Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Luther, Lauren; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H
Disentangling links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition offers the potential to improve interventions for these cognitive processes. Disorganized symptoms have shown promise for explaining the limiting relationship that neurocognition holds with both social cognition and metacognition. In this study, primary aims included: 1) testing whether conceptual disorganization, a specific disorganized symptom, moderated relationships between cognitive processes, and 2) examining the level of conceptual disorganization necessary for links between cognitive processes to break down. To accomplish these aims, comprehensive assessments of conceptual disorganization, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition were administered to 67 people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. We found that conceptual disorganization significantly moderated the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition, with links between cognitive processes weakening when conceptual disorganization is present even at minimal levels of severity. There was no evidence that conceptual disorganization-or any other specific disorganized symptom-drove the limiting relationship of neurocognition on social cognition. Based on our findings, conceptual disorganization appears to be a critical piece of the puzzle when disentangling the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition. Roles of specific disorganized symptoms in the neurocognition - social cognition relationship were less clear. Findings from this study suggest that disorganized symptoms are an important treatment consideration when aiming to improve cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shea, Nicholas; Boldt, Annika; Bang, Dan; Yeung, Nick; Heyes, Cecilia; Frith, Chris D.
The human mind is extraordinary in its ability not merely to respond to events as they unfold but also to adapt its own operation in pursuit of its agenda. This ‘cognitive control’ can be achieved through simple interactions among sensorimotor processes, and through interactions in which one sensorimotor process represents a property of another in an implicit, unconscious way. So why does the human mind also represent properties of cognitive processes in an explicit way, enabling us to think and say ‘I’m sure’ or ‘I’m doubtful’? We suggest that ‘system 2 metacognition’ is for supra-personal cognitive control. It allows metacognitive information to be broadcast, and thereby to coordinate the sensorimotor systems of two or more agents involved in a shared task. PMID:24582436
Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Avidan-Msika, Moran; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Kravetz, Shlomo; Rozencwaig, Silvio; Shalev, Hadar; Lysaker, Paul H
While some studies view metacognition and social cognition as representing the same phenomenon, others suggest that they represent distinctive sets of abilities that are related to different outcomes. The current study used a cross-sectional design that includes samples of persons with schizophrenia (N=39) and healthy individuals (N=60) to further explore the distinction between social cognition and metacognition and their associations with social quality of life. The Face Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Faux-Pas Task, Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview (IPII), Metacognition Assessment Scale - Abbreviated (MAS-A), and Social Quality of Life Scale were administrated to all participants. Correlations, t-tests and regressions were conducted. Results showed that persons with schizophrenia performed more poorly on all measures than healthy controls. Social cognition and metacognition measures were related for the combined total sample, but only a few associations were found among both sub-samples. A diagnosis of schizophrenia and metacognitive capacity, but not social cognition, predicted social quality of life. Self-reflectivity had a negative relationship to social quality of life while understanding of others' minds had a positive relation to social quality of life. The current study provides evidence that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in both social cognition and metacognition and that those deficits may be distinct and have different kinds of relationships with social quality of life. Clinical implications include the need to emphasize narrative aspects of psychotherapy in order to promote metacognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The cognitive problems experienced by people with schizophrenia not only impede recovery but also interfere with treatments designed to improve overall functioning. Hence there has been a proliferation of new therapies to treat cognitive problems with the hope that improvements will benefit future intervention and recovery outcomes. Cognitive remediation therapy (CR that relies on intensive task practice can support basic cognitive functioning but there is little evidence on how these therapies lead to transfer to real life skills. However, there is increasing evidence that CR including elements of transfer training (e.g. strategy use and problem solving schemas produce higher functional outcomes. It is hypothesised that these therapies achieve higher transfer by improving metacognition. People with schizophrenia have metacognitive problems; these include poor self-awareness and difficulties in planning for complex tasks. This paper reviews this evidence as well as research on why metacognition needs to be explicitly taught as part of cognitive treatments. The evidence is based on research on learning spanning neuroscience to the field of education. Learning programmes, and CRT, may be able to achieve better outcomes if they explicitly teach metacognition including metacognitive knowledge (i.e. awareness of the cognitive requirements and approaches to tasks and metacognitive regulation (i.e. cognitive control over the different task relevant cognitive requirements. These types of metacognition are essential for successful task performance, in particular, for controlling effort, accuracy and efficient strategy use. We consider metacognition vital for the transfer of therapeutic gains to everyday life tasks making it a therapy target that may yield greater gains compared to cognition alone for recovery interventions.
Cella, Matteo; Reeder, Clare; Wykes, Til
The cognitive problems experienced by people with schizophrenia not only impede recovery but also interfere with treatments designed to improve overall functioning. Hence there has been a proliferation of new therapies to treat cognitive problems with the hope that improvements will benefit future intervention and recovery outcomes. Cognitive remediation therapy (CR) that relies on intensive task practice can support basic cognitive functioning but there is little evidence on how these therapies lead to transfer to real life skills. However, there is increasing evidence that CR including elements of transfer training (e.g., strategy use and problem solving schemas) produce higher functional outcomes. It is hypothesized that these therapies achieve higher transfer by improving metacognition. People with schizophrenia have metacognitive problems; these include poor self-awareness and difficulties in planning for complex tasks. This paper reviews this evidence as well as research on why metacognition needs to be explicitly taught as part of cognitive treatments. The evidence is based on research on learning spanning from neuroscience to the field of education. Learning programmes, and CRT, may be able to achieve better outcomes if they explicitly teach metacognition including metacognitive knowledge (i.e., awareness of the cognitive requirements and approaches to tasks) and metacognitive regulation (i.e., cognitive control over the different task relevant cognitive requirements). These types of metacognition are essential for successful task performance, in particular, for controlling effort, accuracy and efficient strategy use. We consider metacognition vital for the transfer of therapeutic gains to everyday life tasks making it a therapy target that may yield greater gains compared to cognition alone for recovery interventions.
Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring the effects of cognitive and metacognitive strategy training on the WTC of Iranian EFL learners. The participants of the study included 90 Iranian EFL learners at the intermediate level of English language proficiency. They were divided into three groups based on their performance on a general proficiency test. One group received cognitive strategy instruction, another metacognitive strategy instruction and the last one served as the control group. The participants were also tested before and after the treatment in terms of WTC. The results of statistical analysis showed that both cognitive and metacognitive strategy training had a positive effect on the WTC of Iranian EFL learners. It was also revealed that metacognitive and cognitive strategy training had similar effects on the WTC of the participants.
Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian
This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.
MacIntyre, Tadhg E; Igou, Eric R; Campbell, Mark J; Moran, Aidan P; Matthews, James
For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers - people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts' metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as "meta-attention," "meta-imagery" and "meta-memory," as well as social aspects of this construct) provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on "metacognition" and "metacognitive inference" among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among secondary school students in cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulated learning (SRL according to year of education, learning program, sex and achievement. Beside this, the autors were interested in the relationship between (metacognitive components of self-regulated learning. The theoretical framework of the research was the four-component model of self-regulated learning by Hofer, Yu and Pintrich (1998. The focus was on the first part of the model which is about cognitive structure and cognitive strategies.Metacognitive awareness inventory (Shraw and Sperling Dennison, 1994 and Cognitive strategies awareness questionnaire (Pečjak, 2000, in Peklaj and Pečjak, 2002 were applied. In a sample of 321 students, differences in perception of importance of cognitive strategies among students attending different grades (1st and 4th, students attending different learning programs, students of different gender and students with different achievements emerged. Students' achievement in the whole sample was related to amount of metacognitive awareness. In the sample of 4-year students and students attending professional secondary schools, students' achievement was additionally related to appraisal of importance elaboration and organizational strategies. Further statistical analyses of relationship between components in SRL showed high positive correlation between cognitive and metacognitive components.
Johnson, Sverre Urnes; Hoffart, Asle; Nordahl, Hans M; Ulvenes, Pål G; Vrabel, KariAnne; Wampold, Bruce E
Psychotherapists have long questioned what mediating processes are linked to outcome of psychotherapy. Few studies examining this question have assessed within-person changes in the process outcome relationship over time. The present study examined changes in cognition and metacognition over the course of therapy using a dataset from a randomized controlled trial comparing Metacognitive therapy (MCT) and Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The sample included 74 patients measured on process and symptom instruments weekly throughout therapy. Multilevel longitudinal models (sessions nested within patients) were used to examine the relationship between metacognition, cognition, and anxiety. Main effects of metacognition and cognition on anxiety and the interaction with treatment, as well as the reciprocal relationships, were investigated. The results indicate a main effect of both cognitions and metacognitions on predicting anxiety. However, there was no interaction with treatment condition. The reciprocal relationship of anxiety on metacognitions was larger in MCT compared with CBT. This is the first study documenting within-person effects of both cognitions and metacognitions on anxiety over the course of therapy. Implications for therapy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background: The role and importance of meta-cognitive beliefs in creating and retaining of anxiety disorders were explained initially in meta-cognitive theory. The purpose of this study was to validate the Meta-cognitions Questionnaire-Adolescent version (MCQ-A in normal Iranian people and compare of meta-cognitive beliefs between adolescents with anxiety disorders and normal individuals.Materials and Method: This was a standardized study. First of all, the original version was translated into Persian then administered to 204 (101 boys and 103 girls adolescent aged 13 through 17 years. Theyhave been clustered randomly. They were selected from the schools of Isfahan, together with mood and feelings questionnaire and revised children's manifest anxiety scale. In order to assess reliability, method of internal consistency (Chronbach’s alpha and split-half coefficient was used, and also in order to assess validity, convergent validity, criterion validity and confirmatory factor analysis were used. Results: The results of correlation coefficient of convergent validity showed a relation between total score of (MCQ-A and its components with anxiety and depression except cognitive self-consciousness. Data were indicative of appropriate level of Coranbach’s alpha and split-half reliability coefficients of the MCQ-A and extracted factors. The results of factor analysis by principle components analysis and using varimax rotation showed 5 factors that account for 0.45% of the variance. Conclusion: MCQ-A has satisfactory psychometric properties in Iranian people
Palladino, P; Poli, P; Masi, G; Marcheschi, M
The study investigated the relationship between reflective or impulsive cognitive style, metacognitive functioning, and depression in young adolescents. Metacognitive functioning (metacognitive knowledge about reading and memory, monitoring of text comprehension) and self-reported depressive feelings were analyzed in a group of subjects who showed a Reflective or Impulsive cognitive style. The sample consisted of 56 junior high-school students (Grades 6, 7, and 8) selected from a larger original group of 61 subjects. We excluded from the original group those with an IQ below 75 on both the Verbal and Performance subscales on the short form of the WISC-R, those reported by teachers to have a severe learning disability, and those that did not complete the test battery due to long absences from school. The reflective-impulsive cognitive style was identified with the Matching Familiar Figures Test-20. Using the median of the distribution for both Latency (17 sec. per item) and Errors (9 errors) on this task, the sample was divided in four partially overlapping subgroups: 16 with Impulsive cognitive style (Latency below the median, Errors above the median), 13 with Reflective cognitive style (Latency above the median, Error below the median), 4 fast and accurate (both scores below the median), and 11 slow and inaccurate (both scores above the median). Twelve subjects with one or both scores coinciding with the critical value (median) were excluded. Analysis showed that subjects with Impulsive cognitive style had significantly lower scores than those with Reflective cognitive style in monitoring of comprehension of text. No differences were found on monitoring by eighth graders, irrespective of cognitive style. No differences between the two groups were found in metacognitive knowledge. Subjects with Impulsive cognitive style had significantly higher scores than subjects with Reflective cognitive style on a self-rating scale for childhood depression, the Children
Kolb, Alice Y.; Kolb, David A.
Contemporary research on meta-cognition has reintroduced conscious experience into psychological research on learning and stimulated a fresh look at classical experiential learning scholars who gave experience a central role in the learning process--William James, John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Carl Rogers, and Paulo Freire. In particular James's…
Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.
Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 27 August). The Effects of Testing on Meta-Cognitive Awareness. In B. Klein (Chair), Effective Learning Strategies and their Usage in Self-Regulated Training Programs and Computer-Based Learning Environments. Symposium conducted at the meeting
Van Reusen, Anthony K.; Head, Daniel N.
This article addresses teaching students with visual impairments metacognitive learning strategies to improve their academic performance. Topics discussed include intrinsic motivation and self-concept; structuring and activating schemata; using cognitive modeling and verbal self-instructional procedures; teaching self-regulatory procedures; and…
Lee, Chwee Beng; Koh, Noi Keng; Cai, Xin Le; Quek, Choon Lang
The purpose of this study was to understand how children use meta-cognition in their everyday problem-solving, particularly making monetary decisions. A particular focus was to identify components of meta-cognition, such as regulation of cognition and knowledge of cognition observed in children's monetary decision-making process, the roles of…
Tadhg Eoghan Macintyre
Full Text Available For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers - people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as ‘meta-attention’, ‘meta-imagery’ and ‘meta-memory’, as well as social aspects of this construct provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on ‘metacognition’ and ‘metacognitive inference’ among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action.
MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; Igou, Eric R.; Campbell, Mark J.; Moran, Aidan P.; Matthews, James
For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers – people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as “meta-attention,” “meta-imagery” and “meta-memory,” as well as social aspects of this construct) provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on “metacognition” and “metacognitive inference” among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action. PMID:25360126
Moritz, Steffen; Vitzthum, Francesca; Randjbar, Sarah; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Woodward, Todd S
Until recently, psychological therapy for schizophrenia was considered harmful or inefficient by many clinicians. The reservation against psychotherapy is partly rooted in the assumption that delusions in particular and schizophrenia in general are not amenable to psychological understanding and represent 'utter madness'. However, meta-analyses suggest that cognitive intervention is effective in ameliorating schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, evidence has accumulated that cognitive biases, such as jumping to conclusions, are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia positive symptoms, particularly delusions. A recently developed group program, called metacognitive training (MCT), is presented targeting these biases. MCT is a hybrid of psychoeducation, cognitive remediation and cognitive-behavioural therapy. This review introduces new evidence on cognitive biases involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and demonstrates how the MCT raises the patients' (metacognitive) awareness to detect and defuse such 'cognitive traps'. At the end, a new individualized variant entitled MCT+ is presented targeting individual delusional ideas. Finally, empirical results are summarized that speak in favour of the feasibility and efficacy of MCT. Recent studies assert marked cognitive biases in schizophrenia. MCT has evolved as a feasible and effective complement of standard psychiatric treatment.
Burke, Helen; Mancuso, Lorraine
Simulation learning encompasses simple, introductory scenarios requiring response to patients' needs during basic hygienic care and during situations demanding complex decision making. Simulation integrates principles of social cognitive theory (SCT) into an interactive approach to learning that encompasses the core principles of intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Effective simulation requires an environment conducive to learning and introduces activities that foster symbolic coding operations and mastery of new skills; debriefing builds self-efficacy and supports self-regulation of behavior. Tailoring the level of difficulty to students' mastery level supports successful outcomes and motivation to set higher standards. Mindful selection of simulation complexity and structure matches course learning objectives and supports progressive development of metacognition. Theory-based facilitation of simulated learning optimizes efficacy of this learning method to foster maturation of cognitive processes of SCT, metacognition, and self-directedness. Examples of metacognition that are supported through mindful, theory-based implementation of simulation learning are provided. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
López-Vargas, Omar; Ibáñez-Ibáñez, Jaime; Racines-Prada, Oswaldo
The present research's objective is to examine the effects of metacognitive scaffolding and cognitive style in the Field Dependence-Independence (FDI) dimension on cognitive load (CL) and learning achievement (LA) in high school students, when they interact with a hypermedia environment on philosophy (logic). Fifty-four students belonging to two…
Ladegaard, Nicolai; Lysaker, Paul H; Larsen, Erik R; Videbech, Poul
There is a growing awareness that social cognition is a valuable construct for understanding the psycho-social disabilities in depressive illness. Numerous studies have linked affective disorders to impairments in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. Only few studies have investigated the relation between the burden of depressive illness and social cognitive ability. To study these issues, we compared a group of first-episode depressed patients with a group of chronically depressed patients (duration >2 years) on a broad array of higher-order social cognitive measures including the metacognition assessment scale abbreviated. Contrary to prediction, deficits in social cognition were roughly equivalent between the two groups and there was no significant link between symptom severity and social cognitive ability. Having moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) could be sufficient to predict the presence of deficits in social cognitive ability.
Abdolhosseini, Amir; Keikhavani, Sattar; Hasel, Kourosh Mohammadi
This study reviewed the effect of instructing cognitive and metacognitive strategies on the academic progress of Medical Sciences of Ilam University students. The research is quasi-experimental including a pre-test and a post-test. The population of the research includes the students of Medical Sciences of Ilam University. The sample includes 120…
Dunn, Timothy L.; Risko, Evan F.
Individuals frequently make use of the body and environment when engaged in a cognitive task. For example, individuals will often spontaneously physically rotate when faced with rotated objects, such as an array of words, to putatively offload the performance costs associated with stimulus rotation. We looked to further examine this idea by…
Apaydin, Marina; Hossary, Mohamad
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present hands-on techniques that could help achieve higher forms of cognitive work of Bloom's learning taxonomy and progress toward self-actualization, the top of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. These results can be achieved by the combination of Apaydin's 3A approach and integrative learning.…
Maria Luz Gonzalez-Gadea
Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental evidence suggests that children's main decision-making strategy is to avoid options likely to induce punishment. However, the cognitive and affective factors contributing to children's avoidance to high punishment frequency remain unknown. The present study explored psychophysiological, cognitive, and metacognitive processes associated with sensitivity to punishment frequency. We evaluated 54 participants (between 8 and 15 years old with a modified Iowa Gambling Task for children (IGT-C which included options with varying long-term profit and punishment frequencies. Skin conductance responses (SCRs were recorded during this task. Additionally, we assessed IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Participants exhibited behavioral avoidance and high anticipatory SCRs to options with high frequency of punishment. Moreover, age, IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, and inhibitory control were associated with individual differences in sensitivity to punishment frequency. Our results suggest that children's preference for infrequently punished decisions is partially explained by psychophysiological signals as well as task complexity and development of cognitive control.
Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Scheres, Anouk; Tobon, Carlos Andres; Damm, Juliane; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Marino, Julian; Marder, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Abrevaya, Sofia; Ibanez, Agustin
Neurodevelopmental evidence suggests that children's main decision-making strategy is to avoid options likely to induce punishment. However, the cognitive and affective factors contributing to children's avoidance to high punishment frequency remain unknown. The present study explored psychophysiological, cognitive, and metacognitive processes associated with sensitivity to punishment frequency. We evaluated 54 participants (between 8 and 15 years old) with a modified Iowa Gambling Task for children (IGT-C) which included options with varying long-term profit and punishment frequencies. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded during this task. Additionally, we assessed IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Participants exhibited behavioral avoidance and high anticipatory SCRs to options with high frequency of punishment. Moreover, age, IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, and inhibitory control were associated with individual differences in sensitivity to punishment frequency. Our results suggest that children's preference for infrequently punished decisions is partially explained by psychophysiological signals as well as task complexity and development of cognitive control.
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader's view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader’s view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed. PMID:26941671
Ghazal Motazed Keyvani
Full Text Available Background Nowadays, one of the principal difficulties faced by educational systems worldwide is anxiety, a mental problem, which is evidently difficult to be endured by many students and leads to various types of mental and physical disorders or reduction of educational efficiency, and has gained attention of sociologists for its consequent psychological, social, and economical impacts. Objectives The current study aimed at predicting exam anxiety based on meta-cognitive beliefs and learning methods among high school students of Bandar Abbas. Methods The study population included 351 students (197 males and 154 females, who were selected randomly by the cluster approach and answered the research tools including Meta-Cognitive Beliefs Questionnaires (MCQ-30, Learning methods questionnaires of Marton and Saljoo (1996 and also test anxiety questionnaire of Alpert and Haber (1960. The study plan was correlative-descriptive. Pearson simple correlation coefficient, multi variable regression, and multi variable variance analysis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results The study results indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between meta-cognitive beliefs and exam anxiety, a negative significant relationship between profound learning and learning methods and exam anxiety, and a positive significant relationship between smattering learning method and exam anxiety. The regression exam results also revealed that meta-cognitive beliefs and smattering learning methods could positively predict and determine exam anxiety in students. A significant relationship was observed between meta-cognitive beliefs in females and males, and female students showed greater intention and interest toward meta-cognitive beliefs than males, however, no significant difference was observed between learning methods and exam anxiety in females and males. Conclusions It was concluded from the study results that profound learning methods lead to the
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Meta-cognitive therapy and schema therapy are two important methods in treatment of mental disorders special in treatment of anxiety and depression. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of meta-cognitive therapy and schema therapy on decrease symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental with a pre-test, post-test and 2 mounts follow-up design. The statistical population included all girl students of nursing and midwifery faculty that referred to counseling center of Islamic Azad University of Mashhad. Totally 60 students with anxiety and depression were selected through available sampling method and randomly assigned to three groups. The experimental groups educated 10 sessions of 70 minutes by meta-cognitive therapy and schema therapy methods. All groups completed the questionnaire of Cattell anxiety and Beck depression. Data was analyzed with using the SPSS-19 software and by multivariate analysis of covariance (MONCOVA method. Results: The findings showed in the post-test, schema therapy unlike meta-cognitive therapy significantly led to decrease symptoms of anxiety and depression. But in the follow-up state each two methods of meta-cognitive therapy and schema therapy significantly led to decrease symptoms of anxiety and depression and in the follow-up state, there wasn't any significant difference between two methods(p<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed though the effect of schema therapy appears earlier than meta-cognitive therapy, but there is no significant difference between two treatments in long time Therefore, counselors and therapists can use meta-cognitive therapy and schema therapy for decreasing symptoms of anxiety and depression disorder.
The purpose of this study is to find out the predictive degree of university students’ levels of need for cognition and metacognition on their academic achievement. A total of 253 university students formed the study group. To collect the data of the study, ‘The Metacognition Awareness Inventory’ (MAI) and ‘The Need for Cognition Scale’ (NFCS) were used to measure students’ metacognitive awareness and their tendency to think and enjoy thinking. For the students’ academic performance, the aver...
Vohs, J L; Lysaker, P H; Francis, M M; Hamm, J; Buck, K D; Olesek, K; Outcalt, J; Dimaggio, G; Leonhardt, B; Liffick, E; Mehdiyoun, N; Breier, A
While it has been documented that persons with prolonged schizophrenia have deficits in metacognition and social cognition, it is less clear whether these difficulties are already present during a first episode. To explore this issue we assessed and compared metacognition using the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A) and social cognition using the Eyes, Hinting and Bell-Lysaker Emotional Recognition Tests (BLERT) in participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=26), participants with a prolonged psychosis (n=72), and a psychiatric control group consisting of persons with a substance use disorder and no history of psychosis (n=14). Analyses revealed that both psychosis cohorts scored lower than controls on the MAS-A total and all subscales except metacognitive mastery. Compared to the FEP group, the persons with prolonged psychosis demonstrated greater metacognitive capacities only in those MAS-A domains reflective of the ability to understand the mental state of others and to see that others may have motivations and desires separate from their own. Other domains of metacognition did not differ between psychosis groups. The Eyes, Hinting and BLERT scores of the two psychosis groups did not differ but were poorer than those produced by the control group. Exploratory correlations in the FEP group showed a pattern similar to that previously observed in prolonged psychosis. Taken together, these findings suggest that while certain domains of metacognition could improve with prolonged psychosis, difficulties with global metacognition and social cognition may be stable features of the disorder and perhaps unique to psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A
Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cozza, Barbara; Oreshkina, Maria
The purpose of this qualitative study was: (a) to explore the cognitive and metacognitive processes of mathematics problem-solving discourse of 10-year-old students in Russia, Spain, Hungary, and the United States; and (b) to explore the patterns of social interactions during small group work. Data were analyzed using a cognitive/metacognitive…
Yussen, Steven R.; Bird, J. Elizabeth
Thirty-six children between four and seven years of age were asked a series of questions to determine their degree of insight (meta-cognitive awareness) regarding the way four common variables influence the ease with which a person can perform the three cognitive tasks of remembering, communicating, and attending. The four variables were the…
Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor
The roles of cognition and metacognition were examined in the mathematical problem-solving behaviors of students as they worked in small groups. As an outcome, a framework that links the literature of cognitive science and mathematical problem solving was developed for protocol analysis of mathematical problem solving. Within this framework, each…
Mulendema, Peter; Ndhlovu, Zanzini; Mulenga, H.
The purpose of the study was to establish perceptions and attitudes of student teachers and their cognitive-metacognitive awareness in mathematics in colleges of education in Zambia. Although there has been abundant research into perceptions, attitudes and cognitive-metacognitive awareness in teacher education, relatively little research has…
Buck, Benjamin; Minor, Kyle S; Lysaker, Paul H
Social cognition and metacognition have been identified as important cognitive domains in schizophrenia, which are separable from general neurocognition and predictive of functional and treatment outcomes. However, one challenge to improved models of schizophrenia has been the conceptual overlap between the two. One tool used in previous research to develop cognitive models of psychopathology is language analysis. In this article we aimed to clarify distinctions between social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia using computerized language software. Fifty-eight (n=58) individuals with schizophrenia completed the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated and measures of social cognition using the Hinting, Eyes, BLERT and Picture Arrangement test. A lexical analysis of participants' speech using Language Inquiry and Word Count software was conducted to examine relative frequencies of word types. Lexical characteristics were examined for their relationships to social cognition and metacognition. We found that lexical characteristics indicative of cognitive complexity were significantly related to level of metacognitive capacity while social cognition was related to second-person pronoun use, articles, and prepositions, and pronoun use overall. The relationships between lexical variables and metacognition persisted after controlling for demographics, verbal intelligence, and overall word count, but the same was not true for social cognition. Our findings provided support for the view that metacognition requires more synthetic and complex verbal and linguistic operations, while social cognition is associated with the representation and clear identification of others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…
Phillip D. Tomporowski
Full Text Available Definitive conclusions concerning the impact of exercise interventions on children's mental functioning are difficult to ascertain because of procedural differences among studies. A narrative review of studies was conducted to evaluate the role of two types of exercise interventions on children's cognition. Acute and chronic exercise interventions were classified as quantitative or qualitative on the basis of manipulations of task complexity and, by inference, mental engagement. Both types of interventions enhance aspects of children's cognition; however, their effects on metacognitive processes are unknown. The role of metacognitive processes and their regulation of children's behavior and academic performance are highlighted.
Doos Ali Vand, Hoda; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Farid, Ali-Asghar Asgharnejad; Bandi, MirFarhad Ghaleh
Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder whose origin is attributed to various variables. The current study aims to predict the symptoms of insomnia by investigating some of its predictors. Numerous variables such as depression and anxiety symptoms, worry, pre-sleep arousal (cognitive arousal and somatic arousal), dysfunctional cognitions, and metacognitive beliefs about sleep were assessed as insomnia predictors. A total of 400 students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS-10), the Metacognitions Questionnaire-Insomnia (MCQ-I), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). All variables were significantly correlated with insomnia symptoms (P sleep, metacognitive beliefs about sleep, and depressive symptoms. The findings underline the significant role of cognitive and metacognitive variables for predicting insomnia symptoms. Moreover, the results suggest that metacognitive beliefs about sleep may need to be considered as a significant component in the context of insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nelson, T O; Dunlosky, J; White, D M; Steinberg, J; Townes, B D; Anderson, D
The FACTRETRIEVAL2 test battery, which assesses both retrieval of general information from memory and metacognition about that retrieval, was administered to people before and after a recent expedition to Mount Everest and at extreme altitudes above 6,400 m (higher than any mountain in North America or Europe). The major findings were as follows: First, the same extreme altitudes already known to impair learning did not affect either accuracy or latency of retrieval, and this robustness of retrieval occurred for both recall and forced-choice recognition. Second, extreme altitude did affect metacognition: The climbers showed a decline in their feeling of knowing both while at extreme altitude and after returning to Kathmandu (i.e., both an effect and an aftereffect of extreme altitude). Third, extreme altitude had different effects than alcohol intoxication (previously assessed by Nelson. McSpadden, Fromme, & Marlatt, 1986). Alcohol intoxication affected retrieval without affecting metacognition, whereas extreme altitude affected metacognition without affecting retrieval; this different pattern for extreme altitude versus alcohol intoxication implies that (a) hypoxia does not always yield the same outcome as alcohol intoxication and (b) neither retrieval nor metacognition is strictly more sensitive than the other for detecting changes in independent variables.
Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Scheres, Anouk; Tobon, Carlos Andres; Damm, Juliane; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Marino, Julian; Marder, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Abrevaya, Sofia; Ibanez, Agustin
Neurodevelopmental evidence suggests that children’s main decision-making strategy is to avoid options likely to induce punishment. However, the cognitive and affective factors contributing to children’s avoidance to high punishment frequency remain unknown. The present study explored psychophysiological, cognitive, and metacognitive processes associated with sensitivity to punishment frequency. We evaluated 54 participants (between 8 and 15 years old) with a modified Iowa Gambling Task for children (IGT-C) which included options with varying long-term profit and punishment frequencies. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded during this task. Additionally, we assessed IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Participants exhibited behavioral avoidance and high anticipatory SCRs to options with high frequency of punishment. Moreover, age, IGT-C metacognitive knowledge, and inhibitory control were associated with individual differences in sensitivity to punishment frequency. Our results suggest that children’s preference for infrequently punished decisions is partially explained by psychophysiological signals as well as task complexity and development of cognitive control. PMID:26218584
Minor, Kyle S; Lysaker, Paul H
Intact neurocognition has been posited as a necessary, but not sufficient prerequisite for efficient social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia. Disorganized symptoms likely play a prominent role in these cognitive processes, given the detrimental effects of disorganization on one's ability to synthesize discrete information into an organized whole. However, the relationship between disorganized symptoms and cognitive processes remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether disorganized symptoms: 1) exhibited stronger inverse relationships with cognitive processes than other symptoms, and 2) moderated links between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition. Trained raters assessed psychotic symptoms, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in patients with schizophrenia from a Midwestern VA Medical Center (n=68) using validated, clinician-rated instruments. We observed significantly greater inverse associations with cognitive processes for disorganized compared to reality distortion symptoms; inverse associations with neurocognition and social cognition were significantly greater for disorganized than negative symptoms. Our hypotheses that disorganized symptoms would moderate relationships between neurocognition and a) social cognition, and b) metacognition were also supported. These findings highlight the importance of disorganized symptoms in elucidating links between neurocognition and social cognitive and metacognitive abilities. Future work should assess whether similar findings occur across the schizophrenia-spectrum, and investigate if targeting disorganization can ameliorate social cognitive and metacognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…
In this study, we explored the structural relationship between the students' perceived use of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies (CMRS) and their reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP), and we also examined the differences in students' perceived use of reading strategies among the poor, moderate and good comprehenders. A sample…
Baas, Diana; Castelijns, Jos; Vermeulen, Marjan; Martens, Rob; Segers, Mien
Assessment for Learning (AfL) is believed to create a rich learning environment in which students develop their cognitive and metacognitive strategies. Monitoring student growth and providing scaffolds that shed light on the next step in the learning process are hypothesized to be essential elements of AfL that enhance cognitive and metacognitive strategies. However, empirical evidence for the relation between AfL and students' strategy use is scarce. This study investigates the relation between AfL and elementary school students' use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies. The sample comprised 528 grade four to six students (9- to 12-year-olds) from seven Dutch elementary schools. Students' perceptions of AfL and their cognitive and metacognitive strategy use were measured by means of questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the relations among the variables. The results reveal that monitoring activities that provide students an understanding of where they are in their learning process predict Students' task orientation and planning. Scaffolding activities that support students in taking the next step in their learning are positively related to the use of both surface and deep-level learning strategies and the extent to which they evaluate their learning process after performing tasks. The results underline the importance of assessment practices in ceding responsibility to students in taking control of their own learning. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Kim, Bokyeong; Park, Hyungsung; Baek, Youngkyun
The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of the meta-cognitive strategies on the academic and gaming achievements. Exploring the effects of those achievements on the social problem solving of students is also of interest. For this purpose, the MMORPG [Massively Multiple Online Role Playing Game] "Gersang" was used. The…
Skraaning Jr, G.; Miberg Skjerve, A. B.
Nuclear power plant operators can over-trust or under-trust automation. Operator trust in automation is said to be mis-calibrated when the level of trust is not corresponding to the actual level of automation reliability. A possible consequence of mis-calibrated trust is degraded meta-cognitive accuracy. Meta-cognitive accuracy is the ability to correctly monitor the effectiveness of ones own performance while engaged in complex tasks. When operators misjudge their own performance, human control actions will be poorly regulated and safety and/or efficiency may suffer. An analysis of simulator data showed that meta-cognitive accuracy and trust in automation were highly correlated for knowledge-based scenarios, but uncorrelated for rule-based scenarios. In the knowledge-based scenarios, the operators overestimated their performance effectiveness under high levels of trust, they underestimated performance under low levels of trust, but showed realistic self-assessment under intermediate levels of trust in automation. The result was interpreted to suggest that trust in automation impact the meta-cognitive accuracy of the operators. (authors)
van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse; Admiraal, Wilfried; van Drie, Jannet; Rijlaarsdam, Gert
The main purposes of visual arts education concern the enhancement of students' creative processes and the originality of their art products. Divergent thinking is crucial for finding original ideas in the initial phase of a creative process that aims to result in an original product. This study aims to examine the effects of explicit instruction of meta-cognition on students' divergent thinking. A quasi-experimental design was implemented with 147 secondary school students in visual arts education. In the experimental condition, students attended a series of regular lessons with assignments on art reception and production, and they attended one intervention lesson with explicit instruction of meta-cognition. In the control condition, students attended a series of regular lessons only. Pre-test and post-test instances tests measured fluency, flexibility, and originality as indicators of divergent thinking. Explicit instruction of meta-cognitive knowledge had a positive effect on fluency and flexibility, but not on originality. This study implies that in the domain of visual arts, instructional support in building up meta-cognitive knowledge about divergent thinking may improve students' creative processes. This study also discusses possible reasons for the demonstrated lack of effect for originality. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Javid, Saideh; Alavi, Hamid Reza; Fazilat Pour, Masood
Religious commitment is one of the many factors that affect individual's characteristics, including perceptions affections, emotions, interpersonal relationships, and aspirations. The purpose of the present study was to examine for the possible relationship between religious commitment with meta-cognitive skills and philosophical mindedness among the graduate students. The target population was graduate students of Kerman universities during the academic year 2011-2012. The sample includes 394 graduate students who were selected using stratified random sampling with proportional allocation. Standardized questionnaires were employed and completed by the individuals to measure religious commitment (with subscales of religious commitment, duality, and non-commitment), meta-cognitive skills (with the Cognitive and Affective Subscales), and philosophical mindedness (with subscales of comprehensiveness, penetration, and flexibility). According to the most important findings of the study, there was a significant relationship between subscale of religious commitment and both the subscales and the total score of metacognition. In addition, there was significant relationship between both the subscale of religious commitment and its total score with the subscales and the total score of philosophical mindedness. Moreover, there was significant and negative relationship between the subscale of religious duality with the subscales and the total score of philosophical mindedness. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis showed that religious commitment subscale was the significant predictor of Cognitive and Affective Subscale of meta-cognitive skills and its total score. The subscale of duality was also the most important and significant predicators of the subscales and total score of philosophical mindedness.
Alcock, Gordon Lindsay
developed frameworks for both quantitative and qualitative Metacognitive and ‘Meta-practitive’ reflection.. Designed to help students adapt to, and adopt new learning strategies; accelerate their understanding and performance within a collaborative ‘Profession Bachelor’ and PBL culture, the author documents...
The purpose of this study is to find out the predictive degree of university students' levels of need for cognition and metacognition on their academic achievement. A total of 253 university students formed the study group. To collect the data of the study, "The Metacognition Awareness Inventory" (MAI) and "The Need for Cognition…
Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in theory of mind (ToM (i.e., the ability to infer the mental states of others and cognition. Associations have often been reported between cognition and ToM, and ToM mediates the relationship between impaired cognition and impaired functioning in schizophrenia. Given that cognitive deficits could act as a limiting factor for ToM, this study investigated whether a cognitive remediation therapy (CRT that targets nonsocial cognition and metacognition could improve ToM in schizophrenia. Four men with schizophrenia received CRT. Assessments of ToM, cognition, and metacognition were conducted at baseline and posttreatment as well as three months and 1 year later. Two patients reached a significant improvement in ToM immediately after treatment whereas at three months after treatment all four cases reached a significant improvement, which was maintained through 1 year after treatment for all three cases that remained in the study. Improvements in ToM were accompanied by significant improvements in the most severely impaired cognitive functions at baseline or by improvements in metacognition. This study establishes that a CRT program that does not explicitly target social abilities can improve ToM.
This study investigated the effects of scaffolds as cognitive prompts and as metacognitive evaluation on seventh-grade students' growth of content knowledge and construction of scientific explanations in five inquiry-based biology activities. Students' scores on multiple-choice pretest and posttest and worksheets for five inquiry-based activities were analyzed. The results show that the students' content knowledge in all conditions significantly increased from the pretest to posttest. Incorporating cognitive prompts with the explanation scaffolds better facilitated knowledge integration and resulted in greater learning gains of content knowledge and better quality evidence and reasoning. The metacognitive evaluation instruction improved all explanation components, especially claims and reasoning. This metacognitive approach also significantly reduced students' over- or underestimation during peer-evaluation by refining their internal standards for the quality of scientific explanations. The ability to accurately evaluate the quality of explanations was strongly associated with better performance on explanation construction. The cognitive prompts and metacognitive evaluation instruction address different aspects of the challenges faced by the students, and show different effects on the enhancement of content knowledge and the quality of scientific explanations. Future directions and suggestions are provided for improving the design of the scaffolds to facilitate the construction of scientific explanations.
Jackson, Simon A; Kleitman, Sabina; Aidman, Eugene
The present study investigated the effects of low cognitive workload and the absence of arousal induced via external physical stimulation (motion) on practice-related improvements in executive (inhibitory) control, short-term memory, metacognitive monitoring and decision making. A total of 70 office workers performed low and moderately engaging passenger tasks in two successive 20-minute simulated drives and repeated a battery of decision making and inhibitory control tests three times—before, between and after these drives. For half the participants, visual simulation was synchronised with (moderately arousing) motion generated through LAnd Motion Platform, with vibration levels corresponding to a well-maintained unsealed road. The other half performed the same simulated drive without motion. Participants' performance significantly improved over the three test blocks, which is indicative of typical practice effects. The magnitude of these improvements was the highest when both motion and moderate cognitive load were present. The same effects declined either in the absence of motion (low arousal) or following a low cognitive workload task, thus suggesting two distinct pathways through which practice-related improvements in cognitive performance may be hampered. Practice, however, degraded certain aspects of metacognitive performance, as participants became less likely to detect incorrect decisions in the decision-making test with each subsequent test block. Implications include consideration of low cognitive load and arousal as factors responsible for performance decline and targets for the development of interventions/strategies in low load/arousal conditions such as autonomous vehicle operations and highway driving.
Simon A Jackson
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of low cognitive workload and the absence of arousal induced via external physical stimulation (motion on practice-related improvements in executive (inhibitory control, short-term memory, metacognitive monitoring and decision making. A total of 70 office workers performed low and moderately engaging passenger tasks in two successive 20-minute simulated drives and repeated a battery of decision making and inhibitory control tests three times—before, between and after these drives. For half the participants, visual simulation was synchronised with (moderately arousing motion generated through LAnd Motion Platform, with vibration levels corresponding to a well-maintained unsealed road. The other half performed the same simulated drive without motion. Participants' performance significantly improved over the three test blocks, which is indicative of typical practice effects. The magnitude of these improvements was the highest when both motion and moderate cognitive load were present. The same effects declined either in the absence of motion (low arousal or following a low cognitive workload task, thus suggesting two distinct pathways through which practice-related improvements in cognitive performance may be hampered. Practice, however, degraded certain aspects of metacognitive performance, as participants became less likely to detect incorrect decisions in the decision-making test with each subsequent test block. Implications include consideration of low cognitive load and arousal as factors responsible for performance decline and targets for the development of interventions/strategies in low load/arousal conditions such as autonomous vehicle operations and highway driving.
Full Text Available The study investigated the role of motivation and metacognition in the formation of cognitive and affective outcomes from participation in physical education lessons within the framework of self-determination theory. A sample of 630 adolescents (M age = 14.06, SD = .29 participated in the study. Participants completed questionnaires including measures of perceived autonomy support in PE, autonomous motivation in PE, metacognitive processes in PE, enjoyment, boredom in PE and intention for leisure-time physical activity. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that perceptions of autonomy supportive motivational climate significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions towards leisure-time physical activity. In addition autonomous motivation and metacognition significantly predicted enjoyment, boredom and intentions, whereas controlling motivation was a significant predictor of boredom. Multiple mediation modeling indicated that perceptions of autonomy supporting climate on these responses was mediated mainly by autonomous motivation and metacognition. The findings of the present study provide valuable information on the mediating role of autonomous motivation and metacognition on the effects of autonomy supportive motivational climate on students’ cognitive and affective responses during physical education lessons.
Dinsmore, Daniel L; Zoellner, Brian P
This investigation was designed to uncover the relations between students' cognitive and metacognitive strategies used during a complex climate simulation. While cognitive strategy use during science inquiry has been studied, the factors related to this strategy use, such as concurrent metacognition, prior knowledge, and prior interest, have not been investigated in a multidimensional fashion. This study addressed current issues in strategy research by examining not only how metacognitive, surface-level, and deep-level strategies influence performance, but also how these strategies related to each other during a contextually relevant science simulation. The sample for this study consisted of 70 undergraduates from a mid-sized Southeastern university in the United States. These participants were recruited from both physical and life science (e.g., biology) and education majors to obtain a sample with variance in terms of their prior knowledge, interest, and strategy use. Participants completed measures of prior knowledge and interest about global climate change. Then, they were asked to engage in an online climate simulator for up to 30 min while thinking aloud. Finally, participants were asked to answer three outcome questions about global climate change. Results indicated a poor fit for the statistical model of the frequency and level of processing predicting performance. However, a statistical model that independently examined the influence of metacognitive monitoring and control of cognitive strategies showed a very strong relation between the metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Finally, smallest space analysis results provided evidence that strategy use may be better captured in a multidimensional fashion, particularly with attention paid towards the combination of strategies employed. Conclusions drawn from the evidence point to the need for more dynamic, multidimensional models of strategic processing that account for the patterns of optimal and non
Trisna, B. N.; Budayasa, I. K.; Siswono, T. Y. E.
Metacognition is related to improving student learning outcomes. This study describes students’ metacognitive activities in solving the combinatorics problem. Two undergraduate students of mathematics education from STKIP PGRI Banjarmasin were selected as the participants of the study, one person has a holist cognitive style and the other a serialist. Data were collected by task-based interviews where the task contains a combinatorial problem. The interviews were conducted twice using equivalent problem at two different times. The study found that the participants showed metacognitive awareness (A), metacognitive evaluation (E), and metacognitive regulation (R) that operated as pathways from one function to another. Both, holist and serialist, have metacognitive activities in different pathway. The path of metacognitive activities of the holist is AERCAE-AAEER-ACRECCECC-AREERCE with the AERAE-AER-ARE-ARERE pattern, while the path of metacognitive activities of the serialist is AERCA-AAER-ACRERCERC-AREEEE with the AERA-AER-ARERER-ARE pattern. As an implication of these findings, teachers/lecturers need to pay attention to metacognitive awareness when they begin a stage in mathematical problem solving. Teachers/lecturers need to emphasize to students that in mathematical problem solving, processes and results are equally important.
Full Text Available Background: Obsessive patients are distressed by intrusivethoughts, which are related to unreal threats. These patientsfeel that they are responsible for harming themselves and others.While controlling worry and meta-cognitive beliefs, thepresent study aimed at comparing the responsibility attitudesin obsessive compulsive patients with those in normal subjectsto determine whether the difference in responsibility attitudesbetween two groups was significant.Methods: A group of 15 patients were compared with normalsubjects (n=15 who matched the patient group in terms ofgender, age and education. All subjects filled the ResponsibilityAttitude Scale, the Penn, State Worry Questionnaire andthe Meta-cognition Questionnaire -30. The findings were analyzedusing descriptive statistics as well as student t and ANCOVAtests.Results: Responsibility attitudes in obsessive patients weresignificantly higher than those in normal subjects (P<0.001,when patient worries and meta-cognitive beliefs were notcontrolled. However, after controlling patient's worry andmeta-cognitive beliefs there was no significant differencebetween responsibility attitudes in normal and obsessive–compulsive group.Conclusion: The findings might suggest that responsibilityattitude is not strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.It seems that it is a characteristic caused by basic metacognitivebeliefs, because the relationship between the responsibilityand the symptoms was dependent on meta-cognition.Therefore, in studying the etiology and treatment of obsessivecompulsive disorders focus on the responsibility attitudesalone cannot be very helpful.
