WorldWideScience

Sample records for included major activities

  1. Thyroid activity in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipcević, Tamara; Pivac, Nela; Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Mück-Seler, Dorotea

    2008-09-01

    Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis dysfunction has been associated with pathophysiology of major depression. The aim of the study was to determine serum levels of total 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH) in patients with major depression and healthy controls. The study included 53 medication-free patients with depression and 49 healthy controls. Exclusion criteria for patients was: other axis-I and axis-II diagnoses, intensive psychotherapy or electroconvulsive therapy, prior clinical and/or laboratory evidence of hypo- or hyperthyroidism, alcohol or nicotine dependence, pregnancy, hormone supplement therapy, somatic illnesses (diabetes, renal or hepatic disorders), infections or autoimmune diseases, recent surgical treatment or significantly changed body weight. For controls: the presence of psychiatric disorders and/or thyroid dysfunctions. The diagnosis of major depression was made using structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV criteria. The results showed significantly lower T3 and TSH levels in patients compared to controls. There was no significant difference in T4 values between patients with depression and control subjects. The results showing altered levels of thyroid hormones in depression indicate that further research on thyroid hormone activity can contribute to the better understanding of the biological basis of depression. Based on the high frequency of the subtle neuroendocrine disorders coexisting with depression, the association of thyroid abnormalities and depression should not be underestimated. Future research should identify different behavioral endophenotypes characteristic for depression, which would greatly facilitate delineating the biological phenomena associated with this psychiatric illness.

  2. Necessity of including medico-legal autopsy data in epidemiological surveys of individuals with major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagher, A; Wingren, C J; Ottosson, A; Andersson, L; Wangefjord, S; Acosta, S

    2015-08-01

    It is rare that epidemiological surveys of patients with major trauma include both those admitted to the emergency department and those sent for medico-legal autopsy. The main aim of the present population-based study of major trauma was to examine the importance of medico-legal autopsy data. A new injury severity score (NISS)>15 or lethal outcome was used as criteria for major trauma and to identify patients at the emergency, anaesthesiology and forensic departments and/or being within the jurisdiction of the Malmö police authority and subjected to a medico-legal autopsy between 2011 and 2013. According to Swedish legislation all trauma related deaths should be reported to the police who refer these cases for medico-legal autopsy. Among the 174 individuals included, 92 (53%) died and 81 (47%) underwent medico-legal autopsy. One hundred twenty-six patients were primarily admitted to hospital and 48 died before admission to hospital and were sent directly for medico-legal autopsy. Forty-four in-hospital deaths occurred, of whom 33 (75%) were sent to medico-legal autopsy. In those sent directly to the department of forensic medicine the proportion of accidents was lower (pautopsies among trauma-related deaths at hospital were high age (pautopsy according to legislation, but did not. The high proportion of positive toxicological findings among fatalities examined at medico-legal autopsy implies that toxicology screening should be routine in major trauma patients, in order to improve treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hopanoid-producing bacteria in the Red Sea include the major marine nitrite-oxidizers

    KAUST Repository

    Kharbush, Jenan J

    2018-04-10

    Hopanoids, including the extended side chain-containing bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), are bacterial lipids found abundantly in the geological record and across Earth\\'s surface environments. However, the physiological roles of this biomarker remain uncertain, limiting interpretation of their presence in current and past environments. Recent work investigating the diversity and distribution of hopanoid producers in the marine environment implicated low-oxygen regions as important loci of hopanoid production, and data from marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) suggested that the dominant hopanoid producers in these environments are nitrite-utilizing organisms, revealing a potential connection between hopanoid production and the marine nitrogen cycle. Here we use metagenomic data from the Red Sea to investigate the ecology of hopanoid producers in an environmental setting that is biogeochemically distinct from those investigated previously. The distributions of hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation genes in the Red Sea are closely correlated, and the majority of hopanoid producers are taxonomically affiliated with the major marine nitrite oxidizers, Nitrospinae and Nitrospirae. These results suggest that the relationship between hopanoid production and nitrite oxidation is conserved across varying biogeochemical conditions in dark ocean microbial ecosystems.

  4. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  5. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Riley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. Methods We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. Results We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA. We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Conclusion Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health

  6. Performancpe profiles of major energy producers, 1977. [Using EIA Financial Reporting System; 26 companies; includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is the first report of the Financial Reporting System (FRS). The finances and economics of energy production are the main subjects addressed by the data gathered. Much information already exists because of the largest firms are publicly held and file reports with the SEC. Useful as these reports are, they leave much to be desired as an account of the financial and economic aspects of the energy industry in the United States. Chapter 2 compares the 26 companies reporting to the FRS with a broad index of companies which includes energy companies and other non-energy industrial companies. The comparisons are at the aggregated consolidated company level where public information is available. In Chapter 3, characteristics of the industrial financial structure are reviewed in the context of the FRS reporting framework. Data on horizontal diversification are presented to permit review of existing patterns and evident directions of change, as well as the relation of these patterns to firm and segment profitability. In Chapter 4, profits, new investments, and the composition of net investment in place are described by FRS size groupings. Chapter 5 traces oil and gas resource-development efforts in 1977. Data on resource-development expenditures are complemented by data on reserve holdings, changes in reserves, and characteristics of exploration and development effort. Foreign activity is compared with domestic. Chapter 6 deals specifically with crude and refined-product production and distribution.

  7. Two Major Medicinal Honeys Have Different Mechanisms of Bactericidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; te Velde, Anje A.; de Boer, Leonie; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil® source (RS) honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey killed Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 2 hours, whereas manuka honey had such rapid activity only against B. subtilis. After 24 hours of incubation, both honeys killed all tested bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but manuka honey retained activity up to higher dilutions than RS honey. Bee defensin-1 and H2O2 were the major factors involved in rapid bactericidal activity of RS honey. These factors were absent in manuka honey, but this honey contained 44-fold higher concentrations of methylglyoxal than RS honey. Methylglyoxal was a major bactericidal factor in manuka honey, but after neutralization of this compound manuka honey retained bactericidal activity due to several unknown factors. RS and manuka honey have highly distinct compositions of bactericidal factors, resulting in large differences in bactericidal activity. PMID:21394213

  8. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  9. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  10. Two Major Medicinal Honeys Have Different Mechanisms of Bactericidal Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, P.H.S.; te Velde, A.A.; de Boer, L.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Zaat, S.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil (R) source (RS) honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey

  11. Wideband CMOS low noise amplifier including an active balun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    An inductorless LNA with active balun is proposed for multi-standard radio applications between 100MHz and 6GHz [1]. It exploits a combination of a common-gate (CG) stage and an common-source (CS) stage with replica biasing to maximize balanced operation, while simultaneously canceling the noise and

  12. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  13. Modulation of chaperone-like and membranolytic activities of major ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sudheer Kumar

    2017-06-20

    Jun 20, 2017 ... Modulation of chaperone-like and membranolytic activities of major horse seminal plasma protein HSP-1/2 by L-carnitine. C SUDHEER KUMAR and MUSTI J SWAMY. ,*. School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. *Corresponding author (Email, mjssc@uohyd.ernet.in, ...

  14. Complement activation and interleukin response in major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnström, A L; Sarbinowski, R T; Bengtson, J-P; Jacobsson, L M; Bengtsson, A L

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether major abdominal surgery leads to complement activation and interleukin response and whether the kind of anaesthesia influence complement activation and the release of inflammatory interleukins. The study design was prospective and randomised. Fifty patients undergoing open major colorectal surgery due to cancer disease or inflammatory bowel disease were studied. Twenty-five patients were given total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil, and 25 patients were given inhalational anaesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl. To determine complement activation (C3a and SC5b-9) and the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukins (tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a)), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL-6, IL-8, IL-4 and IL-10), blood samples were drawn preoperatively, 60 minutes after start of surgery, 30 minutes after end of surgery and 24 hours postoperatively. Complement was activated and pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8) and anti-inflammatory interleukins (IL-10) were released during major colorectal surgery. There was no significant difference between TIVA and inhalational anaesthesia regarding complement activation and cytokine release. Major colorectal surgery leads to activation of the complement cascade and the release of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. There are no significant differences between total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil and inhalational anaesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl regarding complement activation and the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukins. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  15. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türel, Idris; Ozbek, Hanefi; Erten, Remzi; Oner, Ahmet Cihat; Cengiz, Nureddin; Yilmaz, Orhan

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities of Plantago major L. (PM). Anti-inflammatory activity: Control and reference groups were administered isotonic saline solution (ISS) and indomethacin, respectively. Plantago major groups were injected PM in doses of 5 mg/kg (PM-I), 10 mg/kg (PM-II), 20 mg/kg (PM-III) and 25 mg/kg (PM-IV). Before and three hours after the injections, the volume of right hind-paw of rats was measured using a plethysmometer. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY: The hepatotoxicity was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Control, CCl4 and reference groups received isotonic saline solution, CCl4 and silibinin, respectively. Plantago major groups received CCl4 (0.8 ml/kg) and PM in doses of 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg, respectively for seven days. Blood samples and liver were collected on the 8th day after the animals were killed. Plantago major had an anti-inflammatory effect matching to that of control group at doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg. It was found that reduction in the inflammation was 90.01% with indomethacin, 3.10% with PM-I, 41.56% with PM-II, 45.87% with PM-III and 49.76% with PM-IV. Median effective dose (ED50) value of PM was found to be 7.507 mg/kg. Plantago major (25 mg/kg) significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels when compared to the CCl4 group. The histopathological findings showed a significant difference between the PM (25 mg/kg) and CCl4 groups. The results showed that PM had a considerable anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities.

  16. A gene panel, including LRP12, is frequently hypermethylated in major types of B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bethge

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications and DNA methylation in particular, have been recognized as important mechanisms to alter gene expression in malignant cells. Here, we identified candidate genes which were upregulated after an epigenetic treatment of B-cell lymphoma cell lines (Burkitt's lymphoma, BL; Follicular lymphoma, FL; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, DLBCL activated B-cell like, ABC; and germinal center like, GCB and simultaneously expressed at low levels in samples from lymphoma patients. Qualitative methylation analysis of 24 candidate genes in cell lines revealed five methylated genes (BMP7, BMPER, CDH1, DUSP4 and LRP12, which were further subjected to quantitative methylation analysis in clinical samples from 59 lymphoma patients (BL, FL, DLBCL ABC and GCB; and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, PMBL. The genes LRP12 and CDH1 showed the highest methylation frequencies (94% and 92%, respectively. BMPER (58%, DUSP4 (32% and BMP7 (22%, were also frequently methylated in patient samples. Importantly, all gene promoters were unmethylated in various control samples (CD19+ peripheral blood B cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tonsils as well as in follicular hyperplasia samples, underscoring a high specificity. The combination of LRP12 and CDH1 methylation could successfully discriminate between the vast majority of the lymphoma and control samples, emphasized by receiver operating characteristic analysis with a c-statistic of 0.999. These two genes represent promising epigenetic markers which may be suitable for monitoring of B-cell lymphoma.

  17. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (POzonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent.

  18. Targeted mutation of Δ12 and Δ15 desaturase genes in hemp produce major alterations in seed fatty acid composition including a high oleic hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Monika; Kaminski, Filip; Adams, Ian; Poulson, Helen; Sloan, Raymond; Li, Yi; Larson, Tony R; Winzer, Thilo; Graham, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    We used expressed sequence tag library and whole genome sequence mining to identify a suite of putative desaturase genes representing the four main activities required for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemp seed oil. Phylogenetic-based classification and developing seed transcriptome analysis informed selection for further analysis of one of seven Δ12 desaturases and one of three Δ15 desaturases that we designate CSFAD2A and CSFAD3A, respectively. Heterologous expression of corresponding cDNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed CSFAD2A to have Δx+3 activity, while CSFAD3A activity was exclusively at the Δ15 position. TILLING of an ethyl methane sulphonate mutagenized population identified multiple alleles including non-sense mutations in both genes and fatty acid composition of seed oil confirmed these to be the major Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases in developing hemp seed. Following four backcrosses and sibling crosses to achieve homozygosity, csfad2a-1 was grown in the field and found to produce a 70 molar per cent high oleic acid (18:1(Δ9) ) oil at yields similar to wild type. Cold-pressed high oleic oil produced fewer volatiles and had a sevenfold increase in shelf life compared to wild type. Two low abundance octadecadienoic acids, 18:2(Δ6,9) and 18:2(Δ9,15), were identified in the high oleic oil, and their presence suggests remaining endogenous desaturase activities utilize the increased levels of oleic acid as substrate. Consistent with this, CSFAD3A produces 18:2(Δ9,15) from endogenous 18:1(Δ9) when expressed in S. cerevisiae. This work lays the foundation for the development of additional novel oil varieties in this multipurpose low input crop. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rajabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major,in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results:According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P

  20. EGF stimulates the activation of EGF receptors and the selective activation of major signaling pathways during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Ping; Shi, Huaiping; Jiang, Jennifer; Wang, Yuluan; Wang, Zhixiang

    2015-03-01

    Mitosis and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) are both targets for cancer therapy. The role of EGFR signaling in mitosis has been rarely studied and poorly understood. The limited studies indicate that the activation of EGFR and downstream signaling pathways is mostly inhibited during mitosis. However, we recently showed that EGFR is phosphorylated in response to EGF stimulation in mitosis. Here we studied EGF-induced EGFR activation and the activation of major signaling pathways downstream of EGFR during mitosis. We showed that EGFR was strongly activated by EGF during mitosis as all the five major tyrosine residues including Y992, Y1045, Y1068, Y1086, and Y1173 were phosphorylated to a level similar to that in the interphase. We further showed that the activated EGFR is able to selectively activate some downstream signaling pathways while avoiding others. Activated EGFR is able to activate PI3K and AKT2, but not AKT1, which may be responsible for the observed effects of EGF against nocodazole-induced cell death. Activated EGFR is also able to activate c-Src, c-Cbl and PLC-γ1 during mitosis. However, activated EGFR is unable to activate ERK1/2 and their downstream substrates RSK and Elk-1. While it activated Ras, EGFR failed to fully activate Raf-1 in mitosis due to the lack of phosphorylation at Y341 and the lack of dephosphorylation at pS259. We conclude that contrary to the dogma, EGFR is activated by EGF during mitosis. Moreover, EGFR-mediated cell signaling is regulated differently from the interphase to specifically serve the needs of the cell in mitosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Including students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities in school extracurricular and community recreation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L; Miracle, Sally; Sheppard-Jones, Kathy

    2007-02-01

    We conducted an online statewide survey of teachers of students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities to determine the extent to which their students were included in school extracurricular and community recreation activities. For the 252 teacher respondents who indicated that their primary caseload consisted of students with significant intellectual disabilities, we report the numbers of students participating in school and community activities and the primary type of support students required to participate in each activity. Finally, we identify implications for practitioners who want to increase the participation of students with significant disabilities in school and community activities.

  2. The Effects of Plantago major on the Activation of the Neutrophil Respiratory Burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Elaine; Al-Shibani, Nouf; Allam, Eman; Gregson, Karen S; Kowolik, Michael; Windsor, L Jack

    2013-10-01

    Plantago major is a common plant that grows worldwide in temperate zones and is found in fields, lawns, and on the roadsides. Its leaves and seeds have been used in almost all parts of the world for centuries as a wound healer, analgesic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, as well as an immune system modulator, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agent. Baicalein and aucubin are the two most biologically active components of P. major, and both have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Neutrophils have a pivotal role in wound healing and inflammation. Their principal mechanism of host defense is the killing of pathogens via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro effects of P. major extract, baicalein, and aucubin on human neutrophil respiratory burst activity. The cytotoxicity of the agents was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. A standard luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay was utilized to monitor the respiratory burst of the neutrophils after exposure to P. major extract and its two active ingredients, baicalein and aucubin. Three replicates per group were included in each of the three runs of the experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis. P. major and baicalein were not toxic to the cells at any of the concentrations examined. Aucubin was toxic to the cells only at the highest concentration tested (P = 0.0081). However, genistein was toxic to the cells at all of the concentrations examined except for the lowest concentration of 16.9 μg/ml (P = 0.985). P. major (-0.10 ± 0.11), aucubin (0.06 ± 0.16), baicalein (-0.10 ± 0.11), and genistein (-0.18 ± 0.07) all significantly (P major extract inhibited neutrophil ROS production, as did aucubin and baicalein. Therefore, these components should be investigated further with relation to the regulation of destructive ROS production in conditions

  3. The Effects of Plantago major on the Activation of the Neutrophil Respiratory Burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Reina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantago major is a common plant that grows worldwide in temperate zones and is found in fields, lawns, and on the roadsides. Its leaves and seeds have been used in almost all parts of the world for centuries as a wound healer, analgesic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, as well as an immune system modulator, antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agent. Baicalein and aucubin are the two most biologically active components of P. major, and both have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Neutrophils have a pivotal role in wound healing and inflammation. Their principal mechanism of host defense is the killing of pathogens via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro effects of P. major extract, baicalein, and aucubin on human neutrophil respiratory burst activity. The cytotoxicity of the agents was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. A standard luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL assay was utilized to monitor the respiratory burst of the neutrophils after exposure to P. major extract and its two active ingredients, baicalein and aucubin. Three replicates per group were included in each of the three runs of the experiments and analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. P. major and baicalein were not toxic to the cells at any of the concentrations examined. Aucubin was toxic to the cells only at the highest concentration tested (P=0.0081. However, genistein was toxic to the cells at all of the concentrations examined except for the lowest concentration of 16.9 μg/ml (P=0.985. P. major (−0.10±0.11, aucubin (0.06±0.16, baicalein (−0.10±0.11, and genistein (−0.18±0.07 all significantly (P<0.0001 inhibited ROS production from the neutrophils. P. major extract inhibited neutrophil ROS production, as did aucubin and baicalein. Therefore, these components should be investigated further with relation to

  4. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... activity including the handler's name or brand, or the words “California Almonds”, the amount allowed for... the handler's name, the handler's brand, or the words “California Almonds” on the primary, face label... payment on these dates, handler claims must be submitted, with all required elements, at least one month...

  5. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  6. Triple Active Antiretroviral Regimen Including Enfuvirtide Via the Biojector is Effective and Safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For full HIV virological suppression, three fully active antiretroviral agents are required. New drug classes should be included to ensure that agents are fully active. The addition of enfuvirtide and efavirenz to the present patient’s new antiretroviral regimen ensured that two fully active agents were in use in the setting of a moderate degree of nucleoside resistance and a high level of protease resistance, and where non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were still fully active. Both viral load and CD4 count responded favourably to this regimen. The patient received support from physicians and clinic staff in the introduction and use of enfuvirtide. To reduce injection site reactions, a needle-free injection system (Biojector proved effective.

  7. Comparison of hip extensor muscle activity including the adductor magnus during three prone hip extension exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Han-I; Jeon, Seung-Yeon; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Kyue-Nam

    2018-03-30

    This study compared the role of the adductor magnus muscle (Amag) as a hip extensor while performing active prone hip extension (PHE), PHE with hip adduction (PHE-ADD), and PHE with hip abduction (PHE-ABD) with the gluteus maximus (Gmax) and hamstrings. The study recruited 22 healthy participants. Electromyography data were recorded from the Amag, Gmax, and medial and lateral hamstrings during PHE, PHE-ADD, and PHE-ABD. Normalized electromyographic data were examined using one-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance. The magnitude of the Amag, Gmax, and hamstring activations did not differ significantly while performing PHE (p = 0.41). Furthermore, the Amag and hamstring activations were significantly greater than the Gmax activation when performing PHE-ADD (p < 0.05). The Gmax showed significantly greater activation during PHE-ABD than the Amag and medial and lateral hamstrings (p < 0.05). Based on these results, we advocate including the Amag as a hip extensor during the PHE test or exercise. Our preliminary results have the potential to be applied directly to the PHE test, for investigating the muscle-activation pattern of the Amag with the Gmax and hamstrings in patients with hip or lower back pain.

  8. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Resu...

  9. The Antioxidant Activity and Their Major Antioxidant Compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus and A. koreanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hyun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity and chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid contents were investigated from different parts of Acanthopanax senticosus and A. koreanum. Antioxidant activity was assessed by various in vitro assays such as DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, reducing power assays and ORAC, and the chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were validated by HPLC chromatography. Among the various extracts, the fruit extracts of A. senticosus and A. koreanum exhibited strongest antioxidant activities including ABTS, FRAP, reducing power and ORAC, however, strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed from the leaf extract of A. senticosus. In addition, the antioxidant activities of various extracts were correlated with total phenolic and proanthocyanidin contents. The major phenolic contents from various parts of these plants observed that leaf extract of A. senticosus expressed higher levels of chlorogenic acid (14.86 mg/dry weigh g and caffeic acid (3.09 mg/dry weigh g than other parts. Therefore, these results suggest that the leaf of A. senticosus may be an excellent natural source for functional foods and pharmaceutical agents, and the validated method was useful for the quality control of A. senticosus.

  10. Inhibitory activity of Plantago major L. on angiotensin I-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Tai, Bui Huu; Van Kiem, Phan; Van Minh, Chau; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Thu, Vu Kim; Trung, Trinh Nam; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Jang, Hae-Dong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-03-01

    Eight compounds were isolated from methanol extract of Plantago major L. leaves and investigated for their ability to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity. Among them, compound 1 showed the most potent inhibition with rate of 28.06 ± 0.21% at a concentration of 100 μM. Compounds 2 and 8 exhibited weak activities. These results suggest that compound 1 might contribute to the ability of P. major to inhibit the activity of angiotensin I- converting enzyme.

  11. Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

  12. Major depressive disorder is characterized by greater reward network activation to monetary than pleasant image rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoski, Moria J; Rittenberg, Alison; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2011-12-30

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in normally rewarding activities, is a hallmark feature of unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A growing body of literature has identified frontostriatal dysfunction during reward anticipation and outcomes in MDD. However, no study to date has directly compared responses to different types of rewards such as pleasant images and monetary rewards in MDD. To investigate the neural responses to monetary and pleasant image rewards in MDD, a modified Monetary Incentive Delay task was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses during anticipation and receipt of monetary and pleasant image rewards. Participants included nine adults with MDD and 13 affectively healthy controls. The MDD group showed lower activation than controls when anticipating monetary rewards in right orbitofrontal cortex and subcallosal cortex, and when anticipating pleasant image rewards in paracingulate and supplementary motor cortex. The MDD group had relatively greater activation in right putamen when anticipating monetary versus pleasant image rewards, relative to the control group. Results suggest reduced reward network activation in MDD when anticipating rewards, as well as relatively greater hypoactivation to pleasant image than monetary rewards. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clarity in Teaching and Active Learning in Undergraduate Microbiology Course for Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; McGinnis, J. Randy; Pease, Rebecca; Dai, Amy H.; Schalk, Kelly A.; Benson, Spencer

    2010-01-01

    We investigated a pedagogical innovation in an undergraduate microbiology course (Microbes and Society) for non-majors and education majors. The goals of the curriculum and pedagogical transformation were to promote active learning and concentrate on clarity in teaching. This course was part of a longitudinal project (Project Nexus) which…

  14. Pharmacological activity of salvinorin A, the major component of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listos, Joanna; Merska, Alicja; Fidecka, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum (i.e., "magic mint") is a member of the Sage family that has been historically used for divination and shamanism by the Mazatecs. Today, S. divinorum has become increasingly popular as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic effects. The non-nitrogenous diterpene, salvinorin A, the major active component of S. divinorum, is responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of this plant. Here, we described the behavioral effects of salvinorin A in animals including the addictive, antinociception and antidepressant properties of the drug. The present paper also demonstrates the not well recognized (or unclear) mechanisms of action of salvinorin A. The last part of the paper presents information about the legal status of S. divinorum and its derivatives. Taking into account the increasing popularity and consumption of salvinorin A and S. divinorum today, it is important to collect all data on the pharmacological profile of this plant and its products.

  15. Changes in lymphocyte subpopulations and adhesion/activation molecules following endotoxemia and major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Hokland, Marianne; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    1995-01-01

    Major surgery as well as endotoxin-induced sepsis is accompanied by lymphocytopenia in peripheral blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the redistribution of lymphocyte subpopulations and adhesion/activation molecules on lymphocytes. Twenty-four rats were included in the investigation....... Eight rats received an intraperitoneal injection of E. coli endotoxin (2 mg kg-1), eight rats had a sham operation performed while eight rats received isotonic saline and served as a control group. Blood samples were obtained by making an incision in the tail before and 2 and 5 h after surgery...... or administration of endotoxin or saline. After isolation of lymphocytes by gradient centrifugation, flow-cytometric immunophenotyping was performed using CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11/CD18, CD20, CD44 and MHC II monoclonal antibodies. Endotoxemia and surgery were both accompanied by increased serum cortisol...

  16. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  17. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Symptoms of Major Depression in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Tonje; Steinsbekk, Silje; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-02-01

    The prospective relation between physical activity and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-defined major depression in middle childhood is unknown, as is the stability of depression. We therefore aimed to (1) determine whether there are reciprocal relations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior, on one hand, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition defined symptoms of major depressive disorder, on the other and (2) assess the extent of stability in depressive symptoms from age 6 to 10 years. A community sample of children living in Trondheim, Norway, comprising a total of 795 6-year-old children was followed up at 8 (n = 699) and 10 (n = 702) years of age. Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry and symptoms of major depression were measured through semistructured clinical interviews of parents and children. Bidirectional relationships between MVPA, sedentary activity, and symptoms of depression were analyzed through autoregressive cross-lagged models, and adjusted for symptoms of comorbid psychiatric disorders and BMI. At both age 6 and 8 years, higher MVPA predicted fewer symptoms of major depressive disorders 2 years later. Sedentary behavior did not predict depression, and depression predicted neither MVPA nor sedentary activity. The number of symptoms of major depression declined from ages 6 to 8 years and evidenced modest continuity. MVPA predicts fewer symptoms of major depression in middle childhood, and increasing MVPA may serve as a complementary method to prevent and treat childhood depression. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. porewater chemistry experiment at Mont Terri rock laboratory. Reactive transport modelling including bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for

  19. Telephone-Based Physical Activity Counseling for Major Depression in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…

  20. Self-Perceived Influences on Musically Active Nonmusic Majors Related to Continued Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Chelcy; Dobbs, Teryl; Jensen, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated influences encouraging active music engagement beyond the high school and college years among nonmusic majors who are actively engaged in music. A web survey yielded a 50% response rate (N = 476) from nonmajor students enrolled in performing organizations at a large Midwestern public university, whose responses addressed…

  1. Characteristics of an β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from Bacillus sp. CH11, Including its Transglycosylation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakake, Masahiro; Amai, Yukari; Konishi, Mizuki; Ikehira, Kaho

    2018-04-06

    β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase was identified from Bacillus sp. CH11 and found to have relatively high transferring activity. In this study, its enzymatic properties and transglycosylation activity including its acceptor specificity were investigated. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 90 kDa by SDS-PAGE and its optimal pH was approximately 7 with good stability from pH 6 to 8. Its optimal temperature was 40 °C, and its activity was stable at temperatures of up to 40 °C. To analyze its acceptor specificity for transglycosylation, N, N'-diacetylchitobiose was used as a donor substrate and alcohols, sugar alcohols, sugars and polyphenols were used as acceptors. Dialcohols, which have 2 hydroxyl groups on the outside of the carbon chains, were good acceptors. The molecular size of the acceptor did not influence the transglycosylation up to at least 1,5-pentanediol (carbon number: C5). Glycerin (C3), erythritol (C4), and xylitol (C5), all small molecular weight sugar alcohols, had high acceptor specificity. Transglycosylation to mono- and disaccharides and polyphenols was not observed except for L-fucose. For the β-N-acetylhexosaminidase-catalyzed transglycosylation of chitin oligosaccharides and xylitol, the transfer product was identified as 1-O-β-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl xylitol. The optimal ratio of xylitol was 24% to 2% N, N'-diacetylchitobiose and 226 mg per 1 g N, N'-diacetylchitobiose was produced. CH11 β-N-acetylhexosaminidase efficiently produced 1-O-β-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl xylitol via transglycosylation. The new transfer products including 1-O-β-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl xylitol are attractive compounds for their potential physiological functions. 1-O-β-D-N-Acetylglucosaminyl xylitol was produced effectively from chitin-oligosaccharides and xylitol by β-N-acetylhexosaminidase from Bacillus sp. CH11. This enzyme may be useful for the development of food materials for health-related applications such as oligosaccharides with intestinal functions and

  2. Monitoring active volcanoes and mitigating volcanic hazards: the case for including simple approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Richard E.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1990-07-01

    Simple approaches to problems brought about eruptions and their ensuing hazardous effects should be advocated and used by volcanologists while awaiting more sophisticated remedies. The expedients we advocate have all or many of the following attributes: only locally available materials are required; no extensive training of operators or installation is necessary; they are affordable and do not require foreign aid or exports; they are often labor intensive and are sustainable without outside assistance. Where appropriate, the involvement of local residents is advocated. Examples of simple expedients which can be used in forecasting or mitigating the effects of crises emphasize the relative ease and the less elaborate requirements with which simple approaches can be activated. Emphasis is on visual observations often by untrained observers, simple meteorogical measurements, observations of water level in lakes, temperature and chemistry of springs and fumaroles, new springs and collapse areas and observations of volcanic plumes. Simple methods are suggested which can be applied to mitigating damage from mudflows, nuées ardentes, tephra falls and gas discharge. A review in hindsight at Ruiz includes the use of both chemical indicators and simple mudflow alarms. Simple expedients are sufficiently effective that any expert volcanologist called to aid in a crisis must include them in the package of advice offered. Simple approaches are a critical and logical complement to highly technical solutions to hazardous situations.

  3. The majority of genes in the pathogenic Neisseria species are present in non-pathogenic Neisseria lactamica, including those designated as 'virulence genes'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Nigel J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neisseria meningitidis causes the life-threatening diseases meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal septicemia. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is closely related to the meningococcus, but is the cause of the very different infection, gonorrhea. A number of genes have been implicated in the virulence of these related yet distinct pathogens, but the genes that define and differentiate the species and their behaviours have not been established. Further, a related species, Neisseria lactamica is not associated with either type of infection in normally healthy people, and lives as a harmless commensal. We have determined which of the genes so far identified in the genome sequences of the pathogens are also present in this non-pathogenic related species. Results Thirteen unrelated strains of N. lactamica were investigated using comparative genome hybridization to the pan-Neisseria microarray-v2, which contains 2845 unique gene probes. The presence of 127 'virulence genes' was specifically addressed; of these 85 are present in N. lactamica. Of the remaining 42 'virulence genes' only 11 are present in all four of the sequenced pathogenic Neisseria. Conclusion Assessment of the complete dataset revealed that the vast majority of genes present in the pathogens are also present in N. lactamica. Of the 1,473 probes to genes shared by all four pathogenic genome sequences, 1,373 hybridize to N. lactamica. These shared genes cannot include genes that are necessary and sufficient for the virulence of the pathogens, since N. lactamica does not share this behaviour. This provides an essential context for the interpretation of gene complement studies of the pathogens.

