarity of explanation, engagement, and preference. The videos for both groups were identical apart from the narrator; one spoke in British English, while the other, Indian English. In addition, they were also visually identified as Caucasian and Asian, respectively. The video was controlled for speed of delivery. The quantitative data were then triangulated using qualitative data collected through open questions in the questionnaire as well as from a semi-structured interview conducted with 10 respondents. The data show that there is a significant implicit preference for NEST teachers in the video, as well as in respondent’s actual classes. However, when asked explicitly, respondents didn’t rank nativeness as a very important quality in English teachers. This discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes might be due to a subconscious cognitive bias, namely the Halo Effect, in which humans tend to make unjustified presumptions about a person based on known but irrelevant information.
Lutfi Ashar Mauludin
Full Text Available Native-English Speaker Teachers (NESTs and Non-Native English Speaker Teachers (NNESTs have their own advantages and disadvantages. However, for English Language Learners (ELLs, NNESTs have more advantages in helping students to acquire English skills. At least there are three factors that can only be performed by NNESTs in English Language Learning. The factors are knowledge of the subject, effective communication, and understanding students‘ difficulties/needs. The NNESTs can effectively provide the clear explanation of knowledge of the language because they are supported by the same background and culture. NNESTs also can communicate with the students with all levels effectively. The use of L1 is effective to help students building their knowledge. Finally, NNESTs can provide the objectives and materials that are suitable with the needs of the students.
Full Text Available Within the communicative approach to English as a foreign language (EFL teaching, the aims of instruction are primarily to enable learners to communicate; hence, functional and communicative intelligibility has become the goal of pronunciation training. On the other hand, contemporary approaches to EFL teaching leave sufficient room for accommodating the individual learner and contextual factors which largely influence the choice of the target pronunciation models. Moreover, in a globalized world, where English has become a contemporary lingua franca for intercultural communication, the pronunciation norms of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF appear to meet the needs and expectations of learners of English in international settings, coexisting with or replacing native-speaker pronunciation models as the target of instruction. The ELF approach and the Lingua Franca Core elaborated by Jenkins (2000, 2002 have aroused controversy among both researchers and EFL teachers. The paper presents the findings of a questionnaire study involving 234 Polish students, English majors, which aimed to determine their preferences and opinions concerning native-speaker and ELF norms as pronunciation instruction targets. The findings revealed a strong preference for native-like pronunciation models in the subjects’ own language development and a less strong preference for such models in pronunciation teaching at all levels of proficiency. Moreover, the results pointed to the significant role played by the intensity of pronunciation training and the level of awareness of native-speaker pronunciation models in shaping the subjects’ attitudes toward native-like and ELF pronunciation norms.
Daftari, Giti Ehtesham; Tavil, Zekiye Müge
The discrimination between native and non-native English speaking teachers is reported in favor of native speakers in literature. The present study examines the linguistic insecurity of non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) and investigates its influence on learners' productive skills by using SPSS software. The eighteen teachers…
Mi, Lin; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Dong, Qi; Guan, Jingjing; Liu, Chang
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between English vowel identification and English vowel formant discrimination for native Mandarin Chinese- and native English-speaking listeners. The identification of 12 English vowels was measured with the duration cue preserved or removed. The thresholds of vowel formant discrimination on the F2 of two English vowels,/Λ/and/i/, were also estimated using an adaptive-tracking procedure. Native Mandarin Chinese-speaking listeners showed significantly higher thresholds of vowel formant discrimination and lower identification scores than native English-speaking listeners. The duration effect on English vowel identification was similar between native Mandarin Chinese- and native English-speaking listeners. Moreover, regardless of listeners' language background, vowel identification was significantly correlated with vowel formant discrimination for the listeners who were less dependent on duration cues, whereas the correlation between vowel identification and vowel formant discrimination was not significant for the listeners who were highly dependent on duration cues. This study revealed individual variability in using multiple acoustic cues to identify English vowels for both native and non-native listeners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meurs, W.F.J. van; Hendriks, B.C.; Lindenburg, S.; Smakman, D.
Communication in English increasingly involves non-native speakers. Such speakers can speak English with different degrees of non-native accentedness. In order to contribute to insights into the effects that these differences in accentedness can have on listeners, the current study systematically
Choi, Lee Jin
This qualitative study of English Korean bilinguals explores the ways in which they legitimize themselves as "good" bilinguals in relation to the discourse of native-speakerism. I first survey the essentialist discourse of native speakerism still prevalent in the field of English language teaching and learning despite the growing…
He, Deyuan; Zhang, Qunying
This article explores the question of whether the norms based on native speakers of English should be kept in English teaching in an era when English has become World Englishes. This is an issue that has been keenly debated in recent years, not least in the pages of "TESOL Quarterly." However, "China English" in such debates…
drs. Frans Hermans
The importance of a near-native accent. This talk will discuss whether or not it is important for EFL-teachers to try and achieve a near-native generally accepted accent for their students. The focus will be on the credibility of non-native speakers of English while speaking English in a
Although the current corpus of English Language Teaching [ELT] literature acknowledges the fact that being a successful and effective English Language teacher goes beyond one‟s linguistic heritage as a native speaker of the language, Non-Native English Speakers (NNES) still face marginalization in regard to their ...
Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold
A study was conducted in 1980-81 at Santa Ana College (SAC) to collect data on the English communication skills of non-native English speakers and to determine if a relationship existed between these skills and student's educational success. A sample of 22 classes, with an enrollment of at least 50% non-native English speakers and representing a…
Shafiro, Valeriy; Levy, Erika S.; Khamis-Dakwar, Reem; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy
This study investigated the perception of American-English (AE) vowels and consonants by young adults who were either (a) early Arabic-English bilinguals whose native language was Arabic or (b) native speakers of the English dialects spoken in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where both groups were studying. In a closed-set format, participants…
Full Text Available Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students’ critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs when incorporated into English teacher education programs. It can help aspiring NNESTs to grow awareness of the political and sociocultural implications of EFL teaching, to foster their critical thinking on any concepts or ideas regarding their profession, and more importantly, to recognize their strengths as NNESTs. Despite the potential, the role of critical pedagogy in improving EFL teacher education program in Indonesia has not been sufficiently discussed. This article attempts to contribute to the discussion by looking at a number of ways critical pedagogy can be incorporated in the programs, the rationale for doing so, and the challenges that might come on the way.
Firas Abdul-Munim Jawad
Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the present study is to investigate the macro-structure (move-step analysis of abstract section of MA theses in linguistics. There are two corpora consist of fifteen MA theses written by American native and fifteen others by Iraqi Arab non-native speakers of English. Based on the analysis, some similarities and differences were found regarding cyclicity (move structure and move-step frequency of occurrence. The findings of the present study are useful for Iraqi non-native writers by presenting the important factors that make them familiar with rhetorical move-step structure of MA thesis abstracts.
Francisco Gutierrez Diez
Full Text Available In this article we present part of the results of an empirical research on contrastive rhythm (English-Spanish. Of the several points dealt with in such a research (syllable compression, foot timing, syllable timing and isochrony of rhythmic units, we refer here to syllable duration in English and Spanish as well as the leaming of syllable duration by a group of advanced leamers of English whose first language is Spanish. Regarding the issue of syllable timing, a striking result is the equal duration of unstressed syllables in both languages, which challenges an opposite view underlying a teaching practice common among Spanish teachers of English to Spanish learners of that language. As for the interlanguage of the group of Spanish leamers of English, we comment on the presence of an interference error represented by a stressed/unstressed durational ratio mid way between the ratios for Spanish and English; we have also detected a developmental error related to the tempo employed by the leamers in their syllable timing, which is slower than the tempo produced by native speakers of English.
This study investigated the influence of gender on English learners' production of communication strategies while interacting with native speakers of English. Ten Turkish EFL students were paired with 10 native speakers of English, producing a total of 20 (10-minute long) conversations. Data collection procedures consisted of a background questionnaire, observation, a post-session questionnaire and an interview. A modified version of Faerch and Kasper's (1983) framework of communica...
Cons, Andrea M.
This study explores the following research question: How do secondary English learners (ELs) and Re-designated fluent English proficient students (RFEPs) use academic words in analytical writing in comparison to native English speakers (NESs)? It highlights previously overlooked differences in academic word use in the writing of students who are…
Mallet, Dann G.
This autoethnographic investigation considers an English-speaking lecturer's observation and consideration of the predicament of non-native speakers of English in an English language mathematics classroom based on that same (non Spanish-speaking) lecturer's experience in a Spanish language mathematics classroom. Difficulties of understanding a…
I Kadek Restu Sumaranama
Full Text Available This research was conducted based on the goal for finding and analyzing the emergence of interference or integration in the English text arranged by student whose native language is Bahasa. The interference was found in the field of syntax, with some mistakes in picking the word with correct word category, such as mistakenly replaced noun by verb, adjective by noun, noun by verb, and noun by adjective. These all mistakes were all perceived as the interference of Indonesian as native language, since in Indonesian, the distinction between words in different categories or class is less-likely unseen. Besides, semantically, the lexical choice of the students in their arrangements was also observed. The dictionary meaning was chosen by the student and less-aware to the contextual meaning. The last one was the copula issue, that is about the relationship between subject and its to BE, where the students did mistakes in mistakenly put the BE, that is in Indonesian is commonly omitted. Based on the analysis, it was found that the interference was frequently found and unavoidably committed by the students in their English use. Therefore, expectantly this study may become the preliminary study that leads to the further intelligent tactic from the overall parties of people, linguists and the learners in responding and maintaining this phenomenon faced by the foreign language learners or Indonesian.
Baker, Rachel Elizabeth
This dissertation examines Mandarin and Korean speakers' acquisition of English focus marking, which is realized by accenting particular words within a focused constituent. It is important for non-native speakers to learn how accent placement relates to focus in English because appropriate accent placement and realization makes a learner's English more native-like and easier to understand. Such knowledge may also improve their English comprehension skills. In this study, 20 native English speakers, 20 native Mandarin speakers, and 20 native Korean speakers participated in four experiments: (1) a production experiment, in which they were recorded reading the answers to questions, (2) a perception experiment, in which they were asked to determine which word in a recording was the last prominent word, (3) an understanding experiment, in which they were asked whether the answers in recorded question-answer pairs had context-appropriate prosody, and (4) an accent placement experiment, in which they were asked which word they would make prominent in a particular context. Finally, a new group of native English speakers listened to utterances produced in the production experiment, and determined whether the prosody of each utterance was appropriate for its context. The results of the five experiments support a novel predictive model for second language prosodic focus marking acquisition. This model holds that both transfer of linguistic features from a learner's native language (L1) and features of their second language (L2) affect learners' acquisition of prosodic focus marking. As a result, the model includes two complementary components: the Transfer Component and the L2 Challenge Component. The Transfer Component predicts that prosodic structures in the L2 will be more easily acquired by language learners that have similar structures in their L1 than those who do not, even if there are differences between the L1 and L2 in how the structures are realized. The L2
... language is not English or for persons with disabilities. 668.153 Section 668.153 Education Regulations of... native language is not English or for persons with disabilities. Except as provided in § 668.143— (a) Students whose native language is not English. For a student whose native language is not English and who...
Mutlu, Sevcan; Ortaçtepe, Deniz
The present study explored the identity (re)construction of five nonnative English teachers who went to the USA on a prestigious scholarship for one year to teach their native language, Turkish. In that sense, it investigated how this shift from being a nonnative English teacher to a native Turkish teacher influenced their self-image,…
The article then goes on to show how the notion of the “native speaker” of English affects ESL teaching and learning. In each case, it is argued that an insistence on “native speaker” norms, such as the use of “standard” English, suffocates the growth of regional varieties that have characterized, over many generations, the ...
This mixed methods study investigates how Japanese non-native English speaking teachers' (NNESTs) efficacy and identity are developed and differentiated from those of native English speaking teachers (NESTs). To explore NNESTs' efficacy, this study focuses on the contributing factors, such as student engagement, classroom management, instructional…
Bin Mohamed Ali, Haja Mohideen
Many job advertisements seeking teachers of English to work in Japan, China, South Korea and Thailand, for instance, specify that they are looking for native speaking teachers from USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand. They do not seem to be interested even in trained non-native speaking teachers from their own countries. This situation also exists…
Feedback in Online Course for Non-Native English-Speaking Students is an investigation of the effectiveness of audio and text feedback provided in English in an online course for non-native English-speaking students. The study presents results showing how audio and text feedback can impact on non-native English-speaking students' higher-order learning as they participate in an asynchronous online course. It also discusses the results of how students perceive both types of the feedback provided. In addition, the study examines how the impact and perceptions differ when the instructor giving the
Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.
The article presents a study which investigates the effects of direct transfers of the four Danish vowels into English. The study employs a perception experiment and a forced-choice word identification experiment, in which the Danish words were presented to native English listeners. Results showed...... the spelling-sound relationship and assimilation of the foreign into native category sound which can lead to the use of an unmodified native language sound production in the foreign language....
Schroeder, Rui M.
This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…
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Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the speech act of assignment submission and presence of facework in submission emails sent to faculty members by native and nonnative English speaking graduate students. Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory (1987 and Spencer-Oatey’s (2002, 2008 rapport management framework were utilized to analyze the emails. The corpus consisted of 105 emails from 40 NES and NNES students. Drawing on speech event analysis approach (Merrison, Wilson, Davies, & Haugh, 2012, we analyze both submission head act as well as optional elements like openings, small talk and closings in an email. Our exploratory study revealed that, contrary to the argument that CMC is a lean medium (Duthler, 2006 in which it is difficult to achieve interpersonal communication, through the employment of opening, small talk and closing strategies, students attended to relational goals in their email communication.
Dr. İsmet ŞAHİN
Full Text Available Teachers are considered to be one of the most crucial elements affecting the success ofstudents learning a foreign language in non-English speaking countries.Native speakers of English were recruited as language teachers all over the non-English speaking world only because of their competency in the language for a long time. Butlater, it was admitted that being adept in a language doesn’t necessarily make anyone asuccessful language teacher. Skill in teaching is also very important in native speakers ofEnglish as language teachers.Attitude and motivation are proved to be the determinants of success in EFL learning.Native speaker teachers may also have an effect on the attitudes of learners as representativesof their culture and society. And they may be more advantageous in doing that because theyare also more competent in that culture compared to nonnative speakers.The study investigated the effect of native speaker teachers of English on the attitudesand success of EFL learners in Turkish setting.The results confirm that the learners who are exposed to native speaker teachers ofEnglish have more positive attitudes towards target language community and are moresuccessful in English lessons compared to those who are not exposed to any native speakerteachers of English. The results also verify that the attitude of EFL learners towards the targetcommunity correlates significantly with their success in language learning.
Hoda Talebi Habib Abadi
Full Text Available This study investigated whether Iranian EFL learners are aware of different varieties of English spoken throughout the world and whether they have tendency towards a particular variety of English. Likewise, it explored the attitudes of Iranian EFL learners towards the native and non-native varieties of English. Moreover, it made an attempt to investigate whether such attitudes are gender-oriented. To this end, 30 intermediate male and female Iranian EFL learners whose age ranged from 22 to 30 formed the sample population of this study. They responded to three questionnaires. Then, the collected data were subjected to a one-way repeated measure ANOVA, Fisher's LSD post hoc test, and independent-samples t-tests. The main conclusion of this study was that Iranian EFL learners do not believe in a single world English anymore; instead, they gradually believe in "world Englishes". They are indeed receding from that perfect English accent and are accepting other Englishes for their communication with people around the world. In addition, although the participants accepted non-native varieties, having tendency towards American and British accents reveals the fact that they have positive attitudes towards language learning.
Ghadyani, Fariba; Tahririan, Mohammad Hassan
To determine the issue of whether there were any significant differences between the groups including Iran ISI, Iran non- ISI, and native authors in binary comparisons as for employing interactional markers, the present study was conducted. To collect the data, 90 "method sections" of English medical research articles within Iranian ISI,…
...) The percentage of ELs served by the program who are making progress in learning English as measured by... English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English... grants for eligible entities to develop high levels of academic attainment in English among English...
Full Text Available Pawley and Syder (1983 pointed out that idiomatic expressions can be discussed in terms of nativelike selection (NLS, which refers to the ability of the native speaker to express his/her intended meaning using an expression that is not only grammatical but also nativelike. In the current study, Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to investigate the possible correlations between the variables of language contact (LC, language attitude (LA, and language motivation (LM integrative (Int.M and instrumental (Inst.M, age of L2 onset (AoO, and length of exposure to target language (LoE and English bilinguals’ (EBs knowledge of NLS in an international school—a semi-naturalistic setting. A possible correlation between EB’s NLS scores and their English academic performance (EAP was examined as well. Moreover, multiple regression analysis was conducted to investigate the factors predicting EB’s NLS knowledge. The participants were 281 high school students of mixed gender and ethnicity from an international school in the Philippines. Different questionnaires were used to collect data related to LC, LoE, AoA, LA, and LM. Data concerning NLS knowledge and EAP were gathered using a receptive NLS test together with a standardized English test. The results of the correlation analyses indicated that the variables of LC, LoE, Int.M, and AoO were significantly related to EBs’ knowledge of NLS. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between EB’s knowledge of NLS and their EAP. The results of regression analysis yet revealed that the variables of LC, LA, and Int.M predicted EB’s NLS knowledge. The findings provided pedagogical implications for those involved in EFL/ESL teaching, particularly in international schools.
Blanchard, Daniel; Tetreault, Joel; Higgins, Derrick; Cahill, Aoife; Chodorow, Martin
This report presents work on the development of a new corpus of non-native English writing. It will be useful for the task of native language identification, as well as grammatical error detection and correction, and automatic essay scoring. In this report, the corpus is described in detail.
Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger
The article presents a study which investigates the effects of direct transfers of the four Danish vowels into English. The study employs a perception experiment and a forced-choice word identification experiment, in which the Danish words were presented to native English listeners. Results showed...
Ko, Chao-Jung; Thang, Siew Ming; Ou, Shu-chen
This article reports key findings of a study which investigated the use of technology by 569 "digital natives" students for English Language learning and recreational purposes. Their views on the applicability of technological tools such as Facebook, blogging and Skype for English Language teaching and learning were also investigated.…
Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Gooskens, C.
We measured F1, F2 and duration of ten English monophthongs produced by American native speakers and by Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch, Hungarian and Chinese L2 speakers. We hypothesized that (i) L2 speakers would approximate the English vowels more closely as the phonological distance between
John Robert SCHMITZ
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In a series of three articles published in the Journal of Pragmatics (1995, henceforth JP, the purpose of the papers is to question the division of English spoken in the world into, on one hand, "native" varieties (British English, American English. Australian English and, on the other, "new/nonnative" varieties (Indian English, Singaporean English, Nigerian English. The JP articles are indeed groundbreaking for they mark one of the first interactions among scholars from the East with researchers in the West with regard to the growth and spread of the language as well as the roles English is made to play by its impressive number of users. The privileged position of prestige and power attributed to the inner circle varieties (USA, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand is questioned. Rajagopalan (1997, motivated by his reading of the JP papers, adds another dimension to this questioning by pointing to the racial and discriminatory stance underlying the notions "native speaker" and "nonnative speaker" (henceforth, respectively NS and NNS. Rajagopalan has written extensively on the issue of nativity or "nativeness"; over the years, Schmitz has also written on the same topic. There appears, in some cases, to be a number of divergent views with regard to subject on hand on the part of both authors. The purpose of this article is to engage in a respectful debate to uncover misreading and possible misunderstanding on the part of Schmitz. Listening to one another and learning from each another are essential in all academic endeavors.
Cooper, N.; Cutler, A.; Wales, R.
Four cross-modal priming experiments and two forced-choice identification experiments investigated the use of suprasegmental cues to stress in the recognition of spoken English words, by native (English-speaking) and nonnative (Dutch) listeners. Previous results had indicated that suprasegmental
Tuinman, A.E.; Mitterer, H.A.; Cutler, A.
In sequences such as law and order, speakers of British English often insert /r/ between law and and. Acoustic analyses revealed such “intrusive” /r/ to be significantly shorter than canonical /r/. In a 2AFC experiment, native listeners heard British English sentences in which /r/ duration was
Saito, Kazuya; Shintani, Natsuko
The current study examined the extent to which native speakers of North American and Singapore English differentially perceive the comprehensibility (ease of understanding) of second language (L2) speech. Spontaneous speech samples elicited from 50 Japanese learners of English with various proficiency levels were first rated by 10 Canadian and 10…
Zhang, Fengjuan; Zhan, Ju
This study explores the knowledge base of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) working in the Canadian English as a second language (ESL) context. By examining NNESTs' experiences in seeking employment and teaching ESL in Canada, and investigating ESL program administrators' perceptions and hiring practices in relation to NNESTs, it…
Saad, Norma; Bidin, Siti Jamilah; Shabdin, Ahmad Affendi
The present study investigates similarities and differences of a speech act of refusal in English as realized by Malay Speakers of English (MSE) and Native Speakers of English (NSE). The study examined the types and also the contents of the strategies used by the two groups when refusing a request made by a higher status interlocutor. An Enhanced Open Role-play was utilized to obtain data on the types and content of refusal strategies. Participants of the study comprised 12 MSE undergraduate ...
Full Text Available This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has claimed the opposite. However, email technology also allows writers to plan and revise messages before sending them, thus affording the opportunity to edit not only for grammar and mechanics, but also for pragmatic clarity and politeness.The study examines email requests sent by native and non-native English speaking graduate students to faculty at a major American university over a period of several semesters and applies Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper’s (1989 speech act analysis framework – quantitatively to distinguish levels of directness, i.e. pragmatic clarity; and qualitatively to compare syntactic and lexical politeness devices, the request perspectives, and the specific linguistic request realization patterns preferred by native and non-native speakers. Results show that far more requests are realized through direct strategies as well as hints than conventionally indirect strategies typically found in comparative speech act studies. Politeness conventions in email, a text-only medium with little guidance in the academic institutional hierarchy, appear to be a work in progress, and native speakers demonstrate greater resources in creating e-polite messages to their professors than non-native speakers. A possible avenue for pedagogical intervention with regard to instruction in and acquisition of politeness routines in hierarchically upward email communication is presented.
Although English is now a recognized international language and the concept of native speaker is becoming more doubtful every day, the empowerment of the native speakers of English as language teaching professionals is still continuing (McKay, 2002), especially in Asian countries like China and Japan. One of the latest examples showing the…
Dich, Nadya; Pedersen, Bo
The study explores first language (L1) influences on the mechanisms of spelling in English as a foreign language (EFL). We hypothesized that the transparency of L1 orthography influences (a) the amount of hesitation associated with spelling irregular English words, and (b) the size of units EFL...... spellers operate. Participants were adult speakers of three languages differing by the degree of transparency, Danish, Russian, and Italian (n = 60), and a group of English native speakers (n = 20). We analyzed keystroke logs from typed spellings of 30 English words. The amount of hesitation (number...
Alonzo, Angelo; Taft, Marcus
Research in English suggests that syllables can be analyzed in terms of two subunits-the onset (defined as the initial consonant or consonant cluster) and the rime (the unit formed by the vowel and following consonant/s). This study investigated whether nonnative readers of English, which in the case of the present study were native Filipino speakers, also make use of onset-rime units, particularly when some features of their native language (namely infixation and reduplication) appear to foster no awareness of such units. In two lexical decision experiments, monosyllabic English words were presented, divided in between their first and second consonants (e.g., B LIND), at their onset-rime boundary (e.g., BL IND), or at their antibody boundary (e.g., BLI ND). Results indicated that the processes of infixation and reduplication did not affect the English word processing of native Filipino speakers. Rather, results for both native Filipino and native English speakers suggest that onsets composed of an "s + consonant" sequence (e.g., STAMP) are less cohesive than onsets comprised of a stop-liquid sequence (e.g., BLIND). It was concluded that not only may sonority constraints underlie onset cohesiveness, but that such phonetic properties may also be involved in visual word recognition. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane
This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient group, (c) evaluate the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES) for English-language proficient students and within different primary language groups, and (d) estimate language-group trends in specific mathematics skill areas. The group of English-language proficient English-language learners (ELLs) was disaggregated into native Spanish speakers and native speakers of Asian languages, the 2 most prevalent groups of ELLs in the United States. Results of multilevel latent variable growth modeling suggest that primary language may be less salient than SES in explaining the mathematics achievement of English-language proficient ELLs. The study also found that mathematics-related school readiness is a key factor in explaining subsequent achievement differences and that the readiness gap is prevalent across the range of mathematics-related skills. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available The significance of pragmatic knowledge and politeness strategies has recently been emphasized in language learning and teaching. Most communication failures originate in the lack of pragmatic awareness which is evident among EFL learners while communicating with English native speakers. The present study aimed at investigating compliment response strategies, as a sub-category of politeness strategies, used by a group of Persian and English native speakers, and examining the effect of gender on the use of strategies to respond to compliments. To these ends and with the use of convenient sampling, thirty Iranian native speakers (15 females and 15 males in Iran and 26 English native speakers (13 females and 13 males in Canada, all college students with age range of 17-30, participated in this study. In order to collect a corpus of compliment responses, a researcher-made questionnaire in the form of a Discourse Completion Task was distributed among the participants. Using two-way ANOVAs, the findings indicated that there is a significant difference between Persian native speakers and Canadian English speakers (p .05.Considering the findings of the present study, materials developers and textbook writers can make more space in EFL textbooks for exercises about compliments (responses; and help in highlighting the significance of this aspect of pragmatic knowledge. Keywords: pragmatics, politeness, compliment, compliment response, EFL
Öztürk, Yusuf; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu
Lexical bundles such as "on the other hand" and "as a result of" are extremely common and important in academic discourse. The appropriate use of lexical bundles typical of a specific academic discipline is important for writers and the absence of such bundles may not sound fluent and native-like. Recent studies (e.g. Adel…
The characteristics, structure, and content of American English business negotiations are described. A course taught in the Harvard University Summer Program for Foreign Students, developed to eliminate the linguistic and cultural component of potential misunderstandings in cross-cultural negotiations, is outlined and illustrated with an example…
Bloem, Jelke; Wieling, Martijn; Nerbonne, John; Côté, Marie-Hélène; Knooihuizen, Remco; Nerbonne, John
In this work, we demonstrate the application of statistical measures from dialectometry to the study of accented English speech. This new methodology enables a more quantitative approach to the study of accents. Studies on spoken dialect data have shown that a combination of representativeness (the
Examines a case of dialectal variation in a subpart of the tense-modality aspect system of Indian English. Focuses on functions associated with an existing form: the use of the pluperfect "had" + V-"ed" construction. Contrasts this usage with that of British and American English. (Author/VWL)
Full Text Available Languages come into contact through invasion, war, colonization, migration, trade and commerce between different communities. In India, for example, the Arab invasion of Sindh brought in the languages of the Arab world, such as Arabic, Turkish and Persian. Later, Portuguese, Dutch and English trading companies dominated the field of trade and commerce and successfully spread their languages in the Indian sub-continent. As a result, almost all Indian languages have borrowed words from these foreign languages and enriched their vocabularies. Like other languages in India, Odia, an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, which is spoken in the Indian territory of Odisha, came into contact with Arabic, Persian, Portuguese and English, and has borrowed several words from these languages.