Bogdanović Ivana Z.
Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this paper is the analysis of the connection of the students' metacognitive levels and educational outcomes in the area of cognition. The research was performed with a sample of 746 respondents, both genders, first-year students in grammar schools in Novi Sad. The technique used was testing, the instrument was the test of metacognitive abilities of students, construed according the five levels Likert' scale and Physics knowledge test. The results of the questionnaire were processed by statistical procedure. The program used was IBM SPSS 20 Statistics, descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and simple linear regression. In this analysis the criterion was the score that the students got on the knowledge test and subtests on the levels of knowledge, understanding and application, and the predictor was the score obtained on the test of metacognitive abilities. The research enabled a valuable insight into the connectedness of metacognitive abilities and efficiency in learning physics. Statistically significant connectedness was found between metacognitive abilities and efficiency in learning physics on the levels of knowledge, understanding and application, and all three levels together. The paper ends with stating the importance and pedagogic implications of the research results.
Rozilawati Mahadi; Ganakumaran Subramaniam
Recent research suggests a potential link between meta-cognitive awareness,self regulated learning strategies and language performances. Self-regulated learning has garnered a great deal of interest among academicians and psychologists as research indicated that it has positive effects on learners? academic achievement (Dolianac, 1994; Dckeyrel et al., 2000) whereas experts advocate that ?meta-cognitive awareness? ignites one?s thinking and can lead to a deeper learning and improved performan...
Drescher, Leonhard Hakon; Van den Bussche, Eva; Desender, Kobe
Despite the abundance of recent publications about mind wandering (i.e., off-task thought), its interconnection with metacognition and cognitive control has not yet been examined. In the current study, we hypothesized that these three constructs would show clear interrelations. Metacognitive capacity was predicted to correlate positively with cognitive control ability, which in turn was predicted to be positively related to resistance to mind wandering during sustained attention. Moreover, it was expected that participants with good metacognitive capacity would be better at the subjective recognition of behaviorally present mind wandering. Three tasks were used: The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) to measure mind wandering, a perceptual decision task with confidence ratings to measure metacognitive efficiency, and a conflict task to measure cognitive control. Structural Equation Modelling was used to test the interrelations among the three constructs. As expected, metacognitive efficiency was positively related to cognitive control ability. Surprisingly, there was a negative relation between metacognitive efficiency and the degree to which subjective mind wandering reports tracked the behavioral index of mind wandering. No relation was found between cognitive control and behavioral mind wandering. The results of the current work are the first to shed light on the interrelations among these three constructs.
Leonhard Hakon Drescher
Full Text Available Despite the abundance of recent publications about mind wandering (i.e., off-task thought, its interconnection with metacognition and cognitive control has not yet been examined. In the current study, we hypothesized that these three constructs would show clear interrelations. Metacognitive capacity was predicted to correlate positively with cognitive control ability, which in turn was predicted to be positively related to resistance to mind wandering during sustained attention. Moreover, it was expected that participants with good metacognitive capacity would be better at the subjective recognition of behaviorally present mind wandering. Three tasks were used: The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART to measure mind wandering, a perceptual decision task with confidence ratings to measure metacognitive efficiency, and a conflict task to measure cognitive control. Structural Equation Modelling was used to test the interrelations among the three constructs. As expected, metacognitive efficiency was positively related to cognitive control ability. Surprisingly, there was a negative relation between metacognitive efficiency and the degree to which subjective mind wandering reports tracked the behavioral index of mind wandering. No relation was found between cognitive control and behavioral mind wandering. The results of the current work are the first to shed light on the interrelations among these three constructs.
Mirza, Bilal; Lin, Zhiping
In this paper, a meta-cognitive online sequential extreme learning machine (MOS-ELM) is proposed for class imbalance and concept drift learning. In MOS-ELM, meta-cognition is used to self-regulate the learning by selecting suitable learning strategies for class imbalance and concept drift problems. MOS-ELM is the first sequential learning method to alleviate the imbalance problem for both binary class and multi-class data streams with concept drift. In MOS-ELM, a new adaptive window approach is proposed for concept drift learning. A single output update equation is also proposed which unifies various application specific OS-ELM methods. The performance of MOS-ELM is evaluated under different conditions and compared with methods each specific to some of the conditions. On most of the datasets in comparison, MOS-ELM outperforms the competing methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alcock, Gordon Lindsay
competencies, attitudes and values that improve learning and life strategies relevant to established practice within their chosen career… their ‘community of building professionals’. A community from widely diverse educational backgrounds with very diverse metacognitive processing and attitudes to learning......ABSTRACT This working paper documents student self-assessment and portfolio reflection on the progression of their learning, personal and professional development within VIA University College’s BATCoM degree (Bachelor of Architectural Technology and Construction Management). Initially inspired...... of their professional and personal development, documented in their student portfolios. Portfolios that relate to two clearly defined learning environments within their 3½ year education. From the initial ‘Learning to Learn’ environment (L2L) through the ‘Professional student’ or Learning for Life’ (L4L) environment...
Cella, Matteo; Reeder, Clare; Wykes, Til
Cognitive remediation (CR) is a therapy targeting cognitive difficulties in psychiatric disorders. We recently develop a novel CR program for people with psychosis with a focus on metacognitive skills individually supported by a therapist. This study aims to assess the acceptability and feasibility of implementing CR in small groups where therapist support is shared amongst service users. Control group design with non-randomized group allocation. Twenty-five service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia participated. Ten received group CR and 15 individual CR (i.e., one therapist for each service user). Both therapy formats were supported by one therapist. Participants were assessed before and after therapy with neuropsychological tests assessing different cognitive domains, self-assessed cognitive complaints, and psychotic symptoms. Treatment satisfaction questionnaires and therapist's session ratings were also collected for group CR. Dropout rate was 20% for both methods. Session attendance was 74% for group CR and 86% for individual CR. Service users evaluated positively group CR and considered it helpful; therapists rated this delivery format feasible. Exploratory analysis suggested that the two methods have similar effects on cognition. After therapy, service users showed improvements in recall memory, reduced negative symptoms, and reported fewer cognitive complains. It is feasible and acceptable for people with schizophrenia to take part in small CR therapy groups. The reduced therapist contact compared to individual therapy was well tolerated and may help sustain independent work. The small group format allows therapists to spend sufficient time to support the use of metacognitive strategies. CR small groups are feasible and acceptable for service users and therapists. Therapist support can be shared. Metacognitive-based CR can improve cognition and may benefit awareness and negative symptoms. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Nordahl, Henrik; Nordahl, Hans M; Hjemdal, Odin; Wells, Adrian
Cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) based on the Clark and Wells model emphasizes negative beliefs about the social self and self-consciousness as central causal factors. However, Wells' metacognitive model proposes that metacognitive beliefs are central to pathology universally. The relative importance of cognitive and metacognitive beliefs in the treatment of SAD is therefore an important research question. This study examined change in negative cognitive and negative metacognitive beliefs as independent correlates of symptom improvement in 46 SAD patients undergoing evidence-based treatments. Both types of beliefs decreased during treatment. However, change in metacognitive belief was the only consistent independent predictor across all outcomes and change in cognitive beliefs did not significantly predict outcomes when change in self-consciousness was controlled. The implication of this finding is that metacognitive change might be more important than cognitive belief change in symptom outcome and recovery in SAD. Cognitive and metacognitive beliefs decreased during treatment of SAD. Change in self-consciousness predicted symptom improvement. Change in metacognition predicted symptom improvement over change in cognition. Change in metacognition was a more reliable predictor than change in cognition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This thesis studies (a) the reasoning of students, (b) teaching and learning in a laboratory course, and (c) the ideas of teachers about the structure of a theoretical course. These studies have been united by the concept of metacognition that can be understood globally as cognition on cognition. Reasoning about the content of a course is considered to be a metacognitive skill, the instruction in the lab course contains metacognitive hints and develops the metacognition of the students, and t...
Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth
Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Seyyedeh Somayyeh Jalil-Abkenar
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive & cognitive-metacognitive strategies based on mathematical problem-solving skills on 9th grade girl students with intellectual disability in Tehran Province. Materials & Methods: The research is an experimental, comparing pre-test and post-test data. The participants were chosen by cluster sampling from three schools three districts of Tehran Province (Gharchak, Shahrerey and Shahryar. Fifteen female students with Intellectual disability were assigned from each school and they were divided into three, one control and two experiment groups. For experimental groups students cognitive & cognitive-metacognitive strategies were taught in the 15 instructional sessions, but the control group students did not receive none of strategies in the same sessions. The instruments consist of Wechsler intelligence test was used for matching the groups in terms of IQ, a teacher performed the tests for mathematical problem-solving and instructional pakage of cognitive and cognitive-metacognitive strategies. The data analysis was done by using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and frequency table and ANCOVA. Results: The findings of this research showed that there was significant increasing in mathematical problem-solving skills in the group receiving cognitive-metacognitive strategies in comparison with the cognitive group (P<0.005 and control group (P<0.001. Beside, the mean difference of the cognitive group was significantly more than the control group (P<0.003. Conclusion: The mathematical problem-solving skill of the students have been improved through cognitive-metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Also, the instruction of cognitive-metacognitive strategies, in compared with cognitive strategy caused more improvement on the performance of mathematical problem-solving skills.
Jarman, R F; Vavrik, J; Walton, P D
During the past several decades, research in both cognitive psychology and neuropsychology has become increasingly concerned with the processes that monitor and control human cognition. In the area of cognitive psychology, this research has focused on metacognition or metacognitive processes, and in the area of neuropsychology, it has focused on frontal lobe processes. It is evident that both areas have been referring to very similar concepts, with some variations, but with notably little acknowledgement of each other. The principal purpose of this study was to conduct an analysis of the main research within each of these areas and to examine the continuities and discontinuities in the theoretical premises and empirical results between the two areas. Results indicated that the two areas are remarkably similar in both theoretical premises and empirical results, but that cognitive psychology emphasizes monitoring and control, whereas neuropsychology tends to emphasize control only. A synthesis that unites the work in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology would supply many new directions for research.
We present a cognitive model performing the Dynamic Stocks&Flows control task, in which subjects control a system by counteracting a systematically changing external variable. The model uses a metacognitive layer that chooses a task strategy drawn from of two classes of strategies: precise calculation and imprecise estimation. The model, formulated within the ACT-R theory, monitors the success of each strategy continuously using instance-based learning and blended retrieval from declarative memory. The model underspecifies other portions of the task strategies, whose timing was determined as unbiased estimate from empirical data. The model's predictions were evaluated on data collected from novel experimental conditions, which did not inform the model's development and included discontinuous and noisy environmental change functions and a control delay. The model as well as the data show sudden changes in subject error and general learning of control; the model also correctly predicted oscillations of plausible magnitude. With its predictions, the model ranked first among the entries to the 2009 Dynamic Stocks&Flows modeling challenge.
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John
The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition,…
Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Böckler, Anne; Kanske, Philipp; Singer, Tania
Humans have the ability to reflect upon their perception, thoughts, and actions, known as metacognition (MC). The brain basis of MC is incompletely understood, and it is debated whether MC on different processes is subserved by common or divergent networks. We combined behavioral phenotyping with multi-modal neuroimaging to investigate whether structural substrates of individual differences in MC on higher-order cognition (MC-C) are dissociable from those underlying MC on perceptual accuracy (MC-P). Motivated by conceptual work suggesting a link between MC and cognitive perspective taking, we furthermore tested for overlaps between MC substrates and mentalizing networks. In a large sample of healthy adults, individual differences in MC-C and MC-P did not correlate. MRI-based cortical thickness mapping revealed a structural basis of this independence, by showing that individual differences in MC-P related to right prefrontal cortical thickness, while MC-C scores correlated with measures in lateral prefrontal, temporo-parietal, and posterior midline regions. Surface-based superficial white matter diffusivity analysis revealed substrates resembling those seen for cortical thickness, confirming the divergence of both MC faculties using an independent imaging marker. Despite their specificity, substrates of MC-C and MC-P fell clearly within networks known to participate in mentalizing, confirmed by task-based fMRI in the same subjects, previous meta-analytical findings, and ad-hoc Neurosynth-based meta-analyses. Our integrative multi-method approach indicates domain-specific substrates of MC; despite their divergence, these nevertheless likely rely on component processes mediated by circuits also involved in mentalizing. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3388-3399, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Aghaie, Reza; Zhang, Lawrence Jun
This study explored the impact of explicit teaching of reading strategies on English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students' reading performance in Iran. The study employed a questionnaire adapted from Chamot and O'Malley's (1994) cognitive and metacognitive strategies framework. To test the effects of explicit teaching of cognitive and…
Batul Shamsi Nejad
Full Text Available In order to meet the reading needs of English as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL learners, educators are urged to develop effective instructional means for teaching reading comprehension and reading strategy use. Although studies on foreign language reading strategies are burgeoning in the realm of language acquisition research, recent interest has spotlighted learners’ metacognitive awareness of strategies. This study investigated the effect of metacognitive strategy training on the reading comprehension of 111 intermediate EFL learners. The participants received five sessions of instruction on metacognitive strategies guided by the blueprints of Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA. The results of t-test, and two-ways analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between the students' metacognitive reading strategy use and their reading comprehension performance. There was also a significant positive relationship between the use of CALLA and the students' reading comprehension performance.
Menzel, Charles R.; Parrish, Audrey E.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J. David; Washburn, David A.
Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. PMID:27284790
Mohammad Hossein Bahadori
Full Text Available Background: Self assertiveness can be considered as hearth of interpersonal behavior and weakness in this area is one of the obvious characteristic in the patients with social phobia disorder. This study aimed to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on the rate of self assertiveness skill in patients with social phobia disorder. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted with pretest-posttest and follow-up design, using control group. From all social phobia disorder patients visited in psychology clinics in Shiraz, south western part of Iran in 2012, 22 patients were selected through the objective sampling method and randomly divided into two experimental (11 persons and control (11 persons groups. The instruments of this study were social phobia symptoms assessment questioner (SPSAQ and self assertiveness scale (SAS. The experimental group received 8 weeks of Wells’ meta-cognitive therapy sessions. Data were analyzed through covariance analysis method. Results: The results showed that the mean of the self assertiveness scores in post-test and follow up in the experimental group is significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. The results of analysis of multivariate covariance showed that MCT had a significant effect on increscent of the self assertiveness skill scores of posttest (0.39 and follow up (0.38 in patients with social phobia disorder (p<0.001. Conclusion: This intervention is believed to improve self assertiveness skill in SPD patients by facilitating transmission from the object mode to the meta-cognitive mode and enhancing the efficient and flexible coping skills.
Lysaker, P H; Gumley, A; Luedtke, B; Buck, K D; Ringer, J M; Olesek, K; Kukla, M; Leonhardt, B L; Popolo, R; Dimaggio, G
Research suggests that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in the ability to make discrete judgments about the thoughts and feelings of others as well as to form larger integrated representations of themselves and others. Little is known about whether these difficulties may be distinguished from one another and whether they are linked with different outcomes. We administered three assessments of social cognition which tapped the ability to identify emotions and intentions and two metacognitive tasks which called for the formation of more integrated and flexible representations of the self and others. We additionally assessed symptoms, social functioning and neurocognition. Participants were 95 individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. A principle components analysis followed by a varimax rotation revealed two factors which accounted for 62% of the variance. The first factor was comprised of the three social cognition tests and the second of two tasks that tapped the ability to create representations of oneself and others which integrate more discreet information. The first factor was uniquely correlated with negative symptoms, and the second was uniquely correlated with social function. Results suggest that deficits in social cognition and metacognition represent different forms of dysfunction in schizophrenia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga
Though the high level radioactive waste disposal policy in Japan has been clearly stated, this issue is still unfamiliar with the general public, who tend to make a social decision based on heuristics. Therefore, much effort such as developing risk communication system is required to restrain the general public from making a negative decision which may bring social dilemma. However, societal consensus on acceptable disposal practice will be very difficult to attain in a short period of time. The purpose of this research was to verify the effect of web risk communication model which has dialog-mode contents with environmental ethics as a meta-cognition and a bulletin board system in light of developing objective risk cognition. The experimental result suggested that this model was able to inspire subjective norm and introspection towards the necessity of pro-social behaviors more effectively than a one-way lecture. (author)
Full Text Available It is believed that by improving students’ meta-cognitive awareness of elements of language, learning can be enhanced. Therefore, this study consisted of two main objectives. First, it aimed at examining meta-cognitive awareness of writing strategy use among Iranian EFL learners. Using a Friedman test to check if there was any significant difference among the participants in their use of writing strategies, it was found that the differences among the strategies were not significant. The second objective of the study was to examine the impact of the participants’ meta-cognitive awareness of writing strategy use on their L2 writing performance. This was answered using two statistical techniques, namely Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression. Using Pearson Correlation, it was found that there was a significant relationship between writing performance and all writing strategy categories (planning, monitoring, evaluation, and self-awareness. Moreover, using Multiple Regression, it was found that the p–value was significant only for evaluation strategy category, but not for the rest. That is, it was found that strategy categories such as planning, monitoring, and self-awareness did not predict students’ writing performance. The result of this study responds to the ongoing problems students have in their meta-cognitive awareness of writing strategy use which can contribute to raising proficiency levels in shorter time frames.
Abuhamdieh, Ayman H.; Harder, Joseph T.
This paper proposes a meta-cognitive, systems-based, information structuring model (McSIS) to systematize online information search behavior based on literature review of information-seeking models. The General Systems Theory's (GST) prepositions serve as its framework. Factors influencing information-seekers, such as the individual learning…
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.
The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…
Rocha, Nuno B F; Queirós, Cristina
Psychosocial interventions have proven to be effective in treating social cognition in people with psychotic disorders. The current study aimed to determine the effects of a metacognitive and social cognition training (MSCT) program, designed to both remediate deficits and correct biases in social cognition. Thirty-five clinically stable outpatients were recruited and assigned to the MSCT program (n=19) for 10 weeks (18 sessions) or to the TAU group (n=16), and they all completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of social cognition, cognitive biases, functioning and symptoms. The MSCT group demonstrated a significant improvement in theory of mind, social perception, emotion recognition and social functioning. Additionally, the tendency to jump to conclusions was significantly reduced among the MSCT group after training. There were no differential benefits regarding clinical symptoms except for one trend group effect for general psychopathology. The results support the efficacy of the MSCT format, but further development of the training program is required to increase the benefits related to attributional style. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Seyed Hassan Talebi
Full Text Available This study attempted to find out the impact of Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction (CMRSI in L2 (English in increasing the awareness and use of these reading strategies not only in L2 in which the CMRSI was given but also in L3 (Arabic in which no CMRSI was given as a result of transfer of reading strategies from L2 to L3. It also aimed to find out which strategy items were most and least improved both in L2 and L3 as a result of CMRSI in L2. Fifty five fourth-grade high school male students majoring in math-physics took part in this study. As the reading process is believed to be the same across languages (Mokhtari & Reichard, 2004, the participants were put into two groups of low and high awareness of reading strategies in L1 (Persian. Then, they were given reading comprehension tests in L2 and L3 as triggers for the main instrument (i.e., cognitive and metacognitive reading strategy questionnaire in English and Arabic. After this pretest stage, the two groups underwent the CMRSI. The same pretest instruments were also given to the students as posttest. It was found that there was a significant difference in the awareness and use of cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies from pretest to posttest in English and Arabic for students of low and high strategic reading competence level. However, this improvement was not necessarily the same for different strategy items. It is important to teach reading strategies in L2 as it will have effect on increasing awareness of strategies both in L2 and in L3 as a result of transfer of reading strategies from one language to another. However, as not all strategy items show the same improvement from pretest to posttest, more attention should be paid to the item by item analysis of strategies after CMRSI to maximize students’ awareness of all strategy items equally.
Braund, Heather Leigh-Anne
Metacognition is the understanding and control of cognitive processes. Students with high levels of metacognition achieve greater academic success. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine elementary teachers' beliefs about metacognition and integration of metacognitive practices in science. Forty-four teachers were recruited through professional networks to complete a questionnaire containing open-ended questions (n = 44) and Likert-type items (n = 41). Five respondents were selected to complete semi-structured interviews informed by the questionnaire. The selected interview participants had a minimum of three years teaching experience and demonstrated a conceptual understanding of metacognition. Statistical tests (Pearson correlation, t-tests, and multiple regression) on quantitative data and thematic analysis of qualitative data indicated that teachers largely understood metacognition but had some gaps in their understanding. Participants' reported actions (teaching practices) and beliefs differed according to their years of experience but not gender. Hierarchical multiple regression demonstrated that the first block of gender and experience was not a significant predictor of teachers' metacognitive actions, although experience was a significant predictor by itself. Experience was not a significant predictor once teachers' beliefs were added. The majority of participants indicated that metacognition was indeed appropriate for elementary students. Participants consistently reiterated that students' metacognition developed with practice, but required explicit instruction. A lack of consensus remained around the domain specificity of metacognition. More specifically, the majority of questionnaire respondents indicated that metacognitive strategies could not be used across subject domains, whereas all interviewees indicated that they used strategies across subjects. Metacognition was integrated frequently into Ontario elementary classrooms; however
Spada, Marcantonio M; Giustina, Lucia; Rolandi, Silvia; Fernie, Bruce A; Caselli, Gabriele
Preliminary research has indicated that general facets of metacognition are associated with problem gambling. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether specific facets of metacognition play a role in explaining gambling initiation and perseveration in individuals presenting with gambling disorder. To investigate: (1) the presence of metacognitive beliefs about gambling; (2) the goal of gambling, and its start and stop signals; and (3) the perceived impact of gambling on self-consciousness. Ten individuals with a diagnosis of gambling disorder were assessed using metacognitive profiling, a semi-structured interview. Findings indicated that all participants endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about gambling. The primary goal of gambling was to relieve economic hardship and improve cognitive-emotional state. All participants reported that they did not know when this goal was achieved. Start signals for gambling included the ideas and feelings that gambling could solve problems and sensations that it might be the right time to win. The stop signal for gambling, for all participants, was running out of money. All participants also reported a perceived reduction in self-consciousness during a gambling episode. These findings provide preliminary evidence that specific facets of metacognition play a role in gambling disorder.
Martinez, Sarah; Davalos, Deana
Executive dysfunction in college students who have had an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) was investigated. The cognitive, behavioral, and metacognitive effects on college students who endorsed experiencing a brain injury were specifically explored. Participants were 121 college students who endorsed a mild TBI, and 121 college students with no history of a TBI were matched on sex and ethnicity to examine potential differences between groups. Participants completed the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). A Rasch analysis indicated that the TBI group had significantly higher total scores on the DEX than the control group. Moreover, when compared with the control group, the students with a TBI had higher scores on all 3 subcomponents of the DEX. These findings suggest that students who endorse brain injuries may experience more difficulty with specific facets of college. Thus, the importance of academic and personal resources available for students with a TBI is discussed.
Sun, X; Zhu, C; So, S H W
Dysfunctions in metacognition have been reported in individuals with anxiety disorders. Although recent studies have examined metacognition in other disorders, how dysfunctional metacognition compares across disorders is not clear. This review aimed to ascertain the importance of dysfunctional metacognition in various psychopathologies, and to identify similarities and differences in metacognitive profiles across disorders. Forty-seven studies were selected from 586 articles published between 1990 and August 2015, including a total sample of 3772 patients and 3376 healthy individuals. Studies that measured metacognition using the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ) and its variants were included. We conducted five meta-analyses including 49 to 55 effect sizes, comparing psychiatric patients to healthy individuals on respective metacognitive dimensions of the MCQ. We found elevated metacognitive dysfunctions in patients, as a group, on all MCQ dimensions. Group effects were large and robust for the two negative beliefs (i.e., beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts), and moderate and unstable for the positive beliefs. Patients showed decreased cognitive confidence and heightened cognitive self-consciousness on moderate to large levels. Moderator analyses revealed that negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of thoughts were most prevalent in generalized anxiety disorder, whereas heightened cognitive self-consciousness was more characteristic in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders manifested more similar metacognitive profiles than other disorders. Our findings supported dysfunctional metacognition as common processes across psychopathologies, with certain dimensions being more prevalent in particular disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Guerra, Ernesto; Mellado, Guido
In the digital era, tech devices (hardware and software) are increasingly within hand's reach. Yet, implementing information and communication technologies for educational contexts that have robust and long-lasting effects on student learning outcomes is still a challenge. We propose that any such system must a) be theoretically motivated and designed to tackle specific cognitive skills (e.g., inference making) supporting a given cognitive task (e.g., reading comprehension) and b) must be able to identify and adapt to the user's profile. In the present study, we implemented a feedback-based adaptive system called A-book (assisted-reading book) and tested it in a sample of 4th, 5th, and 6th graders. To assess our hypotheses, we contrasted three experimental assisted-reading conditions; one that supported meta-cognitive skills and adapted to the user profile (adaptive condition), one that supported meta-cognitive skills but did not adapt to the user profile (training condition) and a control condition. The results provide initial support for our proposal; participants in the adaptive condition improved their accuracy scores on inference making questions over time, outperforming both the training and control groups. There was no evidence, however, of significant improvements on other tested meta-cognitive skills (i.e., text structure knowledge, comprehension monitoring). We discussed the practical implications of using the A-book for the enhancement of meta-cognitive skills in school contexts, as well as its current limitations and future developments that could improve the system.
Rees, Clare S.; Anderson, Rebecca A.
Cognitive-behavioural models and interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have always included some metacognitive elements but until recently these have been predominantly construed of as cognitive as opposed to metacognitive processes. Increasingly, psychological models of OCD are now recognising the importance of metacognitive…
Lysaker, Paul H; Vohs, Jen; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kukla, Marina; Wierwille, Jena; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
While research has paradoxically linked insight to greater emotional distress and depression in schizophrenia, little is known why and for whom insight can result in depression. One possibility is that internalized stigma and deficits in social cognition and metacognition are risk factors for insight to convert to depression. To explore this possibility we assessed insight, depression, internalized stigma, social cognition and metacognition for sixty five persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We then performed a cluster analysis based on insight and depression scores. Three groups were produced by the cluster analysis: Good insight/Mild depression (n=22); Fair insight/Moderate depression (n=26) and Poor insight/Minimal depression (n=17). As predicted, ANOVA comparing groups revealed the three groups differed in social cognition, and the metacognitive mastery aspect of metacognition. Those with fair insight and moderate depression reported more internalized stigma than those with poor insight and minimal depression. Persons with good insight and mild depression had higher levels of social cognition and metacognitive mastery than the other two groups. These differences persisted when controlling for neurocognition and symptom severity. These findings point to the possibility that future research should examine whether bolstering metacognitive and social cognitive capacities may have a protective effect as persons are assisted to achieve insight. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Benton, Carol W.
Metacognition is a type of thinking in which learners think about their own cognitive processes. Because it transcends disciplines and grade levels, metacognition is useful in many educational settings and can be transferred from the music classroom to other subject areas. Music educators can promote metacognition by designing and implementing…
Charlotte Elizabeth Vickery
Full Text Available Childhood well-being programmes offer an ‘early window’ of opportunity for children to develop emotion regulation capacities and foster positive psychological growth. Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programmes on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. We report findings from a controlled feasibility pilot assessing acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an eight-week mindfulness programme (Paws b delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and three month follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7-9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38. Acceptability of the programme was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001. Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant improvements in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84. Teacher reports (but not parental ratings of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08. Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038 and pre-training to follow-up (p = 0.033. Findings provide initial evidence that the Paws b programme in children aged 7-9 years can (a be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c significantly decreases negative affect and may improve meta-cognition.
MacBeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew; Schwannauer, Matthias; Carcione, Antonino; McLeod, Hamish J; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
Significant metacognitive impairments are observed in first episode psychosis (FEP) and chronic psychosis samples. There is evidence of associations between metacognition and presentation in FEP, but the relative contribution of metacognitive understanding of the self and the other is as yet unclear. The current study is a secondary analysis of date on metacognition, symptoms and engagement with treatment (help-seeking) in an FEP sample. In a cross-sectional cohort study, individuals in the first 12 months of treatment metacognition were assessed with the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Revised version (MAS-R). Psychotic symptomatology and help-seeking within treatment (clinician-rated service engagement) were also measured. An item level analysis of the MAS-R was conducted exploring associations between symptoms and cognitive, emotional, differentiation, integration and decentration aspects of metacognition. We report that associations between negative symptoms and deficits in the understanding of other's mental states extend across cognitive, emotional, integrative and decentration aspects of metacognition. We also report associations between negative symptoms and understanding one's own mind. We also note that cognitive and decentration aspects of metacognition were significantly associated with help-seeking once in treatment. Our findings suggest that an appreciation of metacognitive processes may inform treatment frameworks for FEP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Individual components of metacognition including the capacity to relate cognitive and emotional variables are important in first episode phychosis. Impaired metacognitive understanding of both one's own and others' mental states is associated with increased negative symptoms. Metacognitive variables may be important in understanding how different individuals seek help or engage with services after the initiation of treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana
Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145
Deason, Rebecca G; Nadkarni, Neil A; Tat, Michelle J; Flannery, Sean; Frustace, Bruno; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) often demonstrate high rates of false memories, leading to stressful and frustrating situations for both patients and caregivers in everyday life. Sometimes these false memories are due to failures in monitoring the source of the information. In the current study, we examined interventions aimed to enhance the use of the metacognitive "recall-to-reject" memory strategy. Such interventions could improve source memory and decrease false memory in patients with MCI. Because the picture superiority effect (better memory for pictures compared to words) has been shown to be present in both patients with MCI and healthy older controls, we investigated whether pictures could help patients with MCI use a recall-to-reject strategy in a simulation of real-world source memory task. In this experiment, patients with MCI and healthy older adults were asked to simulate preparing for and then taking a trip to the market. Subjects first studied 30 pictures of items in their "cupboard," followed by a list of 30 words of items on their "shopping list." At test, participants saw 90 pictures (30 cupboard, 30 list, 30 new) organized as they would be if walking down the market aisles, and are provided with either standard or metacognitive instructions. With standard instructions, they were asked if they needed to buy the item. With the metacognitive instructions, they were asked a series of questions to help guide them through a recall-to-reject strategy to highlight the different sources of memories. Results showed that the metacognitive instructions did significantly reduce the false memory rates for patients with MCI. Further studies need to investigate how to best implement these practical strategies into the everyday lives of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Connor, Kieron; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève; Leclerc, Julie; Lavoie, Marc; Blais, Mélodie T
To explore if self-reported presence of thinking about tics or body-focused repetitive behaviours (BFRBs; gests) are direct triggers of tic or gest onset in 3 groups: Tourette syndrome (TS; n =18), persistent chronic tic disorders (TDs; n = 42), and a comparison group with BFRB (n = 36). The 3 groups completed a thinking about tics inventory, listing 22 items derived from clinician consensus that asked whether thoughts always, sometimes, or never exclusively triggered tic onset. Other questionnaires measured mood, perfectionism, impulsivity, premonitory urge, and self-rated tension. Sixty-three participants completed the inventory twice, and the inventory was completed pre- and post-behavioural intervention by a further 54. The ranking of the thoughts reported as likely to trigger tics or gests was positively correlated across TD and BFRB groups. Exploratory principal components analysis of a reduced 12-item set (the thinking about tics inventory) in TS and TD groups revealed that such thoughts could be grouped into 3 separate subscales: thoughts about the interference of tics or gests, thoughts anticipating tics or gests, and thoughts about whether the person has permission to perform the tic or the gest. The 3 sets of subscales showed good and acceptable internal consistency and overall score showed good test-retest reliability, suggesting thoughts about tics or gests are robust and measurable. The subscales correlated with impulsivity, tic or behaviour severity, and ratings of frequency decreased post-behavioural treatment. Thinking about tics or gests is reported as triggering tics or gests in both TD and BFRB, and meta-cognition seems independent of premonitory sensations and relates to distinct clinical characteristics in each clinical group.
The most common distinction within research in metacognition, is between metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive skill. This distinction leads to a teaching dilemma: which aspect to prioritise? As part of an enactivist study, I analyse the development of student metacognition in one teacher's mathematics classroom. While it is possible…
Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo
This article addresses the multiple ways in which emotions can influence attitudes and persuasion via primary and secondary (meta-) cognition. Using the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion as a guide, we review evidence for five fundamental processes that occur at different points along the elaboration continuum. When the extent of thinking is constrained to be low, emotions influence attitudes by relatively simple processes that lead them to change in a manner consistent with the valence of the emotion. When thinking is constrained to be high, emotions can serve as arguments in favour of a proposal if they are relevant to the merits of the advocacy or they can bias thinking if the emotion precedes the message. If thinking is high and emotions become salient after thinking, they can lead people to rely or not rely on the thoughts generated either because the emotion leads people to like or dislike their thoughts (affective validation) or feel more confident or doubtful in their thoughts (cognitive validation). When thinking is unconstrained, emotions influence the extent of thinking about the persuasive communication. Although prior theories have addressed one or more of these fundamental processes, no other approach has integrated them into one framework.
Ng, Roger M K; Bhugra, Dinesh
The presentation of depression varies across cultures and the Chinese culture lays considerable emphasis on filial piety. We studied the relationship between filial piety and psychopathology in the Chinese population in Hong Kong. 172 patients of Chinese origin were interviewed using Beck Depression Inventory, response style questionnaire (RSQ) to measure ruminative response styles and filial piety scale. Of 172 individuals, 67 were males and 105 females and mean age was 38.9 years (S.D. 12.74). Severity of depressive symptoms was strongly correlated with ruminative response style. Filial piety and depressive symptoms were negatively correlated, as were filial piety and ruminative styles as well as meta-cognitive beliefs about rumination. This study supports the association between rumination and depression in a clinical sample from a Chinese population. Strong meta-cognitive beliefs about rumination are associated with more severe depressive symptoms, mediated by ruminative response style showing that Culture-specific beliefs are important in clinical assessment of depression. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perry, David R.; Steck, Andy K.
Teachers are increasingly integrating mobile digital technology into the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of incorporating iPads in a secondary-level geometry course on academic achievement, student engagement, self-efficacy, and meta-cognitive self-regulation. Students in the iPad-using classroom experienced lower…
Sodian, Beate; Frith, Uta
The cognitive control of behavior is critical for success in school. The emergence of self-control in development has been linked to the ability to represent one's own and others' mental states (theory of mind and metacognition). Despite rapid progress in exploring the neural correlates of both mind reading and executive function in recent years,…
Doganay Bilgi, Arzu; Ozmen, E. Ruya
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Modified Multi-component Cognitive Strategy Instruction on the metacognitive strategy knowledge used for the comprehension process of descriptive texts for students with mild mental retardation (MMR). Three students with MMR from inclusive classes participated in the study. The study was…
Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin
We explored whether transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for mixed anxiety and depression effectively reduces repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and whether reductions in RNT and positive metacognitive beliefs mediate symptom improvement during iCBT. Participants
van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik
In this study, we analysed the relationships between word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, meta-cognitive knowledge and reading comprehension in low-achieving adolescents and examined whether the strength of these relationships differed between Grade 7 and 9 students and between monolingual and bilingual students. Tests were administered to 328…
Linderholm, Tracy; Cong, Xiaosi; Zhao, Qin
Differences in cognitive and metacognitive processing patterns as a function of working-memory capacity and reading for different purposes were examined in college-aged readers by collecting reading times and calculating absolute monitoring accuracy, which is the difference between estimated and actual comprehension test performance. Readers read…
Huertas, Adriana; López, Omar; Sanabria, Luis
The research's objective is to evaluate the differential effect that a metacognitive scaffolding for information web searches has on learning achievement of high school students with different cognitive style in the field dependence and independence dimension and on learning style in the dimension proposed by Honey and Alonso known as CHAEA. One…
de Jager, Bernadet
Governments, organisations and educators agree that education should not just focus on basic skills, but also on more complex outcomes such as metacognition. Youngsters must be prepared to deal with the rapidly changing society; they need to become life-long learners. Schools must provide
Hamm, Jay A.; Renard, Selwyn; Fogley, Rebecca L.; Leonhardt, Bethany L.; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Buck, Kelly D.; Lysaker, Paul H.
Objective: Schizophrenia has been linked with deficits in the ability to form complex representa- tions about oneself and others. Less clear is whether these deficits are stable over time, and whether they are related to symptoms. Method: We assessed metacognition capacity, affect recognition,
Helendra, H.; Fadilah, M.; Arsih, F.
Implementation of evolution lectures at Biology Department Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences State University of Padang has been considered not optimal. The reasons are the limited availability of textbooks and students' learning attitudes. Because currently the students are very familiar with the internet and even has become a necessity, it has developed textbooks of evolution based on ICT and metacognitive. Selection of ICT based is in order to optimize the utilization of multimedia, and this is very compatible with the development of learning technology. While metacognitive based is in order to train students' learning attitudes to be able to think analysis, creative and evaluative. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the use of evolution textbooks based on ICT and metacognitive to the cognitive competence of students of Biology Department State University of Padang. The data of this research is students' cognitive competence obtained from the implementation of effectiveness test of evolution textbook in the form of student learning outcomes. The research instrument is a learning result test designed to determine students’ cognitive competence. The subject of the study is a group of students in evolution course consisting of 33 students. Lectures are conducted through face-to-face and online lectures on Edmodo’s platform. The result of data analysis shows that there is an increase of cognitive competence of biology students after learning using ICT and metacognitive based evolution textbook, where average achievement is 77.72 with Percentage of achievement of criteria mastery is 81.25%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the evolution textbook based on ICT and metacognitive is effective in improving cognitive competence of students of Biology Department, Universitas Negeri Padang.
This thesis studies (a) the reasoning of students, (b) teaching and learning in a laboratory course, and (c) the ideas of teachers about the structure of a theoretical course. These studies have been united by the concept of metacognition that can be understood globally as cognition on cognition.
This thesis studies (a) the reasoning of students, (b) teaching and learning in a laboratory course, and (c) the ideas of teachers about the structure of a theoretical course. These studies have been united by the concept of metacognition that can be understood globally as cognition on cognition.
Deroy, Ophelia; Spence, Charles; Noppeney, Uta
Metacognition - the ability to monitor one's own decisions and representations, their accuracy and uncertainty - is considered a hallmark of intelligent behavior. Little is known about metacognition in our natural multisensory environment. To form a coherent percept, the brain should integrate signals from a common cause but segregate those from independent causes. Multisensory perception thus relies on inferring the world's causal structure, raising new challenges for metacognition. We discuss the extent to which observers can monitor their uncertainties not only about their final integrated percept but also about the individual sensory signals and the world's causal structure. The latter causal metacognition highlights fundamental links between perception and other cognitive domains such as social and abstract reasoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S
The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.
A Complete Review for Metacognitive, Cognitive, and Social/Affective Strategies as Essential Components of Learning strategies and their relationships with EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension Promotion
Mahdiyeh Seyed Beheshti Nasab
Full Text Available This study attempts to shed light on how learners' exact attention can be in line with learning meaningfully and bring about remarkable changes in the learning ability of upper-intermediate EFL learners through employing certain learning strategy items with the aim of enhancing reading scores and consequently injecting into learners a sense of satisfaction with their work. Additionally, this study aimed to investigate the relationship of metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective strategies with EFL learners’ reading comprehension. To this end, the study employed a quasi-experimental design with a placement test as a proficiency test to find the homogeneity of groups. Each group received one main strategy and then, according to Oxford (1990 training model, the students were exposed to those strategies accompanied with reading comprehension texts. Learners’ progress and also the relationship of those strategies with reading comprehension were measured during the sixteen sessions of teaching and employing the strategies. Independent sample T-Test with Pearson correlations indicated that metacognitive group significantly outperformed the other groups, so metacognitive strategies were more in line with EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Keywords: Learning strategy, Metacognitive, Cognitive, Social/Affective strategy, Reading comprehension
Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.
Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localized, creative reasoning, including analogizing and mental simulation. Our analysis of the DTRS11 dataset examined not just the short-term, localized effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing....... Our key findings were threefold. First - and contrary to expectations – we observed that increased epistemic certainty (rather than increased epistemic uncertainty) in relation to cognitive referents triggered immediate, creative reasoning and information elaboration. Second, epistemic uncertainty was...
A.G. Candra Wicaksono
Full Text Available Hubungan Keterampilan Metakognitif dan Berpikir Kritis terhadap Hasil Belajar Kognitif Siswa SMA pada Pembelajaran Biologi dengan Strategi Reciprocal Teaching Abstract: The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between metacognitive and critical thinking skill toward student cognitive achievement in biology learning used reciprocal teaching strategy. The participant were 31 science class students of public senior high school of Lawang and 32 science class students of PGRI school Lawang. The data obtained from this research was pretes and postest score of student’s metacognitive skill, critical thinking and cognitive achievement. The data then analized by multiple regression analysis. The result of this research showed that there was correlation between between meracognitive and critical thinking skill toward student cognitive achievement in biology learning used reciprocal teaching strategy. Key Words: metacognitive skill, critical thinking, cognitive achievement, reciprocal teaching strategy Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap hubungan antara keterampilan metakognitif dan berpikir kritis terhadap hasil belajar kognitif siswa SMA dalam pembelajaran Biologi yang dibelajarkan dengan strategi reciprocal teaching. Penelitian ini melibatkan 31 siswa kelas XI IPA dari SMAN 1 Lawang dan 32 siswa kelas XI IPA dari SMA PGRI Lawang Kabupaten Malang. Data yang diambil dalam penelitian adalah data pretes dan postes keterampilan metakognitif, berpikir kritis dan hasil belajar beserta selisihnya. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis regresi berganda. Hasil analisis menunjukkan ada hubungan antara keterampilan metakognitif dan berpikir kritis terhadap hasil belajar kognitif siswa dalam strategi reciprocal teaching. Kata kunci: hasil belajar kognitif, keterampilan metakognitif, berpikir kritis, reciprocal teaching
Haynie, James M
..." cognitive strategies to promote cognitive adaptability, which I define as the ability to appropriately evolve individual decision-frameworks in concert with a changing and uncertain environment...
Anderson, Kelley M; DesLauriers, Patricia; Horvath, Catherine H; Slota, Margaret; Farley, Jean Nelson
Educating Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) students for an increasingly complex health care environment requires novel applications of learning concepts and technology. A deliberate and thoughtful process is required to integrate concepts of the DNP program into practice paradigm changes to subsequently improve students' abilities to innovate solutions to complex practice problems. The authors constructed or participated in electronic portfolio development inspired by theories of metacognition and integrated learning. The objective was to develop DNP student's reflection, integration of concepts, and technological capabilities to foster the deliberative competencies related to the DNP Essentials and the foundations of the DNP program. The pedagogical process demonstrates how e-portfolios adapted into the doctoral-level curriculum for DNP students can address the Essentials and foster the development of metacognitive capabilities, which translates into practice changes. The authors suggest that this pedagogical approach has the potential to optimize reflective and deliberative competencies among DNP students. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(8):497-500.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Jelinek, Lena; Wittekind, Charlotte E; Kellner, Michael; Moritz, Steffen; Muhtz, Christoph
The aim of the present study was to investigate (meta)cognitive beliefs related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of individuals displaced as children at the end of the Second World War as well as transgenerational effects of trauma and PTSD on the offspring. Displaced individuals with (n=20) and without PTSD (n=24) and nondisplaced healthy controls (n=11), as well as one of their adult offspring, were assessed with the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30). Older adults, formerly displaced in childhood, were additionally assessed with the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI). Dysfunctional beliefs (MCQ-30, PTCI) were particularly pronounced in formerly displaced individuals with PTSD, but not in the offspring generation. The findings suggest that in an aging group of displaced individuals with PTSD dysfunctional beliefs are associated with the disorder. Bias modification may help to attenuate symptomatology. No evidence was found for a transgenerational effect.
Kashapov, Mergalуаs M.