  4. Fluorogenic MMP activity assay for plasma including MMPs complexed to α2-macroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated MMP activities are implicated in tissue degradation in, e.g., arthritis and cancer. The present study was designed to measure MMP enzyme activity in plasma. Free active MMP is unlikely to be present in plasma: upon entering the circulation, active MMP is expected to be captured by the

  5. Cost-effectiveness of collaborative care including PST and an antidepressant treatment algorithm for the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care; a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekman Aartjan TF

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is currently one of the most burdensome disorders worldwide. Evidence-based treatments for depressive disorder are already available, but these are used insufficiently, and with less positive results than possible. Earlier research in the USA has shown good results in the treatment of depressive disorder based on a collaborative care approach with Problem Solving Treatment and an antidepressant treatment algorithm, and research in the UK has also shown good results with Problem Solving Treatment. These treatment strategies may also work very well in the Netherlands too, even though health care systems differ between countries. Methods/design This study is a two-armed randomised clinical trial, with randomization on patient-level. The aim of the trial is to evaluate the treatment of depressive disorder in primary care in the Netherlands by means of an adapted collaborative care framework, including contracting and adherence-improving strategies, combined with Problem Solving Treatment and antidepressant medication according to a treatment algorithm. Forty general practices will be randomised to either the intervention group or the control group. Included will be patients who are diagnosed with moderate to severe depression, based on DSM-IV criteria, and stratified according to comorbid chronic physical illness. Patients in the intervention group will receive treatment based on the collaborative care approach, and patients in the control group will receive care as usual. Baseline measurements and follow up measures (3, 6, 9 and 12 months are assessed using questionnaires and an interview. The primary outcome measure is severity of depressive symptoms, according to the PHQ9. Secondary outcome measures are remission as measured with the PHQ9 and the IDS-SR, and cost-effectiveness measured with the TiC-P, the EQ-5D and the SF-36. Discussion In this study, an American model to enhance care for patients with a

  6. Methods for Dynamic Characterization of the Major Muscles Activating the Lower Limb Joints in Cycling Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Navit; Wiener, Avi; Mizrahi, Joseph

    2014-09-23

    The functional activation, through electrical stimulation, of the lower limb consisting of several deficient muscles requires well-patterned and coordinated activation of these muscles. This study presents a method for characterizing the parameters of the major muscle groups controlling the ankle and knee joints in cycling motion, the latter having particular significance in the rehabilitation of locomotion. To lower mechanical indeterminacy in the joints the system is reduced by grouping the muscles acting in synergism. The joint torques were calculated by inverse dynamics methods from cycling motion data, including kinematics and foot/pedal reaction loads (forces, moments). The mechanical indeterminacy was resolved by applying optimization criteria and the individual muscle torques were parceled-out from the joint torques. System identification of the individual muscles, part of which being bi-articular, in this non-isometric condition was performed from the relationship between the evaluated force and the measured EMG of each the muscles, using both first and second order linear transfer functions. Feasibility of the presented method was demonstrated through the computation of the coefficients of the muscles involved and validating the results on the experimental data obtained from one subject.

  7. R2 & NE: NAVTEQ 2011 Q3 Major Road Network for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in SDC Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The MROADS layer contains the Major Roads network using NAVTEQ Functional Class=1,2,3,4, where 4 represents routes connecting minor towns or villages and collecting...

  8. Active control of environmental noise, VIII: increasing the response to primary source changes including unpredictable noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S. E.; Atmoko, H.; Vuksanovic, B.

    2004-07-01

    Conventional adaptive cancellation systems using traditional transverse finite impulse response (FIR) filters, together with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithms, well known in active noise control, are slow to adapt to primary source changes. This makes them inappropriate for cancelling rapidly changing noise, including unpredictable noise such as speech and music. Secondly, the cancelling structures require considerable computational processing effort to adapt to primary source and plant changes, particularly for multi-channel systems. This paper describes methods to increase the adaptive speed to primary source changes in large enclosed spaces and outdoor environments. A method is described that increases the response to time varying periodic noise using traditional transverse FIR filters. Here a multi-passband filter, with individual variable adaptive step sizes for each passband is automatically adjusted according to the signal level in each band. This creates a similar adaptive response for all frequencies within the total pass-band, irrespective of amplitude, minimizing the signal distortion and increasing the combined adaptive speed. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the adaptive speed using the above method as classical transverse FIR filters have a finite adaptive speed given by the stability band zero bandwidth. For rapidly changing periodic noise and unpredictable non-stationary noise, a rapid to instantaneous response is required. In this case the on-line adaptive FIR filters are dispensed with and replaced by a time domain solution that gives virtually instantaneous cancellation response (infinite adaptive speed) to primary source changes, and is computationally efficient.

  9. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  10. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, Adrian J.; van Stralen, Maartje M.; Kunst, Anton E.; te Velde, Saskia J.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the

  11. Development of helium-cooled fusion applications: overview on major helium activities at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihli, T.; Arbeiter, F.; Ghidersa, B.; Gordeev, S.; Heinzel, V.; Ilic, M.; Messemer, G.; Stratmanns, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit

    2007-07-01

    Helium cooled high temperature components and reactors from today's point of view are most likely to capture a major importance in the future energy market. Similar to the tendency in the development of future fission reactors the main emphasis in regard to future fusion reactors is on Helium cooled systems. Both European reference blanket concepts are completely Helium cooled and in addition, the development of a Helium cooled divertor is in progress. Also the third, alternative European blanket concept 'Dual-coolant lead lithium' in regard to a DEMO fusion reactor relies on a Helium-cooled structure. In the International- Fusion-Material-Irradiation-Facility (IFMIF), again, Helium cooling is applied e.g. to the High Flux Test Module (HFTM). Against this background major Helium activities were launched at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, including the design and construction of several Helium Test Facilities applicable to perform various experiments from single effect studies up to full component tests for the qualification of complete test modules to be operated in ITER. In addition a fundamental research Programme is under way to improve the local Helium cooling technologies applied in different applications and to improve the knowledge base on heat transfer, boundary layers, turbulence development and flow structures as well as the dynamic behaviour of large Helium cycles under unsteady boundary conditions. An important complementary activity is found in the area of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were the most appropriate turbulence models are determined by code validation based on the obtained experimental data. In this paper an outline of the overall Helium cooling development strategy at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is given along with a brief description of the operated and planned Helium Test Facilities including the (i) ITHEX facility used for flow field studies in IFMIF-relevant transitional flows, (ii) the HEBLO facility used for

  12. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Patricia; Milena Leal, Sandra; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Martinez, Jairo Rene; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 microg/mL and 12.2 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 microg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  13. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Escobar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 μg/mL and 12.2 μg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 μg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 ± 2.2 μg/mL, two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  14. Iron chelation therapy in thalassemia major: a systematic review with meta-analyses of 1520 patients included on randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggio, Aurelio; Filosa, Aldo; Vitrano, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of deferoxamine (DFO), deferiprone (DFP), or deferasirox (DFX) in thalassemia major was assessed. Outcomes were reported as means±SD, mean differences with 95% CI, or standardized mean differences. Statistical heterogeneity was tested using χ2 (Q) and I2. Sources of bias...

  15. No major active backthrust bounds the Pir Panjal Range near Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    This research disputes the geomorphic data presented in Dar et al. (2014), and demonstrates that their data strongly conflicts with their own field evidence, and also with the previous geological observations. The authors have proposed a major ∼SW dipping frontal fault that bounds the Pir Panjal Range near Kashmir basin of NW Himalaya. However, field photographs show a very steep ∼86° dipping normal fault. This therefore, contradicts with all the morphometric indices, interpretations, and discussion presented because those are based on a major ∼SE dipping thrust fault that bounds Pir Panjal Range in Kashmir basin. The proposed fault is a major ∼SW dipping backthrust, which primarily conflicts with the previous geological observations in Kashmir basin because mostly ∼NE dipping major thrusts are mapped in this region. And presently only three major ∼NE dipping faults, the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), the Raisi Fault (RF), and the Kashmir Basin Fault (KBF), are tectonically active. The new proposed major active thrust, as suggested by the triangular facets mapped by Dar et al. (2014), was mapped on the basis of geomorphic evidence as a ∼SW dipping thrust fault, and field evidence shows a normal fault, which utterly questions the nature, and significance of the new research work.

  16. MAJOR GALAXY MERGERS ONLY TRIGGER THE MOST LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Urry, C. M.; Simmons, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    Using multiwavelength surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) across a wide range of bolometric luminosities (10 43 bol (erg s –1 ) 46 ) and redshifts (0 bol -f merger relation suggests that downsizing, i.e., the general decline in AGN and star formation activity with decreasing redshift, is driven by a decline in the frequency of major mergers combined with a decrease in the availability of gas at lower redshifts.

  17. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  18. Central venous catheter associated thrombosis of major veins: thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, S.; van't Hek, L. G.; Vlasveld, L. T.; Kröger, R.; Dubbelman, R.; van Tol, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Major thromboses can occur in the venous system in association with central venous catheters. This usually necessitates removal of the catheter. The effectiveness of low dose recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in combination with heparin was assessed in patients with central

  19. Implementing AES via an Actively/Covertly Secure Dishonest-Majority MPC Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Keller, Marcel; Keller, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    We describe an implementation of the protocol of Damgård, Pastro, Smart and Zakarias (SPDZ/Speedz) for multi-party computation in the presence of a dishonest majority of active adversaries. We present a number of modifications to the protocol; the first reduces the security to covert security...

  20. Flow Orientation Analysis for Major Activity Regions Based on Smart Card Transit Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing public movement in transportation networks in a city is significant in understanding the life of citizen and making improved city plans for the future. This study focuses on investigating the flow orientation of major activity regions based on smart card transit data. The flow orientation based on the real movements such as transit data can provide the easiest way of understanding public movement in the complicated transportation networks. First, high inflow regions (HIRs are identified from transit data for morning and evening peak hours. The morning and evening HIRs are used to represent major activity regions for major daytime activities and residential areas, respectively. Second, the directional orientation of flow is then derived through the directional inflow vectors of the HIRs to show the bias in directional orientation and compare flow orientation among major activity regions. Finally, clustering analysis for HIRs is applied to capture the main patterns of flow orientations in the city and visualize the patterns on the map. The proposed methodology was illustrated with smart card transit data of bus and subway transportation networks in Seoul, Korea. Some remarkable patterns in the distribution of movements and orientations were found inside the city. The proposed methodology is useful since it unfolds the complexity and makes it easy to understand the main movement patterns in terms of flow orientation.

  1. Antiviral activity of Plantago major extracts and related compounds in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, L C; Chiang, W; Chang, M Y; Ng, L T; Lin, C C

    2002-07-01

    Plantago major L., a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases varying from cold to viral hepatitis. The aim of present study was to examine the antiviral activity of aqueous extract and pure compounds of P. major. Studies were conducted on a series of viruses, namely herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2) and adenoviruses (ADV-3, ADV-8, ADV-11). The antiviral activity of EC50 was defined as the concentration achieved 50% cyto-protection against virus infection and the selectivity index (SI) was determined by the ratio of CC50 (concentration of 50% cellular cytotoxicity) to EC50. Results showed that aqueous extract of P. major possessed only a slight anti-herpes virus activity. In contrast, certain pure compounds belonging to the five different classes of chemicals found in extracts of this plant exhibited potent antiviral activity. Among them, caffeic acid exhibited the strongest activity against HSV-1 (EC50=15.3 microg/ml, SI=671), HSV-2 (EC50=87.3 microg/ml, SI=118) and ADV-3 (EC50=14.2 microg/ml, SI=727), whereas chlorogenic acid possessed the strongest anti-ADV-11 (EC50=13.3 microg/ml, SI=301) activity. The present study concludes that pure compounds of P. major, which possess antiviral activities are mainly derived from the phenolic compounds, especially caffeic acid. Its mode of action against HSV-2 and ADV-3 was found to be at multiplication stages (postinfection of HSV-1: 0-12 h; ADV-3: 0-2 h), and with SI values greater than 400, suggesting the potential use of this compound for treatment of the infection by these two viruses.

  2. Real-time FMRI neurofeedback training of amygdala activity in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Misaki, Masaya; Yuan, Han; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Amygdala hemodynamic responses to positive stimuli are attenuated in major depressive disorder (MDD), and normalize with remission. Real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) offers a non-invasive method to modulate this regional activity. We examined whether depressed participants can use rtfMRI-nf to enhance amygdala responses to positive autobiographical memories, and whether this ability alters symptom severity. Unmedicated MDD subjects were assigned to receive rtfMRI-nf from either left amygdala (LA; experimental group, n = 14) or the horizontal segment of the intraparietal sulcus (HIPS; control group, n = 7) and instructed to contemplate happy autobiographical memories (AMs) to raise the level of a bar representing the hemodynamic signal from the target region to a target level. This 40s Happy condition alternated with 40s blocks of rest and counting backwards. A final Transfer run without neurofeedback information was included. Participants in the experimental group upregulated their amygdala responses during positive AM recall. Significant pre-post scan decreases in anxiety ratings and increases in happiness ratings were evident in the experimental versus control group. A whole brain analysis showed that during the transfer run, participants in the experimental group had increased activity compared to the control group in left superior temporal gyrus and temporal polar cortex, and right thalamus. Using rtfMRI-nf from the left amygdala during recall of positive AMs, depressed subjects were able to self-regulate their amygdala response, resulting in improved mood. Results from this proof-of-concept study suggest that rtfMRI-nf training with positive AM recall holds potential as a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of depression.

  3. Relationship between clinical results of total hip replacement and postoperative activities including weeding and snow shovelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Hiroaki; Yamada, Shin; Konishi, Natsuo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Tani, Takayuki; Suzuki, Norio; Kamo, Keiji; Okudera, Yoshihiko; Sasaki, Ken; Kawano, Tetsuya; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Shimada, Yoichi

    2017-09-07

    Weeding or snow shovelling is indispensable for life in farm villages of northern countries. Clarifying the relationships between the degrees of these activities after total hip replacement (THR) and the clinical results of THR may enable us to predict the results of THR for high-level activity patients. The relationships between work activities after THR and the results were investigated. The subjects were 95 post-THR patients, who consulted 6 hospitals in August 2012. First, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip-Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ) and a questionnaire on postoperative activity were administered. Then, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association hip score (JOA score) was evaluated. The subjects' average age was 68 years. The average period after surgery was 4 years and 5 months. Weeding and snow shovelling were performed after THR in 44.2% and 40.0% of cases, respectively. The rate of farming after surgery (25.6%) was greater than that of swimming (21.1%). Both the JOA score and JHEQ were higher in those who played sports after THR than in those who did not (p = 0.003, p = 0.0046). The JOA score of those who performed work activities after THR was higher than that of those who did not (p = 0.0295). Nearly half of patients performed weeding or snow shovelling after THR, and about 1/4 of the patients engaged in farming after THR. The clinical results in cases doing sports and work activities after THR were better than those of cases not doing such activities. Therefore, these activities may be positively recommended.

  4. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis and its major components against oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Wagner A; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Tozatti, Marcos G; Flauzino, Lúzio G Bocalon; Souza, Maria G M; Turatti, Isabel C C; Andrade e Silva, Márcio L; Martins, Carlos H G; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Cunha, Wilson R

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) was obtained by hydro-distillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty-two constituents were identified, representing 98.06% of the total oil content. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the predominant components. The rosemary oil was characterized as having prominent (> 5%) contents of camphor (18.9%), verbenone (11.3%), a-pinene (9.6%), beta-myrcene (8.6%), 1,8-cineole (8.0%), and beta-caryophyllene (5.1%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil as well as of its major constituents was tested against the following microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis, which are potentially responsible for the formation of dental caries in humans. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) during evaluation of the antibacterial activity. The essential oil displayed low activity against the selected microorganisms. In the present study, the pure major compounds were more active than the essential oil. Among all the microorganisms tested, the pathogen S. mitis was the most susceptible and E. faecalis was the most resistant to the evaluated samples. This is the first report on antimicrobial activity of the major components of rosemary oil against oral pathogens.

  5. The T Cell Response to Major Grass Allergens Is Regulated and Includes IL-10 Production in Atopic but Not in Non-Atopic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domdey, A.; Liu, A.; Millner, A.

    2010-01-01

    from healthy and grass-allergic donors and stimulated with the major grass allergens Phl p 1 or Phl p 5. The effects of endogenous IL-10 and/or TGF-beta on proliferation and cytokine production were determined by use of blocking antibodies. In addition, the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells...... and their expression of chemokine receptors were investigated by flow cytometry. Results: Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 induced IL-10 production, which down-regulated proliferation and cytokine production, in PBMC cultures from atopic but not from non-atopic donors. Comparable frequencies of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells were present...

  6. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  7. Three Peaks of 2011 Draconid Activity Including that Connected with Pre-1900 Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koten, Pavel; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Tóth, Juraj; Margonis, Anastasios; Ďuriš, František

    2014-08-01

    A Draconid meteor shower outburst was observed from on board two scientific aircraft deployed above Northern Europe on 8th October 2011. The activity profile was measured using a set of photographic and video cameras. The main peak of the activity occurred around 20:15 ± 0:0.5 UT which is consistent with the model prediction as well as with the IMO network visual observations. The corrected hourly rates reached a value of almost 350. The brighter meteors peaked about 15-20 min earlier than the dimmer ones. This difference can be explained by different directions of the ejection of the meteoroids from the parent comet. One of the instruments was even able to detect meteors connected with the material ejected from the parent comet before 1900 and thus confirmed the prediction of the model, although it was based on uncertain pre-1900 cometary data. Another small peak of the activity, which was caused by material ejected during the 1926 perihelion passage of the parent comet, was detected around 21:10 UT. The mass distribution index determined using the narrow field-of-view video camera was 2.0 ± 0.1. This work shows that the observation of meteor outbursts can constrain the orbital elements, outgassing activity and existence of jets at the surface of a comet.

  8. Absence of a Classically Activated Macrophage Cytokine Signature in Peripheral Spondylarthritis, Including Psoriatic Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandooren, Bernard; Noordenbos, Troy; Ambarus, Carmen; Krausz, Sarah; Cantaert, Tineke; Yeremenko, Nataliya; Boumans, Maartje; Lutter, Rene; Tak, Paul P.; Baeten, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Peripheral spondylarthritis (SpA) is characterized by macrophages that express CD163, a marker of alternative activation (M2). The purpose of this study was to assess whether this differential infiltration with macrophage subsets was associated with a different local inflammatory milieu

  9. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  10. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related... that was indicated is the estimated annualized cost to the respondents for the hour burden for... additional 30-days for public comments and to correct the cost from $236,253.00 to zero. DATES: Comments are...

  11. Plant management and maintenance including graphical activation, business process manager and electronic signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippmann, N. [RWE Systems Applications GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The use of information technology in order to support the management of power plants is certainly not a utility's core business. In any case, the competition pressure caused by the liberalisation of the energy market and - until now - hardly considered possible by experts in the industry, is calling for technical solutions to compensate the savings that are generally considered to represent the major savings potential within the framework of increases in efficiency, i.e. the human resources. Not only the quantitative reduction of the management and maintenance staff, but even more the resulting loss of know-how of experienced unit heads, boiler and machine operators makes it necessary to have technological solutions perform such tasks. Even and especially in times of great technological progress and serious changes to the market situation, both new and approved solutions in the IT business are a chance to meet new requirements. (orig.)

  12. Bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder show similar brain activation during depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael A; Eliassen, James C; Smith, Christopher T; Fleck, David E; Nelson, Erik B; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Lamy, Martine; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Despite different treatments and courses of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This similarity of depressive symptoms suggests significant overlap in brain pathways underlying neurovegetative, mood, and cognitive symptoms of depression. These shared brain regions might be expected to exhibit similar activation in individuals with MDD and BP-I during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was used to compare regional brain activation in participants with BP-I (n = 25) and MDD (n = 25) during a depressive episode as well as 25 healthy comparison (HC) participants. During the scans, participants performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. During the viewing of emotional images, subjects with BP-I showed decreased activation in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared to both subjects with MDD and HC participants. During attentional processing, participants with MDD had increased activation in the parahippocampus, parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. However, among these regions, only the postcentral gyrus also showed differences between MDD and HC participants. No differences in cortico-limbic regions were found between participants with BP-I and MDD during depression. Instead, the major differences occurred in primary and secondary visual processing regions, with decreased activation in these regions in BP-I compared to major depression. These differences were driven by abnormal decreases in activation seen in the participants with BP-I. Posterior activation changes are a common finding in studies across mood states in participants with BP-I. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1961. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1962-01-31

    The document represents the 1961 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report consists of four parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry for 1961 and Related Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Power Programs for 1961; Part Three, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Four, Regulatory Activities. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  14. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    The document covers activities for the period January - December 1960. The report consists of two parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1960 and Related Activities; and Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs. Twenty-one appendices are also included.

  15. Biological activity of Myrtaceae plant essential oils and their major components against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Miyeon; Kim, Junheon; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew; Lee, Si Hyeock; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2017-02-01

    The spotted-wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is a globally invasive and serious pest of numerous soft-skinned fruit crops. Assessments were made of fumigant and contact toxicities of 12 Myrtaceae plant essential oils (EOs) and their components. For determining the mode of action of major components of active EOs, their activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) were also assessed. Strong fumigant and contact toxicities were observed from EOs of Eucalyptus citriodora and Melaleuca teretifolia. The main components of E. citriodora were citronellal and isopulegol, whereas those of M. teretifolia were neral and geranial. Geranial showed the strongest fumigant activity, followed by citronellal or neral, M. teretifolia EO, isopulegol and E. citriodora EO. In contact toxicity assays, geranial also exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity, followed by neral or M. teretifolia EO, citronellol, citronellal, isopulegol and E. citriodora EO. Among the major components, all compounds showed low AChE inhibitory activity, while neral and geranial showed GST inhibitory activity against SWD. Myrtaceae plant EOs and their components have an excellent potential for being used in the control of SWD adults and could be useful in the development of more effective natural compounds as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance agreement...

  17. Activity behavior of a HPLC column including α-chymotrypsin immobilized monosized-porous particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Z.; Camli, S.T.; Unsal, E.; Tuncel, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a polymer-based, α-chymotrypsin (CT) immobilized HPLC column was prepared as a potential material for affinity-HPLC and chiral separation applications. Monosized-macroporous particles were synthesized as the support material by a relatively new polymerization protocol, the so-called, 'modified seeded polymerization'. The particles were obtained in the form of styrene-glycidyl methacrylate- divinylbenzene terpolymer approximately 11 μm in size. The particles were treated with aqueous ammonia to have primary amine groups on the porous surface. The amine functionalized particles were reacted by glutaraldehyde and the enzyme, CT, was covalently attached. CT carrying monosized-porous particles were slurry packed into the HPLC column 50 mmx4.6 mm in size. Since the activity behavior of immobilized CT played an important role in the enantiomeric separations performed by similar columns, the enzymatic activity behavior of the column produced by our protocol was determined. For this purpose, HPLC column was used as a packed bed reactor and the enzymatic reaction was continuously followed by measuring the absorbance of the output flow by the UV-detector of HPLC. S-shaped absorbance-time curves were obtained by monitoring the reactor output both in dynamic and steady-state periods. The columns with relatively lower immobilized enzyme content were more sensitive to the changes in the operating conditions and responded with more appreciable substrate conversion changes. The maximum reaction rate of the immobilized enzyme was estimated as approximately 25% of the free one by the mathematical model describing the activity behavior of the column. No significant loss was observed in the activity of the immobilized enzyme during the course of the experiments

  18. Analysis of the corporate political activity of major food industry actors in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; Swinburn, Boyd; Wate, Jillian; Tukana, Isimeli; Sacks, Gary

    2016-05-10

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality in Fiji, a middle-income country in the Pacific. Some food products processed sold and marketed by the food industry are major contributors to the NCD epidemic, and the food industry is widely identified as having strong economic and political power. However, little research has been undertaken on the attempts by the food industry to influence public health-related policies and programs in its favour. The "corporate political activity" (CPA) of the food industry includes six strategies (information and messaging; financial incentives; constituency building; legal strategies; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilisation). For this study, we aimed to gain a detailed understanding of the CPA strategies and practices of major food industry actors in Fiji, interpreted through a public health lens. We implemented a systematic approach to monitor the CPA of the food industry in Fiji for three months. It consisted of document analysis of relevant publicly available information. In parallel, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 stakeholders involved in diet- and/or public health-related issues in Fiji. Both components of the study were thematically analysed. We found evidence that the food industry adopted a diverse range of strategies in an attempt to influence public policy in Fiji, with all six CPA strategies identified. Participants identified that there is a substantial risk that the widespread CPA of the food industry could undermine efforts to address NCDs in Fiji. Despite limited public disclosure of information, such as data related to food industry donations to political parties and lobbying, we were able to identify many CPA practices used by the food industry in Fiji. Greater transparency from the food industry and the government would help strengthen efforts to increase their accountability and support NCD prevention. In other low- and middle-income countries, it

  19. Evaluation of the anti-Leishmania major activity of Satureja bakhtiarica essential oil in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Ghasem; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Farahmand, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a painless chronic skin disease that is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Due to the importance of this disease and the side effects of chemical drugs, use of drugs of plant origin to treat Leishmaniasis is very important. In the present study, the chemical composition and the anti-Leishmania major activity of the essential oils obtained from Satureja bakhtiarica were evaluated in vitro. The oils were extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and then the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. Promastigotes of L. major were cultured in both N.N.N and RPMI1640 media. GC-MS analysis showed 13 compounds, in which the major components were the phenolic (37.4%) compounds, thymol (22.6%) and p-cymene (19.3%). The essential oil of S. bakhtiarica showed higher activity against L. major than the standard anti-Leishmania drug, glucantime,. Perhaps because of the high concentration of phenolic compounds in the essential oil, all the parasites were killed after 24 hours. The essential oil from S. bakhtiarica is a potential plant drug against leishmaniasis. Further studies are necessary to evaluate this oil in animal models (in vivo) for future drug applications.

  20. Are Solar Active Regions with Major Flares More Fractal, Multifractal, or Turbulent Than Others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    2012-02-01

    Multiple recent investigations of solar magnetic-field measurements have raised claims that the scale-free (fractal) or multiscale (multifractal) parameters inferred from the studied magnetograms may help assess the eruptive potential of solar active regions, or may even help predict major flaring activity stemming from these regions. We investigate these claims here, by testing three widely used scale-free and multiscale parameters, namely, the fractal dimension, the multifractal structure function and its inertial-range exponent, and the turbulent power spectrum and its power-law index, on a comprehensive data set of 370 timeseries of active-region magnetograms (17 733 magnetograms in total) observed by SOHO’s Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) over the entire Solar Cycle 23. We find that both flaring and non-flaring active regions exhibit significant fractality, multifractality, and non-Kolmogorov turbulence but none of the three tested parameters manages to distinguish active regions with major flares from flare-quiet ones. We also find that the multiscale parameters, but not the scale-free fractal dimension, depend sensitively on the spatial resolution and perhaps the observational characteristics of the studied magnetograms. Extending previous works, we attribute the flare-forecasting inability of fractal and multifractal parameters to i) a widespread multiscale complexity caused by a possible underlying self-organization in turbulent solar magnetic structures, flaring and non-flaring alike, and ii) a lack of correlation between the fractal properties of the photosphere and overlying layers, where solar eruptions occur. However useful for understanding solar magnetism, therefore, scale-free and multiscale measures may not be optimal tools for active-region characterization in terms of eruptive ability or, ultimately, for major solar-flare prediction.

  1. Carboxylate groups play a major role in antitumor activity of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Weijun

    2015-06-05

    In this paper, the structure difference between the polysaccharides isolated from fruit bodies (FGAP) and submerged fermentation system (SGAP) of Ganoderma applanatum was investigated by means of GPC, HPLC and IR, respectively. And their antitumor activities were evaluated against Sarcoma 180 in vivo. The results showed that FGAP and SGAP were typical polysaccharides with different molecular weights, monosaccharide components, and functional groups. Closely related to the distinct structures, FGAP exhibited a better antitumor activity than SGAP. Moreover, since FGAP contained carboxylate groups rather than SGAP, such groups were chemically introduced into SGAP (CSGAP) by carboxymethylation in order to identify their contribution to antitumor activity. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of CSGAP against Sarcoma 180 in vivo was significantly enhanced by comparison to the native SGAP and even higher than that of FGAP, suggesting that the carboxylate groups played a major role in antitumor activity of G. applanatum polysaccharide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro activity of Inula helenium against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains including MRSA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, S

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the bactericidal activity (specifically antistaphylococcal) of Inula helenium. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested against 200 clinically significant Irish Staphylococcus aureus isolates consisting of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus using a drop test method and a microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect is evaluated by measuring the area of the inhibition zone against the isolates. Results proved I. helenium to be 100% effective against the 200 staphylococci tested, with 93% of isolates falling within the ++ and +++ groups. The minimum bactericidal concentration of I. helenium was examined on a subset of isolates and values ranged from 0.9 mg\\/mL to 9.0 mg\\/mL. The extract was equally effective against antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains. This plant therefore possesses compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties, which in the future could be used to complement infection control policies and prevent staphylococcal infection and carriage. This research supports other studies wherein herbal plants exhibiting medicinal properties are being examined to overcome the problems of antibiotic resistance and to offer alternatives in the treatment and control of infectious diseases.

  3. Active immunisation of horses against tetanus including the booster dose and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1981-02-01

    Successful active immunisation of horses against tetanus is dependent on a number of factors of which the toxoid preparation used, its method of application and the ability of the individual horse to respond are fundamental. Two immunisation schedules using an aluminium-based toxoid preparation were examined and the protection determined by monitoring the level of antitoxin afforded by each schedule. The results obtained demonstrated that 2 doses of this toxoid are necessary to ensure 12 months protection in all horses. These results are discussed in relation to the factors involved in active immunisation against tetanus. Reference is also made to the occurrence of a transient phase of reduced levels of antitoxin following booster doses of toxoid in immunised horses during which it is considered these horses could become more susceptible to tetanus. The effect of a booster dose on immunised horses was examined and while there can be a reduction in the level of antitoxin in some immunised horses following this dose its effect is minimal, short-lived and for all practical purposes can be disregarded. The application of the booster dose in practice is also discussed.

  4. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-01-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release

  5. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  6. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  7. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Education outcomes related to including genomics activities in nursing practice in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Lim, Swee Hia; Png, Hong Hock

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of a genomic educational intervention by measuring the extent participants could apply the class content to practice. A sample of 76 nurses employed by Singapore Health Services, Singapore, participated in a nursing genomics seminar in 2008 and completed a survey form with a response rate of 89%. Every respondent was able to identify use of a genomic assessment or intervention item with a patient from their clinical practice. The mean use of genomic assessment and intervention items was 5.8 out of a possible 10. The most frequently used items were assessment of family history information, environmental factors and genomic physical findings. Findings provide evidence that nurses are able to include genomic assessments and interventions in their practice following targeted education. This study highlights how informed nurses are able to apply genomic assessments and interventions to individualize patient care.