Korkmazgil, Sibel; Seferoğlu, Gölge
One-shot professional development activities designed and accomplished without considering teachers’ needs are generally reported to fail to lead to long-lasting changes in terms of teacher growth and learning. Therefore, professional development programs need to be based on the immediate needs of teachers, and designed and directed with teachers’ input. In this regard, this study aims to investigate a group of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ professional development practices i...
The term ‘New Englishes’ attempts to cover the large number of varieties of English, far from uniform among themselves in their features and use and different from the historically and culturally established British and American standards. Over the past years, these New Englishes have been more acknowledged in the foreign language class. Linguists have called attention to the importance of increasing the learner’s linguistic awareness by covering topics of “linguistic variation and varieties ...
Edward W. Wolfe
Full Text Available The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL contains a direct writing assessment, and examinees are given the option of composing their responses at a computer terminal using a keyboard or composing their responses in handwriting. This study sought to determine whether performance on a direct writing assessment is comparable for examinees when given the choice to compose essays in handwriting versus word processing. We examined this relationship controlling for English language proficiency and several demographic characteristics of examinees using linear models. We found a weak two-way interaction between composition medium and English language proficiency with examinees with weaker English language scores performing better on handwritten essays while examinees with better English language scores performing comparably on the two testing media. We also observed predictable differences associated with geographic region, native language, gender, and age.
Francisco Gutierrez Diez
In this article we present part of the results of an empirical research on contrastive rhythm (English-Spanish). Of the several points dealt with in such a research (syllable compression, foot timing, syllable timing and isochrony of rhythmic units), we refer here to syllable duration in English and Spanish as well as the leaming of syllable duration by a group of advanced leamers of English whose first language is Spanish. Regarding the issue of syllable timing, a striking result is the equa...
Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.
Transfer of sounds from L1 to L2 can obviously lead to inappropriate pronunciations, but assumptions about the effects such transfer may have on native listeners are often based on intuition or casual observation. This paper investigates the effects of direct transfer of four Danish vowels into English through a forced-choice word identification…
Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min
We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…
The ethical considerations of three education researchers working with non-native English-speaking participants were examined from a critical theory stand-point in the light of the literature on research ethics in various disciplines. Qualitative inquiry and data analysis were used to identify key themes, which centered around honor and respect…
Alemi, Minoo; Tajeddin, Zia
Many studies have shed light on rater criteria for assessing the performance of language skills (e.g., Eckes, 2005). However, the interface between rater assessment and interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) has remained largely unnoticed. To address this interface, this study explored the ratings native (NES) and nonnative English speaking (NNES)…
Rubrico, Jessie Grace U.; Hashim, Fatimah
Engaging non-native pre-service English teachers who are still learning the language themselves requires two tasks: facilitating their language teaching skills and scaffolding their language learning. This action research interfaced Facebook and Photovoice technologies in order to empower participants to be proactive in their language learning and…
Kitao, S. Kathleen
A study of the relationship of request comprehension with context and experience with the language is reported. Sixty-two East Asian non-native English speaking students from China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan were presented with seemingly spontaneous indirect requests during a taped interview. Their ability to respond appropriately to the…
Diaz, Miriam; Simonet, Miquel
The present article reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of the Spanish /e/-/ei/ contrast, as in "pena-peina" and "reno-reino," by native-English intermediate and advanced learners of Spanish. The acoustic parameter that distinguishes Spanish /e/ from /ei/ is formant change--/e/ is a…
Full Text Available That English is the lingua franca of today's science is an indisputable fact. Publication in English in international journals is a pre-requisite for a research paper to gain visibility in academia. However, English proficiency appears to be taken for granted in the scientific community, though this language can be a hurdle for a number of authors, particularly from non-native English-speaking countries. The influence of English proficiency on the publication output of Brazilian authors has never been assessed. We report our preliminary data on the relationship between the English proficiency of 51,223 researchers registered in the CNPq database and their publication output in international journals. We have found that publication rates are higher for those authors with good command of English, particularly written English. Although our research is still underway and our results are preliminary, they suggest that the correlation between written English proficiency and research productivity should not be underestimated. We also present the comments of some Brazilian scientists with high publication records on the relevance of communication skills to the scientific enterprise.
Dong, Yu Ren
This article highlights how English language learners' (ELLs) prior knowledge can be used to help learn science vocabulary. The article explains that the concept of prior knowledge needs to encompass the ELL student's native language, previous science learning, native literacy skills, and native cultural knowledge and life experiences.…
Unlu, Elena Antonova; Hatipoglu, Ciler
The current research investigated the acquisition of the copula "be" in Present Simple Tense (PST) in English by native speakers of Russian. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not Russian students with different levels of English proficiency would encounter any problems while using the copula "be" in PST in English. The study also…
Sirsa, Hema; Redford, Melissa A
This study explored whether the sound structure of Indian English (IE) varies with the divergent native languages of its speakers or whether it is similar regardless of speakers' native languages. Native Hindi (Indo-Aryan) and Telugu (Dravidian) speakers produced comparable phrases in IE and in their native languages. Naïve and experienced IE listeners were then asked to judge whether different sentences had been spoken by speakers with the same or different native language backgrounds. The findings were an interaction between listener experience and speaker background such that only experienced listeners appropriately distinguished IE sentences produced by speakers with different native language backgrounds. Naïve listeners were nonetheless very good at distinguishing between Hindi and Telugu phrases. Acoustic measurements on monophthongal vowels, select obstruent consonants, and suprasegmental temporal patterns all differentiated between Hindi and Telugu, but only 3 of the measures distinguished between IE produced by speakers of the different native languages. The overall results are largely consistent with the idea that IE has a target phonology that is distinct from the phonology of native Indian languages. The subtle L1 effects on IE may reflect either the incomplete acquisition of the target phonology or, more plausibly, the influence of sociolinguistic factors on the use and evolution of IE.
McDonald, Janet L.; Roussel, Cristine C.
This paper explores whether the poor mastery of morphosyntax exhibited by second language (L2) learners can be tied to difficulties with non-syntactic processing. Specifically, we examine whether problems with English regular and irregular past tense are related to poor L2 phonological ability and lexical access, respectively. In Experiment 1, L2…
Wagner, Monica; Shafer, Valerie L.; Martin, Brett; Steinschneider, Mitchell
The effect of exposure to the contextual features of the /pt/ cluster was investigated in native-English and native-Polish listeners using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) methodology. Both groups experience the /pt/ cluster in their languages, but only the Polish group experiences the cluster in the context of word onset examined in…
Nafi, Jamal Subhi Ismail; Qabaja, Ziad Mohammed Mahmoud; Al-Kar, Hibah Jabir Ibrahim
The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitudes of Palestinian undergraduate students towards native and non-native English language teachers and their relation to students' listening ability. To achieve this purpose and to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses, the researchers adopted both the descriptive and inferential…
Miley, Suzi Keller; Farmer, Aarek
As a result of the accountability requirements established in Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Educational Act (ESEA) legislation, English Learners (ELs) are expected to make progress in both content area academic achievement and English Language Proficiency (ELP). In Tennessee ELs progress is measured by administering WIDA-Access to…
Full Text Available Research have reported that one of the challenges faced by non-native English writers to have their research articles (RAs accepted by English-medium journals is to fulfill the journals’ expectations in terms of linguistic aspect. In addition, non-native English writers seem to be having the problem in expressing their authorial identity which is needed to build one’s academic arguments. Therefore, this research was conducted to 1 explore whether linguistic disadvantage exists among native English writers or Thai writers in international publication, and 2 discover how the native English and Thai writers assert their identities through different rhetorical purposes of RAs. Eight university lecturers in Applied Linguistics (AL from a few universities in Thailand were interviewed to understand their views on the issues of writing for scholarly publication in the English language. The findings revealed two salient emerging themes: (1 the role of linguistic disadvantage and (2 variation in authorial identity between native English and Thai writers. The study has found that linguistic disadvantage exists among the Thai writers. The native English writers expressed their authorial identity overtly but the Thai writers deferred their authorial identity. It is suggested that teachers in Thailand emphasize more on the knowledge of linguistic aspect required in international publication and the effective use of linguistic realization of authorial identity in academic writing.
Gomari, Hamid; Marshall, Dylan
Pawley and Syder (1983) pointed out that idiomatic expressions can be discussed in terms of nativelike selection (NLS), which refers to the ability of the native speaker to express his/her intended meaning using an expression that is not only grammatical but also nativelike. In the current study, Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to…
Within the communicative approach to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching, the aims of instruction are primarily to enable learners to communicate; hence, functional and communicative intelligibility has become the goal of pronunciation training. On the other hand, contemporary approaches to EFL teaching leave sufficient room for…
Essossomo, Serges Moïse
This research endeavour is a major contribution to the current debate on the integration of non-native varieties into the school curriculum in non-native settings. Taking the specific case of Cameroon, this work rests on the solid assumption that the promotion of CamE to the detriment of Standard British English accent is definitely a fallacy. The…
Heinzen, Christina Carolyn
The current study employed behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to investigate brain plasticity associated with second-language (L2) phonetic learning based on an adaptive computer training program. The program utilized the acoustic characteristics of Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) to train monolingual American English-speaking listeners to perceive Mandarin lexical tones. Behavioral identification and discrimination tasks were conducted using naturally recorded speech, carefully controlled synthetic speech, and non-speech control stimuli. The ERP experiments were conducted with selected synthetic speech stimuli in a passive listening oddball paradigm. Identical pre- and post- tests were administered on nine adult listeners, who completed two-to-three hours of perceptual training. The perceptual training sessions used pair-wise lexical tone identification, and progressed through seven levels of difficulty for each tone pair. The levels of difficulty included progression in speaker variability from one to four speakers and progression through four levels of acoustic exaggeration of duration, pitch range, and pitch contour. Behavioral results for the natural speech stimuli revealed significant training-induced improvement in identification of Tones 1, 3, and 4. Improvements in identification of Tone 4 generalized to novel stimuli as well. Additionally, comparison between discrimination of across-category and within-category stimulus pairs taken from a synthetic continuum revealed a training-induced shift toward more native-like categorical perception of the Mandarin lexical tones. Analysis of the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in the ERP data revealed increased amplitude and decreased latency for pre-attentive processing of across-category discrimination as a result of training. There were also laterality changes in the MMN responses to the non-speech control stimuli, which could reflect reallocation of brain resources in processing pitch patterns
Gimenez, J. C.
Describes a new tendency in negotiations between non-native English speaking negotiators (NNSENs) and compares the observations obtained from these six negotiations with those obtained in previous cross-cultural studies. (Author/VWL)
Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang
This study aimed to investigate English sentence recognition in quiet and two types of maskers, multi-talker babble (MTB) and long-term speech-shaped noise (LTSSN), with varied signal-to-noise ratios, for English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native listeners. Results showed that first, sentence recognition for non-native listeners was affected more by background noise than that for native listeners; second, the masking effects of LTSSN were similar between Chinese and Korean listeners, but the masking effects of MTB were greater for Chinese than for Korean listeners, suggesting possible interaction effects between the non-native listener's native language and speech-like competing noise in sentence recognition.
Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Best, Catherine T.
Perception of nonnative consonant contrasts may be influenced by phonetic, as well as phonological, properties of the listener’s native language. The impact of both factors on perception of American English /r l w j/ was investigated with native speakers of Danish and German, which have /r l j/ b...
This study aimed to discover semantic and syntactic problems Persian native speakers might have while reading English and Persian texts and different strategies they use to overcome those problems. To this end, a convenient sample of 40 intermediate students studying English Literature at Shiraz University was selected. Twenty of them were asked…
Abayadeera, Nadana; Mihret, Dessalegn Getie; Hewa Dulige, Jayasinghe
Teaching effectiveness of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNEST) in accounting, economics and finance has become a significant issue due to the increasing trend of hiring NNEST in business schools. However, the literature has focused on the English language competence of NNEST, which is only one element of the factors that influence teaching…
Elder, Catherine; McNamara, Tim; Congdon, Peter
The use of common tasks and rating procedures when assessing the communicative skills of students from highly diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds poses particular measurement challenges, which have thus far received little research attention. If assessment tasks or criteria are found to function differentially for particular subpopulations within a test candidature with the same or a similar level of criterion ability, then the test is open to charges of bias in favour of one or other group. While there have been numerous studies involving dichotomous language test items (see e.g. Chen and Henning, 1985 and more recently Elder, 1996) few studies have considered the issue of bias in relation to performance based tasks which are assessed subjectively, via analytic and holistic rating scales. The paper demonstrates how Rasch analytic procedures can be applied to the investigation of item bias or differential item functioning (DIF) in both dichotomous and scalar items on a test of English for academic purposes. The data were gathered from a pilot English language test administered to a representative sample of undergraduate students (N= 139) enrolled in their first year of study at an English-medium university. The sample included native speakers of English who had completed up to 12 years of secondary schooling in their first language (L1) and immigrant students, mainly from Asian language backgrounds, with varying degrees of prior English language instruction and exposure. The purpose of the test was to diagnose the academic English needs of incoming undergraduates so that additional support could be offered to those deemed at risk of failure in their university study. Some of the tasks included in the assessment procedure involved objectively-scored items (measuring vocabulary knowledge, text-editing skills and reading and listening comprehension) whereas others (i.e. a report and an argumentative writing task) were subjectively-scored. The study models a
Nowakowski, Andrew B; Wobig, William J; Petering, David H
Sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is commonly used to obtain high resolution separation of complex mixtures of proteins. The method initially denatures the proteins that will undergo electrophoresis. Although covalent structural features of resolved proteins can be determined with SDS-PAGE, functional properties are destroyed, including the presence of non-covalently bound metal ions. To address this shortcoming, blue-native (BN)-PAGE has been introduced. This method retains functional properties but at the cost of protein resolving power. To address the need for a high resolution PAGE method that results in the separation of native proteins, experiments tested the impact of changing the conditions of SDS-PAGE on the quality of protein separation and retention of functional properties. Removal of SDS and EDTA from the sample buffer together with omission of a heating step had no effect on the results of PAGE. Reduction of SDS in the running buffer from 0.1% to 0.0375% together with deletion of EDTA also made little impact on the quality of the electrophoretograms of fractions of pig kidney (LLC-PK1) cell proteome in comparison with that achieved with the SDS-PAGE method. The modified conditions were called native (N)SDS-PAGE. Retention of Zn(2+) bound in proteomic samples increased from 26 to 98% upon shifting from standard to modified conditions. Moreover, seven of nine model enzymes, including four Zn(2+) proteins that were subjected to NSDS-PAGE retained activity. All nine were active in BN-PAGE, whereas all underwent denaturation during SDS-PAGE. Metal retention after electrophoresis was additionally confirmed using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and in-gel Zn-protein staining using the fluorophore TSQ.
Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
This study tested three hypotheses about the direct and indirect contributions of derivational morphological awareness to English reading comprehension in sixth-grade students from differing language backgrounds (n= 952). Students included Spanish-speaking, Filipino-speaking, and Vietnamese-speaking language minority learners as well as native…
Dilparić Branislava M.
Full Text Available The paper reports findings from one of the two differently-designed surveys conducted among groups of both native speakers of English and native speakers of Serbian with a common general objective to obtain a picture of better candidates for a role of the whole (to be analyzed into its constituent elements in the contrastive study on the lexical field a house and its parts in English and Serbian. The specific objective of the survey presented here, however, was to build up the target picture with some of the features of the ideal example of the house category, such as the shape of the house, the key materials its principal structural elements (foundations, walls, a roof are made of, the number of residential units in the house and the type of the household that occupies it, the number of the house levels, the minimum of its interior spatial components and their functions, the types of systemic parts in the house, the status and position of the house relative to surrounding buildings, etc. Also, taking into consideration that the demographic profiles of the survey participants reflected various cultural backgrounds (which significantly influence the formation of mental images of a typical sample of the category, the survey aimed to compare the similarities and differences between the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house, that is the features assigned to a typical house by most of the surveyed representatives of Anglo-American and by those of Serbian culture. Judging exclusively by the features observed and the results obtained, the study concludes that the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house look very similar in many aspect and that the two different cultures are not as distant as they may seem.
Bagheri, H.; Ibrahim, N. A.; Habil, H.
Background: In many parts of the world, patients may find it difficult to visit doctors who share the same language and culture due to the intermingling of people and international recruitment of doctors among many other reasons. In these multilingual multicultural settings (MMSs), doctor-patient interactions face new communication challenges. This study aims to identify the structure of clinical consultation and its phases in an MMS where both doctors and patients are non-native speakers (NNSs) of English. Method: This study takes on a discourse analytic approach to examine the structure of clinical consultation as an activity type. 25 clinical consultation sessions between non-native speakers of English in a public healthcare centre in Malaysia were audio-recorded. Findings and Discussion: The results show that there are some deviations from the mainstream structure of clinical consultations although, in general, the pattern is compatible with previous studies. Deviations are particularly marked in the opening and closing phases of consultation. Conclusion: In almost all interactions, there is a straightforward manner of beginning medical consultations. The absence of greetings may have naturally reduced the length of talk. Hence, by directly entering medical talks, the doctors voice their concern on the curing aspects of the consultation rather than its caring facets. The preference of curing priority to caring is more goal-oriented and in alignment with the consultation as an activity type. PMID:25560336
Wang, Li-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Bin
The status of English as a global language has played a significant role in contemporary language education policies across the world. In East Asia, the hegemony of English has been reflected in a number of central governments' policies of recruiting native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) to participate in English language education. This paper…
Full Text Available AbstractIn the current century, English is the language for the research and dissemination of scientific findings. But for many scholars, English is a foreign language. This is especially true among the emerging and developing nations (EDNs, such as the BRICS nations, encompassing Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The present study conducted a survey examining the translational integrity and overall impression of translated summary materials (abstracts and titles from the five highest ranking (SCImago Journal Rank Brazilian journals in the field of psychology. Analysis proceeded with two models. In the first model, translated summary materials from 12 randomly-selected articles from four of the five journals were evaluated by a panel of three native English-language scholars. Findings indicated an inverse relationship between the overall impression of the materials and their: abstract errors, r(34 = -0.61, p < .001; and total errors, r(34 = -0.62, p < .001; suggesting a direct relationship between the translational integrity of these EDN materials and the overall impression they leave with native English-language scholars. A second model added 3 additional articles from the fifth journal (English-language only to the materials described. The findings from this second model suggested that for EDN journals, an investment in language resources may substantially improve the impression they leave with native English-language scholars, and thus promote wider dissemination of their findings.
Full Text Available This study investigates novice non-native English teachers’ opinions about the effectiveness of their teacher education programme and the challenges during their initial years of teaching. The results of a survey administered to fifty-five novice teachers and follow-up interviews identify strengths and weaknesses in their teacher education programme and catalogue the difficulties they faced when they star-ted to teach. The study found significant differences between the content of novice teachers’ academic courses in their teacher education programme and the conditions they experienced in classrooms. The major challenges of their first years of teaching were related to lesson delivery, managing behaviour, unmotivated students, and students with learning disabilities. The article includes suggestions to prepare teachers for the actualities of working in schools.
Eyre, Emma L J; Walker, Leanne Jaye; Duncan, Michael J
The development of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been associated with children's general health, and, while there is evidence to suggest that age, gender, physical activity, and socioeconomic status relate to FMS, the relationship of ethnicity and language barriers to FMS competence has been underexplored. These factors may be of particular interest for South Asian (SA) children who have lower physical activity and increased risk of metabolic disease. This cross-sectional study examined ethnic and language differences in FMS among 218 ethnically diverse five-year-old children (61 White ethnic background, 91 SA, 29 Black ethnic background, and 37 other), some with English as a native language ( n = 90) and some with English as an additional language ( n = 75), all recruited from within central England. Each child was assessed performing five locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, and jump) and six object skills (catch, kick, bounce, strike, underarm roll, and overarm throw) on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 . A 2 (gender) × 4 (ethnicity) factor analysis of covariance assessed differences in the locomotor and object composite scores and total FMS score, while controlling for body mass index. A two-factor analysis of covariance assessed native language differences in their impact on FMS. We found ethnic and gender differences in FMS ( p .05). The findings of low FMS competency in SA children and girls, irrespective of body mass index, suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions targeting SA children and girls are needed in early years. We discuss some unclear factors related to these differences.
Kurdziel, Laura B F; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Sleep has been shown to improve the retention of newly learned words. However, most methodologies have used artificial or foreign language stimuli, with learning limited to word/novel word or word/image pairs. Such stimuli differ from many word-learning scenarios in which definition strings are learned with novel words. Thus, we examined sleep's benefit on learning new words within a native language by using very low-frequency words. Participants learned 45 low-frequency English words and, at subsequent recall, attempted to recall the words when given the corresponding definitions. Participants either learned in the morning with recall in the evening (wake group), or learned in the evening with recall the following morning (sleep group). Performance change across the delay was significantly better in the sleep than the wake group. Additionally, the Levenshtein distance, a measure of correctness of the typed word compared with the target word, became significantly worse following wake, whereas sleep protected correctness of recall. Polysomnographic data from a subsample of participants suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may be particularly important for this benefit. These results lend further support for sleep's function on semantic learning even for word/definition pairs within a native language.
Kibler, Amanda K.; Roman, Diego
This study examines factors impacting teacher learning during and after an online professional development program focused on teaching English language learners in U.S. schools. Research focused on nonbilingual K-12 teachers' changing perspectives on the role of students' native languages in classroom teaching and learning during and after the…
Halic, Olivia; Greenberg, Katherine; Paulus, Trena
This phenomenological study explores the experiences of non-native English-speaking international students regarding language, culture and identity in the context of their graduate studies. Interviews were conducted with each of the eight participants. Interpretive analysis was used within a constructivist frame. The findings of this study are…
Gamez, Perla B.; Levine, Susan C.
This study examined the relation between young English language learners' (ELL) native oral language skills and their language input in transitional bilingual education kindergarten classrooms. Spanish-speaking ELLs' ("n" = 101) Spanish expressive language skills were assessed using the memory for sentences and picture vocabulary…
Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad; Segaran, Kogilathah
One of the critical issues pertaining learning English as second language successfully is pronunciation, which consequently contributes to learners' poor communicative power. This situation is moreover crucial among non-native speakers. Therefore, various initiatives have been taken in order to promote effective language learning, which includes…
Chu, Chau Kan; Morrison, Keith
This paper argues that, despite government support in financial and contractual matters, ongoing problems of retention of Native-speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong stem, in part, from problems of cross-cultural adjustment. The paper reports a small-scale qualitative investigation into the experiences of NETS in Hong Kong and finds…
Mokhtarnia, Shabnam; Ghafar-Samar, Reza
This study aimed at exploring the possible differences between Iranian English and non-English major students in terms of their attitude towards native English speakers and reported self-identity change. It also attempted to investigate the possible significant relationships between these two variables. The results of the independent-sample…
Full Text Available The Iambic-Trochaic Law (Bolton, 1894; Hayes, 1995; Woodrow, 1909 asserts that listeners associate greater intensity with group beginnings (a loud-first preference and greater duration with group endings (a long-last preference. Hayes (1987; 1995 posits a natural connection between the prominences referred to in the ITL and the locations of stressed syllables in feet. However, not all lengthening in final positions originates with stressed syllables, and greater duration may also be associated with stress in nonfinal (trochaic positions. The research described here challenged the notion that presumptive long-last effects necessarily reflect stress-related duration patterns, and investigated the general hypothesis that the robustness of long-last effects should vary depending on the strength of the association between final positions and increased duration, whatever its source. Two ITL studies were conducted in which native speakers of Spanish and of English grouped streams of rhythmically alternating syllables in which vowel intensity and/or duration levels were varied. These languages were chosen because while they are prosodically similar, increased duration on constituent-final syllables is both more common and more salient in English than Spanish. Outcomes revealed robust loud-first effects in both language groups. Long-last effects were significantly weaker in the Spanish group when vowel duration was varied singly. However, long-last effects were present and comparable in both language groups when intensity and duration were covaried. Intensity was a more robust predictor of responses than duration. A primary conclusion was that whether or not humans’ rhythmic grouping preferences have an innate component, duration-based grouping preferences, at least, and the magnitude of intensity-based effects are shaped by listeners’ backgrounds.
which English communication skills were most important in their jobs. One half of them said that speaking and writing were equally important, while seven...said that speaking was more important than writing. Four felt that all English communication skills were essential. Many offict ,e viewed writing as...officers on most of the tasks involving English communication skills . The performance of officers on specific tasks is discussed in the next section
A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes
Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This
Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2011. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2011. Includes bibliographical references leaves 111-114. Many factors are known to influence the pronunciation of English by speakers of other languages, including: the speaker’s L1, age of beginning English, length of study, gender, motivation, aptitude, and personality. Other socio-cultural factors, such as ethnic group affiliation and des...
Maria Cristina Fava
Full Text Available The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural backgrounds.
Full Text Available The analysis of raters' comments on pragmatic assessment of L2 learners is among new and understudied concepts in second language studies. To shed light on this issue, the present investigation targeted important variables such as raters’ criteria and rating patterns by analyzing the interlanguage pragmatic assessment process of the Iranian non-native English speaking raters (NNESRs regarding the request speech act, while considering important factors such as raters’ gender and background teaching experiences. For this purpose, 62 raters’ rating scores and comments on Iranian EFL learners’ requests based on six situations of specified video prompts were analyzed. The results of the content analysis of raters’ comments revealed nine criteria, including pragmalinguistic and socio-pragmatic components of language, which have been noted by raters differently through six request situations. Among the considered criteria, politeness, conversers’ relationship, style and register, and explanation were of great importance to NNESRs. Furthermore, t-test and chi-square analysis of raters’ assigned rating scores and mentioned criteria across different situations verified the insignificance of factors such as raters’ gender and teaching experiences on the process of EFL learners’ pragmatic assessment. In addition, the results of the study suggest the necessity of teaching L2 pragmatics in language classes and in teacher training courses.
The aim of this study is to investigate which pronunciations of English are difficult or different from one's first language, as well as to explore which factors are crucial for communication with people from other cultures when English is used as one of the World Englishes. Ninety-one undergraduate students (85 females and 6 males) from two…
Babaie, Sherveh; Shahrokhi, Mohsen
The purpose of the present study was to compare the speech act of offering advice as realized by Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers. The study, more specifically, attempted to find out whether there was any pragmatic transfer from Persian (L1) among Iranian EFL learners while offering advice in English. It also examined whether…
Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura
The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…
Bruen, Jennifer; Kelly, Niamh
This paper considers the position of university language students whose mother tongue is other than the medium of instruction. Specifically, it investigates the attitudes and experiences of non-native English speakers studying either German or Japanese as foreign languages at an English-medium university. The findings indicate that the non-native…
Fernández Agüera, Javier S.