Full Text Available This article describes the functions of metacognition and the role of these functions in professional pedagogical thinking (PPT: the discovery of the emergence of a problemacy, the organization of cognition processes, and the management of the comprehension and resolution of the problem situation. Thinking is related to the metacognitive activity of a subject. Components and strategies of metacognition are included in the PPT process and define (by means of conscious or unconscious regulation the efficiency of discovering and solving problems in an interpersonal interaction situation that must be comprehended and transformed. One of the conditions providing for realization of the supra-situational thinking of professionals is a high level of metacognitive activity, although the level of the pronouncedness of metacognitive activity does not depend on the subject’s possessing basic professional education. We have created and tested new psychodiagnostic techniques aimed at defining the level of forecasting in problem (conflict situations and at evaluating metacognitive knowledge and activity. The sample group included about 800 people (university lecturers, school teachers, and teachers who train college students. It was proved that the metacognitive focus of forecasting stimulates the formation and development of various forecasting types: proactive, retroactive, and interactive. Forecasting is viewed as a metacognitive component of supra-situational thinking and a component of the cognitive side of communication. Situational and supra- situational types of pedagogical thinking are shown to have different properties and different orientations toward forecasting activity; these properties and orientations determine the differentiation and hierarchization of these types of thinking. It was discovered that the metacognitive properties of supra-situational thinking are achieved through a high degree of integration of all basic forecasting qualities
Quiles, Clélia; Prouteau, Antoinette; Verdoux, Hélène
This study explored in a non-clinical sample the associations between self-esteem, anxiety and depression symptoms and metacognitive awareness or metacognitive knowledge. Higher metacognitive awareness scores measured during the neuropsychological tasks were positively associated with higher depression scores in the social cognition test. Metacognitive knowledge score measured independently of ongoing neuropsychological tasks was positively associated with lower self-esteem, higher anxiety (state or trait) and depression scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Christine; And Others
Considers metacognition as a basis for software used in computer-assisted instruction. Topics discussed include the role of the teacher as a facilitator of higher order thinking skills; cognitive tools for learner support; learning theory and instructional design, including behaviorism, information processing, and constructivism; two software…
Crystal, Jonathon D
The comparative analysis of metacognition may answer fundamental questions about the evolution of cognition. Although a substantial amount of research has been directed toward this goal in the last two decades, the recent development of quantitative nonmetacognition models has raised questions about the existence of metacognition in nonhumans. Kornell (2014, pp. 143-149) proposes that advances in animal metacognition may be made by following emerging trends in human metacognition research, namely that animal metacognition may take the form of drawing inferences from metacognitive cues without directly assessing the strength of memories. A problem with this approach is noted. Because the metacognitive status of certainty judgments in animals is at the center of the dispute in the field, demonstrations of the inferential view would not provide evidence that putative metacognitive cues are indeed based on metacognition. I argue that any preparation that claims to tap into metacognition needs to be tested against leading nonmetacognition hypotheses such as Le Pelley's (2012) reinforcement-learning model. Progress in animal metacognition will come from the development of new assessment techniques that offer predictions contrary to nonmetacognition hypotheses. Animal metacognition will advance by applying skepticism about methods and interpretation while letting the animals (and their data) settle the debate. ©2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Whitmarsh, S.; Oostenveld, R.
The ability to monitor the success of cognitive processing is referred to as metacognition. Studies of metacognition typically probe post-decision judgments of confidence, showing that we can report on the success of wide range of cognitive processes. Much less is known about our ability to monitor
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
The 24-item Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader components: knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students'…
Risko, Evan F; Dunn, Timothy L
We often store to-be-remembered information externally (e.g., written down on a piece of paper) rather than internally. In the present investigation, we examine factors that influence the decision to store information in-the-world versus in-the-head using a variant of a traditional short term memory task. In Experiments 1a and 1b participants were presented with to-be-remembered items and either had to rely solely on internal memory or had the option to write down the presented information. In Experiments 2a and 2b participants were presented with the same stimuli but made metacognitive judgments about their predicted performance and effort expenditure. The spontaneous use of external storage was related both to the number of items to be remembered and an individual's actual and perceived short-term-memory capacity. Interestingly, individuals often used external storage despite its use affording no observable benefit. Implications for understanding how individuals integrate external resources in pursuing cognitive goals are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Visinet, A; Soumet-Leman, C; Baptista, A; Bungener, C; Jouvent, R
Metacognition describes the process of thinking about one's own thought processes. This concept was introduced by Flavell in 1979 and has since been widely developed in the cognitive approach to mood and anxiety disorders. As it happens, many recent studies have underlined the links between metacognition and anxio-depressive symptoms, pointing out the interest of assessing its various dimensions. The short form of the Metacognitions Questionnaire is a brief multidimensional measure of a range of metacognitive processes and metacognitive beliefs about worry and cognition relevant to the vulnerability to and the maintenance of emotional disorders. The aim of this study was twofold: firstly to adapt and validate a French version of the short form of the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) and to assess its psychometric properties in a clinical sample, and secondly to investigate metacognitive predictors of anxiety and depression in this sample. The sample included 55 clinical participants (24 men, 31 women, mean age=51.33±14.62) with DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder). Instrument reliability (internal consistency), construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis), and convergent validity were measured. The total score and the five subscale scores were also compared with previous results in non-clinical samples. Reliability analyses indicated that the French version of the MCQ-30 possessed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.84), and confirmatory factor analysis supported the MCQ's original five-factor structure. Correlation with measurements of depression, anxiety and pathological worry demonstrated convergent validity (r=0.62, Pmetacognition, in relation to the anxio-depressive symptomatology and the subsequent management of patients. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Gonzalez-Gadea, M.L.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Tobon, C.A.; Damm, J.; Baez, S.; Huepe, D.; Marino, J.; Marder, S.; Manes, F.; Abrevaya, S.; Ibanez, A.
Neurodevelopmental evidence suggests that children's main decision-making strategy is to avoid options likely to induce punishment. However, the cognitive and affective factors contributing to children's avoidance to high punishment frequency remain unknown. The present study explored
Interdisciplinary understanding requires integration of insights from different perspectives, yet it appears questionable whether disciplinary expertsare well prepared for this. Indeed, psychological and cognitive scientific studies suggest that expertise can be disadvantageous because experts are
Gawęda, Łukasz; Cichoń, Ewelina; Szczepanowski, Remigiusz
We investigated whether dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs (negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of thoughts) mediate the relationship between temperamental characteristics of behavior and hallucinatory-like experiences in healthy subjects (n=137). Our analyses showed that four temperamental traits (emotional reactivity, perseveration, endurance and briskness) were mediated by negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger of thoughts in relation to hallucination proneness. Our research tentatively suggests that temperament affects hallucination proneness via metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
VanLehn, Kurt; Zhang, Lishan; Burleson, Winslow; Girard, Sylvie; Hidago-Pontet, Yoalli
This project aimed to improve students' learning and task performance using a non-cognitive learning companion in the context of both a tutor and a meta-tutor. The tutor taught students how to construct models of dynamic systems and the meta-tutor taught students a learning strategy. The non-cognitive learning companion was designed to increase…
Hobbs, Malcolm; Higham, Philip A; Kneller, Wendy
The current study tested whether undersea divers are able to accurately judge their level of memory impairment from inert gas narcosis. Inert gas narcosis causes a number of cognitive impairments, including a decrement in memory ability. Undersea divers may be unable to accurately judge their level of impairment, affecting safety and work performance. In two underwater field experiments, performance decrements on tests of memory at 33 to 42 m were compared with self-ratings of impairment and resolution. The effect of depth (shallow [I-II m] vs. deep [33-42 m]) was measured on free-recall (Experiment I; n = 41) and cued-recall (Experiment 2; n = 39) performance, a visual-analogue self-assessment rating of narcotic impairment, and the accuracy of judgements-of-learning JOLs). Both free- and cued-recall were significantly reduced in deep, compared to shallow, conditions. This decrement was accompanied by an increase in self-assessed impairment. In contrast, resolution (based on JOLs) remained unaffected by depth. The dissociation of memory accuracy and resolution, coupled with a shift in a self-assessment of impairment, indicated that divers were able to accurately judge their decrease in memory performance at depth. These findings suggest that impaired self-assessment and resolution may not actually be a symptom of narcosis in the depth range of 33 to 42 m underwater and that the divers in this study were better equipped to manage narcosis than prior literature suggested. The results are discussed in relation to implications for diver safety and work performance.
Fernie, Bruce A; Bharucha, Zinnia; Nikčević, Ana V; Marino, Claudia; Spada, Marcantonio M
procrastination refers to the delay or postponement of task or decision-making initiation or completion and is often conceptualised as a failure of self-regulation. Recent research has suggested that metacognitions play a role in procrastination and that unintentional procrastination (UP), as opposed to intentional procrastination (IP), may be the most problematic form of this behaviour. We aimed to test a metacognitive model of procrastination that was grounded in the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model. a convenience sample of 400 participants were recruited and completed (at least partially) a battery of online questionnaires that measured IP and UP, metacognitions about procrastination, depression, and Cognitive Attentional Syndrome (CAS) configurations. Initially, we tested series of hypotheses to establish the relationships between the experimental variables and to test whether CAS configurations would independently predict UP when controlling for age, depression, IP, metacognitions about procrastination, and whether an individual reported that they had been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. CAS configurations, depression, and metacognitions independently predicted UP. Additionally, path analysis revealed that the study data was an excellent fit to the proposed metacognitive model of procrastination. the study is cross-sectional. the metacognitive model of procrastination presented in this paper can be used to generate novel interventions to treat this problematic behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Redford, Joshua S.
Metacognition research has focused on the degree to which nonhuman primates share humans' capacity to monitor their cognitive processes. Convincing evidence now exists that monkeys can engage in metacognitive monitoring. By contrast, few studies have explored metacognitive control in monkeys, and the available evidence of metacognitive control…
In French universities, only one out of two students is successful in his/her first year. The change of the working rhythm and the importance of self-regulated learning (relying on metacognition) can to a large extent explain these dramatic rates. Metacognition, as the process of being aware of one's own cognition and activity implies awareness…
Fleming, Stephen M.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Frith, Christopher D.
Many complex systems maintain a self-referential check and balance. In animals, such reflective monitoring and control processes have been grouped under the rubric of metacognition. In this introductory article to a Theme Issue on metacognition, we review recent and rapidly progressing developments from neuroscience, cognitive psychology, computer science and philosophy of mind. While each of these areas is represented in detail by individual contributions to the volume, we take this opportunity to draw links between disciplines, and highlight areas where further integration is needed. Specifically, we cover the definition, measurement, neurobiology and possible functions of metacognition, and assess the relationship between metacognition and consciousness. We propose a framework in which level of representation, order of behaviour and access consciousness are orthogonal dimensions of the conceptual landscape. PMID:22492746
Barrett, Adam B; Dienes, Zoltan; Seth, Anil K
Analyzing metacognition, specifically knowledge of accuracy of internal perceptual, memorial, or other knowledge states, is vital for many strands of psychology, including determining the accuracy of feelings of knowing and discriminating conscious from unconscious cognition. Quantifying metacognitive sensitivity is however more challenging than quantifying basic stimulus sensitivity. Under popular signal-detection theory (SDT) models for stimulus classification tasks, approaches based on Type II receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves or Type II d-prime risk confounding metacognition with response biases in either the Type I (classification) or Type II (metacognitive) tasks. A new approach introduces meta-d': The Type I d-prime that would have led to the observed Type II data had the subject used all the Type I information. Here, we (a) further establish the inconsistency of the Type II d-prime and ROC approaches with new explicit analyses of the standard SDT model and (b) analyze, for the first time, the behavior of meta-d' under nontrivial scenarios, such as when metacognitive judgments utilize enhanced or degraded versions of the Type I evidence. Analytically, meta-d' values typically reflect the underlying model well and are stable under changes in decision criteria; however, in relatively extreme cases, meta-d' can become unstable. We explore bias and variance of in-sample measurements of meta-d' and supply MATLAB code for estimation in general cases. Our results support meta-d' as a useful measure of metacognition and provide rigorous methodology for its application. Our recommendations are useful for any researchers interested in assessing metacognitive accuracy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kok, Bethany E; Singer, Tania
Despite increasing interest in the effects of mental training practices such as meditation, there is much ambiguity regarding whether and to what extent the various types of mental practice have differential effects on psychological change. To address this gap, we compare the effects of four common meditation practices on measures of state change in affect, mind-wandering, meta-cognition, and interoception. In the context of a 9-month mental training program called the ReSource Project, 229 mid-life adults (mean age 41) provided daily reports before and after meditation practice. Participants received training in the following three successive modules: the first module (presence) included breathing meditation and body scan, the second (affect) included loving-kindness meditation, and the third (perspective) included observing-thought meditation. Using multilevel modeling, we found that body scan led to the greatest state increase in interoceptive awareness and the greatest decrease in thought content, loving-kindness meditation led to the greatest increase in feelings of warmth and positive thoughts about others, and observing-thought meditation led to the greatest increase in meta-cognitive awareness. All practices, including breathing meditation, increased positivity of affect, energy, and present focus and decreased thought distraction. Complementary network analysis of intervariate relationships revealed distinct phenomenological clusters of psychological change congruent with the content of each practice. These findings together suggest that although different meditation practices may have common beneficial effects, each practice can also be characterized by a distinct short-term psychological fingerprint, the latter having important implications for the use of meditative practices in different intervention contexts and with different populations.
Buck, Kelly D; McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Buck, Benjamin E; Minor, Kyle S; James, Alison V; Lysaker, Paul H
This study has sought to explore whether there are at least two subtypes of anhedonia in schizophrenia: one closely linked with depression and another that occurs in the absence of depression which is related to a general paucity of internal experience. Participants were 163 adults with schizophrenia who completed assessments of depression, anhedonia, executive functioning, positive and negative symptoms, social cognition and metacognition. A cluster analysis based on participants' depression and anhedonia symptom scores produced three groups: High Depression/High Anhedonia (n=52), Low Depression/Low Anhedonia (n=52), and Low Depression/High Anhedonia (n=59). An ANCOVA and post hoc comparisons controlling for positive and negative symptoms found that the Low Depression/High Anhedonia group had poorer metacognition and social cognition than other groups. These findings point to the possibility of a subtype of anhedonia in schizophrenia, one occurring in the relative lesser levels of depression, and tied to deficits in the ability to think about oneself and others. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Background There is a need for qualitative research to help develop case conceptualisations to guide the development of Metacognitive Therapy interventions for Eating Disorders. Method A qualitative study informed by grounded theory methodology was conducted involving open-ended interviews with 27 women aged 18–55 years, who were seeking or receiving treatment for a diagnosed ED. Results The categories identified in this study appeared to be consistent with a metacognitive model including constructs of a Cognitive Attentional Syndrome and metacognitive beliefs. These categories appear to be transdiagnostic, and the interaction between the categories is proposed to explain the maintenance of EDs. Conclusions The transdiagnostic model proposed may be useful to guide the development of future metacognitive therapy interventions for EDs with the hope that this will lead to improved outcomes for individuals with EDs. PMID:24999403
Vo, Vy A; Li, Rosa; Kornell, Nate; Pouget, Alexandre; Cantlon, Jessica F
Metacognition, the ability to assess one's own knowledge, has been targeted as a critical learning mechanism in mathematics education. Yet the early childhood origins of metacognition have proven difficult to study. Using a novel nonverbal task and a comprehensive set of metacognitive measures, we provided the strongest evidence to date that young children are metacognitive. We showed that children as young as 5 years made metacognitive "bets" on their numerical discriminations in a wagering task. However, contrary to previous reports from adults, our results showed that children's metacognition is domain specific: Their metacognition in the numerical domain was unrelated to their metacognition in another domain (emotion discrimination). Moreover, children's metacognitive ability in only the numerical domain predicted their school-based mathematics knowledge. The data provide novel evidence that metacognition is a fundamental, domain-dependent cognitive ability in children. The findings have implications for theories of uncertainty and reveal new avenues for training metacognition in children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bailey, Robin; Wells, Adrian
Psychological theories have identified a range of variables contributing to health anxiety, including, dysfunctional illness beliefs, catastrophic misinterpretation, somatosensory amplification and neuroticism. More recently, metacognitive beliefs have been proposed as important in health anxiety. This study aimed to test the potential causal role of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety. A prospective design was employed and participants (n = 105) completed a battery of questionnaire at two time points (6 months apart). Results demonstrated that cognitive, personality and metacognitive variables were bi-variate prospective correlates of health anxiety. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that only metacognitive beliefs emerged as independent and significant prospective predictors of health anxiety. Moderation analysis demonstrated that metacognitive beliefs prospectively moderated the relationship between catastrophic misinterpretation and health anxiety. Follow-up regression analysis incorporating the interaction term (metacognition × misinterpretation) showed that the term explained additional variance in health anxiety. The results confirm that metacognition is a predictor of health anxiety and it is more substantive than misinterpretations of symptoms, somatosensory amplification, neuroticism, and illness beliefs. These results may have major implications for current cognitive models and for the treatment of health anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wolters, Lidewij H; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Oudega, Michiel; Vervoort, Leentje; de Haan, Else; Prins, Pier J M; Boer, Frits
Although the meta-cognitive model (Wells, 1997, 2000) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has clearly influenced research and treatment of OCD, little research has been performed in youth samples. In the present study the psychometric properties of the Dutch Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire-Adolescent Version (MCQ-A; Cartwright-Hatton et al., 2004) were examined in a clinical sample of adolescents with OCD (N = 40, 12-18 years) and a non-clinical sample (N = 317; 12-18 years). Results provided support for the 5-factor structure, and showed fair to good internal consistency and generally good retest reliability. Overall, adolescents with OCD reported more meta-cognitive beliefs than non-clinical adolescents. Several subscales were associated with self-reported obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression, but not with clinician-rated OCD severity. In conclusion, results suggest that the Dutch MCQ-A is a reliable and valid questionnaire to examine meta-cognitive beliefs in adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The present study investigated the effectiveness of listening strategy instruction on the metacognitive listening strategies awareness of different EFL learner types (LTs). To achieve this goal, 150 EFL students took part in the study and were taught based on a guided lesson plan regarding listening strategies and a pre-test/post-test design was…
Hsu, T. Ella; And Others
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the presence or absence of metacognitive skill tools available in hyperspace environments on field independent and field dependent learners. Learners were engaged in problem solving in an information-rich hyperspace based on a lesson on the attack on Pearl Harbor. Forty undergraduates were…
Karamali Esmaili, Samaneh; Shafaroodi, Narges; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Parand, Akram; Zarei, Masoume; Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed
Although the effect of educational methods on executive function (EF) is well known, training this function by a playful method is debatable. The current study aimed at investigating if a play-based intervention is effective on metacognitive and behavioral skills of EF in students with specific learning disabilities. In the current randomized, clinical trial, 49 subjects within the age range of 7 to 11 years with specific learning disabilities were randomly assigned into the intervention (25 subjects; mean age 8.5±1.33 years) and control (24 subjects; mean age 8.7±1.03 years) groups. Subjects in the intervention group received EF group training based on playing activities; subjects in the control group received no intervention. The behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) was administered to evaluate the behavioral and cognitive aspects of EF. The duration of the intervention was 6 hours per week for 9 weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare mean changes (before and after) in the BRIEF scores between the groups. The assumptions of multivariate analysis of covariance were examined. After controlling pre-test conditions, the intervention and control groups scored significantly differently on both the metacognition (P=0.002; effect size=0.20) and behavior regulation indices (P=0.01; effect size=0.12) of BRIEF. Play-based therapy is effective on the metacognitive and behavioral aspects of EF in students with specific learning disabilities. Professionals can use play-based therapy rather than educational approaches in clinical practice to enhance EF skills.
Variables cognitivas y metacognitivas en la resolución de problemas de química: propuesta de estrategias didácticas Cognitive and metacognitive variables in chemistry problem solving: a proposal of didactic strategies
Joan Josep Solaz-Portolés
Full Text Available This paper presents and classifies the cognitive and metacognitive variables involved in the processes that students execute in problem solving. Moreover, it shows how these variables affect the students success in problem solving. These variables are classified in: piagetian and neo-piagetian, representational, metacognitive and transfer of learning. In the first group of variables it is discussed formal reasoning ability and other neo-piagetian factors. In the second group of variables it is analysed mental models and external representations. Implications for chemistry education are collected as a proposal of didactic strategies in the classroom.
Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin
We explored whether transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) for mixed anxiety and depression effectively reduces repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and whether reductions in RNT and positive metacognitive beliefs mediate symptom improvement during iCBT. Participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or mixed GAD/MDD diagnoses were randomly allocated to a 6-lesson clinician-guided iCBT anxiety and depression program (n = 46) or wait-list control (WLC, n = 53). Depression (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety (GAD-7), RNT (Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire) and positive beliefs about RNT (Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale) were assessed at pre-, mid-, and post-treatment or matched time points for WLC. Tests of serial indirect effects explored the potential meditating role of RNT and positive belief reductions on the impact of iCBT on depression and anxiety symptoms post-treatment. Results showed that both RNT frequency and positive beliefs about the value of RNT reduced significantly following iCBT compared to WLC, with gains maintained at 3-month follow-up. Reductions between pre- and mid-treatment in positive beliefs and RNT mediated improvements in depression symptoms post-iCBT, and reductions in positive beliefs mediated improvements in GAD symptoms. These findings indicate that iCBT is an effective treatment for RNT and positive metacognitive beliefs. Future dismantling studies are needed to assess the most effective treatment components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kail, Robert V.
Global accounts of cognitive development, best illustrated by Piaget's theory, dominated the field until the 1970s and 1980s, when they were gradually superseded by domain-specific accounts. In this article I present evidence suggesting that both global and domain-specific processes make important contributions to cognitive development, and I…
Yore, Larry D.; Craig, Madge T.
Much has been written about the value of metacognition. However, little research has identified subsumed intellectual factors, logical operators, and cognitive functions; or has established clear relationships between metacognition and science cognition. This paper presents a study to build a strategic metacognitive model of an efficient,…
Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel
Recent embodiment research revealed that cognitive processes can be influenced by bodily cues. Some of these cues were found to elicit disparate effects on cognition. For instance, weight sensations can inhibit problem-solving performance, but were shown to increase judgments regarding recall probability (judgments of learning; JOLs) in memory tasks. We investigated the effects of physical effort on learning and metacognition by conducting two studies in which we varied whether a backpack was worn or not while 20 nouns were to be learned. Participants entered a JOL for each word and completed a recall test. Experiment 1 ( N = 18) revealed that exerting physical effort by wearing a backpack led to higher JOLs for easy nouns, without a notable effect on difficult nouns. Participants who wore a backpack reached higher recall scores. Therefore, physical effort may act as a form of desirable difficulty during learning. In Experiment 2 ( N = 30), the influence of physical effort on JOL s and learning disappeared when more difficult nouns were to be learned, implying that a high cognitive load may diminish bodily effects. These findings suggest that physical effort mainly influences superficial modes of thought and raise doubts concerning the explanatory power of metaphor-centered accounts of embodiment for higher-level cognition.
Full Text Available This article describes briefly the theories of metacognition and the impacts of metacognitive skills on learning. The differences between cognitive strategy and metacognitive strategy were mentioned. Some strategies to improve students’ meta cognition skills in the classroom explored as well. Based on the theories, two models of metacognitive strategies instruction for deeply understanding in reading textbook and for finding a solution of words physics problem solving were developed. These models will enable students to be independent and strategic learners.
Ferrigno, Stephen; Kornell, Nate; Cantlon, Jessica F
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something is to see) when making metacognitive judgements. We tested monkeys using a match-to-sample task in which the perceptual fluency of the stimuli was manipulated. The monkeys made confidence wagers on their accuracy before or after each trial. We found that monkeys' wagers were affected by perceptual fluency even when their accuracy was not. This is novel evidence that animals are susceptible to metacognitive illusions similar to those experienced by humans. © 2017 The Author(s).
Stevens, Christopher A; Taatgen, Niels A; Cnossen, Fokie
In this article, we examine the advantages of simple metacognitive capabilities in a repeated social dilemma. Two types of metacognitive agent were developed and compared with a non-metacognitive agent and two fixed-strategy agents. The first type of metacognitive agent (opponent perspective) takes the perspective of the opponent to anticipate the opponent's future actions and respond accordingly. The other metacognitive agent (modeler) predicts the opponent's next move based on the previous moves of the agent and the opponent. The modeler agent achieves better individual outcomes than a non-metacognitive agent and is more successful at encouraging cooperation. The opponent-perspective agent, by contrast, fails to achieve these outcomes because it lacks important information about the opponent. These simple agents provide insights regarding modeling of metacognition in more complex tasks. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV. A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05. Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control. Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectivenessR²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05. Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.
Full Text Available Background and objective: Studies have indicated that metacognitive strategies control and direct cognitive strategies. Thus, application of metacognitive and cognitive strategies together is essential for successful learning to happen. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of metacognitive-oriented instruction on development of problem solving skills in students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research with pretest/posttest and control group design. The study sample included the students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (n=4283 in the academic year of 2013-2014. A total number of 40 students were selected through convenient sampling method as the study sample. The samples were randomly placed in experimental and control groups. For the experimental group, problem solving skills were taught based on metacognitive strategies in 8 sessions, each session for 1 and half hours. For the control group, however, problem solving skills were taught through conventional teaching method. The instrument for data collection was Heppner’s problem solving inventory (1988 whose validity and reliability were confirmed previously. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and the hypotheses were tested through t-test. Results: The results of the posttest showed that the total mean of scores for problem solving skills in the experimental group (99.75 was higher than that of the control group (26.800 (p<0.0001. This difference was significant in the case of confidence, approach/avoidance and personal control components (p<0.0001. Moreover, the mean of students’ scores was not significant in terms of gender and major. Conclusion: Given the positive effect of metacognitive strategies on the students’ performance and the necessity of teaching metacognition for the sake of academic achievement, these strategies are recommended to be
Varese, Filippo; Barkus, Emma; Bentall, Richard P
Recent studies have linked hallucination-proneness to dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs, dissociation, and disrupted capacity to discriminate between internal and external cognitive events (reality discrimination). This study addressed a number of methodological limitations of previous research by investigating the relationship between hallucination-proneness and the aforementioned variables while controlling for comorbid symptoms. A large sample of nonclinical participants was screened on measures of hallucination-proneness, cognitive intrusions, paranoid ideation, metacognitive beliefs, and dispositional mindfulness (including measures of dissociation-like experiences). In addition, a signal detection task was used to investigate reality discrimination in four subgroups of participants selected on the basis of their scores on hallucination-proneness and intrusions. Regression analyses for the self-report data were conducted to investigate the predictors of hallucination-proneness and paranoia when controlling for comorbid symptoms. Also, between-group differences on the behavioural data were tested to determine whether perturbed reality discrimination is specifically associated with hallucination-proneness rather than cognitive intrusions. Results revealed that metacognitive beliefs are more strongly associated with intrusions and paranoia than hallucination-proneness, whereas hallucination-proneness is related to perturbed reality discrimination and dissociation. These results clarify previous research on metacognitive dysfunction in hallucination-proneness, and highlight the importance of controlling for the covariation among symptoms when investigating the cognitive processes underlying psychotic experiences.
Mehmet Zihni Sungur
Full Text Available Several authors have suggested that not only appraisal of significance of external events and signals from the body, but also appraisal of the personal significance of thoughts are important, and emphasized the conceptual limitations of the schema approach in cognitive model and developed the integrative information processing model of emotional disorders. According to this approach, the assessment of the meaning of thought, rather than thought itself is more important in the development and maintenance of the psychopathology. In the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder, three types of metacognitive beliefs are emphasized. These are; thought-action fusion (thought-action, thought-event, thought-object, metacognitive beliefs on performing the rituals and metacognitive beliefs on the warning to stop to terminate the rituals. According to the model, targeting directly to change in metacognitive beliefs will increase success in therapy. In this article, the concept of metacognition in emotional disorders, the metacognitive model of obsessive compulsive disorder and the advances that the model introduced in conceptualization and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder have been discussed.
Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara
Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders.
Ceylan, Eda; Harputlu, Leyla
Metacognition is defined basically as thinking about thinking. It is a significant factor that affects many activities related to language use. Reading comprehension, which is an indispensable part of daily life and language classrooms, is affected by metacognition, too. Hence, this paper aims to present an overview of the recent theoretical and empirical studies about metacognition and reading comprehension. Firstly, it provides the definitions and the importance of metacognition. Secondly, ...
Camahalan, Faye Marsha G.
To study the effects of Metacognitve Reading Program on Reading achievement and metacognitive strategies of students with cases of dyslexia, the author conducted a single-case quasi-experimental. The conceptual framework of the study was based on the theories of cognitive processes stating that metacognition helps regulate the flow of information…
The concept of metacognition has been considered in recent years in the field of education and as a concept that is worked on. Metacognition is the awareness one has about his/her thinking process and how he/she is able to control these processes. Metacognition strategies are the sequential processes individuals use to learn how to control…
Lin, Xiaodong; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Hatano, Giyoo
In this article, we compare conventional uses of metacognition with the kinds of metacognition required by the teaching profession. We discover that many of problems and tasks used in successful metacognitive interventions tend to be reasonably well-defined problems of limited duration, with known solutions. Teaching has unique qualities that…
de la Fuente, Jesús; Sander, Paul; Martínez-Vicente, José M; Vera, Mariano; Garzón, Angélica; Fadda, Salvattore
The Theory of Self- vs . Externally-Regulated Learning™ (SRL vs. ERL) proposed different types of relationships among levels of variables in Personal Self-Regulation (PSR) and Regulatory Teaching (RT) to predict the meta-cognitive, meta-motivational and -emotional variables of learning, and of Academic Achievement in Higher Education. The aim of this investigation was empirical in order to validate the model of the combined effect of low-medium-high levels in PSR and RT on the dependent variables. For the analysis of combinations, a selected sample of 544 undergraduate students from two Spanish universities was used. Data collection was obtained from validated instruments, in Spanish versions. Using an ex-post-facto design, different Univariate and Multivariate Analyses (3 × 1, 3 × 3, and 4 × 1) were conducted. Results provide evidence for a consistent effect of low-medium-high levels of PSR and of RT, thus giving significant partial confirmation of the proposed rational model. As predicted, (1) the levels of PSR and positively and significantly effected the levels of learning approaches, resilience, engagement, academic confidence, test anxiety, and procedural and attitudinal academic achievement; (2) the most favorable type of interaction was a high level of PSR with a high level RT process. The limitations and implications of these results in the design of effective teaching are analyzed, to improve university teaching-learning processes.
A metacognitive strategy for doing research, included transfer, was taught in a course of nine afternoons. The success of this course raised some questions. How do the students learn? How does metacognition play a role? The course was designed in accordance with several instructional principles. The
Goldstone, Eliot; Farhall, John; Thomas, Neil; Ong, Ben
This study explored specific and differential effects of metacognitive beliefs on proneness to both hallucinations and delusions in a general population sample, including a control for the alternate symptom. The study then examined whether similar findings were reproduced in a sample of people with psychotic disorders. Linear and hierarchical regressions were used to determine the role of metacognitive beliefs in the proneness to symptoms, whilst ANCOVAs analysed group differences. Participants were recruited to a non-clinical sample (N = 133) and a psychosis sample (N = 100). Both groups completed the Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale-Revised (Laroi et al., ; Eur. Psychiatry, 19, 15), the Peters Delusions Inventory (Peters et al., ; Schizophr. Bull., 25, 553), and the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (Wells & Cartwright-Hatton, ; Behav. Res. Ther., 42, 385). Metacognitions were predictive of both hallucination- and delusion-proneness in the non-clinical sample. Controlled analyses in the non-clinical sample revealed specific effects: low cognitive confidence (CC) predicted hallucination-proneness, whilst negative beliefs about the uncontrollability and danger of thoughts (NBUD) predicted delusion-proneness. Mean ratings on NBUD, low CC, and need to control thoughts were elevated in the psychosis sample; however, after controlling for comorbid symptoms, no metacognitive belief predicted symptom-specific vulnerability in the clinical sample. The pattern of findings provided little support for Morrison's theoretical model of symptom-proneness. Metacognitive beliefs may be related to sub-acute vulnerability to psychosis symptoms; however, the specificity of the relationship between individual metacognitive beliefs and positive psychosis symptoms appeared no longer significant in psychosis patients. The possibility that these metacognitive beliefs are evoked by psychotic experiences, rather than primarily functioning as a driver of them, warrants greater attention
Responses from 31 of 65 technology teacher education programs identified the extent to which they include the following cognitive theories: metacognition, schema theory, chunking, visualization/concept mapping, reflection, situated learning, and cognitive apprenticeship. Although a majority rated the top five essential, only 38-48% said the…
Foote, Allison L.
Putative metacognition data in animals may be explained by non-metacognition models (e.g., stimulus generalization). The primary objective of the present study was to develop a new method for testing metacognition in animals that may yield data that can be explained by meta-cognition but not by non-metacognition models. Next, we used the new method with rats. Rats were first presented with a brief noise duration which they would subsequently classify as short or long. Rats were sometimes forced to take an immediate duration test, forced to repeat the same duration, or had the choice to take the test or repeat the duration. Metacognition, but not an alternative non-meta-cognition model, predicts that accuracy on difficult durations is higher when subjects are forced to repeat the stimulus compared to trials in which the subject chose to repeat the stimulus, a pattern observed in our data. Simulation of a non-metacognition model suggests that this part of the data from rats is consistent with metacognition, but other aspects of the data are not consistent with metacognition. The current results call into question previous findings suggesting that rats have metacognitive abilities. Although a mixed pattern of data does not support metacognition in rats, we believe the introduction of the method may be valuable for testing with other species to help evaluate the comparative case for metacognition. PMID:21909935
Bright, Measha; Parker, Sophie; French, Paul; Fowler, David; Gumley, Andrew; Morrison, Anthony P; Birchwood, Max; Jones, Peter B; Stewart, Suzanne L K; Wells, Adrian
Poor social functioning has been found to be present in those at risk for psychosis. This study aimed to examine metacognitive beliefs as potential predictors of structured activity (measure of social functioning) in those with an At Risk Mental State (ARMS). Regression and correlation analyses were conducted. The sample included 109 young people. Age was found to be positively correlated to structured activity. Metacognitive beliefs concerning uncontrollability and danger of worry were found to negatively predict structured activity. This was after controlling for age, gender, treatment allocation, cognitive schemas, positive symptom severity, social anxiety, and depression. Metacognitive danger items were most important. Age was the only control variable found to be an independent predictor of structured activity in the regression model, despite negative bi-variate relationships with structured activity found across three cognitive schema subscales and social anxiety. This is the first study to find that higher negative metacognitive beliefs about uncontrollability and danger predict lower social functioning in an ARMS sample, and that the perception of thoughts being dangerous was of particular importance. Psychological interventions should consider targeting this metacognitive dimension to increase social functioning. Future longitudinal research is required to strengthen findings in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, J David
Do nonhuman animals share humans' capacity for metacognition--that is, for monitoring or regulating their own cognitive states? Comparative psychologists have approached this question by testing a dolphin, pigeons, rats, monkeys and apes using perception, memory and food-concealment paradigms. There is growing evidence that animals share functional parallels with humans' conscious metacognition, although the field has not confirmed full experiential parallels and this remains an open question. This article reviews this new area of comparative inquiry and describes significant empirical milestones, remaining theoretical milestones and the prospects for continuing progress in a rapidly developing area. This research area opens a new window on reflective mind in animals, illuminating its phylogenetic emergence and allowing researchers to trace the antecedents of human consciousness.
Background Binge eating is often co-morbid with obesity. There is no widely accepted theoretical model for binge eating, this has treatment implications. Research has highlighted the role of metacognitions in psychopathology, including eating disorders. However, metacognitions in obesity and binge eating have not yet been researched. The self-regulatory executive functioning model (S-REF; Wells & Matthews, 1994, 1996) conceptualises the role of metacognition in the aetiology and mainten...
Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local…
Austin, Stephen F.; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete
tested for relationships between course of illness and levels of specific metacognitions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A large cohort of people with first episode psychosis (n = 578) recruited as part the OPUS trial (1998–2000) were tested. Information about course of illness (remitted, episodic...... beliefs were associated with the severity and duration of psychotic symptoms, consistent with the S-REF model. Moreover, metacognition was a better predictor of course of illness than anxiety and depression. If these associations are shown to be causal, clinical interventions that modify metacognitive...... or continually psychotic) and metacognitive belief ratings were collected. Data obtained from 367 participants revealed that levels of maladaptive metacognitive beliefs varied as a function of course of illness and distinguished between remitted patients and non-patients. Metacognitive beliefs explained 17...
Gholam Hossein Javanmard
Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of using meta-cognitive strategies in high school students who study in the fields of mathematics and humanities. For do this, 140 high school students were selected randomly. The Swanson’s Meta-cognition Strategies Test was administrated for sample groups. The acquired means for two regroups were compared with t-test for two independent groups’ method. Results indicated that two groups were meaningfully differed from each other (sig=0.01 in using meta-cognitive strategies, and mean of students in mathematics field were high. Also there was a meaningful difference in task component between two groups (sig=0.002, and the mean of students in mathematics field was higher than from students in humanities field in this component. The high school students in mathematics field use more metacognitive strategies, especially task component, than the students in humanities field.
This review explores the factors of cognitive processing, style, and metacognitive organization as they contribute to academic success. Specific discussions consider aspects of short- and long-term memory, including how these affect learning and academic performance, and the keys to attaining long-term memory capability by involving redundancy,…
Full Text Available Improvement in the quality of aid and development in a community requires a feedback loop within the community, known as “communal meta-cognition.” This is relevant to medical education in resource-poor countries and is illustrated with the author’s own surgical experience. The usual source of truth is unquestioned allegiance to established wisdom rather than the dynamic state that comes through the feedback loop of asking questions, most importantly of one’s self. Some elements of what this might look like in a medical education context are illustrated.
Full Text Available This study investigated the level of conceptual and metacognitive abilities and their interaction in adolescents with different forms of dysontogenesis. The total sample (N= 173 included four groups of young adolescents (11-12 years old: with normal development, with infantile cerebral palsy (CP, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and with delayed intellectual development (DID. We measured the adolescents’ performance on tests of conceptual abilities (the use of categories at different grades of generalization, the discovery of abstract meaning and implicit connections between concepts and metacognitive abilities (attention selectivity, as measured by Mtinsterberg’s test and the understanding of hidden pictures, and attention organization, as measured by indices of cognitive styles. The results showed, first, that in comparison with normal adolescents, the adolescents with CP and ADHD had a deficit of metacognitive abilities, but they did not differ in rates of conceptual abilities. As for adolescents with DID, even though they had lower rates of conceptual abilities and attention selectivity, they did not differ from the “norm” group on some indices of attention organization. Second, a tendency for the disintegration of conceptual and metacognitive abilities (as measured by correlation and factor analysis was most clearly seen in the adolescents with ADHD and DID. The adolescents with CP and ADHD had conceptual (categorial and generative abilities as a mental resource, and the adolescents with DID had metacognitive abilities as a mental resource. The resource function of conceptual and metacognitive abilities was determined not only by their level but also by the extent of their interaction (integration.
Nguyen, Thao M. T.; Trinh, Lap Q.
The effects of meta-cognitive strategy use on learning reading comprehension have gained much interest of researchers and educators (Chumpavan, 2000; Shmais, 2002; Phakiti, 2003; Aegpongpaow 2008; Subasi, 2009; Zhang and Wu, 2009). Available literature indicated a positive correlation between learners' meta-cognitive strategy use and their…
Kumar, Angela Ewell
THE INFLUENCE OF METACOGNITION ON MANAGERIAL HIRING DECISION MAKING: IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT by Angela Ewell Kumar (ABSTRACT) Cognitive processing has a primary role in decision making. In addition, metacognition, the regulation and knowledge of cognition, affects decision making in a consistent and predictable way. Novices explain situations in a simple way. Novices are more likely to make inappropriate decisions. Research suggests that train...
Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce; Canfora, Flaviano; Mascolo, Cristina; Ferrari, Andrea; Antonioni, Maria; Giustina, Lucia; Donato, Gilda; Marcotriggiani, Antonella; Bertani, Andrea; Altieri, Antonella; Pellegrini, Eliana; Spada, Marcantonio M
Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about gambling. We conducted three studies with one community (n = 165) and two clinical (n = 110; n = 87) samples to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire and examined its capacity to prospectively predict severity of gambling. Findings supported a two factor solution consisting of positive and negative metacognitions about gambling. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire correlated positively with gambling severity. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about gambling were significantly associated to gambling severity over and above negative affect and gambling-specific cognitive distortions. Finally only gambling severity and negative metacognitions about gambling were significant prospective predictors of gambling severity as measured three months later. The Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper examines the status of Self-confidence trait. Two studies strongly suggest that Self-confidence is a component of metacognition. In the first study, participants (N=132 were administered measures of Self-concept, a newly devised Memory and Reasoning Competence Inventory (MARCI, and a Verbal Reasoning Test (VRT. The results indicate a significant relationship between confidence ratings on the VRT and the Reasoning component of MARCI. The second study (N=296 employed an extensive battery of cognitive tests and several metacognitive measures. Results indicate the presence of robust Self-confidence and Metacognitive Awareness factors, and a significant correlation between them. Self-confidence taps not only processes linked to performance on items that have correct answers, but also beliefs about events that may never occur.
Smith, J David
Metacognition-the ability to monitor and control one's own cognition-is a sophisticated ability that reveals humans' reflective mind and consciousness. Researchers have begun to explore whether animals share humans' metacognitive capacity. This article reprises the original study that explored metacognition across species. A captive dolphin performed an auditory pitch-discrimination task using High/Low discrimination responses and an Uncertainty response with which he could decline to complete any trials he chose. He selectively declined the difficult trials near his discriminative threshold-just as humans do. This comparative exploration of metacognition required a trial-intensive titration of perceptual threshold and the training of a distinctive behavioral response. It could not have been conducted in the wild, though the naturalistic observation of dolphin uncertainty behaviors and risk-management strategies would no doubt yield complementary insights. The dolphin study inaugurated a new area of cross-species research. This research area opens a new window on reflective mind in animals, illuminates the phylogenetic emergence of metacognition, and may reveal the antecedents of human consciousness.
Slocum, Jeremy Y.; Merriman, William E.
From an early age, children show a tendency to map novel labels onto unfamiliar rather than familiar kinds of objects. Accounts of this tendency have not addressed whether children develop a metacognitive representation of what they are doing. In 3 experiments (each N = 48), preschoolers received a test of the "metacognitive disambiguation…
Chekwa, Emmanuel; McFadden, Misty; Divine, Angelia; Dorius, Tina
A simplistic definition of metacognition is "thinking about thinking." It involves taking time to analyze and delve into the various ways the mind receives and retains information. It is not a new concept but metacognition is evolving as a new word for successful learners. It is stimulating much conversation and excitement in academia as…
Tanner, Kimberly D.
The importance of metacognition in the process of learning is an old idea that can be traced from Socrates' questioning methods to Dewey's twentieth-century stance that one learns more from reflecting on one's experiences than from the actual experiences themselves (Dewey, 1933). What is more recent is the coining of the term "metacognition" and…
Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun
Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil’s Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children’s LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806
Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun
Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.
Siew Ean Lye
Full Text Available This small-scale quasi-experimental study compared the effects of metacognitive strategy instruction using two pedagogical approaches on the metacognitive awareness of Malaysian ESL listeners. Embedded and direct strategy instruction was delivered using the Metacognitive Pedagogical Sequence and Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach instructional models respectively. 45 tertiary level students were randomly selected and assigned to two treatment groups to receive metacognitive instruction over a training period of five weeks. Paired-samples t-test results on participants‟ metacognitive awareness, as measured using the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ were inclusive despite significant improvements in their IELTS listening scores. No significant development was recorded in the overall MALQ scores but there were significant changes in three out of the five metacognitive awareness factors. Results further layered according to participants‟ listening proficiency levels (low, intermediate and high to examine if differences existed among the listening levels similarly showed no significant difference. These results suggest that ESL listeners‟ metacognitive awareness may not be easily developed with strategy instruction, regardless of the instructional approaches.
Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Wells, Adrian
Over the last twenty years metacognitive theory has provided a novel framework, in the form of the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model, for conceptualizing psychological distress (Wells & Matthews, 1994, 1996). The S-REF model proposes that psychological distress persists because of unhelpful coping styles (e.g. extended thinking and thought suppression) which are activated and maintained as a result of metacognitive beliefs. This paper describes the S-REF model and its application to addictive behaviors using a triphasic metacognitive formulation. Evidence on the components of the triphasic metacognitive formulation is reviewed and the clinical implications for applying metacognitive therapy to addictive behaviors outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.