  9. Comparative antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin tested against Campylobacter jejuni including fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C L; Erwin, M E; Barrett, M S; Jones, R N

    1999-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, as well as other disease states such as meningitis and septic arthritis. In this study, the Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) results were compared to a reference agar dilution method using gatifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone. A total of 53 strains of C. jejuni initially isolated from patients in California and Mexico were tested. Results demonstrated a high correlation (r = 0.88) between the two utilized in vitro dilution methods. In addition, gatifloxacin activity was compared to that of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole using the Etest. Gatifloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) was approximately eight- to 16-fold more potent than ciprofloxacin (Mic90, > 32 micrograms/ml), a commonly used fluoroquinolone for Campylobacter infections. Eight strains highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC90, > 32 micrograms/ml) were tested for cross resistance against the newer fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) and the rank order of potency was: gatifloxacin (MIC50, 16 micrograms/ml) > trovafloxacin = levofloxacin (MIC50, > 32 micrograms/mL). However, only 25% ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were inhibited by < or = 1 microgram/mL of gatifloxacin or trovafloxacin. These results for gatifloxacin against C. jejuni strains must be further assessed in the context of in vivo trials before the clinical role of this new fluoroquinolone can be determined. The Etest appears to be a simple and precise susceptibility test method for testing C. jejuni isolates against fluoroquinolones and other alternative therapeutic agents.

  10. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutel, T; Schwerter, M; Büttgenbach, S; Leester-Schädel, M; Sattler, S; El Sayed, Y; Radespiel, R; Zander, M; Sinapius, M; Wierach, P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development. (technical note)

  11. Active packaging of chicken meats with modified atmosphere including oxygen scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, B; Candoğan, K

    2016-10-19

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP-70% CO 2 /30%N 2 ) and iron-based oxygen scavengers (OS) with various absorption capacities (Ageless ® ss100, ss300, and ss500) as an active packaging system on microbiological and oxidative changes in chicken thigh meats were evaluated during refrigerated storage (4°C) for 19 d at 3-day intervals. Total aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts exceeded the acceptability limit at d 7 in the control group without MAP (AIR), and at d 19 in MAP and OS containing samples. OS utilization resulted in around 1.5 and 1.0 log unit reductions in Pseudomonas spp. counts at d 7 and d 10 of storage, respectively, as compared with AIR and MAP groups (P < 0.05). MAP and OS groups had fewer (P < 0.05) coliform counts than did the AIR group, with an approximately 1.0 log reduction observed at d 10. Although in some cases OS utilization resulted in lower TBARS values and carbonyl and sulphydryl contents, particularly during later stages of refrigerated storage as compared to AIR and MAP groups, in general, these effects were not always apparent. The results of this study suggested that MAP suppressed microbiological growth and retarded lipid and protein oxidation in chicken thigh meats, with a 9-day shelf-life extention with insignificant effects of OS. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Multifunctional colloidal nanofiber composites including dextran and folic acid as electro-active platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Bunyatova, Ulviye; Şimșek, Murat

    2017-06-15

    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of novel colloidal multifunctional polymer nanofiber composites (NFCs) from water dispersion blends of intercalated silicate layered nanocomposites of poly (2-vinyl-N-pyrrolidone)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) and dextran/ODA-MMT as matrix and partner polymer intercalated nanocomposites in the presence of NaOH and folic acid (FA) as doping agents by green reactive electrospinning. Chemical and physical structures, surface morphology and electrical properties were investigated. Effects of matrix/partner polymer ratios, doping agents, absorption time of NaOH, and temperature on electrical parameters of NFCs were evaluated. The presence of FA and increasing dextran fraction in NFCs resulted in reducing fiber diameter and improving diameter distribution. High complexing behaviors of matrix/partner polymer chains, organoclay, FA, and NaOH significantly improved conductivity parameters, especially 5-min of absorption time (≈10 -2 -10 - 3 Sm -1 ). The conductivity of the samples decreased with increasing temperature. NFCs fabricated for the first time are promising candidates for various biomedical, electrochemical and electronic applications as electro-active platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3. Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  14. Prostaglandin E-major Urinary Metabolite as a Biomarker for Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Okayasu, Isao; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Matsuura, Masaaki; Ohnishi, Hiromitsu; Ito, Satoru; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Nambu, Ryusuke; Kagimoto, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    Prostaglandin E-major urinary metabolite (PGE-MUM) is a useful biomarker for adult ulcerative colitis (UC) activity. In the present study, we evaluated whether PGE-MUM can also be a biomarker of pediatric UC activity and compared its efficacy in predicting UC activity with that of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Twenty-nine pediatric patients with UC (8-18 years) and 29 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were enrolled. UC activity was evaluated using the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index, highest Mayo endoscopic scoring (Mayo), and Matts grading (Matts) for histologic scoring, and the sum of Mayo (total of 6 segments) and Matts in all patients with UC. PGE-MUM levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay. PGE-MUM levels were elevated in endoscopically and histologically active UC patients, but not in patients with endoscopic and histologic remission or controls. PGE-MUM levels positively and significantly correlated with UC activity. PGE-MUM levels were positively correlated with Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (r = 0.594), highest Mayo (r = 0.462), the sum of Mayo (r = 0.694), and the sum of Matts (r = 0.613), but not with highest Matt (r = 0.352). The sum of Mayo and the sum of Matts, which reflect total colon inflammation, showed highest correlation with PGE-MUM. C-reactive protein levels did not correlate with any UC activity scores. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate exhibited correlation (r = 0.490) with the sum of Mayo only. PGE-MUM is a reliable biomarker that reflects both the endoscopic and histologic activity of the entire colon in pediatric UC.

  15. Identification of major phenolic compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitilertdecha, Nont; Teerawutgulrag, Aphiwat; Kilburn, Jeremy D; Rakariyatham, Nuansri

    2010-03-09

    Nephelium lappaceum is a tropical fruit whose peel possesses antioxidant properties. Experiments on the isolation and identification of the active constituents were conducted, and on their antioxidant activity using a lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The methanolic extract of N. lappaceum peels exhibited strong antioxidant properties. Sephadex LH-20 chromatography was utilized in the isolation of each constituent and the antioxidant properties of each was studied. The isolated compounds were identified as ellagic acid (EA) (1), corilagin (2) and geraniin (3). These compounds accounted for 69.3% of methanolic extract, with geraniin (56.8%) as the major component, and exhibited much greater antioxidant activities than BHT in both lipid peroxidation (77-186 fold) and DPPH* (42-87 fold) assays. The results suggest that the isolated ellagitannins, as the principal components of rambutan peels, could be further utilized as both a medicine and in the food industry.

  16. Identification of Major Phenolic Compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuansri Rakariyatham

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nephelium lappaceum is a tropical fruit whose peel possesses antioxidant properties. Experiments on the isolation and identification of the active constituents were conducted, and on their antioxidant activity using a lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The methanolic extract of N. lappaceum peels exhibited strong antioxidant properties. Sephadex LH-20 chromatography was utilized in the isolation of each constituent and the antioxidant properties of each was studied. The isolated compounds were identified as ellagic acid (EA (1, corilagin (2 and geraniin (3. These compounds accounted for 69.3% of methanolic extract, with geraniin (56.8% as the major component, and exhibited much greater antioxidant activities than BHT in both lipid peroxidation (77-186 fold and DPPH• (42-87 fold assays. The results suggest that the isolated ellagitannins, as the principal components of rambutan peels, could be further utilized as both a medicine and in the food industry.

  17. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of the Major Polyphenols in Grape Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Adisakwattana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The major polyphenols in grape seed have been shown to have beneficial health effects in the prevention of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. In this present study, we investigated the cholesterol-lowering activity of three major polyphenolic compounds found in grape seed. The results showed that gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin significantly inhibited pancreatic cholesterol esterase in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, they bound to taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycodeoxycholic acid at levels ranging from 38.6% to 28.2%. At the concentration of 0.2 mg/mL, gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin reduced the formation of cholesterol micelles 27.26 ± 2.17%, 11.88 ± 0.75%, and 19.49 ± 3.71%, respectively. These findings clearly demonstrate that three major polyphenolic compounds present in a particular grape seed have cholesterol-lowering activity by inhibiting pancreatic cholesterol esterase, binding of bile acids, and reducing solubility of cholesterol in micelles which may result in delayed cholesterol absorption.

  18. Behaviour of major, minor and trace elements (including REEs during kaolinization processes at Zonouz deposit, northeast of Marand, East Azarbaidjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Alipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zonouz kaolin deposit is located ~15 km northeast of Marand, East-Azarbaidjan province. Based on physical features in field investigations, such as color, five distinct kaolin types including (1 white, (2 lemon, (3 gray, (4 brown, and (5 yellow are distinguished in the deposit. Field evidence and petrographic studies indicate that the deposit is genetically close to trachy-andesite rocks. According to mineralogical data, the deposit contains quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite, pyrophyllite, chlorite, muscovite-illite, dolomite, hematite, and anatase minerals. Geochemical data indicate that function of alteration processes on trachy-andesite rocks during development of Zonouz ore deposit was accompanied by leaching of elements such as Al, Na, K, Rb, Ba, V, Hf, Cu, Zr, Tm, Yb, and Lu, enrichment of elements such as U, Nb, and Ta, and leaching-fixation of elements such as Si, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ti, Mn, P, Cs, Sr, Th, Co, Cr, Ni, Y, Ga, LREE, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er. Incorporation of obtained results from mineralogical and geochemical studies show that physico-chemical conditions of alteration environment, the relative stability of primary minerals, surface adsorption, preferential sorption by metallic oxides, existing of organic matters, scavenging and concentration processes, and fixation in neomorphic mineralogical phases played important role in distribution of elements in the deposit. Geochemical studies show that development of the deposit is relative to two types of processes, (1 hypogene and (2 supergene. The distribution pattern of REEs indicates that differentiation degree of LREEs from HREEs in supergene kaolins is more than hypogene kaolins. Geochemical studies indicate that minerals such as Mn-oxides, zircon, anatase, hematite, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (monazite, rhabdophane, churchite, and zenotime are the potential hosts for rare earth elements in this deposit.

  19. Development of an Active Learning Meteorology Course for Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, P. J.; Bluestone, C.

    2006-12-01

    The method of instruction of an introductory Meteorology course for non-science majors was modified to emphasize active learning. Educational materials and pedagogical methods developed at Queensborough Community College (QCC) and other 4 year colleges was introduced to the predominantly minority student body at QCC. Many of the students at QCC did poorly at pre-college schools where lecture based learning is the chief method of instruction. It is not unexpected that many of them are having difficulty if the method of instruction has not changed at the postsecondary level. The intent of introducing active learning was to have students develop an appreciation of science, and have an increased understanding of relevant scientific principles. Changes were first implemented in the laboratory. The manual was rewritten from the traditional "cookbook" manual, to one that incorporated discovery based activities. Because not all students in the lecture class sign up for the lab we were able to asses the impact these changes had on student learning. The lecture was also modified by introducing various activities designed to make students active participants in the learning process. As a result of these activities student scores increased as compared to student scores in a more affluent community college. Students also demonstrated increased conceptual understanding of the material and seemed to enjoy the class better. Lower scoring students demonstrated the greatest benefit, while the better students had little (or no) changes. The data suggests that the method of instruction can also have a negative effect on student performance.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of analogues of a peptide isolated from venom glands of social wasps Polistes major major inhabiting the Dominican Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Rudolf; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Šafařík, Martin; Borovičková, Lenka; Fučík, Vladimír; Čeřovský, Václav; Slaninová, Jiřina

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2008), s. 99-99 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /30./. 31.08.2008-05.09.2008, Helsinki] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : peptides from venom glands * Polistes major * synthesis and antimicrobial activity * analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  2. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  3. Report by the scientific secretary on major IAEA activities during 1989-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossilov, A.

    1992-01-01

    Major IAEA activities in the field of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in 1989-1991 are described: IAEA/OECD/NEA International Symposium on ''Balancing Automation and Human Action in Nuclear Power Plants'', Munich, Germany, 9-13 July 1990; specialists meetings; cooperation with OECD/NEA; a Review Report on ''Control Rooms and Man-Machine Interface in Nuclear Power Plants''; Advisory Group Meeting on ''The Balance Between Automation and Human Actions in NPP Operation''; use of simulators for training and maintaining competence; the guidelines for control room design; operator support systems in NPPs

  4. Subliminal psychodynamic activation: an experiment controlling for major possible confounding influences outlined by Fudin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, R; Källmén, H

    1991-08-01

    40 and 48 subjects participated in two separate experiments aimed at reproducing the subliminal psychodynamic activation (SPA) phenomenon and taking into account the major methodological critique by Fudin (1986, 1990). Subjects were first exposed either to a full or one of all possible partial symbiotic messages and then to their anagram equivalents. Confounding and irrelevant influences were controlled; the results indicate that only the full symbiotic message improved motor performance. This strongly suggests that subjects encode the meaning of the full message and supports an interpretation in terms of an alleviation of an internal symbiotic conflict leading to a state of calmness conducive to improved motor performance.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Major Constituents in Green Tea with Different Plucking Periods and Their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the plucking periods and the major constituents and the antioxidant activity in green tea. Green tea was prepared from leaves plucked from the end of April 2013 to the end of May 2013 at intervals of one week or longer. The contents of theanine, theobromine, caffeine, catechin (C, and gallocatechin gallate (GCg were significantly decreased, whereas those of epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg and epigallocatechin (EGC were significantly increased along with the period of tea leaf plucking. In addition, antioxidant activity of green tea and standard catechins was investigated using ABTS, FRAP and DPPH assays. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in relatively the oldest leaf, regardless of the assay methods used. Additionally, the order of antioxidant activity of standard catechins was as follows: EGCg ³ GCg ³ ECg > EGC ³ GC ³ EC ³ C. Moreover, the cis-catechins contents were the key factor affecting the antioxidant activity of green tea in all assays employed (ABTS, r = 0.731, p < 0.01; FRAP, r = 0.886, p < 0.01; DPPH, r = 0.778, p < 0.01.

  6. The majority of early primordial germ cells acquire pluripotency by AKT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhisa; Takehara, Asuka; Tokitake, Yuko; Ikeda, Makiko; Obara, Yuka; Morita-Fujimura, Yuiko; Kimura, Tohru; Nakano, Toru

    2014-12-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are undifferentiated germ cells in embryos, the fate of which is to become gametes; however, mouse PGCs can easily be reprogrammed into pluripotent embryonic germ cells (EGCs) in culture in the presence of particular extracellular factors, such as combinations of Steel factor (KITL), LIF and bFGF (FGF2). Early PGCs form EGCs more readily than do later PGCs, and PGCs lose the ability to form EGCs by embryonic day (E) 15.5. Here, we examined the effects of activation of the serine/threonine kinase AKT in PGCs during EGC formation; notably, AKT activation, in combination with LIF and bFGF, enhanced EGC formation and caused ∼60% of E10.5 PGCs to become EGCs. The results indicate that the majority of PGCs at E10.5 could acquire pluripotency with an activated AKT signaling pathway. Importantly, AKT activation did not fully substitute for bFGF and LIF, and AKT activation without both LIF and bFGF did not result in EGC formation. These findings indicate that AKT signal enhances and/or collaborates with signaling pathways of bFGF and of LIF in PGCs for the acquisition of pluripotency. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The document represents the first annual reporting versus semiannual reporting of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report consists of three parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1959 and Related Activities; Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Three, Management of Radioactive Wastes. Nineteen appendices are also included.

  8. Biological Activities and Applications of Dioscorins, the Major Tuber Storage Proteins of Yam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh-Lin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yam tubers, a common tuber crop and an important traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan, have many bioactive substances, including phenolic compounds, mucilage polysaccharides, steroidal saponins and proteins. Among the total soluble proteins, 80% of them are dioscorins. In the past two decades, many studies showed that dioscorins exhibited biological activities both in vitro and in vivo, including the enzymatic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, lectin activities and the protecting role on airway epithelial cells against allergens in vitro. Some of these activities are survived after chemical, heating process or enzymatic digestion. Despite of lacking the intact structural information and the detail action mechanisms in the cells, yam dioscorins are potential resources for developing as functional foods and interesting targets for food protein researchers.

  9. Effect of L-carnitine on oxidative stress and platelet activation after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatelli, P; Tellan, G; Marandola, M; Carnevale, R; Loffredo, L; Schillizzi, M; Proietti, M; Violi, F; Chirletti, P; Delogu, G

    2011-09-01

    The surgical/anesthesia trauma is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This enhanced oxidative stress leads to cell damage resulting in various complications such as sepsis, myocardial injury and increased mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of antioxidant treatment with l-carnitine in oxidative stress and platelet activation in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Forty patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomly allocated to l-carnitine, administered with a rapid infusion (0.05 g/kg) diluted in 250 ml of saline solution, vs. placebo treatment just before the surgical intervention. At baseline and after treatment, oxidative stress was evaluated by detection of circulating levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp), a marker of NADPH oxidase activation, and by analyzing platelet ROS formation. Platelet activation was studied by dosing sCD40L. We observed an increase of soluble sNOX2-dp, sCD40L and ROS production in the placebo group compared with the baseline after the surgical intervention. Conversely, in the l-carnitine-treated group, sNOX2-dp, sCD40L and ROS production did not significantly differ from the baseline. A linear correlation analysis showed that Δ of ROS correlated with Δ of sNOX2 (R(s) =0.817; Pl-carnitine could be helpful in modulating oxidative stress and platelet activation during major abdominal surgery-dependent oxidative damage. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  10. Ramadan major nutrient patterns are associated with anthropometric measurements and physical activity in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Akhoundan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During Ramadan fasting quantity and quality of dietary intake may change. There was no data on nutrient patterns in Ramadan fasting. The purpose of this study was to identify Ramadan major nutrient patterns among those who fast in Tehran, Iran. 510 fasting people aged 18-65 years and BMI 18.5-40 Kg/m2 were recruited in our study by 2-stage cluster sampling method in June-July 2014. Data on the socio-demographic and physical activity level were collected by questionnaire. Usual diet during Ramadan was estimated by valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight. Three nutrient patterns derived by conducting principal component factor analysis on 30 major nutrients. Micronutrient and fiber pattern which characterized by high intake of vitamin K, total fiber, iron, manganese, magnesium, β-carotene, folate, vitamin B12, potassium and calcium was adversely associated with weight (b=-0.16, P= 0.004. High protein pattern had great loadings on protein, riboflavin, phosphorous and zinc which physical activity level was decreased by tertiles of this pattern (b=0.13, P=0.02. High carbohydrate pattern which presented high positive loadings on carbohydrate and thiamin and negative loading on total fat, poly unsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids was positively associated with BMI (b= 0.12, P=0.03. Adherence to different Ramadan nutrient patterns is associated with weight, BMI and physical activity level. People on high in carbohydrate may have a higher BMI and low micronutrient density diet that should be considered in Ramadan fasting nutrition educational programs.

  11. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  12. Major depression in mothers predict reduced ventral striatum activation in adolescent female offspring with and without depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research has identified reduced reward-related brain activation as a promising endophenotype for the early identification of adolescents with major depressive disorder. However, it is unclear whether reduced reward-related brain activation constitutes a true vulnerability for major depressive ...

  13. Biotransformation of zearalenone and zearalenols to their major glucuronide metabolites reduces estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, Caroline; Uhlig, Silvio; Miles, Christopher O; Verhaegen, Steven; Elliott, Christopher T; Eriksen, Gunnar S; Sørlie, Morten; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi. Once ingested, ZEN may be absorbed and metabolised to α- and β-zearalenol (α-ZOL, β-ZOL), and to a lesser extent α- and β-zearalanol (α-ZAL, β-ZAL). Further biotransformation to glucuronide conjugates also occurs to facilitate the elimination of these toxins from the body. Unlike ZEN and its metabolites, information regarding the estrogenic activity of these glucuronide conjugates in various tissues is lacking. ZEN-14-O-glucuronide, α-ZOL-14-O-glucuronide, α-ZOL-7-O-glucuronide, β-ZOL-14-O-glucuronide and β-ZOL-16-O-glucuronide, previously obtained as the major products from preparative enzymatic synthesis, were investigated for their potential to cause endocrine disruption through interference with estrogen receptor transcriptional activity. All five glucuronide conjugates showed a very weak agonist response in an estrogen responsive reporter gene assay (RGA), with activity ranging from 0.0001% to 0.01% of that of 17β-estradiol, and also less than that of ZEN, α-ZOL and β-ZOL which have previously shown estrogenic potencies of the order 17β-estradiol>α-ZOL>ZEN>β-ZOL. Confirmatory mass spectrometry revealed that any activity observed was likely a result of minor deconjugation of the glucuronide moiety. This study confirms that formation of ZEN and ZOL glucuronides is a detoxification reaction with regard to estrogenicity, serving as a potential host defence mechanism against ZEN-induced estrogenic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain activation predicts treatment improvement in patients with major depressive disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Samson, Andrea C

    2012-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with alterations in brain function that might be useful for therapy evaluation. The current study aimed to identify predictors for therapy improvement and to track functional brain changes during therapy. Twenty-one drug-free patients with MDD underwent functional MRI twice during performance of an emotional perception task: once before and once after 4 weeks of antidepressant treatment (mirtazapine or venlafaxine). Twelve healthy controls were investigated once with the same methods. A significant difference between groups was a relative greater activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in the patients vs. controls. Before treatment, patients responding better to pharmacological treatment showed greater activation in the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (pCC) and superior frontal gyrus (SFG) when viewing of negative emotional pictures was compared with the resting condition. Activations in the caudate nucleus and insula contrasted for emotional compared to neutral stimuli were also associated with successful treatment. Responders had also significantly higher levels of activation, compared to non-responders, in a range of other brain regions. Brain activation related to treatment success might be related to altered self-referential processes and a differential response to external emotional stimuli, suggesting differences in the processing of emotionally salient stimuli between those who are likely to respond to pharmacological treatment and those who will not. The present investigation suggests the pCC, dmPFC, SFG, caudate nucleus and insula may have a key role as a biological marker for treatment response and predictor for therapeutic success.

  15. Brain activation predicts treatment improvement in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C; Meisenzahl, Eva; Scheuerecker, Johanna; Rose, Emma; Schoepf, Veronika; Wiesmann, Martin; Frodl, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with alterations in brain function that might be useful for therapy evaluation. The current study aimed to identify predictors for therapy improvement and to track functional brain changes during therapy. Twenty-one drug-free patients with MDD underwent functional MRI twice during performance of an emotional perception task: once before and once after 4 weeks of antidepressant treatment (mirtazapine or venlafaxine). Twelve healthy controls were investigated once with the same methods. A significant difference between groups was a relative greater activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in the patients vs. controls. Before treatment, patients responding better to pharmacological treatment showed greater activation in the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (pCC) and superior frontal gyrus (SFG) when viewing of negative emotional pictures was compared with the resting condition. Activations in the caudate nucleus and insula contrasted for emotional compared to neutral stimuli were also associated with successful treatment. Responders had also significantly higher levels of activation, compared to non-responders, in a range of other brain regions. Brain activation related to treatment success might be related to altered self-referential processes and a differential response to external emotional stimuli, suggesting differences in the processing of emotionally salient stimuli between those who are likely to respond to pharmacological treatment and those who will not. The present investigation suggests the pCC, dmPFC, SFG, caudate nucleus and insula may have a key role as a biological marker for treatment response and predictor for therapeutic success. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase by Antidepressants Counteracts Stress-Induced Activation of P38-Kinase in Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmé, Heike; Jernigan, Peter L; Hoehn, Richard S; Wilker, Barbara; Soddemann, Matthias; Edwards, Michael J; Müller, Christian P; Kornhuber, Johannes; Gulbins, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a common disease with serious morbidity, including increased risk of death from suicide. Major depressive disorder is treated with antidepressants. However, the molecular targets of antidepressants remained ill-defined and require further elucidation. Mice were treated with corticosterone to induce stress, amitriptyline and the p38-kinase (p38K) inhibitor SB239063 or a combination of these drugs. Phosphorylation of p38K in hippocampal neurons was determined by immunostaining with a phospho-specific antibody, neuronal proliferation using BrdU-labelling and behaviour employing a set of behavioural tests. Corticosterone induced phosphorylation/activation of p38K in the hippocampus in vivo. Antidepressants reversed the effect of corticosterone on p38K activation in wildtype mice, but had no effect in acid sphingomyelinase-deficient animals. Corticosterone also reduced neurogenesis and triggered depression-like behavioural changes, effects that were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of p38K. Stress induces p38K phosphorylation/activation in the hippocampus and thereby reduces neurogenesis and induces depression-like symptoms, events that are prevented by antidepressants via inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Student anxiety in introductory biology classrooms: Perceptions about active learning and persistence in the major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Benjamin J; Brigati, Jennifer R; Schussler, Elisabeth E

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers have called for implementation of active learning practices in undergraduate science classrooms as one method to increase retention and persistence in STEM, yet there has been little research on the potential increases in student anxiety that may accompany these practices. This is of concern because excessive anxiety can decrease student performance. Levels and sources of student anxiety in three introductory biology lecture classes were investigated via an online survey and student interviews. The survey (n = 327) data revealed that 16% of students had moderately high classroom anxiety, which differed among the three classes. All five active learning classroom practices that were investigated caused student anxiety, with students voluntarily answering a question or being called on to answer a question causing higher anxiety than working in groups, completing worksheets, or answering clicker questions. Interviews revealed that student anxiety seemed to align with communication apprehension, social anxiety, and test anxiety. Additionally, students with higher general anxiety were more likely to self-report lower course grade and the intention to leave the major. These data suggest that a subset of students in introductory biology experience anxiety in response to active learning, and its potential impacts should be investigated.

  18. Performance monitoring and empathy during active and observational learning in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrizia; Norra, Christine; Juckel, Georg; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Previous literature established a link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and altered reward processing as well as between empathy and (observational) reward learning. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of MDD on the electrophysiological correlates - the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300 - of active and observational reward processing and to relate them to trait cognitive and affective empathy. Eighteen patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls performed an active and an observational probabilistic reward-learning task while event- related potentials were recorded. Also, participants were assessed with regard to self-reported cognitive and affective trait empathy. Relative to healthy controls, patients with MDD showed overall impaired learning and attenuated FRN amplitudes, irrespective of feedback valence and learning type (active vs. observational), but comparable P300 amplitudes. In the patient group, but not in controls, higher trait perspective taking scores were significantly correlated with reduced FRN amplitudes. The pattern of results suggests impaired prediction error processing and a negative effect of higher trait empathy on feedback-based learning in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An investigation of the mutagenic activity of salamide - a major impurity of hydrochlorothiazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerce, Esra; Cok, Ismet; Sari, Sibel; Bostanci, Omur

    2016-11-01

    Hydrochlorothiazide is a widely used antihypertensive agent and one of its major impurities, salamide (4-amino-6-chlorobenzene-1,3-disulphonamide), has a chemical structure containing a primary amino group, a functional group that has previously been reported to be associated with carcinogenic activity. It is known that hydrochlorothiazide purity is a challenging problem for the pharmaceutical industry. As there were no prior mutagenicity data for the impurity salamide, the aim was to investigate its mutagenicity in this study. Salamide was tested for mutagenic potential in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA 1535, TA 1537, and E. coli WP2 uvrA + E. coli WP2 [pKM101] strains at six different concentrations, the highest concentration being the 5000 μg/plate. In both the presence and absence of the metabolic activation system, no mutagenic activity was observed. Results indicated that salamide should be classified as an ordinary impurity and controlled according to Q3A(R2) and Q3B(R2) guidelines.

  20. Student anxiety in introductory biology classrooms: Perceptions about active learning and persistence in the major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers have called for implementation of active learning practices in undergraduate science classrooms as one method to increase retention and persistence in STEM, yet there has been little research on the potential increases in student anxiety that may accompany these practices. This is of concern because excessive anxiety can decrease student performance. Levels and sources of student anxiety in three introductory biology lecture classes were investigated via an online survey and student interviews. The survey (n = 327) data revealed that 16% of students had moderately high classroom anxiety, which differed among the three classes. All five active learning classroom practices that were investigated caused student anxiety, with students voluntarily answering a question or being called on to answer a question causing higher anxiety than working in groups, completing worksheets, or answering clicker questions. Interviews revealed that student anxiety seemed to align with communication apprehension, social anxiety, and test anxiety. Additionally, students with higher general anxiety were more likely to self-report lower course grade and the intention to leave the major. These data suggest that a subset of students in introductory biology experience anxiety in response to active learning, and its potential impacts should be investigated. PMID:28771564

  1. Active atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of the vast majority of detected volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-H; Goldstein, A H; Timkovsky, J; Fares, S; Weber, R; Karlik, J; Holzinger, R

    2013-08-09

    Numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exist in Earth's atmosphere, most of which originate from biogenic emissions. Despite VOCs' critical role in tropospheric chemistry, studies for evaluating their atmosphere-ecosystem exchange (emission and deposition) have been limited to a few dominant compounds owing to a lack of appropriate measurement techniques. Using a high-mass resolution proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer and an absolute value eddy-covariance method, we directly measured 186 organic ions with net deposition, and 494 that have bidirectional flux. This observation of active atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of the vast majority of detected VOCs poses a challenge to current emission, air quality, and global climate models, which do not account for this extremely large range of compounds. This observation also provides new insight for understanding the atmospheric VOC budget.

  2. Increased frontal sleep slow wave activity in adolescents with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Tesler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep slow wave activity (SWA, the major electrophysiological characteristic of deep sleep, mirrors both cortical restructuring and functioning. The incidence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD substantially rises during the vulnerable developmental phase of adolescence, where essential cortical restructuring is taking place. The goal of this study was to assess characteristics of SWA topography in adolescents with MDD, in order to assess abnormalities in both cortical restructuring and functioning on a local level. All night high-density EEG was recorded in 15 patients meeting DSM-5 criteria for MDD and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The actual symptom severity was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised (CDRS-R. Topographical power maps were calculated based on the average SWA of the first non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep episode. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly more SWA in a cluster of frontal electrodes compared to controls. SWA over frontal brain regions correlated positively with the CDRS-R subscore “morbid thoughts”. Self-reported sleep latency was significantly higher in depressed adolescents compared to controls whereas sleep architecture did not differ between the groups. Higher frontal SWA in depressed adolescents may represent a promising biomarker tracing cortical regions of intense use and/or restructuring.

  3. In vitro antileishmanial activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Seyyed Jafar; Sharifi, Iraj; Sharififar, Fariba; Bamorovat, Mehdi; Daneshvar, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Pentavalent antimony compounds are expensive, toxic and drug resistance is prevalent, whereas the plant extract derivatives are safe. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the promastigotes of Leishmania major was evaluated. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of E. camaldulensis leaves were prepared. The compounds were dried and powdered. Serial dilutions of the extracts and control drugs in phosphate buffer solution were prepared. The stationary phase promastigotes of L. major were incubated to the methanolic and aqueous extractions in vitro. Tartar emetic was used as the positive control drug. After 72 h of incubation the activity of the extracts was measured, using MTT method. The IC50 values (50 % inhibitory concentration) were 586.2 ± 47.6 and 1,108.6 ± 51.9 μg/ml for methanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively, whereas it was 32.5 ± 6.8 μg/ml for tartar emetic. The results indicated that the methanolic extract was more effective than aqueous extract, although there was no significant difference. The extracts were less effective as compared to the control drug. Further investigation is required to evaluate these extracts on clinical stage in macrophage-amastigote model.