“Would you rather speak “perfect English” or keep your foreign accent?” That is the initial question that this paper deals with. As is universally acknowledged, the aim of every foreign-language learner is to become proficient, both in speaking and writing, in a certain language. The more one becomes like a native speaker in language comprehension and pronunciation, the easier it is to get integrated within a certain linguistic community. Nevertheless, what do people understand by “perfec...
Full Text Available The English language has become the so called “world wide language” due to the fact that it is used globally in many spheres of everyday life - education, business, labour market, technology, tourism, travel and others. In Slovakia, the educational system supports schools in the acquisition of the language by granting more English classes per week, by financing textbook materials, by bridging teaching practice with research as well as making English a mandatory subject of school leaving exams.
Shafiro, Valeriy; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V
Does native language phonology influence visual word processing in a second language? This question was investigated in two experiments with two groups of Russian-English bilinguals, differing in their English experience, and a monolingual English control group. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following semantic categorization of words containing four phonological vowel contrasts (/i/-/u/,/I/-/A/,/i/-/I/,/epsilon/-/ae/). Experiment 2 assessed auditory identification accuracy of words containing these four contrasts. Both bilingual groups demonstrated reduced accuracy in auditory identification of two English vowel contrasts absent in their native phonology (/i/-/I/,epsilon/-/ae/). For late- bilinguals, auditory identification difficulty was accompanied by poor visual word recognition for one difficult contrast (/i/-/I/). Bilinguals' visual word recognition moderately correlated with their auditory identification of difficult contrasts. These results indicate that native language phonology can play a role in visual processing of second language words. However, this effect may be considerably constrained by orthographic systems of specific languages.
Ruecker, Todd; Ives, Lindsey
Over the past few decades, scholars have paid increasing attention to the role of native speakerism in the field of TESOL. Several recent studies have exposed instances of native speakerism in TESOL recruitment discourses published through a variety of media, but none have focused specifically on professional websites advertising programs in…
Boosters are an important metadiscourse device for writers because it creates an emphatic impression in the reader. In addition, the competence of metadiscourse devices such as boosters is crucial in having native-fluency in academic writing. Therefore, this avoidance of using boosters may spawn foreignness in non-native writers' academic texts.…
Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko
Although the role of the phonological loop in word-retention is well documented, research in Chinese character retention suggests the involvement of non-phonological encoding. This study investigated whether the extent to which the phonological loop contributes to learning and remembering visually introduced words varies between college-level Chinese ESL learners (N = 20) and native speakers of English (N = 20). The groups performed a paired associative learning task under two conditions (control versus articulatory suppression) with two word types (regularly spelled versus irregularly spelled words) differing in degree of phonological accessibility. The results demonstrated that both groups' recall declined when the phonological loop was made less available (with irregularly spelled words and in the articulatory suppression condition), but the decline was greater for the native group. These results suggest that word learning entails phonological encoding uniformly across learners, but the contribution of phonology varies among learners with diverse linguistic backgrounds.
Benzie, Helen Joy
The current concern about low levels of English proficiency among international students who graduate from degree courses--that students' English language skills are not being developed during their higher education experience--reflects negatively on the quality of Australian higher education and its graduates. More careful selection of students…
Brantmeier, Cindy; Xiucheng, Yu
Mastery of English in China has gathered increased prominence due to the need to foster cultural, political, and economic connections worldwide. Reading is an obvious skill of vital importance for advancing efforts as a player in the world economy. The present article examines research published in academic journals in Chinese and English to…
College students in the non-English-speaking world have to overcome formidable barriers in reading and writing when their medium of instruction is English. One particular problem faced by science majors is the writing of lab reports, a demanding task that might not be effectively supported by the standard guides and manuals available. This paper…
Wolfe, Joanna; Shanmugaraj, Nisha; Sipe, Jaclyn
Many communication instructors make allowances for grammatical error in nonnative English speakers' writing, but do businesspeople do the same? We asked 169 businesspeople to comment on three versions of an email with different types of errors. We found that businesspeople do make allowances for errors made by nonnative English speakers,…
This study examined the nature and chronological spread of references used by English-speaking scholars writing monographs on foreign literary topics, and compared the findings to an earlier study of the monographic literature of English and American literature and the humanities journal literature. Implications for research library collections…
might exist between overall language proficiency, collocational competence and spoken fluency in non-native English-speaking university lecturers. The data came from 15 20-minute mini-lectures recorded between 2009 and 2011 for an English oral proficiency test for lecturers employed at the University......Despite the large body of research into formulaic language and fluency, there seems to be a lack of empirical evidence for how collocations, often considered a subset of formulaic language, might impact on fluency. To address this problem, this dissertation examined to what extent correlations...... fluency measures calculated for each lecturer. Initial findings across all lecturers showed no correlation between collocational competence and either overall proficiency or fluency. However, further analysis of lecturers by department revealed that possible correlations were hidden by variations...
Iverson, Paul; Evans, Bronwen G
This study investigated whether individuals with small and large native-language (L1) vowel inventories learn second-language (L2) vowel systems differently, in order to better understand how L1 categories interfere with new vowel learning. Listener groups whose L1 was Spanish (5 vowels) or German (18 vowels) were given five sessions of high-variability auditory training for English vowels, after having been matched to assess their pre-test English vowel identification accuracy. Listeners were tested before and after training in terms of their identification accuracy for English vowels, the assimilation of these vowels into their L1 vowel categories, and their best exemplars for English (i.e., perceptual vowel space map). The results demonstrated that Germans improved more than Spanish speakers, despite the Germans' more crowded L1 vowel space. A subsequent experiment demonstrated that Spanish listeners were able to improve as much as the German group after an additional ten sessions of training, and that both groups were able to retain this learning. The findings suggest that a larger vowel category inventory may facilitate new learning, and support a hypothesis that auditory training improves identification by making the application of existing categories to L2 phonemes more automatic and efficient.
Full Text Available That the English language is the prevailing language in international scientific discourse is an undeniable fact for research professionals who are non-native speakers of English (NNSE. An exploratory, survey-based study of scientists in the experimental disciplines of neuroscience and medicine seeks to reveal, on the one hand, the habits of scientists who in their research practice come across neologisms in English and need to use them in oral and written scientific discourse in their own languages, and, on the other hand, their attitudes towards these neologisms and towards English as the language of international science. We found that all scientists write and publish their research articles (RAs in English and most submit them unrevised by native speakers of English. When first encountering a neologism in English, scientists tend to pay close attention to these new concepts, ideas or terms and very early in the reception process attempt to coin acceptable, natural-sounding Spanish equivalents for use in the laboratory and in their Spanish texts. In conjunction with the naturalized Spanish term, they often use the English neologism verbatim in a coexistent bilingual form, but they avoid using only the English term and very literal translations. These behaviors show an ambivalent attitude towards English (the language of both new knowledge reception and dissemination of their RAs and Spanish (used for local professional purposes and for popularization: while accepting to write in their acquired non-native language, they simultaneously recognize that their native language needs to preserve its specificity as a language of science.
Full Text Available Cultural diversity between students and teachers may be a source of “miscommunication” that compromises the learning/teaching environment. In such cases, students may be accused of poor performance or teachers may be blamed for inadequate methodology. This comparative study aims to examine the education culture in two Turkish universities involving native teachers, English speaking foreign teachers and their Turkish students in an attempt to understand the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges faced by both students and teachers. Four versions of the questionnaire were administered to 15 teachers and 228 students. All four versions focused on classroom management and examination procedures, pedagogy, and other affective factors. The authors aimed to investigate students’ and teachers’ mutual beliefs, perceptions and expectations of each other within the educational context and whether any differences could be accounted for by cultural differences between the two parties. This study was designed by both a Turkish academic and a native English speaking instructor, a collaboration which serves to temper cultural biases inherent to any culturally based inquiry. We hoped to maximize the effectiveness of cross-cultural classrooms as well as to suggest directions for further research
The present study examines sociolinguistic features of a particular speech act, paying compliments, by comparing and contrasting native Chinese and native American speakers' performances. By focusing on a relatively understudied speaker group such as the Chinese, typically regarded as having rules of speaking and social norms very different from those of Westerners, this paper aims at illuminating the fact that, in cross-cultural communication, foreign language speakers have to pay close attention to sociolinguistic rules of the target language in addition to structure and discourse rules to meet the needs of linguistic accuracy and fluency. This is due to the fact that such rules play an indispensable role in appropriating the proper use of linguistic forms. The data for this study were collected using ethnographic observation pioneered in this field by Wolfson and Manes (1980). The analysis will first explore both the features of distribution of paying compliments, and the functions they may serve in spoken exchanges for native Chinese and American English speakers. To present a fuller picture of the socio-cultural features this speech act may represent in Chinese and American societies, the analysis will further focus on the issues of topics, the addresser-addressee relationship, and culture-specificity versus universality.
Full Text Available This study examined the secondary students’ perceptions towards NESTs and NNESTs in an English course in Surabaya regarding the teachers’ teaching competence, cultural knowledge of English language teaching, teaching style, and classroom management. Most secondary students perceived both teacher groups were good at most categories. Using questionnaires distributed to 96 secondary school students of an English course who participated in this study, the researchers found that 38 students took part in doing a focus group interview. The interview was done to capture deeper perceptions that could be gained. The study reported that cultural knowledge of the English language teachers, especially the NESTs, exceeded that of the NNESTs. This research finding also proved that students perceived NESTs to be as good as NNESTs in such areas as teaching grammar, listening, reading, and writing. Furthermore, both NESTs and NNESTs were perceived to be not able to understand the students’ special needs since teachers at the the English course under study handled one level for about twelve meetings only.
Full Text Available This qualitative phenomenological research study explores the practices of instructors teaching through the medium of English as a foreign language, in classroom management course. Data collection instruments are semi-structured interviews and the course syllabi. Phenomenological data analysis techniques (bracketing, determining themes were employed. Results indicate that instructors do not use a specific model for the classroom management course. The challenges faced with design of an English-medium instruction such as difficulty in finding cultural course materials, lack of confidence among local students, adaptation of international students and the solutions (dividing the course into two parts: theory and practice; sharing own experiences; using tentative course syllabus of instructors for these challenges were explored, and suggestions for the designers of English-medium courses were discussed
Chamorro, Gloria; Sturt, Patrick; Sorace, Antonella
Previous research has shown L1 attrition to be restricted to structures at the interfaces between syntax and pragmatics, but not to occur with syntactic properties that do not involve such interfaces ("Interface Hypothesis", Sorace and Filiaci in "Anaphora resolution in near-native speakers of Italian." "Second Lang…
Krishnasamy, Hariharan N.; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Lu, Ho Fui
This paper identifies differences between the three ethnic groups, namely, Kadazans/Dusuns, Bajaus, and other minority ethnic groups on the beliefs about learning English as a second language based on the five variables, that is, language aptitude, language learning difficulty, language learning and communicating strategies, nature of language…
International students, a growing population in US universities, need to possess excellent reading skills in order to succeed. American universities also benefit from admitting students who do not require remedial English classes. Reading online has become an integrated part of college education, which requires students to have additional skills.…
English and Russian are two different orthographies, the former being an opaque orthography, the latter being considered a direct letter-sound language. This study investigated the relationship between reading, syntactic, orthographic, and working memory skills in the two orthographies. Participants were first-year BA students of English (age range 25-30) at the University of Haifa who had completed high school in Russia. They were tested individually, in Russian and English, on working memory, spelling, oral cloze, visual condition, phonological condition, orthographic skills, word attack, and word identification. The results indicated positive significant correlations within and across languages, except for the orthographic skills and some of the correlations of the visual skills. The orthographic skills correlated highly significantly within each language but not across languages. Almost all the other linguistic skills correlated significantly within and across languages. Multiple regression procedures revealed that phonological and spelling skills in Russian, the first language, were strong predictors of word identification in English, the second language. These results are discussed in light of the interdependence and the script-dependent hypotheses.
Public school educators in the United States are coping with the immigration of families from non-English speaking countries. Teachers are pressed by federal mandates to meet the challenges of increased cultural diversity and language deficiencies of students with new skills. This study explored the effectiveness of journaling between bilingual…
Shimamune, S; Smith, S L
Two Japanese students were taught to pronounce and discriminate English words that contain unfamiliar phonemic contrasts (e.g., rock and lock). Teaching pronunciation was found to be easier than teaching listening discrimination. Teaching listening discrimination resulted in collateral improvement in pronunciation and, to a lesser extent, vice versa.
Davidson, Kathryn; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Chen Pichler, Deborah
Bilingualism is common throughout the world, and bilingual children regularly develop into fluently bilingual adults. In contrast, children with cochlear implants (CIs) are frequently encouraged to focus on a spoken language to the exclusion of sign language. Here, we investigate the spoken English language skills of 5 children with CIs who also have deaf signing parents, and so receive exposure to a full natural sign language (American Sign Language, ASL) from birth, in addition to spoken En...
Reeves, Jenelle R.
Researchers have given limited attention to teacher attitudes toward inclusion of English-language learners (ELLs) in mainstream classrooms. The author explored 4 categories within secondary teacher attitudes toward ELL inclusion: (a) ELL inclusion, (b) coursework modification for ELLS, (c) professional development for working with ELLs, and (d)…
Xue, Jin; Liu, Tongtong; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Pei, Xuna
The present study aimed at distinguishing processing of early learned L2 words from late ones for Chinese natives who learn English as a foreign language. Specifically, we examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) effect arose during the arbitrary mapping from conceptual knowledge onto linguistic units. The behavior and ERP data were collected when 28 Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to perform semantic relatedness judgment on word pairs, which represented three stages of word learning (i.e., primary school, junior and senior high schools). A 3 (AoA: early vs. intermediate vs. late) × 2 (regularity: regular vs. irregular) × 2 (semantic relatedness: related vs. unrelated) × 2 (hemisphere: left vs. right) × 3 (brain area: anterior vs. central vs. posterior) within-subjects design was adopted. Results from the analysis of N100 and N400 amplitudes showed that early learned words had an advantage in processing accuracy and speed; there is a tendency that the AoA effect was more pronounced for irregular word pairs and in the semantic related condition. More important, ERP results showed early acquired words induced larger N100 amplitudes for early AoA words in the parietal area and more negative-going N400 than late acquire words in the frontal and central regions. The results indicate the locus of the AoA effect might derive from the arbitrary mapping between word forms and semantic concepts, and early acquired words have more semantic interconnections than late acquired words.
Musyoka, Millicent Malinda
The focus of this mixed method study was to investigate the play behaviors, play interactions, and language use--within a bilingual AS L/English classroom--of a Deaf child who is a native user of American Sign Language (ASL). Play is an essential element in all children's development. Previous research suggests that there is a strong relationship…
Chrabaszcz, Anna; Jiang, Nan
The study uses an elicited imitation (EI) task to examine the effect of the native language on the use of the English nongeneric definite article by highly proficient first-language (L1) Spanish and Russian speakers and to test the hierarchy of article difficulty first proposed by Liu and Gleason (2002). Our findings suggest that there is a clear…
As language learning theory has shifted from a highly guided to a more open learning process, this paper presents the teaching/learning philosophy called Learning for Life (L for L) as a great way to motivate native Spanish speaker students learning English as a foreign language, and to help them be the constructors of their own knowledge. The…
To a dubious critical salvation: Etienne Leroux and the canons of South African English criticism. This article presents a case study in cross-cultural literary reception following the act of literary translation—in this instance, of author Etienne Leroux—from Afrikaans into English. It describes the literary reception of Leroux in ...
The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarc...... of the English iceberg....
Full Text Available There is considerable academic literature on the usefulness of loanwords to Foreign Language (FL learners. This literature, based on empirical studies conducted among learners of various language backgrounds and learning various target languages, indicates that cognates shared by the first language (L1 of the learner and the target language are generally a positive learning resource in Foreign Language Learning (FLL contexts. This study extends the current literature by its examination of the specific context of English speakers learning Japanese as a Foreign Language (JFL. It takes both qualitative and quantitative approaches to the investigation of teaching practices related to the use of loanwords borrowed from English into Japanese, known as gairaigo. A quantitative analysis of three series of JFL textbooks reveals that gairaigo nouns are used in introductory texts at an unrepresentatively high proportion. While there is currently no empirical basis for this strategy, qualitative interviews with teachers give some support to the strategy of using gairaigo in preference to words of Japanese origin in introductory courses to assist learner comprehension and production. This study identifies a number of variables driving teachers’ use of gairaigo that have so far not been articulated in the literature.
This study aims to explore the Native English-Speaking Teacher (NEST) Program in relation to teachers' instruction and students' learning of English in primary schools in Taiwan. Inviting native English-speakers to teach English in the school system is not an unusual practice in the Asia-Pacific region. As the practice of including NESTs in the…
Mohammad Akram Alzu'bi
Full Text Available The study aimed at analyzing English questions of the Jordanian Secondary Certificate Examinations via Blooms' cognitive levels. An analysis sheet was prepared by the researcher for the purpose of the study, which was ensured to be valid and reliable. The whole questions of the general secondary examinations for English course in both levels (level three and level four during 2010-2013 composed the sample of the study. Frequencies and percentages were tabulated to facilitate the analysis of the results. The result of the study revealed that the total percentage of the first three levels (comprehension, knowledge, and analysis is (69.6 but the total percentage of the last three levels (application, synthesis, and evaluation is (30.4 so it indicated that the English questions included in general secondary examinations emphasize low order thinking levels. The researcher recommended that the questions designers should improve their questioning techniques in writing questions of exams.
Evaluating the lexico-grammatical differences in the writing of native and non-native speakers of English in peer-reviewed medical journals in the field of pediatric oncology: Creation of the genuine index scoring system.
Alberto Alexander Gayle
Full Text Available The predominance of English in scientific research has created hurdles for "non-native speakers" of English. Here we present a novel application of native language identification (NLI for the assessment of medical-scientific writing. For this purpose, we created a novel classification system whereby scoring would be based solely on text features found to be distinctive among native English speakers (NS within a given context. We dubbed this the "Genuine Index" (GI.This methodology was validated using a small set of journals in the field of pediatric oncology. Our dataset consisted of 5,907 abstracts, representing work from 77 countries. A support vector machine (SVM was used to generate our model and for scoring.Accuracy, precision, and recall of the classification model were 93.3%, 93.7%, and 99.4%, respectively. Class specific F-scores were 96.5% for NS and 39.8% for our benchmark class, Japan. Overall kappa was calculated to be 37.2%. We found significant differences between countries with respect to the GI score. Significant correlation was found between GI scores and two validated objective measures of writing proficiency and readability. Two sets of key terms and phrases differentiating NS and non-native writing were identified.Our GI model was able to detect, with a high degree of reliability, subtle differences between the terms and phrasing used by native and non-native speakers in peer reviewed journals, in the field of pediatric oncology. In addition, L1 language transfer was found to be very likely to survive revision, especially in non-Western countries such as Japan. These findings show that even when the language used is technically correct, there may still be some phrasing or usage that impact quality.
Muciaccia, John B.
"Thinking in English" represents Dr. Muciaccia's unique method of teaching English to non-native English speakers. Unlike any other English as a Second Language (ESL) book, Muciaccia's book features the "cultural immersion" approach that he has developed and practiced to a fine degree. In addition to his methodology, Muciaccia includes words of…
Zerkina, Natalya N.; Kostina, Nataliia N.; Urazayeva, Nailya R.; Lomakina, Yekaterina A.; Emets, Tatiana V.; Gallyamova, Maria S.; Melnikova, Elena P.; Trutnev, Alexey Yu.; Lukina, Oksana A.
The article focuses on peculiarities of English adjective teaching as one of main and important lexicological basis. As the English language nowadays is important and universal as a native language of worldwide society, exactly that's why process of learning must include wide range of techniques not only as a process of learning theories but also…
The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article...
Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate how different Voice Onset Time (VOT patterns are categorized by native speakers of American English and Brazilian Learners of English. American English and Brazilian Portuguese diverge as to the voicing pattern of plosive consonants, for the VOT cue plays different roles in the distinction between voiced and voiceless consonant categories in each system. This study contrasted four VOT patterns (Negative VOT, Zero VOT, Positive VOT and a manipulated pattern, named Artificial Zero VOT in two perceptual tasks (AxB discrimination and identification tests, and verified how the two groups of participants categorized these patterns. Results reinforce the idea that speech perception is multimodal and, therefore, the action of multiple cues must be taken into account when we consider phonetic-phonological processes.
Jia, Gisela; Fuse, Akiko
This 5-year longitudinal study investigated the acquisition of 6 English grammatical morphemes (i.e., regular and irregular past tense, 3rd person singular, progressive aspect -ing, copula BE, and auxiliary DO) by 10 native Mandarin-speaking children and adolescents in the United States (arrived in the United States between 5 and 16 years of age). The goals were to chart and compare the acquisition trajectories and levels of mastery across the morphemes, identify when age-related differences emerged and which forms they took. Morphological proficiency was measured by the accuracy of these morphemes in obligatory contexts during spontaneous speech. The morphemes were mastered by different numbers of participants and showed different growth trajectories. Performance variance was partially predicted by age of arrival (AoAr) in the United States, with early arrivals achieving greater proficiency than late arrivals. However, such AoAr effects took several years to occur and only existed for 2 of the 6 morphemes (i.e., 3rd person singular and regular past tense). Growth curve analysis revealed that language environment was a stronger predictor of individual differences than AoAr. Results did not uncover age-related differences in the acquisition of tense versus non-tense-related morphemes, nor in regular versus irregular morphemes, nor in the error types. Findings support an Environmental account for age-related differences in 2nd language (L2) morphological acquisition. Results also indicate that the acquisition of some grammatical morphemes by school-aged immigrants takes several years to complete. As L2 learners exhibit some error types and difficulties similar to monolingual children with specific language impairment, caution needs to be taken when interpreting and using morphological errors as indicators of speech/language learning problems in this population.
Geva, Esther; Yaghoub Zadeh, Zohreh
The research examined the extent to which (a) Grade 2 English-as-a-second-language (ESL) and English-as-a-first-language (EL1) children resemble each other on word and text reading efficiency and (b) whether individual differences in word and text reading efficiency in the two language groups can be understood in terms of similar underlying…
Azize, Pary M; Cattani, Allegra; Endacott, Ruth
To identify the factors that influence decisions made by health professionals when assessing the pain of native English speaking and children whose English is an additional language. Pain assessment in children is often poorly executed following acute injury. Whilst a range of pain assessment tools have been developed, little guidance is provided for assessing pain in children with English as an additional language. Factorial survey design. Twenty minor injuries unit nurses and 20 children's nursing students participated in an electronic survey to make judgements on 12 scenarios describing a child attending a minor injuries unit following an incident, accompanied by a parent. Respondents had to decide the most important form of pain assessment, and whether they would ask a parent or an interpreter to assess the pain of the child. An open-ended question asked about the difficulties found in making a judgement. Observation of the child's behaviour was the most common pain assessment reported. The visual analogue scale was significantly associated with children with proficient English. Respondents were significantly more likely to involve parents in the assessment if they could speak English well compared to parents with poor English skills. Moreover, nursing students were significantly more likely than registered nurses to call for support from an interpreter. Thematic analysis identified three themes related to difficulties with pain assessment: contrasting approaches, differing perceptions of pain and overcoming challenges. The reduced ability to communicate between child, parent and healthcare professional highlights the need to identify forms of assessment based on individual cases. The number of children with English as an additional language has seen a marked rise over the last decade. In situations where communication ability is reduced, assessment of pain should be tailored to meet the needs of the child. This may require timely access to interpreter services
Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K.; Chan, Shingfong
Longitudinal predictors of writing composition in Chinese and English written by the same 153 Hong Kong nine-year-old children were tested, and their production errors within the English essays across ten categories, focusing on punctuation, spelling, and grammar, were compared to errors made by ninety American nine-year-olds writing on the same topic. The correlation between quality of the compositions in Chinese and English was .53. In stepwise regression analyses examining early predictors at ages between five and nine years, tasks of speed or fluency were consistently uniquely associated with Chinese writing composition; measures of English vocabulary knowledge, word reading, or both were consistently uniquely associated with English writing quality. Compared to the American children, Chinese children’s writing reflected significantly higher proportions of errors in all grammatical categories but did not differ in punctuation or spelling. Findings underscore both similarities and differences in writing at different levels across languages. PMID:25729319
Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K; Chan, Shingfong
Longitudinal predictors of writing composition in Chinese and English written by the same 153 Hong Kong nine-year-old children were tested, and their production errors within the English essays across ten categories, focusing on punctuation, spelling, and grammar, were compared to errors made by ninety American nine-year-olds writing on the same topic. The correlation between quality of the compositions in Chinese and English was .53. In stepwise regression analyses examining early predictors at ages between five and nine years, tasks of speed or fluency were consistently uniquely associated with Chinese writing composition; measures of English vocabulary knowledge, word reading, or both were consistently uniquely associated with English writing quality. Compared to the American children, Chinese children's writing reflected significantly higher proportions of errors in all grammatical categories but did not differ in punctuation or spelling. Findings underscore both similarities and differences in writing at different levels across languages.
Full Text Available Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2 status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1 in cross-linguistic influence (CLI. This paper presents a study of these factors, and of the influence that the L1 (Spanish has on L2 (English and L3 (Catalan oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.
Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 117-126. English as an International Language (EIL) and its implications for ELT have been keenly debated throughout the last two decades. Many researchers have in some depth elaborated on the issues of identity and voice, linguistic imperialism, and the importance of non-native speakers and the...
As a result of internationalisation, many universities in northern Europe have adopted English as a medium of instruction. At the same time, recent language policies have reinforced the importance of the national language(s) in the academic domain. Parallel language use was introduced and institutionalised in order to ensure students' right to…
The impact of globalisation in the last 20 years has led to an overwhelming increase in the use of English as the medium through which many business people get their work done. As a result, the linguistic landscape within which we now operate as researchers and teachers has changed both rapidly and beyond all recognition. In the discussion below,…
Bradford, Elisabeth Ef; Jentzsch, Ines; Gomez, Juan-Carlos; Chen, Yulu; Zhang, Da; Su, Yanjie
Theory of Mind (ToM) refers to the ability to compute and attribute mental states to ourselves and other people. It is currently unclear whether ToM abilities are universal or whether they can be culturally influenced. To address this question, this research explored potential differences in engagement of ToM processes between two different cultures, Western (individualist) and Chinese (collectivist), using a sample of healthy adults. Participants completed a computerised false-belief task, in which they attributed beliefs to either themselves or another person, in a matched design, allowing direct comparison between "Self"- and "Other"-oriented conditions. Results revealed that both native-English speakers and native-Chinese individuals responded significantly faster to self-oriented than other-oriented questions. Results also showed that when a trial required a "perspective-shift," participants from both cultures were slower to shift from Self-to-Other than from Other-to-Self. Results indicate that despite differences in collectivism scores, culture does not influence task performance, with similar results found for both Western and non-Western participants, suggesting core and potentially universal similarities in the ToM mechanism across these two cultures.