Abu-Snoubar, Tamador Khalaf
This quantitative study aimed to investigate and compare the use of metacognitive reading Strategies among English as a foreign language students at Al-Balqa Applied University based on their academic field of study. The Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) (Mokhtari & Sheory, 2002) was the instrument employed. This survey divides the…
Chattuchai, Sakkarin; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool
This study aims to investigate the effects of learning environmental education on the knowledge, awareness, global warming decreasing behavior, and critical thinking of eighty grade 11 students from two classes. The Four Noble Truths method with metacognitive techniques and traditional teaching method were used for the investigation. The sample…
Smith, J David; Shields, Wendy E; Washburn, David A
Researchers have begun to explore animals' capacities for uncertainty monitoring and metacognition. This exploration could extend the study of animal self-awareness and establish the relationship of self-awareness to other-awareness. It could sharpen descriptions of metacognition in the human literature and suggest the earliest roots of metacognition in human development. We summarize research on uncertainty monitoring by humans, monkeys, and a dolphin within perceptual and metamemory tasks. We extend phylogenetically the search for metacognitive capacities by considering studies that have tested less cognitively sophisticated species. By using the same uncertainty-monitoring paradigms across species, it should be possible to map the phylogenetic distribution of metacognition and illuminate the emergence of mind. We provide a unifying formal description of animals performances and examine the optimality of their decisional strategies. Finally, we interpret animals' and humans' nearly identical performances psychologically. Low-level, stimulus-based accounts cannot explain the phenomena. The results suggest granting animals a higher-level decision-making process that involves criterion setting using controlled cognitive processes. This conclusion raises the difficult question of animal consciousness. The results show that animals have functional features of or parallels to human conscious cognition. Remaining questions are whether animals also have the phenomenal features that are the feeling/knowing states of human conscious cognition, and whether the present paradigms can be extended to demonstrate that they do. Thus, the comparative study of metacognition potentially grounds the systematic study of animal consciousness.
Gordon Robert Foxall
Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.
Dragan, Małgorzata; Dragan, Wojciech
The present study examines a simple model for the relationship between temperament, anxiety and maladaptive metacognition. A clinical sample of patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders ( n = 216) completed a set of self-reported questionnaires measuring temperament dimensions, state anxiety and metacognitions. Three temperament traits were included in the hypothesized model: emotional reactivity, perseveration and briskness. A structural equation modeling analysis supported a model in which the relationship between the three temperament traits and anxiety were fully mediated by metacognition. Dissimilar models were identified for the male and female subgroups, and also with reference to individual categories of maladaptive metacognition. The findings support the significance of metacognition as a factor influencing the temperament-anxiety relationship. Moreover, they confirm the roles both of emotional reactivity and of perseveration, being major traits related to anxiety which also turned out to be strongly associated with metacognition. In case of the models for the categories of metacognition, emotional reactivity was associated with negative beliefs, perseveration with negative and positive beliefs, while briskness predicted anxiety independently of metacognition. These results suggest the existence of more specific associations between temperament traits, anxiety, and various types of metacognition.
Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Özdemir, Ömer Faruk; Ünal, Cezmi
This study aims to investigate pre-service physics teachers' metacognitive knowledge about their teaching practices. The participants included six pre-service physics teachers. A taxonomy of metacognition for teaching was developed to analyze the level of pre-service physics teachers' metacognitive knowledge about their teaching practices.…
Henrik Børsting Jacobsen
Full Text Available Background: Subjective cognitive impairments are frequent, but poorly understood in patients with chronic fatigue. We hypothesized that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs at baseline were associated with baseline subjective cognitive impairments, that they predict subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, and that a reduction in maladaptive metacognitive beliefs was associated with less subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, independent of changes in fatigue, pain, insomnia, depression, and anxiety.Methods: In this non-controlled study, patients (n=137 on sick leave due to chronic fatigue received a 3.5-week inpatient RTW rehabilitation program. Of these patients 69 (50.4 % was referred with a ICPC-2 diagnosis of chronic fatigue. Patients completed questionnaires about metacognitive beliefs, somatic complaints, psychological complaints, and cognitive impairments before and after treatment. To test the hypotheses we performed paired t tests of change, as well as seven hierarchical linear regressions.Results: Results showed that baseline maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were significantly associated with subjective cognitive impairments at baseline, controlling for symptoms. Score on baseline metacognitive beliefs did not predict impairments post-treatment. Testing specific maladaptive beliefs, pre-treatment scores on cognitive confidence were associated with subjective cognitive impairments both pre and post-treatment, controlling for symptoms. Post-treatment metacognitive beliefs and post-treatment cognitive confidence were associated with post-treatment subjective cognitive impairments, controlling for pre-treatment impairments and pre-treatment metacognitive beliefs, as well as pre and post scores on symptom measures. Conclusion: This study reports associations between maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and subjective cognitive impairments in patients with chronic fatigue. Targeting metacognitive beliefs
Jacobsen, Henrik B; Aasvik, Julie K; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Landrø, Nils I; Stiles, Tore C
Subjective cognitive impairments are frequent, but poorly understood in patients with chronic fatigue. We hypothesized that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs at baseline were associated with baseline subjective cognitive impairments, that they predict subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, and that a reduction in maladaptive metacognitive beliefs was associated with less subjective cognitive impairments at treatment termination, independent of changes in fatigue, pain, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. In this non-controlled study, patients (n = 137) on sick leave due to chronic fatigue received a 3.5-week inpatient RTW rehabilitation program. Of these patients 69 (50.4%) was referred with a ICPC-2 diagnosis of chronic fatigue. Patients completed questionnaires about metacognitive beliefs, somatic complaints, psychological complaints, and cognitive impairments before and after treatment. To test the hypotheses we performed paired t-tests of change, as well as seven hierarchical linear regressions. RESULTS showed that baseline maladaptive metacognitive beliefs were significantly associated with subjective cognitive impairments at baseline, controlling for symptoms. Score on baseline metacognitive beliefs did not predict impairments post-treatment. Testing specific maladaptive beliefs, pre-treatment scores on cognitive confidence were associated with subjective cognitive impairments both pre and post-treatment, controlling for symptoms. Post-treatment metacognitive beliefs and post-treatment cognitive confidence were associated with post-treatment subjective cognitive impairments, controlling for pre-treatment impairments and pre-treatment metacognitive beliefs, as well as pre and post-scores on symptom measures. This study reports associations between maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and subjective cognitive impairments in patients with chronic fatigue. Targeting metacognitive beliefs could prove an effective therapeutic intervention for
Programas metacognitivos com enfoque em cognição social na reabilitação da esquizofrenia: uma revisão sistemática Metacognitive programs focusing social cognition for the rehabilitation of schizophrenia: a systematic review
Hélio Anderson Tonelli
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente a literatura sobre programas psicoterapêuticos para a esquizofrenia com enfoque em CS, cujos métodos envolvam estratégias metacognitivas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma busca na base MedLine, por trabalhos publicados em inglês ou português utilizando a frase "Social cognition" AND "Schizophrenia" [Mesh] AND "Psychotherapy" [Mesh] e os limitadores "Humans", "Clinical Trial", "Meta-Analysis" e "Randomized Controlled Trial". Adicionalmente, foram elaborados critérios de inclusão para selecionar os trabalhos com abordagem metacognitiva. RESULTADOS: Dezessete estudos foram selecionados, abrangendo essencialmente programas de reconhecimento do afeto facial e de emoções, Teoria da Mente (ToM, imitação e tomada de perspectiva em situações sociais. CONCLUSÃO: A maior parte dos estudos mostrou que seus programas são eficazes para melhorar medidas de psicopatologia, CS e funcionamento social. Futuras pesquisas deverão esclarecer sobre segurança, especificidade e durabilidade dessas intervenções.OBJECTIVE: To reviewsystematically the literature on psychotherapeutic programs focusing on SC, designed to schizophrenia, which methods include metacognitive strategies. METHODS: A search on MedLine base for papers published in English or Portuguese has been performed, using the phrase "Social cognition" AND "Schizophrenia" [Mesh] AND "Psychotherapy" [Mesh] and the limits "Humans", "Clinical Trial", "Meta-Analysis" and "Randomized Controlled Trial". Additionally, inclusion criteria have been formulated in order to select papers with metacognitive approach. RESULTS: Seventeen articles have been selected, which comprised essentially facial emotion recognition, emotion recognition, Theory of Mind (ToM, imitation and perspective taking in social situations. CONCLUSION: The great majority of papers have shown that their programs are effective in improving measures of psychopathology, SC and social functioning. Future
Tas, Cumhur; Brown, Elliot C; Esen-Danaci, Aysen; Lysaker, Paul H; Brüne, Martin
Previous research has suggested that neurocognitive functioning predicts best the potential of patients with schizophrenia to acquire newly learned material, which, in turn may impact patients' social functioning. Recent studies have also shown that intrinsic motivation and metacognitive abilities play a decisive role in social functioning in schizophrenia. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the relationship between intelligence, motivation, metacognition, and learning during a cognitive remediation experimental training. We hypothesized that metacognition and intrinsic motivation would have a strong relationship and independently predict learning potential. Thirty-two patients with schizophrenia who fulfilled the criteria of functional remission were recruited. In a pre-training-post experimental design, patients' learning potential was assessed using previously defined cognitive remediation training for WCST. Intrinsic motivation was examined using Intrinsic Motivation Inventory for schizophrenia; mastery, a domain of metacognition, was measured using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale. Metacognition significantly correlated with subdomains of intrinsic motivation. Patients with higher intrinsic motivation and preserved metacognition improved more in the learning paradigm compared to poorly motivated patients and patients with reduced metacognitive abilities. In particular, "mastery" was determined as an independent predictor of learning potential. Motivation and metacognition are important predictors of learning in schizophrenia. Psychological interventions in schizophrenia may therefore consider incorporating techniques to stimulate metacognitive and motivational abilities as well as developing individualized training programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palagini, Laura; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Riemann, Dieter; Drake, Christopher L
Research into the cause of chronic insomnia has identified hyperarousal as a key factor, which is likely to have both trait and state components. Sleep-related cognition, metacognition, and sleep reactivity also play an important role in insomnia. Our aim was to investigate how these insomnia-related constructs are associated with trait predisposition and pre-sleep arousal in subjects with an insomnia disorder. Fifty-three individuals with insomnia disorder (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (F = 33; 52 + 10)) and 30 healthy controls (F = 18; 51.8 + 12 years) were evaluated with a set of questionnaires, including the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), Metacognition Questionnaire - Insomnia (MCQI), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), and Pre-sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS). Statistical analyses included multiple regression to elucidate the independent determinants of APS and PSAS. Participants with insomnia presented higher FIRST, MCQI, APS, PSAS scores (p-values insomnia, APS and cognitive PSAS were best determined by MCQI (respectively, B = 0.09, p = 0.001, B = 0.08, p = 0.02), somatic PSAS by cognitive arousal (PSAS B = 0.35, p = 0.004) CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in insomnia disorders, trait predisposition toward hyperarousal and pre-sleep-cognitive-state-dependent arousal may be closely related to sleep-related metacognitive processes. Sleep-related metacognitive processes may be associated with trait hyperarousal within the framework of a mutual relationship, and could, in turn, modulate cognitive pre-sleep-state arousal. A broad range of cognitive and metacognitive processes should be considered when dealing with subjects with insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baird, Amee; Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Critchley, Hugo; Gilbert, Sam J.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Cipolotti, Lisa
Two patients with medial frontal lobe damage involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) performed a range of cognitive tasks, including tests of executive function and anterior attention. Both patients lesions extended beyond the ACC, therefore caution needs to be exerted in ascribing observed deficits to the ACC alone. Patient performance was…
Full Text Available The cerebellum is known to be involved not only in motor but also cognitive and affective processes. Structural changes in the cerebellum in relation to cognitive dysfunction are an emerging topic in the field of neuro-psychiatric disorders. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS cerebellar motor and cognitive dysfunction occur in parallel, early in the onset of the disease, and the cerebellum is one of the predilection sites of atrophy. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between cerebellar volumes, clinical cerebellar signs, cognitive functioning and fatigue in MS. Cerebellar volumetry was conducted using T1-weighted MPRAGE magnetic resonance imaging of 172 MS patients. All patients underwent a clinical and brief neuropsychological assessment (information processing speed, working memory, including fatigue testing. Patients with and without cerebellar signs differed significantly regarding normalized cerebellar total volume (nTCV, normalized brain volume (nBV and whole brain T2 lesion volume (LV. Patients with cerebellar dysfunction likewise performed worse in cognitive tests. A regression analysis indicated that age and nTCV explained 26.3% of the variance in SDMT (symbol digit modalities test performance. However, only age, T2 LV and nBV remained predictors in the full model (r(2 = 0.36. The full model for the prediction of PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test scores (r(2 = 0.23 included age, cerebellar and T2 LV. In the case of fatigue, only age and nBV (r(2 = 0.17 emerged as significant predictors. These data support the view that cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability, including cognitive impairment in MS. However, this contribution does not seem to be independent of, and may even be dominated by wider spread MS pathology as reflected by nBV and T2 LV.
Breed, Betty; Mentz, Elsa; van der Westhuizen, Gert
Introduction: The research focused on metacognition in a collaborative learning setting. Based on a comprehensive literature study the researchers designed a metacognitive teaching-learning strategy for pair programmers. Our purpose was to investigate the influence of this metacognitive teaching-learning strategy during pair programming in an…
For successful reading experiences in native and/or foreign/second language, individuals need to benefit from not only cognitive strategies but also metacognitive strategies. Although research found reading comprehension and performance increase following metacognitive trainings, such findings may not transfer into mainstream classrooms as easily…
Al-Alwan, Ahmed; Asassfeh, Sahail; Al-Shboul, Yousef
Metacognitive strategies play an important role in many cognitive activities related to language use in oral communication. This study explored metacognitve listening strategies awareness and its relationship with listening comprehension on a convient sample of 386 tenth-grade EFL learners using two instruments: (a) Metacognition Awareness…
Garrison, D. R.; Akyol, Zehra
Metacognition is a required cognitive ability to achieve deep and meaningful learning that must be viewed from both an individual and social perspective. Recently, the transition from the earliest individualistic models to an acknowledgement of metacognition as socially situated and socially constructed has precipitated the study of metacognition…
Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.
Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…
Baten, Elke; Praet, Magda; Desoete, Annemie
The efficacy of metacognition as theory-based instructional principle or technique in general, and particularly in mathematics, is explored. Starting with an overview of different definitions, conceptualizations, assessment and training models originating from cognitive information processing theory, the role of metacognition in teaching and…
Rouault, Marion; Seow, Tricia; Gillan, Claire M; Fleming, Stephen M
Distortions in metacognition-the ability to reflect on and control other cognitive processes-are thought to be characteristic of poor mental health. However, it remains unknown whether such shifts in self-evaluation are due to specific alterations in metacognition and/or a downstream consequence of changes in decision-making processes. Using perceptual decision making as a model system, we employed a computational psychiatry approach to relate parameters governing both decision formation and metacognitive evaluation to self-reported transdiagnostic symptom dimensions in a large general population sample (N = 995). Variability in psychopathology was unrelated to either speed or accuracy of decision formation. In contrast, leveraging a dimensional approach, we revealed independent relationships between psychopathology and metacognition: a symptom dimension related to anxiety and depression was associated with lower confidence and heightened metacognitive efficiency, whereas a dimension characterizing compulsive behavior and intrusive thoughts was associated with higher confidence and lower metacognitive efficiency. Furthermore, we obtained a robust double dissociation-whereas psychiatric symptoms predicted changes in metacognition but not decision performance, age predicted changes in decision performance but not metacognition. Our findings indicate a specific and pervasive link between metacognition and mental health. Our study bridges a gap between an emerging neuroscience of decision making and an understanding of metacognitive alterations in psychopathology. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
María Luisa Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the possible links between metacognition and narrative (or verbal and graphic creative potential as well as the contribution of the former variable to creativity. The second objective was to study the effect of gender on these variables. This study was conducted with 360 men and women students from the Public University of Navarra enrolled in applied sociology, social work, and specialising in infant and primary education. Participants were given the Adult Creative Imagination Test and the Creative Metacognition Scale during their regular school schedule and during a single session. The results showed that the relationships between the assessed variables were significant and positive. Furthermore, metacognition moderately predicted narrative creativity; thus, cognitive processes do not operate in isolation because they affect and are affected by other factors. The findings also revealed that students obtained different results with regard to verbal and graphic creativity, and men and women differed only in narrative creative potential. The most important conclusion to be drawn from this research is that creative and metacognitive skills should be explicitly involved in higher education to stimulate the creative potential of future professionals
Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R
Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ramos-Cejudo, Juan; Salguero, J Martín
Metacognitive theory of emotional disorders (Matthews and Wells, 1994; Wells, 2009) suggests that metacognitive beliefs can play a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. In this prospective study, we examine the relationships between metacognitive beliefs, perceived stress and anxiety in a non-clinical sample. Participants were 135 undergraduate students who completed a battery of questionnaire at two time points (3- months apart). Results revealed metacognitive beliefs do not predict long-term anxiety independently. However, moderation analyses demonstrated negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger prospectively moderated the relationship between perceived stress and Time 2 anxiety. Negative metacognitive beliefs also interacted with baseline anxiety to predict the change in anxiety symptoms. The results confirm metacognitions play a causal role in anxiety and have implications for cognitive models and the treatment of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Faivre, Nathan; Filevich, Elisa; Solovey, Guillermo; Kühn, Simone; Blanke, Olaf
Human metacognition, or the capacity to introspect on one's own mental states, has been mostly characterized through confidence reports in visual tasks. A pressing question is to what extent results from visual studies generalize to other domains. Answering this question allows determining whether metacognition operates through shared, supramodal mechanisms or through idiosyncratic, modality-specific mechanisms. Here, we report three new lines of evidence for decisional and postdecisional mechanisms arguing for the supramodality of metacognition. First, metacognitive efficiency correlated among auditory, tactile, visual, and audiovisual tasks. Second, confidence in an audiovisual task was best modeled using supramodal formats based on integrated representations of auditory and visual signals. Third, confidence in correct responses involved similar electrophysiological markers for visual and audiovisual tasks that are associated with motor preparation preceding the perceptual judgment. We conclude that the supramodality of metacognition relies on supramodal confidence estimates and decisional signals that are shared across sensory modalities. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Metacognitive monitoring is the capacity to access, report, and regulate one's own mental states. In perception, this allows rating our confidence in what we have seen, heard, or touched. Although metacognitive monitoring can operate on different cognitive domains, we ignore whether it involves a single supramodal mechanism common to multiple cognitive domains or modality-specific mechanisms idiosyncratic to each domain. Here, we bring evidence in favor of the supramodality hypothesis by showing that participants with high metacognitive performance in one modality are likely to perform well in other modalities. Based on computational modeling and electrophysiology, we propose that supramodality can be explained by the existence of supramodal confidence estimates and by the influence of decisional cues on
Lindberg, Annika; Fernie, Bruce A; Spada, Marcantonio M
Problem gambling is heterogeneous in nature, ranging in severity from occasional but problematic gambling episodes, to extreme, impulsive and pervasive gambling behaviour. Problem gambling may be accompanied by a sense of impaired control and can give rise to financial, interpersonal, legal and vocational costs for the sufferer, their families and society. This study investigated the relationship among metacognitions, anxiety, depression and gambling in a sample of problem gamblers. A total of 91 individuals attending gambling treatment services completed a battery of self-report instruments that consisted of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS). Correlation analyses showed that anxiety, depression and metacognitions were positively and significantly correlated with both gambling consequences and behaviour. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that two metacognitive constructs (negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger and beliefs about the need to control thoughts) predicted gambling behaviour independently of anxiety and depression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that metacognitions play a role in problem gambling.
This paper deals with the understanding of metacognitive awareness among teachers. The concept of metacognition is operationalized. This is followed by the essence of metacognition and learning. We move further to examine issues and benefits of metacognition in the school system. To make metacognitive strategies an ...
Apes, dolphins, and some monkeys seem to have metacognitive abilities: They can accurately evaluate the likelihood that their response in cognitive task was (or will be) correct. These certainty judgments are seen as significant because they imply that animals can evaluate internal cognitive states, which may entail meaningful self-reflection. But little research has investigated what is being reflected upon: Researchers have assumed that when animals make metacognitive judgments they evaluate internal memory strength. Yet decades of research have demonstrated that humans cannot directly evaluate internal memory strength. Instead, they make certainty judgments by drawing inferences from cues they can evaluate, such as familiarity and ease of processing. It seems likely that animals do the same, but this hypothesis has not been tested. I suggest two strategies for investigating the internal cues that underlie animal metacognitive judgments. It is possible that animals, like humans, are capable of making certainty judgments based on internal cues without awareness or meaningful self-reflection. ©2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available This introductory review article aims to provide the interested reader with an outline of the fundamentals of metacognitive therapy. Metacognitive therapy (MCT is an evidence based cognitive behavioural psychotherapy approach with a very solid theoretical background in understanding and explaining the mechanisms by which any psychological disorder persists. MCT provides a new perspective for the treatment of psychological disorders by underlining the significance of how a person thinks, rather than simply focusing on the content of his cognitions. The case formulation and specific techniques of MCT are the main distinctive features of this therapy approach, which places it in a unique position among other CBT approaches. These distinctive features are defined throughout the article. A short introduction to the metacognitive model of psychological disorder, the core features of this therapy, and the specific techniques of MCT are also summarized. A brief list of clinical scales and treatment plans as well as the order of application of MCT techniques are also given. This review article aims to underline the theoretical background of MCT, and hopes to provide a glimpse into the introductory level principles of the application of this therapy approach. [JCBPR 2014; 3(1.000: 11-17
Full Text Available This introductory review article aims to provide the interested reader with an outline of the fundamentals of metacognitive therapy. Metacognitive therapy (MCT is an evidence based cognitive behavioural psychotherapy approach with a very solid theoretical background in understanding and explaining the mechanisms by which any psychological disorder persists. MCT provides a new perspective for the treatment of psychological disorders by underlining the significance of how a person thinks, rather than simply focusing on the content of his cognitions. The case formulation and specific techniques of MCT are the main distinctive features of this therapy approach, which places it in a unique position among other CBT approaches. These distinctive features are defined throughout the article. A short introduction to the metacognitive model of psychological disorder, the core features of this therapy, and the specific techniques of MCT are also summarized. A brief list of clinical scales and treatment plans as well as the order of application of MCT techniques are also given. This review article aims to underline the theoretical background of MCT, and hopes to provide a glimpse into the introductory level principles of the application of this therapy approach
Sandi-Urena, Santiago; Cooper, Melanie M.; Stevens, Ron H.
Current views on metacognition consider it a fundamental factor in learning and problem-solving which in turn has led to interest in creating learning experiences conducive to developing its use. This paper reports on the effectiveness of a collaborative intervention in promoting college general chemistry students' awareness and use of metacognition. The intervention starts with a cognitive imbalance experience as a trigger for metacognitive reflection, which is then followed by reflective prompting and peer interaction. A quasi-experimental control and treatment design with 537 and 464 participants, respectively, was implemented. Assessment of metacognition was accomplished by using a multi-method instrument that consists of a self-report (Metacognitive Activities Inventory, MCAI) and a concurrent, web-based tool (Interactive Multimedia Exercises, IMMEX). IMMEX has been shown to allow rapid classification of problem solvers according to their regulatory metacognitive skills. Compared to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant increase in metacognition awareness, as evidenced by the MCAI, increased ability in solving non-algorithmic chemistry problems of higher difficulty, and with a higher per cent correctness (IMMEX). These findings are consistent with an overall increase in the use of regulatory metacognitive skills by the treatment group. We propose that the meaningful, purposeful social interaction and the reflective prompting instantiated by the intervention act as promoters of metacognition development. It is of particular relevance that these factors are not exclusive to the intervention employed here and can be embedded by practitioners in their instruction.
Misu, La; Ketut Budayasa, I.; Lukito, Agung
This study describes the metacognition profile of mathematics and mathematics education students in understanding the concept of integral calculus. The metacognition profile is a natural and intact description of a person’s cognition that involves his own thinking in terms of using his knowledge, planning and monitoring his thinking process, and evaluating his thinking results when understanding a concept. The purpose of this study was to produce the metacognition profile of mathematics and mathematics education students in understanding the concept of integral calculus. This research method is explorative method with the qualitative approach. The subjects of this study are mathematics and mathematics education students who have studied integral calculus. The results of this study are as follows: (1) the summarizing category, the mathematics and mathematics education students can use metacognition knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of indefinite integrals. While the definite integrals, only mathematics education students use metacognition skills; and (2) the explaining category, mathematics students can use knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of indefinite integrals, while the definite integrals only use metacognition skills. In addition, mathematics education students can use knowledge and metacognition skills in understanding the concept of both indefinite and definite integrals.
Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M
Preliminary research has indicated that metacognitions are involved in smoking. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether specific facets of metacognition play a role in explaining smoking initiation and perseveration. Twelve individuals, self-identified as regular smokers and scoring a positive value on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, were assessed using a semi-structured interview to investigate the following: (1) whether they held positive and/or negative metacognitive beliefs about smoking; (2) what their main goal in smoking was, and how they knew if they had achieved their goal; (3) how they directed their focus of attention when smoking; and (4) what they perceived the advantages and disadvantages of these attentional strategies to be. Results indicated that participants endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about smoking and that the goal of smoking was to regulate negative emotion and/or to enhance cognitive functioning. Participants reported that they relied either on an internal signal, such as improvement in the emotional/cognitive state, or on a physical sign, in the form of a finished cigarette, to determine if they had achieved their goal. During an episode of smoking, half of the participants reported focusing their attention internally on thoughts and feelings or the sensations of smoking. The remainder of participants reported either an exclusively external focus of attention (e.g., the environment) or a varied focus of attention. Most participants were able to identify advantages to their attentional strategies, whereas two reported perceived disadvantages. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Ackerman, Rakefet; Leiser, David
Previous studies have suggested that when reading texts, lower achievers are more sensitive than their stronger counterparts to surface-level cues, such as graphic illustrations, and that even when uninformative, such concrete supplements tend to raise the text's subjective comprehensibility. We examined how being led astray by uninformative concrete supplements in expository texts affects achievement. We focused on the mediating role of metacognitive processes by partialling out the role of cognitive ability, as indicated by SAT scores, in accounting for the found differences between higher and lower achievers. Undergraduate students studied expository texts in their base versions or in concrete versions, including uninformative supplements, in a within-participant design. The procedure had three phases: Studying, open-book test taking, and reanswering questions of one's choice. Overall, judgements of comprehension (JCOMPs) were higher after participants studied the concrete than the base versions, and the participants benefited from the open-book test and the reanswering opportunity. An in-depth examination of time investment, JCOMP, confidence in test answers, choice of questions to reanswer, and test scores indicated that those whose metacognitive processes were more effective and goal driven achieved higher scores. The effectiveness of metacognitive processes during learning and test taking constitutes an important factor differentiating between higher and lower achievers when studying texts that include potentially misleading cues. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Women have higher vulnerability regarding to increase prevalence of obesity and its effect on people’s body image and women’s health on the society and future generations’ health is unquestionable role , negative body image influence on women’s eating habits and mental health, so aim of present research is to compare metacognitive beliefs and emotional regulation strategies in obese women with positive and negative body image. This study was a causal-comparative. The statistical population of this study consisted of 100 obese women with a BMI>30 who had referred to five nutritional clinics in Tehran. The clinics and the participants were selected by using the convenience sampling method. The data collection tools were the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I/II, Body Mass Index (BMI, the Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, and fisher’s body image scale. The multivariate hoteling t-test was used to compare the difference between the two groups. Results indicated that obese women with negative body image had higher mean scores in inefficient emotion regulation strategies including self-blame or focus on thought, catastrophizing and other-blame compared with obese women with positive body image. Moreover, the mean scores of obese women with positive body images was higher in efficient emotional regulation strategies include acceptance, positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, perspective taking and positive reappraisal. Metacognitive beliefs and emotion regulation strategies are significant variables in obese woman with positive and negative body images.
Sladoje-Bošnjak Biljana M.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to establish correlation between perceived empathy of teachers and students’ metacognitive strategies. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of this correlation, the aim was expanded to prediction of students’ metacognitive strategies based on components of teachers’ empathy. Teachers’ empathy was examined through presence of six different components: suffering, positive sharing, crying, emotional attention, feeling for others and identification, which were assessed by attribution theory. Students were the ones who evaluated teachers’ empathy. The following metacognitive strategies were explored: awareness of one’s own cognitive functioning, planning one’s own cognitive functioning and monitoring one’s own cognitive functioning. The research was conducted in two primary schools in the area of East Sarajevo on the sample of seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students, which yielded a total of 665 students. The obtained results show that there is a correlation between all variables used to examine teachers’ empathy and all variables used to explore students’ metacognitive strategies. Teachers’ suffering, as one of the components of teachers’ empathy, figures as an important predictor of metacognitive strategies as criterion variables. When it comes to development of metacognitive strategies, students preferred a positive attitude of teachers towards them, based on cognitive and affective balance. Since empathy plays an important role in application of learning strategies and promoting positive behaviour such as interpersonal understanding, helping others and inhibition of anti-social behaviour, empathy skills training should become an integral part of teacher education programmes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179020: Koncepcije i strategije obezbeđivanja kvaliteta bazičnog obrazovanja i vaspitanja
Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie
The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.
Yilmaz-Tüzün, Özgül; Topcu, Mustafa Sami
The research questions addressed in this study were: what types of epistemological beliefs do elementary students have; what types of metacognition do elementary students have; and what are the relationships among students’ perceived characteristics of constructivist learning environment, metacognition, and epistemological beliefs. A total of 626 students enrolled in sixth, seventh, and eight grades of nine elementary public schools located in Ankara, Turkey constituted the participants of this study. Constructivist learning environment survey (CLES), Junior metacognitive awareness inventory (Jr. MAI), and Schommer epistemological belief questionnaire (EB) were administered to students. Factor Analysis of Jr. MAI revealed both knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition items were loaded into one factor. Confirmatory factor analysis of EB revealed a four factor structure namely innate ability, quick learning, omniscient authority, and certain knowledge. Regression analyses revealed that metacognition and omniscient authority were significant predictors of personal relevance dimension of CLES. Metacognition was found as the only predictor of the student negotiation. Innate ability and metacognition significantly contributed to uncertainty. This study revealed that the elementary students with different mastery levels hold different epistemological beliefs and multi-faceted nature of elementary school students’ metacognition was seemed to be supported with this study. It was found that metacognition contributed to model more than epistemological beliefs for all three dimensions of CLES.
Rimbatmojo, S.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi, R.
This study aims to find out students metacognition difficulty during solving open-ended problem in mathematics. It focuses on analysing the metacognition difficulty of students with visual-spatial intelligence in solving open-ended problem. A qualitative research with case study strategy is used in this study. Data in the form of visual-spatial intelligence test result and recorded interview during solving open-ended problems were analysed qualitatively. The results show that: (1) students with high visual-spatial intelligence have no difficulty on each metacognition aspects, (2) students with medium visual-spatial intelligence have difficulty on knowledge aspect on strategy and cognitive tasks, (3) students with low visual-spatial intelligence have difficulty on three metacognition aspects, namely knowledge on strategy, cognitive tasks and self-knowledge. Even though, several researches about metacognition process and metacognition literature recommended the steps to know the characteristics. It is still important to discuss that the difficulties of metacognitive is happened because of several factors, one of which on the characteristics of student’ visual-spatial intelligence. Therefore, it is really important for mathematics educators to consider and pay more attention toward students’ visual-spatial intelligence and metacognition difficulty in designing better mathematics learning.
Frith, Chris D.
Metacognition concerns the processes by which we monitor and control our own cognitive processes. It can also be applied to others, in which case it is known as mentalizing. Both kinds of metacognition have implicit and explicit forms, where implicit means automatic and without awareness. Implicit metacognition enables us to adopt a we-mode, through which we automatically take account of the knowledge and intentions of others. Adoption of this mode enhances joint action. Explicit metacognition enables us to reflect on and justify our behaviour to others. However, access to the underlying processes is very limited for both self and others and our reports on our own and others' intentions can be very inaccurate. On the other hand, recent experiments have shown that, through discussions of our perceptual experiences with others, we can detect sensory signals more accurately, even in the absence of objective feedback. Through our willingness to discuss with others the reasons for our actions and perceptions, we overcome our lack of direct access to the underlying cognitive processes. This creates the potential for us to build more accurate accounts of the world and of ourselves. I suggest, therefore, that explicit metacognition is a uniquely human ability that has evolved through its enhancement of collaborative decision-making. PMID:22734064
Davenport, Emily; Rushford, Nola; Soon, Siew; McDermott, Cressida
Anorexia nervosa is complex and difficult to treat. In cognitive therapies the focus has been on cognitive content rather than process. Process-oriented therapies may modify the higher level cognitive processes of metacognition, reported as dysfunctional in adult anorexia nervosa. Their association with clinical features of anorexia nervosa, however, is unclear. With reclassification of anorexia nervosa by DSM-5 into typical and atypical groups, comparability of metacognition and drive for thinness across groups and relationships within groups is also unclear. Main objectives were to determine whether metacognitive factors differ across typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and a non-clinical community sample, and to explore a process model by determining whether drive for thinness is concurrently predicted by metacognitive factors. Women receiving treatment for anorexia nervosa (n = 119) and non-clinical community participants (n = 100), aged between 18 and 46 years, completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (3(rd) Edition) and Metacognitions Questionnaire (Brief Version). Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5 kg/m(2) differentiated between typical (n = 75) and atypical (n = 44) anorexia nervosa. Multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted. Metacognitive profiles were similar in both typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and confirmed as more dysfunctional than in the non-clinical group. Drive for thinness was concurrently predicted in the typical patients by the metacognitive factors, positive beliefs about worry, and need to control thoughts; in the atypical patients by negative beliefs about worry and, inversely, by cognitive self-consciousness, and in the non-clinical group by cognitive self-consciousness. Despite having a healthier weight, the atypical group was as severely affected by dysfunctional metacognitions and drive for thinness as the typical group. Because metacognition concurrently predicted drive for thinness
Ana Patricia Vázquez-Chaves
Full Text Available This essay presents metacognition as a tool to promote a classroom environment inclusive for students with disabilities. It aims at promoting reflection on the methodology to address diversity within the classroom, considering the population with disabilities as one of the major groups to bear in mind. Within the conceptual approach, inclusive education is seen as the way to address diversity in the Costa Rican education system, where education is considered a fundamental human right. The Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica is moving from a rehabilitative approach to an inclusive education approach. Metacognition is a way to raise awareness on the pedagogical mediation within the classroom environment. This paper includes results from a series of descriptive and qualitative studies conducted at Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica, which demonstrate that many of the difficulties presented in the student population are due to methodological aspects and an inadequate delivery of the contents by the teachers. The methodology used helps us to understand the ways in which students perform the cognitive processes through metacognitive strategies. It is concluded that the teaching strategies proposed to meet the educational needs comprehensively is fundamental for achieving inclusive educational processes.
Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben
With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.
Wei, Jing; Chen, Julian Chengchiang; Adawu, Anthony
This case study explores how strategy-based instruction (SBI), assisted by multimedia software, can be incorporated to teach beginning-level ESL learners metacognitive writing strategies. Two beginning-level adult learners participated in a 10-session SBI on planning and organizing strategies. The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach…
Moll, Ricarda; Pieschl, Stephanie; Bromme, Rainer
In order to reap the social gratifications of Online Social Networks (OSNs), users often disclose self-related information, making them potentially vulnerable to their online audiences. We give a brief overview of our theoretical ideas and empirical research about additional cognitive and metacognitive factors relevant for the perception of risk…
Wells, Adrian; Sembi, Sundeep
This article describes a new brief treatment for PTSD based on a metacognitive model (Wells, 2000). The treatment derived from this approach can be divided into core and supplementary treatment components. The core treatment manual is presented here. The core treatment does not require imaginal reliving of trauma or cognitive challenging of…
Salem, L C; Vogel, Asmus Mejling; Ebstrup, J
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the quantity and profile of subjective cognitive complaints in young patients as compared with elderly patients referred to a memory clinic. METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the Copenhagen University Hospital Memory Clinic at Rigshospitalet....... In total, 307 patients and 149 age-matched healthy controls were included. Patients were classified in 4 diagnostic groups: dementia, mild cognitive impairment, affective disorders and no cognitive impairment. Subjective memory was assessed with subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. Global cognitive...... with dementia have a significantly higher level and a different profile of subjective cognitive complaints as compared with elderly patients with dementia. Furthermore, young patients, diagnosed with an affective disorder, had the highest level of subjective cognitive complaints of all patients in a memory...
Kamrowska, Anna; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka
Risk of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) within life is estimated at 2.6-5.1%. Amongst etiological factors that affect the development of the disorder are: biological and psychological problems, including cognitive models. There are known several cognitive models: metacognitive, Borkovec'c model and the model developed in Quebec. Key cognitive contents that occur with generalized anxiety disorder are focused on two aspects: metacognitive beliefs and intolerance of uncertainty. A primary purpose of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the modification of dysfunctional beliefs about worry. Cognitive behavioural therapy is effective in reducing anxiety, makes it easier to operate in the professional sphere and improves the quality of life. © 2016 MEDPRESS.
Full Text Available Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT is the treatment of choice for Social anxiety disorder (SAD. However, factors additional to those emphasised in CBT are the primary cause of psychological disorder according to the metacognitive model. Metacognitive Therapy (MCT aims to target a perseverative thinking style named the cognitive attentional syndrome and its underlying metacognitive beliefs (beliefs about cognition. The present study aimed to explore the effects of generic MCT for SAD. Treatment related effects were evaluated using direct replication single case (A–B methodology across three patients with different subtypes of SAD; performance type, generalised and generalised plus avoidant personality disorder, representing increasing SAD severity/complexity. All patients responded during treatment and achieved substantial symptom reductions which were largely maintained at 6 months’ follow-up. Metacognitive therapy appears to be a suitable treatment and was associated with positive outcomes for patients with different presentations of SAD.
Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H; Liffick, Emily; Francis, Michael M; Leonhardt, Bethany L; James, Alison; Buck, Kelly D; Hamm, Jay A; Minor, Kyle S; Mehdiyoun, Nikki; Breier, Alan
Impaired insight is common in the first episode of psychosis (FEP). Although considerable research has examined the factors that are associated with impaired insight in chronic psychosis, less is known about the factors that underlie and sustain poor insight in FEP. Impaired metacognition, or the ability to form integrated representations of self and others, is a promising potential contributor to poor insight in FEP. To explore this possibility, the authors assessed insight and metacognition in 40 individuals with FEP and then examined the relationship between these areas and social cognition domains, neurocognitive domains, and psychotic symptoms. Correlation analyses revealed that improved insight was associated with higher metacognition, better vocabulary and Theory of Mind scores, and fewer symptoms. The domain of metacognitive mastery also predicted clinical insight. Results support the need to develop an integrative therapeutic approach focused on improving metacognition, hence addressing poor insight in FEP.
Full Text Available This study examined the effects of metacognitive strategies to help beginning young learners with difficulties increasing and retaining vocabulary. This was a qualitative study in which participants first went through metacognitive strategy instruction to provide awareness of learning strategies. Following this instruction, students underwent a set of five interventions based on the cognitive academic language learning approach instructional model. These interventions, together with journaling progress, were used to train them in the use of the metacognitive strategies planning, monitoring, and evaluating. The findings showed that metacognitive strategy training has positively contributed to vocabulary acquisition skills, as participants were able to raise consciousness about some learning strategies and the use of metacognitive strategies to increase their vocabulary learning.
Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M
This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A key shift of thinking for effective learning and teaching of listening input has been seen and organized in education locally and globally. This study has probed whether metacognitive instruction through a pedagogical cycle shifts high-intermediate students' English language learning and English as a second language (ESL teacher's teaching focus on listening input. Twenty male Iranian students with an age range of 18 to 24 received a guided methodology including metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluation for a period of three months. This study has used the strategies and probed the importance of metacognitive instruction through interviewing both the teacher and the students. The results have shown that metacognitive instruction helped both the ESL teacher's and the students' shift of thinking about teaching and learning listening input. This key shift of thinking has implications globally and locally for classroom practices of listening input.
Rivero Arias, Ana Margarita
Metacognition, identified generally as "thinking about thinking", plays a fundamental role in science education. It enhances the understanding of science as a way to generate new knowledge using scientific concepts and practices. Moreover, metacognition supports the development of students' life-long problem solving, collaboration, and critical thinking skills. When teachers use metacognition with intention, it can promote students' agency and responsibility for their own learning. However, despite all of its benefits, metacognition is rarely seen in secondary science classrooms. Thus, it is important to understand what beginning teachers know and how they use metacognition during their first years in order to find ways to prepare and support them in incorporating metacognitive practices into their science teaching. The purpose of this multimethod study was to describe the metacognitive knowledge and experiences of beginning science teachers. For the quantitative research strand, I surveyed 36 secondary science teachers about their awareness of metacognition and used classroom observations coded from a larger research study to identify how often teachers were using metacognition to teach science. For the qualitative strand, I interviewed 15 participants about their knowledge and experiences of metacognition (including reflective practices) and spent two weeks observing two of the teachers who described exemplary metacognitive teaching practices. I found that participants had a solid awareness of metacognition, but considered the term complicated to enact, difficult for students, and less important to focus on during their first years of teaching than other elements such as content. Additionally, teaching experience seemed to have an effect on teachers' knowledge and experiences of metacognition. However, participants who were using metacognitive practices had recognized their importance since the beginning of their teaching. Reflective practices can help improve
Morales, Jorge; Lau, Hakwan; Fleming, Stephen M
Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains, e.g. memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks, or whether self-evaluative processes are domain-specific. Here we directly investigated this issue by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics. By comparing patterns of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity while subjects evaluated their performance, we revealed both domain-specific and domain-general metacognitive representations. Multi-voxel activity patterns in anterior prefrontal cortex predicted levels of confidence in a domain-specific fashion, whereas domain-general signals predicting confidence and accuracy were found in a widespread network in the frontal and posterior midline. The demonstration of domain-specific metacognitive representations suggests the presence of a content-rich mechanism available to introspection and cognitive control. Significance statement: We use human neuroimaging to investigate processes supporting memory and perceptual metacognition. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a global resource that is applied to different tasks, or whether self-evaluative processes are specific to particular tasks. Using multivariate decoding methods, we provide evidence that perceptual- and memory-specific metacognitive representations cortex co-exist with generic confidence signals. Our findings reconcile previously conflicting results on the domain-specificity/generality of metacognition, and lay the groundwork for a mechanistic understanding of metacognitive judgments. Copyright © 2018 Morales et al.
Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.
BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.
Full Text Available Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.
Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice
Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.
Allen, Andrew; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Katsikitis, Mary
Defined as sexually explicit material that elicits erotic thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, internet pornography is a prevalent form of media that may facilitate problematic use and craving for engagement. Research suggests that superordinate cognitions and information processing, such as desire thinking and metacognition, are central to the activation and escalation of craving in addictive behaviours. The current study aimed to contribute to the literature by testing the proposed metacognitive model of desire thinking and craving in a sample of problematic pornography users, while revising the model by incorporating negative affect. From a theoretical perspective, environmental cues trigger positive metacognitions about desire thinking that directly influence desire thinking, resulting in the escalation of craving, negative metacognitions, and negative affect. Participants were recruited via an online survey and screened for problematic internet pornography use. Path analyses were used to investigate relationships among the aforementioned constructs in a final sample of 191 participants. Consistent with previous research, results of this study validated the existence of metacognitive processes in the activation of desire thinking and escalation of craving, while indicating that desire thinking has the potential to influence negative affect. Additionally, results supported the role of significant indirect relationships between constructs within the revised model of metacognition, desire thinking, and psychopathology. Collectively, the findings demonstrate the clinical value of a metacognitive conceptualisation of problematic pornography use. Exploring the metacognitive mechanisms that underpin problematic internet pornography use may give rise to the development of new treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prytula, Michelle P.
A study of teacher metacognition within the context of the professional learning community (PLC) was conducted to understand how teachers describe their metacognition, what they describe as the catalysts to their metacognition, and how metacognition influences their work. Although the PLC was used as a context for the study, the findings include…
Eskenazi, Terry; Montalan, Benoît; Jacquot, Amélie; Proust, Joëlle; Grèzes, Julie; Conty, Laurence
Metacognitive evaluations refer to the processes by which people assess their own cognitive operations with respect to their current goal. Little is known about whether this process is susceptible to social influence. Here we investigate whether nonverbal social signals spontaneously influence metacognitive evaluations. Participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task, which was followed by a face randomly gazing towards or away from the response chosen by the participant. Participants then provided a metacognitive evaluation of their response by rating their confidence in their answer. In Experiment 1, the participants were told that the gaze direction was irrelevant to the task purpose and were advised to ignore it. The results revealed an effect of implicit social information on confidence ratings even though the gaze direction was random and therefore unreliable for task purposes. In addition, nonsocial cues (car) did not elicit this effect. In Experiment 2, the participants were led to believe that cue direction (face or car) reflected a previous participant's response to the same question-that is, the social information provided by the cue was made explicit, yet still objectively unreliable for the task. The results showed a similar social influence on confidence ratings, observed with both cues (car and face) but with an increased magnitude relative to Experiment 1. We additionally showed in Experiment 2 that social information impaired metacognitive accuracy. Together our results strongly suggest an involuntary susceptibility of metacognitive evaluations to nonverbal social information, even when it is implicit (Experiment 1) and unreliable (Experiments 1 and 2).