  4. Using Infiniscope Exploratory Activities in an Online Astronomy Lab Course for Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen; Anbar, Ariel; Tamer, A. Joseph; Hunsley, Diana; Young, Patrick A.; Center for Education Through eXploration

    2018-01-01

    With the growth of online astronomy courses, it has become necessary to design different strategies for students to engage meaningfully with astronomy content. In contrast to some of the previously designed “cookbook”-style lab exercises, the strategy of these Infiniscope activities is to provide an experience where the students explore and discover the content for themselves. The Infiniscope project was created by ASU’s School of Earth and Space Exploration and NASA’s Science Mission Directorate as part of the NASA Exploration Connection project. As part of this project, online activities on topics such as asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects, eclipses, and Kepler’s Laws were designed and created for middle school (grades 6-8) and informal education settings. This poster discusses adapting these activities to the undergraduate non-science major setting. In fall 2017, the Infiniscope activities, such as Small Worlds and Kepler’s Laws, will be incorporated into an Arizona State University online astronomy course, AST 113, which is the laboratory component for the Introduction to Solar System Astronomy course sequence. This course typically enrolls about 800-900 students per semester with a combination of students who are online only as well as those who also take in person classes. In this type of class, we cannot have any in-person required sessions and all content must be delivered online asynchronously. The use of the Infiniscope exploratory exercises will provide students with the ability to use NASA data in a hands-on manner to discover the solar system for themselves.

  5. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  6. Biotransformation of bisphenol AF to its major glucuronide metabolite reduces estrogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol AF (BPAF, an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER. However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G, BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM, and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 μM in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings.

  7. Biotransformation of Bisphenol AF to Its Major Glucuronide Metabolite Reduces Estrogenic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER). However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G), BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM), and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 μM in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings. PMID:24349450

  8. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  9. Relapse Prevention in Major Depressive Disorder: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Versus an Active Control Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J.; Gross, James J.; Visvanathan, Pallavi D.; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q.; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M.; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Method Ninety-two participants in remission from Major Depressive Disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for non-specific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (group x time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction post-intervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. Conclusions MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. PMID:26371618

  10. Activity patterns on random scale-free networks: global dynamics arising from local majority rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haijun; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Activity or spin patterns on a random scale-free network are studied using mean field analysis and computer simulations. These activity patterns evolve in time according to local majority rule dynamics which is implemented using (i) parallel or synchronous updating and (ii) random sequential or asynchronous updating. Our mean field calculations predict that the relaxation processes of disordered activity patterns become much more efficient as the scaling exponent γ of the scale-free degree distribution changes from γ > 5/2 to γ 5/2, the corresponding decay times increase as ln(N) with increasing network size N whereas they are independent of N for γ networks: (A) multi-networks as generated by the configuration method, which typically leads to many self-connections and multiple edges, and (B) simple networks without self-connections and multiple edges. We find that the mean field predictions are confirmed (i) for random sequential updating of multi-networks and (ii) for both parallel and random sequential updating of simple networks with γ = 2.25 and 2.6. For γ = 2.4, the data for the simple networks seem to be consistent with mean field theory as well, whereas we cannot draw a definite conclusion from the simulation data for the multi-networks. The latter difficulty can be understood in terms of an effective scaling exponent γeff = γeff(γ, N) for multi-networks. This effective exponent is determined by removing all self-connections and multiple edges; it satisfies γeff >= γ and decreases towards γ with increasing network size N. For γ = 2.4, we find γeff gtrsim 5/2 up to N = 217.

  11. Relapse prevention in major depressive disorder: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy versus an active control condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J; Gross, James J; Visvanathan, Pallavi D; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Ninety-two participants in remission from major depressive disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for nonspecific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (Group × Time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction postintervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Evaluation of an ethnopharmacologically selected Bhutanese medicinal plants for their major classes of phytochemicals and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Keller, Paul A; Pyne, Stephen G; Taweechotipatr, Malai; Tonsomboon, Aunchalee; Rattanajak, Roonglawan; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee

    2011-09-01

    As many as 229 medicinal plants have been currently used in the Bhutanese Traditional Medicine (BTM) as a chief ingredient of polyherbal formulations and these plants have been individually indicated for treating various types of infections including malaria, tumor, and microbial. We have focused our study only on seven species of these plants. We aim to evaluate the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities of the seven medicinal plants of Bhutan selected using an ethno-directed bio-rational approach. This study creates a scientific basis for their use in the BTM and gives foundation for further phytochemical and biological evaluations which can result in the discovery of new drug lead compounds. A three stage process was conducted which consisted of: (1) an assessment of a pharmacopoeia and a formulary book of the BTM for their mode of plant uses; (2) selecting 25 anti-infective medicinal plants based on the five established criteria, collecting them, and screening for their major classes of phytochemicals using appropriate test protocols; and (3) finally analyzing the crude extracts of the seven medicinal plants, using the standard test protocols, for their antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity activities as directed by the ethnopharmacological uses of each plant. Out of 25 medicinal plants screened for their major classes of phytochemicals, the majority contained tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Out of the seven plant species investigated for their biological activities, all seven of them exhibited mild antimicrobial properties, five plants gave significant in vitro antiplasmodial activities, two plants gave moderate anti-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense activity, and one plant showed mild cytotoxicity. Meconopsis simplicifolia showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 0.40 μg/ml against TM4/8.2 strain (a wild type chloroquine and

  13. Pharmacological properties of guggulsterones, the major active components of gum guggul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rohan; Gulati, Vandana; Palombo, Enzo A

    2012-11-01

    Oleo gum resin secreted by Commiphora mukul, also known as gum guggul, has been used widely as an ayurvedic drug. Commiphora mukul is a short thorny shrub that is native to the Indian subcontinent. Oleo gum resin extracted by incision of the bark is a very complex mixture of gum, minerals, essential oils, terpenes, sterols, ferrulates, flavanones and sterones. Its active constituents, the Z- and E-guggulsterones, have been demonstrated to exhibit their biological activities by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of proteins involved in carcinogenic activities. Guggulsterones have also been reported to regulate gene expression by exhibiting control over other molecular targets including transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and steroid receptors. Considerable scientific evidence indicates the use of gum guggul as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammation, nervous disorders, hyperlipidaemia and associated cardiac disorders such as hypertension and ischaemia, skin disorders, cancer and urinary disorders. This review highlights the taxonomic details, phytochemical properties and pharmacological profile of gum guggul. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Is Associated With Enhanced Cognitive Control Network Activity in Major Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Oathes, Desmond J; Linn, Kristin A; Bruce, Steven E; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Cook, Philip A; Satchell, Emma K; Shou, Haochang; Sheline, Yvette I

    2018-04-01

    Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by depressive symptoms, abnormalities in brain regions important for cognitive control, and response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, whether a common neural mechanism underlies CBT response across diagnoses is unknown. Brain activity during a cognitive control task was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 104 participants: 28 patients with MDD, 53 patients with PTSD, and 23 healthy control subjects; depression and anxiety symptoms were determined on the same day. A patient subset (n = 31) entered manualized CBT and, along with controls (n = 19), was rescanned at 12 weeks. Linear mixed effects models assessed the relationship between depression and anxiety symptoms and brain activity before and after CBT. At baseline, activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively correlated with Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores across all participants; this brain-symptom association did not differ between MDD and PTSD. Following CBT treatment of patients, regions within the cognitive control network, including ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, showed a significant increase in activity. Our results suggest that dimensional abnormalities in the activation of cognitive control regions were associated primarily with symptoms of depression (with or without controlling for anxious arousal). Furthermore, following treatment with CBT, activation of cognitive control regions was similarly increased in both MDD and PTSD. These results accord with the Research Domain Criteria conceptualization of mental disorders and implicate improved cognitive control activation as a transdiagnostic mechanism for CBT treatment outcome. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  16. Identification of P450 Oxidoreductase as a Major Determinant of Sensitivity to Hypoxia-Activated Prodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Francis W; Young, Richard J; Shalev, Zvi; Vellanki, Ravi N; Wang, Jingli; Gu, Yongchuan; Joshi, Naveen; Sreebhavan, Sreevalsan; Weinreb, Ilan; Goldstein, David P; Moffat, Jason; Ketela, Troy; Brown, Kevin R; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Solomon, Benjamin; Rischin, Danny; Wilson, William R; Wouters, Bradly G

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia is a prevalent feature of many tumors contributing to disease progression and treatment resistance, and therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Several hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) have been developed, including the phase III candidate TH-302 (evofosfamide) and the preclinical agent SN30000, which is an optimized analogue of the well-studied HAP tirapazamine. Experience with this therapeutic class highlights an urgent need to identify biomarkers of HAP sensitivity, including enzymes responsible for prodrug activation during hypoxia. Using genome-scale shRNA screens and a high-representation library enriched for oxidoreductases, we identified the flavoprotein P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR) as the predominant determinant of sensitivity to SN30000 in three different genetic backgrounds. No other genes consistently modified SN30000 sensitivity, even within a POR-negative background. Knockdown or genetic knockout of POR reduced SN30000 reductive metabolism and clonogenic cell death and similarly reduced sensitivity to TH-302 under hypoxia. A retrospective evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas showed heterogeneous POR expression and suggested a possible relationship between human papillomavirus status and HAP sensitivity. Taken together, our study identifies POR as a potential predictive biomarker of HAP sensitivity that should be explored during the clinical development of SN30000, TH-302, and other hypoxia-directed agents. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. [Comparative studies in content of major active compositions in different parts of Cichorium glandulosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaynap, Tohtahon; Zhong, Jie; Xin, Xuelei; Hajiakber-Aisa

    2010-04-01

    The four major active compositions, namely esculetin, lactucin, lactucopicrin and chlorogenic acid in seed, stem and root of the Cichorium glandulosum Boiss. et Huet that planted in Xinjiang have been quantified by HPLC. HPLC method was used, with Inertsil ODS-SP column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 pm). The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was set at 32 degrees C. The mobile phase was methanol--0.2% formic acid, 0-40 min, methanol 30%--70% gradients. Injection volume was 5 microL. The detecting wavelength were 256, 350, 299 and 229 nm, respectively. The percentage recoveries were 98.2%, 99.57%, 100.50%, and 99.46% for chlorogenic acid, esculetin, lactucin, and lactucopicrin, respectively. The correlation coefficients (r) were 1.000, 0.9989, 0.9998, 1.000 and RSD were 1.6%, 1.5%, 0.77%, 2.0% for chlorogenic acid, esculetin, lactucin, and lactucopicrin, respectively. The contents of the chlorogenic acid, esculetin, lactucin and lactucopicrin were 0.0048, 0.0043, 0.6789, 0.7520 mg x g(-1), respectively in the root, and 0.0710, 0.1890, 0.2396 and 0.0520 mg x g(-1) in the seeds of C. glandulosum, respectively. This method was sensitive, rapid and simple, with good linearity, recovery and reproducibility.

  18. Natural killer cell activity in patients with major depressive disorder treated with escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E-Jin; Lee, Je-Hoon; Jeong, Dea-Chul; Han, Sang-Ick; Jeon, Yang-Whan

    2015-09-01

    An association between depression and altered immunity has been suggested by many studies, although the findings are not fully consistent. The present investigation examined the effects of escitalopram on cellular immunity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Fifty-one patients with MDD were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. The patients were grouped into responders (n=32) and non-responders (n=19). Adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, CD4, CD8, CD19, and natural killer cells were measured at baseline and after a 4 week treatment with escitalopram. Plasma hormones and immune parameters were compared between groups. Responders showed increased activity, but not number, of natural killer cells after a 4 week treatment with escitalopram. There were no differences in plasma hormones and other immune parameters between groups, even though cortisol was decreased and CD19 was increased across both groups compared to baseline. The results suggest that natural killer cells play an important role in improving the symptoms of depressive patients responding to selective serotonin inhibitors. To deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression, interactions between serotonin and the immune system should be further explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accurate and precise major and trace element determination in marine samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucgang, Raymond J.; Cao Dong Vu; Tran Quang Thien; Ho Van Doanh; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The determination of elemental composition of marine samples has attracted a great deal of attention in environmental investigations,despite the obscurities presented by extremely low trace element concentrations and high calcium, sodium, and chloride interferences in those matrices. In this study, the expediency of instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, to measure major and trace elements in white sand, fish tissue, coral, and algae samples was evaluated. Sample irradiation was done at the IVV-9 nuclear research reactor in Dalat, Vietnam, using a fuel of WWR-M2, LEU (19.75% 2 '3 5 U), and neutron flux of 4.2x10 12 n/cm 2 /s for both short and long irradiation. Counts were determined using high purity coaxial type germanium detector, and quantified by K-zero method. The accuracy of the method was validated by a concurrent analyses of standard reference materials, NIST SRM 1646a (estuarine sediment) and NIST SRM 1400 (bone ash). No significant matrix effects were observed and the obtained results were in good agreement with certified values (accuracy of 5-15%). The less elaborate sample preparation in INAA compared to other wet techniques of trace element analysis has been shown to produce lesser risk of ultra trace element contamination and losses. Detection limits in the order of parts per billion, ppb, range can be reached. The relative standard deviations for most elements were found to be about or below zero, indicating good reproducibility. (author)

  20. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. La Scala Júnior

    Full Text Available Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha-1 year-1. The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha-1 year-1. The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  1. PU.1 is a major transcriptional activator of the tumour suppressor gene LIMD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxler, Daniel E; James, Victoria; Shelton, Samuel J; Vallim, Thomas Q de A; Shaw, Peter E; Sharp, Tyson V

    2011-04-06

    LIMD1 is a tumour suppressor gene (TSG) down regulated in ∼80% of lung cancers with loss also demonstrated in breast and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. LIMD1 is also a candidate TSG in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Mechanistically, LIMD1 interacts with pRB, repressing E2F-driven transcription as well as being a critical component of microRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this study we show a CpG island within the LIMD1 promoter contains a conserved binding motif for the transcription factor PU.1. Mutation of the PU.1 consensus reduced promoter driven transcription by 90%. ChIP and EMSA analysis demonstrated that PU.1 specifically binds to the LIMD1 promoter. siRNA depletion of PU.1 significantly reduced endogenous LIMD1 expression, demonstrating that PU.1 is a major transcriptional activator of LIMD1. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A., E-mail: sharllenya@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Tecnologia, Qualidade e Avaliacao Ambiental; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  3. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scala, N; De Figueiredo, E B; Panosso, A R

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)). The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  4. Binding and activation of major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient macrophages by staphylococcal exotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Iandolo, J. J.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Macrophages from C2D transgenic mice deficient in the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins were used to identify binding sites for superantigens distinct from the MHC class II molecule. Iodinated staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB) and exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA and ETB) bound to C2D macrophages in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner. All four toxins increased F-actin concentration within 30 s of their addition to C2D macrophages, indicating that signal transduction occurred in response to toxin in the absence of class II MHC. Furthermore, ETA, ETB, SEA, and, to a lesser extent, SEB induced C2D macrophages to produce interleukin 6. Several molecular species on C2D macrophages with molecular masses of 140, 97, 61, 52, 43, and 37 kDa bound SEA in immunoprecipitation experiments. These data indicate the presence of novel, functionally active toxin binding sites on murine macrophages distinct from MHC class II molecules.

  5. Eighteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1955-07-30

    The document represents the eighteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1955.

  6. Twelfth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1952-07-01

    The document represents the twelfth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1952.

  7. The association of pre-operative physical fitness and physical activity with outcome after scheduled major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether reported physical activity and measurements of fitness (hand, leg and inspiration) were associated with postoperative in-hospital mortality, length of stay and discharge destination in 169 patients after major oncological abdominal surgery. In multivariate analysis, adequate

  8. Fifteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, July - December 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-31

    The document represents the fifteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1953.

  9. Fourteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1953-07-31

    The document represents the fourteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1953.

  10. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Abbas M Yamani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum teniflorum (Tulsi, to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5% and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  12. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  13. The underappreciated in vitro activity of tedizolid against Bacteroides fragilis species, including strains resistant to metronidazole and carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Leoncio, Elisa S; Merriam, C Vreni

    2017-02-01

    Because Bacteroides fragilis has the ability to develop mechanisms of resistance to almost all antibiotics, we studied the comparative in vitro activity of tedizolid against 124 Bacteroides group species clinical isolates, including carbapenem, metronidazole and piperacillin-tazobactam resistant strains. Tedizolid had an MIC 90 of 2 μg/ml (range, 0.5-4 μg/ml) and was 1-4 times more active than linezolid that had an MIC 90 of 8 μg/ml (range, 2-16 μg/ml). It was also active (MICs 0.5-2 μg/ml) against the 27 ertapenem, 2 metronidazole and 12 piperacillin-tazobactam resistant strains tested. This suggests that tedizolid may be useful treating infections, including bacteremias, due to resistant B. fragilis group species, as well as, mixed skin and soft tissue infections such as diabetic foot infections caused by Gram-positive aerobes and B. fragilis group species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Mario Helder; Saraiva, Joao Tome

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  15. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Mario Helder [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto Politecnico de Tomar, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300 Tomar (Portugal); Saraiva, Joao Tome [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  16. Review of the IAEA nuclear fuel cycle and material section activities connected with nuclear fuel including WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, F.

    2001-01-01

    Program activities on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials cover the areas of: 1) raw materials (B.1.01); 2) fuel performance and technology (B.1.02); 3) pent fuel (B.1.03); 4) fuel cycle issues and information system (B.1.04); 5) support to technical cooperation activities (B.1.05). The IAEA activities in fuel performance and technology in 2001 include organization of the fuel experts meetings and completion of the Co-ordinate Research Projects (CRP). The special attention is given to the advanced post-irradiation examination techniques for water reactor fuel and fuel behavior under transients and LOCA conditions. An international research program on modeling of activity transfer in primary circuit of NPP is finalized in 2001. A new CRP on fuel modeling at extended burnup (FUMEX II) has planed to be carried out during the period 2002-2006. In the area of spent fuel management the implementation of burnup credit (BUC) in spent fuel management systems has motivated to be used in criticality safety applications, based on economic consideration. An overview of spent fuel storage policy accounting new fuel features as higher enrichment and final burnup, usage of MOX fuel and prolongation of the term of spent fuel storage is also given

  17. Modulation of intrinsic brain activity by electroconvulsive therapy in major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Amber M.; Espinoza, Randall; Pirnia, Tara; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Woods, Roger P.; Narr, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction One of the most effective interventions for intractable major depressive episodes is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Because ECT is also relatively fast-acting, longitudinal study of its neurobiological effects offers critical insight into the mechanisms underlying depression and antidepressant response. Here we assessed modulation of intrinsic brain activity in corticolimbic networks associated with ECT and clinical response. Methods We measured resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in patients with treatment-resistant depression (n=30), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired before and after completing a treatment series with right-unilateral ECT. Using independent component analysis, we assessed changes in RSFC with 1) symptom improvement and 2) ECT regardless of treatment outcome in patients, with reference to healthy controls (n=33, also scanned twice). Results After ECT, consistent changes in RSFC within targeted depression-relevant functional networks were observed in the dorsal anterior cingulate (ACC), mediodorsal thalamus (mdTh), hippocampus, and right anterior temporal, medial parietal, and posterior cingulate cortex in all patients. In a separate analysis, changes in depressive symptoms were associated with RSFC changes in the dorsal ACC, mdTh, putamen, medial prefrontal, and lateral parietal cortex. RSFC of these regions did not change in healthy controls. Conclusions Neuroplasticity underlying clinical change was in part separable from changes associated with the effects of ECT observed in all patients. However, both ECT and clinical change were associated with RSFC modulation in dorsal ACC, mdTh and hippocampus, which may indicate that these regions underlie the mechanisms of clinical outcome in ECT and may be effective targets for future neurostimulation therapies. PMID:26878070

  18. SUNSPOT ROTATION AS A DRIVER OF MAJOR SOLAR ERUPTIONS IN THE NOAA ACTIVE REGION 12158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P.; Ravindra, B. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Cheng, X., E-mail: vemareddy@iiap.res.in [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing-210023 (China)

    2016-09-20

    We studied the development conditions of sigmoid structure under the influence of the magnetic non-potential characteristics of a rotating sunspot in the active region (AR) 12158. Vector magnetic field measurements from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and coronal EUV observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly reveal that the erupting inverse-S sigmoid had roots at the location of the rotating sunspot. The sunspot rotates at a rate of 0°–5° h{sup −1} with increasing trend in the first half followed by a decrease. The time evolution of many non-potential parameters had a good correspondence with the sunspot rotation. The evolution of the AR magnetic structure is approximated by a time series of force-free equilibria. The non-linear force-free field magnetic structure around the sunspot manifests the observed sigmoid structure. Field lines from the sunspot periphery constitute the body of the sigmoid and those from the interior overlie the sigmoid, similar to a flux rope structure. While the sunspot was rotating, two major coronal mass ejection eruptions occurred in the AR. During the first (second) event, the coronal current concentrations were enhanced (degraded), consistent with the photospheric net vertical current; however, magnetic energy was released during both cases. The analysis results suggest that the magnetic connections of the sigmoid are driven by the slow motion of sunspot rotation, which transforms to a highly twisted flux rope structure in a dynamical scenario. Exceeding the critical twist in the flux rope probably leads to the loss of equilibrium, thus triggering the onset of the two eruptions.

  19. Group Intensive Cognitive Activation in Patients with Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta ePanerai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: No standard protocols are available for cognitive rehabilitation in conditions like Major or Mild Neurocognitive disorder (M-NCD or m-NCD, respectively; however, preliminary data seem to indicate that such interventions might have cost-effective beneficial effects and are free from side effect or adverse events. Three basic approaches are known: cognitive stimulation, cognitive training, and cognitive rehabilitation. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a protocol of Group Intensive Cognitive Activation (g-ICA in patients with both M-NCD and m-NCD; the protocol was specifically arranged in our Research Institute, based on the principles of the central role of the patient and the mediation pedagogy.Subjects and Method: Sixteen patients with M-NCD and fifteen patients with m-NCD were enrolled, as well as 11 patients with M-NCD who were used as a control group. The intervention was carried-out by a clinical neuropsychologist with daily group sessions over a period of two months. Neuropsychological assessment was performed at baseline and after the completion of the rehabilitative intervention.Results: General cognitive functioning, attention, ideomotor praxis and visual memory scores were found to be significantly increased in all patients. Beneficial and significant effects were also found for constructive praxis in M-NCD and for executive functioning in m-NCD. All areas of the language function were significantly ameliorated in m-NCD, while this happened only for verbal repetition and syntax-grammar comprehension in M-NCD. No changes were detected for long- and short-term verbal memory, which were found to be worsened in controls without activation.Conclusion: Our findings seem to indicate that g-ICA might be effective in inducing beneficial changes on the general cognitive functioning and other specific functions in patients with both m-NCD and M-NCD. Moreover, the specific protocol proposed, even if susceptible

  20. Physical activity interventions in Latin America: what value might be added by including conference abstracts in a literature review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine; Soares, Jesus; Parra, Diana C; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Pratt, Michael; Bracco, Mario; Hallal, Pedro C; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-07-01

    This review assessed whether conference abstracts yield useful information on the types and effectiveness of community-based physical activity (PA) interventions in Latin America, beyond that from interventions included in a recent systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Abstracts from 9 conferences were searched for community-based interventions to promote PA in Latin America and summarized. Three reviewers classified and screened abstracts. Evaluated interventions that were not included in the previous review were assessed. Search of abstracts from 31 proceedings of 9 conferences identified 87 abstracts of studies on community-based interventions focused on increasing PA. Only 31 abstracts reported on studies with a control group and an outcome related to PA. Ten of these abstracts represented interventions that had not been included in the previous review of peer-reviewed literature, but the abstracts were insufficient in number or detail to make a practice recommendation for any single intervention. This review highlighted the challenges and low added value of including conference abstracts in a systematic review of community PA interventions in Latin America. Stronger evaluation design and execution and more published reports of evaluated interventions are needed to build an evidence base supporting interventions to increase PA in Latin America.

  1. The anxiolytic effect of essential oil of Cananga odorata exposure on mice and determination of its major active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Linyin; Yao, Lei

    2016-12-15

    Essential oil from Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang essential oil, YYO) is usually used in reducing blood pressure, improving cognitive functioning in aromatherapy in human. Few reports showed its effect on anxiety behaviors. To investigate the anxiolytic effects of YYO exposure on anxiety animal models, determine the major active constituents and investigate the change of neurotransmitters after odor exposure. ICR mice were subjected to three anxiety models including open field, elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests after acute and chronic YYO exposure. Main constituents of YYO were defined using GC/MS. These compounds were then tested on the male mice separately on three anxiety models. The monoamines neurotransmitters and their metabolites were analyzed after acute odor exposure and elevated plus maze test. YYO exposure only showed significant anxiolytic effect on the male mice. It increased the time that mice visited open arms and light box area in elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests after acute and chronic YYO exposures. Three main constituents of YYO, benzyl benzoate, linalool and benzyl alcohol showed anxiolytic effect on the male mice individually. YYO exposure brought changes of neurotransmitters on the male mice more significantly than the female mice. It decreased the dopamine (DA) concentration in the striatum and increased the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in the hippocampus of the male mice. The major constituent benzyl benzoate changed neurotransmitters concentration in accordance with the YYO. Moreover, it decreased the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT in the hippocampus. Both acute and chronic YYO exposure showed anxiolytic effect on the male mice. YYO and its major constituent benzyl benzoate might act on the 5-HTnergic and DAnergic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro and in vivo activities of Peganum harmala extract against Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Rahimi-Moghaddam

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: P harmala seeds extract showed significant in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activities. Most biological activity of the extract could be attributed to its beta-carboline content. However, another alkaloid of P harmala seeds extract, peganine, has also been reported to have antileishmanial activity. These beneficial effects can be attributed to the cumulative effects of various biologically active components present in it.

  3. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  4. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant activity against pathogenic bacteria including multidrug-resistant clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJAY GHOSH CHALASANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cell free modified trypticase soya broth (pH 7.4+0.2 of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reverse-phased high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined for 11 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 1 µg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100µg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule.

  5. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  6. Non-specific activities of the major herbicide-resistance gene BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Bastien; Hochstrasser, Ramon; Guyer, Luzia; Francisco, Rita; Aubry, Sylvain; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Weng, Jing-Ke

    2017-12-01

    Bialaphos resistance (BAR) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) genes, which convey resistance to the broad-spectrum herbicide phosphinothricin (also known as glufosinate) via N-acetylation, have been globally used in basic plant research and genetically engineered crops 1-4 . Although early in vitro enzyme assays showed that recombinant BAR and PAT exhibit substrate preference toward phosphinothricin over the 20 proteinogenic amino acids 1 , indirect effects of BAR-containing transgenes in planta, including modified amino acid levels, have been seen but without the identification of their direct causes 5,6 . Combining metabolomics, plant genetics and biochemical approaches, we show that transgenic BAR indeed converts two plant endogenous amino acids, aminoadipate and tryptophan, to their respective N-acetylated products in several plant species. We report the crystal structures of BAR, and further delineate structural basis for its substrate selectivity and catalytic mechanism. Through structure-guided protein engineering, we generated several BAR variants that display significantly reduced non-specific activities compared with its wild-type counterpart in vivo. The transgenic expression of enzymes can result in unintended off-target metabolism arising from enzyme promiscuity. Understanding such phenomena at the mechanistic level can facilitate the design of maximally insulated systems featuring heterologously expressed enzymes.

  7. Unraveling the major triticeae phytases – towards cereals with high grain phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh

    acid constitutes the most important anti nutritional factor for the bioavailability of minerals. However, the mature grain phytase activity varies considerably between plant species and between cultivars. Cereals like rye, wheat and barley possess significant phytase activity with the potential...... why the mature grains of some cereal species has much higher phytase activity than others and (3) devise ways for improving the phytase activity in cereals based on their own genetic potential....

  8. Dialogue-Based Activities and Manipulatives to Engage Liberal Arts Majors in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents four inquiry-based learning activities developed for a liberal arts math course. The activities cover four topics: the Pythagorean theorem, interest theory, optimization, and the Monty Hall problem. Each activity consists of a dialogue, with a theme and characters related to the topic, and a manipulative, that allow students…

  9. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  10. Role of cathepsin D activation in major adverse cardiovascular events and new-onset heart failure after STEMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamac, Aylin Hatice; Sevgili, Emrah; Kucukbuzcu, Sitki; Nasifov, Muharrem; Ismailoglu, Ziya; Kilic, Elif; Ercan, Cilem; Jafarov, Parviz; Uyarel, Hüseyin; Bacaksiz, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    Increased serum levels of the activated aspartic lysosomal endopeptidase cathepsin D (CatD) have been found in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, to date there have been no analyses of clinical follow-up data measuring the enzyme course and its role in the development of post-MI heart failure. This study aimed to evaluate the role of serum CatD activity in the development of heart failure in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Eighty-eight consecutive patients (79.5 % men, mean age 57.4 ± 10.2 years) with STEMI were included in this study. Serum CatD activity was measured directly after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), before discharge, and at the 6-month follow-up. Patients were monitored for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as hospitalization due to cardiovascular causes, recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction, unplanned PCI, new-onset heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality. Serum CatD activity was significantly higher in patients with AMI after PCI and during follow-up (FU) than that in age-matched controls (16.2 ± 7.5 and 29.8 ± 8.9 vs. 8.5 ± 4.2 RFU; p CatD activity in these patients was inversely related to new-onset cardiac dysfunction compared with patients with preserved and improved LVEF after treatment (23.1 ± 3.2 vs. 28.8 ± 7.0 and 29.7 ± 5.0 RFU respectively, p CatD than those without any MACE (23.8 ± 4.6 vs 29.6 ± 6.9 RFU; p CatD activity as a marker of healthy endogenous phagocytosis and remodeling was impaired in patients with new-onset cardiac dysfunction, and lower levels of serum CatD were associated with MACE at the 6-month post-MI follow-up.

  11. Staphylococcus-mediated T-cell activation and spontaneous natural killer cell activity in the absence of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapes, S. K.; Hoynowski, S. M.; Woods, K. M.; Armstrong, J. W.; Beharka, A. A.; Iandolo, J. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    We used major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-deficient transgenic mice to show that in vitro natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T-cell activation by staphylococcal exotoxins (superantigens) are not dependent upon the presence of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. T cells can be activated by exotoxins in the presence of exogenously added interleukin 1 or 2 or in the presence of specific antibody without exogenously added cytokines.

  12. Laboratory activity to effectively teach introductory geomicrobiology concepts to non-geology majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Davila-Vazquez, Yarely C; Martinez, Lilliam Casillas

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a three-week experiment that can complement any microbiology course, to teach main geomicrobiology concepts for non-geology majors. One of the most difficult concepts for non-geology majors to comprehend is how bacteria serve as a platform for different mineralization reactions. In our three-week laboratory practice, students learn the main principles and conditions required for an induced bacterial mineralization. Upon completion of the laboratory experience, students will: 1) learn how microbial-induced mineralization (such as calcium carbonate formation) is affected by differential media and growth conditions; 2) understand how bacterial physiology affects any induced in situ or in vitro mineralization; 3) comprehend how growing conditions and bacterial physiologies interrelate, resulting in differential crystal formation. The teaching-learning process was assessed using a pre-/posttest with an increase from 26% to 76% in the number of positive answers from the students. We also measured the students' proficiency while conducting specific technical tasks, revealing no major difficulties while conducting the experiments. A final questionnaire was provided with satisfactory evaluations from the students regarding the organization and content of the practices. 84-86% of the students agreed that the exercises improved their knowledge in geomicrobiology and would like to attend similar laboratories in the future. Such response is the best indicator that the laboratory practice can be implemented in any undergraduate/graduate microbiology course to effectively teach basic geomicrobiology concepts to non-geology majors.