Full Text Available With the notion of World Englishes (WE accepted in the academia, the past decade has witnessed ten studies or so conducted to scrutinize how English learners of China perceptually evaluate English varieties. Those studies, however, seldom explore the juncture between learners’ attitudes toward accent varieties of English and their expectations of English phonetics instruction. Additionally, they primarily draw quantitative data from surveys of large samples without providing in-depth viewpoints from learners themselves. This study aimed to investigate Chinese tertiary-level English learners’ attitudes toward WE accents and how they view accents situated in English phonetics instruction with cross-validated research methods including an accent recognition test, an attitudinal experiment, a questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interviews. Its participants were 64 sophomore English majors at a Chinese university; the accents examined were American English (AmE, British English (BrE, China English (ChE, Australian English, Indian English, and Korean English. Results indicate that students could recognize AmE and BrE better than other accents and that they identified with BrE most, but preferred to imitate AmE and welcome Americans as their phonetics teachers. Results also show students’ propensity for setting a native speaker norm, rather than adopting ChE as a model, at phonetics class. Based on the findings, the study concluded that nowadays teachers for English majors in China still need to adhere to the native speaker model in English phonetics instruction, and meanwhile, expose their students to various WE accents in order to facilitate their English phonetics learning and cultivate their awareness of WE.
Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M
To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Corey, Robert C.
In the last two decades, technology use has escalated and educators grapple with its advances and integration into the classroom. Issues surrounding what constitutes a literate society, the clarion calls for educational reform emanating from US presidents to parent teacher organizations, and educators' ability to cope with advances in technology in the classroom demand attention. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand the professional and educational experiences of six English faculty members teaching undergraduate courses at Midwest universities. Using the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge -- TPACK (Koehler and Mishra 2008), the major focus of the study was to determine how faculty members understood what characterized the nature of teaching with technology in undergraduate classrooms. Results of this study revealed five themes showing how the participants were introduced to technology, how they assimilated it into their pedagogy, and how they integrated it into teaching practice. This study has the potential to impact the nature of illustrating the methods and techniques used by the six participants as they merge technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge and set in motion classroom practices that assist faculty at all levels to develop and teach technology skills necessary for the 21st century and to better prepare students for thinking critically about how to use digital advances.
Full Text Available This study explores statistically child language-acquisition using data extracted from large collections for acquisition in two languages – English and French. Comparison of the two collections reveals that the advancement in acquiring vocabulary displays very big differences when the children’s speech is classified by the parts of speech deployed, as these are formally defined in the two languages, despite there being no reasons to suppose that the two language groups of children should show significant differences in cognitive development. The hypothesis put forward is that there exist general classes of meaning-representation and the challenge is to obtain evidence corroborating this. A specific set of classes is proposed, derived according to their different contributing roles in the mental representation of the world, considered from the perspective of an “Actor in the environment” cognitive model. The identified parts of speech from the two languages are sorted into the proposed classes. It is shown statistically that when children’s speech is discriminated to these classes, the acquisition processes in the two languages are very alike. Examining the data, the use of these classes is evident from the onset of language production. Some particularities related to factors influencing the use of communicators, interjections and onomatopoeias in children’s speech are discussed in addition to the study’s overall findings.
Knight-Teague, Kerri; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Knight, Erin
Oral reading fluency is frequently used in school settings to assess student reading skills, but it is somewhat commonly believed that some students can read words fluently while not comprehending (i.e., word callers). Previous studies examining the prevalence of word callers typically included native English speakers rather than English learners…
This student workbook is designed for native Spanish-speaking learners of English as a second language, and presents instruction in basic English grammatical constructions and usage, as well as some vocabulary development. Lessons include basic descriptions of the constructions and rules in applying them, and a brief exercise reinforcing the…
including Italian, Spanish, and French, mixed with elements of Greek, Turkish, Arabic and. Persian to create the ... become global citizens must also speak the global language; therefore, English – whether the standard form or some ... Inner Circle university settings where English is taught by native-speaking instructors, an.
Full Text Available As language learning theory has shifted from a highly guided to a more open learning process, this paper presents the teaching/learning philosophy called Learning for Life (L for L as a great way to motivate native Spanish speaker students learning English as a foreign language, and to help them be the constructors of their own knowledge. The Learning for Life philosophy was created by Patricia López de Jaramillo, M.A. and Fernando Miño-Garcés, Ph.D. at the Andean Center for Latin American Studies (ACLAS in Quito – Ecuador. In the Learning for Life philosophy, the learner is the center of the process and becomes the creator of his/her own knowledge. To get to this new dimension in learning, acquisition is emphasized, and the principles of this philosophy are applied in the EFL classroom. The definition of the philosophy and its principles are presented, and explained in detail as to how they can be applied in the teaching of a foreign language. This paper also explains the difference between acquisition versus learning, and what process should be applied in the classroom to emphasize on acquisition, and not so much on learning.
English for International Journalists is a clear and engaging step-by-step guide for non-native speakers using English in journalism across all forms of media. In-depth language analysis is provided in the specialised context of journalism, as well as a comprehensive approach to the rules and guidelines necessary for avoiding the pitfalls and errors that undermine accuracy and clarity. The book, written by Mike Gandon and edited by Heather Purdey, covers a broad range of vital subjects, including: Making contact Interviewing Grammar and journalistic writing Sensitive issues The language of argument The language of impartial and accurate reporting Bloggers and broadcasters Reporting economy, health and the environment. The book is closely supported by online resources concentrating on the spoken word, intonation and pronunciation, and also features an expansive range of exercises and tests, suitable for self-study or to be set as coursework. English for International Journalists presents readers with ...
Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang
The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.
This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.
Charles, Quanisha D.
This study used narrative inquiry as a methodological tool and Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a lens to examine how the term native English speaker (NES) is socially constructed when subscribed by Black teachers of English (BTE) in South Korea. In addition to examining how Black teachers of English interpret the term native English speaker, this…
Jourdan, Jonas; Kalinkat, Gregor; Emde, Sebastian; Miesen, Friedrich Wilhelm; Jüngling, Hannah; Cocchiararo, Berardino; Bierbach, David
Thermally influenced freshwater systems provide suitable conditions for non-native species of tropical and subtropical origin to survive and form proliferating populations beyond their native ranges. In Germany, non-native convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) and tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) have established populations in the Gillbach, a small stream that receives warm water discharge from a local power plant. Here, we report on the discovery of spotted tilapia (Pelmatolapia mariae) in the Gillbach, the first record of a reproducing population of this species in Europe. It has been hypothesized that Oreochromis sp. in the Gillbach are descendants of aquaculture escapees and our mtDNA analysis found both O. mossambicus and O. niloticus maternal lineages, which are commonly used for hybrids in aquaculture. Convict cichlids and spotted tilapia were most probably introduced into the Gillbach by aquarium hobbyists. Despite their high invasiveness worldwide, we argue that all three cichlid species are unlikely to spread and persist permanently beyond the thermally influenced range of the Gillbach river system. However, convict cichlids from the Gillbach are known to host both native and non-native fish parasites and thus, non-native cichlids may constitute threats to the native fish fauna. We therefore strongly recommend continuous monitoring of the Gillbach and similar systems. PMID:28680671
Full Text Available English as a lingua franca (ELF for international communication has become a heated issue for discussions among educators of English in recent years. As scholars find it essential for teachers to encourage their students to acquire the ability of using English in real-life conversations, they also wonder about the necessity of requiring students to speak in an accent approximate to that of native speakers of English. With the purpose of encouraging non-English majors at technological universities to speak English and directing English majors’ attention to things other than the so-called ‘standard norms of English accent,’ this study involved 85 freshmen from two technological universities at southern Taiwan. The researchers ask the following questions: What are the students’ attitudes toward native speaker norms of English? After a semester of teaching interventions, do the students’ attitudes change? Do the students’ majors affect their attitudes? Do the students’ genders affect their attitudes? The teaching interventions included providing students with teaching materials covering varieties of spoken English and assisting students to prepare three three-minute group conversation video clips. The results gained from both quantitative and qualitative methods indicate that the students appreciated the accent of the native speakers most. However, after the interventions, the students could appreciate other accents as well. Moreover, the students did not find it so important to speak like a native speaker, and their self-evaluation of English speaking ability and confidence in speaking English with others were significantly boosted after the implementation of the project.
Wendell G. Hassell
Because of increasing public interest in native plants, regional groups have been cooperating to develop native species. The Federal Native Plants Initiative was formed in 1994 to coordinate and encourage the development and use of native plants. The program they developed includes public involvement, organizational structure, technical work groups, implementation...
Successful Approaches to Helping Students--Including English Learners--Succeed in Elementary School. Parent Guide = Enfoques exitosos para ayudar a los estudiantes--incluyendo a los que aprenden ingles--a triunfar en la escuela primaria. Guia de padres
This guide informs parents about some instructional practices that work well for all elementary school students, in particular English learners. It includes questions parents can ask teachers and principals to help them understand how their children's school approaches teaching and learning. Both English and Spanish versions of the document are…
Full Text Available This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The data gathered from a Turkish lecturer teaching finance, and the interviews both with the lecturer and the students. The lecturer and the students were videotaped and the data was evaluated by content analysis. The results revealed a difference between the way non-native and native speakers evaluate an oral discourse of a non-native lecturer teaching in English. Native speakers of English found the oral performance moderately comprehensible, while non-native speakers found it relatively comprehensible.
frequency of international arrivals tend to have better English communication skills . If a field is primarily an international airport, the...71% of the pilots who said the Com- mon English communication skills were good offered explanations. The controllers’ ability to communicate with...pilots who said the Com- mon English communication skills were only fair provided commentary. The controllers’ ability to communicate with them in Common
This study is a sociolinguistic investigation of the use of four English generic pronouns ("he," "she," "he or she," singular "they") by Arabic-speaking second language learners of English. This study takes a different approach to the investigation of second language (L2) acquisition and use by examining the…
Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha
In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…
Ankara : The Faculty of Letters and the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1990. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1990. Includes bibliographical references leaves 66-68. All English as a Foreign Language (EEL) teachers, regardless of being native or non-native speakers of English, can benefit from instructional supervision to improve theii* instructional planning, their teaching performance and their means of assessing student lea...
Full Text Available This qualitative study, using an open interview, set out to investigate the roles six factors, including age, university education, teachers of English Language institutes, teaching English, dictionary, and note-taking, played in improving English speaking fluency of seventeen fluent Iranian EFL speakers. The participants were chosen purposefully based on the speaking scale of Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. The findings indicated that early age had a great impact on the participants’ speaking fluency. They mentioned that they could not pick up fluency if they had started learning English at older ages. Moreover, university education had no effect on enhancing their fluency. They stated that not having enough opportunities to speak English in classrooms, being exposed to wrong amounts of input from their classmates or even from some university instructors, having no access to English native speakers in English Language Departments, professors’ talking in native language out of classes, in their offices or even sometimes in classes all led to their losing motivation after entering the university. In contrast, teachers in English language institutes had a supportive role in increasing the participants’ English learning. Although two participants quit teaching English since it had a negative influence on their speaking, it had a positive impact on improving speaking ability of the rest. And finally, fruitful strategies were suggested on how to use dictionaries and note-takings.
Duffield, Nigel; Matsuo, Ayumi; Roberts, Leah
Previous studies, including Duffield and Matsuo (2001; 2002; 2009), have demonstrated second language learners' overall sensitivity to a parallelism constraint governing English VP-ellipsis constructions: like native speakers (NS), advanced Dutch, Spanish and Japanese learners of English reliably prefer ellipsis clauses with structurally parallel…
Wang, Lun; Abe, Jun-ichi
This study investigates the relation between phonology and orthography in word recognition in college-level readers with different first languages (L1). It also examines whether word recognition processes in L1 influence those processes in the second language (L2), which was English in the study. Participants were divided into two groups according to their L1 (Japanese, Chinese), and were given semantic category judgment tasks in English in order to compare their degree of reliance on L1 phonology and orthography in L2 word recognition.The results showed that Japanese and Chinese L1 readers differed in using phonological and orthographic information in the L2 English task. The results suggest that reading for meaning in English is affected by prior literacy experiences in reading L1.
Lin, Grace Hui Chin
Writing is one of the four abilities in English Learning. Many students need to write their theses and dissertations in English in order to achieve their academic degrees. English writing is in fact an access of international and intercultural communication with native-speakers and non-native speakers, in academic fields. After reading abundant…
Full Text Available This article includes the description of data information from a visual word rhyming judgment task in native Korean, native Chinese and native English speakers. You will find fMRI data information including experimental design, MRI protocol, and brain activation results from a conjunction analysis of the three groups of subjects. Other results from the same study were published in “How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean–Chinese–English trilinguals” (Kim et al., 2015 .
Rivers, Damian J.
This study assessed the attitudinal responses of 48 Japanese university students towards 10 accented English speech samples across nine evaluative criteria. Of the 10 samples, one was a Japanese-English speech sample (the intracultural familiar), seven were non-native-English samples originating from a variety of Asian countries (intercultural…
The worldwide spread of English has recently received much interest. Issues relating to the multifaceted roles of English around the world have been highlighted and purist positions about English challenged. In particular (a) the assumption that British English is the only valid standard of English; and (b) the notion that the "native speaker" is…
An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers' performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English learning and teaching, and the inappropriate…
Hughes, Teresa Ann; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David
This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teachers of English in Polish schools, and is the result of the Dr. Butler's experience as a teacher of English in Poland. It is argued that native teachers of English should be employed in Poland because they teach in their own language, use current idioms, provide…
Marina, Olga A.; Rajprasit, Krich
Communication mobility has been suggested as an element of the complex construct of professional communicative competence, with a shared core of English in the oral mode, for professional international communication. This study aims (1) to investigate the possible correlation between the perceived level of communication mobility, and the influence…
Ni Ketut Mirahayuni
Full Text Available Abstract. Research into English research articles (RAs has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990 Create-AÂResearch-Space (CARS model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategics between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational
Full Text Available Gregarines represent an important transition step from free-living predatory (colpodellids s.l. and/or photosynthetic (Chromera and Vitrella apicomplexan lineages to the most important pathogens, obligate intracellular parasites of humans and domestic animals such as coccidians and haemosporidians (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Babesia, etc.. While dozens of genomes of other apicomplexan groups are available, gregarines are barely entering the molecular age. Among the gregarines, archigregarines possess a unique mixture of ancestral (myzocytosis and derived (lack of apicoplast, presence of subpellicular microtubules features.In this study we revisited five of the early-described species of the genus Selenidium including the type species Selenidium pendula, with special focus on surface ultrastructure and molecular data. We were also able to describe three new species within this genus. All species were characterized at morphological (light and scanning electron microscopy data and molecular (SSU rDNA sequence data levels. Gregarine specimens were isolated from polychaete hosts collected from the English Channel near the Station Biologique de Roscoff, France: Selenidium pendula from Scolelepis squamata, S. hollandei and S. sabellariae from Sabellaria alveolata, S. sabellae from Sabella pavonina, Selenidium fallax from Cirriformia tentaculata, S. spiralis sp. n. and S. antevariabilis sp. n. from Amphitritides gracilis, and S. opheliae sp. n. from Ophelia roscoffensis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of these data showed archigregarines clustering into five separate clades and support previous doubts about their monophyly.Our phylogenies using the extended gregarine sampling show that the archigregarines are indeed not monophyletic with one strongly supported clade of Selenidium sequences around the type species S. pendula. We suggest the revision of the whole archigregarine taxonomy with only the species within this clade remaining in the genus
Ahmad, Kham Sila; Armarego, Jocelyn; Sudweeks, Fay
Aim/Purpose: To develop a framework for utilizing Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) to assist non-native English migrant women to acquire English vocabulary in a non-formal learning setting. Background: The women in this study migrated to Australia with varied backgrounds including voluntary or forced migration, very low to high levels of…
English has become the world's international language, used for international communication mostly among non-native speakers of other languages and 80 percent of all the English teachers around the world are nonnative English-speaking (NNES) teachers (Canagarajah, 1999). Therefore, there is a growing need to investigate the EIL (English as an…
This keynote address by a native Vietnamese speaker who did not learn English until he was college-age, through the now obsolete "grammar-translation" method, recounts his difficulties in learning to converse orally in English. He stresses the need to teach conversational English to English Language Learners (ELLs) in addition to…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Native language. 300.29 Section 300.29 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.29 Native language. (a) Native language, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the following: (1) The language...
Bartgis, Jami; Albright, Glenn
Gatekeeper training is a widely used prevention method for training local community members to recognize the signs and symptoms of suicide and to support appropriate referrals for mental health. Training community "gatekeepers" is critical for increasing access to care for those youth who are in need, as youth often turn first to family and friends for help. This study examines the outcomes at pre-training, post-training, and 3-month follow-up for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students, teachers, and faculty completing online role-play gatekeeper training simulations. The simulations use emotionally responsive avatars that have memory and personality, and respond like real students experiencing psychological distress in realistic situations. Data from 86 matched pairs showed significant increases in self-identified gatekeeper attitudes of preparedness, likelihood (behavioral intent) and self-efficacy to engage in helping behaviors (i.e., identifying those in psychological distress, talking to them, and supporting a referral for services) 3 months after training. This study provides promising evidence for use of online avatar-based training with AI/AN communities and has the potential to address many of the current challenges with gatekeeper training in Indian Country.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss the problem of translating Polish prose, based on an analysis of a selection of samples taken from Czesław Miłosz’s Native Realm. A Search for Self-Definition translated by Catherine S. Leach. The book documents specific relations between the Western and the Eastern Europe determined by historical provenance of the realms in question. The dichotomy of the collective European history has a profound influence on the reception of Polish literature among the Western audience. Native Realm showcases the issue perfectly – it is interesting in terms of its careful account of the historical and social development of the Continent. The perception of reality is conditioned by an inherent dissimilarity of experiences between the West and the East. The intention of Miłosz was to provide an analysis of them and produce an insightful book addressed specifically to the Western readership. My discussion is an attempt to prove that the endeavour is doomed to failure due to the intrinsic differences between the cultures involved, as cultural inheritance determines the interpretation of historical facts and prompts dissimilar connotations. In the case of Native Realm, on the one hand, we encounter Miłosz’s vision/imagination that is irreversibly rooted in the Slavic way of looking at things and, on the other, the distinctively dissimilar Western vantage point. Translating these differences appears to be a major challenge for any translator.
Reviews the current state of World English. Subjects addressed include standard accents and dialects, prejudicial attitudes toward nonstandard "local" usages, the use of English as the language of diplomacy, American influences on the language, and the fracturing of English in non-English-speaking countries around the world. (17 references) (JL)
Full Text Available Jumbled sentence items in language assessment have been criticized by some authors as inauthentic. However, unscrambling jumbled sentences is a common occurrence in real-world communication in English as a lingua franca. Naturalistic inquiry identified 54 instances of jumbled sentence use in daily life in Dubai/Sharjah, where English is widely used as a lingua franca. Thus it is seen that jumbled sentence test items can reflect real-world language use. To evaluate scrambled sentence test items, eight test item types developed from one jumbled sentence instance (“Want taxi Dubai you?” were analyzed in terms of interactivity and authenticity. Items ranged from being completely decontextualized, non-interactive, and inauthentic to being fully contextualized, interactive, and authentic. To determine appropriate assessment standards for English tests in schools in this region, the English language standards for schools and English language requirements for university admission in the UAE were analyzed. Schools in Dubai/Sharjah use Inner Circle English varieties of English (e.g., British or American English as the standard for evaluation, as well as non-native-English-speaker varieties (e.g., Indian English(es. Also, students applying to English-medium universities in the UAE must meet the required scores on standardized English tests including the IELTS and TOEFL. Standards for evaluation of communication in English involving tasks of jumbled sentences in classroom tests must reflect the language learning goals of the school and community. Thus standards for classroom assessment of English in Dubai/Sharjah are determined by local schools’ and universities’ policies.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...
Villone, Barbara; Rampf, Cornelius
The present is a companion paper to "A contemporary look at Hermann Hankel's 1861 pioneering work on Lagrangian fluid dynamics" by Frisch, Grimberg and Villone [Eur. Phys. J. H 42, 537-556 (2017)]. Here we present the English translation of the 1861 prize manuscript from Göttingen University "Zur allgemeinen Theorie der Bewegung der Flüssigkeiten" (On the general theory of the motion of the fluids) of Hermann Hankel (1839-1873), which was originally submitted in Latin and then translated into German by the Author for publication. We also provide the English translation of two important reports on the manuscript, one written by Bernhard Riemann and the other by Wilhelm Eduard Weber during the assessment process for the prize. Finally, we give a short biography of Hermann Hankel with his complete bibliography.
Anne P A Swan
Full Text Available This paper asserts that English teachers’ understanding of their professionalism enables them to ‘put the learner in the spotlight’ through their highly-developed awareness of local contexts of English use. Changing attitudes to English language teacher identity include a revaluation of the’ native-non-native speaker’ dichotomy which is fast becoming irrelevant as teachers assert new identities based on factors such as professional beliefs about their teaching, understanding their students’ needs and understanding the role of English in their contexts. In a globalising world, these aspects no longer require ‘so-called’ native speaker skills, such as pronunciation and knowledge of ‘English’ culture. In fact, dwelling at length on the issues surrounding native and non-native speaker teacher identity tends to cloud understanding of what qualities English teachers need. Interviews with multilingual teachers of English, working in a variety of countries, have revealed an understanding of the diminishing importance of the ‘native speaker’ and the concomitant growth in the confidence of the multilingual teacher. This confidence has been acquired through depth of linguistic knowledge, through observance of other cultures, and through resistance to the encroachment of English by finding a place for the language which satisfies the needs of multilingual users without requiring subservience. In discovering these strengths of multilingual teachers, I show how stepping outside the boundaries of one’s own limited environment allows English language teachers, wherever they come from, to develop a truly enlightened international professionalism which puts learners firmly in the spotlight.
David Dirkwen Wei
Full Text Available Abstract: The implementation of English-only policy in the English classes at Wenzao Ursuline College of Languages in Taiwan has continued for nearly 40 years. Its advantages and disadvantages have also been debated and challenged because of the rising demands on students’ English proficiency in Taiwan. This study intended to reexamine the efficiency of the implementation of English-only policy in the English learning at a college of languages in Taiwan. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the process of data collection. 279 English major and non-English major students were invited to answer questionnaires, and six participants were invited to join interviews. The process of data analysis included the analysis of both the quantitative questionnaire data and the qualitative interview data. This study found students’ progress in English listening and speaking proficiency in the basic and lower-intermediate levels because of English-only policy. However, the interaction between teachers and some students was hampered because of the policy. Also, the ambiguity emerging in the insistence on using English only blocked some learners from comprehending the meanings of the texts they were learning, specifically the texts in the upper-intermediate and intermediate-advanced levels of English reading and writing courses. This study also found that proper tolerance of using both students’ native language and English in TEFL classes in the way of code-switching may help students more than the implementation of English-only policy in a tertiary TEFL context.
Ni Ketut Mirahayuni
Full Text Available Research into English research articles (RAs has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990 Create-A-Research-Space (CARS model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategies between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational strategies. Second, non-native English writers need to acquire knowledge of commonly used formal generic structure, and more importantly, the knowledge of the nature of scientific writing in English to be able to gain wider readership. The implications for further research and the teaching of academic writing are discussed.
Villone, Barbara; Rampf, Cornelius
The present is a companion paper to "A contemporary look at Hermann Hankel's 1861 pioneering work on Lagrangian fluid dynamics" by Frisch, Grimberg and Villone [Eur. Phys. J. H 42, 537-556 (2017)]. Here we present the English translation of the 1861 prize manuscript from Göttingen University "Zur allgemeinen Theorie der Bewegung der Flüssigkeiten" (On the general theory of the motion of the fluids) of Hermann Hankel (1839-1873), which was originally submitted in Latin and then translated into German by the Author for publication. We also provide the English translation of two important reports on the manuscript, one written by Bernhard Riemann and the other by Wilhelm Eduard Weber during the assessment process for the prize. Finally, we give a short biography of Hermann Hankel with his complete bibliography. Originally published in German as "Zur allgemeinen Theorie der Bewegung der Flüssigkeiten. Eine von der philosophischen Fakultät der Georgia Augusta am 4. Juni 1861 gekrönte Preisschrift".
Dean SPGS NAU
Abstract. The English Language has come to stay in Nigeria and Africa at large. The basic structure of African society recognized by its customs and beliefs is described as “heart of darkness” until English begins to inform the world through its native and non-native speakers that Africa has robust world views worthy of study,.
Llanos, Fernando; Francis, Alexander L
Native speakers of Spanish with different amounts of experience with English classified stop-consonant voicing (/b/ versus /p/) across different speech accents: English-accented Spanish, native Spanish, and native English. While listeners with little experience with English classified target voicing with an English- or Spanish-like voice onset time (VOT) boundary, predicted by contextual VOT, listeners familiar with English relied on an English-like VOT boundary in an English-accented Spanish context even in the absence of clear contextual cues to English VOT. This indicates that Spanish listeners accommodated English-accented Spanish voicing differently depending on their degree of familiarization with the English norm.
Mandarin lexical tones vary in their acoustic realization depending on the surrounding context. Native listeners compensate for this tonal coarticulation when identifying tones in context. This study investigated how native English listeners handle tonal coarticulation by testing native English and Mandarin listeners discrimination of the four Mandarin lexical tones in tri-syllabic sequences in which the middle tone varied while the first and last tones were held constant. Three different such frames were tested. As expected, Mandarin listeners discriminated all pairs in all contexts with a high degree of accuracy. English listeners exhibited poorer discrimination than Mandarin listeners and their discrimination accuracy showed a high degree of context dependency. In addition to assessing accuracy, reactions times to correctly discriminated different trials were entered into a multidimensional scaling analysis. For both listener groups, the arrangement of tones in perceptual space varied depending on the surrounding context suggesting that listeners attend to different acoustic attributes of the target tone depending on the surrounding tones. These results demonstrate the importance for models of cross-language speech perception of including contextual variation when characterizing the perception of non-native prosodic categories. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD
This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…
Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula
Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…
Full Text Available This study investigated the use of cable TV to increase listening comprehension of the students of English education department of Muria Kudus University. The aims were to find out: (1 the listening comprehension achievement of the students taught by using cable TV, (2 the students’ response towards the teaching of listening comprehension class by using cable TV, and (3 the students’ difficulties when being involved in the listening class taught by using cable TV are. A classroom action research was conducted with three cycles. The data was collected by using test, observation checklist, & a questionnaire. The subject consisted of 29 students joining Advanced Listening class. The findings show that: (a The listening comprehension achievement of the students taught by using cable TV in cycle I, II, & III is fair, (b The students have enthusiasm and seriousness and motivation in joining the class in all cycles, (c In cycle III the students’ difficulties when being involved in the listening comprehension class taught by using cable TV are more and more decreasing. Keywords: Cable TV, Listening Comprehension
Full Text Available In the field of language and identity, the subcategory of gender has been an area of growing interest (Pavlenko, 2001; Norton & Pavlenko, 2004; Menard-Warwick, 2008; and Higgins, 2010. Adopting the view of gender as “a system of social relationships and discursive practices” (Norton & Pavlenko, 2004, p. 504, social context is fundamental in understanding how gender relates to foreign language learning. This qualitative study focused on the extent to which gender impacts English language learning and English language use in the context of teaching English as a foreign language in South Korea. More specifically, it investigates how gender shapes self and social identity, and how these identities relate to English language learning and English language use, at present and/or in the future, in both real and/or imagined communities. Four male and four female participants were selected using purposive homogenous sampling techniques based on the criteria of having lived abroad in an English speaking community for over 5 years—a criterion which assumes the formation of self and social identity in addition to their native Korean L1. Data was collected through multiple methods including open-ended questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Interview and questionnaire data reveals gender differences in the symbolic meaning of English language, the relevance of English in self and social positioning, and the role of English in shaping future professional trajectories with males situating themselves in international contexts and females in the local.