Chekwa, Emmanuel; McFadden, Misty; Divine, Angelia; Dorius, Tina
A simplistic definition of metacognition is "thinking about thinking." It involves taking time to analyze and delve into the various ways the mind receives and retains information. It is not a new concept but metacognition is evolving as a new word for successful learners. It is stimulating much conversation and excitement in academia as…
Gholami, Mohammad; Moghadam, Parastou Kordestani; Mohammadipoor, Fatemeh; Tarahi, Mohammad Javad; Sak, Mandana; Toulabi, Tahereh; Pour, Amir Hossein Hossein
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a method used to develop cognitive and metacognitive skills in nursing students. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of PBL and the traditional lecture method on critical thinking skills and metacognitive awareness in nursing students in a critical care nursing course. The present study was conducted with a quasi-experimental, single group, pretest-posttest design. A group of third-year nursing students (n=40) were recruited from Khorramabad School of Nursing and Midwifery in the west of Iran. The lecture method was used in one group over the first eight weeks of the first semester and PBL was adopted in the second eight weeks. Standardized self-report questionnaires including The California Critical Thinking Skills Test-B (CCTST-B) and the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) were administered before and after the use of each of the instruction methods. Data were analyzed in SPSS using the paired t-test. No significant changes were observed in the students' critical thinking skills and metacognitive awareness after performing the lecture method. However, a significant increase was observed in the overall critical thinking score (P<0.01) and its sub-scales of evaluation and deduction (P<0.05) and in the overall metacognitive awareness score (P<0.001) after performing the PBL method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schumann, John H.
Examines five cognitive models for second-language acquisition (SLA) and assesses how each might account for the Pidginized interlanguage found in the early stages of second-language acquisition. (23 references) (JL)
Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik
There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels of negative symptoms had poorer metacognitive abilities. Those with high positive and low negative symptoms did not have poorer metacognitive abilities than those with low positive and negative symptoms. None of the other predictors differed between the groups. The FEP group had poorer metacognitive abilities than the control group. Inclusion of metacognition in psychosis models may improve our understanding of negative symptoms, while previous findings of a relation with positive symptoms may have been confounded. Implications for current interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emotion and cognition are known to interact during human decision processes. In this study we focus on a specific kind of cognition, namely metacognition. Our experiment induces a negative emotion, worry, during a perceptual task. In a numerosity task subjects have to make a two alternative forced choice and then reveal their confidence in this decision. We measure metacognition in terms of discrimination and calibration abilities. Our results show that metacognition, but not choice, is affected by the level of worry anticipated before the decision. Under worry individuals tend to have better metacognition in terms of the two measures. Furthermore understanding the formation of confidence is better explained with taking into account the level of worry in the model. This study shows the importance of an emotional component in the formation and the quality of the subjective probabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Molenaar, I.; Chiu, M.M.; Sleegers, P.; van Boxtel, C.A.M.
Metacognitive scaffolding in a computer-supported learning environment can influence students’ metacognitive activities, metacognitive knowledge and domain knowledge. In this study we analyze how metacognitive activities mediate the relationships between different avatar scaffolds on students’
Kühne, Franziska; Meister, Ramona; Jansen, Alessa; Härter, Martin; Moritz, Steffen; Kriston, Levente
Introduction Whereas the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy has been demonstrated for a variety of mental disorders, there is still need for improvement, especially regarding less prevalent or more severe disorders. Recently, metacognitive interventions have been developed and are now available for a variety of diagnoses. Still, a systematic review investigating the effectiveness of different metacognitive interventions for various mental disorders is missing. Methods and analysis Rand...
Maria C. Quattropani
Full Text Available In the occidental world, feeding is not only a physiological need but it may become a compulsive behavior. In fact, the tendency to instant gratification may represent a way to escape from unpleasant moods and may lead to addictive behaviors. In this process, Metacognitions, defined as internal cognitive factors that control, monitor and evaluate thinking processes, have a central role. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between eating behavior, psychological needs and metacognitive processes. We evaluated 44 adults using the following instruments: Eating Disorders Inventory III (EDI-III, Metacognition Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30 and Frontal Lobe Score. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows applying correlational analysis (Spearman’s Rho. We found that negative beliefs about worry concerning uncontrollability and danger were positive correlated with general psychological maladjustment composite (0.61 p<.01. In particular negative beliefs were positive correlated with specific subscales, such as personal alienation (0.57 p<.01 and emotional dysregulation (0.51 p<.01. Results confirmed the importance to explore metacognitive processes and to understand their role in emotional regulation, especially in overweight/obese subjects. Furthermore, we aim to examine the role of cognitive functions in eating behavior.
Whitmarsh, Stephen; Oostenveld, Robert; Almeida, Rita; Lundqvist, Daniel
The ability to monitor the success of cognitive processing is referred to as metacognition. Studies of metacognition typically probe post-decision judgments of confidence, showing that we can report on the success of wide range of cognitive processes. Much less is known about our ability to monitor and report on the degree of top-down attention, an ability of paramount importance in tasks requiring sustained attention. However, it has been repeatedly shown that the degree and locus of top-down attention modulates alpha (8-14Hz) power in sensory cortices. In this study we investigated whether self-reported ratings of attention are reflected by sensory alpha power, independent from confidence and task difficulty. Subjects performed a stair-cased tactile discrimination task requiring sustained somatosensory attention. Each discrimination response was followed by a rating of their attention at the moment of stimulation, or their confidence in the discrimination response. MEG was used to estimate trial-by-trial alpha power preceding stimulation. Staircasing of task-difficulty successfully equalized performance between conditions. Both attention and confidence ratings reflected subsequent discrimination performance. Task difficulty specifically influenced confidence ratings. As expected, specifically attention ratings, but not confidence ratings, correlated negatively with contralateral somatosensory alpha power preceding tactile stimuli. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the degree of attention can be subjectively experienced and reported accurately, independent from task difficulty and knowledge about task performance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Recent upgrades to cognitive load theory suggest that evolutionary processes have shaped the way that working memory processes cultural and social information. According to evolutionarily educational psychologists, some forms of information are processed with lower working memory loads than other forms. The former are evolutionarily salient and…
James, Alison V; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Vohs, Jenifer; Minor, Kyle S; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Buck, Kelly D; George, Sunita; Lysaker, Paul H
Both dysfunctional self-appraisal and metacognitive deficits, or impairments in the ability to form complex and integrated ideas about oneself and others, may contribute to social deficits in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about how they interact with each other. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that both higher metacognition and more positive self-appraisal are necessary for increased social functioning. Concurrent assessments of self-appraisal, metacognition, and social functioning were gathered from 66 adults with schizophrenia in a non-acute phase of disorder. Three forms of self-appraisal were used: self-esteem, hope and self-efficacy. Metacognition was assessed using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, and social functioning with the Quality of Life Scale. Measures of psychopathology, neurocognition and social cognition were also gathered for use as potential covariates. A single index of self-appraisal was generated from subjecting the assessments of self-appraisal to a principal components analysis. Linear regression analyses revealed that after controlling for severity of psychopathology, metacognition moderated the effect of the self-appraisal factor score upon social functioning. A median split of metacognition and the self-appraisal index yielded four groups. ANCOVA analyses revealed that participants with higher levels of metacognition and more positive self-appraisal had greater capacities for social relatedness than all other participants, regardless of levels of positive and negative symptoms. Correlational analyses revealed that metacognition but not self-appraisal was related to the frequencies of social contact independent of the effects of psychopathology. Assessments of social cognition and neurocognition were not significantly linked with social dysfunction. Greater social functioning is made possible by a combination of both more positive self-appraisals and greater metacognitive capacity. Individuals with
Dunphy, Bruce C.; Cantwell, Robert; Bourke, Sid; Fleming, Mark; Smith, Bruce; Joseph, K. S.; Dunphy, Stacey L
Physician cognition, metacognition and affect may have an impact upon the quality of clinical reasoning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between measures of physician metacognition and affect and patient outcomes in obstetric practice. Reflective coping (RC), proactive coping, need for cognition (NFC), tolerance for…
Sadeghi, Hasan; Hajloo, Nader; Babayi, Karim; Shahri, Maryam
The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between metacognition and obsessive beliefs, and procrastination. 285 students of Tabriz and Mohaghegh Ardabili Universities, Iran, were selected by random sampling, and completed the metacognition (MCQ-30) questionnaire, obsessive beliefs questionnaire (OBQ-44), and General Procrastination Scale. The research method was descriptive. Data was implemented by structural equation modeling, using Amos software (version 19) and Anderson and Greenberg's (1988) two-step approach was followed. First, the model measurement, and then the structural model were examined. RESULTS showed that obsessive beliefs and metacognitive beliefs, directly and indirectly, predict the behavior of procrastination. Cognitive confidence, need for control of thoughts, and positive beliefs about worry from metacognitive beliefs were positively and significantly correlated with procrastination. In addition, cognitive self-consciousness was inversely correlated with procrastination. Perfectionism/certainty from obsessive beliefs was inversely correlated with procrastination. Moreover, the relationship between obsessive beliefs and metacognitive beliefs were positive and significant. Our findings show a significant relationship between obsessive and metacognitive beliefs and procrastination. To reduce behaviors of procrastination, control of obsessive beliefs and metacognition seems to be necessary. Moreover, controlling and shaping metacognitive beliefs can be effective in reducing compulsive behavior. None.
Sadeghi, Hasan; Hajloo, Nader; Babayi, Karim; Shahri, Maryam
Objective: The aim of the current study is to investigate the relationship between metacognition and obsessive beliefs, and procrastination. Methods: 285 students of Tabriz and Mohaghegh Ardabili Universities, Iran, were selected by random sampling, and completed the metacognition (MCQ-30) questionnaire, obsessive beliefs questionnaire (OBQ-44), and General Procrastination Scale. The research method was descriptive. Data was implemented by structural equation modeling, using Amos software (version 19) and Anderson and Greenberg’s (1988) two-step approach was followed. First, the model measurement, and then the structural model were examined. Results: Results showed that obsessive beliefs and metacognitive beliefs, directly and indirectly, predict the behavior of procrastination. Cognitive confidence, need for control of thoughts, and positive beliefs about worry from metacognitive beliefs were positively and significantly correlated with procrastination. In addition, cognitive self-consciousness was inversely correlated with procrastination. Perfectionism/certainty from obsessive beliefs was inversely correlated with procrastination. Moreover, the relationship between obsessive beliefs and metacognitive beliefs were positive and significant. Conclusion: Our findings show a significant relationship between obsessive and metacognitive beliefs and procrastination. To reduce behaviors of procrastination, control of obsessive beliefs and metacognition seems to be necessary. Moreover, controlling and shaping metacognitive beliefs can be effective in reducing compulsive behavior. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24995029
Grennell, Drew; Boudreaux, Andrew
In the Western Washington University physics department, a project is underway to develop research-based laboratory curriculum for the introductory calculus-based course. Instructional goals not only include supporting students' conceptual understanding and reasoning ability, but also providing students with opportunities to engage in metacognition. For the latter, our approach has been to scaffold reflective thinking with guided questions. Specific instructional strategies include analysis of alternate reasoning presented in fictitious dialogues and comparison of students' initial ideas with their lab group's final, consensus understanding. Assessment of student metacognition includes pre- and post- course data from selected questions on the CLASS survey, analysis of written lab worksheets, and student opinion surveys. CLASS results are similar to a traditional physics course and analysis of lab sheets show that students struggle to engage in a metacognitive process. Future directions include video studies, as well as use of additional written assessments adapted from educational psychology.
Full Text Available The ability to transfer learning to new situations lies at the heart of lifelong learning and the employability of university graduates. Because students are often unaware of the importance of learning transfer and staff do not always explicitly articulate this expectation, this article explores the idea that metacognition (intentional awareness and the use of that awareness might enhance the development of learning transfer. Our exploratory study includes results from a survey of 74 staff and 118 students from five institutions in Australia, Belgium, UK, and USA. Our data indicate that many staff and a majority of students do not have a clear understanding of what learning transfer entails, and that there are many mismatches between staff and student perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors regarding learning transfer. This helps explain why learning transfer does not occur as often as it could. We found significant positive correlations between thinking about transfer and thinking about learning processes and the likelihood to use awareness of metacognition to guide practice. Our findings suggest a positive relationship between metacognition and learning transfer. Implications for the scholarship of teaching and learning are discussed.
Full Text Available In this paper we examine the contributions of metacognitive and self-regulated learning theories to research on students' calibration of comprehension. Historically, cognitive psychologists have studied calibration of comprehension within a purely metacognitive framework, with an emphasis on the role of text and task factors but little consideration of factors of self. There has been a recent trend, however, towards incorporating a social cognitive perspective to the study of calibration of comprehension, with factors of self such as motivation and affect being examined more often. Among the factors of self that have been examined, self-efficacy has played a major role as it may be all but impossible to disentangle its influence on students' calibration of comprehension. Other variables of self that have been examined include ability, familiarity, ego and goal-orientation, goal setting, personality traits and susceptibility to social and cultural influences. Broadening the context in which calibration of comprehension is assessed allows a more complete examination of the rich set of interrelated processes that affect students' performance.
Full Text Available In this paper we examine the contributions of metacognitive and self-regulated learning theories to research on students' calibration of comprehension. Historically, cognitive psychologists have studied calibration of comprehension within a purely metacognitive framework, with an emphasis on the role of text and task factors but little consideration of factors of self. There has been a recent trend, however, towards incorporating a social cognitive perspective to the study of calibration of comprehension, with factors of self such as motivation and affect being examined more often. Among the factors of self that have been examined, self-efficacy has played a major role as it may be all but impossible to disentangle its influence on students' calibration of comprehension. Other variables of self that have been examined include ability, familiarity, ego and goal-orientation, goal setting, personality traits and susceptibility to social and cultural influences. Broadening the context in which calibration of comprehension is assessed allows a more complete examination of the rich set of interrelated processes that affect students' performance.
Coutinho, Mariana V C; Redford, Joshua S; Church, Barbara A; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Couchman, Justin J; Smith, J David
The uncertainty response has grounded the study of metacognition in nonhuman animals. Recent research has explored the processes supporting uncertainty monitoring in monkeys. It has revealed that uncertainty responding, in contrast to perceptual responding, depends on significant working memory resources. The aim of the present study was to expand this research by examining whether uncertainty monitoring is also working memory demanding in humans. To explore this issue, human participants were tested with or without a cognitive load on a psychophysical discrimination task that included either an uncertainty response (allowing the participant to decline difficult trials) or a middle-perceptual response (labeling the same intermediate trial levels). The results demonstrated that cognitive load reduced uncertainty responding, but increased middle responding. However, this dissociation between uncertainty and middle responding was only observed when participants either lacked training or had very little training with the uncertainty response. If more training was provided, the effect of load was small. These results suggest that uncertainty responding is resource demanding, but with sufficient training, human participants can respond to uncertainty either by using minimal working memory resources or by effectively sharing resources. These results are discussed in relation to the literature on animal and human metacognition.
Leopold, Claudia; Leutner, Detlev
In three experiments, students were trained to use strategies for learning from scientific texts: text highlighting (Experiment 1), knowledge mapping (Experiment 2), and visualizing (Experiment 3). Each experiment compared a control condition, cognitive strategy training, and a combined cognitive strategy plus metacognitive self-regulation…
Baird, Benjamin; Mrazek, Michael D; Phillips, Dawa T; Schooler, Jonathan W
Contemplative mental practices aim to enable individuals to develop greater awareness of their own cognitive and affective states through repeated examination of first-person experience. Recent cross-sectional studies of long-term meditation practitioners suggest that the subjective reports of such individuals are better calibrated with objective indices; however, the impact of mental training on metacognitive ability has not yet been examined in a randomized controlled investigation. The present study evaluated the impact of a 2-week meditation-training program on introspective accuracy in the domains of perception and memory. Compared with an active control group that elicited no change, we found that a 2-week meditation program significantly enhanced introspective accuracy, quantified by metacognitive judgments of cognition on a trial-by-trial basis, in a memory but not a perception domain. Together, these data suggest that, in at least some domains, the human capacity to introspect is plastic and can be enhanced through training.
The term "pragmatics" is often used to refer without distinction, on one hand, to the contextual selection of interpretation norms and, on the other hand, to the context-sensitive processes guided by these norms. Pragmatics in the first acception depends on language-independent contextual factors that can, but need not, involve Theory of Mind; in the second acception, pragmatics is a language-specific metacognitive process, which may unfold at an unconscious level without involving any mental state (meta-)representation. Distinguishing between these two kinds of ways context drives the interpretation of communicative stimuli helps dissolve the dispute between proponents of an entirely Gricean pragmatics and those who claim that some pragmatic processes do not depend on mind-reading capacities. According to the model defended in this paper, the typology of pragmatic processes is not entirely determined by a hierarchy of meanings, but by contextually set norms of interpretation.
Full Text Available The term `pragmatics' is often used to refer without distinction, on the one hand, to the contextual selection of interpretation norms and, on the other hand, to the context-sensitive processes guided by these norms. Pragmatics in the first acception depends on language-independent contextual factors that can, but need not, involve Theory of Mind; in the second acception, pragmatics is a language-specific metacognitive process, which may unfold at an unconscious level without involving any mental state (meta-representation. Distinguishing between these two kinds of ways context drives the interpretation of communicative stimuli helps dissolve the dispute between proponents of an entirely Gricean pragmatics and those who claim that some pragmatic processes do not depend on mind-reading capacities. According to the model defended in this paper, the typology of pragmatic processes is not entirely determined by a hierarchy of meanings, but by the contextually set norms of interpretation.
Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R
Metacognition is the ability to monitor and control one's cognition. Monitoring may involve either public cues or introspection of private cognitive states. We tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a series of generalization tests to determine which type of cues control metacognition. In Experiment 1, monkeys learned a perceptual discrimination in which a "decline-test" response allowed them to avoid tests and receive a guaranteed small reward. Monkeys declined more difficult than easy tests. In Experiments 2-4, we evaluated whether monkeys generalized this metacognitive responding to new perceptual tests. Monkeys showed a trend toward generalization in Experiments 2 & 3, and reliable generalization in Experiment 4. In Experiments 5 & 6, we presented the decline-test response in a delayed matching-to-sample task. Memory tests differed from perceptual tests in that the appearance of the test display could not control metacognitive responding. In Experiment 6, monkeys made prospective metamemory judgments before seeing the tests. Generalization across perceptual tests with different visual properties and mixed generalization from perceptual to memory tests provide provisional evidence that domain-general, private cues controlled metacognition in some monkeys. We observed individual differences in generalization, suggesting that monkeys differ in use of public and private metacognitive cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nugraheni, L.; Budayasa, I. K.; Suwarsono, S. T.
The study was designed to discover examine the profile of metacognition of vocational high school student of the Machine Technology program that had high ability and field independent cognitive style in mathematical problem solving. The design of this study was exploratory research with a qualitative approach. This research was conducted at the Machine Technology program of the vocational senior high school. The result revealed that the high-ability student with field independent cognitive style conducted metacognition practices well. That involved the three types of metacognition activities, consisting of planning, monitoring, and evaluating at metacognition level 2 or aware use, 3 or strategic use, 4 or reflective use in mathematical problem solving. The applicability of the metacognition practices conducted by the subject was never at metacognition level 1 or tacit use. This indicated that the participant were already aware, capable of choosing strategies, and able to reflect on their own thinking before, after, or during the process at the time of solving mathematical problems.That was very necessary for the vocational high school student of Machine Technology program.
Ernst-Militaru, Rodica; Ghysels, Joris; Nijhof, Plonie
To stimulate learning, both cognitive and metacognitive strategies are believed to be effective. This contribution reports on the experimental evaluation of an approach to develop metacognitive skills among students in secondary school. In the experiment 653 students of two schools and three age
Smith, J. David; Couchman, Justin J.; Beran, Michael J.
Humans feel uncertain. They know when they do not know. These feelings and the responses to them ground the research literature on metacognition. It is a natural question whether animals share this cognitive capacity, and thus animal metacognition has become an influential research area within comparative psychology. Researchers have explored this question by testing many species using perception and memory paradigms. There is an emerging consensus that animals share functional parallels with humans’ conscious metacognition. Of course, this research area poses difficult issues of scientific inference. How firmly should we hold the line in insisting that animals’ performances are low-level and associative? How high should we set the bar for concluding that animals share metacognitive capacities with humans? This area offers a constructive case study for considering theoretical problems that often confront comparative psychologists. The authors present this case study and address diverse issues of scientific judgement and interpretation within comparative psychology. PMID:22492748
Gogulski, Juha; Zetter, Rasmus; Nyrhinen, Mikko; Pertovaara, Antti; Carlson, Synnöve
The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to be important for metacognition, the capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive processes. Here we dissected the neural architecture of somatosensory metacognition using navigated single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to modulate tactile working memory (WM) processing. We asked subjects to perform tactile WM tasks and to give a confidence rating for their performance after each trial. We circumvented the challenge of interindividual variability in functional brain anatomy by applying TMS to two PFC areas that, according to tractography, were neurally connected with the primary somatosensory cortex (S1): one area in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), another in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG). These two PFC locations and a control cortical area were stimulated during both spatial and temporal tactile WM tasks. We found that tractography-guided TMS of the SFG area selectively enhanced metacognitive accuracy of tactile temporal, but not spatial WM. Stimulation of the MFG area that was also neurally connected with the S1 had no such effect on metacognitive accuracy of either the temporal or spatial tactile WM. Our findings provide causal evidence that the PFC contains distinct neuroanatomical substrates for introspective accuracy of tactile WM. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Hargis, Mary B; Yue, Carole L; Kerr, Tyson; Ikeda, Kenji; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D
The current study examined younger and older adults' error detection accuracy, prediction calibration, and postdiction calibration on a proofreading task, to determine if age-related differences would be present in this type of common error detection task. Participants were given text passages, and were first asked to predict the percentage of errors they would detect in the passage. They then read the passage and circled errors (which varied in complexity and locality), and made postdictions regarding their performance, before repeating this with another passage and answering a comprehension test of both passages. There were no age-related differences in error detection accuracy, text comprehension, or metacognitive calibration, though participants in both age groups were overconfident overall in their metacognitive judgments. Both groups gave similar ratings of motivation to complete the task. The older adults rated the passages as more interesting than younger adults did, although this level of interest did not appear to influence error-detection performance. The age equivalence in both proofreading ability and calibration suggests that the ability to proofread text passages and the associated metacognitive monitoring used in judging one's own performance are maintained in aging. These age-related similarities persisted when younger adults completed the proofreading tasks on a computer screen, rather than with paper and pencil. The findings provide novel insights regarding the influence that cognitive aging may have on metacognitive accuracy and text processing in an everyday task.
Full Text Available Visual aids can improve comprehension of risks associated with medical treatments, screenings, and lifestyles. Do visual aids also help decision makers accurately assess their risk comprehension? That is, do visual aids help them become well calibrated? To address these questions, we investigated the benefits of visual aids displaying numerical information and measured accuracy of self-assessment of diagnostic inferences (i.e., metacognitive judgment calibration controlling for individual differences in numeracy. Participants included 108 patients who made diagnostic inferences about three medical tests on the basis of information about the sensitivity and false-positive rate of the tests and disease prevalence. Half of the patients received the information in numbers without a visual aid, while the other half received numbers along with a grid representing the numerical information. In the numerical condition, many patients --especially those with low numeracy-- misinterpreted the predictive value of the tests and profoundly overestimated the accuracy of their inferences. Metacognitive judgment calibration mediated the relationship between numeracy and accuracy of diagnostic inferences. In contrast, in the visual aid condition, patients at all levels of numeracy showed high-levels of inferential accuracy and metacognitive judgment calibration. Results indicate that accurate metacognitive assessment may explain the beneficial effects of visual aids and numeracy --a result that accords with theory suggesting that metacognition is an essential part of risk literacy. We conclude that well-designed risk communications can inform patients about health-relevant numerical information while helping them assess the quality of their own risk comprehension.
Full Text Available Metacognition refers to the monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes and its impairment can lead to a lack of self-awareness of deficits, or anosognosia. In the context of different neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., traumatic brain injury, dementia, and schizophrenia, studies have shown that patients who present impairments in metacognitive abilities may be able to recognize such difficulties in others and in themselves when exposed to material in a third-person perspective. Considering that metacognitive impairments are an important characteristic of dementia, especially in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, studies of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking may be relevant to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. The current paper first briefly addresses the theme of metacognition and the impact of metacognitive deficits in people with AD. The focus then turns to the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking in different neurological and psychiatric disorders, particularly AD. This relationship is also discussed based on theoretical models, particularly the Cognitive Awareness Model (CAM. Specifically, the CAM suggests the existence of distinct memory systems for self- and other-information, an idea which is supported by neuroimaging findings. We suggest that the Default Mode Network, as it has been shown to be implicated in self vs. other processing and is affected early in AD, could explain the impact of perspective-taking on awareness of deficits in AD. Finally, we present possible clinical implications of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking in AD. Indeed, we considered the possibility of improving patient’s awareness through the use of a third-person perspective, which, consequently, may decrease the negative impacts of anosognosia in AD.
Bertrand, Elodie; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Mograbi, Daniel C
Metacognition refers to the monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes and its impairment can lead to a lack of self-awareness of deficits, or anosognosia. In the context of different neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., traumatic brain injury, dementia, and schizophrenia), studies have shown that patients who present impairments in metacognitive abilities may be able to recognize such difficulties in others and in themselves when exposed to material in a third-person perspective. Considering that metacognitive impairments are an important characteristic of dementia, especially in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), studies of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking may be relevant to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. The current paper first briefly addresses the theme of metacognition and the impact of metacognitive deficits in people with AD. The focus then turns to the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking in different neurological and psychiatric disorders, particularly AD. This relationship is also discussed based on theoretical models, particularly the Cognitive Awareness Model (CAM). Specifically, the CAM suggests the existence of distinct memory systems for self- and other-information, an idea which is supported by neuroimaging findings. We suggest that the Default Mode Network, as it has been shown to be implicated in self vs. other processing and is affected early in AD, could explain the impact of perspective-taking on awareness of deficits in AD. Finally, we present possible clinical implications of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking in AD. Indeed, we considered the possibility of improving patient's awareness through the use of a third-person perspective, which, consequently, may decrease the negative impacts of anosognosia in AD.
Raoofi, Saeid; Chan, Swee Heng; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Rashid, Sabariah Md
Metacognition appears to be a significant contributor to success in second language (SL) and foreign language (FL) learning. This study seeks to investigate empirical research on the role metacognition plays in language learning by focusing on the following research questions: first, to what extent does metacognition affect SL/FL learning? Second,…
Sherry, David F; Strang, Caroline G
Bumblebees and honeybees have been the subjects of a great deal of recent research in animal cognition. Many of the major topics in cognition, including memory, attention, concept learning, numerosity, spatial cognition, timing, social learning, and metacognition have been examined in bumblebees, honeybees, or both. Although bumblebees and honeybees are very closely related, they also differ in important ways, including social organization, development, and foraging behaviour. We examine whether differences between bumblebees and honeybees in cognitive processes are related to differences in their natural history and behaviour. There are differences in some cognitive traits, such as serial reversal learning and matching-to-sample, that appear related to differences between bumblebees and honeybees in foraging and social behaviour. Other cognitive processes, such as numerosity, appear to be very similar. Despite the wealth of information that is available on some aspects of bumblebee and honeybee cognition and behaviour, there are relatively few instances, however, in which adequate data exist to make direct comparisons. We highlight a number of phenomena, including concept learning, spatial cognition, timing, and metacognition, for which targeted comparative research may reveal unexpected adaptive variation in cognitive processes in these complex animals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Merchant, Thomas E.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Shukla, Hemant; Sengupta, Saikat; Xiong Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar; Mulhern, Raymond K.
Purpose: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression. Results: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes. When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact. For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ. Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts
Babaei, Samaneh; Ranjbar Varandi, Shahryar; Hatami, Zohre; Gharechahi, Maryam
The present study was conducted to investigate the role of metacognition beliefs and general health in alexithymia in Iranian students. This descriptive and correlational study included 200 participants of high schools students, selected randomly from students of two cities (Sari and Dargaz), Iran. Metacognitive Strategies Questionnaire (MCQ-30); the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Farsi Version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were used for gathering the data. Using the Pearson's correlation method and regression, the data were analyzed. The findings indicated significant positive relationships between alexithymia and all subscales of general health. The highest correlation was between alexithymia and anxiety subscale (r=0.36, Pmetacognitive strategies. The highest significant negative relationship was seen between alexithymia and the sub-scale of risk uncontrollability (r=-0.359, P Metacognition beliefs predicted about 8% of the variance of alexithymia (β=-0.028, Pmetacognition beliefs and general health had important role in predicting of alexithymia in students.
Hull, Alison; du Boulay, Benedict
Motivation and metacognition are strongly intertwined, with learners high in self-efficacy more likely to use a variety of self-regulatory learning strategies, as well as to persist longer on challenging tasks. The aim of the research was to improve the learner's focus on the process and experience of problem-solving while using an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) and including motivational and metacognitive feedback based on the learner's past states and experiences. An existing ITS, SQL-Tutor, was used with first-year undergraduates studying a database module. The study used two versions of SQL-Tutor: the Control group used a base version providing domain feedback and the Study group used an extended version that also provided motivational and metacognitive feedback. This paper summarises the pre- and post-process results. Comparisons between groups showed some differing trends both in learning outcomes and behaviour in favour of the Study group.
The Preschool Classroom as a Context for Cognitive Development: Type of Teacher Feedback and Children's Metacognitive Control (El aula Preescolar como espacio de desarrollo cognitivo: tipo de feedback docente y control metacognitivo en los niños)
Muñoz, Liz; Cruz, Josefina Santa
Introduction: The aim of this work was to determine whether the type of feedback given by the preschool teacher during class impacts the children's metacognitive control. For this purpose, the children's behavior was analyzed while teachers provided feedback during collaborative learning sessions. Method: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional…
Full Text Available Reading is one of the main four language skills that a learner needs to master in order to ensure success in learning English. To facilitate students in comprehending a text, the effective strategies should be used. One of the strategies is Meta-cognitive strategies. The objectives of the research are to identify students’ responses during learned process by using Meta-cognitive strategies and to investigate how high students’ improvement of skimming and scanning reading skill after learned by using Meta-cognitive strategies in recount text. Meta-cognitive strategies improve students to reflect on thought processes and to plan, monitor, and evaluate aspects of their learning. The participants were third semester of English department students of Islamic Education and Teacher Training Faculty of Walisongo State Islamic University.The reserch design was Classroom Action Research with 1 preliminary cycle and 2 cycles. This research was conducted from March, 2th 2015 until March, 21th 2015. Data collection technique was tests. Observations were done in each cycle. Tests form was given the students, they should answer 20 questions of multiple choice test. Then, the data were analyzed using mean (descriptive statistics to find out the improvements. Meta-cognitive strategies were applied in the teaching learning process by giving plan (giving task for students, monitoring, evaluating, and problem solving to the students. After collecting the data, the result showed the improvements of the students. Students’ average score in pre cycle test was 60. In the first cycle, the average score increased became 70. This score hadn’t met the minimum standard score yet 75. Therefore, second cycle was conducted. Students’ average score increased became 82.16. Students’ engagements also increased since the first cycle. Consequently, the objectives were reached. Based on the result, it could be concluded that Meta-cognitive strategy can improve the
Full Text Available Reading is one of the main four language skills that a learner needs to master in order to ensure success in learning English. To facilitate students in comprehending a text, the effective strategies should be used. One of the strategies is Meta-cognitive strategies. The objectives of the research are to identify students’ responses during learned process by using Meta-cognitive strategies and to investigate how high students’ improvement of skimming and scanning reading skill after learned by using Meta-cognitive strategies in recount text. Meta-cognitive strategies improve students to reflect on thought processes and to plan, monitor, and evaluate aspects of their learning. The participants were third semester of English department students of Islamic Education and Teacher Training Faculty of Walisongo State Islamic University.The reserch design was Classroom Action Research with 1 preliminary cycle and 2 cycles. This research was conducted from March, 2th 2015 until March, 21th 2015. Data collection technique was tests. Observations were done in each cycle. Tests form was given the students, they should answer 20 questions of multiple choice test. Then, the data were analyzed using mean (descriptive statistics to find out the improvements. Meta-cognitive strategies were applied in the teaching learning process by giving plan (giving task for students, monitoring, evaluating, and problem solving to the students. After collecting the data, the result showed the improvements of the students. Students’ average score in pre cycle test was 60. In the first cycle, the average score increased became 70. This score hadn’t met the minimum standard score yet 75. Therefore, second cycle was conducted. Students’ average score increased became 82.16. Students’ engagements also increased since the first cycle. Consequently, the objectives were reached. Based on the result, it could be concluded that Meta-cognitive strategy can improve the
Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.J.A.; Sauer, Pieter J.J.; Bos, Arend F.
Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...
Ferreira, Naomi Vidal; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; dos Santos, Fernando; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia
Introduction Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI), is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI. Aim To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI. Method The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19), and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07). We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF). Results Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working memory, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and phonemic verbal fluency. After adjustment, the ABI group performance remained worse for working memory and semantic verbal fluency. In a simple correlation analysis including all of the subjects, the 6MWT was associated with global cognition, attention span, working memory, information processing speed, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and global ECF. After adjustment, all the associations remained statistically significant. Conclusion This study found an independent association between
To make good use of learning from others (social learning), we need to learn from the right others; from agents who know better than we do. Research on social learning strategies (SLSs) has identified rules that focus social learning on the right agents, and has shown that the behaviour of many animals conforms to these rules. However, it has not asked what the rules are made of, that is, about the cognitive processes implementing SLSs. Here, I suggest that most SLSs depend on domain-general, sensorimotor processes. However, some SLSs have the characteristics tacitly ascribed to all of them. These metacognitive SLSs represent 'who knows' in a conscious, reportable way, and have the power to promote cultural evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Typaldou, G M; Konstantakopoulos, G; Roxanis, I; Nidos, A; Vaidakis, N; Papadimitriou, G N; Wells, A
The Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), developed by Wells and Cartwright-Hatton (2004), represents a multidimensional measure of metacognitive factors considered to be important in the metacognitive model of psychological disorders. The primary aim of the present study was to examine internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and the factor structure of the Greek version of the MCQ-30. Moreover, we investigated the associations of the extracted factors with trait anxiety in a Greek sample. The study sample consisted of 547 non-clinical participants (213 males and 334 females). All participants completed the Greek version of the MCQ-30. A subsample of 157 participants also completed the Trait Anxiety subscale of the State -Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Meta-worry subscale of the Anxious Thought Inventory. Thirty participants were retested with the MCQ-30 over a retest interval ranging from three to five weeks. The results confirmed the dimensionality of the MCQ-30 and five factors were extracted consistent with the original English version: (1) positive beliefs about worry, (2) negative beliefs about worry concerning uncontrollability and danger, (3) cognitive confidence, (4) beliefs about the need to control thoughts and the negative consequences of not controlling them, and (5) cognitive selfconsciousness. The MCQ-30 showed high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The correlation between MCQ-30 total score and AnTI-MW was strong, indicating high level of convergent validity. Moreover, all correlations between MCQ-30 total and subscale scores and STAI-T were significant apart from the correlation between 'cognitive confidence' and trait anxiety. The Greek sample scored higher in the MCQ-30 and its subscales than the English sample in the original study. Women scored significantly higher than men in the overall MCQ-30 and the "uncontrollability and danger" and "need to control thoughts" subscales, whereas no
Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A
Ongoing research explores whether animals have precursors to metacognition-that is, the capacity to monitor mental states or cognitive processes. Comparative psychologists have tested apes, monkeys, rats, pigeons, and a dolphin using perceptual, memory, foraging, and information-seeking paradigms. The consensus is that some species have a functional analog to human metacognition. Recently, though, associative modelers have used formal-mathematical models hoping to describe animals' "metacognitive" performances in associative-behaviorist ways. We evaluate these attempts to reify formal models as proof of particular explanations of animal cognition. These attempts misunderstand the content and proper application of models. They embody mistakes of scientific reasoning. They blur fundamental distinctions in understanding animal cognition. They impede theoretical development. In contrast, an energetic empirical enterprise is achieving strong success in describing the psychology underlying animals' metacognitive performances. We argue that this careful empirical work is the clear path to useful theoretical development. The issues raised here about formal modeling-in the domain of animal metacognition-potentially extend to biobehavioral research more broadly.
Marcantonio M. Spada
Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between metacognitions, attentional control, and the severity of gambling in problem gamblers. One hundred and twenty six problem gamblers completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21, the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30, the Attentional Control Scale, and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Results revealed that negative affect, four out of five metacognitions factors (positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs about thoughts concerning danger and uncontrollability, cognitive confidence and beliefs about the need to control thoughts, and all attentional control factors (focusing, shifting and flexible control of thought were correlated, in the predicted directions, with the severity of gambling. The same metacognitions were also found to be correlated, in the predicted directions, with attention focusing, however only negative beliefs about thoughts concerning danger and uncontrollability and cognitive confidence were found to be correlated with attention shifting and flexible control of thought. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that beliefs about the need to control thoughts were the only predictor of the severity of gambling controlling for negative affect. Overall these findings support the hypotheses and are consistent with the metacognitive model of psychological dysfunction. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Soleimani, Hassan; Rahmanian, Mahboubeh
Research in multilingualism has shown that bilinguals have enhanced executive function (e.g., Donnelly et al. in Proceedings of the 37th annual conference of the cognitive science society 2015; Green in Bilingualism Lang Cognit 1(02):67-81, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728998000133 ); however, this with many other areas in multilingualism have been questioned like their non-verbal reasoning or their metacognitive ability. This study attempts to explore learning more than one languages in the field of metacognitive abilities. Three groups of monolinguals, bilinguals, and trilinguals were explored to examine the effect of language learning on enhancing or weakening accuracy and response time in metacognitive processing. Conducting dot discrimination task, we found that multilingualism might have some advantages in this field. As cognition and metacognitive abilities demonstrated no positive correlation in this study, we might conclude that executive functioning can not bring about higher order functioning for the individuals. Nevertheless, monolinguals did the task in the least period of time with the least accuracy. Trilinguals, on the contrary, could respond more accurately with an average speed. Accuracy, difficulty, and response time choice in metacognitive processing were discussed for each group. It is concluded that multilingualism might have different effects on higher-order decision making abilities.
Ladegaard, Nicolai; Larsen, Erik Roj; Videbech, Poul; Lysaker, Paul H
Patients suffering from major depression experience difficulties in multiple cognitive faculties. A growing body of research has linked affective disorders to abnormalities in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. However, little inquiry has gone into possible impairment in higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Forty-four medication-naïve patients with first-episode unipolar major depressive disorder and an equal number of matched controls were assessed by the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A), The Frith-Happé animations (FHA) and The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Additionally, neurocognition was assessed utilyzing the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Depressed patients showed impairment in all domains of higher-order social cognitive ability. Importantly, social cognitive variables retained their inter-group significance after controlling for possible covariates including neurocognition. Results indicate that first-episode depressed patients experience difficulties in all domains of higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elena Aleksandrovna Makarova
Full Text Available The article reflects on the role of visualization in education. Modern society is characterized by rapid growth of information that people have to process in order to maintain progress and sustainability in science and development of education. The amount of information is growing so quickly that a person is no longer able to perceive actual data about the outside world and process it using traditional methods. The basis of the “image of the world” contains not only concepts, but the semantic images created with the help of visual thinking. In our study we assume that students are quite limited in their knowledge about cognitive phenomena or in their meta-cognition and do relatively little monitoring of their own memory, comprehension, and other cognitive enterprises. But we also assume that every student is potentially capable of meta-cognition, which is thinking of how better to perform cognitive actions and to be aware of how to learn. Developing meta-cognitive awareness is important because it helps learners become more efficacious and more autonomous. For many of them it can be identified as the most effective way of acquiring knowledge. Visualizing the very process of learning can help see how well it is going. Schema theory offers different ways of using schemas, especially in education. So far, there have been researches on schema as a tool for particular skills such as better comprehension, memorizing and retrieval of the knowledge received. It means students can use schemas to better understand the process of learning and skills acquired.
In this study, qualitative evidence is collected--through classroom observations and teacher and student interviews--to study the effect of metacognition and the interaction between students' observable cognitive behaviour and the instructional task. This qualitative data is analysed to identify what factors support and improve students'…
Sumadyo, M.; Santoso, H. B.; Sensuse, D. I.
Metacognitive ability in digital-based learning process helps students in achieving learning goals. So that digital-based learning environment should make the metacognitive component as a facility that must be equipped. Smart Learning Environment is the concept of a learning environment that certainly has more advanced components than just a digital learning environment. This study examines the metacognitive component of the smart learning environment to support the learning process. A review of the metacognitive literature was conducted to examine the components involved in metacognitive learning strategies. Review is also conducted on the results of study smart learning environment, ranging from design to context in building smart learning. Metacognitive learning strategies certainly require the support of adaptable, responsive and personalize learning environments in accordance with the principles of smart learning. The current study proposed the role of metacognitive component in smart learning environment, which is useful as the basis of research in building environment in smart learning.
Balzan, Ryan P; Delfabbro, Paul H; Galletly, Cherrie A; Woodward, Todd S
Metacognitive training is an eight-module, group-based treatment programme for people with schizophrenia that targets the cognitive biases (i.e. problematic thinking styles) thought to contribute to the genesis and maintenance of delusions. The present article is an investigation into the efficacy of a shorter, more targeted, single-module metacognitive training programme, administered individually, which focuses specifically on improving cognitive biases that are thought to be driven by a 'hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches' mechanism (e.g. jumping to conclusions, belief inflexibility, reasoning heuristics, illusions of control). It was hypothesised that a more targeted metacognitive training module could still improve performance on these bias tasks and reduce delusional ideation, while improving insight and quality of life. A sample of 28 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and mild delusions either participated in the hour-long, single-session, targeted metacognitive training programme (n = 14), or continued treatment as usual (n = 14). All patients were assessed using clinical measures gauging overall positive symptomology, delusional ideation, quality of life and insight, and completed two cognitive bias tasks designed to elucidate the representativeness and illusion of control biases. After a 2-week, post-treatment interval, targeted metacognitive training patients exhibited significant decreases in delusional severity and conviction, significantly improved clinical insight, and significant improvements on the cognitive bias tasks, relative to the treatment-as-usual controls. Performance improvements on the cognitive bias tasks significantly correlated with the observed reductions in overall positive symptomology. Patients also evaluated the training positively. Although interpretations of these results are limited due to the lack of an optimally designed, randomised controlled trial and a small sample size, the results are promising and warrant
Marcantonio M. Spada
Full Text Available Objective: Problematic Internet Use (PIU, broadly conceptualized as an inability to control one’s use of the Internet leading to negative consequences in daily life, is fast becoming a matter of significant concern in our society, particularly in adolescents. In the present study we aimed to assess a model in which metacognitions and emotion regulation independently predicted PIU. Method: A total of 380 adolescent students from a secondary school in Italy voluntarily participated in the study. Students completed a set of online self-report scales assessing PIU, metacognitions, and emotion regulation. Results: Metacognitions, with the exception of cognitive self-consciousness, were positively correlated with PIU. Moreover, emotion regulation negatively correlated with PIU. The model tested indicated that both metacognitions and emotion regulation had direct effects (positive and negative respectively on PIU and that the relationship between metacognitions and emotion regulation was not significant. Conclusions: Both metacognitions and emotion regulation appear to be relevant to PIU among adolescents. We discuss the implications of these findings.
Desender, Kobe; Buc Calderon, Cristian; Van Opstal, Filip; Van den Bussche, Eva
Previous research attempted to explain how humans strategically adapt behavior in order to achieve successful task performance. Recently, it has been suggested that 1 potential strategy is to avoid tasks that are too demanding. Here, we report 3 experiments that investigate the empirically neglected role of metacognitive awareness in this process. In these experiments, participants could freely choose between performing a task in either a high-demand or a low-demand context. Using subliminal priming, we ensured that participants were not aware of the visual stimuli creating these different demand contexts. Our results showed that participants who noticed a difference in task difficulty (i.e., metacognitive aware participants) developed a clear preference for the low-demand context. In contrast, participants who experienced no difference in task difficulty (i.e., metacognitive unaware participants) based their choices on variables unrelated to cognitive demand (e.g., the color or location associated with a context), and did not develop a preference for the low-demand context. Crucially, this pattern was found despite identical task performance in both metacognitive awareness groups. A multiple regression approach confirmed that metacognitive awareness was the main factor driving the preference for low-demand contexts. These results argue for an important role of metacognitive awareness in the strategic avoidance of demanding tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Professionals who are faced with emergency situations daily during their work can rely on three different ways of thinking. They can base their judgments and decisions on intuition. Alternatively they can apply heuristic strategies, which offer simple procedures to simplify situations and find satisfactory solutions. Finally, they can reflect analytically. The optimal approach would be a flexible use of these three systems, since it enables doctors to activate the system that is more relevant to the given situation and eventually to pass to another system when they realize that the previous one is inadequate. Metacognitive competence is required in order to identify the mental system that is more relevant to a specific case. This competence consists in the ability to self-regulate cognitive processes in order to match the specific needs of the moment. To do so, individuals have to pay attention to their cognitive processes and understand how they can be trusted and what is the best way to handle them. Operatively, metacognitive competence should be developed by leading professionals to identify the mode of thinking – intuitive, heuristic or analytical – that is best suited to make the choices required by the clinical cases that they are facing. Suggestions concerning the way physicians working in emergency department can be trained to enhance their metacognitive skills are reported.