  13. Lack of circadian variation in the activity of the autonomic nervous system after major abdominal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg-Adamsen, Susan; Lie, Claus

    2002-01-01

    patients who had had major abdominal operations. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were monitored with 24-hour Holter ECG on the second postoperative day-evening-night. We calculated heart rate variability from the standard deviation of all normal R-R intervals (excluding ectopics-NN intervals) around the mean NN...

  14. Effects of Plantago major Extracts and Its Chemical Compounds on Proliferation of Cancer Cells and Cytokines Production of Lipopolysaccharide-activated THP-1 Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini; Piyaviriyakul, Suratsawadee; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Siripong, Pongpun; Vallisuta, Omboon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plantago major has been reported to have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, which plant parts are more suitable as starting materials has not been explored. Objectives: To investigate the antiproliferative activity of P. major extracts against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cancer cell lines as well as their effects on inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. Materials and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of P. major from different plant parts and its chemical compounds, i.e., ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA), and aucubin were tested in this experiment. Results: Methanol and aqueous extracts of P. major seeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity. The methanol extracts of seeds also demonstrated the highest inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ production. Interestingly, the roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable activities to those of leaves and petioles. Furthermore, UA exhibited stronger activities than OA and aucubin. Conclusions: The seeds are being proposed as the main source for further development of anticancer and anti-inflammatory products, whereas the roots could be included in the preparation of P. major derived products with respect to anti-inflammatory. SUMMARY Amongst the parts of Plantago major, seeds exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLaS3, A549, and KB cell lines as well as the highest inhibition on TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ productionThe roots, which were commonly discarded, exhibited comparable antiproliferative and cytokines inhibition activities to those of leaves and petiolesUrsolic acid, a chemical compound of Plantago major, exhibited stronger activities than

  15. Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activities of Some Commercial Essential Oils and Their Major Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Aazza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The commercial essential oils of Citrus aurantium L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L., isolated by steam distillation by a company of Morocco were evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant activity through several methods. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was also determined. Citrus limon (L. Burm. f. oil was also studied, but it was obtained by peel expression. The best antioxidant was T. vulgaris oil, independent of the method used, mainly due to the presence of the phenolic monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol, which when studied as single compounds also presented the best activities. Concerning the acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity, E. globulus was the most effective. Nevertheless its main components 1,8-cineole and limonene were not the most active, a feature that corresponded to d-3-carene.

  16. Identification and compatibility of the major active principles in some new natural origin antiseptics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, G. S.; Zlatković, S.; Nikolić, N.

    2009-09-01

    The newly established instrumentation of HPLC/DAD, FTIR, and NMR techniques have been applied for simultaneous identification and physicochemical compatibility determination of the potential major antiseptic constituents ( Hypericum perforatum L. and Usnea barbata extracts) which can be present in some new origin pharmaceutical preparation. Based on the obtained results the conclusion is that a simultaneous use of the analyzed constituents in production of some new preparations with antiseptic properties is possible. The chromatographic separation of antiseptic mixture was performed on a RP-HPLC C18 column. For the NMR detection, the analytes eluted from LC column were trapped and hereafter transported into the NMR flow-cell. The NMR and FTIR techniques allowed the characterization of the major constituent of Hypericum perforatum L., mainly hypericin, as well as of Usnea barbata, mainly usnic acid.

  17. Analysis of the corporate political activity of major food industry actors in Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Mialon, Melissa Amina Madeline; Swinburn, Boyd; Wate, Jillian; Tukana, Isimeli; Sacks, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality in Fiji, a middle-income country in the Pacific. Some food products processed sold and marketed by the food industry are major contributors to the NCD epidemic, and the food industry is widely identified as having strong economic and political power. However, little research has been undertaken on the attempts by the food industry to influence public health-related policies and programs in its favour. The ?corporat...

  18. In vitro antileishmanial activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis against Leishmania major

    OpenAIRE

    Nosratabadi, Seyyed Jafar; Sharifi, Iraj; Sharififar, Fariba; Bamorovat, Mehdi; Daneshvar, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Pentavalent antimony compounds are expensive, toxic and drug resistance is prevalent, whereas the plant extract derivatives are safe. In the present study, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the promastigotes of Leishmania major was evaluated. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of E. camaldulensis leaves were prepared. The compounds were dried and powdered. Serial dilutions of the extracts and control drugs in phosphate buffer solution were prepared....

  19. Brain activation predicts treatment improvement in patients with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Andrea Christiane; Meisenzahl, Eva; Scheuerecker, Johanna; Rose, Emma; Schoepf, Veronika; Wiesmann, Martin; Frodl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with alterations in brain function that might be useful for therapy evaluation. The current study aimed to identify predictors for therapy improvement and to track functional brain changes during therapy. Twenty-one drug-free patients with MDD underwent functional MRI twice during performance of an emotional perception task: once before and once after 4 weeks of antidepressant treatment (mirtazapine or venlafaxine). Twelve healthy controls were in...

  20. Impact of major and minor mode on EEG frequency range activities of music processing as a function of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Raoul; Oechslin, Mathias S; James, Clara E

    2017-04-24

    Processing western tonal music may yield distinct brain responses depending on the mode of the musical compositions. Although subjective feelings in response to major and minor mode are well described, the underlying brain mechanisms and their development with increasing expertise have not been thoroughly examined. Using high-density electroencephalography, the present study investigated neuronal activities in the frequency domain in response to polyphone musical compositions in major and minor mode in non-musicians, amateurs and experts. During active listening decrease of theta- and gamma-frequency range activities occurred with increasing expertise in right posterior regions, possibly reflecting enhanced processing efficiency. Moreover, minor and major compositions distinctively modulated synchronization of neuronal activities in high frequency ranges (beta and gamma) in frontal regions, with increased activity in response to minor compositions in musicians and in experts in particular. These results suggest that high-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activities carry information about musical mode, showing gradual increase of processing efficiency and sensitivity with musical expertise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The embryonic nucleologenesis during inhibition of major transcriptional activity in bovine preimplantation embryos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalská, M.; Hruška-Plocháň, Marian; Ostrup, O.; Adamkov, M.; Lehotský, J.; Strejček, F.; Statelová, M.; Mikušková, K.; Varga, I.; Petrovičová, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2012), s. 818-825 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : embryonic genome activation * nucleous * gene expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  2. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, H.W. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Hardin, E.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Nelson, P.H. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA)] [eds.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, H.W.; Hardin, E.L.; Nelson, P.H.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs

  4. Identification of Major Phenolic Compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. and Their Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Thitilertdecha, Nont; Teerawutgulrag, Aphiwat; Kilburn, Jeremy D.; Rakariyatham, Nuansri

    2010-01-01

    Nephelium lappaceum is a tropical fruit whose peel possesses antioxidant properties. Experiments on the isolation and identification of the active constituents were conducted, and on their antioxidant activity using a lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The methanolic extract of N. lappaceum peels exhibited strong antioxidant properties. Sephadex LH-20 chromatography was utilized in the isolation of each constituent and the antioxidant properties of each was studied. The isolated compounds w...

  5. Hydroxyl scavenging activity accounts for differential antioxidant protection of Plantago major against oxidative toxicity in isolated rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Joyce C; Guimarães, Natalia S S; Gonzalez, Mariano V D; Paiva, Juliana S; Prieto, Tatiana; Nascimento, Otaciro R; Rodrigues, Tiago

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of P. major against the oxidative damage of isolated rat liver mitochondria. The extracts were obtained using methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EAc), dichloromethane (DCM), and hexane (Hex) as solvents. Hex, DCM, and EAc totally, and MeOH partially, inhibited ROS generation and lipid peroxidation of membranes induced by Fe(2+) or t-BOOH. However, only MeOH was able to prevent the t-BOOH-induced glutathione and NAD(P)H oxidation. All extracts chelated Fe(2+) and reduced DPP Hradicals. EPR analysis revealed that P. major exhibited potent scavenger activity for hydroxyl radicals. The potent antioxidant activity exhibited by P. major was able to prevent oxidative mitochondrial damage, contributing to the understanding of its hepatoprotective action against ROS-mediated toxicity. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. "We Are in This Together": Common Group Identity Predicts Majority Members' Active Acculturation Efforts to Integrate Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Jonas R; Thomsen, Lotte; Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2015-10-01

    Although integration involves a process of mutual accommodation, the role of majority groups is often downplayed to passive tolerance, leaving immigrants with the sole responsibility for active integration. However, we show that common group identity can actively involve majority members in this process across five studies. Study 1 showed that common identity positively predicted support of integration efforts; Studies 2 and 3 extended these findings, showing that it also predicted real behavior such as monetary donations and volunteering. A decrease in modern racism mediated the relations across these studies, and Studies 4 and 5 further demonstrated that it indeed mediated these effects over and above acculturation expectations and color-blindness, which somewhat compromised integration efforts. Moreover, the last two studies also demonstrated that common, but not dual, groups motivated integration efforts. Common identity appears crucial for securing majorities' altruistic efforts to integrate immigrants and, thus, for achieving functional multiculturalism. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity – Part 2: Including solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a particle to serve as a cloud condensation nucleus in the atmosphere is determined by its size, hygroscopicity and its solubility in water. Usually size and hygroscopicity alone are sufficient to predict CCN activity. Single parameter representations for hygroscopicity have been shown to successfully model complex, multicomponent particles types. Under the assumption of either complete solubility, or complete insolubility of a component, it is not necessary to explicitly include that component's solubility into the single parameter framework. This is not the case if sparingly soluble materials are present. In this work we explicitly account for solubility by modifying the single parameter equations. We demonstrate that sensitivity to the actual value of solubility emerges only in the regime of 2×10−1–5×10−4, where the solubility values are expressed as volume of solute per unit volume of water present in a saturated solution. Compounds that do not fall inside this sparingly soluble envelope can be adequately modeled assuming they are either infinitely soluble in water or completely insoluble.

  8. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Quesada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a * was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  9. Activity Patterns during Food Provisioning Are Affected by Artificial Light in Free Living Great Tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titulaer, M.; Spoelstra, K.; Lange, C.Y.M.J.G.; Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major) to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick

  10. Multinational Activities of Major U.S. Automotive Producers : Volume 4. A Preliminary Evaluation of Technology Innovation and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    While the major focus of the present study, as reflected in Volume II, III, and V, has been upon the overseas activities of the four U.S. automobile manufacturers, a supplementary concern has been to develop insights into the flows or transfers of te...

  11. Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titulaer, M.; Spoelstra, K.; Lange, Cynthia; Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major) to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick

  12. Phytochemical components, total phenol and mineral contents and antioxidant activity of six major medicinal plants from Rayen, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomand, Naser; Sadat-Hosseini, Mohammad; Moghbeli, Mojtaba; Farajpour, Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the phytochemical components, minerals, the antioxidant activity and total phenol contents of the essential oil from aerial parts of six major medicinal plants in Rayen, Iran. The plants included Ranunculus arvensis, Teucrium polium, Dracocephalum polychaetum, Kelussia odoratissima, Artemisia sieberi and Thymus kotschyanus. Total phenol content ranged from 0.03 to 0.158 mg/mL. A. sieberi showed the highest radical scavenging ability (IC 50  = 94 μg/mL). The amount of minerals ranged as follows: P (0.23-29%), K (1.08-4.76%), Ca (0.78-2.35%), Mg (0.24-0.94%), Cu (8.3-15 mg/kg), Cd (0.7-1.1 mg/kg), Pb (2-11.7 mg/kg) and Fe (250-1280 mg/kg). A total of 79 compounds were identified across all plants. The main components studied in the plants were l-perillaldehyde, biosol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol, terpinyl acetate and 1,2,3,6,7,7 a-hexahydro-5 h-inden 5-one.

  13. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    The document represents the 1962 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report opens with a section of Highlights of the Atomic Energy Programs of 1962, followed by five parts: Part One, Commission Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Reactor Programs; Part Three, Production and Weapons Programs; Part Four, Other Major Programs; and Part Five, The Regulatory Program. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  14. Zymogen activation and characterization of a major gelatin-cleavage activity localized to the sea urchin extraembryonic matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Lavanya; Rimsay, Robert; Robinson, John J

    2004-12-15

    The hyaline layer (HL) is an apically located extracellular matrix (ECM) which surrounds the sea urchin embryo from the time of fertilization until metamorphosis occurs. While gelatin-cleavage activities were absent from freshly prepared hyaline layers, a dynamic pattern of activities developed in layers incubated at 15 or 37 degrees C in Millipore-filtered sea water (MFSW). Cleavage activities at 90, 55, 41, and 32 kDa were evident following incubation at either temperature. The activation pathway leading to the appearance of these species was examined to determine the minimum salt conditions required for processing and to establish precursor-product relationships. In both qualitative and quantitative assays, the purified 55 kDa gelatinase activity was inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline (a zinc-specific chelator) and ethylenebis (oxyethylenenitrilo) tetraacetic acid (EGTA). Calcium reconstituted the activity of the EGTA-inhibited enzyme with an apparent dissociation constant (calcium) of 1.2 mM. Developmental substrate gel analysis was performed using various stage embryos. The 55 and 32 kDa species comigrated with gelatin-cleavage activities present in sea urchin embryos. Collectively, the results reported here document a zymogen activation pathway which generates a 55 kDa, gelatin-cleaving activity within the extraembryonic HL. This species displayed characteristics of the matrix metalloproteinase class of ECM modifying enzymes. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Kinetic structure of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels suggests that the gating includes transitions through intermediate or secondary states. A mechanism for flickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, B S; Magleby, K L

    1998-06-01

    Mechanisms for the Ca2+-dependent gating of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were developed using two-dimensional analysis of single-channel currents recorded with the patch clamp technique. To extract and display the essential kinetic information, the kinetic structure, from the single channel currents, adjacent open and closed intervals were binned as pairs and plotted as two-dimensional dwell-time distributions, and the excesses and deficits of the interval pairs over that expected for independent pairing were plotted as dependency plots. The basic features of the kinetic structure were generally the same among single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but channel-specific differences were readily apparent, suggesting heterogeneities in the gating. Simple gating schemes drawn from the Monod- Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model for allosteric proteins could approximate the basic features of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. However, consistent differences between the observed and predicted dependency plots suggested that additional brief lifetime closed states not included in MWC-type models were involved in the gating. Adding these additional brief closed states to the MWC-type models, either beyond the activation pathway (secondary closed states) or within the activation pathway (intermediate closed states), improved the description of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. Secondary closed states are consistent with the closing of secondary gates or channel block. Intermediate closed states are consistent with mechanisms in which the channel activates by passing through a series of intermediate conformations between the more stable open and closed states. It is the added secondary or intermediate closed states that give rise to the majority of the brief closings (flickers) in the gating.

  16. Altered insular activation and increased insular functional connectivity during sad and happy face processing in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Connolly, Colm G; Ho, Tiffany C; LeWinn, Kaja Z; Mobayed, Nisreen; Han, Laura; Paulus, Martin P; Wu, Jing; Simmons, Alan N; Yang, Tony T

    2015-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and occurs commonly first during adolescence. The insular cortex (IC) plays an important role in integrating emotion processing with interoception and has been implicated recently in the pathophysiology of adult and adolescent MDD. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the IC in adolescent MDD during processing of faces in the sad-happy continuum. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the IC during sad and happy face processing in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCL). Thirty-one adolescents (22 female) with MDD and 36 (23 female) HCL underwent a well-validated emotional processing fMRI paradigm that included sad and happy face stimuli. The MDD group showed significantly less differential activation of the anterior/middle insular cortex (AMIC) in response to sad versus happy faces compared to the HCL group. AMIC also showed greater functional connectivity with right fusiform gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus in the MDD compared to HCL group. Moreover, differential activation to sad and happy faces in AMIC correlated negatively with depression severity within the MDD group. Small age-range and cross-sectional nature precluded assessment of development of the AMIC in adolescent depression. Given the role of the IC in integrating bodily stimuli with conscious cognitive and emotional processes, our findings of aberrant AMIC function in adolescent MDD provide a neuroscientific rationale for targeting the AMIC in the development of new treatment modalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Dabelsteen, Sally

    2010-01-01

    a modified version of the local lymph node assay. The colour gel and developer (oxidant) were tested separately and in combination. Response was measured by ear swelling and cytokine production in ear tissue and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immune cellular response in the draining lymph......-cell proliferation within the draining lymph nodes. Treatment with the mixture induced at least 20% more skin inflammation, cytokine production and CD4+ T-cell activation compared with the colour gel alone. Conclusions Consumer available PPD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent and rapid immune activators...

  18. Dendritic cells in Leishmania major infections: mechanisms of parasite uptake, cell activation and evidence for physiological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz-Neu, Kordula; Schwonberg, Kirsten; Fischer, Michael R; Schermann, Anja I; von Stebut, Esther

    2012-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide; a vaccine is still not available. Infected dendritic cells (DC) are critical for the initiation of protective Th1 immunity against Leishmania major. Phagocytosis of L. major by DC leads to cell activation, IL-12 release and (cross-) presentation of Leishmania antigens by DC. Here, we review the role of Fcγ receptor- and B cell-mediated processes for parasite internalization by DC. In addition, the early events after parasite inoculation that consist of mast cell activation, parasite uptake by skin-resident macrophages (MΦ), followed by neutrophil and monocyte immigration and DC activation are described. All these events contribute significantly to antigen processing in infected DC and influence resulting T cell priming in vivo. A detailed understanding of the role of DC for the development of efficient anti-Leishmania immunity will aid the development of potent anti-parasite drugs and/or vaccines.

  19. The effects of rotator cuff tears, including shoulders without pain, on activities of daily living in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Osawa, Toshihisa; Shitara, Hitoshi; Ichinose, Tsuyoshi; Takasawa, Eiji; Takagishi, Kenji

    2012-03-01

    Few reports have so far evaluated the possible restrictions of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with asymptomatic rotator cuff tears (RCTs). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of RCTs, including shoulders without pain, on ADL in the general population. We performed medical checkups on 462 individuals (924 shoulders). All participants completed a questionnaire regarding their background and medical history. We then assessed their shoulder functions with the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and performed US (US) examinations of both shoulders to diagnose RCTs. We divided participants into tear and nontear groups and performed statistical analysis to compare total SST scores and each SST item between groups. Furthermore, we performed the same examinations for participants identified as having shoulders without pain. Among participants, those in the tear group showed significantly lower total SST scores than those in the nontear group. After examining each SST item, a significant difference was observed regarding the ability to sleep comfortably and to lift 3.6 kg to shoulder level. In shoulders without pain, the tear group showed significantly lower total SST scores than the nontear group. A significant difference was observed only regarding the ability to lift 3.6 kg to shoulder level. In the general population, ADL were restricted in participants with RCTs; they experienced night pain in the shoulder and muscle weakness during shoulder elevation. Furthermore, participants with RCTs, even if the condition itself did not induce any pain, tended to experience muscle weakness during shoulder elevation, thus resulting in restrictions of ADL.

  20. Poor oral health including active caries in 187 UK professional male football players: clinical dental examination performed by dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Meehan, Lyndon; Petrie, Aviva; Weiler, Richard; McNally, Steve; Ayer, Chris; Hanna, Rob; Hunt, Ian; Kell, Steven; Ridgewell, Paul; Taylor, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The few studies that have assessed oral health in professional/elite football suggest poor oral health with minimal data on impact on performance. The aim of this research was to determine oral health in a representative sample of professional footballers in the UK and investigate possible determinants of oral health and self-reported impact on well-being, training and performance. Clinical oral health examination of senior squad players using standard methods and outcomes carried out at club training facilities. Questionnaire data were also collected. 8 teams were included, 5 Premier League, 2 Championship and 1 League One. 6 dentists examined 187 players who represented >90% of each senior squad. Oral health was poor: 37% players had active dental caries, 53% dental erosion and 5% moderate-severe irreversible periodontal disease. 45% were bothered by their oral health, 20% reported an impact on their quality of life and 7% on training or performance. Despite attendance for dental check-ups, oral health deteriorated with age. This is the first large, representative sample study in professional football. Oral health of professional footballers is poor, and this impacts on well-being and performance. Successful strategies to promote oral health within professional football are urgently needed, and research should investigate models based on best evidence for behaviour change and implementation science. Furthermore, this study provides strong evidence to support oral health screening within professional football. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Serum YKL-40 levels and chitotriosidase activity in patients with beta-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Maria; Caruso, Vincenzo; Medulla, Emilia; Torrisi, Venerando; Migale, Roberta; Angeletti, Silvia; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    YKL-40 association with human disease has been the object of many years of investigation. β-thalassemia patients are affected by hepatic siderosis, which determines a fibrotic process and tissue remodelling. Chitotriosidase has been found to be increased in thalassemic patients returning to normal in patients submitted to bone marrow transplantation. YKL-40 is associated with macrophage activation in liver and in other tissues. The aim of the study was to analyse the level of serum YKL-40 and plasma chitotriosidase activity of patients with beta-thalassemia to assess whether their expression correlates with liver disease and degree of liver siderosis. Expression of YKL-40 and chitotriosidase as a marker of inflammation in 69 thalassemic patients were evaluated. We sought to investigate whether these two chitinases could be considered as a significant biomarker to evaluate therapy effectiveness. Surprisingly we found normal value of YKL-40. We, also, analysed chitotriosidase activity in the same patients that was slightly increased as a consequence of macrophage activation. These data would suggest a good treatment for these patients.

  2. Nutritional status and market activities of female traders in a major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal Series F: Medicine and Health Sciences Vol. 2 No. 1, 2015. Nutritional status and market activities ... Food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain information on the frequency of consumption of foods. Data were analyzed ..... and brain after a night's fast. Skipping of breakfast by the women may mean ...

  3. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH IN DISASTER RESTORATION ACTIVITY AFTER SOME MAJOR EARTHQUAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosawa, Yasuo; Itoh, Kazuya; Kikkawa, Naotaka

    Occupational safety and health in disaster restoration activity following the Great Hanshin Earthquake (1995), Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake (2004), Niigata Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (2007) Great East Japan Earthquake (2011) were analyzed and characterized in order to raise awareness on the risks and hazards in such work. In this scenario, the predominant type of accident is a "fall" which increases mainly due to the fact that labourers are working to repair houses and buildings. On the other hand, landslides were prevalent in the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake, resulting in more accidents occurring during geotechnical works rather than in buildings construction works. In the abnormal conditions that characterize recovery activities, when safety and health measures have a tendency to be neglected, it is important to reinstate adequate measures as soon as possible by carrying out the usial risk assessments.

  4. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil Against Major Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fani, Mohammadmehdi; Kohanteb, Jamshid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of present investigation was to determine antimicrobial activity of Thymus vulgaris oil on some oral pathogens. Thymus vulgaris oil was prepared by hydrodistillation and tested against 30 clinical isolates of each of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, prepared from related oral infections using agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Thymus vulgaris oil at concentrations of 16 to 256 μg/mL exhibited strong inhibitory activity on all clinical isolates producing inhibition zones of 7.5 to 42 mm as measured by agar disk diffusion method. Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus mutans were the most sensitive isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.9 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration values for C albicans, A actinomycetemcomitans, and P gingivalis were 16.3, 32, and 32 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:28397552

  5. Isolation of major components from the roots of Godmania aesculifolia and determination of their antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Vásquez, Víctor; Ríos, María Isabel; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Solano, Godofredo; Zacchino, Susana; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2013-12-01

    From the methanol root extract of Godmania aesculifolia, a species selected in a multinational OAS program aimed at discovering antifungal compounds from Latin American plants, a new chavicol diglycoside (1), the known 3,4-dihydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one (2), and lapachol (3) were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Only 3 exhibited fairly good activity against a panel of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC50 between 7.8 and 31.2 µg/mL) and moderate activities against Candida spp. and non-albicans Candida spp. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and the major components of the essential oil of Plectranthus cylindraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, R G; Fatope, M O; Deadman, M L; Ochei, J E; Al-Saidi, S H

    2007-10-01

    The traditional uses of the aerial parts of fresh Plectranthus cylindraceus by the Dhofaris in Oman were investigated on the basis of antimicrobial properties and composition of its herb oil. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the herb oil of P. cylindraceus against human pathogenic bacteria and yeast were assessed using the broth microdilution method, and the percentage growth inhibition of fungi was determined according to the poisoned food technique. The oil exhibited good activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans with MIC values in the range of 7.8-62.5 microg ml(-1) and also inhibited the growth of Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris sp., Curvularia lunata, Fusarium oxysporum and Stemphylium solani for about a week at 250 microg ml(-1). The two most abundant components of the oil were identified as carvacrol (46.8%) and alpha-terpinolene (18.2%) based on gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. The oil has a pleasant odour and showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Such bioactivity could be attributed in part to carvacrol. This study has demonstrated the broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of the herb oil of P. cylindraceus as well as the organic composition of this plant extract. This study provides scientific insight into the ancient practice of utilizing P. cylindraceus as a fragrant disinfectant.

  7. Activation of the reticulothalamic cholinergic pathway by the major metabolites of aniracetam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Shirane, M

    1999-09-10

    The aim of the study was to further investigate the effects of aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, and its metabolites on the brain cholinergic system. We measured choline acetyltransferase activity and acetylcholine release using in vivo brain microdialysis in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The enzyme activity in the pons-midbrain and hippocampus, and basal acetylcholine release in the nucleus reticularis thalami were lower in SHRSP than in age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats, indicating central cholinergic deficits in SHRSP. Repeated treatment of aniracetam (50 mg/kg p.o. x 11 for 6 days) preferentially increased the enzyme activity in the thalamus, whereas decreased it in the striatum. Among the metabolites of aniracetam, local perfusion of N-anisoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0.1 and/or 1 microM) and p-anisic acid (1 microM) into the nucleus reticularis thalami, dorsal hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of SHRSP produced a significant but delayed increase of acetylcholine release. We failed, however, to find any effect of aniracetam itself. A direct injection of N-anisoyl-GABA (1 nmol) into the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus of SHRSP enhanced the release in the nucleus reticularis thalami. Thus, these data prove that aniracetam can facilitate central cholinergic neurotransmission via both metabolites. Based on its pharmacokinetic profile, N-anisoyl-GABA may contribute to the clinical effects of aniracetam, mainly by acting on the reticulothalamic cholinergic pathway.

  8. Pomegranate peel extract decreases small intestine lipid peroxidation by enhancing activities of major antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Blachier, François; Faure, Patrice; Garrel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Pomegranate peel extract (PPE) contains several compounds with antioxidative properties. PPE added to foods may interact with endogenous antioxidants and promote health. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms by which PPE exerts their actions on tissues of biological systems in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PPE on activities of antioxidant enzymes. Mice were used to investigate the effects of PPE on plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tissue MDA content and activities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the small intestine, liver and skeletal muscle - different tissues involved in the digestion, absorption and metabolism of dietary nutrients. Control mice were fed a standard diet, whereas treated mice were fed for 40 days with the standard diet containing 5% or 10% PPE. Mice fed the 10% PPE diet exhibited lower plasma MDA concentrations, reduced content of MDA in the small intestine and liver and higher levels of SOD1 and GPX activities in the small intestine compared to mice fed the control diet. These findings demonstrate that intake of PPE in diet attenuates small intestine lipid peroxidation and strengthens the first line of small intestine antioxidant defense by enhancing enzymatic antioxidative pathways. PPE is worthy of further study as a therapeutic approach to prevent peroxidative stress-induced gut pathogenesis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.

  10. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  11. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for tourism...

  12. Rumination in major depressive disorder is associated with impaired neural activation during conflict monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Alderman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD often ruminate about past experiences, especially those with negative content. These repetitive thoughts may interfere with cognitive processes related to attention and conflict monitoring. However, the temporal nature of these processes as reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs has not been well described. We examined behavioral and ERP indices of conflict monitoring during a modified flanker task and the allocation of attention during an attentional blink (AB task in 33 individuals with MDD and 36 healthy controls, and whether their behavioral performance and ERPs varied with level of rumination. N2 amplitude elicited by the flanker task was significantly reduced in participants with MDD compared to healthy controls. Level of self-reported rumination was also correlated with N2 amplitude. In contrast, P3 amplitude during the AB task was not significantly different between groups, nor was it correlated with rumination. No significant differences were found in behavioral task performance measures between groups or by rumination levels. These findings suggest that rumination in MDD is associated with select deficits in cognitive control, particularly related to conflict monitoring.

  13. The minor binding pocket: a major player in 7TM receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette Marie; Benned-Jensen, Tau; Frimurer, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    From the deep part of the main ligand-binding crevice, a minor, often shallower pocket extends between the extracellular ends of transmembrane domains (TM)-I, II, III and VII of 7TM receptors. This minor binding pocket is defined by a highly conserved kink in TM-II that is induced by a proline...... residue located in one of two adjacent positions. Here we argue that this minor binding pocket is important for receptor activation. Functional coupling of the receptors seems to be mediated through the hydrogen bond network located between the intracellular segments of these TMs, with the allosteric...