The variety of English spoken and written by Filipino natives is examined, and its particular usages or "perduring features" are reviewed. Filipino English is shown to be influenced by the structures of native Filipino language(s), and by the historical and cultural contexts in which it is learned. It is argued that Philippine English,…
Berent, Gerald P; Kelly, Ronald R; Albertini, John A; Toscano, Rose Marie
Deaf learners' acquisition of fundamental lexical properties of high-frequency English verbs related to transitivity and intransitivity was examined, including the subtle distinction between unergative and unaccusative verbs. A 140-item sentence acceptability rating scale was used to assess this lexical knowledge in deaf college students at two English proficiency levels, plus a control group of hearing native English speakers. Hypotheses addressed the influence of relative derivational complexity and overall English proficiency on verb acquisition. Though the hearing group showed greater accuracy in sentence acceptability judgments and greater accuracy tied to overall English proficiency, the two deaf groups displayed fairly robust knowledge of targeted verbs' fundamental transitive and intransitive lexical properties. Nevertheless, verb acquisition remains a formidable challenge. Further research should assess deaf students' knowledge of these lexical properties in lower-frequency English verbs, including unaccusative verbs prevalent in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) and other academic discourse.
Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda
For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading. A correlational design was used to examine the contributions of English stress in derivation with neutral and non-neutral suffixes to English word and nonword reading. Stress judgment in non-neutral derivation predicted word reading after controlling for working memory and English vocabulary; whereas stress production in neutral derivation contributed to word reading and pseudoword decoding, independent of working memory and English vocabulary. Although AELs could use stress and suffix cues for word reading, AELs were different from native English speakers in awareness of non-neutral suffix cues conditioning lexical stress placement. AELs may need to rely on lexical storage of primary stress in derivations with non-neutral suffixes.
Meyer, Mary Hockenberry
Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)
Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs
Zainab Thamer Ahmed
Full Text Available Previous language attitude studies indicated that in many countries all over the world, English language learners perceived native accents either American or British, more positively than the non-native accents such as the Japanese, Korean, and Austrian accents. However, in Malaysia it is still unclear which accent Malaysian learners of English tend to perceive more positively (Pillai 2009. The verbal-guise technique and accent recognition item were adopted as indirect and direct instruments in gathering data to obtain data to clarify the inquiry. The sample includes 120 Malaysian university students and they were immersed in several speech accent situations to elicit feedback on their perceptions. Essentially two research questions are addressed: 1 What are Malaysian university students’ attitudes toward native and non-native English accents? 2 How familiar are students with accents? The results indicated that the students had a bias towards in-group accent, meaning that they evaluated non-native lecturers’ accents more positively. These results supported the ‘social identity theory’ consistent with many previous language attitude studies of this nature. The Malaysian students were seen to be able to distinguish between native and non-native accents although there was much confusion between British and American accents.
Full Text Available Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a "foreign accent" in second language speakers. Reduced vowels, or "schwas," have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to the co-articulatory effects of adjacent consonants. The current study examined the effects of adjacent sounds on the spectral and temporal qualities of schwa in word-final position. Three groups of English-speaking adults were tested: Miami-based monolingual English speakers, early Spanish-English bilinguals, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Subjects performed a reading task to examine their schwa productions in fluent speech when schwas were preceded by consonants from various points of articulation. Results indicated that monolingual English and late Spanish-English bilingual groups produced targeted vowel qualities for schwa, whereas early Spanish-English bilinguals lacked homogeneity in their vowel productions. This extends prior claims that schwa is targetless for F2 position for native speakers to highly-proficient bilingual speakers. Though spectral qualities lacked homogeneity for early Spanish-English bilinguals, early bilinguals produced schwas with near native-like vowel duration. In contrast, late bilinguals produced schwas with significantly longer durations than English monolinguals or early Spanish-English bilinguals. Our results suggest that the temporal properties of a language are better integrated into second language phonologies than
Byers, Emily; Yavas, Mehmet
Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a "foreign accent" in second language speakers. Reduced vowels, or "schwas," have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to the co-articulatory effects of adjacent consonants. The current study examined the effects of adjacent sounds on the spectral and temporal qualities of schwa in word-final position. Three groups of English-speaking adults were tested: Miami-based monolingual English speakers, early Spanish-English bilinguals, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Subjects performed a reading task to examine their schwa productions in fluent speech when schwas were preceded by consonants from various points of articulation. Results indicated that monolingual English and late Spanish-English bilingual groups produced targeted vowel qualities for schwa, whereas early Spanish-English bilinguals lacked homogeneity in their vowel productions. This extends prior claims that schwa is targetless for F2 position for native speakers to highly-proficient bilingual speakers. Though spectral qualities lacked homogeneity for early Spanish-English bilinguals, early bilinguals produced schwas with near native-like vowel duration. In contrast, late bilinguals produced schwas with significantly longer durations than English monolinguals or early Spanish-English bilinguals. Our results suggest that the temporal properties of a language are better integrated into second language phonologies than spectral qualities
Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a “foreign accent” in second language speakers. Reduced vowels, or “schwas,” have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to the co-articulatory effects of adjacent consonants. The current study examined the effects of adjacent sounds on the spectral and temporal qualities of schwa in word-final position. Three groups of English-speaking adults were tested: Miami-based monolingual English speakers, early Spanish-English bilinguals, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Subjects performed a reading task to examine their schwa productions in fluent speech when schwas were preceded by consonants from various points of articulation. Results indicated that monolingual English and late Spanish-English bilingual groups produced targeted vowel qualities for schwa, whereas early Spanish-English bilinguals lacked homogeneity in their vowel productions. This extends prior claims that schwa is targetless for F2 position for native speakers to highly-proficient bilingual speakers. Though spectral qualities lacked homogeneity for early Spanish-English bilinguals, early bilinguals produced schwas with near native-like vowel duration. In contrast, late bilinguals produced schwas with significantly longer durations than English monolinguals or early Spanish-English bilinguals. Our results suggest that the temporal properties of a language are better integrated into second language phonologies than spectral
Addressing the perceptions and the preferences of the upper-secondary school students, teachers, parents and administrators of the native speaking (NS) and non-native speaking (NNS) English teachers as well as investigating the variables affecting these preferences and perceptions, this study explores whether or not ...
Priestley, Karen; Enns, Charlotte; Arbuckle, Shauna
Bimodal-bilingual programs are emerging as one way to meet broader needs and provide expanded language, educational and social-emotional opportunities for students who are deaf and hard of hearing (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Paludneviciene & Harris, R. (2011). Impact of cochlear implants on the deaf community. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.), Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 3-19). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press). However, there is limited research on students' spoken language development, signed language growth, academic outcomes or the social-emotional factors associated with these programs (Marschark, M., Tang, G. & Knoors, H. (Eds). (2014). Bilingualism and bilingual Deaf education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; Nussbaum, D & Scott, S. (2011). The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludneviciene, R. & Leigh, I. (Eds.) Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. The cochlear implant education center: Perspectives on effective educational practices. In Paludnevicience & Leigh (Eds). Cochlear implants evolving perspectives (pp. 175-205). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press; Spencer, P. & Marschark, M. (Eds.) (2010). Evidence-based practice in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students. New York, NY: Oxford University Press). The purpose of this case study was to look at formal and informal student outcomes as well as staff and parent perceptions during the first 3 years of implementing a bimodal-bilingual (ASL and spoken English) program within an ASL milieu at a small school for the deaf. Speech and language assessment results for five students were analyzed over a 3-year period and indicated that the students made significant positive gains in all areas, although results were variable. Staff and parent
Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the
This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…
While teacher-librarians embrace the concept of equitable access when they select "multicultural" materials to include in their collections, plan special programs, and teach lessons on a variety of topics, what do they do to make equitable access a part of their online catalogs? Have they achieved (or nearly achieved) a consistent level of…
Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis
This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…
Tajeldin Ali, Ezzeldin Mahmoud
This is a study on the pronunciation and perception of English sounds and words by university students of English in Sudan, whose native language is Sudanese Arabic. The study aims to establish the intelligibility of Sudanese-Arabic (SA) accented English for native English (British and American)
learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...
This chapter addresses the large native ungulates (American bison (Bos bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) of the grasslands. The information presented includes...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, rol...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-p...
Pop Anamaria-Mirabela; Sim Monica-Ariana
For a long time, people have felt the need for a common language in order to communicate faster and better and English has become the global language, spreading across the world. Nowadays, more and more people learn and speak English for different reasons. The effect of it is that English started influencing the native languages of the speakers who use a great variety of words and expressions from English while speaking their respective languages. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influ...
Hong, Ji Sun; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Young In; Bae, Su Jin
The HoDoo English game was developed to take advantage of the benefits attributed to on-line games while teaching English to native Korean speakers. We expected to see that the improvements in the subjects' English language abilities after playing the HoDoo English game would be associated with increased brain functional connectivity in the areas…
Barrow, Lisa; Markman-Pithers, Lisa
Simply put, children with poor English skills are less likely to succeed in school and beyond. What's the best way to teach English to young children who aren't native English speakers? In this article, Lisa Barrow and Lisa Markman-Pithers examine the state of English learner education in the United States and review the evidence behind different…
Schaetzel, Kirsten; Low, Ee Ling
Adult English language learners in the United States approach the learning of English pronunciation from a wide variety of native language backgrounds. They may speak languages with sound systems that vary a great deal from that of English. The pronunciation goals and needs of adult English language learners are diverse. These goals and needs…
Arsyad, Safnil; Adila, Destiantari
When writing journal articles in English, authors are expected to comply with the conventionally appropriate rhetorical style. This may be problematic for non-native speakers of English, such as Indonesian authors who write in English. The purpose of this study is to investigate the rhetorical style of reviewing prior knowledge in English research…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Cyprus discusses the role of English within the Greek Cypriot community and within the educational system. Areas covered include English language requirements and English within the curriculum, teaching personnel and teacher training, instructional materials, English…
Full Text Available With the process of globalization, English has been increasingly become the lingua franca for people speaking different languages to communicate with each other, among whom the number of non-native speakers of English far outnumbers those native speakers in traditional sense. Against this background, the principle of taking the rules of native English speakers as the norms is undergoing challenges. The non-native speakers are claiming the ownership and rights of norm-providing to the English language (Crystal, 2003. In business setting, this is especially true (Charles, 2007. This paper intends to explore the use of Chinese English as lingua franca in business setting. Taking a foreign enterprise based in China as the case, this paper investigates over 400 ongoing business e-mails written in English by its Chinese employees, including the management and other staff. Four most salient patterns of Chinese English structures are identified, i.e., punctuations, absence of inflectional markers in number and tense, serial verb construction, and zero articles, which are then analyzed cultural, linguistic and social-linguistic perspectives. The effectiveness of such language patterns are proved according to the principle of “understandability” proposed by Kachru and Nelson (2006 from both intra-cultural and inter-cultural aspects. Based on the afore-said analysis, this paper concludes that Chinese English, during the process of language contact, has become a legitimate English variation, and has been providing new norms for the other countries to follow. It is suggested that business English users in China need to use their Chinese English with a confident stance, while business partners from other countries need to get familiar with this English variation in order for them to communicate effectively with their Chinese partners.
Atechi, Samuel; Angwah, Julius
Teachers of English in Cameroon are proficient speakers of Cameroon English and their non-native status militates against their usage of Standard British English in the English language classrooms. This makes the attainment of British English thorny and perhaps impossible in Cameroon. Standing on that premise, we were motivated to find out…
You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.
You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.
Full Text Available Straipsnyje siekiama apžvelgti anglakalbių ir besimokančių anglų kalbos studentų priešpriešos konektorių vartojimą. Medžiagą sudaro šiuo metu Vilniaus universiteto Anglų filologijos katedroje kaupiamas besimokančiųjų anglų kalbos tekstyno (ICLE –International Corpus of Learner English lietuviškasis potekstynis (LICLE ir pagal analogiškus kriterijus sudarytas gimtakalbių anglų kalbos vartotojų tekstynas (LOCNESS – Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays. Kontrastyvinės analizės metodu atliktame tyrime siekiama išsiaiškinti: (1 ar tiesioginis priešpriešos žymėjimas konektoriais yra vienodai paplitęs anglų kaip svetimojoje ir gimtakalbių kalboje ir (2 ar tiriamuose darbuose konektoriai yra vartojami tose pačiose sakinio ir teksto vietose. Ypatingas dėmesys skiriamas LICLE tekstyne dažniausiai pasitaikančiam konektoriui however ‘vis dėlto, tačiau’. Gauti rezultatai rodo, kad nors kiekybiniai priešpriešos konektorių vartojimo skirtumai nėra statistiškai reikšmingi, šios kategorijos konektorių pasiskirstymas tekste ir sakinyje LICLE ir LOCNESS tekstynuose skiriasi. Kai kuriais atvejais LICLE tekstyne pastebimos interkalbai būdingos vartojimo tendencijos. ------ This paper shows an attempt to present the analysis of contrastive connectors in advanced Lithuanian learners’ and native speakers’ English writing. For the purpose of the study LICLE corpus (Lithuanian subcorpus of ICLE (International Corpus of Learner English was used. A comparison is made with the native speakers’ data obtained from the British segment of LOCNESS (Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays. Several comparisons are made with the American and the A-level segments of LOCNESS as well. The central research questions are (1 whether advanced Lithuanian learners openly mark contrastive relations in the same way to natives and (2 whether text and sentence distribution of contrastive connectors is the same in the corpora
Full Text Available This article considers the developing status of English in Norway, both as a language and as a school subject, making predictions about which ontological and epistemological perspectives will influence English language teaching (ELT in Norway towards 2030. Status quo and predictions for English in Norway is approached from two angles; the development of presiding language beliefs in linguistic science and in ELT practices from the 16th century to the present, and the more recent and rapid development of English as the foremost global language of communication. The article shows how English language beliefs and the status of English are made visible in the national subject curriculum and in the English language practices among Norwegian adolescent learners. The discussion suggests that English is increasingly characterised by those who use it as a second or later language, including Norwegians who negotiate the meanings of English in the ELT classroom. The article predicts that a logical development for Norwegian ELT is increased influence from social constructionist perspectives, in combination with the existing focus on communicative competence. The study shows that global circumstances related to the status of English are reciprocally related to local language beliefs among educational authorities, teachers and students, and that these have major implications for English as a discipline in lower and higher education.
Michael Wayne Hendershot; Nutprapha K. Dennis; Suchada Chaiwiwattrakul; Ratirot Phiphitphakdee
Inasmuch as the goal of teaching English to non-native English speakers should be focused on enhancing English learners’ ability to develop skills necessary for efficient and effective use of the English language in communication within their daily lives as well as within the context of educational, employment, governmental, and business related issues, the materials and resources used by the teacher to provide said English learners with enhanced ability to develop necessary skills for the us...
Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F
Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.
Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A.; Booth, James R.
The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. PMID:23654223
Cours d'anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 4 mars jusqu’au 21 juin 2013. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. More information here. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Writing Professional Documents in English - Technical The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. These courses are designed for people with a goo...
General and Professional English Courses The next sessions will take place: From 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Wr...
Yoneyama, Kiyoko; Munson, Benjamin
Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i.e., with Japanese-accented English). The experiment was inspired by the finding of Imai, Flege, and Walley [(2005). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 896-907] that the influence of talker accent on speech intelligibility for L2 learners of English whose L1 is Spanish varies as a function of words' PND. In the currently study, significant interactions between stimulus accentedness and listener group on the accuracy and speed of spoken word recognition were found, as were significant effects of PND and WF on word-recognition accuracy. However, no significant three-way interaction among stimulus talker, listener group, and PND on either measure was found. Results are discussed in light of recent findings on cross-linguistic differences in the nature of the effects of PND on L2 phonological and lexical processing.
This dissertation investigated the neural mechanisms underlying English morphosyntactic processing in Case, subject-verb agreement, and past tense inflection in Japanese learners of English (JLEs) using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in terms of the effects of the age of second language (L2) acquisition (the age of learning English), L2 proficiency level (the English proficiency level), and native/first language (L1) transfer. Researchers have debated for a number of years the question...
Irmayani; Rachmajanti, Sri
English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Indonesia has been taught since elementary schools. As the only setting for EFL learners to learn English formally, the students of Senior High Schools are in the 7th to 9th year in acquiring English as a foreign language. As non-native English teachers who has been teaching English for years, English…
To the native English speaker, the operations of connected speech and its ensuing rhythm are crucial aspects of Spoken English, especially in relation to intelligibility, yet most learners and users of English as a second language find it difficult to employ the characteristic English rhythm despite their skilful use of English ...
Chen, Chih-Ming; Li, Yi-Lun
Because learning English is extremely popular in non-native English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning schemes that facilitate effective English learning is a critical issue in English-language education. Vocabulary learning is vital within English learning because vocabulary comprises the basic building blocks of English…
even African and Asia—norms and values of culture) and therefore tolerated and accepted. But the teacher should explain that it is not commonly spoken by native speakers of English. The teacher should continue explaining that educated native speakers of English will understand it and students should therefore not feel ...
This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…
This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…
One of the keys to mastering English spellings is mastering the processes of word formation. The mode of word formation can influence the spelling. The study of the meaningful parts of a word is known as morphology. Linguists have identified many ways in which English form its words which include borrowing from Latin ...
Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina
The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551
Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…
Secrist, Robert H.
Examines patterns (and their internalization) of regularity underlying English orthography, graphic representations of specific phonemes in different environments, reactions of literate native speakers to correctness of different correspondences in these situations, and reactions of these informants to recognition tests involving alternative…
Lozano, Cristobal; Mendikoetxea, Amaya
This paper investigates how syntactic knowledge interfaces with other cognitive systems by analysing the production of postverbal subjects, V(erb)-S(ubject) order, in an L1 Spanish-L2 English corpus and a comparable English native corpus. VS order in both native and L2 English is shown to be constrained by properties operating at three interfaces:…
The literature on non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) and native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) tends to focus on their respective strengths, the main strengths of NNESTs being their experience of learning English as a second language and their familiarity with their students' language and educational background. This article proposes…
Toke, Arun Narayan, Ed.; And Others
To celebrate the "Decade of the Indigenous Peoples," this issue of a nonprofit children's magazine includes art and writings by Native American youth who share their ways of looking at and living life. Emphasizes the distinct customs, traditions, languages, and folklore of the different Native Nations and Tribes. (LZ)
Naji Meidani, Elham; Pishghadam, Reza
The global spread of the English language has not only resulted in more non-native speakers than native speakers (Crystal, 1997), but it has even put into question the ownership of the language (Widdowson, 1994; Brumfit, 1995). Therefore, English is recognized as an international language that does not belong to any particular country and is used for global, political, cultural and financial exchange. The following study aimed to find out to what extent English language textbooks demonstrate ...
Full Text Available In a globalized era where English keeps the position of an international language, learnt and spoken by lots of people from diverse linguistic, cultural and national backgrounds, there is a need for a new perspective towards English as an international language which can bridge notions and cultures. The appearance of varieties of English is the consequence of the global dissemination of English. Based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative data using a semi-structured questionnaire (see Appendix A administered to 60 Iranian learners from expanding circle and 60 Indian learners from outer circle, this study surveyed the developing picture of EIL pronunciation and evaluation of different varieties of English from the perspective of learners from two circles which include the most users of English in the globalized world. The results of the questionnaires supplemented by interviews with leaners from expanding and outer circles revealed that expanding-circle learners like more to have a native-like identity with their preference towards nativism. The implications on the findings on the spread of native speaker norms and the status of ELF and its reflections in learning and teaching in expanding and outer circle countries are discussed.
Theodore, Rachel M.; Schmidt, Anna M.
Previous research suggests a perceptual bias exists for native phonotactics [D. Massaro and M. Cohen, Percept. Psychophys. 34, 338-348 (1983)] such that listeners report nonexistent segments when listening to stimuli that violate native phonotactics [E. Dupoux, K. Kakehi, Y. Hirose, C. Pallier, and J. Mehler, J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. This study investigated how native-language experience affects second language processing, focusing on how native Spanish speakers perceive the English clusters /st/, /sp/, and /sk/, which represent phonotactically illegal forms in Spanish. To preserve native phonotactics, Spanish speakers often produce prothetic vowels before English words beginning with /s/ clusters. Is the influence of native phonotactics also present in the perception of illegal clusters? A stimuli continuum ranging from no vowel (e.g., ``sku'') to a full vowel (e.g., ``esku'') before the cluster was used. Four final vowel contexts were used for each cluster, resulting in 12 sCV and 12 VsCV nonword endpoints. English and Spanish listeners were asked to discriminate between pairs differing in vowel duration and to identify the presence or absence of a vowel before the cluster. Results will be discussed in terms of implications for theories of second language speech perception.
Given a heavy social, ideological pressure for parents to pursue better English education for their children in the globalized world, short-term English immersion camp programs have emerged as an educational option in South Korea, promoted as environments for intercultural communication between native English-speaking teachers and local Korean…
Chinh, Nguyen Duc
The focus of culture in English language teaching (ELT) has traditionally been on the target culture of English speaking countries. However, the new status of English as international language (EIL) has led to significant changes in the practice of teaching and learning culture in ELT. Rather than relying on the paradigm of native speaker…
Trinder, Ruth; Herles, Martin
Learners' and teachers' evaluation of what constitutes useful, appropriate, and goal-relevant English may well shift in view of the globalization of English and its dominance in non-native contexts, business, and new media. Against this background, this study explores the extent to which a specific Business English university programme meets…
Against the backdrop of the near-impossibility of attaining a native-like command of the English in a second language situation, which is one of the major factors found to be militating against Nigerian learners of the English language, this study examines the prospects of promoting the Standard Nigerian English to end the ...
Rugasken, Kris; Harris, Jacqueline A.
A summer English camp language immersion program, which began in 2003, provided instruction by native English speakers to Thai college students via collaboration between Prince of Songkla University in Thailand and Ball State University in Indiana, USA. During this program, Thai students were exposed to English formally through classroom…
This wordbook was developed as a supplementary aid for both native Spanish speakers learning English and the English speaking who are learning Spanish. It contains definitions of selected words important to a particular trade or occupation--in this case, child care. The English spelling of the word defined is in parentheses above the Spanish…
"Foreign language activities" (English) officially began in Japanese elementary schools in April 2011. Since that starting date, and despite insufficient knowledge and preparation, classroom teachers have been required to instruct in English. They also have been required to team-teach with native-English-speaking assistant language…
Li, Ying; Zhang, Gouzhi
This study investigated L2 leaners' preferences between native-speaking teachers (NST) and non-native-speaking teachers (NNST) as their English pronunciation teacher, and examined the participants' accentedness and comprehensibility in L2-English pronunciation after being taught by a NST and a NNST. The participants were 30 undergraduates who were…
Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni
Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...
Hashimoto, Mitsunori; 橋本, 光憲
As a foreign member of the Association for Business Communication (ABC), which is based in America, I have had three occasions to present my views on English teaching-"English as a Means of Communication-Viewpoints of Non-Native Speakers of English" (1991
The Zanzibar Ministry of Education instituted an English reading program into all secondary schools in 1989 to raise the levels of English teaching and learning (English being the medium of instruction and testing from secondary level and beyond). The program description and conclusions include implications for program design and implementation.…
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.
Jensen, Christian; Denver, Louise; Mees, Inger M.
This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language ....... This effect should be addressed when universities use student ratings to evaluate teaching in English-medium content courses.......This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language...... proficiency and perceptions of general lecturing competence (defined here as knowledge of subject and teaching skills). Statistical analyses of 1,700 student responses to 31 non-native English-speaking lecturers at a major business school in Denmark revealed that the students’ perceptions of the lecturers...
Jensen, Christian; Denver, Louise; Mees, Inger M.
This study examines the evaluative reactions of university students to their non-native lecturers’ English skills in English-medium instruction, i.e. when English is used as a lingua franca in an academic context. In particular, we examine the relationship between perceptions of English language......’ English language proficiency is a significant predictor of their perceptions of the lecturers’ general lecturing competence and vice versa. We interpret this as a two-way relationship caused by speech stereotypes similar to those which have been demonstrated in social-psychological experiments...
Alexander, Claudia J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N. A.
In this talk we will present a concept for building on Native American languages and incorporating STEM concepts. Recently, a student from the Navajo Dine community took it upon himself to define 28 "NASA" terms in the Navajo language. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. We hope to add to this word list with geology and astronomy (comet-related) terms, just as we will in Rosetta public engagement for English-speakers. The U.S. Rosetta project will host these words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map will allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. The initiative will be expanded into other Native communities such as Hawaiian with the objective of drawing Native American students to the marvelous images, and other data, returned from NASA space missions. Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. One of the most important near-term problems is the preservation of Native American language. In some communities, small numbers of native speakers remain. The retention of language, and need to make it relevant to the technological age, represents a large and urgent challenge. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA's contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. STEM language elements in Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe can be found at the U.S. Rosetta website: http://rosetta.jpl.nasa.gov. Work at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, was supported by NASA. The Rosetta mission is a cooperative project of NASA and the European Space Agency.
Full Text Available Even though the population of Puerto Rico includes a large percent of residents with some knowledge of the English language (bilinguals, the vast majority communicates using Spanish, which is their native language. Not surprisingly, the majority of advertisements in Puerto Rican media use the Spanish language. The common sense assumption that Spanish advertising is significantly superior to English advertising when targeting Puerto Rican Hispanics living in Puerto Rico is tested experimentally in this study. The Social Value component of the Theory of Consumption Values was used to generate several Hypotheses that would favor the use of English language. The experiment used magazine-like printed illustrated advertisements to test the hypotheses, all of them dealing with relative effectiveness of Spanish versus English language advertisements. The results show that Spanish advertisements and English advertisements were about the same in terms of their persuasion effectiveness.