Händel, Marion; Lockl, Kathrin; Heydrich, Jana; Weinert, Sabine; Artelt, Cordula
This study investigated whether and, if so, how metacognitive knowledge can be assessed validly in students with special educational needs in a large-scale assessment like the German National Educational Panel Study. In total, 804 sixth-grade students including both regular school students attending the lowest track of secondary education…
Terri Landon Bacow
Full Text Available Terri Landon Bacow1, Jill Ehrenreich May2, Leslie R Brody3, Donna B Pincus41Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Miami, FL, USA; 3Department of Psychology, 4Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders, Boston University, MA, USAAbstract: While Wells’ metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD posits that certain metacognitive processes, such as negative meta-worry (negative beliefs about worry, are more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD than other anxiety disorders in adults, research has yet to determine whether the same pattern is true for younger individuals. We examined the relationship between several metacognitive processes and anxiety disorder diagnostic status in a sample of 98 youth aged 7–17 years. Twenty youth with GAD were compared with similarly sized groups of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, n = 18, social phobia (SOC, n = 20, separation anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 20, and healthy controls who were not patients (NONP, n = 20 using a self-report measure of metacognition adapted for use with young people in this age range (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children. Contrary to expectations, only one specific metacognitive process was significantly associated with an anxiety disorder diagnosis, in that the controls endorsed a greater degree of cognitive monitoring (self-reported awareness of one’s thoughts than those with SAD. In addition, there was a trend indicating that nonpatients scored higher than youth with GAD on this scale. These surprising results suggest potentially differing patterns in the relationships between symptoms and metacognitive awareness in anxious youth, depending on the type of anxiety disorder presentation.Keywords: metacognition, childhood, adolescence, anxiety, diagnosis
Smith, J. David; Couchman, Justin J.; Beran, Michael J.
A growing literature considers whether animals have capacities that are akin to human metacognition (i. e., humans’ capacity to monitor their states of uncertainty and knowing). Comparative psychologists have approached this question by testing a dolphin, pigeons, rats, monkeys and apes using perception, memory and food-concealment paradigms. As part of this consideration, some associative modelers have attempted to describe animals’ “metacognitive” performances in low-level, associative terms—an important goal if achievable. The authors summarize the empirical and theoretical situation regarding these associative descriptions. The associative descriptions in the animal-metacognition literature fail to encompass important phenomena. The sharp focus on abstract, mathematical associative models creates serious interpretative problems. The authors compare these failed associative descriptions to an alternative theoretical approach within contemporary comparative psychology. The alternative approach has the potential to strengthen comparative psychology as an empirical science and integrate it more fully within the mainstream of experimental psychology and cognitive science. PMID:23957740
Ahmad, Herlina; Febryanti, Fatimah; Febryanti, Fatimah; Muthmainnah
This research was conducted qualitative which was aim to describe metacognitive ability to understand and solve the problems of mathematics. The subject of the research was the first year students at computer and networking department of SMK Mega Link Majene. The sample was taken by purposive sampling technique. The data obtained used the research instrument based on the form of students achievements were collected by using test of student’s achievement and interview guidance. The technique of collecting data researcher had observation to ascertain the model that used by teacher was teaching model of developing metacognitive. The technique of data analysis in this research was reduction data, presentation and conclusion. Based on the whole findings in this study it was shown that student’s metacognitive ability generally not develops optimally. It was because of limited scope of the materials, and cognitive teaching strategy handled by verbal presentation and trained continuously in facing cognitive tasks, such as understanding and solving problem.
Crowley, Rebecca S.; Legowski, Elizabeth; Medvedeva, Olga; Tseytlin, Eugene; Roh, Ellen; Jukic, Drazen
Objective Determine effects of computer-based tutoring on diagnostic performance gains, meta-cognition, and acceptance using two different problem representations. Describe impact of tutoring on spectrum of diagnostic skills required for task performance. Identify key features of student-tutor interaction contributing to learning gains. Design Prospective, between-subjects study, controlled for participant level of training. Resident physicians in two academic pathology programs spent four hours using one of two interfaces which differed mainly in external problem representation. The case-focused representation provided an open-learning environment in which students were free to explore evidence-hypothesis relationships within a case, but could not visualize the entire diagnostic space. The knowledge-focused representation provided an interactive representation of the entire diagnostic space, which more tightly constrained student actions. Measurements Metrics included results of pretest, post-test and retention-test for multiple choice and case diagnosis tests, ratios of performance to student reported certainty, results of participant survey, learning curves, and interaction behaviors during tutoring. Results Students had highly significant learning gains after one tutoring session. Learning was retained at one week. There were no differences between the two interfaces in learning gains on post-test or retention test. Only students in the knowledge-focused interface exhibited significant metacognitive gains from pretest to post-test and pretest to retention test. Students rated the knowledge-focused interface significantly higher than the case-focused interface. Conclusions Cognitive tutoring is associated with improved diagnostic performance in a complex medical domain. The effect is retained at one-week post-training. Knowledge-focused external problem representation shows an advantage over case-focused representation for metacognitive effects and user
Artelt, Cordula; Schneider, Wolfgang
Background/Context: Because metacognitive knowledge includes knowledge about adequate learning strategies, and because an effective use of learning strategies is associated with higher levels of performance, substantial relationships can be assumed between metacognitive knowledge, strategic behavior, and performance. However, such a pattern of…
Yilmaz, Rabia M.; Baydas, Ozlem
The aim of the study is to examine undergraduate students' awareness of metacognition, the metacognitive strategies they use in their learning and their learning performance in pre-class asynchronous activity in a flipped classroom. The sample consisted of 47 undergraduate students. Eleven students were not included in this study since they did…
Davies, Geoff; Fowler, David; Greenwood, Kathryn
Neurocognitive and functional outcome deficits have long been acknowledged in schizophrenia and neurocognition has been found to account for functional disability to a greater extent than psychopathology. Much of the variance in functional outcome however still remains unexplained and metacognition may mediate the relationship between neurocognition, functional capacity, and self-reported social and occupational function. Eighty first episode psychosis participants were recruited and completed measures of neurocognition (memory, executive function, and intelligence quotient), metacognition (Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, Metacognitive Awareness Interview), psychopathology (PANSS), and both functional capacity (UPSA) and real-life social and occupational function (The Time Use Survey). Path analyses investigated the relationships between variables through structural equation modeling. A series of path models demonstrated that metacognition partially mediates the relationship between neurocognition and functional capacity, and fully mediates the relationship between functional capacity and social and occupational function. The present study findings identify that metacognition may be critical to translating cognitive and functional skills into real-world contexts, and this relationship is found at early stages of illness. Understanding how individuals translate cognitive and functional skills into the real-world (the competence-performance gap) may offer valuable guidance to intervention programs. This finding is important to models of recovery as it suggests that intervention programs that focus on enhancing metacognition abilities may have a greater impact than traditional rehabilitation programs focusing on cognitive abilities, on social and occupational outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Full Text Available Headache, in particular migraine, is one of the most frequent neurological symptoms in children and adolescents and it affects about 60% of children and adolescents all over the world. Headache can affect several areas of child’s functioning, such as school, physical activities, peer, and family relationship. The global and severe burden of this disease requires a multidisciplinary strategy and an effective treatment addressed all of the patient’s needs and based on cutting-edge scientific research. In recent years, research has focused on cognitive factors specifically in functions called metacognitive processes. Metacognition can be defined as the knowledge, beliefs, and cognitive processes involved in monitoring, control, and assessment of cognition. Metacognition seems to be closely related to the ability of theory of mind, the ability to infer, and reason about the mental states of other people in order to predict and explain own behavior. Recent studies found a relationship between metacognitive skills and anxiety, depression, motivation, academic performance, human social interactions, and stress symptoms. This relationship is very interesting for headache treatment, because these factors are the most commonly reported triggers in this disorder and there is a high comorbidity with anxiety and depression in children and adolescents with headache. So, headache and these comorbidities, in particular anxiety and depression, may have in common persistent and maladaptive patterns of thinking which are related to maladaptive metacognitive beliefs. Further research should assess metacognitive processes of children and adolescents with headache in order to increase their ability to control their own cognitive processes and consequently monitor factors which may trigger the attacks.
Filevich, E.; Dresler, M.; Brick, T.R.; Kuhn, S.
Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition.
Hart, John T., Jr.
Ensemble directors have a special interest in helping students learn to practice effectively. Practice is also an essential component of musical development. Music educators need to both teach effective practice strategies and guide students toward meaningful, thoughtful practice. Metacognition strategies are one way to accomplish this. Current…
Wall, Kate; Hall, Elaine
This paper draws on data collected during a longitudinal collaborative project with teachers in England from schools and further education colleges. The project investigated "Learning to Learn" in partnership with teacher-researchers with a focus on how metacognitive awareness can be improved by enquiring into creative combinations of…
Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Rand, Kevin L; Lysaker, Paul H
Poor functioning has long been observed in individuals with psychosis. Recent studies have identified metacognition - one's ability to form complex ideas about oneself and others and to use that information to respond to psychological and social challenges-as being an important determinant of functioning. However, the exact process by which deficits in metacognition lead to impaired functioning remains unclear. This study first examined whether low intrinsic motivation, or the tendency to pursue novel experiences and to engage in self-improvement, mediates the relationship between deficits in metacognition and impaired functioning. We then examined whether intrinsic motivation significantly mediated the relationship when controlling for age, education, symptoms, executive functioning, and social cognition. Mediation models were examined in a cross-sectional data set. One hundred and seventy-five individuals with a psychotic disorder completed interview-based measures of metacognition, intrinsic motivation, symptoms, and functioning and performance-based measures of executive functioning and social cognition. Analyses revealed that intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between metacognition deficits and impaired functioning (95% CI of indirect effect [0.12-0.43]), even after controlling for the aforesaid variables (95% CI of indirect effect [0.04-0.29]). Results suggest that intrinsic motivation may be a mechanism that underlies the link between deficits in metacognition and impaired functioning and indicate that metacognition and intrinsic motivation may be important treatment targets to improve functioning in individuals with psychosis. The findings of this study suggest that deficits in metacognition may indirectly lead to impaired functioning through their effect on intrinsic motivation in individuals with psychosis. Psychological treatments that target deficits in both metacognition and intrinsic motivation may help to alleviate impaired functioning in
Full Text Available The Development of Biology Material Resources by Metacognitive Strategy The study was aimed at finding out the suitability of Biology Materials using the metacognitive strategy. The materials were textbooks, self-understanding Evaluation Sheet and the key, lesson plan, and tests including the answer key. The criteria of appropriateness included the relevance of the resources with the content validity, face validity and the language. This research and development study was carried out employing a 3D model, namely define, design and develop. At the define stage, three topics were selected for analysis, they were virus, Endocrine System, and Genetic material. During the design phase, the physical appearance of the materials was suited with the Metacognitive Strategy. At the develop phase, the material resources were examined and validated by two Biology experts and senior teachers of Biology. The results showed that the Biology material Resources using Metacognitive Strategy developed in the study has fell into the category of very good ( score > 3.31 and was therefore considered suitable.
Hagen, Kristen; Solem, Stian; Opstad, Håvard Berg; Hansen, Bjarne; Hagen, Roger
Several studies have indicated that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common comorbidity in patients with psychotic disorders, but there is sparse knowledge about the relationship between symptoms of OCD and psychotic symptoms. Metacognitions which guides thinking and coping is theorized to be a transdiagnostic component central for development and maintenance of psychological disorders, OCD and psychosis included. The aim of the study was therefore to explore how symptoms of OCD and metacognitions relate to symptoms of psychosis. Our main hypotheses were that metacognitions would be significantly related to all symptoms of psychological distress, and that there is considerable overlap between symptoms of psychosis and OCD. Community controls (N = 194) completed an internet survey measuring levels of paranoid ideation, predisposition to hallucinations, symptoms of OCD, depression, anxiety, and metacognitions. Correlations and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were used to unveil the relationship between symptoms and beliefs. Symptoms of OCD showed a strong positive correlation with symptoms of psychosis, and the relationships were still significant after controlling for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Metacognitions also showed strong positive correlations with all symptom measures. Metacognition and OCD-symptoms accounted for 53.8% of the variance in paranoid ideation and 43.8% of predisposition to hallucinations. There was a large overlap between symptoms of psychosis, OCD-symptoms, and metacognitions (30.2-37.3%). In general, the results suggest considerable overlap between paranoid ideation, predisposition to hallucinations, and OCD and metacognitive beliefs in a non-clinical sample. Further experimental- and clinical studies are needed in order to explore metacognitive models of OCD and psychosis.
Modestou, Modestina; Gagatsis, Athanasios
In this study we attempt to propose a new model of proportional reasoning based both on bibliographical and research data. This is impelled with the help of three written tests involving analogical, proportional, and non-proportional situations that were administered to pupils from grade 7 to 9. The results suggest the existence of a…
Wilson, Nance S.; Bai, Haiyan
We know that metacognitive students are successful in school (Sternberg "Instructional Science" 26:127-140, 1998). However, despite the recognition of the role of metacognition in student success, limited research has been done to explore teachers' explicit awareness of their metacognition and their ability to think about, talk about, and write…
Sandi-Urena, Guillermo Santiago
The central role of metacognition in learning and problem solving, in general and in chemistry in specific, has been substantially demonstrated and has raised pronounced interest in its study. However, the intrinsic difficulties associated with the inner processes of such a non-overt behavior have delayed the development of appropriate assessment instruments. The first research question addressed in this work originates from this observation: Is it possible to reliably assess metacognition use in chemistry problem solving? This study presents the development, validation, and application of a multimethod instrument for the assessment of metacognition use in chemistry problem solving. This multimethod is composed of two independent methods used at different times in relation to the task performance: (1) the prospective Metacognitive Activities Inventory, MCA-I; and (2) the concurrent Interactive MultiMedia Exercises software package, IMMEX. This work also includes the design, development, and validation of the MCA-I; evidence is discussed that supports its robustness, reliability and validity. Even though IMMEX is well-developed, its utilization as a metacognition assessment tool is novel and explained within this work. Among the benefits of utilizing IMMEX are: the automation of concurrent evidence collection and analysis which allows for the participation of large cohorts, the elimination of subjective assessments, and the collection of data in the absence of observers which presumably favors a more realistic deployment of skills by the participants. The independent instruments produced convergent results and the multimethod designed was proven to be reliable, robust and valid for the intended purpose. The second guiding question refers to the development of metacognition: Can regulatory metacognition use be enhanced by learning environments? Two interventions were utilized to explore this inquiry: a Collaborative Metacognitive Intervention and a Cooperative
du Boulay, Benedict; Avramides, Katerina; Luckin, Rosemary; Martinez-Miron, Erika; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Carr, Amanda
This paper describes a Conceptual Framework underpinning "Systems that Care" in terms of educational systems that take account of motivation, metacognition and affect, in addition to cognition. The main focus is on "motivation," as learning requires the student to put in effort and be engaged, in other words to be motivated to learn. But…
Reading, whether the reader's First language, L1 or Second language, L2, is a cognitive enterprise, and it can be treated as a result of the interaction among the reader, the text, and the context. Metacognitive strategies refer to the behaviours applied by learners to plan, arrange, and evaluate their learning. This study aimed to investigate…
Roberts, Greg; Scammacca, Nancy; Osman, David J.; Hall, Colby; Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Vaughn, Sharon
Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text (PACT) and similar team-based models directly engage and support students in learning situations that require cognitive elaboration as part of the processing of new information. Elaboration is subject to metacognitive control, as well (Karpicke, "Journal of Experimental…
Ellis, Danielle M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.
Worry is a common phenomenon in children and adolescents, with some experiencing excessive worries that cause significant distress and interference. The metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (Wells 1995, 2009) was developed to explain cognitive processes associated with pathological worry in adults, particularly the role of positive…
An intervention project introduced metacognition techniques to compensate for educational deficiencies in young adults. The project, based on the Instrumental Enrichment cognitive training program, led to improvement in students' motivation, awareness of their own learning strategies, more rapid and sustained academic progress, and increased…
Metacognition as a dimension of learning ranks highest in the revised Bloom's Taxonomy of cognitive tasks. In this paper we illustrate how it can be incorporated into a repeated exercise in the mathematics classroom, through a specific case study in the context of a liberal arts mathematics course. Through the semester, students were asked weekly…
Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether university students can adjust their study strategies to meet the cognitive demands of testing; a metacognitive self-regulatory skill. One hundred and fifty undergraduates attended three lectures as part of a course on the psychology of individual differences. These participants were then…
Tzohar-Rozen, Meirav; Kramarski, Bracha
Mathematical problem solving is one of the most valuable aspects of mathematics education. It is also the most difficult for elementary-school students (Verschaffel, Greer, & De Corte, 2000). Students experience cognitive and metacognitive difficulties in this area and develop negative emotions and poor motivation, which hamper their efforts…
Tan, Shuyan Melissa; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.; Gardner, Peter
This qualitative study investigated the impact of using blogs on the clinical reasoning and meta-cognitive skills of undergraduate physiotherapy students in a fieldwork education program. A blog is a web based document that enables individuals to enter comments and read each others' comments in a dynamic and interactive manner. In this study,…
Tomohito, HIROMORI; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Graduate School Hokkaido University
Recent research in L2 language education has begun to recognize that metacognition plays a significant role in L2 learning processes. These studies have investigated metacognitive awareness of learning strategies and the relationships among perceived strategy use, actual strategy use, and L2 performance. This paper reports a classroom-based, longtitudinal study of the effect of metacognitive strategy instruction on reading comprehension. To achieve the purpose of the study, two groups of EFL ...
Rozental, Alexander; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey; Egan, Sarah; Nordgren, Lise Bergman; Carlbring, Per; Landström, Andreas; Roos, Stina; Skoglund, Malin; Thelander, Elisabet; Trosell, Linnéa; Örtenholm, Alexander; Andersson, Gerhard
Being highly attentive to details can be a positive feature. However, for some individuals, perfectionism can lead to distress and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to yield many benefits for those experiencing problems with perfectionism, but the access to evidence-based care is limited. The current study investigated the efficacy of guided Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) and predictors of treatment outcome. In total, 156 individuals were included and randomized to an eight-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-report measures of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, self-criticism, self-compassion, and quality of life were distributed during screening and at post-treatment. Intention-to-treat were used for all statistical analyses. Moderate to large between-group effect sizes were obtained for the primary outcome measures, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscales Concerns over Mistakes and Personal Standards, Cohen's d = 0.68-1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.36-1.33], with 35 (44.9%) of the patients in treatment being improved. Predictors were also explored, but none were related to treatment outcome. In sum, guided ICBT can be helpful for addressing problems with clinical perfectionism, but research of its long-term benefits is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, J David; Couchman, Justin J; Beran, Michael J
A growing literature considers whether animals have capacities that are akin to human metacognition (i.e., humans' capacity to monitor their states of uncertainty and knowing). Comparative psychologists have approached this question by testing a dolphin, pigeons, rats, monkeys, and apes using perception, memory, and food-concealment paradigms. As part of this consideration, some associative modelers have attempted to describe animals' "metacognitive" performances in low-level, associative terms-an important goal if achievable. The authors summarize the empirical and theoretical situation regarding these associative descriptions. The associative descriptions in the animal-metacognition literature fail to encompass important phenomena. The sharp focus on abstract, mathematical associative models creates serious interpretative problems. The authors compare these failed associative descriptions with an alternative theoretical approach within contemporary comparative psychology. The alternative approach has the potential to strengthen comparative psychology as an empirical science and integrate it more fully within the mainstream of experimental psychology and cognitive science. ©2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Sverre Urnes Johnson
Full Text Available AbstractWe aimed to systematically evaluate a generic model of metacognitive therapy (MCT with a highly comorbid anxiety disorder patient, that had been treated with diagnosis-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT without significant effect. Traditionally, CBT has progressed within a disorder-specific approach, however it has been suggested that this could be less optimal with highly comorbid patients. To address comorbidity, transdiagnostic treatment models have been emerging. This case study used an AB-design with repeated assessments during each therapy session and a 1-year follow-up assessment to evaluate the effectiveness of MCT. Following 8 sessions of MCT, significant decrease in anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as loss of diagnostic status was observed. Outcomes were preserved at 12 months follow up. The generic model of MCT seems promising as an approach to highly comorbid mixed anxiety depression patients. Further testing using more powered methodologies are needed. Keywords: Metacognitive therapy, transdiagnostic, metacognition, anxiety, comorbidity.
Given the relevance of problematic Internet use (PIU) to everyday life, its relationship to emotional dysregulation and the importance of metacognitions and distress intolerance in process and intermediaries research, this study examined which of metacognitions and distress intolerance acts as an intermediary between emotional dysregulation and PIU. In the current study, 413 undergraduate students from the University of Tehran, Iran (202 females; mean age = 20.13) voluntarily completed a questionnaire package which included the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30(, and Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS). The data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling by LISREL software. Significant correlations were found between PIU and emotional dysregulation and both distress intolerance and metacognitions ( P intolerance. Also, these findings emphasize that distress intolerance has a more significant mediating role than metacognition in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and PIU.
Mohammad Akram Alzu'bi
Full Text Available The study aimed at analyzing English questions of the Jordanian Secondary Certificate Examinations via Blooms' cognitive levels. An analysis sheet was prepared by the researcher for the purpose of the study, which was ensured to be valid and reliable. The whole questions of the general secondary examinations for English course in both levels (level three and level four during 2010-2013 composed the sample of the study. Frequencies and percentages were tabulated to facilitate the analysis of the results. The result of the study revealed that the total percentage of the first three levels (comprehension, knowledge, and analysis is (69.6 but the total percentage of the last three levels (application, synthesis, and evaluation is (30.4 so it indicated that the English questions included in general secondary examinations emphasize low order thinking levels. The researcher recommended that the questions designers should improve their questioning techniques in writing questions of exams.
Filevich, E.; Dresler, M.; Brick, T.R.; Kuhn, S.
Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participant...
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to examine the efficacy of metacognitive therapy in treatment of patients with pure obsession. Method: Six patients suffering from pure obsession were selected using purposeful sampling method and were included after meeting the inclusion criteria of the study. Patients were assessed using the structured clinical interview for DSM- IV Axis I disorder - patient edition (SCID- I/P. The patients main obsessions were present including sexual, aggressive and blasphemous thoughts. In response to these obsessions, all patients used covert rituals and compulsive behaviors. In this study, multiple baseline, a major type of single- subject empirical design, was employed. During the baseline (3-7 weeks and treatment (14 weekly sessions and follow-up (3 months patients filled out the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (Revised form (OCI-R, Yale-Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, Metacognitive Questionnaire (MCQ, Thought Fusion Inventory (TFI and Beck Depression Inventory- II (BDIII. To implement metacognitive therapy, Wells theraputicimstruction for OCD was used . Results: The results indicated that Metacognitive Therapy (MCT is effective in reducing obsessive - compulsive symptoms and in modifying metacognitive beliefs and thought-fusion beliefs . Conclusion: Metacognitive therapy is effective in treatment of pure obsession.
Pintrich, P R; Anderman, E M; Klobucar, C
The present study examines several cognitive and motivational variables that distinguish children with learning disabilities (n = 19) from children without learning disabilities (n = 20). The total sample included 30 males and 9 females and was composed of white, fifth-grade students from a middle-class community in the Midwest. Results showed that although the students with learning disabilities displayed lower levels of metacognitive knowledge and reading comprehension, they did not differ from the students without learning disabilities on self-efficacy, intrinsic orientation, or anxiety. In addition, they did not show any signs of learned helplessness, although they did tend to attribute success and failure to external causes more often than the students without learning disabilities. Using a cluster analysis that grouped individuals, we found that differences in the motivational and cognitive variables cut across a priori categories of children with and without learning disabilities. Three clusters were formed: one with high comprehension, motivation, and metacognition (mostly children without learning disabilities); one with low levels of comprehension and metacognition but high intrinsic motivation (all children with learning disabilities); and one with low intrinsic motivation but average comprehension, metacognition, and attributional style (approximately equal numbers of children with and without learning disabilities). Implications for diagnosis and intervention for students with learning disabilities are discussed.
Rieser, Svenja; Naumann, Alexander; Decristan, Jasmin; Fauth, Benjamin; Klieme, Eckhard; Büttner, Gerhard
In order for teaching to be successful, students need to be actively involved in learning. However, research on teaching effectiveness often neglects students' learning activities. Although it is assumed that effective teaching promotes the use of beneficial learning activities, empirical evidence for this connection is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the connection between effective teaching and reported learning activities. We hypothesize specific relations between a three-dimensional model of teaching quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, and classroom management) and students' reported use of metacognitive strategies. Students' intrinsic motivation is considered as a mediator and a moderator of this connection. N = 1,052 students from 53 German primary school classes and their science teachers participated. Data were collected through classroom or video observation and questionnaires over a period of approximately 2 months. Multilevel analysis was utilized to test our hypotheses. Each dimension of teaching quality positively predicted students' reported use of metacognitive strategies. For supportive climate, this connection was mediated by students' intrinsic motivation. Cognitive activation negatively predicted the slopes between students' reported metacognitive strategy use and motivation. The results support the notion that effective teaching is connected to learning activities and stress the importance of students' learning motivation. Results from the cross-level interaction could indicate that especially less motivated students' reported metacognitive strategy use might be supported by cognitively activating teaching. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy
Metacognition is an important aspect of human intelligence and higher learning. There is the recognition that metacognition is not just a private internal activity but also socially situated. In this context, the purpose of this research is to develop and validate a metacognitive construct that provides the opportunity to assess metacognition in…
Yokuşoğlu, Çağdaş; Atasoy, Mücahit; Tekeli, Nurgül; Ural, Ahmet; Ulus, Çağla; Taylan, Yunus; Aydin, Gülser; Gültekin, Gözde; Emül, Murat
The aim of this study was to examine the level of lucidity and its relation with metacognitive beliefs and dream anxiety in medical students. Nine hundred sixteen medical students were enrolled in the study. The participants were assessed with the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams Scale (LuCiD), the Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Van Dream Anxiety Scale (VDAS). There was no significant difference in mean total lucidity score between females and males, but there were some significant sex differences in subscales of lucidity, and control was significantly higher in male students, while realism, thought, and dissociation were significantly higher in female students. In addition, females had more dream anxiety levels, higher total MCQ-30 scores, and higher cognitive confidence and uncontrollability scores according to Metacognition Questionnaire-30 than males. We also found that the mean lucidity level was positively correlated with the mean total metacognition score and the mean total dream anxiety level. Our results suggest that female medical students tend to have more realistic dreams (p=0.018), have more logical thoughts during dreaming (p=0.011), and have a more dissociative experience during dreaming (p=0.028), while male medical students have more controlled dream events (p=0.002). There seem to be differences according to lucidity features between sexes, and the relationship between subdomains of lucidity and metacognition might lead to new therapeutic approaches to several psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders.
Parrott, J Scott; Rubinstein, Matthew L
The role of metacognitive skills in the evidence analysis process has received little attention in the research literature. While the steps of the evidence analysis process are well defined, the role of higher-level cognitive operations (metacognitive strategies) in integrating the steps of the process is not well understood. In part, this is because it is not clear where and how metacognition is implicated in the evidence analysis process nor how these skills might be taught. The purposes of this paper are to (a) suggest a model for identifying critical thinking and metacognitive skills in evidence analysis instruction grounded in current educational theory and research and (b) demonstrate how freely available systematic review/meta-analysis tools can be used to focus on higher-order metacognitive skills, while providing a framework for addressing common student weaknesses. The final goal of this paper is to provide an instructional framework that can generate critique and elaboration while providing the conceptual basis and rationale for future research agendas on this topic.
Carrell, Patricia L.; Wise, Teresa; Gajdusek, Linda
Reviews research streams in metacognition, reading strategies, and training of reading strategies that are converging in the field of English as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL) and impacting the teaching of English to non-native speakers for academic purposes. A research design for investigating the efficacy of metacognitive strategy…
Aktag, Isil; Semsek, Önder; Tuzcuoglu, Soner
In this study metacognitive awareness of physical education teachers were investigated. A total of 537 physical education teachers were participated. Data were collected by a survey which was developed by Schraw and Dennison (1994) translated to Turkish by Akin, Abaci and Çetin (2007). The mean of the metacognitive awareness level of physical…
Full Text Available This study analyzes differences in metacognitive skills and executive functioning between two groups of students (10-12 years with different levels of metacognitive knowledge (high n = 50, low n = 64. Groups were established based on students' score on a test of knowledge of strategy use. Metacognitive skills were assessed by means of self-report. Students reported the frequency with which they applied these strategies during the phases of planning, execution, and evaluation of learning. Information about student executive functioning was provided by families and teachers, who completed two parallel forms of a behavior rating scale. The results indicated that: a the group with high levels of metacognitive knowledge reported using their metacognitive skills more frequently than their peers in the other group. These differences were statistically significant in the phases of planning and execution; b both family and teachers informed of better levels of executive functioning in the students with high metacognitive knowledge. Statistically significant differences were found in planning, functional memory, focus, and sustained attention. These results show the existence of an association between different levels of metacognitive knowledge, and differences in metacognitive skills and executive functions, and suggest the need to emphasize this set of variables in order to encourage students to acquire increasing levels of control over their learning process.
Morrison, Carolyn; Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Convertino, Carol M.; Borgna, Georgianna; Dirmyer, Richard
This study explored deaf and hearing university students' metacognitive awareness with regard to comprehension difficulties during reading and classroom instruction. Utilising the Reading Awareness Inventory (Milholic, V. 1994. "An inventory to pique students' metacognitive awareness of reading strategies." "Journal of Reading"…
Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Brown, Deborah A.
The literature on metacognition and students having learning problems is reviewed. Investigations of metacognitive instruction to enhance memory skills, to increase text comprehension, and to improve written expression and math performance are reported. The roles of the teacher and learner in acquiring and controlling the targeted cognitive…
Destia Wahyu Hidayati
Abstract. Problem solving is something that can not be separated from mathematics. Students who are solving math problems do metacognition indirectly. Metacognition is an activity of thinking. Metacognitive is an adjective form of metacognition. Metacognitive relates with the different of thinking from each other. Metacognitive also relates with consciousness. Metacognitive awareness is the awareness of metacognitive activity. This study aims to diagnose or identify the difficulties of students' metacognitive awareness in solving problems. This research uses qualitative research method. The subjects consisted of three students, they were in the lower, middle, upper grade. Instruments in this research is question of mathematical problem solving test and interview guide. The result of this research is the position of student knowledge during problem solving process, problem solving strategy to solve the problem, and certain knowledge relation to solve the problem in low, medium, and upper grade shows different description. Keywords: Metacognitive awareness, problem solving
Moeller, Stine Bjerrum
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the metacognitive components of anger, and at present there is no metacognitive framework on anger incorporating both positive and negative beliefs about anger and distinct maladaptive processing routines, such as rumination. AIMS: The aim of the present...... preliminary studies was to apply a metacognitive framework to anger and put forward a new anger self-report scale, the Metacognitive Anger Processing (MAP) scale, intended as a supplement to existing measures of anger disposition and to enhance anger treatment targets. METHOD: The new measure was tested...... in a nonclinical and a clinical sample together with measures of anger and metacognition to establish factor structure, reliability, concurrent, and convergent validity. RESULTS: The MAP showed a reliable factor structure with three factors - Positive Beliefs about anger, Negative Beliefs about anger...
Nordahl, Hans M; Halvorsen, Joar Øveraas; Hjemdal, Odin; Ternava, Mimoza Rrusta; Wells, Adrian
The psychological treatment of choice for patients with severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is cognitive behavioural exposure therapy or Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR). Whilst these are the most effective treatments, approximately 30-45% of the patients show no significant improvements and follow-up data are sparse. Furthermore, a proportion of patients with severe trauma does not benefit or avoid exposure therapy due to the potential to overwhelm them. Therefore, it is necessary to search for effective methods that do not require exposure. Metacognitive therapy (MCT), a recent treatment approach to PTSD that does not require exposure, has potential strong treatment effects but so far a comparison with EMDR has not been made. This study is a two-arm, parallel, randomized, superiority trial comparing the effectiveness of MCT with EMDR. One hundred patients with a primary diagnosis of chronic PTSD will be included and will receive 12 sessions of one of the treatments. The primary outcome is severity of PTSD symptoms assessed with the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) measured post-treatment (3 months). Secondary outcomes include symptom severity (PDS) and measures of anxiety, depression, metacognitive beliefs at 3-month and 12-month follow up. This randomized study is the first to compare MCT with EMDR with 12-month follow-up. The study will indicate the comparative effectiveness of MCT against EMDR and the stability of effects when delivered in an outpatient clinical setting. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01955590 . Registered on 24 September 2013.
Siegel, Marcelle A.
While a body of research exists on individual metacognition, research on reflective communities is just beginning. This study generated a framework for conceptualizing metacognition in groups by describing likely components of group metacognition. I focused on a group of five preservice science teachers engaged in problem-based learning (PBL). The purpose of the PBL course was to help students gain useful concepts from the learning sciences to apply to teaching. I investigated forms of metacognition and the role reflective discourse played during the learning process. The group and facilitator were videotaped during PBL sessions. A segment of video to study further was identified through interaction analysis. I analyzed the discourse of this segment of the transcribed group discussion, and I examined the group's final paper. Supplementary data sources included the interaction analysis transcript of the full 8-h videotape and, specifically, the comments the group made about the resources they used to solve the problem. Categories of group metacognition were identified, claims proposed, and recombined or rejected until saturation. I identified three components of group metacognition that helped the group members solve the instructional redesign problem: (1) metasocial awareness about other member's expertise, (2) monitoring of understanding, and (3) monitoring of process. Future research directions and instructional implications are discussed.
Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Minor, Kyle S; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Benjamin; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H
Although motivation deficits are key determinants of functional outcomes, little is known about factors that contribute to prospective motivation in people with schizophrenia. One candidate factor is metacognition, or the ability to form complex representations about oneself, others, and the world. This study aimed to assess whether metacognition deficits were a significant predictor of reduced prospective motivation, after controlling for the effects of baseline motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic medication dose. Fifty-one participants with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed measures of metacognition and anticipatory pleasure at baseline; participants also completed a measure of motivation at baseline and six months after the initial assessment. Baseline antipsychotic dose was obtained from medical charts. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that lower levels of baseline metacognition significantly predicted reduced levels of motivation assessed six months later, after controlling for baseline levels of motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic dose. Higher baseline antipsychotic dose was also a significant predictor of reduced six month motivation. Results suggest that metacognition deficits and higher antipsychotic dose may be risk factors for the development of motivation deficits in schizophrenia. Implications include utilizing interventions to improve metacognition in conjunction with evaluating and possibly lowering antipsychotic dose for people struggling with motivation deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
SEMERCİ, Çetin; ELALDI, Şenel
This study was conducted to examine the influence of metacognitive beliefs on critical thinking skills. It was also aimed at examining what types of metacognitive beliefs might affect increasing a student’s critical thinking skills. It is hypothesized that critical thinking occurs when individuals use their metacognitive beliefs and, thereby, there is a connection between critical thinking and metacognitive beliefs. The sample of the study included 663 students, attending 3rd and 4th grades o...
Katz, David; Detsky, Allan S
This Perspective proposes the introduction of metacognition (thinking about thinking) into the existing format of hospital-based morbidity and mortality rounds. It is placed in the context of historical movements to advance quality improvement by expanding the spectrum of the causes of medical error from systems-based issues to flawed human decision-making capabilities. We suggest that the current approach that focuses on systems-based issues can be improved by exploiting the opportunities to educate physicians about predictable errors committed by reliance on cognitive heuristics. In addition, because the field of educating clinicians about cognitive heuristics has shown mixed results, this proposal represents fertile ground for further research. Educating clinicians about cognitive heuristics may improve metacognition and perhaps be the next frontier in quality improvement. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Palmer, Matthew A; Sauer, James D; Ling, Angus; Riza, Joshua
Cravings for food and other substances can impair cognition. We extended previous research by testing the effects of caffeine cravings on cued-recall and recognition memory tasks, and on the accuracy of judgements of learning (JOLs; predicted future recall) and feeling-of-knowing (FOK; predicted future recognition for items that cannot be recalled). Participants (N = 55) studied word pairs (POND-BOOK) and completed a cued-recall test and a recognition test. Participants made JOLs prior to the cued-recall test and FOK judgements prior to the recognition test. Participants were randomly allocated to a craving or control condition; we manipulated caffeine cravings via a combination of abstinence, cue exposure, and imagery. Cravings impaired memory performance on the cued-recall and recognition tasks. Cravings also impaired resolution (the ability to distinguish items that would be remembered from those that would not) for FOK judgements but not JOLs, and reduced calibration (correspondence between predicted and actual accuracy) for JOLs but not FOK judgements. Additional analysis of the cued-recall data suggested that cravings also reduced participants' ability to monitor the likely accuracy of answers during the cued-recall test. These findings add to prior research demonstrating that memory strength manipulations have systematically different effects on different types of metacognitive judgements.
Full Text Available Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment. The results confirmed significant differences in monitoring accuracy between high and low capacity groups in a multi-task situation. That is, confidence judgments were superior in high versus low capacity participants in terms of absolute accuracy and discrimination. The present research further investigated how memory load and interference affect underestimation of successful recall. The results indicated that the level of memory load that reduced word recall performance and led to an underconfidence bias varied according to participants’ memory capacity. In addition, irreverent information associated with incorrect true/ false decisions (secondary task and word recall within the current trial impaired monitoring accuracy in both participant groups. These findings suggest that inference from unsuccessful decisions only influences low, but not high, capacity participants. Therefore, monitoring accuracy, which requires high working memory capacity, improves metacognitive abilities by inhibiting task-irrelevant noise and focusing attention on detecting task-relevant targets or useful retrieval cues, which could improve actual cognitive performance.
Stefania La Foresta
Full Text Available Executive Functions are goal-directed neurocognitive processes that allow the management of cognition and behavior. Executive Functions are essential to allow people to set goals, self-monitor, inhibit inappropriate responses, and generally engage in well-planned, flexible, future-oriented behavior. Metacognitive processes, in close alliance with executive functions, are viewed as integral components of awareness and emotional regulation. The influence of metacognition on planning, monitoring and mental flexibility has not been investigated. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the relationship between metacognition and executive functions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patient's caregivers. Twenty-two caregivers were evaluated using the following instruments: Metacognition Questionnaire-30 and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows applying correlational analysis (Spearman’s Rho. We founded that total score of metacognition is positive correlated with number of perseverative errors made in Wisconsin (0.75 p<.001. In particular, need to control thoughts is positive correlated with number of perseverative errors (0.78 p<.001. Results could suggest the importance to explore the relationship between metacognitive processes and executive functions in order to cope disease’s changes and optimize the relative daily living management. Providing care to a Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis relative may cause feelings of burden, psychological distress, anxiety or depression, in particular in case of dysfunctional metacognitions. So, our future researches will be oriented to explore the relationship between psycopatological symptoms and metacognition and executive functions in ALS’caregivers in order to contain caregiver emotional burden.
Bernstein, Amit; Hadash, Yuval; Lichtash, Yael; Tanay, Galia; Shepherd, Kathrine; Fresco, David M.
The capacity to shift experiential perspective—from within one’s subjective experience onto that experience—is fundamental to being human. Scholars have long theorized that this metacognitive capacity—which we refer to as decentering—may play an important role in mental health. To help illuminate this mental phenomenon and its links to mental health, we critically examine decentering-related constructs and their respective literatures (e.g., self-distanced perspective, cognitive distancing, cognitive defusion). First, we introduce a novel metacognitive processes model of decentering. Specifically, we propose that, to varying degrees, decentering-related constructs reflect a common mental phenomenon subserved by three interrelated metacognitive processes: meta-awareness, disidentification from internal experience, and reduced reactivity to thought content. Second, we examine extant research linking decentering-related constructs and their underlying metacognitive processes to mental health. We conclude by proposing future directions for research that transcends decentering-related constructs in an effort to advance the field’s understanding of this facet of human experience and its role in (mal)adaptation. PMID:26385999
Cook, Sharon A; Salmon, Peter; Dunn, Graham; Fisher, Peter
The Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 assesses metacognitive beliefs and processes which are central to the metacognitive model of emotional disorder. As recent studies have begun to explore the utility of this model for understanding emotional distress after cancer diagnosis, it is important also to assess the validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 for use in cancer populations. 229 patients with primary breast or prostate cancer completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale pre-treatment and again 12 months later. The structure and validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 were assessed using factor analyses and structural equation modelling. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided evidence supporting the validity of the previously published 5-factor structure of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30. Specifically, both pre-treatment and 12 months later, this solution provided the best fit to the data and all items loaded on their expected factors. Structural equation modelling indicated that two dimensions of metacognition (positive and negative beliefs about worry) were significantly associated with anxiety and depression as predicted, providing further evidence of validity. These findings provide initial evidence that the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 is a valid measure for use in cancer populations.
Fang, Shengyu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao
Brain cognitive functions affect patient quality of life. The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in advanced cognitive functions, including executive function, meta-cognition, decision-making, memory, emotion, and language. Therefore, frontal tumors can lead to serious cognitive impairments. Currently, neurosurgical treatment is the primary method to treat brain tumors; however, the effects of the surgical treatments are difficult to predict or control. The treatment may both resolve the effects of the tumor to improve cognitive function or cause permanent disabilities resulting from damage to healthy functional brain tissue. Previous studies have focused on the influence of frontal lesions and surgical treatments on patient cognitive function. Here, we review cognitive impairment caused by frontal lobe brain tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Different theories try to explain why some students are more successful than the others. Phenomenologists (Mc Combs, 1989 study self concepts of the students and find such students prone to achieve more. Attributional Theorists (Dweck, 1986; Weiner, 2005 focus on personal outcome such as effort or ability. Metacognitive theorists (Pressley, 2000; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2007 examine students’ self regulated learning strategies whereas Constructivists (Maxim, 2009; Paris & Byrnes, 1989 believe supportive environments are important to be successful. In this study, the metacognitive theory will be given more importance and the purpose of the article is to find the correlation between self regulation, metacognition and autonomy.
Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H
Deficits in intrinsic motivation (IM) have been linked to poorer outcome in schizophrenia, but its proximal mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study examined whether metacognitive mastery, or the capacity to use knowledge of self, others, and context to identify and cope with psychological difficulties, predicted levels of IM for 6 months among 75 participants with prolonged schizophrenia. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that high metacognitive mastery predicted consistently higher levels of IM; however, intermediate and low mastery did not produce unique IM profiles. The findings suggest that metacognitive mastery may have an important role in IM over time and could be a meaningful treatment target.
Full Text Available Different theories try to explain why some students are more successful than the others. Phenomenologists (Mc Combs, 1989 study self concepts of the students and find such students prone to achieve more. Attributional Theorists (Dweck, 1986; Weiner, 2005 focus on personal outcome such as effort or ability. Metacognitive theorists (Pressley, 2000; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2007 examine students’ self regulated learning strategies whereas Constructivists (Maxim, 2009; Paris & Byrnes, 1989 believe supportive environments are important to be successful. In this study, the metacognitive theory will be given more importance and the purpose of the article is to find the correlation between self regulation, metacognition and autonomy.
Filevich, Elisa; Dresler, Martin; Brick, Timothy R; Kühn, Simone
Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participants completed a questionnaire assessing lucid dreaming ability, and underwent structural and functional MRI. We split participants based on their reported dream lucidity. Participants in the high-lucidity group showed greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar cortex (BA9/10) compared with those in the low-lucidity group. Further, differences in brain structure were mirrored by differences in brain function. The BA9/10 regions identified through structural analyses showed increases in blood oxygen level-dependent signal during thought monitoring in both groups, and more strongly in the high-lucidity group. Our results reveal shared neural systems between lucid dreaming and metacognitive function, in particular in the domain of thought monitoring. This finding contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms enabling higher-order consciousness in dreams. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351082-07$15.00/0.
Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.