  14. Predicting Active Duty Air Force Pilot Attrition Given an Anticipated Increase in Major Airline Pilot Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    pilots, including PALACE CHASE pilots), the Voluntary Separation Program (379 pilots accepting bonuses for separating early), and the 51 pilots...future. Unlike marital status, the number of children an individual may have in any given year is memory -less. That is, the number is stochastically... memory . It increased the nominal yearly ACP value in FY1998 in response to increased attrition, and then again in FY2000 as it continued to try to

  15. Glycosylation is a major regulator of phenylpropanoid availability and biological activity in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eLe Roy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants is responsible for the biosynthesis of a huge amount of secondary metabolites derived from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Both flavonoids and lignins are synthesized at the end of this very diverse metabolic pathway, as well as many intermediate molecules whose precise biological functions remain largely unknown. The diversity of these molecules can be further increased under the action of UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs leading to the production of glycosylated hydroxycinnamates and related aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Glycosylation can change phenylpropanoid solubility, stability and toxic potential, as well as influencing compartmentalization and biological activity. (De-glycosylation therefore represents an extremely important regulation point in phenylpropanoid homeostasis. In this article we review recent knowledge on the enzymes involved in regulating phenylpropanoid glycosylation status and availability in different subcellular compartments. We also examine the potential link between monolignol glycosylation and lignification by exploring co-expression of lignin biosynthesis genes and phenolic (deglycosylation genes. Of the different biological roles linked with their particular chemical properties, phenylpropanoids are often correlated with the plant's stress management strategies that are also regulated by glycosylation. UGTs can for instance influence the resistance of plants during infection by microorganisms and be involved in the mechanisms related to environmental changes. The impact of flavonoid glycosylation on the colour of flowers, leaves, seeds and fruits will also be discussed. Altogether this paper underlies the fact that glycosylation and deglycosylation are powerful mechanisms allowing plants to regulate phenylpropanoid localisation, availability and biological activity

  16. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity and major fatty acid constituents of Amazonian native flora oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Silva Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to treat hyperpigmentation-related problems, there has been a global trend in developing cosmetics claiming to have skin-whitening properties, which act by inhibiting melanin biosynthesis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of five Amazonian native flora oils, and so to verify the possibility of their incorporation into cosmetic products. In addition, the fatty acid composition of the essential oils was determined by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection in order to determine the main components of these oils. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the tested oils was found to be in the following order: açaí (IA50 = 66.08 µg mL-1 > tucumã > patauá > pracaxi > castanha do Brasil. This study suggests that açaí oil has great potential in the treatment of hyperpigmentation and other related disorders, due to its considerable tyrosinase inhibitory activity.Com o intuito de se tratar problemas dermatológicos de hiperpigmentação, há uma tendência mundial no desenvolvimento de cosméticos que possuam propriedades despigmentantes, os quais agem inibindo a biossíntese de melanina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro a atividade de inibição da tirosinase de cogumelo de cinco óleos de plantas nativas da Amazônia e, desta forma, verificar a possibilidade de sua incorporação em produtos cosméticos. Ainda, a composição de ácidos graxos dos óleos foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização de chama, no intuito de determinar os principais componentes destes óleos. A atividade de inibição da tirosinase dos óleos testados foi encontrada na seguinte ordem: açaí (IA50 = 66,08 µg mL-1 > tucumã > patauá > pracaxi > castanha do Brasil. Este estudo sugere que o óleo de açaí possui grande potencial para o tratamento da hiperpigmentação cutânea e doenças correlatas, devido à sua considerável atividade de inibi

  17. Major factors influencing antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity in grapes and wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Lachman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Jaromír Lachman, Miloslav Šulc, Katerina Faitová, Vladimír PivecDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech RepublicAbstract: Phenolic compounds in wines, especially in red wines, possess strong antioxidant activity, have the largest effect in decreasing atherosclerosis by both hypolipemic and antioxidant mechanisms. The long-term uptake of red wine has a positive impact on antioxidant activity (AA of blood plasma in rats in vivo and increases AA by 15%–20% compared to a control group. In the article the effect of total phenolics (TP, total anthocyanins (TA, individual anthocyanins, procyanidins and phenolics contained in red grapes, musts, grape seeds and skins and wines on the AA is discussed. Significant impact of varieties, viticultural regions and locations, climate conditions and vintage has been shown. Likewise, the ways and individual stages of the vinification technology process, and storage conditions affect color, TP, TA, and AA and health aspects of produced wines. Resveratrol, another free radical scavenger mainly contained in the skins of grapes, inhibits the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Higher amounts of trans-resveratrol (RES have been found in wines from cool and wet climate regions and lesser amounts are typical for warm and dry regions. Changes in the TP content and AA affected by grape variety, vineyard location and winemaking process in white and blue varieties from different vineyards of the Czech Republic were studied. Significant differences in TP among varieties were found. Analysis of variance showed statistically high differences among red and white wines and growing locations. Wines differed significantly in TP content and AA increased significantly during the winemaking process. Statistically significant differences in AA values were found among growing areas, wines and varieties. Significant positive correlations between TP

  18. [Association between the risk of major depression and low physical activity in peruvian workers studying in universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Pérez, Luis; Rojas-Adrianzén, Carolay; Ramos-Torres, Gabriela; Cárdenas-Vicente, Bryan; Hernández-Fernández, Wendy; Larco-Castilla, Piero; Haro-García, Luis; Mezones-Holguín, Edward

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess if an association exists between the risk of major depression (RMD) and physical activity (PA), controlling for demographic and academic variables in workers enrolled in undergraduate studies at a private university in Lima, Peru, we carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,111 people. We used the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to measure RMD and PA, respectively. RMD prevalence was 4.2%. In the multiple regression model adjusted for age, gender, unemployment and hours of sleep, low levels of PA were associated with increased odds of RDM (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.16 to 4.00). We conclude that there is an association between RMD and PA in the study population, independent of demographic and academics factors. Strategies to improve screening and development of longitudinal studies to assess causality are suggested.

  19. Oxytocin-secreting system: A major part of the neuroendocrine center regulating immunologic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Yang, Hai-Peng; Tian, Shujun; Wang, Liwei; Wang, Stephani C; Zhang, Fengmin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2015-12-15

    Interactions between the nervous system and immune system have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms underlying the neural regulation of immune activity, particularly the neuroendocrine regulation of immunologic functions, remain elusive. In this review, we provide a comprehensive examination of current evidence on interactions between the immune system and hypothalamic oxytocin-secreting system. We highlight the fact that oxytocin may have significant effects in the body, beyond its classical functions in lactation and parturition. Similar to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, the oxytocin-secreting system closely interacts with classical immune system, integrating both neurochemical and immunologic signals in the central nervous system and in turn affects immunologic defense, homeostasis, and surveillance. Lastly, this review explores therapeutic potentials of oxytocin in treating immunologic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical Activity Modulates Common Neuroplasticity Substrates in Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mood disorders (MDs) are chronic, recurrent mental diseases that affect millions of individuals worldwide. Although the biogenic amine model has provided some clinical utility, a need remains to better understand the interrelated mechanisms that contribute to neuroplasticity deficits in MDs and the means by which various therapeutics mitigate them. Of those therapeutics being investigated, physical activity (PA) has shown clear and consistent promise. Accordingly, the aims of this review are to (1) explicate key modulators, processes, and interactions that impinge upon multiple susceptibility points to effectuate neuroplasticity deficits in MDs; (2) explore the putative mechanisms by which PA mitigates these features; (3) review protocols used to induce the positive effects of PA in MDs; and (4) highlight implications for clinicians and researchers. PMID:28529805

  1. Determination of major, minor and trace elements in urinary stones by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.M.; Tseng, C.L.; Yang, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    In five kinds of human urinary stones 18 elements have been identified by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). From the results it may be concluded that calcium is the most important initiating cation, magnesium is the second most significant one, and Na, Cl, Sr, Zn, Fe, Br and Co may also play an important role in the stone formation. The results indicate also that ions like Ca, Br and Cu are easily incorporated into the nucleus to form a urate stone: Mg and Sr, into the nucleus to form a magnesium ammonium phosphate stone: and Zn, into the nucleus to form a calcium oxalate combined with apatite stone. The differences in elemental composition among the different kinds of stones as well as across the layers of stones are statistically evaluated. (author)

  2. Elevated RNA Editing Activity Is a Major Contributor to Transcriptomic Diversity in Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Paz-Yaacov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genomic mutations in key genes are known to drive tumorigenesis and have been the focus of much attention in recent years. However, genetic content also may change farther downstream. RNA editing alters the mRNA sequence from its genomic blueprint in a dynamic and flexible way. A few isolated cases of editing alterations in cancer have been reported previously. Here, we provide a transcriptome-wide characterization of RNA editing across hundreds of cancer samples from multiple cancer tissues, and we show that A-to-I editing and the enzymes mediating this modification are significantly altered, usually elevated, in most cancer types. Increased editing activity is found to be associated with patient survival. As is the case with somatic mutations in DNA, most of these newly introduced RNA mutations are likely passengers, but a few may serve as drivers that may be novel candidates for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

  3. In silico and in vitro comparative activity of novel experimental derivatives against Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Adibpour, Neda; Eskandari, Alborz; Rezaee, Saeed; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Rahim, Fakher

    2013-10-01

    This in silico and in vitro comparative study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of some biurets (K1 to K8) and glucantime against Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum promastigotes. Overall, eight experimental ligands and glucantime were docked using AutoDock 4.3 program into the active sites of Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum pteridine reductase 1, which were modeled using homology modeling programs. The colorimetric MTT assay was used to find L. major and L. infantum promastigotes viability at different concentrations of biuret derivatives in a concentration and time-dependent manner and the obtained results were expressed as 50% and 90% of inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀ and IC₉₀). In silico method showed that out of eight experimental ligands, four compounds were more active on pteridine reductase 1. K3 was the most active against L. major promastigotes with an IC₅₀ of 6.8 μM and an IC₉₀ of 40.2 μM, whereas for L. infantum promastigotes was K8 with IC₅₀ of 7.8 μM. The phenylethyl derivative (K7) showed less toxicity (IC₅₀s>60 μM) in both Leishmania strains. Glucantime displayed less growth inhibition in concentration of about 20 μM. In silico and especially docking results in a recent study were in accordance with the in vitro activity of these compounds in presented study and compound K3, K2 and K8 showed reasonable levels of selectivity for the Leishmania pteridine reductase 1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex-related differences in sleep slow wave activity in major depressive disorder: a high-density EEG investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plante David T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbance plays an important role in major depressive disorder (MDD. Prior investigations have demonstrated that slow wave activity (SWA during sleep is altered in MDD; however, results have not been consistent across studies, which may be due in part to sex-related differences in SWA and/or limited spatial resolution of spectral analyses. This study sought to characterize SWA in MDD utilizing high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG to examine the topography of SWA across the cortex in MDD, as well as sex-related variation in SWA topography in the disorder. Methods All-night recordings with 256 channel hdEEG were collected in 30 unipolar MDD subjects (19 women and 30 age and sex-matched control subjects. Spectral analyses of SWA were performed to determine group differences. SWA was compared between MDD and controls, including analyses stratified by sex, using statistical non-parametric mapping to correct for multiple comparisons of topographic data. Results As a group, MDD subjects demonstrated significant increases in all-night SWA primarily in bilateral prefrontal channels. When stratified by sex, MDD women demonstrated global increases in SWA relative to age-matched controls that were most consistent in bilateral prefrontal regions; however, MDD men showed no significant differences relative to age-matched controls. Further analyses demonstrated increased SWA in MDD women was most prominent in the first portion of the night. Conclusions Women, but not men with MDD demonstrate significant increases in SWA in multiple cortical areas relative to control subjects. Further research is warranted to investigate the role of SWA in MDD, and to clarify how increased SWA in women with MDD is related to the pathophysiology of the disorder.

  5. Safety of a novel parenteral formulation of diclofenac after major orthopedic or abdominal/pelvic surgery in a population including anticoagulated, elderly or renally insufficient patients: an open-label, multiday, repeated dose clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelly, Jacques E; Singla, Sonia K; Melson, Timothy I; Lacouture, Peter G; Paadre, Susan; Carr, Daniel B

    2013-05-01

    Decisions to use or avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for postsurgical pain are often influenced by concerns about bleeding and renal adverse effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of a novel parenteral NSAID, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) diclofenac, in a large postsurgical patient population, with particular focus on bleeding and renal effects. This was a large open-label study in adult patients with acute moderate-to-severe pain following major surgery. Patients received ≥2 days of continuous treatment with HPβCD diclofenac, administered as a small-volume bolus injection every 6 hours. Few exclusion criteria were applied in order to reflect surgical patient populations commonly managed in clinical practice. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. The incidences of bleeding- and renal-related AEs were examined in patient subpopulations with known risk factors for NSAID-induced complications: advanced age, pre-existing renal insufficiency, concomitant anticoagulant use, prolonged exposure, elevated dosage, and major surgeries. Of the total 971 patients studied, 38% were ≥65 years old (12% >75 years), 62% received concomitant anticoagulants, and 6% had pre-existing renal insufficiency. HPβCD diclofenac was well tolerated by the patient population. AE rates are presented by risk factor to enable clinicians to better describe renal- or bleeding-related AEs. In addition to its previously demonstrated efficacy, this study provides evidence of HPβCD diclofenac's safety in a large postsurgical population including anticoagulated, elderly or renally insufficient patients. Because study exclusion criteria were minimal, these findings may be broadly generalizable to populations commonly treated in clinical practice. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Nile valley of Egypt: A major active graben that magnifies seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Sayed, A.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-08-01

    The Nile valley and the Nile delta are part of the active rift that is probably connected with the Red Sea tectonism. This zone is characterized by small to moderate size earthquakes that have caused extremely severe damage to recent and historical constructions. The most vulnerable area along the Nile valley is the one of Cairo-Faiyoum. Small local and large distant earthquakes could be a source of huge socio-economic damage in this area. The loose soft alluvial sediments of the Nile Canyon are the main factors behind this potential damage because they may greatly amplify the ground motion, as demonstrated by strong ground motion modelling. The largest amplification is generally concentrated along the edges of the graben and occurs at frequencies between 1 Hz and 2 Hz. This may explain the huge damage caused by distant earthquakes during recent and historical times. The distribution of intensity values during the events of 1926 and 1992 is well correlated with the modelled spatial distribution of the spectral amplification. (author)

  7. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and the Major Polyphenol in Leaf Extract of Mangifera indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masibo, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of plant extracts as antimicrobials has recently gained wide attention over the continued use of synthetic antibiotics. In this work, Chinese mango leaves were subjected to different extraction regimes namely decoction (50 °C for 48 h and boiling for 3 h and solvent extraction (50% ethanolic solution at 62 °C for 1 h. The extract solutions were lyophilized yielding 24–26% powdered extracts that were used for the antimicrobial tests against four pathogenic (Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and two generally regarded as safe (Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus microbial strains. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by inhibition diameters which were found to range from 9–15.5 mm for the three extracts against all the bacterial strains tested and inhibition growth curves which showed the extracts as first acting within the first 20 min after which a steady state (bacteriostatic was attained and maintained throughout the testing time (360 min with a significant difference (p<0.05 from the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the extracts were later determined by two fold serial dilutions method and they ranged from 36.2–18.2 mg/mL against all the strains. The extracts were then subjected to reversed-phase HPLC to identify and quantify the polyphenol mangiferin which was found to be the abundant compound in the extracts at 100 μg/mL with no significant difference (p<0.05 in quantity among the three extracts.

  8. Effects of rosemary, thyme and lemongrass oils and their major constituents on detoxifying enzyme activity and insecticidal activity in Trichoplusia ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Jovel, Eduardo; Isman, Murray B

    2017-08-01

    Although there have been many reports on the synergistic interactions among the major constituents of plant essential oils regarding insecticidal activity, their underlying mechanism of synergy is poorly understood. In our previous studies, we found each of the two most abundant constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) essential oils can be synergistic against the larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni at their natural proportion or equivalent blending ratios. In the present study, we investigated whether the enhanced toxicity between the major constituents could be the result of inhibited enzyme activity of cytochrome P450s, general esterases or glutathione S-transferases which are highly related to the development of insecticide resistance. Overall, although some combinations showed mild inhibitory activity, at least for these essential oils and their major constituents, inhibition of detoxication enzyme activity is unlikely to be a direct cause of increased toxicity in the cabbage looper. The results point to other factors, such as multiple modes-of-action or enhanced penetration through the cuticular layer, playing important roles in the elevated insecticidal activity. Moreover, application of enzyme inhibitors sometimes resulted in decreased activity when mixed with the target compounds, but these antagonistic interactions disappeared when they were applied separately, suggesting that the enzyme inhibitors can sometimes influence the penetrations of toxicants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Activities related to the prevention of climatic change in some major urban areas of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    1990-12-01

    After a perspective on the need for action to prevent and prepare for global warming, and the potential consequences of inaction on North American communities, local and regional government perspectives are presented on the response to global warming in Chicago, Los Angeles, Montreal, New York, and Toronto. It is seen that local government and its agencies in these urban areas are little touched by the profound dangers to human existence posed by the continued release into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases. Explanations are offered for the apparent unwillingness to act, including ignorance and confusion about the greenhouse effect and global warming, unpalatable socio-economic and political costs of remedial action, a perception that global warming is not the responsibility of local governments, and a perception that cities are sources of environmental degradation rather than solutions to it. It is suggested that city living results in less overall atmospheric degradation than a suburban sprawl scenario, notably with regard to transportation. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Antimicrobial (including antimollicutes, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Brazilian and Spanish marine organisms – evaluation of extracts and pure compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverson Miguel Bianco

    Full Text Available Abstract This work describes the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities in vitro of organic extracts from fourteen seaweeds, eleven sponges, two ascidians, one bryozoan, and one sea anemone species collected along the Brazilian and Spanish coast, as well as the isolation of the diterpene (4R, 9S, 14S-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15,7-diene (1 and halogenated sesquiterpene elatol (2. The most promising antimicrobial results for cell wall bacteria were obtained by extracts from seaweeds Laurencia dendroidea and Sargassum vulgare var. nanun (MIC 250 μg/ml, and by the bryozoan Bugula neritina (MIC 62.5 μg/ml, both against Staphylococcus aureus. As for antimollicutes, extracts from seaweeds showed results better than the extracts from invertebrates. Almost all seaweeds assayed (92% exhibited some antimicrobial activity against mollicutes strains (Mycoplasma hominis,Mycoplasma genitalium,Mycoplasma capricolum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain FH. From these seaweeds, A1 (Canistrocarpus cervicornis, A11 (Gracilaria sp. and A4 (Lobophora variegata showed the best results for M. pneumoniae strain FH (MIC 250 μg/ml. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were also assayed against mollicutes strains M. hominis,M. genitalium,M. capricolum,M. pneumoniae strain 129 and M. pneumoniae strain FH, which showed MIC > 100 μg/ml. Antioxidant activities of extracts from these marine organisms were inactive, except for E7 (from sponge Ircinia sp., which exhibited moderated antioxidant activities for two methods assayed (IC50 83.0 ± 0.1 μg/ml, and 52.0 ± 0.8 mg AA/g, respectively. Finally, for the anticholinesterase activity, all the 29 samples evaluated (100% exhibited some level of activity, with IC50 < 1000 μg/ml. From these, seaweeds extracts were considered more promising than marine invertebrate extracts [A10 (IC50 14.4 ± 0.1 μg/ml, A16 (IC50 16.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml and A8 (IC50 14.9 ± 0.5 μg/ml]. The findings of this work are useful

  11. Research on Chemical Composition and Biological Properties Including Antiquorum Sensing Activity of Angelica pancicii Vandas Aerial Parts and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileski, Ksenija S; Trifunović, Snežana S; Ćirić, Ana D; Šakić, Željana M; Ristić, Mihailo S; Todorović, Nina M; Matevski, Vlado S; Marin, Petar D; Tešević, Vele V; Džamić, Ana M

    2017-12-20

    The essential oil, different extracts, and isolated compounds of Angelica pancicii Vandas (Apiaceae) were investigated for the first time. The GC-FID and GC-MS analyses revealed sesquiterpenoids as the main constituents of A. pancicii essential oil of aerial parts with bornyl acetate (8.08%), n-octanol (5.82%), kessane (4.26%), and β-selinene (4.26%) as the main constituents. Analysis of methanol extracts, using an HPLC-DAD/ESI-ToF-MS system, showed a total of 52 compounds in the aerial parts and 53 in the roots, indicating coumarins as the main constituents. In addition, new chromone (1) and six known furanocoumarins (2-7) were isolated from the roots and structurally elucidated by combined spectroscopic methods. The aerial part extracts exhibited higher polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity evaluated by three radical scavenging assays. Using a microwell dilution method, the strongest antibacterial activity profiles were determined for ethanol and methanol root extracts (minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) = 0.25-3.00 mg/mL), which were comparable to the activity of streptomycin (MBCs = 0.34-1.24 mg/mL), while the strongest antibacterial compound of A. pancicii was oxypeucedanin hydrate (MBCs = 0.50-8.00 mg/mL). Antifungal potential was in moderate extent, and the highest activity was obtained for root methanol extract (minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) = 4.00-14.00 mg/mL). Tested sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of the extracts and isolated compounds inhibited selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 virulence determinants. The most reduced growth of P. aeruginosa colony was in the presence of isolated oxypeucedanin. Ethanol (17.36-46.98%) and methanol (34.54-52.43%) root extracts showed higher anti-biofilm activity compared to streptomycin (49.40-88.36%) and ampicillin (56.46-92.16%).

  12. A time-driven, activity-based costing methodology for determining the costs of red blood cell transfusion in patients with beta thalassaemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K E; Haysom, H E; Higgins, A M; Waters, N; Tahiri, R; Rushford, K; Dunstan, T; Saxby, K; Kaplan, Z; Chunilal, S; McQuilten, Z K; Wood, E M

    2018-04-10

    To describe the methodology to estimate the total cost of administration of a single unit of red blood cells (RBC) in adults with beta thalassaemia major in an Australian specialist haemoglobinopathy centre. Beta thalassaemia major is a genetic disorder of haemoglobin associated with multiple end-organ complications and typically requiring lifelong RBC transfusion therapy. New therapeutic agents are becoming available based on advances in understanding of the disorder and its consequences. Assessment of the true total cost of transfusion, incorporating both product and activity costs, is required in order to evaluate the benefits and costs of these new therapies. We describe the bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing methodology used to develop process maps to provide a step-by-step outline of the entire transfusion pathway. Detailed flowcharts for each process are described. Direct observations and timing of the process maps document all activities, resources, staff, equipment and consumables in detail. The analysis will include costs associated with performing these processes, including resources and consumables. Sensitivity analyses will be performed to determine the impact of different staffing levels, timings and probabilities associated with performing different tasks. Thirty-one process maps have been developed, with over 600 individual activities requiring multiple timings. These will be used for future detailed cost analyses. Detailed process maps using bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing for determining the cost of RBC transfusion in thalassaemia major have been developed. These could be adapted for wider use to understand and compare the costs and complexities of transfusion in other settings. © 2018 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Recombinant Activated Factor VII (rFVIIa in the Management of Major Obstetric Haemorrhage: A Case Series and a Proposed Guideline for Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Bomken

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Major obstetric haemorrhage remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous case reports suggest the potential benefit of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa: NovoSevenR as a haemostatic agent. We performed a retrospective review of the use of rVIIa in major obstetric haemorrhage in the Northern Region between July 2004 and February 2007. Fifteen women received rFVIIa. The median patient age was 34 years. Major haemorrhage occurred antepartum (5 patients, intrapartum (1, and postpartum (9. All women received an initial dose of 90 mcg/kg rFVIIa and one received 2 further doses. Bleeding stopped or decreased in 12 patients (80%. Additional measures included antifibrinolytic and uterotonic agents, Rusch balloon insertion, uterine curettage/packing, and vessel embolisation. Eight patients required hysterectomy. All women survived to discharge from hospital. No adverse events, including thrombosis, were recorded. This study provides further support for the safety and efficacy of rFVIIa as adjunct therapy in major obstetric haemorrhage.

  14. Extended automated separation techniques in destructive neutron activation analysis; application to various biological materials, including human tissues and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Houtman, J.P.W.

    1976-09-01

    Neutron activation analysis may be performed as a multi-element and low-level technique for many important trace elements in biological materials, provided that post-irradiation chemical separations are applied. This paper describes a chemical separation consisting of automated procedures for destruction, distillation, and anion-chromatography. The system developed enables the determination of 14 trace elements in biological materials, viz. antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. The aspects of sample preparation, neutron irradiation, gamma-spectrum evaluation, and blank-value contribution are also discussed

  15. Agglutinating activity and structural characterization of scalarin, the major egg protein of the snail Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1832.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ituarte

    Full Text Available Apple snail perivitellins are emerging as ecologically important reproductive proteins. To elucidate if the protective functions of the egg proteins of Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae, involved in embryo defenses, are present in other Pomacea species we studied scalarin (PsSC, the major perivitellin of Pomacea scalaris. Using small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy and biochemical methods, we analyzed PsSC structural stability, agglutinating activity, sugar specificity and protease resistance. PsSC aggluttinated rabbit, and, to a lesser extent, human B and A erythrocytes independently of divalent metals Ca(2+ and Mg(2+ were strongly inhibited by galactosamine and glucosamine. The protein was structurally stable between pH 2.0 to 10.0, though agglutination occurred only between pH 4.0 to 8.0 (maximum activity at pH 7.0. The agglutinating activity was conserved up to 60 °C and completely lost above 80 °C, in agreement with the structural thermal stability of the protein (up to 60 °C. PsSC was able to withstand in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and showed no trypsin inhibition activity. The presence of lectin activity has been reported in eggs of other Pomacea snails, but here we link for the first time, this activity to an apple snail multifunctional perivitellin. This novel role for a snail egg storage protein is different from closely related P.canaliculata defensive proteins.

  16. Agglutinating activity and structural characterization of scalarin, the major egg protein of the snail Pomacea scalaris (d'Orbigny, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Santiago; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Ceolin, Marcelo; Heras, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Apple snail perivitellins are emerging as ecologically important reproductive proteins. To elucidate if the protective functions of the egg proteins of Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), involved in embryo defenses, are present in other Pomacea species we studied scalarin (PsSC), the major perivitellin of Pomacea scalaris. Using small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy and biochemical methods, we analyzed PsSC structural stability, agglutinating activity, sugar specificity and protease resistance. PsSC aggluttinated rabbit, and, to a lesser extent, human B and A erythrocytes independently of divalent metals Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were strongly inhibited by galactosamine and glucosamine. The protein was structurally stable between pH 2.0 to 10.0, though agglutination occurred only between pH 4.0 to 8.0 (maximum activity at pH 7.0). The agglutinating activity was conserved up to 60 °C and completely lost above 80 °C, in agreement with the structural thermal stability of the protein (up to 60 °C). PsSC was able to withstand in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and showed no trypsin inhibition activity. The presence of lectin activity has been reported in eggs of other Pomacea snails, but here we link for the first time, this activity to an apple snail multifunctional perivitellin. This novel role for a snail egg storage protein is different from closely related P.canaliculata defensive proteins.

  17. Agglutinating Activity and Structural Characterization of Scalarin, the Major Egg Protein of the Snail Pomacea scalaris (d’Orbigny, 1832)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Santiago; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Ceolin, Marcelo; Heras, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Apple snail perivitellins are emerging as ecologically important reproductive proteins. To elucidate if the protective functions of the egg proteins of Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), involved in embryo defenses, are present in other Pomacea species we studied scalarin (PsSC), the major perivitellin of Pomacea scalaris. Using small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy and biochemical methods, we analyzed PsSC structural stability, agglutinating activity, sugar specificity and protease resistance. PsSC aggluttinated rabbit, and, to a lesser extent, human B and A erythrocytes independently of divalent metals Ca2+ and Mg2+ were strongly inhibited by galactosamine and glucosamine. The protein was structurally stable between pH 2.0 to 10.0, though agglutination occurred only between pH 4.0 to 8.0 (maximum activity at pH 7.0). The agglutinating activity was conserved up to 60°C and completely lost above 80°C, in agreement with the structural thermal stability of the protein (up to 60°C). PsSC was able to withstand in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and showed no trypsin inhibition activity. The presence of lectin activity has been reported in eggs of other Pomacea snails, but here we link for the first time, this activity to an apple snail multifunctional perivitellin. This novel role for a snail egg storage protein is different from closely related P.canaliculata defensive proteins. PMID:23185551

  18. The association of pre-operative physical fitness and physical activity with outcome after scheduled major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, J J; Chorus, A M J; van Meeteren, N L U; Hopman-Rock, M

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether reported physical activity and measurements of fitness (hand, leg and inspiration) were associated with postoperative in-hospital mortality, length of stay and discharge destination in 169 patients after major oncological abdominal surgery. In multivariate analysis, adequate activity level (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.4-21.9) and inspiratory muscle endurance (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.4-19.1) were independently associated with short-term mortality, whereas conventional factors, such as age and heart disease, were not. Adequate activity level (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.4-3.0) was also independently associated with discharge destination. The factors that were independently associated with a shorter length of hospital stay were as follows: absence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1); adequate activity level (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8); and inspiratory muscle strength (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.9). For all postoperative outcomes physical activity and fitness significantly improved the predictive value compared with known risk factors, such as age and comorbidities. We conclude that pre-operative questionnaires of physical activity and measurements of fitness contribute to the prediction of postoperative outcomes. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Anti-apoptotic BFL-1 is the major effector in activation-induced human mast cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ekoff

    Full Text Available Mast cells are best known for their role in allergic reactions, where aggregation of FcεRI leads to the release of mast cell mediators causing allergic symptoms. The activation also induces a survival program in the cells, i.e., activation-induced mast cell survival. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the activation-induced survival is mediated. Cord blood-derived mast cells and the mast cell line LAD-2 were activated through FcεRI crosslinking, with or without addition of chemicals that inhibit the activity or expression of selected Bcl-2 family members (ABT-737; roscovitine. Cell viability was assessed using staining and flow cytometry. The expression and function of Bcl-2 family members BFL-1 and MCL-1 were investigated using real-time quantitative PCR and siRNA treatment. The mast cell expression of Bfl-1 was investigated in skin biopsies. FcεRI crosslinking promotes activation-induced survival of human mast cells and this is associated with an upregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bfl-1. ABT-737 alone or in combination with roscovitine decreases viability of human mast cells although activation-induced survival is sustained, indicating a minor role for Bcl-X(L, Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1. Reducing BFL-1 but not MCL-1 levels by siRNA inhibited activation-induced mast cell survival. We also demonstrate that mast cell expression of Bfl-1 is elevated in birch-pollen-provocated skin and in lesions of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Taken together, our results highlight Bfl-1 as a major effector in activation-induced human mast cell survival.

  20. The in vitro antifungal activity of sudanese medicinal plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the eumycetoma major causative agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassabelrasoul Elfadil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by low cure rate and high recurrence rates. Hence, an alternative therapy is needed to address this. Here we determined the antifungal activity of seven Sudanese medicinal plant species against Madurella mycetomatis. Of these, only three species; Boswellia papyrifera, Acacia nubica and Nigella sativa, showed some antifungal activity against M. mycetomatis and were further studied. Crude methanol, hexane and defatted methanol extracts of these species were tested for their antifungal activity. B. papyrifera had the highest antifungal activity (MIC50 of 1 ug/ml and it was further fractionated. The crude methanol and the soluble ethyl acetate fractions of B. papyrifera showed some antifungal activity. The Gas-Liquid-Chromatography hybrid Mass-Spectrophotometer analysis of these two fractions showed the existence of beta-amyrin, beta-amyrone, beta-Sitosterol and stigmatriene. Stigmatriene had the best antifungal activity, compared to other three phytoconstituents, with an MIC-50 of 32 μg/ml. Although the antifungal activity of the identified phytoconstituents was only limited, the antifungal activity of the complete extracts is more promising, indicating synergism. Furthermore these plant extracts are also known to have anti-inflammatory activity and can stimulate wound-healing; characteristics which might also be of great value in the development of novel therapeutic drugs for this chronic inflammatory disease. Therefore further exploration of these plant species in the treatment of mycetoma is encouraging.