In order to verify that English speeches produced by Ethiopian speakers fall under syllable-timed or stress-timed rhythm, the study tried to examine the nature of stress and rhythm in the pronunciation of Ethiopian speakers of English by focusing on one language group speaking Amharic as a native language. Using acoustic analysis of the speeches…
Jensen, Signe Hannibal
activities are more supportive of language learning than others, i.e. gaming, watching television, music, etc. Finally, a qualitative gaming study will be carried out to explore what goes on linguistically when very young children game in English together: type of interaction between players...... and with the game and if this interaction can be seen to support their English language learning. Preliminary results indicate that although children use / are exposed to English in a range of different contexts and through a variety of modalities (internet, console/PC games, music etc.), the one activity...... that seems to have the most impact on children’s English learning is gaming....
Carson, J; Walker, L A; Sanders, B J; Jones, J E; Weddell, J A; Tomlin, A M
The purpose of this study was to assess dmft, the number of decayed, missing (due to caries), and/ or filled primary teeth, of English-speaking and non-English speaking patients of a hospital based pediatric dental clinic under the age of 72 months to determine if native language is a risk marker for tooth decay. Records from an outpatient dental clinic which met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Patient demographics and dmft score were recorded, and the patients were separated into three groups by the native language spoken by their parents: English, Spanish and all other languages. A total of 419 charts were assessed: 253 English-speaking, 126 Spanish-speaking, and 40 other native languages. After accounting for patient characteristics, dmft was significantly higher for the other language group than for the English-speaking (p0.05). Those patients under 72 months of age whose parents' native language is not English or Spanish, have the highest risk for increased dmft when compared to English and Spanish speaking patients. Providers should consider taking additional time to educate patients and their parents, in their native language, on the importance of routine dental care and oral hygiene.
Full Text Available Phrasal verbs or multi-word verbs, such as call off, go into and run up against, etc. represent a very interesting and challenging aspect of the English language. In ELT there is a widespread view that familiarity with a wide range of phrasal verbs and the ability to use them appropriately in context are among the distinguishing marks of a native-like command of English. However, it is also generally recognised that these verb+particle combinations pose special difficulties for both learners and teachers of English partly because there are so many of them, partly because they have special semantic, syntactic and stylistic properties. Besides, quite many of them can be used as nouns, e.g. a hideaway, a stowaway and a write-off, etc. and adjectives, e.g. a broken-down car and a knockdown price, etc. What is more, again quite many of them have a single word equivalent of Romance origin, which, however, often differs from them in terms of style, collocation and meaning, e.g. blow up ~ explode, do away with ~ eliminate and put out ~ extinguish, etc. Furthermore, it is a misconception that phrasal verbs are mainly used in informal style and in spoken English. In fact, they can be found in many styles of writing, ranging from highly formal texts to slang, e.g. call forth vs. gobble up, etc. This paper sets out to explore the unique and complex nature of English verb+particle constructions in order to make them a more manageable part of the vocabulary of English.
Brooks, Charles Kent
, a situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3......, hematite, or FeO.Fe2O3, magnetite), with carbon in the form of coke. This is carried out in a blast furnace. Although the Earth's core consists of metallic iron, which may also be present in parts of the mantle, this is inaccessible to us, so we must make our own. In West Greenland, however, some almost...... unique examples of iron metal, otherwise called 'native iron' or 'telluric iron', occur naturally....
Full Text Available The question of the native vs. non-native speaker status of second and foreign language instructors has been investigated chiefly from the perspective of the teacher. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students have strong opinions on the relative qualities of instruction by native and non-native speakers. Most research focuses on students of English as a foreign or second language. This paper reports on data gathered through a questionnaire administered to 55 university students: 31 students of Spanish as FL and 24 students of English as SL. Qualitative results show what strengths students believe each type of instructor has, and quantitative results confirm that any gap students may perceive between the abilities of native and non-native instructors is not so wide as one might expect based on popular notions of the issue. ESL students showed a stronger preference for native-speaker instructors overall, and were at variance with the SFL students' ratings of native-speaker instructors' performance on a number of aspects. There was a significant correlation in both groups between having a family member who is a native speaker of the target language and student preference for and self-identification with a native speaker as instructor. (English text
Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.
Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the
Full Text Available Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces. Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English and non-native (Spanish language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.
Shaw, Kathleen; Baart, Martijn; Depowski, Nicole; Bortfeld, Heather
Although infant speech perception in often studied in isolated modalities, infants' experience with speech is largely multimodal (i.e., speech sounds they hear are accompanied by articulating faces). Across two experiments, we tested infants' sensitivity to the relationship between the auditory and visual components of audiovisual speech in their native (English) and non-native (Spanish) language. In Experiment 1, infants' looking times were measured during a preferential looking task in which they saw two simultaneous visual speech streams articulating a story, one in English and the other in Spanish, while they heard either the English or the Spanish version of the story. In Experiment 2, looking times from another group of infants were measured as they watched single displays of congruent and incongruent combinations of English and Spanish audio and visual speech streams. Findings demonstrated an age-related increase in looking towards the native relative to non-native visual speech stream when accompanied by the corresponding (native) auditory speech. This increase in native language preference did not appear to be driven by a difference in preference for native vs. non-native audiovisual congruence as we observed no difference in looking times at the audiovisual streams in Experiment 2.
Hodgson, Kevin Michael
Although the paradigm shift towards English as an International Language (EIL) has been generally accepted within the academic community, a valorization of native speaker norms continues to be prevalent among many non-native speakers (NNSs). Through data drawn from a qualitative questionnaire and proficiency assessment results (TOEIC), this mixed…
Holliday, Adrian; Swan, Anne
The book addresses the issue of native-speakerism, an ideology based on the assumption that 'native speakers' of English have a special claim to the language itself, through critical qualitative studies of the lived experiences of practising teachers and students in a range of scenarios.
Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi
Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. The sample included 47 Cantonese-English bilinguals enrolled in English preschools. Half of the children were in their 1st 4 months of English language exposure, and half had completed 1 year and 4 months of exposure to English. Data were obtained from the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (Rice & Wexler, 2001) and from a narrative generated in English. By the 2nd year of formal exposure to English, children in the present study approximated 33% accuracy of tensed verbs in a formal testing context versus 61% in a narrative context. The use of the English verb BE approximated mastery. Predictors of English third-person singular verb accuracy were task, grade, English expressive vocabulary, and lemma frequency. Verb tense accuracy was low across both groups, but a precocious mastery of BE was observed. The results of the present study suggest that speech-language pathologists may consider, in addition to an elicitation task, evaluating the use of verbs during narratives in bilingual Cantonese-English bilingual children.
Laya Heidari Darani; Akbar Afghari
This study investigatesvariability in English yes/no questions as well as the commonalities among yes/no question variants produced by members of two different varieties of English: Canadian English native speakers and Iranian EFL learners.Further, it probes the role of gender in theEnglish yes/no question variants produced by Canadian English native speakers and those produced by Iranian EFL learners. A modified version of the Edinburgh Map Task was used in data collection. 60 Canadians and ...
Yough, Michael S.; Fang, Ming
Students' native language is a valuable resource in the English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom. Use of native languages may increase a student's sense of efficacy for learning English by: (a) facilitating vocabulary acquisition, (b) aiding learners in comprehension, (c) encouraging self-regulation, (d) making routines and explanations clear…
The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…
Al-Issa, Ali; Al-Bulushi, Ali; Al-Zadjali, Rima
Proficiency in the English language has been described as central for determining Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (N-NESTs) selection for joining the profession. The Ministry of Education in the Sultanate of Oman decided to set the score of Band 6 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) for accepting the English Language…
Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga
English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…
This study examined the acquisition of preposition placement in English as a second language from a usage-based perspective. German and Chinese learners of English and English native speakers rated the acceptability of English oblique "wh" relative clauses in a magnitude estimation task. Results indicated that acceptability depended on…
Kioko, Angelina Nduku; Muthwii, Margaret Jepkirui
The study sought to establish the attitudes of Kenyan speakers (n = 210) towards three varieties of English: (1) ethnically marked Kenyan English, (2) standard Kenyan English and (3) native speaker English (British, American, Australian, etc). Of the three varieties, the most preferred by both rural and urban respondents for use in the media and…
English has a universal appeal and in India, English is associated with modernity and progress sometimes with the ideology of its cultural values. The economic value of English is very high in India as even a layman uses English words in his/her "native" communication. The second language acquisition happens for learners at various…
This multimedia program of English grammar caters specifically for Danish students at Bachelor level. The handbook introduces students to well-established grammatical terminology within the traditional areas of English grammar, and the CD-ROM, which contains about 120 exercises, offers students...
This article provides a discussion based on constructs about the dichotomy betweennative and non-native speakers. Several models and examples are displayed about thespreading of the English language with the intention of understanding its developmentin the whole world and in Colombia, specifically. Then, some possible definitions aregiven to the term “native speaker” and its conceptualization is described as both realityand myth. One of the main reasons for writing this article is grounded on...
The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...
Full Text Available In our era of globalisation, English is at the top of the languages used in international business. A vast majority of business communication in English is carried out by non-native speakers of English. In a cross-cultural exchange of information, the sender and the recipient come from different cultural backgrounds. The patterns of communication vary across the globe and non-native speakers tend to apply their native language patterns when communicating in English. This paper thus focuses on the concept of spoken communication and dimensions of culture and how they are reflected in communication patterns in different business situations. It also addresses the teaching of Business English as a lingua franca and the role of Business English teachers in helping learners develop their communicative and intercultural competence in order to communicate effectively in a multicultural work environment.
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…
E. Aminudin Aziz
Full Text Available In a seminar on ESP held in Bandung, Andy Kirkpatrick of Curtin University of Technology, Australia, in relation to the anticipation of the potential emergence of a new variety of English in the Southeast Asian region and in Indonesia in particular, invited the audience, who were mostly university teachers, to start thinking about developing a teaching program based more on Indonesian culture than on, Anglo or American culture. This idea is based on the fact that â€œthe vast majority of people in the region who are learning English are doing so with the expressed purpose of being able to use it as a lingua franca. They are not learning English to communicate with native speakers of English, but rather with other non-native speakersâ€ (Kirkpatrick 2001. While the idea is "stimulating and challenging" (Dardjowidjojo, 2001, cares need to be taken before we finally embark further to talk about it. This is particularly important because what we will need at the outset is the down-to-earth explorations discussing the issues related particularly with the unique features that will characterise the new variety of English (if at all any. In this paper, I explore some of the potential features and argue that the most prominent of all are the differences in the realisation in the acts of speech (and writing.
A Case Study of the Process of Learning Standard Written English: An Interactive Classroom-Based Action Research of the Influences of Students' Language Background on Their Ability to Learn Standard Written English
Mathis-Wisseh, Ruth D.
This case study, conducted in the context of an interactive classroom-based action research, has examined the process by which Language 1 (L1-native speakers of English) and Language 2 (L2-non-native speakers of English) students develop the ability to acquire the standard written form of the English language. The dissertation was designed to…
Mohammad Qasim Al-Tarawneh
Full Text Available This study, as the name suggests, aims at sketching the scenario of English being described today as a trendy and multi-dialectal language and as a means of international and intercultural communication. This is due to the fact that the language has turned out to be the natural choice for all of its users, regardless their linguistic or cultural backgrounds. It also reviews the literature to show how globally and locally the language has been treated to undergo processes of nativization and internationalization, reflecting how important it has become in the context of globalization and how slippery concepts like native-speakerism and standardization have been waxed. More importantly, the study gives some descriptions of the current status of the language in terms of the changes that have taken place in its internal linguistic make-up (i.e. linguistic elements including phonology, morphology, syntax, lexico-grammar, pragmatics, etc. Implications for the ELT profession have been taken into account in the study, especially those related to awareness-raising of different varieties of English in the global cottages as well as to the importance of considering multiple context-specific competencies. To account for a theoretical and conceptual framework for all of the aforementioned, the study subsidizes itself with five sections each of which is dealt with separately before the conclusion is stated. These sections are: worldly English, the slippery status of native speakerism, glocality of English, descriptive changes in the language, and finally implications for the ELT profession.
Full Text Available The article reports on the findings of an empirical study of the use of repeats – as one of the markers of disfluency – in advanced learner English and contributes to the study of L2 fluency. An analysis of 13 hours of recordings of interviews with 50 advanced learners of English with Czech as L1 revealed 1,905 instances of repeats which mainly (78% consisted of one-word repeats occurring at the beginning of clauses and constituents. Two-word repeats were less frequent (19% but appeared in the same positions within the utterances. Longer repeats are much rarer (<2.5%. A comparison with available analyses show that Czech advanced learners of English use repeats in a similar way as advanced learners of English with a different L1 and also as native speakers. If repeats are accepted as fluencemes, i.e. components contributing to fluency, it would appear clear that many advanced learners either successfully adopt this native-like strategy either as a result of exposure to native speech or as transfer from their L1s. Whilst a question remains whether such fluency enhancing strategies ought to become part of L2 instruction, it is argued that spoken learner corpora also ought to include samples of the learners’ L1 production.
Cheang, Henry S.
Three studies were conducted to examine the acoustic markers of sarcasm in English and in Cantonese, and the manner in which such markers are perceived across these languages. The first study consisted of acoustic analyses of sarcastic utterances spoken in English to verify whether particular prosodic cues correspond to English sarcastic speech. Native English speakers produced utterances expressing sarcasm, sincerity, humour, or neutrality. Measures taken from each utterance included fundamental frequency (F0), amplitude, speech rate, harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR, to probe voice quality), and one-third octave spectral values (to probe resonance). The second study was conducted to ascertain whether specific acoustic features marked sarcasm in Cantonese and how such features compare with English sarcastic prosody. The elicitation and acoustic analysis methods from the first study were applied to similarly-constructed Cantonese utterances spoken by native Cantonese speakers. Direct acoustic comparisons between Cantonese and English sarcasm exemplars were also made. To further test for cross-linguistic prosodic cues of sarcasm and to assess whether sarcasm could be conveyed across languages, a cross-linguistic perceptual study was then performed. A subset of utterances from the first two studies was presented to naive listeners fluent in either Cantonese or English. Listeners had to identify the attitude in each utterance regardless of language of presentation. Sarcastic utterances in English (regardless of text) were marked by lower mean F0 and reductions in HNR and F0 standard deviation (relative to comparison attitudes). Resonance changes, reductions in both speech rate and F0 range signalled sarcasm in conjunction with some vocabulary terms. By contrast, higher mean F0, amplitude range reductions, and F0 range restrictions corresponded with sarcastic utterances spoken in Cantonese regardless of text. For Cantonese, reduced speech rate and higher HNR interacted
Full Text Available Problem Statement: The status, value, and importance of a language is often measured by the attitudes toward that language. Learning a second or foreign language and attaining proficiency in it is closely related to the attitudes of learners toward the language. A few studies have investigated language attitudes of Turkish students toward the English language in Turkey. However, the same issue has not been explored among Turkish students learning and using the English language in a country where English is spoken as the first language.Purpose: This exploratory study investigated the attitudes of Turkish students toward learning and using English language as they lived and pursued their university degrees in a northeastern city in the United States. The study examined students’ attitudinal dispositions toward English based on sociolinguistic and sociocultural considerations.Methods: The study included 8 student participants (4 male and 4 female who were born in Turkey and spoke Turkish as their native language. They were all enrolled in a state university studying different programs in Engineering Sciences and Social Sciences. Data were collected conducting in-depth interviews with students over a two-month period. Participants were interviewed twice individually, and 16 interviews were conducted in total. Each interview took 50 to 60 minutes and was transcribed by the researcher. Data analysis included (1 intensive (rereadings of interview transcripts and identifying attitudinal themes and patterns in the data through emergent coding; and (2 making qualitative connections among themes and patterns through identifying their consistency by applying axial coding. Coded dataset was then descriptively interpreted in its entirety.Findings: Participants displayed mostly positive dispositions toward learning and using the English language; however, their attitudinal patterns varied with regards to sociolinguistic and sociocultural considerations
... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...
The contextual demands of language in content area are difficult for ELLS. Content in the native language furthers students' academic development and native language skills, while they are learning English. Content in English integrates pedagogical strategies for English acquisition with subject area instruction. The following models of curriculum content are provided in most Miami Dade County Public Schools: (a) mathematics instruction in the native language with science instruction in English or (b) science instruction in the native language with mathematics instruction in English. The purpose of this study was to investigate which model of instruction is more contextually supportive for mathematics and science achievement. A pretest and posttest, nonequivalent group design was used with 94 fifth grade ELLs who received instruction in curriculum model (a) or (b). This allowed for statistical analysis that detected a difference in the means of .5 standard deviations with a power of .80 at the .05 level of significance. Pretreatment and post-treatment assessments of mathematics, reading, and science achievement were obtained through the administration of Aprenda-Segunda Edicion and the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test. The results indicated that students receiving mathematics in English and Science in Spanish scored higher on achievement tests in both Mathematics and Science than the students who received Mathematics in Spanish and Science in English. In addition, the mean score of students on the FCAT mathematics examination was higher than their mean score on the FCAT science examination regardless of the language of instruction.
This paper points out the irrelevance of the sentence-based grammatical explanations found in most grammar reference books and ESL textbooks with regard to answering questions such as: (1) when and why do native speakers of English use the passive rather than the active voice, and (2) when and why does the native speaker of English use the present…
Full Text Available For a long time, people have felt the need for a common language in order to communicate faster and better and English has become the global language, spreading across the world. Nowadays, more and more people learn and speak English for different reasons. The effect of it is that English started influencing the native languages of the speakers who use a great variety of words and expressions from English while speaking their respective languages. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of Anglicisms on the Romanian vocabulary, especially on the business vocabulary. Our paper focuses on English for Business and Economics, as we have been teaching business English to students from the Department of International Business for several years. The research undertaken in this paper is a theoretical research, concentrating on the controversies that surrounded this highly debated subject by the linguists: should Anglicisms be used in Romanian or not? In this regard, there are two sides: on one hand those who are rather supportive of the trend and those (and here we mention highly reputed Romanian linguists like George Pruteanu or Eugen Simion who were categorically against it. The paper provides the results of a survey conducted by “Special Eurobarometer 243” showing that English is the most widely spoken language in Europe with a score of 51%. The concept of “romgleza” tends to replace the Romanian language in large corporations and not only and this is a natural trend, considering the “invasion” of the English language. A conversation in “romgleza” combines Romanian and English elements, thus resulting a technical jargon, the English words being used especially in areas like IT, marketing, management. This is due to the fact that in these areas the daily exposure to English is higher because everything people in these fields do is connected to English. Romgleza appeared because in Romanian there are no words to express the
Cours d'anglais général et professionnel : La prochaine session se déroulera : du 27 février au 22 juin 2012. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web: http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tél. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 27 February to 22 June, 2012. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web page: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. ...
Porretta, Vincent J.; Tucker, Benjamin V.
The present investigation examines English speakers' ability to identify and discriminate non-native consonant length contrast. Three groups (L1 English No-Instruction, L1 English Instruction, and L1 Finnish control) performed a speeded forced-choice identification task and a speeded AX discrimination task on Finnish non-words (e.g.…
Full Text Available Brain imaging studies indicate that speech motor areas are recruited for auditory speech perception, especially when intelligibility is low due to environmental noise or when speech is accented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of brain regions to the processing of speech containing phonetic categories from one’s own language, speech with accented samples of one’s native phonetic categories, and speech with unfamiliar phonetic categories. To that end, native English and Japanese speakers identified the speech sounds /r/ and /l/ that were produced by native English speakers (unaccented and Japanese speakers (foreign-accented while functional magnetic resonance imaging measured their brain activity. For native English speakers, the Japanese accented speech was more difficult to categorize than the unaccented English speech. In contrast, Japanese speakers have difficulty distinguishing between /r/ and /l/, so both the Japanese accented and English unaccented speech were difficult to categorize. Brain regions involved with listening to foreign-accented productions of a first language included primarily the right cerebellum, left ventral inferior premotor cortex PMvi, and Broca’s area. Brain regions most involved with listening to a second-language phonetic contrast (foreign-accented and unaccented productions also included the left PMvi and the right cerebellum. Additionally, increased activity was observed in the right PMvi, the left and right ventral superior premotor cortex PMvs, and the left cerebellum. These results support a role for speech motor regions during the perception of foreign-accented native speech and for perception of difficult second-language phonetic contrasts.
Musikhin, I. A.
In the era of globalization, English communication for scientists and engineers whose native language is not English has become as important as their major related abilities. The paper describes the results of a four-year experience in the development of English for specific purpose manuals in the field of photogrammetry, interferometry, and GNSS technologies, as well as key teaching methods and didactic approaches used in class and out-of-class activities. The focus of the present study is to provide a detailed description of the development and systematic updating of a relevant manual, aimed at professional language training of learners. The findings of the study reflect the importance of an ESP course for scientists and engineers: conducting a needs analysis for carrying out a specific search of relevant and reliable authentic materials, defining proper teaching methods, software and didactic approaches used in the educational process to develop the language skills necessary to be active and contributive players in the competitive world.
Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill
While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid
James Alexander Cameron
Full Text Available Sedilia are the ceremonial seats of the priest, deacon, and subdeacon placed to the south of the altar. In Gothic church architecture, they typically take the form of three deep niches, recessed into the thickness of the wall, surmounted by arches and separated by shafts. These types of sedilia are most well-known from English churches of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. This essay looks to explain why sedilia became so popular in England, through a consideration of trends in English architecture. With the help of Nikolaus Pevsner’s characterization of the country’s art from The Englishness of English Art, it will argue that the basic decorative language of sedilia is entrenched in trends first developed in the Anglo-Norman Romanesque. It will also suggest, however, that regional variations in the distribution of sedilia complicate the idea of a single “national style”.
Aneja, Geeta A.
Despite its imprecision, the native-nonnative dichotomy has become the dominant paradigm for examining language teacher identity development. The nonnative English speaking teacher (NNEST) movement in particular has considered the impact of deficit framings of nonnativeness on "NNEST" preservice teachers. Although these efforts have…
Carlson, D M
This article begins by presenting corpus linguistics and explaining how the corpus approach to language analysis can be used to investigate the language of dentistry. It then reports findings from an analysis that was carried out with readily available software and a corpus of 1,400 dental research abstracts. Included is information about word frequency in dental abstracts and also about how certain words tend to co-occur in sentences and form regular patterns. The article concludes with a discussion of ways that corpus-based findings can be applied to the teaching of English to non-native speakers of the language, many of whom will need English skills for their future careers in dentistry.
Виктория Львовна Завьялова
Full Text Available The article investigates the phenomena of phonetic interference, which appears as a result of the contact of English and oriental languages in the consciousness and speech of bilinguals - speakers of Chinese, Korean, and Japanese. The data of the comparative acoustic analysis of the samples from the accented lingua franca speech corpus (RACE are given. The article also includes recommendations on applying the results of the research to studying the variability of lingua franca in the Asia Pacific Region. It determines the significance of comparative studies of differently structured languages for developing practical recommendations regarding the development of strategies needed for the perception of accented speech and regarding the instruction of English with respect to the learner's native language.
Algeo, John, Ed.
This book is one volume in a series that examines the history of English. It traces the history of English in North America during the past 400 years, from its British background to its present position among the varieties of English used worldwide. Influences that have formed American English include political, social, and cultural changes in…
Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...
Nilas, L; Løkkegaard, E C; Laursen, J B; Kling, J; Cortes, D
From 2012-2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, "Internationalization at Home ", offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students in a clinical setting. Using semi-quantitative questionnaires to 89 clinicians about use of English and need for training, this paper considers if Danish clinical doctors are prepared to teach in English. The majority self-assessed their English proficiency between seven and eight on a 10 unit visual analogue scale, with 10 equivalent to working in Danish, while 15 % rated five or less. However, one-fourth found teaching and writing in English to be twice as difficult than in Danish, and 12 % rated all teaching tasks in English at four or less compared to Danish. The self-assessed need for additional English skills was perceived low. Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking medical departments.
In an effort to curtail native-speaker dominance of global English, and in recognition of the growing role of the language among non-native speakers from different first-language backgrounds, some academics have been urging the teaching of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF). Although at first this proposal seems to offer a plausible alternative to…
Pashmforoosh, Roya; Babaii, Esmat
International business communication is associated with cultural norms of both native and non-native business counterparts. It seems that the study of culture presentation from the perspective of English as a lingua franca in business English textbooks has been rather underexplored. To this end, cultural contents in two internationally distributed…
Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.
English is spoken in five countries as the native language and in numerous other countries as an official language and the language of instruction. In countries where English is the native language, it is taught to speakers of other languages as an additional language to enable them to participate in all domains of life of that country. In many…
As one of the emerging technologies, the Second Life virtual world provides learners of English as a Foreign Language with a unique opportunity of learning authentic language with native and non-native speakers of English in a virtual environment. It enables them to learn the target language in a real-life-like social communication environment. To…
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 email@example.com PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...
This paper argues that it would be useful for ergonomists and experienced English Language Teaching (ELT) professionals to collaborate as this would be of substantial interest to both sets of professionals. The ongoing debate in ELT on International English (IE) might usefully help to guide ergonomists if and when they require to judge that English is used at appropriately high levels in the workplace in non-English speaking countries. It may also help ergonomists who are non-native speakers (NNSs) of English to gain greater access to the top specialist journals and to found new e-journals on Ergonomics in English that deserve international recognition. At the same time ELT specialists would have great interest in advising ergonomists on these matters, in part, as a means of testing current hypotheses on the tendencies for new varieties of English to develop and win acceptance both from native and non-native speakers of English as setting standards of communicative competence in English both for end users of English in their professional lives and for well-structured and clear written academic debate.
Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of the present study was to address how 43 normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners subjectively experienced the disturbance generated by four masker conditions (i.e., stationary noise, fluctuating noise, Swedish two-talker babble and English two-talker babble while listening to speech in two target languages (i.e., Swedish (native or English (non-native. The participants were asked to evaluate their noise-disturbance experience on a continuous scale from 0 to 10 immediately after having performed each listening condition. The data demonstrated a three-way interaction effect between target language, masker condition, and group (hearing-impaired versus normal-hearing. The hearing-impaired listeners experienced the Swedish-babble masker as significantly more disturbing for the native target language (Swedish than for the non-native language (English. Additionally, this masker was significantly more disturbing than each of the other masker types during the perception of Swedish target speech. The normal-hearing listeners, on the other hand, indicated that the Swedish speech-masker was more disturbing than the stationary and the fluctuating noise-maskers for the perception of English target speech. The NH listeners perceived more disturbance from the speech maskers than the noise maskers. The HI listeners did not perceive the speech maskers as generally more disturbing than the noise maskers. However, they had particular difficulty with the perception of native speech masked by native babble, a common condition in daily-life listening conditions. These results suggest that the characteristics of the different maskers applied in the current study seem to affect the perceived disturbance differently in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing listeners. There was no general difference in the perceived disturbance across conditions between the HI listeners and the NH listeners.