The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496
Melli, Gabriele; Bailey, Robin; Carraresi, Claudia; Poli, Andrea
Research has supported the specific role that anxiety sensitivity, health-related dysfunctional beliefs, and metacognitive beliefs may play in the development and maintenance of health anxiety symptoms. However, the role of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety has only been explored in analogue samples. The aim of this study was to explore for the first time the association between metacognitive beliefs and health anxiety symptoms in a sample of participants who reported having received a diagnosis of severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis) or illness anxiety disorder and test whether these beliefs are significant predictors of health anxiety after controlling for anxiety, depression, anxiety sensitivity, and dysfunctional beliefs. A series of dimensional self-report measures were administered to a large Italian sample (N = 458). At a bivariate level, Beliefs that Thoughts are Uncontrollable had a stronger association with health anxiety than any of the dysfunctional beliefs and anxiety sensitivity subscales. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that Beliefs that Thoughts are Uncontrollable predicted health anxiety symptoms over-and-above depression, general anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and health-related dysfunctional beliefs. Despite many important limitations, this study supported the hypothesis that metacognition may have an important role in health anxiety in clinical samples. KEY PRACTITIONER MESSAGE The role of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety is underexplored We investigated their role over-and-above anxiety sensitivity and cognitive beliefs Beliefs that Thoughts are Uncontrollable seems to play the most important role Targeting such a metacognitive belief may result in a reduction of health anxiety. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Mathematical problem solving is among the most valuable aspects of mathematics education. It is also the hardest for elementary school students (Verschaffel, Greer & De Corte, 2000. Students experience cognitive and metacognitive difficulties in this area and develop negative emotions and poor motivation which hamper their efforts (Kramarski, Weiss, & Kololshi-Minsker, 2010. 9–11 seems the critical stage for developing attitudes and emotional reactions towards mathematics (Artino, 2009. These metacognitive and motivational-emotional factors are fundamental components of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL, a non-innate process requiring systematic, explicit student training (Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 2000. Most self-regulation studies relating to problem-solving focus on metacognition. Few explore the motivational-emotional component. This study aimed to develop, examine, and compare two SRL interventions dealing with two additional components of self-regulation: metacognitive regulation (MC and motivational-emotional regulation (ME. It also sought to examine the significance of these components and their contribution to learners' problem-solving achievements and self-regulation. The study examined 118 fifth grade students, randomly assigned to two groups. Pre- and post-intervention, the two groups completed self-regulation questionnaires relating to metacognition, motivation, and emotion. They also solved arithmetic series problems presented in two ways (verbal form and numeric form. After intervention we also examined a novel transfer problem. The intervention consisted of 10 hours for 5 weeks. Following the intervention the groups exhibited similar improvements across all the problems. The MC group performed best in metacognitive self-regulation and the ME group performed best in certain motivational-emotional aspects of self-regulation. Research implications are discussed.
Full Text Available The improvements in technological infrastructures define the background of our e-society while the developments in the cognitive infrastructure explain the foreground of it. The background and the foreground of the e-science determine the growths of the e-business and the quality of the e-education. E-education evolves as an engine for the cognitive infrastructure of the e-society and it works with information technology, which is a dynamic concept in time and in space. This paper highlights the importance of the account between theory and practice in scientific research in e-education, reviewing the e-society timeline using an educational perspective. It describes an updated knowledge framework for scientific research in e-education, developing directions for comprehension of different analytical frameworks. Within a case study, it presents an approach based on classes of applications focused on metacognitive development in assisted instruction.
Enhancing Metacognitive Practices in Science Education Students Using the Intelligencies for Nation Building. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... Three experts from Measurement and Evaluation (2) and one from Science Education scrutinized the instrument to ensure validity.
Lane, H. Chad
We argue that metacognition is a critical component in the development of intercultural competence by highlighting the importance of supporting a learner's self-assessment, self-monitoring, predictive...
Lane, H. Chad
..., planning, and reflection skills. We also survey several modern immersive cultural learning environments and discuss the role intelligent tutoring and experience management techniques can play to support these metacognitive demands...
Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Piet
Stoyanov, S., & Kommers, P. (2006). WWW-intensive concept mapping for metacognition in solving ill-structured problems. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Lifelong Learning, 16(3/4), 297-316.
Rausch, Manuel; Zehetleitner, Michael
Are logistic regression slopes suitable to quantify metacognitive sensitivity, i.e. the efficiency with which subjective reports differentiate between correct and incorrect task responses? We analytically show that logistic regression slopes are independent from rating criteria in one specific model of metacognition, which assumes (i) that rating decisions are based on sensory evidence generated independently of the sensory evidence used for primary task responses and (ii) that the distributions of evidence are logistic. Given a hierarchical model of metacognition, logistic regression slopes depend on rating criteria. According to all considered models, regression slopes depend on the primary task criterion. A reanalysis of previous data revealed that massive numbers of trials are required to distinguish between hierarchical and independent models with tolerable accuracy. It is argued that researchers who wish to use logistic regression as measure of metacognitive sensitivity need to control the primary task criterion and rating criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood
Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)
Full Text Available Kesadaran Metakognitif, Proses Sains, dan Hasil Belajar Kimia Mahasiswa Divergen dan Konvergen dalam PBL Abstract: The aim of this study are: (1 determine differences in metacognitive awareness and cognitive learning outcomes of students with PBL and conventional strategies; (2 determine differences in metacognitive awareness, science process skills, and cognitive learning outcomes between students with divergent thinking and convergent character that learned by PBL strategy. This study uses three kinds of designs are descriptive study design, quasi-experimental design and pre-experimental design to answer the research objectives. Instruments used in this research are: (1 questionnaire characters divergent thinking and convergent; (2 metacognitive awareness questionnaire; (3 observation sheets science process skills; and (4 tests the cognitive learning. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics. The results showed that: (1 there is no difference in metacognitive awareness and cognitive learning outcomes of students who gained from learning with PBL strategies and conventional strategies; (2 there is no difference metacognitive awareness and cognitive learning outcomes among students of divergent and convergent. Science process skills of students diverging better than converging. Key Words: metacognitive awareness, the process of science, learning outcomes, the characters think, PBL Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 mengetahui perbedaan kesadaran metakognitif dan hasil belajar kognitif mahasiswa dengan strategi PBL dan konvensional; (2 mengetahui perbedaan kesadaran metakognitif, keterampilan proses sains, dan hasil belajar kognitif antara mahasiswa dengan karakter berpikir divergen dan konvergen yang dibelajarkan dengan strategi PBL. Penelitian ini menggunakan tiga macam rancangan yaitu rancangan penelitian deskriptif, rancangan eksperimental semu dan rancangan pra eksperimental untuk menjawab tujuan penelitian. Instrumen yang
橋本, 圭子; Hashimoto, Keiko
Metacognition plays important roles in the students’ academic achievement. This articlediscusses some instruction methods and their effects on learning processes in terms ofmetacognition based on recent reports concerning teaching-learning processes in aJapanese classroom. In order to promote learners’ metacognitive process, the intervention in their strategy uses, particularly in their perceptions of the usefulness of the strategy, is often effective. Furthermore, researches indicates that t...
This paper is a commentary on "Toward Computer-Based Support of Meta-Cognitive Skills: a Computational Framework to Coach Self-Explanation", by Cristina Conati and Kurt Vanlehn, published in the "IJAED" in 2000 (Conati and VanLehn 2010). This work was one of the first examples of Intelligent Learning Environments (ILE) that…
This investigation examined the effect of PBL on the meta-cognition, critical thinking, and problem solving process. The research design was pre-posttest with a nonequivalent control group design. Scenarios for PBL sessions were developed on the basis of textbooks and patients' charts and tested for content validity. Seventy six nursing students who took a 'Nursing Process' course from two nursing schools participated in the experimental group and control group. The experimental group performed PBL during the semester. Meta-cognition and problem solving processes were assessed by questionnaires which were developed using pedagogics. Critical thinking was measured by the CCTST (California Critical Thinking Skill Test) Form 2000. The data was analyzed by repeated measure (pretest-posttest) MANOVA, and correlation analysis. PBL improved the participants' meta-cognition and problem solving process but not critical thinking. The relationship between meta-cognition and the problem solving process was supported but the relationship between critical thinking and problem solving was not supported. These results suggest that PBL has a positive effect on nursing students' educational outcomes. To improve the problem solving ability of nursing students, PBL should be applied to more subjects in the nursing curriculum.
Rahimirad, Maryam; Shams, Mohammad Reza
This study investigates the effect of activating metacognitive strategies on the listening performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) university students and explores the impact of such strategies on their metacognitive awareness of the listening task. The participants were N = 50 students of English literature at the state university of…
Bozorgian, Hossein; Alamdari, Ebrahim Fakhri
This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of metacognitive instruction through dialogic interaction in a joint activity on advanced Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' multimedia listening and their metacognitive awareness in listening comprehension. The data were collected through (N = 180) male and female Iranian…
Desender, Kobe; Van Opstal, Filip; Hughes, Gethin; Van den Bussche, Eva
In recent years, neuroscience research spent much effort in revealing brain activity related to metacognition. Despite this endeavor, it remains unclear exactly when metacognitive experiences develop during task performance. To investigate this, the current study used EEG to temporally and spatially dissociate task-related activity from metacognitive activity. In a masked priming paradigm, metacognitive experiences of difficulty were induced by manipulating congruency between prime and target. As expected, participants more frequently rated incongruent trials as difficult and congruent trials as easy, while being completely unable to perceive the masked primes. Results showed that both the N2 and the P3 ERP components were modulated by congruency, but that only the P3 modulation interacted with metacognitive experiences. Single-trial analysis additionally showed that the magnitude of the P3 modulation by congruency accurately predicted the metacognitive response. Source localization indicated that the N2 task-related activity originated in the ACC, whereas the P3-interplay between task-related activation and metacognitive experiences originated from the precuneus. We conclude that task-related activity can be dissociated from later metacognitive processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
It is of vital importance that our students should be taught to listen effectively and critically. This essay focuses the metacognitive strategy in listening and an empirical study of the application of metacognitive strategy to primary listening teaching is made.
McInerny, Alistair; Boudreaux, Andrew; Rishal, Sepideh; Clare, Kelci
Metacognition refers to the family of thought processes and skills used to evaluate and manage learning. A research and curriculum development project underway at Western Washington University uses introductory physics labs as a context to promote students' abilities to learn and apply metacognitive skills. A required ``narrative reflection'' has been incorporated as a weekly end-of-lab assignment. The goal of the narrative reflection is to encourage and support student metacognition while generating written artifacts that can be used by researchers to study metacognition in action. We have developed a Reflective Thinking Rubric (RTR) to analyze scanned narrative reflections. The RTR codes student writing for Metacognitive Elements, identifiable steps or aspects of metacognitive thinking at a variety of levels of sophistication. We hope to use the RTR to monitor the effect of weekly reflection on metacognitive ability and to search for correlations between metacognitive ability and conceptual understanding.
Spada, MM; Caselli, G; Fernie, BA; Nikčević, AV; Ruggiero, GM; Boccaletti, F; Dallari, G; Sassaroli, S
In this study, our principal aim was to investigate whether metacognitions about desire thinking predict the severity of binge eating in women and, if so, whether this relationship is independent of age, self-reported body mass index (BMI), negative affect, irrational food beliefs and craving. One hundred and four women, consisting of 32 consecutive patients with binge eating disorder undergoing initial assessment for cognitive therapy for eating disorders, 39 moderate binge eaters, and 33 no...
Full Text Available In the past few years psychological characteristics in patients with organic bowel disorder have been poorly considered. However recent studies underline that psychological features increase gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate metacognition and emotions in patients with organic bowel disorder and functional bowel disorder. 33 outpatients with organic diagnosis and 28 outpatients with functional diagnosis were assessed with MCQ-30, ANPS and Brief-Cope; moreover stress was evaluated in all outpatients. Results revealed that two groups show the same psychological disturbances and there are no differences between organic patients and functional patients. Statistical analysis indicated significant relations between dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs and negative emotions. Specifically, Beliefs of Uncontrollability and Danger (UD are significantly related to Fear, Anger and Sadness. Moreover Fear and Anger are significantly related to stress; dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs are related to coping strategies. Beliefs of UD are related to Using Emotional Support; Positive Beliefs (PB are related to Planning, while Cognitive Confidence (CC is related to Self-Blame. Unexpectedly results are higher in patients with organic diagnosis. Our results suggest to reconsider psychological influences in patients with organic diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. Keywords:Metacognition; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Functional gastrointestinal disorders; Emotions; Coping;
Palagini, Laura; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Paolo, Toti; Caccavale, Lisa; Gronchi, Alessia; Mauri, Mauro; Riemann, Dieter; Drake, Christopher L
To evaluate the relation between stress-related sleep reactivity and metacognitive beliefs about sleep in subjects with insomnia disorder (93) and in a group of healthy controls (30) a set of variables, including Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) and Metacognition Questionnaire-Insomnia (MCQ-I), have been used. Internal consistency of the Italian version of FIRST was studied. Univariate correlation, regression analysis, and principal component analysis were also performed. The Italian version of FIRST showed good internal consistency and discriminant validity. Sleep reactivity was higher in women (p insomnia. In insomnia, metacognitive beliefs may play a key role in modulating sleep reactivity. Therapeutic strategies acting selectively on metacognition to reduce stress-related sleep reactivity in insomnia may be useful.
Karpov, Anatoly V.
Full Text Available Patterns of the relationship between the development of learning ability as one of the general abilities and metacognitive traits of personality are considered in the article. The necessity of appeal to this issue arises from the peculiarities of the current state of research in the theory of abilities and modern metacognitivism. Despite the ever-increasing number of studies in the field of general abilities and learning ability in particular and in the field of metacognitive processes of the personality, the possible interconnection of this class of processes and the level of learning ability and, therefore, the interpretation of this interconnection are rarely considered. To date these crucial areas are not in sufficient contact with each other. The purpose of this study is to identify and interpret the possible relationship of the level of learning ability with metacognitive processes and qualities of the individual and their organization. The research procedure was based on a comparison of the individual measures of the development of learning ability as a general ability with the diagnostics of the main parameters of the metacognitive sphere of personality, including features of its organization and implementation in relation to the methodology of structural-psychological analysis. This procedure is based on the determination of matrices of intercorrelation and the subsequent interpretation of correlograms of the metacognitive parameters of a person. The main result is that there exists a mutual dependence of characteristics of the level of learning ability and basic parameters of the metacognitive sphere of personality (metacognitive processes and traits. This dependence lies in the fact that an increase in the level of development of learning ability increases the intensity of separate metacognitive personal qualities and the general level of their structural organization. An interpretation of the data is presented. According to it
Hauschild, Markus; Mulliken, Grant H; Fineman, Igor; Loeb, Gerald E; Andersen, Richard A
Cortical neural prosthetics extract command signals from the brain with the goal to restore function in paralyzed or amputated patients. Continuous control signals can be extracted from the motor cortical areas, whereas neural activity from posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can be used to decode cognitive variables related to the goals of movement. Because typical activities of daily living comprise both continuous control tasks such as reaching, and tasks benefiting from discrete control such as typing on a keyboard, availability of both signals simultaneously would promise significant increases in performance and versatility. Here, we show that PPC can provide 3D hand trajectory information under natural conditions that would be encountered for prosthetic applications, thus allowing simultaneous extraction of continuous and discrete signals without requiring multisite surgical implants. We found that limb movements can be decoded robustly and with high accuracy from a small population of neural units under free gaze in a complex 3D point-to-point reaching task. Both animals' brain-control performance improved rapidly with practice, resulting in faster target acquisition and increasing accuracy. These findings disprove the notion that the motor cortical areas are the only candidate areas for continuous prosthetic command signals and, rather, suggests that PPC can provide equally useful trajectory signals in addition to discrete, cognitive variables. Hybrid use of continuous and discrete signals from PPC may enable a new generation of neural prostheses providing superior performance and additional flexibility in addressing individual patient needs.
Hong, Wei Han; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Sim, Joong Hiong
Background: Studies have shown the importance of metacognition in medical education. Metacognitive skills consist of two dimensions: knowledge of metacognition and regulation of metacognition.Aim: This study hypothesizes that the knowledge and regulation of metacognition is significantly different at the beginning and end of the academic year, and a correlation exists between the two dimensions of metacognitive skills with academic performance.Methods: The Metacognitive Skills Inventory compr...
Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.
Metacognitive monitoring and regulation play an essential role in mathematical problem solving. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to assess students' metacognition. One proven valid, but time consuming, method to assess metacognition is by using think-aloud protocols.
Chatzipanteli, Athanasia; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios
The aim of the present study is to provide information and suggest ways to improve and evaluate metacognition in early childhood. Metacognition is important to learning and knowledge transfer and preparing students to become lifelong learners is a main aim of schooling. The engagement of young students in metacognitive thinking is considered…
Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan
Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…
Brady, Melanie; Seli, Helena; Rosenthal, Jane
The purpose of this study was to establish whether electronic response systems (clickers) influence student metacognition in large lecture settings more than low-technology polling devices. In this first part of a two part mixed methods study inquiry was made into whether student metacognition was influenced and how metacognition was influenced.…
Muna, Khairiatul; Sanjaya, Rahmat Eko; Syahmani, Bakti, Iriani
The demand for students to have metacognitive skills and problem solving ability can be seen in the core competencies of the 2013 curriculum. Metacognitive skills are the skills which affect students' success in solving problems depending on students' motivation. This explains the possibility of the relationship between metacognition and motivation in affecting students' achievement including problem solving. Due to the importance of metacognitive skills to solve problems and the possible relationship between metacognition and motivation, a study to find the relationship among the variables is necessary to conduct, particularly on chemistry problem solving. This one shot case study using quantitative method aimed to investigate the correlation between metacognitive skills and motivation toward problem solving ability focusing on chemical equilibrium. The research population was students of grade XI of majoring Science of Banjarmasin Public High Scool 2 (XI IPA SMAN 2 Banjarmasin) with the samples of 33 students obtained by using purposive sampling technique. The research data were collected using test and non-test and analyzed using multiple regression in SPSS 21. The results of this study showed that (1) the students' metacognitive skills and motivation correlated positively with coefficient of +0.450 to problem solving ability on chemical equilibrium: (2) inter-variables of students' motivation (self-efficacy, active learning strategies, science/chemistry learning value, performance goal, achievement goal, and learning environment stimulations) correlated positively to metacognitive skills with the correlation coefficients of +0.580, +0.537, +0.363, +0.241, +0.516, and +0.271, respectively. Based on the results, it is necessary for teachers to implement learning which develops students' metacognitive skills and motivation, such as learning with scientific approach. The implementation of the learning is also supposed to be complemented with the use of learning
Full Text Available Objective: Given the relevance of problematic Internet use (PIU to everyday life, its relationship to emotional dysregulation and the importance of metacognitions and distress intolerance in process and intermediaries research, this study examined which of metacognitions and distress intolerance acts as an intermediary between emotional dysregulation and PIU. Methods: In the current study, 413 undergraduate students from the University of Tehran, Iran (202 females; mean age=20.13 voluntarily completed a questionnaire package which included the Internet Addiction Test (IAT, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30(, and Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS. The data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling by LISREL software. Results: Significant correlations were found between PIU and emotional dysregulation and both distress intolerance and metacognitions (P<0.001. Structural equation modeling and path analysis results fit well to the data (Ï2/df=1.73; p<0.001; RMSEA=0.05; SRMR=0.04; CFI=0.97; NFI=0.95. The results of the mediational model indicated that emotional dysregulation has an indirect impact via metacognition (Î²=0.31; SE=0.02 and distress tolerance (Î²=â0.60; SE=0.03 on PIU. The analysis also revealed a significant direct impact of emotional dysregulation on PIU, although this impact is much less than the indirect impact. The variables in this model accounted for 62% of the variance in participants' PIU levels. Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence for the impact of emotional dysregulation on PIU through metacognitions and distress intolerance. Also, these findings emphasize that distress intolerance has a more significant mediating role than metacognition in the relationship between emotional dysregulation and PIU. Keywords: Metacognitions, Distress intolerance, Emotional dysregulation, Problematic internet use
Medina, Melissa S; Castleberry, Ashley N; Persky, Adam M
Metacognition is an essential skill in critical thinking and self-regulated, lifelong learning. It is important for learners to have skills in metacognition because they are used to monitor and regulate reasoning, comprehension, and problem-solving, which are fundamental components/outcomes of pharmacy curricula. Instructors can help learners develop metacognitive skills within the classroom and experiential setting by carefully designing learning activities within courses and the curriculum. These skills are developed through intentional questioning, modeling techniques, and reflection. This article discusses key background literature on metacognition and identifies specific methods and strategies to develop learners' metacognitive skills in both the classroom and experiential settings.
Gul, Noor; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Omar, Adnan; Elahi, Atif; Khan, Sajjad
In cognitive radio communication, spectrum sensing plays a vital role in sensing the existence of the primary user (PU). The sensing performance is badly affected by fading and shadowing in case of single secondary user(SU). To overcome this issue, cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is proposed. Although the reliability of the system is improved with cooperation but existence of malicious user (MU) in the CSS deteriorates the performance. In this work, we consider the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence method for minimizing spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack. In the proposed CSS scheme, each SU reports the fusion center(FC) about the availability of PU and also keeps the same evidence in its local database. Based on the KL divergence value, if the FC acknowledges the user as normal, then the user will send unified energy information to the FC based on its current and previous sensed results. This method keeps the probability of detection high and energy optimum, thus providing an improvement in performance of the system. Simulation results show that the proposed KL divergence method has performed better than the existing equal gain combination (EGC), maximum gain combination (MGC) and simple KL divergence schemes in the presence of MUs.
Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele
Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about online gaming. We conducted two studies with samples of online gamers (n=225, n=348) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale and examined its capacity to predict weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: positive metacognitions about online gaming, negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming, and negative metacognitions about the dangers of online gaming. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale correlated positively with weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming and levels of Internet addiction were the only significant predictors of weekly online gaming hours, and that positive metacognitions about online gaming and negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming were the only significant predictors of Internet addiction. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vohs, Jenifer L; Hummer, Tom A; Yung, Matthew G; Francis, Michael M; Lysaker, Paul H; Breier, Alan
Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis.
Raimundo Nonato Lima Filho
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify elements that show the influence of the age and sex variables in the metacognitive level of professionals. Survey participants were 851 professionals registered in Bahia's Regional Administration Council who own their own businesses. Two validated psychometric instruments were used: Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI and the Metacognitive Activities Inventory (MCA-I. The hypothesis held that the respondent's age and sex influence their Metacognitive Profile. From the Structural Equation Modeling, the results indicate that the sex variable showed no significant relationship to the Metacognitive Profile. The implications of this study provide empirical conclusions that can aid entrepreneurs, companies, higher education institutions to understand the metacognitive aspects that influence the entrepreneur’s behavior more systematically. Empirically, these results contribute so that the participating drivers of this study, as they develop metacognitive aspects, acquire a competitive advantage in their entrepreneurial performance.
Koren, Dan; Scheyer, Ravit; Reznik, Noa
-seeking adolescents (age 13-18) were assessed with the examination of anomalous self-experience, the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and a new metacognitive approach to neurocognitive assessment applied to two non-social (executive functions and verbal memory) and two social (theory of mind and emotion......AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help...
Chew, Keng Sheng; Durning, Steven J; van Merriënboer, Jeroen Jg
Metacognition is a cognitive debiasing strategy that clinicians can use to deliberately detach themselves from the immediate context of a clinical decision, which allows them to reflect upon the thinking process. However, cognitive debiasing strategies are often most needed when the clinician cannot afford the time to use them. A mnemonic checklist known as TWED (T = threat, W = what else, E = evidence and D = dispositional factors) was recently created to facilitate metacognition. This study explores the hypothesis that the TWED checklist improves the ability of medical students to make better clinical decisions. Two groups of final-year medical students from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia, were recruited to participate in this quasi-experimental study. The intervention group (n = 21) received educational intervention that introduced the TWED checklist, while the control group (n = 19) received a tutorial on basic electrocardiography. Post-intervention, both groups received a similar assessment on clinical decision-making based on five case scenarios. The mean score of the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group (18.50 ± 4.45 marks vs. 12.50 ± 2.84 marks, p metacognition in clinical decision-making. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association
This paper examines the issue of struggling readers and writers, and offers suggestions to help teachers increase struggling students' motivation and metacognition. Suggestions include multisensory methods that make use of the visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning pathways, as well as explicit strategy instruction to improve students' ability…
Spada, Marcantonio M.; Moneta, Giovanni B.
The objective of this study was to verify the structure of a model of how surface approach to studying is influenced by the trait variables of motivation and metacognition and the state variables of avoidance coping and evaluation anxiety. We extended the model to include: (1) the investigation of the relative contribution of the five…
Full Text Available Naomi Vidal Ferreira,1 Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha,2 Danielle Irigoyen da Costa,3 Fernando dos Santos,1 Fernando Oliveira Costa,1 Fernanda Consolim-Colombo,4 Maria Cláudia Irigoyen1 1Heart Institute, Medical School, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Neuroimaging in Psychiatry Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Rio Grande do Sul Cardiology Institute, Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 4Medical School, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP, Brazil Introduction: Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI, is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Executive cognitive function (ECF impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI.Aim: To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI.Method: The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19, and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07. We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF.Results: Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working
In this research the author defines critical thinking as the set of skills and dispositions which enable one to solve problems logically and to attempt to reflect autonomously by means of Metacognitive regulation on one's own problem-solving processes. In order to develop their critical thinking, it is important for students to be able to use this…
Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.
This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…
In French universities, only one out of two students is successful in his/her first year. The drastic changes in the organization of work and the greater emphasis put on self-regulated learning (relying on metacognition) can largely explain these low success rates. In this regard, techniques have been developed to help students improve monitoring…
Caselli, Gabriele; Spada, Marcantonio M
Desire thinking is defined as a voluntary thinking process orienting to prefigure images, information and memories about positive target-related experience. Recent research has highlighted the role of desire thinking in the maintenance of addictive, eating and impulse control disorders. Currently little is known about metacognitions in desire thinking. To investigate: (1) the presence and content of desire thinking during a desire experience; (2) the presence of metacognitive beliefs in desire thinking; (3) the goal of desire thinking; (4) attentional focus during desire thinking; and (5) the impact of desire thinking on craving. Twenty-four individuals with a diagnosis of either alcohol abuse, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling or smoking dependence were assessed using a semi-structured interview. Findings indicated that participants engaged in desire thinking and endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about this process. The goal of desire thinking was to regulate internal states. Participants also reported that during a desire experience their attentional focus was continuously shifting between internal state and external context and that engaging in desire thinking increased craving. These findings provide preliminary evidence that metacognitions play a role in desire thinking.
It is widely accepted that mathematical skills are critically important in our technologically sophisticated world. Educators' metacognition directs, plans, monitors, evaluates and reflects their instructional behaviour and this can promote learners ' learning with und ers tanding. The p urpos e of this study was to investigate the ...
Full Text Available The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the impact of a metacognitive training program on university freshmen’s reading comprehension skill in a three-credit General English (GE Course. The participants included eight groups of freshmen, in four disciplines: Management, Psychology, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Engineering. They were randomly assigned as four experimental and four control groups, each including approximately 30 participants. The same materials were taught to all groups after their initial homogeneity in English was assessed via Analysis of Variance of the pre-test scores obtained from a Key English Test (KET. In the experimental groups, one whole session was devoted to explicitly teaching three sets of metacognitive strategies and five reading strategies: skimming, scanning, previewing, using context clues, and making inferences. These groups also received metacognitive awareness-raising while applying the strategies in each reading lesson for six sessions. The analyses of the research data revealed that metacognitive strategy training promoted the participants’ learning when integrated with a reading-focused GE course regardless of their gender and a small effect from discipline. The findings have implications for teachers, materials developers, and teacher trainers.
Dunphy, Bruce C; Cantwell, Robert; Bourke, Sid; Fleming, Mark; Smith, Bruce; Joseph, K S; Dunphy, Stacey L
Physician cognition, metacognition and affect may have an impact upon the quality of clinical reasoning. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between measures of physician metacognition and affect and patient outcomes in obstetric practice. Reflective coping (RC), proactive coping, need for cognition (NFC), tolerance for ambiguity, state-trait anxiety and metacognitive awareness were assessed for obstetricians (n = 12) who provided intra-partum care to 4,149 women. Outcome measures included delivery mode and intrapartum asphyxia. Analysis was carried out using logistic regression and tree-based classification. Obstetricians with high RC scores were more likely to perform a caesarean section (OR 1.59, p < 0.0001), less likely undertake a mid-forceps or low forceps delivery (OR 0.41, p < 0.0001; OR 0.49, p < 0.0001), and more likely to supervise a spontaneous vaginal delivery (OR 1.17, p = 0.08). Obstetricians with high NFC scores were more likely to perform a caesarean section (OR 1.53, p = 0.03), more likely to undertake a vacuum delivery (OR 5.8, p = 0.001), less likely undertake a mid-forceps delivery (OR 0.45, p = 0.02) and less likely to supervise a spontaneous vaginal delivery (OR 0.47, p < 0.0001). Obstetricians high in trait anxiety were more likely to perform a mid forceps delivery (OR 2.49, p = 0.01) or a vacuum delivery (OR 5.08, p = 0.003), and less likely to supervise a spontaneous vaginal delivery (OR 0.38, p < 0.0001). NFC was negatively associated (OR 0.10, p < 0.001) and trait anxiety was positively associated with intrapartum asphyxia (p < 0.05, rho = 0.582). In summary, physician cognitive processes and affect have a significant impact on patient outcomes, particularly in situations where there is a higher level of clinical unpredictability.
Crystal, Jonathon D.; Foote, Allison L.
Metacognition has been divided into information monitoring and control processes. Monitoring involves knowing that you know or do not know some information without taking corrective action. Control involves taking corrective action based on the knowledge that you know or do not know some information. In comparative metacognition, considerable attention has been paid toward critically assessing putative evidence for information monitoring in non-human animals. However, less attention has been paid toward critically evaluating evidence for control processes in animals. We briefly review a critique of information-monitoring in animals. Next, we apply these concepts to a number of studies that focus on information seeking in animals. The main type of evidence for control processes in animals come from tube tipping experiments. Before having the opportunity to search for the bait in these experiments, the subject sometimes observes opaque tubes being baited but is sometimes prevented from seeing the baiting. The observations that the subjects look more if baiting was not seen and are more accurate if baiting was seen have been taken as evidence for metacognition in information-seeking experiments. We propose simple alternative hypotheses that are sufficient to explain putative evidence for information seeking in animals without positing metacognition. The alternative explanation focuses on two relatively simple principles: First, an animal has a default "look before you go" response which supersedes random searches in space. Second, spatially guided behavior follows a default rule of "go where something good is." These principles can explain the results of tube tipping experiments without proposing metacognition. PMID:26779256
Awi; Ahmar, A. S.; Rahman, A.; Minggi, I.; Mulbar, U.; Asdar; Ruslan; Upu, H.; Alimuddin; Hamda; Rosidah; Sutamrin; Tiro, M. A.; Rusli
This research aims to reveal the profile about the level of creativity and the ability to propose statistical problem of students at Mathematics Education 2014 Batch in the State University of Makassar in terms of their cognitive style. This research uses explorative qualitative method by giving meta-cognitive scaffolding at the time of research. The hypothesis of research is that students who have field independent (FI) cognitive style in statistics problem posing from the provided information already able to propose the statistical problem that can be solved and create new data and the problem is already been included as a high quality statistical problem, while students who have dependent cognitive field (FD) commonly are still limited in statistics problem posing that can be finished and do not load new data and the problem is included as medium quality statistical problem.
Full Text Available In recent years, research on embodied cognition has inspired a number of studies on multimedia learning and instructional psychology. However, in contrast to traditional research on education and multimedia learning, studies on embodied learning (i.e., focusing on bodily action and perception in the context of education in some cases pose new problems for the measurement of cognitive load. This review provides an overview over recent studies on embodied learning in which cognitive load was measured using surveys, behavioral data, or physiological measures. The different methods are assessed in terms of their success in finding differences of cognitive load in embodied learning scenarios. At the same time, we highlight the most important challenges for researchers aiming to include these measures into their study designs. The main issues we identified are: (1 Subjective measures must be appropriately phrased to be useful for embodied learning; (2 recent findings indicate potentials as well as problematic aspects of dual-task measures; (3 the use of physiological measures offers great potential, but may require mobile equipment in the context of embodied scenarios; (4 meta-cognitive measures can be useful extensions of cognitive load measurement for embodied learning.
Locati, Francesca; Rossi, Germano; Parolin, Laura
Several authors have identified a bidirectional link between patient metacognitive functioning and the therapeutic alliance. Specifically, metacognition might be enhanced by a positive alliance with the clinician, whereas metacognitive deficits might impede the alliance. Interestingly, the therapist's technical interventions might influence both therapeutic alliance and metacognitive functioning. However, little is known about the interactions between these dimensions. The aim of the present study is to explore these interactions more fully in the earliest phase of the therapeutic process. Participants included 24 patients and 12 therapists in training. The Metacognition Assessment Scale-Revised, Collaborative Interaction Scale, and Psychodynamic Intervention Rating Scale were employed in the first three sessions of psychotherapy. Sequential analyses revealed that different therapist interventions co-occurred with three different levels of the therapeutic alliance: A first level characterized by a positive collaboration, a second characterized by a neutral collaboration, and a third characterized by ruptures. Importantly, the patient's metacognitive functioning was found to mediate the relationship between the therapeutic intervention and the therapeutic alliance in the positive and neutral levels of collaboration but not in the ruptures one. These findings suggest that a specific interdependence exists among the therapeutic alliance, technical intervention, and metacognitive functioning. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: From a methodological standpoint, the originality of the present study lies in the combination of an interactionist approach, which conceives process factors as interrelated dimensions interacting in non-additive and often nonlinear ways, with analyses at both micro- and macro-analytic levels (i.e., sequential and mediation analyses). From a theoretical standpoint, findings of the present study indicate that specific
Desoete, A; Roeyers, H; Buysse, A
This article presents an overview of two studies that examined the relationship between metacognition and mathematical problem solving in 165 children with average intelligence in Grade 3 in order to help teachers and therapists gain a better understanding of contributors to successful mathematical performance. Principal components analysis on metacognition revealed that three metacognitive components (global metacognition, off-line metacognition, and attribution to effort) explained 66% to 67% of the common variance. The findings from these studies support the use of the assessment of off-line metacognition (essentially prediction and evaluation) to differentiate between average and above-average mathematical problem solvers and between students with a severe or moderate specific mathematics learning disability.
Channa, Mansoor A.
Full Text Available The research in the field of metacognition for developing reading is not new; metacognition has been used for many years to identify ways to develop students’ reading comprehension. Most previous research has addressed either primary or secondary level students. However, notably few studies have been conducted at the undergraduate level. This study has attempted to initiate strategies to assist first-year engineering students in developing their reading abilities within a Pakistani context. The primary objective of this research was to identify what strategies first-year engineering students use in developing their reading at Quaid-e-Awam University of engineering science and technology in Pakistan. This study used qualitative instruments that included semi-structured interviews with teachers and classroom observations during read-aloud sessions. The data were organized through NVivo version 8 for obtaining nodes, codes, and main themes for interpreting the results. The results of this study demonstrated that teachers should use metacognitive strategies for developing students’ reading abilities. Findings also revealed that reading strategies, such as text scanning, guesses from contextual clues, drawing on prior knowledge, and using a dictionary, are the most important strategies to use for developing the reading skills and comprehension of engineering students. This study has suggested metacognitive strategies be used for promoting students’ reading abilities and that teachers should design and develop more courses using these strategies to enhance the reading and listening skills of engineering students.
Aurah, Catherine Muhonja
Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the influence of self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive prompting on genetics problem solving ability among high school students in Kenya was examined through a mixed methods research design. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by focus group interviews, was conducted to investigate both the…
Caselli, G; Fernie, B; Canfora, F; Mascolo, C; Ferrari, A; Antonioni, M; Giustina, L; Donato, G; Marcotriggiani, A; Bertani, A; Altieri, A; Pellegrini, E; Spada, MM
Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about gambling. We conducted three studies with one community (n = 165) and two clinical (n = 110; n = 87) samples to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Gambling Questionnaire and examined its capacity to prospectively predict severity of gambling. Findings sup...
Fisher, Peter L; McNicol, Kirsten; Cherry, Mary Gemma; Young, Bridget; Smith, Ed; Abbey, Gareth; Salmon, Peter
Adolescent and young adults who have survived cancer are at an increased risk of psychological distress. This study investigated whether metacognitive beliefs are associated with emotional distress and trauma symptoms in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer independent of known covariates, including current physical health difficulties. Cross-sectional survey using multiple self-report measures. Eighty-seven AYA survivors of cancer were recruited from follow-up appointments at an oncology unit and completed self-report questionnaires measuring emotional distress, posttraumatic stress symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, demographic information, and current physical health difficulties. Data were analysed using correlational and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Metacognitive beliefs explained an additional 50% and 41% of the variance in emotional distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms, respectively, after controlling for known covariate effects, including current physical health difficulties. Conclusions/Implications for Psychosocial Providers or Policy: The metacognitive model of psychopathology is potentially applicable to AYA survivors of cancer who present with elevated general distress and/or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Prospective studies are required to determine whether metacognitive beliefs and processes have a causal role in distress in AYA survivors of cancer.
Klaas Enno Stephan
Full Text Available This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain’s model of bodily states and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs. Critically, we propose that the performance of interoceptive-allostatic circuitry is monitored by a metacognitive layer that updates beliefs about the brain’s capacity to successfully regulate bodily states (allostatic self-efficacy. In this framework, fatigue and depression can be understood as sequential responses to the interoceptive experience of dyshomeostasis and the ensuing metacognitive diagnosis of low allostatic self-efficacy. While fatigue might represent an early response with adaptive value (cf. sickness behaviour, the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis may trigger a generalised belief of low self-efficacy and lack of control (cf. learned helplessness, resulting in depression.This perspective implies alternative pathophysiological mechanisms that are reflected by differential abnormalities in the effective connectivity of circuits for interoception and allostasis. We discuss suitably extended models of effective connectivity that could distinguish these connectivity patterns in individual patients and may help inform differential diagnosis of fatigue in the future.
Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Campanella, Salvatore
The present research explored the effect of reward sensitivity bias and metacognitive deficits on substance use disorder (SUD) in the decision-making process. The behavioral activation system (BAS) was used as a predictive marker of dysfunctional behavior during the Iowa gambling task (IGT). We also tried to relate this motivational system bias to self-reported metacognitive measures (self-knowledge, strategic planning, flexibility, and efficacy) in the decision processes. Thirty-four SUD participants (cocaine dependent) and 39 participants in the control group underwent the IGT. The SUD group was associated with a poorer performance on the IGT and a dysfunctional metacognition ability (unrealistic representation). An increase in the reward sensitivity (higher BAS, BAS reward responsiveness, and BAS reward) was observed in the SUD group compared with the control group and explained (through a regression analysis) the main behavioral deficits. More generally, an increase in the BAS reward responsiveness may be considered a predictive measure of risk-taking and dysfunctional behavior, not only in pathological (SUD) individuals, but also in subclinical individuals (controls). We discuss the likely cognitive, brain, and neurotransmitter contributions to this phenomenon.
Claire Sangster Jokić
Full Text Available Growing recognition of the importance of understanding metacognitive behaviour as it occurs in everyday learning situations has prompted an expansion of the methodological approaches used to examine metacognition. This becomes especially pertinent when examining the process of metacognitive change, where 'on-line' observational approaches able to capture metacognitive performance as it occurs during socially-mediated learning are being increasingly applied. This study applied a mixed methods approach to examine children's metacognitive performance as it was exhibited during participation in an intervention program aimed at addressing motor performance difficulties. Participants in the study were ten 7-9 year old children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD, a condition characterized by poor motor coordination and difficulty acquiring motor-based tasks. All participants engaged in a 10-session program in which children were taught to use a problem-solving strategy for addressing motor performance difficulties. To examine children's metacognitive performance, sessions were video-taped and subsequently analysed using a quantitative observational coding method and an in-depth qualitative review of therapist-child interactions. This allowed for a fine-grained analysis of children's demonstration of metacognitive knowledge and control and how such performance evolved over the course of the program. Of particular interest was the finding that while children were often able to express task-specific knowledge, they failed to apply this knowledge during practice. Conversely, children were often able to demonstrate performance-based evidence for metacognitive control but were not able to make conscious reports of such skill following practice. This finding is consistent with models of metacognitive development which suggest that the emergence of performance-based metacognitive skills precede the ability for the conscious expression of
Wood, Helen; Cupitt, Caroline; Lavender, Tony
Cognitive impairment has been widely studied in people with psychosis. However, research is lacking into the subjective experience of cognitive impairment, its impact and ways in which individuals cope. This study aimed to provide an account of the experience of cognitive impairment in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, including what difficulties people experience, how these difficulties are understood, how people respond to these difficulties and how they perceive others' views of these difficulties. A semi-structured interview was carried out with eight participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia focusing on participants' experiences of difficulties with cognitive functioning. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts. Experience of cognitive impairment was understood in terms of six master themes: impaired controlled thinking, physical sensations and impaired movement, explanations for the impairment and comparisons to the past, managing the impairment, how others see the impairment and anticipating the future. This study is the first rigorous qualitative study of the subjective experience of cognitive impairment in people with psychosis, and it provides greater context for empirical findings. The results have significant implications for clinical psychology, including education about cognitive difficulties and the importance of cognitive functioning to formulation. New areas for research include coping strategies in relation to functioning and future perspectives, ascertaining staff understanding of cognitive impairment, and reflective conversation style as an intervention for metacognitive difficulties. Key Practitioner Message Difficulties with cognitive functioning should be considered in clinical practitioners' formulations of clients' difficulties in the context of psychosis. Services should consider providing service user and carer education about cognitive impairment in psychosis. Staff may need further
The clinical obesity maintenance model: an integration of psychological constructs including mood, emotional regulation, disordered overeating, habitual cluster behaviours, health literacy and cognitive function.
Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa
Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.
The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function
Full Text Available Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM. It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.
Nabors, Lori M; Yanos, Phillip T; Roe, David; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H
While research continues to document the impact of internalized stigma among persons with schizophrenia, little is known about the factors which promote stigma resistance or the ability to recognize and reject stigma. This study aimed to replicate previous findings linking stigma resistance with lesser levels of depression and higher levels of self-esteem while also examining the extent to which other factors, including metacognitive capacity and positive and negative symptoms, are linked to the ability to resist stigma. Participants were 62 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who completed self-reports of stigma resistance, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and rater assessments of positive, negative, disorganization, and emotional discomfort symptoms, and metacognitive capacity. Stigma resistance was significantly correlated with lower levels of acceptance of stereotypes of mental illness, negative symptoms, and higher levels of metacognitive capacity, and self-esteem. A stepwise multiple regression revealed that acceptance of stereotypes of mental illness, metacognitive capacity, and self-esteem all uniquely contributed to greater levels of stigma resistance, accounting for 39% of the variance. Stigma resistance is related to, but not synonymous with, internalized stigma. Greater metacognitive capacity, better self-esteem, and fewer negative symptoms may be factors which facilitate stigma resistance. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F
The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.
Schütze, Robert; Rees, Clare; Slater, Helen; Smith, Anne; O'Sullivan, Peter
interventions. People who have elevated pain catastrophizing tend to have worse pain outcomes, including increased pain, disability, and emotional distress. What people believe about their own thinking (i.e., their metacognitions) influences how much they worry or ruminate. What does this study add? This is the first qualitative study exploring metacognitions in people with chronic pain and the first to target a purposive sample of people with elevated pain catastrophizing. People with elevated pain catastrophizing often see rumination as uncontrollable and harmful but may simultaneously believe it helps them to solve problems or feel prepared for future threats. Pain catastrophizing is not a stable and enduring trait but fluctuates both within and across individuals in response to pain, context, metacognitive beliefs about rumination, and coping behaviours. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Sinanaj, Indrit; Blakemore, Rebekah; Klug, Julian; Cojan, Yann; Galli, Silvio; Berney, Alexandre; Aybek, Selma; Vuilleumier, Patrik
Motor conversion disorder (CD) entails genuine disturbances in the subjective experience of patients who maintain they are unable to perform a motor function, despite lack of apparent neurological damage. Abilities by which individuals assess their own capacities during performance in a task are called metacognitive, and distinctive impairment of such abilities is observed in several disorders of self-awareness such as blindsight and anosognosia. In CD, previous research has focused on the recruitment of motor and emotional brain systems, generally linking symptoms to altered limbic-motor interactions; however, metacognitive function has not been studied to our knowledge. Here we tested ten CD patients and ten age-gender matched controls during a visually-guided motor paradigm, previously employed in healthy controls (HC), allowing us to probe for motor awareness and metacognition. Participants had to draw straight trajectories towards a visual target while, unbeknownst to them, deviations were occasionally introduced in the reaching trajectory seen on the screen. Participants then reported both awareness of deviations and confidence in their response. Activity in premotor and cingulate cortex distinguished between conscious and unconscious movement corrections in controls better than patients. Critically, whereas controls engaged the left superior precuneus and middle temporal region during confidence judgments, CD patients recruited bilateral parahippocampal and amygdalo-hippocampal regions instead. These results reveal that distinct brain regions subserve metacognitive monitoring for HC and CD, pointing to different mechanisms and sources of information used to monitor and form confidence judgments of motor performance. While brain systems involved in sensory-motor integration and vision are more engaged in controls, CD patients may preferentially rely on memory and contextual associative processing, possibly accounting for how affect and memories can imbue
The four studies summarized in the present thesis were conducted within the overarching framework of asking how and by which means individuals manage and influence their own cognitive development. Two aspects were addressed specifically: First, the development of individual differences in the extent to which individuals deliberately engage in cognitive activities and, hence, influence their own cognitive performance. Second, the development of individual differences in the metacognitive skill...
Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R
The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J
The Mediterranean diet is characterised by the high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and nuts; moderate consumption of fish, poultry, eggs and dairy; and low consumption of red meat and sweets. Cross sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies indicate that a Mediterranean diet may be effective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, previous research suggests that an Australian population may find red meat restrictions difficult, which could affect long term sustainability of the diet. This paper outlines the protocol for a randomised controlled trial that will assess the cardiovascular and cognitive benefits of a Mediterranean diet modified to include 2-3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork. A 24-week cross-over design trial will compare a modified Mediterranean diet with a low-fat control diet in at-risk men and women. Participants will follow each of the two diets for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. Home measured systolic blood pressure will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes will include body mass index, body composition, fasting blood lipids, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, erythrocyte fatty acids, cognitive function, psychological health and well-being, and dementia risk. To our knowledge this research is the first to investigate whether an alternate source of protein can be included in the Mediterranean diet to increase sustainability and feasibility for a non-Mediterranean population. Findings will be significant for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and age-related decline, and may inform individuals, clinicians and public health policy. ACTRN12616001046493 . Registered 5 August 2016.
Dougherty, Michael R; Robey, Alison M; Buttaccio, Daniel
A central question in the metacognitive literature concerns whether the act of making a metacognitive judgment alters one's memory for the information about which the judgment was made. Dougherty, Scheck, Nelson, and Narens (2005, Memory & Cognition, 33(6), 1096-1115) attempted to address this question by having participants make either retrospective confidence judgments (RCJs; i.e., evaluations of past retrieval success), judgments of learning (JOLs; i.e., predictions of future retrieval success), or no explicit judgments. When comparing final retrieval accuracy they found that accuracy was greater for items where participants had made JOLs compared with items that received RCJs or no judgment, suggesting that simply making a JOL can improve later memory performance. The present article presents results from four separate replication attempts that fail to duplicate this finding. Combined results provide compelling evidence that making a metacognitive judgment, regardless of the type, has no impact on later memory performance above and beyond retrieval practice.
Gould, Felicia; McGuire, Laura Stone; Durand, Dante; Sabbag, Samir; Larrauri, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Harvey, Philip D
Self-assessment deficits, often referred to as impaired insight or unawareness of illness, are well established in people with schizophrenia. There are multiple levels of awareness, including awareness of symptoms, functional deficits, cognitive impairments, and the ability to monitor cognitive and functional performance in an ongoing manner. The present study aimed to evaluate the comparative predictive value of each aspect of awareness on the levels of everyday functioning in people with schizophrenia. We examined multiple aspects of self-assessment of functioning in 214 people with schizophrenia. We also collected information on everyday functioning rated by high contact clinicians and examined the importance of self-assessment for the prediction of real-world functional outcomes. The relative impact of performance-based measures of cognition, functional capacity, and metacognitive performance on everyday functioning was also examined. Misestimation of ability emerged as the strongest predictor of real-world functioning and exceeded the influences of cognitive performance, functional capacity performance, and performance-based assessment of metacognitive monitoring. The relative contribution of the factors other than self-assessment varied according to which domain of everyday functioning was being examined, but, in all cases, accounted for less predictive variance. These results underscore the functional impact of misestimating one's current functioning and relative level of ability. These findings are consistent with the use of insight-focused treatments and compensatory strategies designed to increase self-awareness in multiple functional domains. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Colombo, Barbara; Antonietti, Alessandro
The positive role of metacognition in music learning and practice is well assessed, but the role of musicians' metacognitive skills in such a context is not yet clear. Teachers often state that they apply a metacognitive approach during their lessons, but students fail to acknowledge it and report that they become metacognitive learners thanks to…
Smith, J. David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C.; Church, Barbara A.
Ongoing research explores whether animals have precursors to metacognition—that is, the capacity to monitor mental states or cognitive processes. Comparative psychologists have tested apes, monkeys, rats, pigeons, and a dolphin using perceptual, memory, foraging, and information-seeking paradigms. The consensus is that some species have a functional analog to human metacognition. Recently, though, associative modelers have used formal-mathematical models hoping to describe animals’ “metacognitive” performances in associative-behaviorist ways. We evaluate these attempts to reify formal models as proof of particular explanations of animal cognition. These attempts misunderstand the content and proper application of models. They embody mistakes of scientific reasoning. They blur fundamental distinctions in understanding animal cognition. They impede theoretical development. In contrast, an energetic empirical enterprise is achieving strong success in describing the psychology underlying animals’ metacognitive performances. We argue that this careful empirical work is the clear path to useful theoretical development. The issues raised here about formal modeling—in the domain of animal metacognition—potentially extend to biobehavioral research more broadly. PMID:26669600
Aurah, Catherine Muhonja
Within the framework of social cognitive theory, the influence of self-efficacy beliefs and metacognitive prompting on genetics problem solving ability among high school students in Kenya was examined through a mixed methods research design. A quasi-experimental study, supplemented by focus group interviews, was conducted to investigate both the outcomes and the processes of students' genetics problem-solving ability. Focus group interviews substantiated and supported findings from the quantitative instruments. The study was conducted in 17 high schools in Western Province, Kenya. A total of 2,138 high school students were purposively sampled. A sub-sample of 48 students participated in focus group interviews to understand their perspectives and experiences during the study so as to corroborate the quantitative data. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, zero-order correlations, 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA,, and sequential hierarchical multiple regressions. Qualitative data were transcribed, coded, and reported thematically. Results revealed metacognitive prompts had significant positive effects on student problem-solving ability independent of gender. Self-efficacy and metacognitive prompting significantly predicted genetics problem-solving ability. Gender differences were revealed, with girls outperforming boys on the genetics problem-solving test. Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relationship between metacognitive prompting and genetics problem-solving ability. This study established a foundation for instructional methods for biology teachers and recommendations are made for implementing metacognitive prompting in a problem-based learning environment in high schools and science teacher education programs in Kenya.
Full Text Available We conducted a questionnaire survey using a cross-sectional sample of early and middle adolescents aged 10–15 (n = 351 in order to investigate relationships between temperament, metacognition, and frames of reference in behaviors in public situations. The sample was divided into two groups by age (ear group: 10–12; middle-adolescence group: 13–15 and were analyzed by Multiple Group Structural Equation Modeling. Explanatory variables were four components of temperament [effortful control (EfC, affiliativeness (Afil, surgency (Sur, and negative affect (NgA] and metacognition. Objective variables were three components of frames of reference in behaviors in public situations [egocentrism (Ego, neighborhood evaluation (Nei, and public values (Pub]. In both age groups, EfC had a negative effect on Ego, and Sur had a negative effect on Nei. However, only in the middle-adolescence group did Afil and NgA have significant effects on Pub. Meanwhile, metacognition in the ear group had a positive effect on Ego and Nei, but these relations disappeared in the middle-adolescence group, and only in the middle-adolescence group did metacognition have a positive effect on Pub. We discuss frames of reference in behaviors in public situations from the viewpoint of the development of social cognition in early and middle adolescence in relation to temperament and metacognition.
Arslan, Serhat; Akin, Ahmet
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of metacognition on one's academic locus of control. The study's sample group consists of 451 university students enrolled in various programs at Sakarya University, Turkey. In this study, the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and the Academic Locus of Control Scale were used. The correlations and…
Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle
This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation…
Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid
Middle childhood may be crucial for the development of metacognitive monitoring and study control processes. The first three experiments, using different materials, showed that Grade 3 and Grade 5 children exhibited excellent metacognitive resolution when asked to make delayed judgments of learning (JOLs, using an analogue scale) or binary…
The present study investigated the metacognitive listening strategies among Saudi EFL medical students. The participants were 104 males and females, randomly selected to fill in the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ), developed and validated Vandergrift Goh, Mareschal, and Tafaghodtari (2006). The results revealed that…
Moncarz, Howard T.
This study investigated how playing different types of video games was associated with different values of metacognitive awareness. The target population was first and second-year college students. The study used a survey methodology that employed two self-reporting instruments: the first to estimate a metacognitive-awareness index (MAI), and the…
This study examined the effect of online metacognitive strategies, hypermedia annotations, and motivation on reading comprehension in a Taiwanese hypertext environment. A path analysis model was proposed based on the assumption that if English as a foreign language learners frequently use online metacognitive strategies and hypermedia annotations,…
Huff, Jessica D.; Nietfeld, John L.
Current models of self-regulated learning emphasize the pervasive need for metacognitive monitoring skills at all phases of the learning process (Winne and Hadwin in "Studying as self-regulated learning." In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), "Metacognition in educational theory and practice" (pp. 227-304). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum,…
This article examines metacognitive-based teaching strategies and provides preliminary evidence about their effectiveness in the political science classroom. In a 2013 Fall semester Introduction to Political Science course, three metacognitive-based teaching strategies were designed and implemented for improving student learning through greater…
Millis, Barbara J.
Metacognition has increasingly been recognized as essential for learning. This paper defines metacognition, discusses its importance, and specifies how faculty can nurture it in students to promote positive learning outcomes. The paper then offers extensive examples based on two formats: (1) activities offered before, during, and after lessons or…
de Jong, S; van Donkersgoed, R J M; Arends, J; Lysaker, P H; Wunderink, L; van der Gaag, M; Aleman, A; Pijnenborg, G H M
Persons with a psychotic disorder commonly experience difficulties with what is considered to be metacognitive capacity. In this article we discuss several definitions of this concept, the measurement instruments involved and the clinical interventions that target this concept. To present a review of various frequently used definitions of metacognition and related concepts and to describe the measurement instruments involved and the treatment options available for improving the metacognitive capacity of persons with a psychotic disorder. We present an overview of several definitions of metacognition in psychotic disorders and we discuss frequently used measurement instruments and treatment options. The article focuses on recent developments in a model devised by Semerari et al. The measurement instrument involved (Metacognition Assessment Scale - A) is discussed in terms of it being an addition to existing methods. On the basis of the literature it appears that metacognition and related concepts are measurable constructs, although definitions and instruments vary considerably. The new conceptualisation of social information processing also leads to the development of a new form of psychotherapy that aims to help patients suffering from psychotic disorders to improve metacognitive capacity. There seems to be evidence that metacognitive abilities are a possible target for treatment, but further research is needed.
Rings, Sally; Sheets, Rick A.
Advocates grounding a tutor training program in research-based theoretical models, such as student development and metacognitive theories. Recommends that tutor training cover student development philosophy, effective communication skills, campus resources, instructional support materials, learning theory/learning styles, metacognitive approaches…
de Jager, B; Jansen, M; Reezigt, G; Jansen, G.G.H.
Constructivist ideas have influenced recent major innovations in Dutch secondary education and new curricula for reading and math in primary education, for example, pay much more attention to metacognition than before. In our study, we compared the growth of student metacognition in varying learning
Saricam, Hakan; Ogurlu, Üzeyir
The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students' metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted) volunteer secondary school students…
Railean, Elena, Ed.; Alev Elçi, Ed.; Elçi, Atilla, Ed.
Metacognition plays an important role in numerous aspects of higher educational learning strategies. When properly integrated in the educational system, schools are better equipped to build more efficient and successful learning strategies for students in higher education. "Metacognition and Successful Learning Strategies in Higher…
Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial; Balanzin, Dario; Billieux, Joël; Eliez, Stephan
The expression of early delusion and hallucination-like symptoms, known as positive schizotypy (PS), holds predictive power for later development of psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the psychological and emotional processes promoting the expression of PS during adolescent development. Our study's objective was to examine the nature of the relationships between adolescent PS and two dimensions previously identified to contribute to adult positive symptoms of psychosis, metacognitive beliefs and anxiety. Using a structural equation modeling design, data from self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, metacognitive beliefs, and PS were collected from 179 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Our results indicate that although metacognitive beliefs significantly influence adolescent PS and anxiety, maladaptive contradictory metacognitive beliefs specifically potentiate positive schizotypal expression in hallucination-prone adolescents. Furthermore, we observe that PS and anxiety entertain reciprocal relationships. These findings suggest that relationships between metacognitive beliefs, anxiety, and PS can already be observed during adolescence.
Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Manfredi, Chiara; Rebecchi, Daniela; Rovetto, Francesco; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Nikčević, Ana V; Sassaroli, Sandra
Parental overprotection may have a direct effect on worry through hindering children's exploration experiences and preventing the learning of action-oriented coping strategies (Cheron, Ehrenreich and Pincus, 2009; Nolen-Hoeksema, Wolfson, Mumme and Guskin, 1995) and an indirect effect through fostering the development of maladaptive metacognitions that are associated with the activation of worry and the escalation of anxiety (Wells, 2000). The aim was to investigate the relative contribution of recalled parental overprotection in childhood and metacognitions in predicting current levels of worry. A community sample (n = 301) was administered four self-report instruments to assess parental overprotection, metacognitions, anxiety and worry. Metacognitions were found to predict levels of worry independently of gender, anxiety and parental overprotection. They were also found to predict anxiety independently of gender, worry and parental overprotection. The combination of a family environment perceived to be characterized by overprotection and high levels of maladaptive metacognitions are a risk factor for the development of worry.
Stephan du Toit
Full Text Available The broad aim of this study was to investigate the use of metacognitive strategies by Grade 11 mathematics learners and their teachers. Two objectives were stated: To investigate which metacognitive strategies Grade 11 mathematics learners and mathematics teachers can employ to enhance metacognition among learners, and to investigate the extent to which Grade 11 mathematics learners and teachers use metacognitive strategies. Questionnaires were used to obtain quantitative data about the use of metacognitive strategies by learners and teachers. The findings indicate that planning strategy and evaluating the way of thinking and acting were used most by bothteachers and learners. Journal–keeping and thinking aloud were used least by teachers and learners.
Zarbo, Cristina; Brugnera, Agostino; Frigerio, Luigi; Malandrino, Chiara; Rabboni, Massimo; Bondi, Emi; Compare, Angelo
Endometriosis is a disabling and long-term medical condition affecting quality of life and mental health. Behavioral, cognitive, and emotional coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition could in part explain the link between the disease and impaired psychological and life functioning. This critical narrative review aimed at examining the state of the art of the relationships between endometriosis and these factors. According to PRISMA principles, we performed a systematic search for quantitative and qualitative studies on multiple electronic databases as regards coping strategies, emotional intelligence, and metacognition in women with endometriosis. Studies were subjected to interpretative and critical narrative synthesis. A total of 9 papers were included in the review. Three main categories were identified in thematic analysis and resumed in the manuscript. Findings suggested that (a) pain is considered the major stressor; (b) they usually use both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies; (c) women with endometriosis and related chronic pain seem to repress emotions more likely than healthy ones; (d) suppressing own emotions, pain catastrophizing, and having a passive coping style are related to higher self-reported pain; and (e) emotional and avoidance coping styles are associated to poor mental status, while positive coping strategies focusing on the problem or on emotions, detached and rational styles are associated to better mental health. Few studies with mixed results and some methodological flaws have focused on coping strategies in women with endometriosis. No studies focusing on metacognition or emotional intelligence were found. Methodological biases, suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice were discussed.
Thomas, Gregory P.; Anderson, David
Concerns persist regarding science classroom learning environments and the lack of development of students' metacognition and reasoning processes within such environments. Means of shaping learning environments so that students are encouraged to develop their metacognition are required in order to enhance students' reasoning and…
Lysaker, Paul H; Erickson, Molly; Ringer, Jamie; Buck, Kelly D; Semerari, Antonio; Carcione, Antonino; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
OBJECTIVES. Deficits in metacognition, or the ability to think about thinking, are common in schizophrenia and associated with functional impairment. Unknown are what elements of function are affected by what aspects of metacognition. DESIGN. This study explored whether participants with differing capacities for Mastery, a domain of metacognition that reflects the ability to use knowledge about mental states to respond to psychological challenges, had difficulties in different elements of daily function. METHODS. Participants were 98 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a non-acute phase, classified into three groups on the basis of ratings of their capacity for metacognitive Mastery using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale: low Mastery (those unable to plausibly represent psychological challenges), Intermediate Mastery (those able to plausibly represent psychological problems but cope primarily through passive measures or avoidance), and high Mastery (those able to cope with plausible problems through cognitive means). Participants completed assessments of coping preference, insight, self-esteem, and anxiety. RESULTS. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the high-Mastery group had a greater preference for coping with stressors by thinking and talking about them, and greater insight than all other groups, and higher levels of feeling accepted by peers than the intermediate-Mastery group. The intermediate-Mastery group reported higher levels of resignation when facing stressors and more social phobia than the other two groups. These findings of Mastery group differences in self-esteem and anxiety persisted when neurocognition was controlled for in an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). CONCLUSIONS. Mastery appears linked to coping preference, insight, self-esteem, and anxiety in a generally non-linear manner. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.
Suchow, Jordan W; Bourgin, David D; Griffiths, Thomas L
Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind. In fact, deep correspondences exist between the mathematics of evolution and of learning, with perhaps the deepest being an equivalence between certain evolutionary dynamics and Bayesian inference. This equivalence permits reinterpretation of evolutionary processes as algorithms for Bayesian inference and has relevance for understanding diverse cognitive capacities, including memory and creativity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khrismawan, Beleven; Widiati, Utami
This qualitative study investigates students' perceptions about paraphrasing and their cognitive and meta-cognitive processes in paraphrasing. Four Indonesian advanced EFL students enrolled in Applied Linguistics course of a graduate program in English Language Teaching of a state university in Malang were voluntarily willing to participate in the…
Balaban, Sezen; Camlıbel-Acar, Zeynep
Listeningis an essential skill and plays a crucial role in learning and using a secondlanguage. It is stated by various researchers that learners become successfuland efficient listeners by means of employing strategies during listening(Gilakjani & Ahmadi, 2011). This study included the aim to provide learnerswith training in two different types of listening strategies, namelynote-taking and shadowing. While there is abundant information on L2 learners’metacognitive awareness in liste...
Recent models of impaired awareness in brain injury draw a distinction between metacognitive knowledge of difficulties and online awareness of errors (emergent and anticipatory). We examined performance of 31 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) participants and 31 healthy controls using a three-strand approach to assessing awareness. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed with an awareness interview and discrepancy scores on three questionnaires--Patient Competency Rating Scale, Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Online Emergent Awareness was assessed using an online error-monitoring task while participants performed tasks of sustained attention. Online anticipatory awareness was examined using prediction performance on two cognitive tasks. Results indicated that the TBI Low Self-Awareness (SA) group and High SA group did not differ in terms of severity, chronicity or standard neuropsychological tasks but those with Low SA were more likely to exhibit disinhibition, interpersonal problems and more difficulties in total competency. Sustained attention abilities were associated with both types of online awareness (emergent and anticipatory). There was a strong relationship between online emergent and online anticipatory awareness. Metacognitive knowledge did not correlate with the other two measures. This study highlights the necessity in adopting a multidimensional approach to assessing the multifaceted phenomenon of awareness of deficits.
van der Veen, Wil E.
For students to think deeply about their own thinking (to be metacognitive) is critical to the enterprise of science and science learning. Scientists integrate new knowledge gained through investigations only when that knowledge is examined in relation to what they already know, tentatively believe, or previously doubted. We will summarize the research on the crucial role of metacognition in learning astronomy and science in general. We will emphasize two essential components of metacognition: (1) Elicitation of students’ prior knowledge, and (2) Students’ reflection on how their initial ideas are changing over time. Research has shown convincingly that students do not come to class as empty vessels. They come with ideas and beliefs gleaned from books, television, movies, real-life, and previous classroom experiences. These ideas can either facilitate or impede their learning as explained in "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School” (NRC, 2003). In many cases, students have ideas that get in the way of learning new ones. Considerable evidence from research shows that instruction is most effective when it elicits students’ initial ideas, provides them with opportunities to confront those ideas, helps them formulate new ideas based on evidence, and encourages students to reflect upon how their ideas have evolved ("Effective Science Instruction: What Does Research Tell Us?", Horizon Research, Inc., 2008). Without these opportunities, students "may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom” ("How People Learn", NRC, 2003, page 14). Multiple approaches are needed in order for students to develop the ability to think about scientific thinking. We will briefly discuss a variety of techniques and resources to elicit student ideas and to reflect on how students’ ideas change over time.
Full Text Available Purpose – this research is aimed to identify the metacognitive online reading strategies employed by MRU students and assess the interrelation between online reading strategies and metacognitive awareness.Design/methodology/approach – the authors present and evaluate the findings obtained by using Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS, the survey, which helped to identify MRU students’ metacognitive online reading strategies in a foreign language learning context. The methods applied in the research were the following ones: literature review and descriptive analysis of the obtained quantitative data. The quantitative research and descriptive analysis of the data received from the survey was applied. The target group of the study conducted at MRU consisted of 89 full-time students having different online reading experience. The sample was composed of students from five Bachelor study programmes studying in the academic year of 2012-2013. The instrument of the research (OSORS was composed of 38 items.Findings – the findings obtained through the survey revealed that readers work directly with the text to solve problems while reading online. However, a low score on any of the subscales of the inventory (i.e. Support strategies use indicates that there may be strategies in these parts that students might want to learn about and consider using them when reading online. By focusing students’ attention on the metacognitive reading strategies identified in the OSORS language, teachers could help students improve their online reading ability. Teachers should include strategy awareness as training component in their students’ online learning tasks.Research limitations/implications – the research sample is rather limited (89 participants.Practical implications – seeking to develop students’ online reading capacity, it is valuable for teachers to discover students’ preferences for online reading strategies and identify encountered
Parker, Mary Jo
This study investigated the effects of a shared, Intranet science environment on the academic behaviors of problem-solving and metacognitive reflection. Seventy-eight subjects included 9th and 10th grade male and female biology students. A quasi-experimental design with pre- and post-test data collection and randomization occurring through assignment of biology classes to traditional or shared, Intranet learning groups was employed. Pilot, web-based distance education software (CourseInfo) created the Intranet learning environment. A modified ecology curriculum provided contextualization and content for traditional and shared learning environments. The effect of this environment on problem-solving, was measured using the standardized Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal test. Metacognitive reflection, was measured in three ways: (a) number of concepts used, (b) number of concept links noted, and (c) number of concept nodes noted. Visual learning software, Inspiration, generated concept maps. Secondary research questions evaluated the pilot CourseInfo software for (a) tracked user movement, (b) discussion forum findings, and (c) difficulties experienced using CourseInfo software. Analysis of problem-solving group means reached no levels of significance resulting from the shared, Intranet environment. Paired t-Test of individual differences in problem-solving reached levels of significance. Analysis of metacognitive reflection by number of concepts reached levels of significance. Metacognitive reflection by number of concept links noted also reach significance. No significance was found for metacognitive reflection by number of concept nodes. No gender differences in problem-solving ability and metacognitive reflection emerged. Lack of gender differences in the shared, Intranet environment strongly suggests an equalizing effect due to the cooperative, collaborative nature of Intranet environments. Such environments appeal to, and rank high with, the female
Carlos A. Arévalo
Full Text Available Learning to program is difficult for many first year undergraduate students. Instructional strategies of traditional programming courses tend to focus on syntactic issues and assigning practice exercises using the presentation-examples-practice formula and by showing the verbal and visual explanation of a teacher during the “step by step” process of writing a computer program. Cognitive literature regarding the mental processes involved in programming suggests that the explicit teaching of certain aspects such as mental models, strategic knowledge and metacognitive abilities, are critical issues of how to write and assemble the pieces of a computer program. Verbal protocols are often used in software engineering as a technique to record the short term cognitive process of a user or expert in evaluation or problem solving scenarios. We argue that verbal protocols can be used as a mechanism to explicitly show the strategic and metacognitive process of an instructor when writing a program. In this paper we present an Information System Prototype developed to store and visualize worked examples derived from transcribed verbal protocols during the process of writing introductory level programs. Empirical data comparing the grades obtained by two groups of novice programming students, using ANOVA, indicates a statistically positive difference in performance in the group using the tool, even though these results still cannot be extrapolated to general population, given the reported limitations of this study.
Doig, Emmah; Fleming, Jenny; Ownsworth, Tamara; Fletcher, Stephanie
Online awareness is the ability to self-monitor, identify and self-correct errors while engaged in an activity. Current assessments of online awareness involve observing and classifying error behaviour during structured, uniform tasks. However, during rehabilitation, practitioners typically work towards improving performance in individually meaningful tasks unique to the client. This article presents a metacognitive, task analytic approach to assessing online awareness involving observation and classification of errors during meaningful occupations determined after client-centred goal setting with two male clients with severe traumatic brain injury (aged 22 and 23). Study aims were to describe the approach, evaluate its feasibility and determine inter-rater agreement for error detection and error categorisation by two experienced occupational therapists. Furthermore, the error profiles and cognitive impairments of the participants on standardised neuropsychological assessment were examined to explore the validity of the assessment. Individualised assessment tasks included snack preparation, budgeting, timetabling, hot-drink preparation and use of a computer program, which were administered repeatedly over two to three months and audio-visual recordings taken. Independent ratings of two trained occupational therapists were compared using exact percent agreement. Overall agreement about errors was 76%, for which there was 65% agreement about error categorisation and 100% agreement about error correction. There was fair inter-rater agreement between two trained occupational therapists of error behaviour and error correction when using the described occupation-based approach to assessing online awareness. This approach has promise, particularly when combined with standardised, neuropsychological assessments, for providing an in-depth understanding of error behaviour and awareness of errors during meaningful occupations. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Bond, William F; Deitrick, Lynn M; Arnold, Darryl C; Kostenbader, Marianne; Barr, Gavin C; Kimmel, Saron R; Worrilow, Charles C
Recent literature defines certain cognitive errors that emergency physicians will likely encounter. The authors have utilized simulation and debriefing to teach the concepts of metacognition and error avoidance. The authors conducted a qualitative study of an educational intervention at Lehigh Valley Hospital during academic year 2002-03. Fifteen emergency medicine residents--eight from postgraduate year three (PGY3) and seven from postgraduate year two (PGY2)--experienced a difficult simulator lab scenario designed to lead them into a cognitive error trap. The debriefing was a PowerPoint with audio format CD-ROM with a didactic on succinylcholine (15 minutes) and cognitive forcing strategies (30 minutes). After debriefing, residents were interviewed by an ethnographer with an 11-question (15-minute) interview and completed an eight-question written survey. The residents ranked this experience second only to direct patient care for educational effectiveness. Survey results (Likert scale, 1 = disagree completely to 5 = agree completely) included "Improved my ability to use succinylcholine" (mean = 4.73), "Improved my ability to diagnose and treat hyperkalemia" (mean = 4.6), and "Cognitive forcing strategies is a useful educational effort" (mean = 4.33). The major interview themes that evolved were that the simulation lab was a positive experience; succinylcholine knowledge was gained; mistakes caused reflection/motivation; the lab was stressful; attending feedback was desired; the lab was realistic; and cognitive forcing strategies were discussed. When asked what they learned, more of the PGY3s commented on cognitive strategies or heuristic techniques (six out of eight), whereas the PGY2s commented on knowledge gained about succinylcholine (five out of seven) and only one PGY2 mentioned cognitive strategies. Pilot data suggest that metacognitive strategies can be taught to residents, though they may be better understood by upper-level residents.
Full Text Available Healthcare professionals are daily confronted with events involving the suffering of others, which are likely to generate highly negative and stressful emotions. In palliative care the emotional commitment is exacerbated by the constant confrontation with the theme of suffering and death. The failure to successfully down-regulate negative emotions is a key risk factor for a severe form of discomfort, known as burnout syndrome. Burnout is a psychological state of exhaustion, related to stress at work. Maslach (1996 describes it as a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Recent studies have shown that healthcare worker coping strategies may function either as a risk or aprotective factor for the development of distress and emotional problems. Furthermore, other studies highlighted the role of the dimensions of metacognition as vulnerability factors in predicting the development of psychological symptoms. The aim of this study is to examine and assess the relationships between burnout, coping strategies and metacognitive beliefs in workers involved in home palliative care. The hypothesis of the present work is that the appropriate use of positive and flexible coping strategies and functional metacognitive beliefs may relate to the management of distress and emotional problems. A group of operators working in a team of Integrated Home Palliative Care participated in the research.The study was based on a protocol including the Italian version of MCQ-30, used to assess a range of metacognitive beliefs and processes relevant to vulnerability and maintenance of emotional disorders; the Brief Cope (BC to survey coping strategies; Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI to measure burnout. The questionnaire includes a socio-demographical section. The results show the presence of a statistically significant correlation between the variables investigated.
Carmelo Ibáñez Aguirre
Full Text Available The cognitive paradigm of the past few decades opens several new possibilities for psychological evaluation. The objective of this essay is to emphasize the possibilities related to the quality of self-evaluation, specifically professional self-assessment, meaning a critical analysis of one’s own evaluation process. In this essay, metacognition activities and strategies are examined, as are the ways in which these activities and strategies relate to metacognition and cognitive skills. The intent of this theoretical essay is to offer answers to the clinical evaluator’s professional experience. The results indicate that the clinical professional must consider strategies to improve metacognition and cognitive skills through reflection, self-analysis and self-criticism to improve the quality and efficiency of their work.
An open trial of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for psychological distress in parents of children after end of treatment for childhood cancer including a cognitive behavioral conceptualization.
Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Ghaderi, Ata; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise; Ljótsson, Brjánn
A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. A secondary aim was to present a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of cancer-related distress for these parents. An open trial was conducted where 15 parents of children who had completed successful treatment for cancer three months to five years earlier and who reported psychological distress related to a child's previous cancer disease were provided CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up using self-reported psychological distress (including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, and anxiety) and the diagnostic Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Feasibility outcomes relating to recruitment, data collection, and delivery of the treatment were also examined. Individual case formulations for each participant guided the intervention and these were aggregated and presented in a conceptualization detailing core symptoms and their suggested maintenance mechanisms. A total of 93% of the participants completed the treatment and all of them completed the follow-up assessment. From baseline to post-assessment, parents reported significant improvements in PTSS, depression, and anxiety with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 0.65-0.92). Results were maintained or improved at a three-month follow-up. At baseline, seven (47%) participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and four (29%) fulfilled the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, compared to
Full Text Available We discuss the problem of self-control formation in the context of metacognitive development of children. The hypothesis of the study was that in the preschool age, the structure of self-cognition begins to form, which includes anticipating, process and final self-control. The aim of the study was to identify the dynamics of self-control of cognitive activity in the preschool years. We used an experimental technique in which children were asked to identify the problem and plan of the learning activities, implement it and evaluate the results. The study involved 60 children aged 4 to 7 years. In all age groups higher rates of current and total self-control were found, but the most intensive dynamics were identified in terms of predictive self-control. In the preschool age children occasionally show a formal self-control. At the age of 5-6 years old, the children start to develop the self-control structure, and significant correlations were found between the indicators of current and final self. The most advanced children demonstrate meaningful self-control. This is due not only to the development of self-awareness, arbitrariness and traditionally described cognitive processes, but also to the development of dialectical thinking and metacognitions.
What is the relationship between the creator and the product? What transpires between the creative works and the observer, what collaborative force binds the creator, the creative work and the observer? The four theories mentioned above have also been discussed. The Object. Visual expressions are ideas, feelings and ...
Veltro, Franco; Mazza, Monica; Vendittelli, Nicola; Alberti, Mirella; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita
Social cognition and Problem Solving (PS) impairments are common characteristics in patients with schizophrenia. Experimental neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by a broad range of heterogeneous cognitive impairments. Since that time Problem Solving Training has been employed as a core strategy in a wide variety of therapeutic settings. Renewed interest in cognitive functioning, including social Problem Solving skills and social cognition in schizophrenia, has led us to reconsider the potential value of metacognitive strategy as a rehabilitation strategy. The present study reports the results obtained by 24 persons with schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to one of two training session groups: Cognitive-Emotional Rehabilitation (REC) vs Problem Solving Training (PST). Both treatments were administered to small groups composed of subjects suffering from schizophrenic disorders over a 12 months period: primary measures of clinical, social outcomes and secondary measures of cognitive and Problem Solving functions were conducted at 0, and 12 months. Results showed that both training methods were found to be effective in psychopathological measures and in social functioning. On cognitive function improvements were specific to the rehabilitative approach. PST are mainly improved capacities for planning and memory, while the REC improved measures such as social cognition Theory of mind and emotion recognition. The results confirmed that it is no necessary to divide the rehabilitation training in treatments directed to specific domains. The conceptualization and applicability of PST and REC its implications for persons with schizophrenia, and future studies in this research area have also been discussed.
Sungatullina Dilyana D.
Full Text Available The rising demand for exchange and mobility programs as well as double diploma opportunities with world leading universities highlights the importance of ESL proficiency. TOEFL iBT as a test of EAP is accepted by most of the HEI in various countries. The aim of the present study is to determine students’ metacognitive awareness of global academic reading strategies, namely the use of context clues, within the framework of preparation for TOEFL reading section. The article establishes the connection between success in reading comprehension and the degree of students’ metacognitive awareness. The authors concentrate on expository texts from TOEFL reading section as a testing material and provide detailed description of single context clues types and double context clues patterns typical for this text structure. The following study is concerned with comparison and interpretation of the results obtained in three focus groups of students, who have accomplished reading comprehension task from TOEFL iBT with and without learning to employ the context clues reading strategy.
Past research has shown an association between foreign language reading anxiety and reading strategy. However, individual variables tend to affect foreign language anxiety and strategy use. The present study examined a hypothesized model that specified direct and indirect effects among English and foreign languages readers' distinct variables, including academic level; self-perceived English level; and satisfaction with reading proficiency, reading anxiety, and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. A total of 523 volunteer Taiwanese college students provided 372 valid responses to a written questionnaire (281 women and 91 men; M age = 19.7 years, SD = 1.1) containing the translated versions of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale, Survey of Reading Strategies Inventory, and self-assessment background questionnaire. The results showed that self-evaluation of reading proficiency did not correlate with academic level and readers' perceptions. Satisfaction had a direct effect on foreign language reading anxiety but not on metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Results of path analysis demonstrated that the perception learners who had their own reading proficiency predicted their foreign language reading anxiety and was a mediating variable for metacognitive reading strategy use. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners’ achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems. Two hundred sixty-three learners, of three classes of third graders (N=130 and four classes of fifth graders (N=133 of the elementary cycle from two urban schools of Kosovo, participated in the study. Almost half of the total number of the third and fifth-graderswere exposed to metacognitive instruction. The rest of the learners were included in control classes in which they performed tasks without having been given any specific guidance, based exclusively on traditional methods and respective textbooks. All the learners were tested in math word problems twice, before the intervention and after it. Research findings have shown that metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes that learners use to control their actions, to reason, and to reflect, are one of the main resources that influence their success in solving a math word problem. Although the difference between the pre-test and the post-test resultswas statistically significant solely with the fifth-grade experimental classes, yet an improved performance was observed in third-grade experimental learners’ classes compared to control classes. Theoretical and practical implications of the research are discussed in the end of the study.
Adnan; Bahri, Arsad
This research was quasi experimental with pretest posttes non-equivalent control group design. This research aimed to compare metacognitive skill of students between tought by guided inquiry and traditional teaching. Sample of this research was the students at even semester at the first year, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia. The data of students’ metacognitive skill was measured by essay test. The data was analyzed by inferential statistic of ANCOVA test. The result of research showed that there was the effect of teaching model towards metacognitive skill of students. Students were tought by guided inquiry had higher metacognitive skill than tought by traditional teaching. The lecturer can use the guided inquiry model in others courses with considering the course materials and also student characteristics.
Specht, M. (2012, 12 September). Metadata and Metacognition: How can we stimulate reflection for learning? Invited presentation given at the seminar on awareness and reflection in learning at the University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Dinorah Aladina Caballero López
Full Text Available Textual comprehension implies the use of various metacognitive strategies by the students when they have to face a text to be competent readers. That is why the objective of this article is to illustrate the application of metacognitive strategies in order to achieve an efficient textual comprehension, taking into account the self – regulation the student exerts over his own learning process. It is applied as the main method historical-logical studies based on a professional-researching systematic practice; at the same time observation is largely used. The main result is the introduction of metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension, which subsequently favor the self-control of personal behavior. The article is the result of a research project sponsored by the department of Special Education. Key words: reading comprehension, metacognitive strategies, behavior self-control.
Fernie, Bruce A.; Wright, Talen; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikcevic, Ana V.; Spada, Marcantonio M
Objective: Research has found that the prevalence of psychological distress is substantially higher in transgender compared to cisgender populations. This study explored the role of metacognitions as mediators of anxiety in a sample comprising of cisgender and transgender individuals. Method: 125 individuals (19 trans-male; 24 male; 25 trans-female; 57 female) completed a series of measures that assessed metacognitions, worry, and anxiety. Results: Correlation analyses were used to identify p...
Hakan Sarıcam; Üzeyir Ogurlu
The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students’ metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted) volunteer secondary school students in Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 12.56 years ranging from 12 to 13 years. For gathering data, the Maths Anxiety Scale for Elementary S...
Full Text Available Objective: Metacognition is a multi-component psychological construct, characterised by the ability to identify and describe one’s own mental states and those of others. Evidence has been found for an association between deficits in metacognitive abilities and poor social functioning, low quality of life, psychopathology, and symptoms in Personality Disorders (PDs. However, to date, there are few psychometrically validated instruments available for assessing the different components of metacognition. A semi-structured interview, the Metacognition Assessment Interview (MAI, has been developed to evaluate different domains of metacognition. In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the MAI in an outpatient clinical sample. Method: The MAI was administered to a clinical population of 306 outpatients attending a private clinical centre. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and correlation with instruments assessing alexithymia and interpersonal problems were carried out to examine the dimensionality and validity of the MAI. Result: Explorative and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a good fit for both a two-factor model and a four-factor model of metacognition. The two-factor model yielded two main dimensions, which we named: Self domain, defined as self-reflection, and Other domain, defined as critical distancing from one’s own mental state and that of others. The four-factor solution is composed of four sub-domains: monitoring, integration, differentiation and decentration. Moreover, the MAI showed good convergent validity, with significant correlations with both alexithymia and interpersonal problems. Conclusions: These results confirm that the MAI is a reliable instrument for measuring metacognition and its different sub-domains. In particular, the MAI represents a useful and flexible instrument for the assessment of metacognition impairments in different psychopathologies and it can provide
Azizah, U.; Nasrudin, H.
Metacognitive skills are one of the high-level thinking skills that pre-service teachers need in chemistry problem-solving. Metacognitive skills that empowered in learning focuses on how pre-service teachers participate in designing what was to be learned, monitor the progress of learning outcomes, and assess what has been learned in solving problems. The purpose of this research was (1) describe how pre-service teachers empowering metacognitive skills using developed instructional materials, and (2) describe the pre-service teacher’s response to the learning process. The research involved 22 pre-service teachers in Chemistry Education Program Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia. The design of this research was a pre-experimental research with One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The data of the research was analyzed by quantitative descriptive. The result of the research that: (1) performance of metacognitive skills pre-service teachers have high and very high criteria in learning chemistry on each indicator includes goal setting, identify the known knowledge, determining the learning strategies, monitoring the relevance of knowledge which has been owned with learning strategies are used, monitoring the achievement of the goal in the making conclusions, and evaluating the process and outcomes of thinking, and (2) most of the pre-service teachers are willing to join to this teaching-learning activity.
Lysaker, Paul H; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Buck, Kelly D; Callaway, Stephanie S; Salvatore, Gimapaolo; Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Stanghellini, Giovanni
Many persons with schizophrenia experience poor insight or reflexive unawareness of the symptoms and consequences of their illness and, as a result, are at risk for treatment nonadherence and a range of negative outcomes. One recent theory regarding the origins of poor insight in schizophrenia has suggested that it may result, in part, from deficits in metacognitive capacity, or the ability to think about thinking, both one's own and the thinking of others. Participants were 65 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a postacute phase of illness living in the community. For all participants, we obtained measures of three domains of metacognition, including self-reflectivity, mastery, and perspective taking, using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale and the hinting test and three domains of insight, which were awareness of symptoms, treatment need, and consequences of illness, using the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder. Measures of neurocognition were also collected for potential use as covariates. Univariate correlations followed by stepwise multiple regressions, which controlled for neurocognition, indicated that self-reflectivity was significantly linked with awareness of symptoms, mastery with treatment need, and mastery and perspective taking were linked with awareness of consequences of illness. Results suggest that metacognition may be linked to insight in persons with schizophrenia independent of concurrent impairments in neurocognition. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hong, Wei Han; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Sim, Joong Hiong
Background Studies have shown the importance of metacognition in medical education. Metacognitive skills consist of two dimensions: knowledge of metacognition and regulation of metacognition. Aim This study hypothesizes that the knowledge and regulation of metacognition is significantly different at the beginning and end of the academic year, and a correlation exists between the two dimensions of metacognitive skills with academic performance. Methods The Metacognitive Skills Inventory comprising 52 Likert-scale items was administered to 159 first-year medical students at the University of Malaya. Students’ year-end results were used to measure their academic performance. Results A paired sample t-test indicated no significant difference for knowledge of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A paired sample t-test revealed significant difference for regulation of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A very strong correlation was found between the two dimensions of metacognition. The correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with students’ academic result was moderate. Conclusions The improvement in students’ metacognitive regulation and the moderate correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with academic performance at the end of the academic year indicate the probable positive influence of the teaching and learning activities in the medical program. PMID:26314338
Hong, Wei Han; Vadivelu, Jamunarani; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Sim, Joong Hiong
Studies have shown the importance of metacognition in medical education. Metacognitive skills consist of two dimensions: knowledge of metacognition and regulation of metacognition. This study hypothesizes that the knowledge and regulation of metacognition is significantly different at the beginning and end of the academic year, and a correlation exists between the two dimensions of metacognitive skills with academic performance. The Metacognitive Skills Inventory comprising 52 Likert-scale items was administered to 159 first-year medical students at the University of Malaya. Students' year-end results were used to measure their academic performance. A paired sample t-test indicated no significant difference for knowledge of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A paired sample t-test revealed significant difference for regulation of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A very strong correlation was found between the two dimensions of metacognition. The correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with students' academic result was moderate. The improvement in students' metacognitive regulation and the moderate correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with academic performance at the end of the academic year indicate the probable positive influence of the teaching and learning activities in the medical program.
Wei Han Hong
Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown the importance of metacognition in medical education. Metacognitive skills consist of two dimensions: knowledge of metacognition and regulation of metacognition. Aim: This study hypothesizes that the knowledge and regulation of metacognition is significantly different at the beginning and end of the academic year, and a correlation exists between the two dimensions of metacognitive skills with academic performance. Methods: The Metacognitive Skills Inventory comprising 52 Likert-scale items was administered to 159 first-year medical students at the University of Malaya. Students’ year-end results were used to measure their academic performance. Results: A paired sample t-test indicated no significant difference for knowledge of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A paired sample t-test revealed significant difference for regulation of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A very strong correlation was found between the two dimensions of metacognition. The correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with students’ academic result was moderate. Conclusions: The improvement in students’ metacognitive regulation and the moderate correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with academic performance at the end of the academic year indicate the probable positive influence of the teaching and learning activities in the medical program.
Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students’ metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted volunteer secondary school students in Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 12.56 years ranging from 12 to 13 years. For gathering data, the Maths Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students and The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children were used. For analysing the data, Spearman correlation analysis, the Mann Whitney U test, and linear regression analysis were used. According to the findings: firstly, gifted students’ metacognitive awareness scores were higher than those of non-gifted students. On the other hand, non-gifted students’ maths anxiety levels were higher than those of gifted students. Secondly, there was negative correlation between metacognitive awareness and math anxiety. Finally, the findings of linear regression analysis indicated that metacognitive awareness is explained by 48% total variance of maths anxiety in gifted students.
Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E
Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.