  1. Age-related changes in trunk neuromuscular activation patterns during a controlled functional transfer task include amplitude and temporal synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (pactivity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of two major chromenes from Melicope lunu-ankenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anil J; Kumar R, Arun; Rasheed, Sherin A; Chandrika, Sreeja P; Chandrasekhar, Arun; Baby, Sabulal; Subramoniam, Appian

    2010-07-20

    Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T.G. Hartley is used in Indian traditional medicine for fever, improving complexion and as a tonic. Previous studies have isolated fungicidal, antifeedant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds from Melicope lunu-ankenda. This study is aimed at the isolation and biological activity screening of potential molecules from the volatile oils and extracts of Melicope lunu-ankenda in the light of traditional applications. Volatile oil of Melicope lunu-ankenda leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-FID, GC-MS, LRI determination, Co-GC and database searches. Major chromene-type compounds in Melicope lunu-ankenda leaf oil, evodione and leptonol, were isolated by preparative TLC and characterized by UV-Vis, IR, 1H-, 13C-, 13C-DEPT NMR and EIMS. They were also isolated from the petroleum ether and acetone extracts of the leaves of Melicope lunu-ankenda by column chromatography in petroleum ether-ethyl acetate. Their contents in leaf oil, leaf and inflorescence extracts were estimated by HPTLC. Antipyretic (Baker's yeast-induced fever test), analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion assays), anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema) and in vitro antioxidant (DPPH radical, superoxide radical scavenging) activities of evodione and leptonol were tested. Gas chromatographic analyses found 50.7% monoterpene hydrocarbons, 0.4% oxygenated monoterpenes, 3.2% sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 0.7% oxygenated sesquiterpenes and 43.7% chromene-type compounds in Melicope lunu-ankenda leaf oil, with evodione (20.2%) and leptonol (22.5%) as its two major constituents. HPTLC estimations in the petroleum ether, acetone extracts (leaf, inflorescence) and leaf oil found evodione 1.0% (dr. wt., leaf), 1.1% (inflorescence), 0.04% (fr. wt. leaves, leaf oil), and leptonol 0.3% (leaf), 0.3% (inflorescence) and 0.04% (leaf oil). Leptonol (200 mg/kg) showed good antipyretic activity. DPPH radical scavenging assay found

  3. Suicides and Suicide Attempts during Long-Term Treatment with Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Placebo-Controlled Studies Including 6,934 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Cora; Bschor, Tom; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    It is unclear whether antidepressants can prevent suicides or suicide attempts, particularly during long-term use. We carried out a comprehensive review of long-term studies of antidepressants (relapse prevention). Sources were obtained from 5 review articles and by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed Central and a hand search of bibliographies. We meta-analyzed placebo-controlled antidepressant RCTs of at least 3 months' duration and calculated suicide and suicide attempt incidence rates, incidence rate ratios and Peto odds ratios (ORs). Out of 807 studies screened 29 were included, covering 6,934 patients (5,529 patient-years). In total, 1.45 suicides and 2.76 suicide attempts per 1,000 patient-years were reported. Seven out of 8 suicides and 13 out of 14 suicide attempts occurred in antidepressant arms, resulting in incidence rate ratios of 5.03 (0.78-114.1; p = 0.102) for suicides and of 9.02 (1.58-193.6; p = 0.007) for suicide attempts. Peto ORs were 2.6 (0.6-11.2; nonsignificant) and 3.4 (1.1-11.0; p = 0.04), respectively. Dropouts due to unknown reasons were similar in the antidepressant and placebo arms (9.6 vs. 9.9%). The majority of suicides and suicide attempts originated from 1 study, accounting for a fifth of all patient-years in this meta-analysis. Leaving out this study resulted in a nonsignificant incidence rate ratio for suicide attempts of 3.83 (0.53-91.01). Therapists should be aware of the lack of proof from RCTs that antidepressants prevent suicides and suicide attempts. We cannot conclude with certainty whether antidepressants increase the risk for suicide or suicide attempts. Researchers must report all suicides and suicide attempts in RCTs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Meng, Linglong; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Lu, Zhongming; Crittenden, John

    2015-10-08

    Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease) along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = -0.8267, p = 0.0017) and CAT (r = -0.89, p = 0.0002) activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants.

  5. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Heather L; Haron, Mona H; Pugh, Nirmal D; Zhang, Jin; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-10-12

    Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present within edible and medicinal mushrooms substantially contribute to the innate immune stimulating potential of these mushrooms. Whole mushrooms from thirteen types of edible fungi and individual parts from Agaricus bisporus were analyzed for in vitro macrophage activation as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) content, cell load, and community composition. Substantial variation between samples was observed in macrophage activation (over 500-fold), total bacterial load (over 200-fold), and LPS content (over 10 million-fold). Both LPS content (ρ = 0.832, p mushroom extracts. Extract activity was negated by treatment with NaOH, conditions that inactivate LPS and other bacterial components. Significant correlations between macrophage activation and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.723, p = 0.0001) and LPS content (ρ = 0.951, p mushroom associated bacteria contribute substantially to the innate immune enhancing activity exhibited by mushrooms and may result in similar therapeutic actions as reported for ingestion of bacterial preparations such as probiotics.

  6. Reduced capacity to sustain positive emotion in major depression reflects diminished maintenance of fronto-striatal brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Aaron S; Johnstone, Tom; Shackman, Alexander J; Light, Sharee N; Peterson, Michael J; Kolden, Gregory G; Kalin, Ned H; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-12-29

    Anhedonia, the loss of pleasure or interest in previously rewarding stimuli, is a core feature of major depression. While theorists have argued that anhedonia reflects a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, evidence is mixed as to whether anhedonia is caused by a reduction in hedonic capacity. An alternative explanation is that anhedonia is due to the inability to sustain positive affect across time. Using positive images, we used an emotion regulation task to test whether individuals with depression are unable to sustain activation in neural circuits underlying positive affect and reward. While up-regulating positive affect, depressed individuals failed to sustain nucleus accumbens activity over time compared with controls. This decreased capacity was related to individual differences in self-reported positive affect. Connectivity analyses further implicated the fronto-striatal network in anhedonia. These findings support the hypothesis that anhedonia in depressed patients reflects the inability to sustain engagement of structures involved in positive affect and reward.

  7. Default-mode and task-positive network activity in major depressive disorder: implications for adaptive and maladaptive rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J Paul; Furman, Daniella J; Chang, Catie; Thomason, Moriah E; Dennis, Emily; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-08-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated reliably with ruminative responding; this kind of responding is composed of both maladaptive and adaptive components. Levels of activity in the default-mode network (DMN) relative to the task-positive network (TPN), as well as activity in structures that influence DMN and TPN functioning, may represent important neural substrates of maladaptive and adaptive rumination in MDD. We used a unique metric to estimate DMN dominance over TPN from blood oxygenation level-dependent data collected during eyes-closed rest in 17 currently depressed and 17 never-disordered adults. We calculated correlations between this metric of DMN dominance over TPN and the depressive, brooding, and reflective subscales of the Ruminative Responses Scale, correcting for associations between these measures both with one another and with severity of depression. Finally, we estimated and compared across groups right fronto-insular cortex (RFIC) response during initiations of ascent in DMN and in TPN activity. In the MDD participants, increasing levels of DMN dominance were associated with higher levels of maladaptive, depressive rumination and lower levels of adaptive, reflective rumination. Moreover, our RFIC state-change analysis showed increased RFIC activation in the MDD participants at the onset of increases in TPN activity; conversely, healthy control participants exhibited increased RFIC response at the onset of increases in DMN activity. These findings support a formulation in which the DMN undergirds representation of negative, self-referential information in depression, and the RFIC, when prompted by increased levels of DMN activity, initiates an adaptive engagement of the TPN. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilization of Neutron Activation Analysis for geochemical study of major and trace elements in Bouregreg river basin (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouira, H.; Bounakhla, M.; Embarch, K.; Choukri, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.; Treuil, M.; Chakiri, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Bouregreg river basin is located in the moroccan central massif which consists mainly of palaeozoic formations that were subject to the Hercynian orogeny. This study documents the backround geochemistry and hydrochemistry of the Bouregreg river basin, focusing on the distribution of major and trace elements, Rock samples were collected at 9 locations along the bouregreg river and its tributaries in the winter of 2005. Major (Al, fe, Mn, Na, K and Ti) and trace (Rb, Cs, Sr, Sc, Ba, Cr, V, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Sb, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Mo, Th and U) elements were anlysed using instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Data show that most of the geochemistry and hydrochemistry are related to regional and local geology. the geochemical heritage of geological environment in the Bouregreg river basin is very important, that results from the more compatible behaviour and the inertia of some elements during the weathering (3d transition elements (Co, Ni, Cr,...), interne transition elements f (lanthanides, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta,...)). The geochemical homogeneity of the basin shows also heritage during the crustal accretion (magmatism-metamorphism-sedimention) and the typology of this continental area is the same that the Upper Continental Crust (UCC). Some anomalously high heavy metal analyses, particulary for As and Sb, may be related to anthropogenic activities

  9. Tigecycline Nonsusceptibility Occurs Exclusively in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates, Including the Major Multidrug-Resistant Lineages O25b:H4-ST131-H30R and O1-ST648.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toyotaka; Suzuki, Yuuki; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Honda, Hiroyuki; Shinagawa, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Takahashi, Hiroki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Tamura, Yutaka; Yokota, Shin-Ichi

    2017-02-01

    Tigecycline (TGC) is a last-line drug for multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae We investigated the mechanism(s) underlying TGC nonsusceptibility (TGC resistant/intermediate) in Escherichia coli clinical isolates. The MIC of TGC was determined for 277 fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (ciprofloxacin [CIP] MIC, fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (CIP MIC, >2 mg/liter). The MIC 50 and MIC 90 for TGC in fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were 2-fold higher than those in fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (MIC 50 , 0.5 mg/liter versus 0.25 mg/liter; MIC 90 , 1 mg/liter versus 0.5 mg/liter, respectively). Two fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (O25b:H4-ST131-H30R and O125:H37-ST48) were TGC resistant (MICs of 4 and 16 mg/liter, respectively), and four other isolates of O25b:H4-ST131-H30R and an isolate of O1-ST648 showed an intermediate interpretation (MIC, 2 mg/liter). No TGC-resistant/intermediate strains were found among the fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates. The TGC-resistant/intermediate isolates expressed higher levels of acrA and acrB and had lower intracellular TGC concentrations than susceptible isolates, and they possessed mutations in acrR and/or marR The MICs of acrAB-deficient mutants were markedly lower (0.25 mg/liter) than those of the parental strain. After continuous stepwise exposure to CIP in vitro, six of eight TGC-susceptible isolates had reduced TGC susceptibility. Two of them acquired TGC resistance (TGC MIC, 4 mg/liter) and exhibited expression of acrA and acrB and mutations in acrR and/or marR In conclusion, a population of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli isolates, including major extraintestinal pathogenic lineages O25b:H4-ST131-H30R and O1-ST648, showed reduced susceptibility to TGC due to overexpression of the efflux pump AcrAB-TolC, leading to decreased intracellular concentrations of the antibiotics that may be associated with the development of fluoroquinolone resistance. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Thrombospondin-1 is not the major activator of TGF-β1 in thrombopoietin-induced myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evrard, Solène; Bluteau, Olivier; Tulliez, Micheline

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is the most important cytokine involved in the promotion of myelofibrosis. Mechanisms leading to its local activation in the bone marrow environment remain unclear. As a recent study has highlighted the role of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in platelet-derived TGF......-β1 activation, we investigated the role of TSP-1 in the TPO(high) murine model of myelofibrosis. Two groups of engrafted mice, WT TPO(high) and Tsp-1-null TPO(high), were constituted. All mice developed a similar myeloproliferative syndrome and an increase in total TGF-β1 levels in the plasma...... and in extracellular fluids of marrow and spleen. Surprisingly, we were able to detect the active form of TGF-β1 in Tsp-1-null TPO(high) mice. Accordingly, these mice developed marrow and spleen fibrosis, with intriguingly a higher grade than in WT TPO(high) mice. Our results show that TSP-1 is not the major activator...

  11. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  12. Association Between Placebo-Activated Neural Systems and Antidepressant Responses: Neurochemistry of Placebo Effects in Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, Marta; Bohnert, Amy S B; Sikora, Magdalena; Avery, Erich T; Langenecker, Scott A; Mickey, Brian J; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2015-11-01

    High placebo responses have been observed across a wide range of pathologies, severely impacting drug development. To examine neurochemical mechanisms underlying the formation of placebo effects in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study involving 2 placebo lead-in phases followed by an open antidepressant administration, we performed a single-blinded 2-week crossover randomized clinical trial of 2 identical oral placebos (described as having either active or inactive fast-acting antidepressant-like effects) followed by a 10-week open-label treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or, in some cases, another agent as clinically indicated. The volunteers (35 medication-free patients with MDD at a university health system) were studied with positron emission tomography and the µ-opioid receptor-selective radiotracer [11C]carfentanil after each 1-week inactive and active oral placebo treatment. In addition, 1 mL of isotonic saline was administered intravenously within sight of the volunteer during positron emission tomographic scanning every 4 minutes over 20 minutes only after the 1-week active placebo treatment, with instructions that the compound may be associated with the activation of brain systems involved in mood improvement. This challenge stimulus was used to test the individual capacity to acutely activate endogenous opioid neurotransmision under expectations of antidepressant effect. Changes in depressive symptoms in response to active placebo and antidepressant. Baseline and activation measures of µ-opioid receptor binding. Higher baseline µ-opioid receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens was associated with better response to antidepressant treatment (r = 0.48; P = .02). Reductions in depressive symptoms after 1 week of active placebo treatment, compared with the inactive, were associated with increased placebo-induced µ-opioid neurotransmission in a network of regions implicated in emotion, stress

  13. Chemicals Compositions, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cynara scolymus Leaves Extracts, and Analysis of Major Bioactive Polyphenols by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryem Ben Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. was one of the plant remedies for primary health care. The present study was focused on the determination of chemical composition, antioxidant activities, and anti-inflammatory activity and on analyzing its major bioactive polyphenols by HPLC. Methods. Artichoke Leaves Extracts (ALE were analyzed for proximate analysis and phytochemical and antioxidant activity by several methods such as DDPH, ABTS, FRAP, and beta-carotene bleaching test. The carrageenan (Carr model induced paw oedema in order to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenols compounds were done by HPLC method. The oxidative stress parameters were determined; CAT, SOD, GSH, MDA, and AOPP activities and the histopathological examination were also performed. Results. It was noted that EtOH extract of ALE contained the highest phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents and the strongest antioxidants activities including DDPH (94.23%, ABTS (538.75 mmol, FRAP assay (542.62 umol, and β-carotene bleaching (70.74% compared to the other extracts of ALE. Administration of EtOH extract at dose 400 mg/kg/bw exhibited a maximum inhibition of inflammation induced by Carr for 3 and 5 hours compared to reference group Indomethacin (Indo. Conclusion. ALE displayed high potential as natural source of minerals and phytochemicals compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antarctica is the planet's fifth largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)]; it contains the Earth's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets; it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report is the introduction to a series that covers 60 years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientific activity in Antarctica. It will concentrate primarily on three major topics:

  15. Anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action of thymoquinone, the major active ingredient of Nigella sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Fayyad, Muneera W; Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2017-12-12

    Over the past two decades, studies have documented the wide-range anti-cancer effects of Nigella sativa, known as black seed or black cumin. Thymoquinone (TQ), its major active ingredient, has also been extensively studied and reported to possess potent anti-cancer properties. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the findings related to the anti-cancer activity of TQ. The review focuses on analyzing experimental studies performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to identify the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic, anti-metastatic, and NK-dependent cytotoxic effects exerted by TQ. In addition, we pinpoint the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects and the signal transduction pathways implicated by TQ. Our analysis show that p53, NF-κB, PPARγ, STAT3, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways are among the most significant pathways through which TQ mediates its anti-cancer activity. Experimental findings and recent advances in the field highlight TQ as an effective therapeutic agent for the suppression of tumor development, growth and metastasis for a wide range of tumors.

  16. Major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted cytolytic activity of human T cells: analysis of precursor frequency and effector phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.S.; Thiele, D.L.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    The frequency and phenotype of human T cells that mediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted cytolysis were analyzed. T cell clones were generated by culturing adherent cell-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a density of 0.3 cell/well with phytohemagglutinin, recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2), and irradiated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells and/or Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. All of the 198 clones generated by this method were T cells (CD2 + , CD3 + , CD4 + or CD2 + , CD3 + , CD8 + ) that possessed potent lytic activity against K562, an erythroleukemia line sensitive to lysis by human natural killer cells, and Cur, a renal carcinoma cell line resistant to human natural killer activity. Cytolysis, measured by 51 Cr release, was MHC-unrestricted, since the clones were able to lyse MHC class I or class II negative targets, as well as MHC class I and class II negative targets. Although the clones produced tissue necrosis factor/lymphotoxin-like molecules, lysis of Cur of K562 was not mediated by a soluble factor secreted by the clones. These data indicate that the capacity for MHC-unrestricted tumoricidal activity and expression of NKH1 and CD11b, but not CD 16, are properties common to all or nearly all human peripheral blood-derived T cell clones regardless of CD4 or CD8 phenotype

  17. Hair cortisol as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis activity in female patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochigaeva, Ksenia; Druzhkova, Tatiana; Yakovlev, Alexander; Onufriev, Mikhail; Grishkina, Maria; Chepelev, Aleksey; Guekht, Alla; Gulyaeva, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    Hair cortisol is regarded as a promising marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity alterations due to stress, somatic and mental health conditions. Hair cortisol was previously reported to be elevated in patients with depression, however the data related to remission and recurrent depressive episodes are different. In this study, levels of hair cortisol were assessed in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the validity of hair cortisol as a marker of HPAA activity in this condition was evaluated. Hair cortisol was measured in 1 cm hair segments of 21 female patients with MDD and 22 female age-matched controls using enzyme-immunoassay analysis. Concurrently, serum cortisol was assessed and psychological status was evaluated using 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI). The levels of hair cortisol were significantly lower in the MDD group, while serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients, as compared with controls. A significant negative correlation was found between HAMD-17 scores and hair cortisol. Decreased hair cortisol found in female patients with MDD as compared to controls suggests downregulation of HPAA activity during the preceding month. Further studies are needed to investigate the profiles of hair cortisol at different stages of depressive disorder to establish this parameter as a handy clinical tool.

  18. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the cell wall hydrolase activity of the major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar J J Claes

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG produces two major secreted proteins, designated here Msp1 (LGG_00324 or p75 and Msp2 (LGG_00031 or p40, which have been reported to promote the survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. Intriguingly, although each of these proteins shares homology with cell wall hydrolases, a physiological function that correlates with such an enzymatic activity remained to be substantiated in LGG. To investigate the bacterial function, we constructed knock-out mutants in the corresponding genes aiming to establish a genotype to phenotype relation. Microscopic examination of the msp1 mutant showed the presence of rather long and overly extended cell chains, which suggests that normal daughter cell separation is hampered. Subsequent observation of the LGG wild-type cells by immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the Msp1 protein accumulates at the septum of exponential-phase cells. The cell wall hydrolyzing activity of the Msp1 protein was confirmed by zymogram analysis. Subsequent analysis by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry of the digestion products of LGG peptidoglycan (PG by Msp1 indicated that the Msp1 protein has D-glutamyl-L-lysyl endopeptidase activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy and the failure to construct a knock-out mutant suggest an indispensable role for Msp2 in priming septum formation in LGG.

  19. Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Liangxia

    2014-08-01

    Terrestrial vegetation plays many pivotal roles in urban systems. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation are poorly understood. Here we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the vegetation activity measured by MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) along Urban Development Intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2000 to 2012. We also proposed to use a new set of concepts (i.e., actual, theoretical, and positive urbanization effects) to better understand and quantify the impacts of urbanization on vegetation activities. Results showed that the EVI decreased significantly along a rising UDI for 28 of 32 cities (pcities and UDI zones within a city. Further, the actual urbanization effects were much weaker than the theoretical estimates because of the offsetting positive effects generated by multiple urban environmental and anthropogenic factors. Examining the relative changes of EVI in various UDI zones against that in the rural area (ΔEVI), which effectively removed the effects of climate variability, demonstrated that ΔEVI decreased markedly from 2000 to 2012 for about three-quarters of the cities in the exurban (0.05cities in the urban (0.5cities could primarily be attributed to the importance of positive effects derived from the urban environment and the improvement of management and maintenance of urban green space. More work is needed to quantify mechanistically the detailed negative and positive effects of urban environmental factors and management practices on vegetation activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The major differences in chemical composition and antibacterial activity of two closely related Leonotis species (Lamiaceae may have taxonomic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Eloff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Leonotis species are used widely for medicinal purposes in Africa. There have been drastic changes in the taxonomic treatment of Leonotis species during the past decade. Two species, L. dysophylla and L. microphylla occurring in Pretoria have been considered as varieties of the same species and as different species by different authors. Because Leonotis species are used widely as medicinal plants inter alia against bacterial infections, we decided to compare the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of four plants from each of two populations of the species. The chemical composition of acetone extracts of finely ground leaves was determined by thin layer chromatography followed by spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid. There were hardly any differences between plants from the same population. There were major differences between the two species in the composition of pigments separated by thin layer chromatography and for compounds visualized with the vanillin-sulphuric acid spray reagent. This supported the viewpoint that the two species should not be considered as varieties. The major differences found in chemical composition indicate that chemical parameters may play an important role in resolving taxonomic differences. Because such a small quantity of material is needed, it may be feasible to analyze one or two leaves obtained from herbarium sheets as an additional taxonomic parameter. The antibacterial activity of the acetone extracts was determined using a two-fold serial dilution microplate method with tetrazolium violet as indicator of growth. The specific strains of the four most important nosocomial bacterial pathogens suggested by the United States National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards were used: Staphylococcus aureus (American Type Culture Collection 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 21212. The minimum inhibitory activity of the

  1. Major and minor elements analysis in soil samples by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro; Ana Maria Graciano; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence were employed to analyze major and minor elements in soil samples collected near Bandeirantes road. Elements of environmental interest, such as Al, Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, V and Zn, which have reference background levels, were determined. The samples were dried in an oven at 40 deg C, were sieved (<2 mm), grinded and were analyzed by INAA and FRX. The aims of this work were: to evaluate the possible variations in the concentration levels in soil due to emission of particulate from vehicles and other anthropogenic sources; to compare the results obtained by using both techniques. This preliminary study showed that the concentration levels of the elements of environmental interest agree with reference values for tropical soils in the sampling sites, except for Ba, which presented higher values. (author)

  2. Antileishmanial activity of licochalcone A in mice infected with Leishmania major and in hamsters infected with Leishmania donovani

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Christensen, S B; Theander, T G

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the antileishmanial activity of the oxygenated chalcone licochalcone A in mice and hamsters infected with Leishmania parasites. Intraperitoneal administration of licochalcone A at doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of body weight per day completely prevented lesion...... development in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. Treatment of hamsters infected with L. donovani with intraperitoneal administration of licochalcone A at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight per day for 6 consecutive days resulted in a > 96% reduction of parasite load in the liver and the spleen...... compared with values for untreated control animals. The [3H]thymidine uptake by the parasites isolated from the treated hamsters was only about 1% of that observed in parasites isolated from the controls. Oral administration of licochalcone A at concentrations of 5 to 150 mg/kg of body weight per day for 6...

  3. Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Titulaer

    Full Text Available Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.

  4. Isolation, structural elucidation and in vitro activity of 2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline against environmental relevant bacteria, including tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Sengeløv, Gitte; Cornett, Claus

    2004-01-01

    2-Acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline (ADOTC) is a major impurity of oxytetracycline (OTC) produced as a side product during fermentation. ADOTC was isolated from OTC and other impurities using preparative HPLC. The preparative column was an Xterra MS. C-18 chromatographic column (100 mm x 19...... turn W., 5 mum), and the mobile phase contained methanol-water (27:73 (v/v)) with 0.08 M formic acid added. The flow rate was 9.0 ml/min. It was possible to isolate few milligram ADOTC in a day. The compound was unambiguously identified using NMR and MS-MS. The anti-microbial activity against activated...... sludge bacteria was deter-mined giving a potency of only 3% of that of OTC. With tetracycline-resistant bacteria, no anti-microbial activity was observed, indicating a mode of action similar to that of OTC....

  5. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Structure and calcium binding activity of LipL32, the major surface antigen of pathogenic Leptospira sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauk, Pricila; Roman-Ramos, Henrique; Ho, Paulo Lee; Guzzo, Cristiane R.; Farah, Chuck S.

    2009-01-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochaete Leptospira is an important emerging infectious disease. LipL32 is the major exposed outer membrane protein found exclusively in pathogenic leptospira. It is highly immunogenic and has been shown to bind to host extracellular matrix components, including collagens, fibronectin and laminin. In this work we crystallized recombinant LipL32 protein and determined its structure to 2.25 A resolution. Initial phases were determined using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique with data collected from selenomethionine-containing crystals at the MX2 beamline at the LNLS. The LipL32 monomer is made of a jelly-roll fold core from which protrude several peripheral secondary structures. Some structural features suggested that LipL32 could bind Ca 2+ ions and indeed, spectroscopic data (circular (dichroism. intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and extrinsic 1-amino-2-anaphthol-4-sulfonic acid fluorescence) confirmed the calcium binding properties of LipL32. (author)

  7. Major water-soluble polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, in leaves of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) and their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kayoko; Aketa, Saiko; Nakanami, Mitsuhiro; Iizuka, Shinzo; Hirayama, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The amounts and compositions of polyphenol in persimmon leaves and persimmon leaf tea were investigated. The predominant polyphenols in fresh leaves were water-soluble, and the contents reached a maximum (2.40% w/w) in June, and then gradually decreased. Separation of them followed by thiolytic degradation revealed that the major components were unique proanthocyanidin oligomers consisting of four heterogeneous extension units, including epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate. Persimmon leaf tea also contained similar proanthocyanidins with similar compositional units. Oral administration of starch with polyphenol concentrate of persimmon leaf tea resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decrease in the blood glucose level in Wistar rats. This effect is considered to be due to inhibition of pancreas alpha-amylase. These results indicate that persimmon leaf tea containing peculiar proanthocyanidins has a significant role in suppressing blood glucose elevation after starch intake, and that the best harvest time is June.

  8. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of essential oil from Aloysia gratissima and guaiol, its major sesquiterpene against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria Carolina Freitas; Soares, Deivid Costa; Santana, Raissa Couto; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Ramos, Mônica Freiman S; Danelli, Maria das Graças Miranda; Souto-Padron, Thaïs Cristina; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia H

    2018-01-21

    Leishmaniases is a tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania for which the current treatment is expensive, besides increasing reports of parasite resistance. This study investigated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of the essential oil from Aloysia gratissima (AgEO) and guaiol, the major sesquiterpene constituent in the oil. Our results showed that AgEO killed promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes at an IC50 of 25 and 0·16 µg mL-1, respectively, while guaiol killed amastigotes at an IC50 of 0·01 µg mL-1. Both AgEO and guaiol were safe for macrophages up to 100 µg mL-1, as evaluated by the dehydrogenase activity, membrane integrity and phagocytic capacity. AgEO and guaiol did not induce nitrite oxide (NO) in resting macrophages and inhibited the production of NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis suggested that AgEO and guaiol act directly on parasites, affecting promastigotes kinetoplast, mitochondrial matrix and plasma membrane. Together, these results pointed out that AgEO and guaiol could be promising candidates to develop anti-Leishmania drugs.

  9. The Relationship Between Brain Oscillatory Activity and Therapeutic Effectiveness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Francis Leuchter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is marked by disturbances in brain functional connectivity. This connectivity is modulated by rhythmic oscillations of brain electrical activity, which enable coordinated functions across brain regions. Oscillatory activity plays a central role in regulating thinking and memory, mood, cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter levels, and restoration of normal oscillatory patterns is associated with effective treatment of MDD. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS is a robust treatment for MDD, but the mechanism of action (MOA of its benefits for mood disorders remains incompletely understood. Benefits of rTMS have been tied to enhanced neuroplasticity in specific brain pathways. We summarize here the evidence that rTMS entrains and resets thalamocortical oscillators, normalizes regulation and facilitates reemergence of intrinsic cerebral rhythms, and through this mechanism restores normal brain function. This entrainment and resetting may be a critical step in engendering neuroplastic changes and the antidepressant effects of rTMS. It may be possible to modify the method of rTMS administration to enhance this mechanism of action and achieve better antidepressant effectiveness. We propose that rTMS can be administered: 1 synchronized to a patient’s individual alpha rhythm (IAF, or synchronized rTMS (sTMS; 2 as a low magnetic field strength sinusoidal wave form; and, 3 broadly to multiple brain areas simultaneously. We present here the theory and evidence indicating that these modifications could enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of MDD.

  10. Increased activities of both superoxide dismutase and catalase were indicators of acute depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2016-01-30

    Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and S100B in patients with MDD in an acute phase, and evaluate the changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein carbonyl content (PCC), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine after treatment (8-OHdG), catalase (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and S100B. We consecutively enrolled 21 MDD inpatients in an acute phase and 40 healthy subjects. Serum oxidative stress markers were measured with assay kits. Serum SOD and CAT activities in MDD patients in an acute phase were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects, and serum PCC levels were significantly lower. The HAM-D scores had a significantly positive association with S100B levels. Eighteen depressed patients were followed up, and there was no significant difference among all of the markers after treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased activities of both SOD and CAT might be indicators of acute depressive episodes in MDD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase rapidly suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory pathways in adipocytes including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Sarah J; White, Anna D; Bijland, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation of adipose tissue in obesity is associated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proposed to contribute to insulin resistance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates nutrient metabolism and is reported to have anti-inflammatory actions in adipose tissue, yet the m...

  12. T-cell activation. V. Anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody-induced activation and clonal abortion in Jurkat T-leukaemic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Dissing, S; Tscherning, T

    1993-01-01

    respectively, as well as three transfectant clones reconstituted with the appropriate TcR/CD3 cDNA. For activation, the cells were exposed to anti-TcR/CD3, anti-CD2 and anti-major histocompatibility complex (anti-MHC) class I monoclonal antibodies (mAb) respectively. Cellular activation by these mAb leading...... to an increased IL-2 secretion was preceded by a rise in [Ca2+]i and was relatively dependent on the expression of the a TcR/CD3 complex. In contrast, anti-MHC class I mAb-induced clonal abortion in Jurkat T cells may occur without previous fluctuations in [Ca2+]i and appeared to be independent of TcR/CD3...

  13. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Fen Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power (RP, β-carotene bleaching (BCB activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%, thymol (14.36% and carvacrol (12.33%, and eugenol (0.87%, respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability.