English Graphic is a book of essays on the subject of illustration, with the focus entirely on English artists using graphic media; drawings, prints and watercolours. As editor, I built on a schedule Tom drew up. It contains essays drawn from a variety of sources: the Great Works column, reviews, catalogue essays, and previously unpublished material. The historical span of the book is broad – from the Winchester Psalter Hellmouth to Harry Beck’s London Underground Map and Dom Sylvester Houéda...
This study investigates (1) whether late second language (L2) learners can attain native-like knowledge of English plural inflection even when their first language (L1) lacks an equivalent and (2) whether they construct hierarchically structured representations during online sentence processing like native speakers. In a self-paced reading task,…
they use for everything. This is possible because a learner may encounter sounds in English that are not part of the sound inventory of the learner's native language. Thirdly, difficulties may also arise because the rules for combing sounds into words are different in the learners' native language. As a result of these difficulties ...
Shin, Sarah J.
Some teachers are justifiably concerned that primary-age students who continue to use their native language skills might hamper their acquisition of English literacy. After all, isn't time spent in writing in the first language time that could have been spent writing in English? Many other teachers agree conceptually with the notion that…
Although English has traditionally been the only language of instruction in Ghana, most young children do not speak English at home. This paper argues that students' academic performance might be improved if their native languages were also used in school. Such an approach offers benefits in areas such as classroom participation, engagement in…
Sociolinguists who study varieties of language often need to make decisions about whether a particular linguistic element or expression constitutes a feature of the variety being studied. Comparing the specific variety, for instance, a variety of English, with the parent or native form of English is generally carried out to ...
Mauranen, Anna; Hynninen, Niina; Ranta, Elina
English is unquestionably the world language of academia--yet its most notable characteristic, being predominantly used by non-native speakers, has not seriously been taken on board in ESP descriptive studies. The project English as an academic lingua franca (ELFA) based at the University of Helsinki investigates academic discourses, branching out…
Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of dominance of Mandarin-English bilinguals' languages affects phonetic processing of tone content in their native language, Mandarin. Method: We tested 72 Mandarin-English bilingual college students with a range of language-dominance profiles in the 2 languages and ages of…
Maynes, J. O., Jr.
Defining the overall objective of bilingual education to be the integration of the child into the mainstream of American life while maintaining audiolingual skills in both English and the native language without losing certain aspects of the subculture, this report summarizes information from 19 school districts involved in special English classes…
Misspellings have been a common error in the written English of non-native speakers. ... The study was done with a view to investigating whether the phonology of Kikuyu as a learner's first language and pronunciation of words in English as the second language, based on the influence of the phonology of Kikuyu affects ...
Abstract. This paper investigated the influence of environment on the acquisition of English by the Nigerian child. The subjects under study were thirteen bilingual children with a native Nigerian language and English as the medium of instruction. Forty-six teachers and 26 parents form the population of the study. Out of a ...
Bell, Diana Calhoun; Elledge, Sara Redington
In order to better understand the complex dynamic that often occurs during writing center sessions between native English speaking (L1) tutors and English language learners (ELL), this study investigates linguistic dominance through time-at-talk, turn-taking, agenda-setting, and content analysis. We conclude that, in keeping with theory and…
Tanielian, Adam R.
Thailand boasts a robust ESL system in both public and private schools, where students learn various subjects from native speakers in the English language. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a subject that is relevant to ESL instruction and learning. This study assesses associations between FLCA and academic performance in English and…
Jacob, Gunnar; Felser, Claudia
We report the results from an eye-movement monitoring study investigating how native and non-native speakers of English process temporarily ambiguous sentences such as While the gentleman was eating the burgers were still being reheated in the microwave, in which an initially plausible direct-object analysis is first ruled out by a syntactic disambiguation (were) and also later on by semantic information (being reheated). Both participant groups showed garden-path effects at the syntactic disambiguation, with native speakers showing significantly stronger effects of ambiguity than non-native speakers in later eye-movement measures but equally strong effects in first-pass reading times. Ambiguity effects at the semantic disambiguation and in participants' end-of-trial responses revealed that for both participant groups, the incorrect direct-object analysis was frequently maintained beyond the syntactic disambiguation. The non-native group showed weaker reanalysis effects at the syntactic disambiguation and was more likely to misinterpret the experimental sentences than the native group. Our results suggest that native language (L1) and non-native language (L2) parsing are similar with regard to sensitivity to syntactic and semantic error signals, but different with regard to processes of reanalysis.
Maria S Smith
Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.
In a remix of the infamous Hitler meme--taking a scene from the movie, "Downfall" (2005), and adding subtitles appropriate (in this case) for "Kairos" readers--theamishaugur makes a pointed, humorous (to some) commentary on the status of multimodal composition scholars in English departments during job market season.
for phoneticians, phonologists, and other linguists to locate and use, English Phonetics: Twentieth-Century Developments is a veritable treasure-trove. The gathered works are reproduced in facsimile, giving users a strong sense of immediacy to the texts and permitting citation to the original pagination...
New courses University of Cambridge ESOL examination course We will be starting two new courses in October leading to the Cambridge First Certificate in English (level B2 of the European Framework) and the Cambridge Advanced English (level C1) examinations. These courses will consist of two semesters of 15 weeks with two two-hourly classes per week. There will be an average of eight students per class. Normally the examination will be taken in June 2011 but strong participants could take it earlier. People wishing to take these courses should enrol: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1927376177842004::NO::X_COURSE_ID,X_STATUS:4133%2CD and they will then be required to take a placement test to check that their level of English is of an appropriate level. Please note that we need a minimum of seven students enrolled to open a session. For further information please contact Tessa Osborne 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: From 4th October 2010 to 5th Feb...
Dykeman, Rachel Elizabeth
Previous sociolinguistic studies done in Norway have explored attitudes toward native speaker and Norwegian accented varieties of English. This study adds a new angle by comparing the attitudes of first language speakers of English from Canada and second language speakers of English from Norway toward SC (Standard Canadian) and NE (Norwegian accented English) accents. An online survey was undertaken by 107 English teachers, of which 50 self-identified as Norwegian and 57 as Canadian teachers ...
Koenig, Melissa; Woodward, Amanda L
The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers' (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English, and second, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems.
Mayer, Valerie; Matcott, Mark; Lyons, Janet; Flessa, Demi; Hayman, Anna; Hough, Peter
Presents six narratives from teachers including: "VCE English at Lilydale High School" (Valerie Mayer); "Should 'I' Be Their Teacher" (Mark Matcott); "Teaching Poetry to Year 7 English Students" (Janet Lyons); "Creative Art Therapy and Mandalas" (Demi Flessa); "Would the 'Real' Teacher Please Stand…
Full Text Available This paper will be discussing about English as international language and its important rolein everyone’s daily life in the world. Here is also underlined the most of the difficulties that learnersface in the study of English as a consequence of the degree to which their native language differsfrom English. On the other hand cultural differences in communication styles and preferences aresignificant and need to be taken in account when one tries to solve the communication problems.
Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.
The US Rosetta Project has developed a program in Native American communities in which contemporary STEM vocabulary is taught alongside the same vocabulary in Navajo. NASA images and science are used and described in the native language, alongside both lay English, and scientific English. Additionally, science curriculum (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). The program began with a student defining 30 Navajo words to describe what he called 'NASA' words, such as: cell phone, astronaut, space suit, computer, and planets not visible to the naked eye. The use of NASA material and imagery have a positive impact on the accessibility of the overall STEM material but community involvement, and buy-in, is criti! cal to the success of the program. The US Rosetta Project modified its goals, and curriculum, to accommodate the programmatic desires of teachers in the district, and the capabilities of the medicine men that agreed to participate. In this presentation we will report on lessons learned, as well as metrics and successes associated with our most recent Summer Science Academy .
Ní Ríordáin, Máire; O'Donoghue, John
The explosion of Gaeilge (Irish)-medium primary and secondary schools has played a crucial role in the rebirth of our native language in Ireland. The popularity of attending Gaeilge-medium education is significant, and continues to increase annually (Gaeilscoileanna Teo 2008). However, the majority of Gaeilgeoirí (students who learn through the medium of Gaeilge) face an imminent transition to English-medium mathematics education, be it at second or third level education. This paper presents a theoretical model for investigating the transfer between different languages for learning mathematics and for interpreting the findings emerging from the Irish context. Key findings include that Gaeilgeoirí at secondary level experience a disadvantage when assessed through the medium of English; at both transitions Gaeilgeoirí experience difficulties with the syntax, semantics, and mathematics vocabulary of the English mathematics register; and at third level Gaeilgeoirí are unaware of the language difficulties that they are experiencing.
Making Out in English is a fun, accessible and thorough English phrase book and guide to the English language as it's really spoken. If you are a student, businessman or tourist traveling to the English speaking world and would like to have an authentic and meaningful experience, the key is being able to speak like a local. This friendly and easy-to-use English phrasebook makes this possible. Making Out in English has been revised and redesigned to act as a guide to modern colloquial English for use in everyday informal interactionsgiving access to the sort of catchy English expressions that
Khojastehrad, Shadi; Rafik-Galea, Shameem; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah
Language attitudes are learned and formed in our social environment through hearing others referring to certain groups or people's languages and cultures, and also by exposure to particular varieties spoken in the context. This might lead to stereotyping English and its native speakers (McKenzie, 2008). In this sense, it is pedagogically…
Chinwe, Udo Victoria
In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians, is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession,…
Ono, Hiroshi; Zavodny, Madeline
This study examines the extent and causes of inequalities in information technology ownership and use between natives and immigrants in the United States, with particular focus on the role of English ability. The results indicate that, during the period 1997-2003, immigrants were significantly less likely to have access to or use a computer and…
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng
Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, two key regions for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis. PMID:25858447
Sumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Bruneviciūte, Raimonda; Kregzdyte, Rima; Krikstaponyte, Zita; Ziomkiewicz, Anna
Foreign languages are becoming an essential prerequisite for a successful carrier among all professions including public health professionals in many countries. The expanding role of English as a mode of communication allows for university graduates to project and to seek their career in English-speaking countries. The present study was carried out in the framework of EU Leonardo da Vinci project "Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health." The study aimed to get a deeper insight how the English language is perceived as a foreign language, by Polish and Lithuanian public health students, what is level of their language competence, which level of English proficiency they expect to use in future. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 246 respondents completed the special questionnaires in autumn semester in 2005. A questionnaire form was developed by the international project team. For evaluation of English competences, the Language Passport (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages of Council of Europe) was applied. RESULTS. Current self-rated proficiency of the English language was at the same level for Lithuanian (3.47+/-1.14) and Polish (3.31+/-0.83) respondents (P>0.05). Majority of respondents (88.6% of Lithuanian and 87.8% of Polish) reported using the English language for their current studies. Respondents reported a significant increase in necessity for higher level of English proficiency in future: mean scores provided by respondents changed from B1 level to B2 level. Respondents gave priority to less formal and practice-based interactive English teaching methods (going abroad, contacts with native speakers) in comparison with theory-oriented methods of learning (self-studying, Internet courses). CONCLUSIONS. Similar levels of English language in all five areas of language skills were established in Polish and Lithuanian university students. Respondents gave more priorities to less formal and practice-based interactive
Potgieter, Jenni-Marí; Swanepoel, De Wet; Myburgh, Hermanus Carel; Smits, Cas
This study determined the effect of hearing loss and English-speaking competency on the South African English digits-in-noise hearing test to evaluate its suitability for use across native (N) and non-native (NN) speakers. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study of N and NN English adults with and without sensorineural hearing loss compared pure-tone air conduction thresholds to the speech reception threshold (SRT) recorded with the smartphone digits-in-noise hearing test. A rating scale was used for NN English listeners' self-reported competence in speaking English. This study consisted of 454 adult listeners (164 male, 290 female; range 16 to 90 years), of whom 337 listeners had a best ear four-frequency pure-tone average (4FPTA; 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) of ≤25 dB HL. A linear regression model identified three predictors of the digits-in-noise SRT, namely, 4FPTA, age, and self-reported English-speaking competence. The NN group with poor self-reported English-speaking competence (≤5/10) performed significantly (p English-speaking competence for the N and NN groups (≥6/10) and NN group alone (≤5/10). Logistic regression models, which include age in the analysis, showed a further improvement in sensitivity and specificity for both groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.962 and 0.903, respectively). Self-reported English-speaking competence had a significant influence on the SRT obtained with the smartphone digits-in-noise test. A logistic regression approach considering SRT, self-reported English-speaking competence, and age as predictors of best ear 4FPTA >25 dB HL showed that the test can be used as an accurate hearing screening tool for N and NN English speakers. The smartphone digits-in-noise test, therefore, allows testing in a multilingual population familiar with English digits using dynamic cutoff values that can be chosen according to self-reported English-speaking competence and age.
Since its first publication in 1962, Gimson's Pronunciation of English has been the essential reference book for anyone studying or teaching the pronunciation of English.This eighth edition has been updated to describe General British (GB) as the principal accent, rather than RP, and the accompanying transcriptions have been brought into line with recent changes in pronunciation. This latest edition also includes completely rewritten chapters on the history of the language and the emergence of a standard, alongside a justification for the change from RP to GB.
Naterop, B Jean
Many people have to use English on the telephone in the course of their work, either at the level of taking a simple message or involving more complex tasks such as requesting information. Telephoning in English provides an up-to-date and relevant context in which students from lower-intermediate level upwards can develop practical telephone skills. The course principally develops spoken interactive skills, but also includes reading material on telephone systems and techniques. As the material is not restricted to particular job functions, it is suitable for students in a wide range of business and administration fields.
Di Bitetti, Mario S; Ferreras, Julián A
There is a tendency for non-native English scientists to publish exclusively in English, assuming that this will make their articles more visible and cited. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effect of language on the number of citations of articles published in six natural sciences journals from five countries that publish papers in either English or other languages. We analyzed the effect of language (English vs non-English), paper length, and year of publication on the number of citations. The articles published in English have a higher number of citations than those published in other languages, when the effect of journal, year of publication, and paper length are statistically controlled. This may result because English articles are accessible to a larger audience, but other factors need to be explored. Universities and scientific institutions should be aware of this situation and improve the teaching of English, especially in the natural sciences.
Full Text Available In an effort to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native teaching assistants and part-time teachers (both referred to as TAs in this article, students completed 632 evaluations of Ko-rean Language TAs from 2005 to 2008, and these evaluations were compiled for an analysis of variants (ANOVA. The evaluations were categorized into three groups of TAs: native Korean-speaking female, native Korean-speaking male, and non-native male; non-native females would have been included in the study, but there were not enough non-native female teachers to have a reliable sample. In an effort to encourage more self-examined teaching practices, this study addresses the greatest strengths and weaknesses of each group. Results revealed several significant differences between the ratings of the groups: native female TAs rated lowest overall, and non-native male TAs rated highest overall. The most prominent differences be-tween groups occurred in ratings of amount students learned, TAs’ preparedness, TAs’ active involvement in students’ learning, TAs’ enthusiasm, and TAs’ tardiness. This study reviews students’ written comments on the evaluations and proposes possible causes of these findings, concluding that differences in ratings are based on both teaching patterns associated with each group of TAs and student re-sponse bias that favors non-native male speakers. Teaching patterns include a tendency for native (Korean female TAs to teach using a lecture format and non-native male TAs to teach using a discussion format; for native TAs to have difficulty adapting to the language level of the students; and for a more visible enthusiasm for Korean culture held by non-native TAs. Causes for bias may include “other-ing” females and natives, TA selection procedures, and trends in evaluating TAs based on language level.
HENDERSON, HAROLD G.
CONVENTIONS FOR CLASSICAL JAPANESE HAIKU USUALLY INCLUDE--17 JAPANESE SYLLABLES IN A 5-7-5 LINE PATTERN, AND SOME SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO AN ASPECT OF NATURE AND TO A PARTICULAR EVENT, PRESENTED AS IF IT WERE HAPPENING IN THE IMMEDIATE PRESENT TO ALLOW THE READER TO EXPERIENCE THE POET'S EMOTION. HAIKU IN ENGLISH, A FORM OF POETRY WHICH HAS BECOME…
Strickland, James, Ed.
These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…
Diederich, Paul B.
The monograph is a complete outline for a program designed to help English departments institute logical and fair procedures for grading student essays. The contents in this monograph include "Factors in Judgments of Writing Ability,""The Effect of Bias,""Measuring Improvement in Writing,""Personal vs Staff Grading,""Standard Scores for Test…
Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode
This paper examines the linguistic habit of "prepositional intraference" in Educated Nigerian English (ENE) with a view to establishing why and how Nigerians produce prepositional intraference variations and how the variations distinguish ENE morphosyntax from native English morphosyntax, particularly Standard British English (SBE).…
Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.
Many American universities require international applicants whose native language is not English to submit English proficiency exam scores presumably because of proficiency's potential to predict future academic success. The present study provides evidence, however, that such applicants can succeed academically despite struggling with English.…
Despite a well-documented history of immigration in the United States of America and rise in population of students that speak a language other than English, academic achievement gaps between English Language Learners and their native English language speaking counterparts from Grades Pre-Kindergarten through the college/university level still…
Kuteeva, Maria; McGrath, Lisa
We investigate the current position of English in the language ecology of Swedish academia, with a special focus on the humanities. Semi-structured interviews with 15 informants from the fields of Anthropology, General Linguistics and History were carried out to explore how non-native speakers of English experience using academic English in their…
Chen, D.; Tigelaar, E.H.; Verloop, N.
Nonnative-English-speaking teachers who teach English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) can play an important role in the promotion of intercultural competence and often have an advantage over native-English-speaking ESL/EFL teachers because they once were language learners and more aware of
While the emergence of the plural forms of English widely acknowledges the sociolinguistic realities in many countries and regions, it might also have an equally profound impact on English teaching and learning in those areas. The trend is for pedagogical models no longer to privilege so-called Standard English based on native varieties but to be…
Thyab, Rana Abid
Native speakers of Arabic face a number of problems in their attempt to acquire the English language. One of these problems is encountered in their attempt to use English articles. According to earlier studies, learning English articles by students whose mother-tongue is Arabic is one of the most frequent and significant difficulties Arab learners…
Moustafa, Margaret Heiss
Native speakers of Egyptian Arabic make errors in their pronunciation of English that cannot always be accounted for by a contrastive analysis of Egyptian analysis of Egyptain Arabic and English. This study focuses on three types of errors in the pronunciation of voiced and voiceless "th" made by fluent speakers of English. These errors were noted…
Skier, Jason; Vibulphol, Jutarat
While corpus linguistics has been applied towards many specific academic purposes, reports are few regarding its use to facilitate learning of legal English by non-native English speakers. Specialized corpora are required because legal English often differs significantly from ordinary usage, with words such as bar, motion, and hearing having…
The objective of this research is to detect effective factors in English pronunciation teaching from the viewpoint of EIL (English as an International Language). This research is based on the data of the Successful Pronunciation Learners (SPL) selected by the raters, Japanese and native speakers of English (NSE), in Tominaga (2005). On the grounds…
English language education officially started in Japanese elementary schools in 2009. Homeroom teachers, whether experienced or not, are responsible for teaching the subject to students. Additionally, teachers are often required to team-teach with a native English speaker. It is plausible that Japanese teachers are anxious about teaching English.…
Tin, Tan Bee
The paper proposes a new conceptual perspective for understanding students' engagement in L2 learning, in particular the concept of interest development in learning English. It investigates situational features that trigger interest in learning English, employing data from interviews with non-native English speaking students studying in TESOL…
This monograph describes the experience of a Japanese family raising their children bilingually in Japan by adopting English as the home language. Both parents are native Japanese who went to graduate school in the United States and now teach English at the college level. Although both parents are very proficient in English, they recognize they…
Bomba, Marie D.; Choly, David; Pang, Elizabeth W.
Neural templates for phonemes in one’s native language are formed early in life; these can be modified but are difficult to form de novo. These can be examined with mismatch negativity. Three phonemic contrasts were presented to adult native English compared to Japanese speakers who acquired English later: vowels native to both languages (/i//iy/); consonant-vowel contrasts (/da//wa/) phonemic in both languages; and consonant-vowel contrasts phonemic in English but not in Japanese (/ra//la/). For vowels, no MMN differences were found. For /da//wa/, MMN amplitude was significantly reduced in Japanese speakers. For /ra//la/, only 50% of the Japanese group showed an identifiable MMN. This suggests that phonemic templates are formed early in life and non-native consonant contrasts are difficult to learn later. PMID:21610545
This study aimed to compare the perception of short vs. long vowel contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by four groups of listeners differing in their linguistic backgrounds: native Arabic (NA), native Japanese (NJ), non-native Japanese (NNJ) and Australian English (OZ) speakers. The NNJ and OZ groups shared the first language…
Ilich, Maria O.
Psychometricians and test developers evaluate standardized tests for potential bias against groups of test-takers by using differential item functioning (DIF). English language learners (ELLs) are a diverse group of students whose native language is not English. While they are still learning the English language, they must take their standardized tests for their school subjects, including science, in English. In this study, linguistic complexity was examined as a possible source of DIF that may result in test scores that confound science knowledge with a lack of English proficiency among ELLs. Two years of fifth-grade state science tests were analyzed for evidence of DIF using two DIF methods, Simultaneous Item Bias Test (SIBTest) and logistic regression. The tests presented a unique challenge in that the test items were grouped together into testlets---groups of items referring to a scientific scenario to measure knowledge of different science content or skills. Very large samples of 10, 256 students in 2006 and 13,571 students in 2007 were examined. Half of each sample was composed of Spanish-speaking ELLs; the balance was comprised of native English speakers. The two DIF methods were in agreement about the items that favored non-ELLs and the items that favored ELLs. Logistic regression effect sizes were all negligible, while SIBTest flagged items with low to high DIF. A decrease in socioeconomic status and Spanish-speaking ELL diversity may have led to inconsistent SIBTest effect sizes for items used in both testing years. The DIF results for the testlets suggested that ELLs lacked sufficient opportunity to learn science content. The DIF results further suggest that those constructed response test items requiring the student to draw a conclusion about a scientific investigation or to plan a new investigation tended to favor ELLs.
[Abstract] This paper discusses the advantages that may be gained from employing an "English as a Lingua Franca" model in English Language Teaching in Japan. The current approach in many educational contexts in Japan could be described as an "English as a Foreign Language" model, which generally takes native-speaker norms as its basis for teaching. First, these two models are compared and contrasted. Then, after a discussion of the background and rationale for such a shift in focus, the artic...
Nature Study, 1984
Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)
Anguished English is the impossibly funny anthology of accidental assaults upon our common language. From bloopers and blunders to Signs of the Times to Mixed-Up Metaphors . . . from Two-Headed Headlines to Mangling Modifiers . . . it's a collection that will leave you roaring with delight and laughter.Help wanteds:Wanted: Unmarried girls to pick fresh fruit and produce at night.Two-Headed Headlines:Grandmother of eight makes hole in one!Doctor testifies in horse suit.Modern-Day Malapropisms:I suffer from a deviant septum.
Masters, Peter, Ed.; Brinton, Donna M., Ed.
The collection of activities for use in teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) includes the contributions of teachers in 14 countries and is divided into these categories: general English for specific purposes; English for academic purposes; English for art and design; English for business and economics; English for legal purposes; English…
Ryabov, Rashel; Malakh, Marcella; Trachtenberg, Malka; Wohl, Sherrie; Oliveira, Gisele
The aim of this study was to investigate the vocal characteristics of bilingual individuals speaking in their native language as compared with the English language. The participants consisted of 30 vocally healthy adults, 14 adult male and 16 adult female bilingual subjects, with ages ranging from 23 to 70 years old. The procedures included a demographic questionnaire, a self-perceptual questionnaire, and descriptions of two video clips. The self-assessment included 21 questions that investigated how participants perceived their communication characteristics in each language. For the description of the videos, participants randomly watched two video clips with no audio support. One of the videos was described in English and the other in their native language. Voice samples were recorded to allow for acoustic analysis of selected vocal parameters: pitch, intensity, intonation, and rate of speech. The results indicate that overall, there is no difference in how the individuals perceive their communication characteristics in both languages (all P values > 0.05). The only significant difference was found in speech rate and sentence duration. Individuals had faster speech rate and longer sentences when speaking in English than in Russian. The correlation analysis showed that the younger the participants were when they immigrated to the USA, the more interjections they reported having in their native language. This study showed that language is a contributing factor to varying speech characteristics of Russian-English bilingual individuals. These findings have important implications for clinicians to be aware of cultural-linguistic influence in vocal and speech features. Copyright Â© 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper investigated refusal strategies conducted by British native speakers of English (NSE) and Javanese learners of English (JLE). The data were elicited through discourse completion tasks (DCT) from 20 NSE and 50 JLE. Refusal strategies in Javanese were elicited from 35 native speakers of Javanese (NJ) to provide a baseline for…
A study examined the production of English apology strategies by Spanish speakers learning English, by analyzing the remedial move in native and non-native social interactions. To restore harmony when an offensive act has been committed, remedial exchanges are performed according to the rules of speaking and the social norms of the speech…
I Wayan Dirgeyasa
Full Text Available There are a number of varieties of English all over the world such as American, British, Australian, Indian, Singaporean, Philippine English, etc. However, there are only two varieties of English which are most widely and dominantly taught, learned, and used both spoken and printed around the world namely British English (BrE and American English (AmE. In real sense, the two are often confusing for the non-native learners because they have some differences and uniqueness in some aspects such as spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. Therefore, it is really important for students, teachers and speakers as well to be aware of the major differences between the two. This paper is trying to review some striking unique and different features of grammar of British English (BrE and American English (AmE.
An analysis of data collected from 2347 users of English on their self-reported swearing behaviour in English revealed significant higher values for the 1159 native English (L1) users than for the 1165 English foreign language (LX) users. Parallel analyses on the data of the L1 and LX users revealed that the interlocutor effect was slightly…
Gourd, Karen Miller
This article identifies a tension between a teacher's intention and an English learner's interpretation of his experiences in a US high school English class for native users of English and English learners. The tension highlights two issues. First, democratic classroom practices, frequently advocated by second language acquisition theorists, may…
Jackson, C.N.; Hell, J.G. van
Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch–English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line
Cutler, A.; Otake, T.
Pseudo-homophony may result when non-native listeners cannot distinguish phonemic contrasts. Thus Dutch listeners have difficulty distinguishing the vowels of English cattle versus kettle, because this contrast is subsumed by a single Dutch vowel category; in consequence, both words may be activated
Smith, Catherine; Butler, Norman L.; Hughes, Teresa Anne; Herrington, David; Kritsonis, William Allan
This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of native and nonnative English teachers in Polish schools in light of the researchers' personal language teaching experience and language teacher research and training. It is argued that the NS/NNS controversy is over simplified and ignores the complexities of teacher training, language…
Weber, A.C.; Cutler, A.
Six eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name (pencil, given target
Brown, James Dean
This article begins by defining "world Englishes" (WEs) and the related paradigm of inner-, outer-, and expanding-circle English(es). The discussion then turns to the central concerns of the WEs and language testing (LT) communities with regard to how English tests can best be constructed to include various WEs by discussing (a) what…
Chung, Stephanie F.
A major reading-achievement gap exists between English language learners and English-only students. In order for ELLs to experience school success, they must achieve English language proficiency. This article presents why vocabulary acquisition plays the most vital role in ELLs' learning of the English language. Factors include the severity and…
Signed languages exhibit iconicity (resemblance between form and meaning) across their vocabulary, and many non-Indo-European spoken languages feature sizable classes of iconic words known as ideophones. In comparison, Indo-European languages like English and Spanish are believed to be arbitrary outside of a small number of onomatopoeic words. In three experiments with English and two with Spanish, we asked native speakers to rate the iconicity of ~600 words from the English and Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventories. We found that iconicity in the words of both languages varied in a theoretically meaningful way with lexical category. In both languages, adjectives were rated as more iconic than nouns and function words, and corresponding to typological differences between English and Spanish in verb semantics, English verbs were rated as relatively iconic compared to Spanish verbs. We also found that both languages exhibited a negative relationship between iconicity ratings and age of acquisition. Words learned earlier tended to be more iconic, suggesting that iconicity in early vocabulary may aid word learning. Altogether these findings show that iconicity is a graded quality that pervades vocabularies of even the most “arbitrary” spoken languages. The findings provide compelling evidence that iconicity is an important property of all languages, signed and spoken, including Indo-European languages. PMID:26340349
And colonialism bears a heavy, though far from exclusive, responsibility. The introduction of English-style political system during the era of colonialism systematically destabilized the once-thriving native political system of Denkyira. The paper draws the pessimistic prognosis that a further atrophy of the native political system ...
Khan, Muhammad Saleem
This paper strives to explore the impact of Native Language use on Foreign Language vocabulary learning on the basis of empirical and available data. The study is carried out with special reference to the English Language Programme students in Buraydah Community College, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The Native Language of these students is…
Little Soldier, Lee
To understand urban Native American students more fully, teachers must grasp the contrast between rural/reservation living and urban life (generally more hostile) for these students and their families. Teachers should determine students' home language and their degree of facility in school English. Teachers should also recognize Native American…
Limited studies have been conducted on the effects on recreational reading in native language on foreign language learning, whereas no findings exist on the effects of recreational reading in Turkish as a native language (L1) on English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of recreational reading…
Heritage speakers acquire their native language from home use in their early childhood. As the native language is typically a minority language in the society, these individuals receive their formal education in the majority language and eventually develop greater competency with the majority than their native language. To date, there have not been specific research attempts to understand word recognition by heritage speakers. It is not clear if and to what degree we may infer from evidence based on bilingual listeners in general. This preliminary study investigated how heritage speakers of Spanish perform on an English word recognition test and analyzed their phoneme errors. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational design was employed. Twelve normal-hearing adult Spanish heritage speakers (four men, eight women, 20-38 yr old) participated in the study. Their language background was obtained through the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire. Nine English monolingual listeners (three men, six women, 20-41 yr old) were also included for comparison purposes. Listeners were presented with 200 Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words in quiet. They repeated each word orally and in writing. Their responses were scored by word, word-initial consonant, vowel, and word-final consonant. Performance was compared between groups with Student's t test or analysis of variance. Group-specific error patterns were primarily descriptive, but intergroup comparisons were made using 95% or 99% confidence intervals for proportional data. The two groups of listeners yielded comparable scores when their responses were examined by word, vowel, and final consonant. However, heritage speakers of Spanish misidentified significantly more word-initial consonants and had significantly more difficulty with initial /p, b, h/ than their monolingual peers. The two groups yielded similar patterns for vowel and word-final consonants, but heritage speakers made significantly
English as a second language (ESL) teachers have long noted that native speakers of Arabic exhibit exceptional difficulty with English reading comprehension (e.g., Thompson-Panos & Thomas-Ruzic, 1983). Most existing work in this area has looked to higher level aspects of reading such as familiarity with discourse structure and cultural knowledge…
Abdelshaheed, Bothina S. M.
This study aims at investigating the effect of using Flipped Learning Model in teaching English language among female English majors in Majmaah University on their achievement in two different English courses and identifying their feelings and satisfaction about flipping their classes. The study used a pre-post test design and included two…
Mahdavi Zafarghandi, Amir; Jodai, Hojat
This study intends to represent attitudes toward English and English learning at an Iranian military university. Iranian military staff is required to study English in a social environment where there is little immediate need or opportunity to use the language for real communicative purposes.The subjects included 34 Iranian military personnel who…
Eaton, Sarah Elaine
An applied research paper on how Canadian English differs from British and American English. Highlights ways for teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) to demonstrate these differences to their students. The notion of Canadian identity is also explored. A 3-item bibliography is included. (Contains 15 footnotes.)
"Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…
Cinarbas H. Ibrahim
Full Text Available In recent years, many international students from different parts of the world have been studying at Turkish universities, which creates a multicultural educational setting. Due to the multicultural educational setting, English has become the most widely used language for exchanging and sharing knowledge, therefore many international universities in Turkey put a great emphasis on English language education and offer English preparatory courses to students. In order to succeed at better language education, universities employ native English instructors to provide a richer language experience with cultural components embedded in language content. In this qualitative case study, cultural reflections of native English instructors at a Turkish university were investigated. Individual and focus group interviews were data sources for the study. Findings indicated that cultural responsiveness was considered to be constructed through time, and a necessity of orientation process was emphasized. However, the native instructors’ presumptions cause intolerance and underestimation of the host culture. In addition, educational issues and students’ misbehaviors, such as cheating and calling their instructors by their first name, were attributed to cultural background of the students.
Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Campisi, Lisa; Genesee, Fred; Marcoux, Caroline
Recent findings show that discrimination of the English /d-edh/ does not differ for English and French infants (6-8-month-olds and 10-12-month-olds), although English adults clearly outperform French adults on this contrast, which is not phonemic in French. With respect to age effects, English listeners' perception of /d-edh/ improves between infancy and adulthood, whereas French listeners' perception remains unchanged [Polka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2190-2200 (2001)]. In the present study, we tested monolingual English, monolingual French, and early English-French bilingual 4-year-olds on the same contrast using the same stimuli and procedures to clarify when facilitative effects of language experience emerge and whether they are affected by bilingualism. Four findings are reported. First, a language effect (English>French) is evident by 4 years of age. Second, among native (English) listeners facilitative effects are evident by 4-years of age (infantsThird, among non-native (French) listeners discrimination performance is comparable across the age groups tested (infants=4-year-olds=adults). Fourth, bilingual 4-year-olds' performance is virtually identical to that of their French-speaking peers, revealing a strong effect of bilingualism on the perception of this contrast. Several factors contributing to these findings will be discussed.
Woodfield, Helen; Economidou-Kogetsidis, Maria
This paper examines the status-unequal requests of 89 advanced mixed-L1 learners and 87 British English native speakers elicited by a written discourse completion task. Significant differences were observed in all three dimensions analysed: internal and external modification, and perspective. The data demonstrate learners' overuse of zero marking…
Salinas, Jennifer J; Sheffield, Kristin M
The purpose of this study is to determine if English language use is associated with smoking, diabetes, hypertension, limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and 12-year mortality in older Mexican Americans. Using data from a cohort of 3,050 Mexican Americans aged 65 years and older, we examined prevalence of 4 health indicators and survival over 12 years of follow-up by English language use. English language use is associated with increased odds of hypertension in men, independent of nativity and sociodemographic control variables. Among women, English language use is associated with lower odds of ADL limitations and increased odds of smoking. The associations for women were partially explained by occupational status and nativity. After adjusting for health conditions, sociodemographics, and nativity, English language use was associated with increased mortality among men. Interaction terms revealed that for both men and women, higher English language use was associated with mortality for respondents with the highest level of income only. English language use is a predictor of health and mortality in older Mexican Americans separate from country of birth.
The first generation of Digital Natives (DNs) is now growing up. However, these digital natives were rather late starters since; their exposure to computers started when they could master the mouse and the penetration of computers in educational institutions was still very low. Today, a new breed of digital natives is emerging. This new breed includes those individuals who are being introduced from their first instances to the world of wireless devices. One year olds manage to master the intuitive touch interfaces of their tablets whilst sitting comfortably in their baby bouncers. The controller-less interfaces allow these children to interact with a machine in a way which was unconceivable below. Thus, our research investigated the paradigm shift between the different generations of digital natives. We analysed the way in which these two generations differ from each other and we explored how the world needs to change in order to harness the potential of these new digital natives.
The discrimination of English vowels in real and novel words by 40 bilingual Spanish/English participants was examined. Their discrimination was compared with that of 40 native monolingual English participants. Participants were 23-36 years of age (mean 25.3; median 25.0). Stimuli were presented within triads in an ABX paradigm. This categorial discrimination paradigm was selected to avoid labeling, allowing participants to indicate categories to which stimuli belonged. Bilingual participants' productions of vowels in real words used in the discrimination task were judged by two independent listeners. The goal was to determine the degree of correlation between discrimination and production. Vowels were studied as these segments present second language learners with more difficulty than consonants. Discrimination difficulty was significantly greater for bilingual participants than for native English participants for vowel contrasts and novel words. Significant errors also appeared in the bilingual participants' production of certain vowels. English vowels absent from Spanish presented the greatest difficulty, while vowels similar to those in Spanish presented the least difficulty. Earlier age of acquisition, absence of communication problems, and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English contributed to greater accuracy in discrimination and production. [Work supported by PSC-CUNY.
This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…
Taylor, Allan Ross
This article describes several types of native American nonspeech communications systems, including the Plains sign language, distance signaling of various kinds, picture writing and whistle speech. See FL 508 188 for availability. (CLK)
Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. METHOD 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16 vowels spoken by native and nonnative speakers of English was evaluated by EN listeners. All nonnative speakers also completed a survey of their language backgrounds. RESULTS Although the intelligibility of consonants and diphthongs for nonnative speakers was comparable to that of native speakers, the intelligibility of monophthongs was significantly lower for CN and KN speakers than for EN speakers. Sociolinguistic factors such as the age of arrival in the United States and daily use of English, as well as a linguistic factor, difference in vowel space between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) language, partially contributed to vowel intelligibility for CN and KN groups. There was no significant correlation between the length of U.S. residency and phoneme intelligibility. CONCLUSION Results indicated that the major difficulty in phonemic production in English for Chinese and Korean speakers is with vowels rather than consonants. This might be useful for developing training methods to improve English intelligibility for foreign students in the United States.
The globalization of English has initiated a debate of acceptability of competing norms, be they endonormative or exonormative (Davies, 1999; Gill, 1999). In WE’s view, exonormative orientations towards the native-speaker may be discriminatory against non-native speakers (NNS) of English, so...... it recommends a pluralized and pluricentric notion of world Englishes (Kachru, 1992). ELF’s standpoint, conversely, rejects native speaker norms in favor of endonormative realizations of lingua franca varieties. These normative issues are exacerbated, both theoretically and practically, in the context...... of language assessment. The chapter will begin by outlining the early WE conceptualizations of pronunciation through the model of understanding in cross-cultural communication (Smith, 1976). These conceptualizations will then be contrasted with more recent ELF views of mutual intelligibility among...
Ireri Armenta Delgado
Full Text Available This paper discusses the impact that the status as non-nativeEnglish speakers (NNESs has had in six Mexican nationalsas teachers of the foreign language. The idea of the nativespeaker as the ideal teacher of English is explored from thenon-native English teachers’ (NNESTs perspectives andexperiences, based on the way they are perceived by theirstudents. Through interviews in the form of personalnarratives, NNESTs’ life stories were collected in order toanalyse the experiences and challenges that they face in theprofession as non-native speakers. The data shows thatNNESTs are confronted with issues of credibility andacceptance on the part of their students based on factors ofnativeness and ethnicity. This of course has an impact in theNNESTs’ professional and personal lives.
Full Text Available Attitudes and emotions are expressed by linguistic as well as extra-linguistic features. The linguistic features comprise the lexis, the word-order and the intonation of the utterance. The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of intonation on our perception of speech. I will attempt to show that our expression, as well as our perception and understanding of attitudes and emotions are realized in accordance with the intonation patterns typical of the mother tongue. When listening to non-native speakers using our mother tongue we expect and tolerate errors in pronunciation, grammar and lexis but are quite ignorant and intolerant of non-native intonation patterns. Foreigners often sound unenthusiastic to native English ears. On the basis of the results obtained from an analysis of speech produced by 21 non-native speakers of English, including Slovenes, I will show that the reasons for such an impression of being unenthusiastic stem from different tonality and tonicity rules, as well as from the lack of the fall-rise tone and a very narrow pitch range with no or very few pitch jumps or slumps.
Ashrapova, Alsu; Alendeeva, Svetlana
This article is the result of a study of the influence of English and German on the Russian language during the English learning based on lexical borrowings in the field of economics. This paper discusses the use and recognition of borrowings from the English and German languages by Russian native speakers. The use of lexical borrowings from…
Wilson, Erin O'Brien; Spaulding, Tammie J.
Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of noise and speech intelligibility on the processing of speech produced from native English; high-intelligibility, Korean-accented English; and moderate-intelligibility, Korean-accented English speakers. Method: Both listener comprehension, determined by accuracy judgment on true/false sentences, and…
Al-Issa, Ali S. M.; Al-Bulushi, Ali Hussain; Al-Zadjali, Rima Mansoor
Despite the emphasis laid on demonstrating English language proficiency by Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (NNESTs), research has shown that for various reasons English language teachers graduating from a state-owned university in an Arab country for the past 25 years or so have been found lacking communication skills due to reasons pertinent…
Higher education is becoming increasingly internationalized, and the use of English as a medium of instruction for academic content has become commonplace in countries where English is not the native language. However, concerns are growing that the trend toward English-medium instruction (EMI) has accelerated without sufficient thought to the…
Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam
Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…
I. A. Musikhin
Full Text Available In the era of globalization, English communication for scientists and engineers whose native language is not English has become as important as their major related abilities. The paper describes the results of a four-year experience in the development of English for specific purpose manuals in the field of photogrammetry, interferometry, and GNSS technologies, as well as key teaching methods and didactic approaches used in class and out-of-class activities. The focus of the present study is to provide a detailed description of the development and systematic updating of a relevant manual, aimed at professional language training of learners. The findings of the study reflect the importance of an ESP course for scientists and engineers: conducting a needs analysis for carrying out a specific search of relevant and reliable authentic materials, defining proper teaching methods, software and didactic approaches used in the educational process to develop the language skills necessary to be active and contributive players in the competitive world.
Full Text Available A prominent feature of formal writing, particularly in the field of science and technology, is the use of nominalization. Scientific writings, including medical writings, are expected to observe formality, precision, lack of ambiguity and concentration of highly technical terms. In such genres, the use of nominalization, affecting the lexical density of the text, plays a key role. In this connection, the purpose of this study was to compare the use of nominalization and the level of lexical density in medical academic articles written by native English writers and their Iranian counterparts based on the theory of grammatical metaphor proposed by Halliday (1985. To this end, the abstract section of 20 authentic English medical articles written by native English writers and 20 abstracts written by Iranian authors, drawn from highly influential medical journals, were selected. These abstracts were analyzed and compared based on the frequency of nominalization used and the level of lexical density in them. The findings revealed that Iranian writers used less nominalization in their writings.
Tanaka, Sachiko Oda
Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)
Widdowson, H. G.
A plenary address from the 1993 Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Convention discusses the question of how English teachers delimit and design their world. Issues of standard English are raised, and it is noted that, if English serves the communicative and communal needs of different communities, it must be diverse. (One…
Swales, John M.
The increasing domination of English as the world's leading medium of international professional communication has begun to impact English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programs, specifically the question of whether English is becoming too successful. The article argues that resistance to the "triumphalism" of English is a responsibility of EAP…
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…
Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.
This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…
Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.
This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…
Nickerson, C.; Planken, B.C.
Introducing Business English provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, situating the concepts of Business English and English for Specific Business Purposes within the wider field of English for Special Purposes. This book draws on contemporary teaching and research contexts to demonstrate
The socioeconomic status of Canadian native students may be more important than cultural differences when explaining their high dropout rate. Disadvantaged native and nonnative students share many experiences that isolate them from the mainstream school culture, including placement of disadvantaged students into lower-track courses and…
Intartaglia, Bastien; White-Schwoch, Travis; Meunier, Christine; Roman, Stéphane; Kraus, Nina; Schön, Daniele
The development of the phoneme inventory is driven by the acoustic-phonetic properties of one's native language. Neural representation of speech is known to be shaped by language experience, as indexed by cortical responses, and recent studies suggest that subcortical processing also exhibits this attunement to native language. However, most work to date has focused on the differences between tonal and non-tonal languages that use pitch variations to convey phonemic categories. The aim of this cross-language study is to determine whether subcortical encoding of speech sounds is sensitive to language experience by comparing native speakers of two non-tonal languages (French and English). We hypothesized that neural representations would be more robust and fine-grained for speech sounds that belong to the native phonemic inventory of the listener, and especially for the dimensions that are phonetically relevant to the listener such as high frequency components. We recorded neural responses of American English and French native speakers, listening to natural syllables of both languages. Results showed that, independently of the stimulus, American participants exhibited greater neural representation of the fundamental frequency compared to French participants, consistent with the importance of the fundamental frequency to convey stress patterns in English. Furthermore, participants showed more robust encoding and more precise spectral representations of the first formant when listening to the syllable of their native language as compared to non-native language. These results align with the hypothesis that language experience shapes sensory processing of speech and that this plasticity occurs as a function of what is meaningful to a listener. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salleh, Safrul Izani Mohd; Gardner, John C.; Sulong, Zunaidah; McGowan, Carl B., Jr.
This study examines the differences in the interpretation of ten "in context" verbal probability expressions used in accounting standards between native Chinese speaking and native English speaking accounting students in United Kingdom universities. The study assesses the degree of grouping factors consensus on the numerical…
Reporting on his study of the Menomini Indians of Wisconsin, Leonard Bloomfield notes that “some persons are felt to be better models of conduct and speech than others” (Bloomfield 1927:396). Bloomfield was surprised to find such normative attitudes even in “a small community of people speaking a uniform language ...
Chou, Pao-Nan; Chen, Wei-Fan
The number of international students who take online courses in the U.S. is growing, and consequently a need exists to understand how these online minority groups learn in Western-designed online educational settings. This article proposes applying a concept of acculturation into online teaching practice to allow examination of international…
Upon embarking on the colonial project of the First British Empire, it was necessary to develop a discourse of empire. This discourse served the purpose of legitimizing imperial conquest by demonizing peoples targeted for colonization. The demonization was accomplished by caricaturing colonized...
The NNEST Lens invites you to imagine how the field of TESOL and applied linguistics can develop if we use the multilingual, multicultural, and multinational perspectives of an NNEST lens to re-examine our assumptions, practices, and theories in the field
Oral Expression The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Timetable: Tuesday 11.30 to 13.30 Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registration and further information on these courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langu...
Oral Expression The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Timetable: Tuesday 11.30 to 13.30 Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registration and further information on these courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 28 February to 24 June 2005 (2/3 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression The next session will take place from March to June 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from March to June 2005. T...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 28 February to 24 June 2005 (2/3 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression The next session will take place from March to June 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from March to June 2005. Th...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people w...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants per class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people ...
Monaghan, A. I. C.
Electronic communication, and particularly the World Wide Web, is becoming increasingly indispensable in our daily lives. The vast majority of the information currently exchanged electronically is in English, and it might be assumed that this will promote the use of English. Rarely is the contrary view presented, that the adoption of English as a general-purpose medium for global communication will change the English language and perhaps even lead to the creation of a «Web English» which repl...
Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D.; Finn, Amy S.; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D.E.
Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual’s native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. PMID:27737775
Qi, Zhenghan; Beach, Sara D; Finn, Amy S; Minas, Jennifer; Goetz, Calvin; Chan, Brian; Gabrieli, John D E
Language learning aptitude during adulthood varies markedly across individuals. An individual's native-language ability has been associated with success in learning a new language as an adult. However, little is known about how native-language processing affects learning success and what neural markers of native-language processing, if any, are related to success in learning. We therefore related variation in electrophysiology during native-language processing to success in learning a novel artificial language. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while native English speakers judged the acceptability of English sentences prior to learning an artificial language. There was a trend towards a double dissociation between native-language ERPs and their relationships to novel syntax and vocabulary learning. Individuals who exhibited a greater N400 effect when processing English semantics showed better future learning of the artificial language overall. The N400 effect was related to syntax learning via its specific relationship to vocabulary learning. In contrast, the P600 effect size when processing English syntax predicted future syntax learning but not vocabulary learning. These findings show that distinct neural signatures of native-language processing relate to dissociable abilities for learning novel semantic and syntactic information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nikishkova Mariya Sergeevna
Full Text Available The article presents the overview of linguistic research on gastronomic / gluttony communicative environment as ethnocultural phenomenon from the standpoint of conceptology, discourse study and linguosemiotics. The authors study the linguosemiotic encoding / decoding in the English gastronomic (gluttony discourse. The peculiarities of gastronomic gluttonyms "immersion" into everyday communication are studied. The anglophone ethnicities are revealed and different ways of gluttony texts (including the precedent ones formation are investigated. The linguosemiotic parameters of ethnocultural (anglophone gastronomic coded communication are established, their discursive characteristics are identified. It is determined that in English gastronomic communication, the discursive actualization of ethno-linguocultural code has a dynamic nature; the constitutive features of gastronomic discourse have symbolic (semiotic basics and are connected with such semiotic categories as code, encoding, decoding. It was found that food is semiotic in its origin and represents the cultural code. It was revealed that the semiosis of English gastronomic text is regularly filled with the codes of traditional "English-likeness" (ethnic term by Roland Barthes expressed by gluttonyms. "Nationality" code is detected through the names of products specific to certain areas; national identity of ethnic code also allows highlighting ways of dish garnishing and serving, typical characteristics of particular local preparation methods. The authors analyze the "lingualization" of food images having an ambivalent character, determined, firstly, by food signs (gluttonyms which structure the common space of gastronomic discourse and provide it with ethnic linguocultural food source; secondly, by immerging formed images into a specific ethnic code that is decoded in gastronomic discourse unfolding. The precedent texts accumulate ethnic information supplying adequate gastronomic worldview
... Utah Document Type Annual Report Comment Community Engagement Project ... HSLIC Native American Health Information Services UNM Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center MSC09 5100 1 University of New Mexico ...
Carrió Pastor, Mª Luisa; Alonso Almeida, Francisco
Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. In this paper, English texts written by Spanish learners with B2 level of proficiency, following the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), were contrasted with texts written by native English speakers in order to detect the most common writing changes (variations) motivated by the mother tongue of the writers. Our objective was to determine the causes of these ...
Bamfield, Vincent Mark
With the growing number of students from China who study abroad, many initially struggle to engage with native English speakers due to limited opportunities to develop oral English skills within their homeland (Gu and Maley, 2008). The reasons why Chinese students' may exhibit varied levels of motivation to engage with others when they study abroad is not well understood. This thesis has employed MacIntyre's "Willingness to Communicate" pyramid model (MacIntyre et al., 1998) as a theoretical ...
This article on collection development focuses on English as a Second Language (ESL) materials for public libraries. Highlights include supporting local school curriculum; independent study materials; criteria for selection; weeding guidelines; Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL); and an annotated bibliography that includes printed…
Falsetti, Julie, Comp.
This third edition of the video directory updates previous editions and alphabetically lists videos, by title. It is designed to assist in the teaching of English or the training of teachers of English. Information included are format, standard, variety, use, target, level, price, duration, quality, support materials included, distributor, year…
Full Text Available The digital explosion of information on the Internet has resulted in a need for a new and up-to-date way for Digital Natives to learn English. Educators have reported numerous benefits of using weblogs in English language learning. This article presents a small scale study on the use of weblogs for English language learning at tertiary level in Malaysia. Twenty six students kept weblogs for a duration of a semester. This study investigated how students perceived the use of weblogs for English language learning. A questionnaire which was made up of both close-ended and open-ended questions was administered at the end of the study. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyse the students’ responses to the questionnaire. The study found that students were aware of their audience when they blogged and that they geared their writing towards their audience. In addition, they also interacted with others through the use of the comment feature on their weblogs. Furthermore, the majority of the students enjoyed blogging and found weblogs useful for English language learning. This study found that weblogs are promising interactive tools for English language learning.
Full Text Available Collocations are very frequent in the English language (Hill, 2000, and they are probably the most common and most representative of English multi-word expressions (Lewis, 2000. Furthermore, as a subset of formulaic sequences, collocations are considered to be a central aspect of communicative competence (Nation, 2001. Hence, the importance of teaching collocations in General English (GE as well as in English for Specific Purposes (ESP is undeniable. Understanding and determining the relevant collocations and their mastery are of “utmost importance to a ME instructor” (Cole et al., 2007, p. 137, and collocations are one of the most productive ways of enriching vocabulary and terminology in modern ME. Vişan & Georgescu (2011 have undertaken a relevant study on collocations and “collocational competence” on board ships, including mostly nautical terminology. However, no substantial work on collocations in Marine Engineering English as a sub-register of ME has been carried out. Hence, this paper tries to determine the most important collocations in Marine Engineering English, based on a small corpus of collected e-mails. After determining the most relevant collocations, we suggest how to implement these in the language classroom and how to improve the collocational competence of marine engineering students.
Lyudmila S. Pichkova
Full Text Available School of Business English prepare students for translation and abstracting economic texts, business correspondence and business communication originated in the late 1950s. Department of English Language № 2 pioneered the creation of the school of business English at MGIMO and made the largest contribution to its development. Developing and using the latest educational technology, actively participating in many innovative projects, responsive to changes in the economic and socio-political sphere and carefully studying the international experience, the Department has become the undisputed leader in language teaching profession. The emphasis is on the use of the advantages of a new method of object-language integrated learning, in which the program of teaching business English are built in close coordination with training programs on special subjects, and sometimes supplement them. Business games, round tables, student conferences in English have become long-term practice of the English Language № 2. Specialty permeates all stages and aspects of learning, including the common language practice.
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Lesaux, Nonie K; Siegel, Linda S
Patterns of reading development were examined in native English-speaking (L1) children and children who spoke English as a second language (ESL). Participants were 978 (790 L1 speakers and 188 ESL speakers) Grade 2 children involved in a longitudinal study that began in kindergarten. In kindergarten and Grade 2, participants completed standardized and experimental measures including reading, spelling, phonological processing, and memory. All children received phonological awareness instruction in kindergarten and phonics instruction in Grade 1. By the end of Grade 2, the ESL speakers' reading skills were comparable to those of L1 speakers, and ESL speakers even outperformed L1 speakers on several measures. The findings demonstrate that a model of early identification and intervention for children at risk is beneficial for ESL speakers and also suggest that the effects of bilingualism on the acquisition of early reading skills are not negative and may be positive. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)