  15. Alterations in visual cortical activation and connectivity with prefrontal cortex during working memory updating in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thang M; Borghi, John A; Kujawa, Autumn J; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the impacts of major depressive disorder (MDD) on visual and prefrontal cortical activity as well as their connectivity during visual working memory updating and related them to the core clinical features of the disorder. Impairment in working memory updating is typically associated with the retention of irrelevant negative information which can lead to persistent depressive mood and abnormal affect. However, performance deficits have been observed in MDD on tasks involving little or no demand on emotion processing, suggesting dysfunctions may also occur at the more basic level of information processing. Yet, it is unclear how various regions in the visual working memory circuit contribute to behavioral changes in MDD. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 18 unmedicated participants with MDD and 21 age-matched healthy controls (CTL) while they performed a visual delayed recognition task with neutral faces and scenes as task stimuli. Selective working memory updating was manipulated by inserting a cue in the delay period to indicate which one or both of the two memorized stimuli (a face and a scene) would remain relevant for the recognition test. Our results revealed several key findings. Relative to the CTL group, the MDD group showed weaker postcue activations in visual association areas during selective maintenance of face and scene working memory. Across the MDD subjects, greater rumination and depressive symptoms were associated with more persistent activation and connectivity related to no-longer-relevant task information. Classification of postcue spatial activation patterns of the scene-related areas was also less consistent in the MDD subjects compared to the healthy controls. Such abnormalities appeared to result from a lack of updating effects in postcue functional connectivity between prefrontal and scene-related areas in the MDD group. In sum, disrupted working memory updating in MDD was revealed by

  16. Fractures of the femoral shaft in children: national epidemiology and treatment trends in England following activation of major trauma networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, C; Davis, N; Majid, I; Young, M; Bouamra, O; Lecky, F E; Jones, S

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of closed isolated fractures of the femoral shaft in children, and to compare the treatment and length of stay (LOS) between major trauma centres (MTCs) and trauma units (TUs) in England. National data were obtained from the Trauma and Audit Research Network for all isolated, closed fractures of the femoral shaft in children from birth to 15 years of age, between 2012 and 2015. Age, gender, the season in which the fracture occurred, non-accidental injury, the mechanism of injury, hospital trauma status, LOS and type of treatment were recorded. A total of 1852 fractures were identified. The mean annual incidence was 5.82 per 100 000 children (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.20 to 6.44). The age of peak incidence was two years for both boys and girls; this decreased with increasing age. Children aged four to six years treated in MTCs were more likely to be managed with open reduction and internal fixation compared with those treated in TUs (odds ratio 3.20; 95% CI 1.12 to 9.14; p = 0.03). The median LOS was significantly less in MTCs than in TUs for children aged between 18 months and three years treated in both a spica (p = 0.005) and traction (p = 0.0004). This study highlights the current national trends in the management of closed isolated fractures of the femoral shaft in children following activation of major trauma networks in 2012. Future studies focusing on the reasons for the differences which have been identified may help to achieve more consistency in the management of these injuries across the trauma networks. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:109-18. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Natural Korean Medicine Dang-Gui: Biosynthesis, Effective Extraction and Formulations of Major Active Pyranocoumarins, Their Molecular Action Mechanism in Cancer, and Other Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN is a crucial oriental medicinal herb that grows especially in Korea and the Far-East countries. It contains chemically active compounds like pyranocoumarins, polyacetylenes and essential oils, which might be useful for treatment of several chronic diseases. It has been used for centuries as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia, but in Western countries is used as a functional food and a major ingredient of several herbal products. The genus Angelica is also known as ‘female ginseng’ due to its critical therapeutic role in female afflictions, such as gynecological problems. However, it is well-documented that the AGN pyranocoumarins may play vital beneficial roles against cancer, neurodisorders, inflammation, osteoporosis, amnesia, allergies, depression, fungi, diabetes, ischemia, dermatitis, reactive oxygen species (ROS and androgen. Though numerous studies revealed the role of AGN pyranocoumarins as therapeutic agents, none of the reviews have published their molecular mechanism of action. To the best of our knowledge, this would be the first review that aims to appraise the biosynthesis of AGN’s major active pyranocoumarins, discuss effective extraction and formulation methods, and detail the molecular action mechanism of decursin (D, decursinol angelate (DA and decursinol (DOH in chronic diseases, which would further help extension of research in this area.

  18. Carboxymefloquine, the major metabolite of the antimalarial drug mefloquine, induces drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter expression by activation of pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Rita; Traub, Stefanie; Bitter, Andreas; Nüssler, Andreas K; Gil, José P; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Malaria patients are frequently coinfected with HIV and mycobacteria causing tuberculosis, which increases the use of coadministered drugs and thereby enhances the risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) by xenobiotics, which include many drugs, induces drug metabolism and transport, thereby resulting in possible attenuation or loss of the therapeutic responses to the drugs being coadministered. While several artemisinin-type antimalarial drugs have been shown to activate PXR, data on nonartemisinin-type antimalarials are still missing. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the potential of nonartemisinin antimalarial drugs and drug metabolites to activate PXR. We screened 16 clinically used antimalarial drugs and six major drug metabolites for binding to PXR using the two-hybrid PXR ligand binding domain assembly assay; this identified carboxymefloquine, the major and pharmacologically inactive metabolite of the antimalarial drug mefloquine, as a potential PXR ligand. Two-hybrid PXR-coactivator and -corepressor interaction assays and PXR-dependent promoter reporter gene assays confirmed carboxymefloquine to be a novel PXR agonist which specifically activated the human receptor. In the PXR-expressing intestinal LS174T cells and in primary human hepatocytes, carboxymefloquine induced the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters on the mRNA and protein levels. The crucial role of PXR for the carboxymefloquine-dependent induction of gene expression was confirmed by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of the receptor. Thus, the clinical use of mefloquine may result in pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions by means of its metabolite carboxymefloquine. Whether these in vitro findings are of in vivo relevance has to be addressed in future clinical drug-drug interaction studies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Altered neuronal spontaneous activity correlates with glutamate concentration in medial prefrontal cortex of major depressed females: An fMRI-MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliu; Tang, Yingying; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Sheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Xuanhong; Zhu, Yajing; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Junjie; Tong, Shanbao; Wang, Jijun; Li, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is twice more prevalent in females than in males. Yet, there have only been a few studies on the functional brain activity in female MDD patients and the detailed mechanisms underlying their neurobiology merit further investigations. In the present work, we used combined fMRI-MRS methods to investigate the altered intrinsic neuronal activity and its association with neurotransmitter concentration in female MDD patients. The whole brain amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed to explore the alteration of intrinsic neuronal signals in MDD females (n=11) compared with female healthy controls (n=11). With a specific interest in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) area, we quantified the concentration of amino acid neurotransmitters including GABA ((r-aminobutyric acid)), Glu (Glutamate), and Glx (Glutamate + Glutamine) using (1)H-MRS technology. Moreover, we conducted Pearson correlation analysis between the ALFF value and neurotransmitter concentration to find out the functional-biochemical relation in mPFC area. The relationship between the metabolites concentration and MDD symptomatology was also examined through Spearman correlation analysis. We found that the female MDD patients showed increased neuronal spontaneous activity in left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left middle frontal cortex, with decreased ALFF level in right putamen and right middle temporal cortex (pconcentration in female MDD patients (r=0.67, p=0.023). The Glu concentration in mPFC was positively correlated with patients HAMA scores (r=0.641, p=0.033). The relatively small sample size, metabolite information acquired only in mPFC and not all patients were unmedicated are the major limitations of our study. Using combined fMRI-MRS methods, we found increased spontaneous neuronal activity was correlated with Glu concentration in mPFC of female MDD patients. Other

  20. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  1. Identification of a novel component leading to anti-tumor activity besides the major ingredient cordycepin in Cordyceps militaris extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takeharu; Sumardika, I Wayan; Saito, Shingo; Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Kondo, Eisaku; Shibukawa, Masami; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2017-09-01

    In accordance with our previous study that was carried out to identify novel anti-tumor ingredients, chromatographic separation in combination with an anti-tumor activity assay was used for analysis of Cordyceps militaris extract in this study. Various modes of chromatography including reversed-phase, cation-exchange and anion-exchange were used to separate components of Cordyceps militaris, which showed various chemical properties. Anti-tumor activity of each fraction was assessed by a Hoechst staining-based apoptosis assay using malignant melanoma MeWo cells. By these repeated approaches through chromatographic segregation and cell biological assay, we finally succeeded in identifying the target substance from a certain fraction that included neutral hydrophilic components using a pre-column and post-column chlorine adduct ionization LC-APCI-MS method. The target substance was a mono-carbohydrate, xylitol, that induced apoptotic cell death in MeWo cells but not in normal human OUMS-24 fibroblasts. This is the first study showing that Cordyceps militaris extract contains a large amount of xylitol. Thus, our results will contribute greatly to uncovering the mysterious multifunctional herbal drug Cordyceps militaris as an anti-tumor agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation.

  3. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Activity Worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT Analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (WBMT) including the global survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Baldomero, Helen; Szer, Jeff; Gratwohl, Michael; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Confer, Dennis; Greinix, Hildegard; Horowitz, Mary; Iida, Minako; Lipton, Jeff; Mohty, Mohamad; Novitzky, Nicolas; Nunez, José; Passweg, Jakob; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Apperley, Jane; Seber, Adriana; Gratwohl, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Data on 68,146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCT were registered from unrelated 16,433 than related 15,493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared to 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCT/team). An increase of 67% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A SWOT analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four WHO regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood. PMID:26901703

  4. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM THREE SPECIES OF POACEAE ON ANOPHELES GAMBIAE SPP, MAJOR VECTOR OF MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the insecticidal activities on Anopheles gambiae spp of the essential oils (EO extracted from the dry leaves of some species collected in Benin were studied. The essential oil yields are 2.8, 1.7 and 1.4�0respectively for Cymbopogon schoanenthus (L. Spreng (CS, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CC and Cymbopogon giganteus (Hochst. Chiov (CG. The GC/MS analysis showed that the EO of CS had a larger proportion in oxygenated monoterpenes (86.3�20whereas those of the sheets of CC and CG are relatively close proportions (85.5�0and 82.7�0respectively with. The piperitone (68.5�  2-carene (11.5� and -eudesmol (4.6�20are the major components of the EO of CS while trans para-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (31.9� trans para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (19.6� cis para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (7.2� trans piperitol (6.3�20and limonene (6.3�20prevailed in the EO of CG. The EO of CC revealed a rich composition in geranial (41.3� neral (33� myrcene (10.4� and geraniol (6.6� The biological tests have shown that these three EO induced 100�0mortality of Anopheles gambiae to 1.1, 586.58 and 1549 µg•cm-2 respectively for CC, CS and CG. These effects are also illustrated by weak lethal concentration for 50�0anopheles population (CC: 0.306; CS: 152.453 and CG: 568.327 µg•cm-2 in the same order of reactivity. The EO of CC appeared most active on two stocks (sensitive and resistant of Anopheles gambiae.

  5. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  6. Screening of analgesic activity of Tunisian Urtica dioica and analysis of its major bioactive compounds by GCMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouibi, Raouia; Moalla, Dorsaf; Ksouda, Kamilia; Ben Salem, Maryem; Hammami, Serria; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Affes, Hanen

    2017-11-20

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic properties of Urtica dioica (UD) and to profile phytochemicals by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ethanolic extracts were prepared by maceration method and extraction using rotary evaporator. The analgesic activity was analysed by hot plate method, formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing test and the tail-flick test with different doses of the ethanolic extract. In all tests, the leaf's ethanolic extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (p analgesic activity with many tests. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed many compounds; 2-methyltetradecane dodecane, 2,6,11-trimethyl-; 2,6,11-trimethyldodecane, and trimethylhexane which are pharmaceutically the most important. These findings justify that UD can be a valuable natural analgesic source which seemed to provide potential phototherapeutics against various ailments. The analysis of ethanolic extract of UD by GCMS revealed the presence of several compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes which can explain the analgesic effect of UD and its mechanism of action. Hence, UD could be another therapeutic alternative for relieving pain and for minimising the use of drugs that have long-term secondary effects.

  7. Evidence of a major locus for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in addition to a pleiotropic locus for both LPL and fasting insulin: results from the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Rice, T; Després, J P; Gagnon, J; Nadeau, A; Bergeron, J; Pérusse, L; Bouchard, C; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C

    1999-06-01

    A major gene hypothesis for heparin releasable plasma lipoprotein lipase (PH-LPL) activity was assessed using segregation analyses of data on 495 members in 98 normolipidemic sedentary families of Caucasian descent who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. Segregation analyses were performed on PH-LPL adjusted for age, and on PH-LPL activity adjusted for age and fasting insulin. Prior to adjustment for insulin, neither a major gene effect nor a multifactorial component could be rejected, and support for a major gene was equivocal i.e. neither the Mendelian transmission nor the no transmission (equal tau s) models were rejected. However, after adjusting for the effects of insulin, a major gene effect on PH-LPL activity was unambiguous. The putative locus accounted for 60% of the total phenotypic variance, and the homozygous recessive form affected 10% (q2) of the sample (i.e. gene frequency (q) = 0.31), and led to a low PH-LPL value. The lack of a significant multifactorial effect suggested that the familial etiology of PH-LPL activity adjusted for insulin was likely to be primarily a function of the major locus. In conclusion, the present study is the first to report segregation analyses on PH-LPL activity prior to and after adjusting for insulin, and suggests that there is an indication of a pleiotropic genetic effect on PH-LPL activity and insulin, in addition to a major gene effect on PH-LPL activity alone.

  8. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1960 - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1960 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1960.

  9. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1959 - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1959 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1959.

  10. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1961. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1961 - December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1962-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1961 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1961.

  11. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1962 - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1962 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1962.

  12. Development of a Microbiology Course for Diverse Majors; Longitudinal Survey of the Use of Various Active, Problem-Based Learning Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana R. Cundell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Educators are increasingly being encouraged to use more active- and problem-based-learning techniques and assignments in the classroom to improve critical and analytical thinking skills. Active learning-based courses have been purported to be more time consuming than traditional lecture methods and for many instructors have therefore proven difficult to include in many one-semester science courses. To address this problem, a series of assignments was developed for use in a basic microbiology course involving sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students from five different biology majors (environmental science, biology, biochemistry, premedicine, and physician assistant. Writing assignments included global, historical, and social themes for which a standardized grading format was established. Students also participated in a class debate in which the merits of the living microbial kingdoms were discussed, with only one kingdom being saved from an imaginary global catastrophe. Traditional lectures were facilitated by the use of a dedicated note packet developed by the instructor and specific for course content. Laboratories involved group analysis of mini-case history studies involving pathogenic microbes. Students’ perceptions of the subject were assessed using an exit questionnaire sent to 100 of the 174 students who had taken the course during the 5-year time period. The majority of the 64 students who responded were sophomores (78%, in keeping with the target audience, and their perception of the course’s challenge level was significantly higher (p < 0.03, 8.7 than their junior and senior counterparts (7.9. Students rated the most useful learning tools as case history studies (9.4 and the class debate (9.1, with the introduction of a dedicated microbiology links web page to the University website representing the sole component resulting in a statistically significant increase in students’ perceptions of the importance of the course (p

  13. Structure and calcium binding activity of LipL32, the major surface antigen of pathogenic Leptospira sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauk, Pricila; Roman-Ramos, Henrique; Ho, Paulo Lee [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Guzzo, Cristiane R.; Farah, Chuck S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica

    2009-07-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochaete Leptospira is an important emerging infectious disease. LipL32 is the major exposed outer membrane protein found exclusively in pathogenic leptospira. It is highly immunogenic and has been shown to bind to host extracellular matrix components, including collagens, fibronectin and laminin. In this work we crystallized recombinant LipL32 protein and determined its structure to 2.25 A resolution. Initial phases were determined using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique with data collected from selenomethionine-containing crystals at the MX2 beamline at the LNLS. The LipL32 monomer is made of a jelly-roll fold core from which protrude several peripheral secondary structures. Some structural features suggested that LipL32 could bind Ca{sup 2+} ions and indeed, spectroscopic data (circular (dichroism. intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and extrinsic 1-amino-2-anaphthol-4-sulfonic acid fluorescence) confirmed the calcium binding properties of LipL32. (author)

  14. DUST IN THE POLAR REGION AS A MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR TO THE INFRARED EMISSION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, S. F.; Antonucci, R. [Department of Physics, University of California in Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93109 (United States); Kishimoto, M.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Asmus, D.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Prieto, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Burtscher, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrae, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Duschl, W. J., E-mail: shoenig@physics.ucsb.edu [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 15, D-24098, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-10

    Dust around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is distributed over a wide range of spatial scales and can be observed in the infrared (IR). It is generally assumed that the distribution on parsec scales forms a geometrically and optically thick entity in the equatorial plane around the accretion disk and broad-line region-dubbed {sup d}ust torus{sup -}that emits the bulk of the subarcsecond-scale IR emission and gives rise to orientation-dependent obscuration. However, recent IR interferometry studies with unprecedented position angle (P.A.) and baseline coverage on these small scales in two obscured (type 2) AGNs have revealed that the majority of the mid-IR emission in these objects is elongated in the polar direction. These observations are difficult to reconcile with the standard interpretation that most of the parsec-scale mid-IR emission in AGNs originate from the torus and challenges the justification of using simple torus models to model the broadband IR emission. Here, we report detailed interferometry observations of the unobscured (type 1) AGN in NGC 3783 that allow us to constrain the size, elongation, and direction of the mid-IR emission with high accuracy. The mid-IR emission is characterized by a strong elongation toward position angle P.A. -52 Degree-Sign , closely aligned with the polar axis (P.A. -45 Degree-Sign ). We determine half-light radii along the major and minor axes at 12.5 {mu}m of (20.0 {+-} 3.0) mas Multiplication-Sign (6.7 {+-} 1.0) mas or (4.23 {+-} 0.63) pc Multiplication-Sign (1.42 {+-} 0.21) pc, which corresponds to intrinsically scaled sizes of (69.4 {+-} 10.8) r{sub in} Multiplication-Sign (23.3 {+-} 3.5) r{sub in} for the inner dust radius of r{sub in} = 0.061 pc as inferred from near-IR reverberation mapping. This implies an axis ratio of 3:1, with about 60%-90% of the 8-13 {mu}m emission associated with the polar-elongated component. It is quite likely that the hot-dust emission as recently resolved by near-IR interferometry is

  15. A Critical Subset Model Provides a Conceptual Basis for the High Antiviral Activity of Major HIV Drugs**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Rabi, S. Alireza; Sedaghat, Ahmad R.; Shan, Liang; Lai, Jun; Xing, Sifei; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Control of HIV-1 replication was first achieved with regimens that included a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a protease inhibitor (PI); however, an explanation for the high antiviral activity of these drugs has been lacking. Indeed, conventional pharmacodynamic measures like IC50 (drug concentration causing 50% inhibition) do not differentiate NNRTIs and PIs from less active nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Drug inhibitory potential depends on the slope of the dose-response curve (m), which represents how inhibition increases as a function of increasing drug concentration and is related to the Hill coefficient, a measure of intramolecular cooperativity in ligand binding to a multivalent receptor. Although NNRTIs and PIs bind univalent targets, they unexpectedly exhibit cooperative dose-response curves (m > 1). We show that this cooperative inhibition can be explained by a model in which infectivity requires participation of multiple copies of a drug target in an individual life cycle stage. A critical subset of these target molecules must be in the unbound state. Consistent with experimental observations, this model predicts m > 1 for NNRTIs and PIs and m = 1 in situations where a single drug target/virus mediates a step in the life cycle, as is the case with NRTIs and integrase strand transfer inhibitors. This model was tested experimentally by modulating the number of functional drug targets per virus, and dose-response curves for modulated virus populations fit model predictions. This model explains the high antiviral activity of two drug classes important for successful HIV-1 treatment and defines a characteristic of good targets for antiviral drugs in general, namely, intermolecular cooperativity. PMID:21753122

  16. The association between serum lipid levels, suicide ideation, and central serotonergic activity in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2014-04-01

    There is some evidence that low lipid levels cause suicide in depressed patients. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum lipid levels are associated with suicide ideation or are correlated with central serotonin function. Auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) was measured in 73 outpatients with major depressive disorder. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered on the same day as measurement of the LDAEP. In addition, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. All subjects had received antidepressant monotherapy. The depressed subjects were divided into those with and without suicide ideation according to the score for HAMD item 3 or BDI item 9. TG levels differed significantly between the two groups, whereas body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and LDAEP did not. The scores for HAMD item 3 and BDI item 9 were negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.045 and 0.026, respectively). The LDAEP was negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.012). Although there was tendency toward a negative correlation between the LDAEP and serum LDL, it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.068). The cross-sectional design of this study means that baseline serum lipid levels were not measured. The findings of this study revealed a relationship between TG and suicide ideation that is independent of both BMI and body weight. Furthermore, serum lipid levels were associated with central serotonergic activity, as assessed using the LDAEP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The adeno-associated virus major regulatory protein Rep78-c-Jun-DNA motif complex modulates AP-1 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, C. Krishna; Meyers, Craig; Zhan Dejin; You Hong; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Liu Yong; Hermonat, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple epidemiologic studies show that adeno-associated virus (AAV) is negatively associated with cervical cancer (CX CA), a cancer which is positively associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Mechanisms for this correlation may be by Rep78's (AAV's major regulatory protein) ability to bind the HPV-16 p97 promoter DNA and inhibit transcription, to bind and interfere with the functions of the E7 oncoprotein of HPV-16, and to bind a variety of HPV-important cellular transcription factors such as Sp1 and TBP. c-Jun is another important cellular factor intimately linked to the HPV life cycle, as well as keratinocyte differentiation and skin development. Skin is the natural host tissue for both HPV and AAV. In this article it is demonstrated that Rep78 directly interacts with c-Jun, both in vitro and in vivo, as analyzed by Western blot, yeast two-hybrid cDNA, and electrophoretic mobility shift-supershift assay (EMSA supershift). Addition of anti-Rep78 antibodies inhibited the EMSA supershift. Investigating the biological implications of this interaction, Rep78 inhibited the c-Jun-dependent c-jun promoter in transient and stable chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) assays. Rep78 also inhibited c-Jun-augmented c-jun promoter as well as the HPV-16 p97 promoter activity (also c-Jun regulated) in in vitro transcription assays in T47D nuclear extracts. Finally, the Rep78-c-Jun interaction mapped to the amino-half of Rep78. The ability of Rep78 to interact with c-Jun and down-regulate AP-1-dependent transcription suggests one more mechanism by which AAV may modulate the HPV life cycle and the carcinogenesis process

  18. Metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of triptolide, a major active component of the herbal medicine Tripterygium wilfordii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuying; Liu, Zhaohua; Li, Xinxiu; Xing, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Triptolide (TP) shows promising anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity but with severe toxicity. TP is a natural reactive electrophile containing three epoxide groups, which are usually linked to hepatotoxicity via their ability to covalently bind to cellular macromolecules. In this study, metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of TP were evaluated in glutathione (GSH)-depleted (treated with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoxinine, BSO) and aminobenzotriazole (ABT; a non-specific inhibitor for P450s)-treated mice. The toxicity of TP in mice was evaluated in terms of mortality and levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT). In incubates with NADPH- and GSH-supplemented liver microsomes, seven GSH conjugates derived from TP were detected. In mice, these hydrolytically unstable GSH conjugates underwent γ-glutamyltranspeptidase/dipeptidases-mediated hydrolysis leading to two major cysteinylglycine conjugates, which underwent further hydrolysis by dipeptidases to form two cysteine conjugates of TP. In ABT-treated mice, the hydroxylated metabolites of TP were found at a lower level than normal mice, and their subsequent conjugated metabolites were not found. The level of cysteinylglycine and cysteine conjugates derived from NADPH-independent metabolism increased in mice treated with both TP and BSO (or ABT), which could be the stress response to toxicity of TP. Compared with normal mice, mortality and ALT levels were significantly higher in TP-treated mice, indicating the toxicity of TP. Pretreatment of ABT increased the toxicity caused by TP, whereas the mortality decreased in GSH-depleted mice. Metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes to less reactive metabolites implied a high potential for detoxification of TP. The GSH conjugation pathway also contributed to TP's detoxification in mice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Escitalopram but not placebo modulates brain rhythmic oscillatory activity in the first week of treatment of Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchter, Andrew F; Hunter, Aimee M; Jain, Felipe A; Tartter, Molly; Crump, Caroline; Cook, Ian A

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin modulates brain oscillatory activity, and serotonergic projections to the thalamus and cortex modulate the frequency of prefrontal rhythmic oscillations. Changes in serotonergic tone have been reported to shift oscillations between the combined delta-theta (2.5-8 Hz) and the alpha (8-12 Hz) frequency ranges. Such frequency shifts may constitute a useful biomarker for the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We utilized quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to measure shifts in prefrontal rhythmic oscillations early in treatment with either the SSRI escitalopram or placebo, and examined the relationship between these changes and remission of depressive symptoms. Prefrontal delta-theta and alpha power were calculated for 194 subjects with moderate MDD prior to and one week after start of treatment. Changes at one week in delta-theta and alpha power, as well as the delta-theta/alpha ratio, were examined in three cohorts: initial (N = 70) and replication (N = 76) cohorts treated with escitalopram, and a cohort treated with placebo (N = 48). Mean delta-theta power significantly increased and alpha power decreased after one week of escitalopram treatment, but did not significantly change with placebo treatment. The delta-theta/alpha ratio change was a specific predictor of the likelihood of remission after seven weeks of medication treatment: a large increase in this ratio was associated with non-remission in escitalopram-treated subjects, but not placebo-treated subjects. Escitalopram and placebo treatment have differential effects on delta-theta and alpha frequency oscillations. Early increase in delta-theta/alpha may constitute a replicable biomarker for non-remission during SSRI treatment of MDD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Characterizing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) ligand binding potential of several major flame retardants, their metabolites, and chemical mixtures in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mingliang; Webster, Thomas F; Ferguson, P Lee; Stapleton, Heather M

    2015-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that some environmental contaminants can alter adipogenesis and act as obesogens. Many of these contaminants act via the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) nuclear receptor. Our goal was to determine the PPARγ ligand binding potency of several major flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), halogenated phenols and bisphenols, and their metabolites. Ligand binding activity of indoor dust and its bioactivated extracts were also investigated. We used a commercially available fluorescence polarization ligand binding assay to investigate the binding potency of flame retardants and dust extracts to human PPARγ ligand-binding domain. Rosiglitazone was used as a positive control. Most of the tested compounds exhibited dose-dependent binding to PPARγ. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, halogenated bisphenols and phenols, and hydroxylated PBDEs were found to be potent PPARγ ligands. The most potent compound was 3-OH-BDE-47, with an IC50 (concentration required to reduce effect by 50%) of 0.24 μM. The extent of halogenation and the position of the hydroxyl group strongly affected binding. In the dust samples, 21 of the 24 samples tested showed significant binding potency at a concentration of 3 mg dust equivalent (DEQ)/mL. A 3-16% increase in PPARγ binding potency was observed following bioactivation of the dust using rat hepatic S9 fractions. Our results suggest that several flame retardants are potential PPARγ ligands and that metabolism may lead to increased binding affinity. The PPARγ binding activity of house dust extracts at levels comparable to human exposure warrants further studies into agonistic or antagonistic activities and their potential health effects.

  1. Development of a factorial design to study the effect of the major hemicellulosic sugars on the production of surface-active compounds by L. pentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla-Rivera, Oscar M; Torrado-Agrasar, Ana; Carballo, Julia; Domínguez, Jose M; Moldes, Ana B

    2009-10-14

    Nowadays, there are no studies about the role of the major hemicellulosic sugars on the production of surface-active compounds by Lactobacillus pentosus, although it was demonstrated that the activity of these compounds can be related to the agricultural residue from which they come, as the sugar solutions obtained from different agricultural residues contain different types and ratios of hemicellulosic sugars. Therefore, in this work, an incomplete factorial design was employed to test the relationship between the type and the ratio of hemicellulosic sugars present in hydrolysates from agricultural residues and the activity of surface-active compounds (cell-bond biosurfactants and extracellular bioemulsifiers) produced by L. pentosus. This design allowed us to establish models (that include linear, interaction, and quadratic terms) between dependent and independent variables. The independent variables used and their variation limits were as follows: glucose concentration (0-10 g L(-1)), xylose concentration (5-15 g L(-1)), and arabinose concentration (0-10 g L(-1)), whereas the 13 dependent variables studied were based on the measurement of surface tension and emulsifying capability. After the study, it was found that the emulsifier capacity of extracellular bioemulsifiers produced by L. pentosus increases at high glucose and xylose concentrations, with glucose concentration as the most influential variable in the range studied. However, the increase of glucose in the absence of xylose produced biosurfactants with low surface activity, with, in this case, the xylose concentration as the most influential variable. Taking into account the xylose/glucose ratio, the best results were obtained with xylose/glucose ratios around 1.5-3.5, which can be found in hemicellulosic hydrolysates from trimming vine shoots or grape marc hydrolysates.

  2. Antileishmanial activity of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin against Leishmania major: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fatahi Bafghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ayurveda, asafetida is introduced as a valuable remedy for flatulence, hysteria, nervous disorders, whooping cough, pneumonia and bronchitis in children and also considered as an aphrodisiac agent. Presently, Leishmaniasis is common in most countries of the world and is a serious health problem in the world. Some plant medicines and natural products have a new candidate for treatment of leishmaniasis. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin (asafetida on mortality and morbidity Leishmania major in vitro. Materials and Methods: Mostigotes were isolated from mice spleens and then transformed to promastigotes in Novy-Nicolle-Mac Neal (NNN medium supplemented with penicillin (100 U/ml, streptomycin (100 μg/ml and 20% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS at 25°C. A fixed initial density of the parasites was transferred to screw-capped vials containing 5 ml of RPMI 1640 media to which different concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μg asafetida were added and each concentration was done in triplicates. Each run also included control. The mortality of parasitoids was measured by the slide and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods. Results: After 72 h, asafetida inhibited growth of parasites in all doses in stationary and logarithmic phases. The ELISA measurement suggested that the viability of parasites significantly decreased after 48h (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results show that asafetida could prevent from growth and viability of parasites and this oleo gum resin can be useful for treatment of leishmaniasis.

  3. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-07-05

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit.

  4. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-08-19

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  5. Fumigant Toxicity of Oriental Sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis and Valerian (Valeriana wallichii Essential Oils and Their Components, Including Their Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity, against Japanese Termites (Reticulitermes speratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis and valerian (Valeriana wallichii essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus. The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days, and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  6. [Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

    1997-05-01

    Bactericidal effects of various kinds of AWASEZU (processed vinegar, 2.5% acidity) on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria were examined. the order of bactericidal activities was NIHAIZU (3.5% NaCl was added) > SANBA-IZU (3.5% NaCl and 10% sucrose were added) > plain vinegar (spirit vinegar) > AMAZU (10% sucrose was added). This indicates that their activities were enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride and suppressed by the addition of sugar. On the other hand, when soy sauce was used instead of sodium chloride, the order of bactericidal activities was plain vinegar > AMAZU > NIHAIZU > SANBAIZU. This is mainly because their activities were suppressed by the increase in the pH value. The effect of sodium chloride (0.01-15%) and temperature (10-50 degrees C) on bactericidal activities against E. coli O157:H7 in spirit vinegar (0.5-2.5% acidity) was further examined. When vinegar was used in combination with sodium chloride, predominant synergism on the bactericidal activity was observed. Their activities were markedly enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride in proportion to the concentration. In addition to this, at higher temperatures spirit vinegar killed bacteria much more rapidly. It should be noted that the bactericidal activity of spirit vinegar was extremely enhanced by the combined use of the addition of sodium chloride and the rise of temperature. For example, in 2.5% acidity vinegar, the time required for 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers at 20 degrees C was shortened to 1/140-fold by the addition of 5% sodium chloride, shortened to 1/51-fold by the rise of the reaction temperature at 40 degrees C, and shortened to 1/830-fold; 0.89 minutes by both the addition of 5% sodium chloride and the rise of temperature at 40 degrees C. In order to propose the methods to prevent food poisoning by bacterial infection, bactericidal activities of vinegar solution containing sodium chloride on cooking tools and

  7. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  9. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  10. The In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sudanese Medicinal Plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the Eumycetoma Major Causative Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Elfadil (Hassabelrasoul); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); W. Kloezen (Wendy); E.M. Ahmed (Elhadi M.); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEumycetoma is a debilitating chronic inflammatory fungal infection that exists worldwide but it is endemic in many tropical and subtropical regions. The major causative organism is the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. The current treatment of eumycetoma is suboptimal and characterized by

  11. Impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nitrate reductase transcription and activity in leaves and roots of Plantago major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, F; Bowsher, CG; Stulen, [No Value

    Vegetative plants of an inbred line, A4, of Plantage major ssp. pleiosperma (L.) Pilger were grown at 350 mu l 1(-1) or at elevated (700 mu l l(-1)) CO2 in non-limiting nutrient solution with nitrate. Both the relative growth rate (RGR) and the root to total plant weight ratio (RWR) were increased

  12. Catalytic synthesis of enantiopure mixed diacylglycerols - synthesis of a major M. tuberculosis phospholipid and platelet activating factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fodran, Peter; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient catalytic one-pot synthesis of TBDMS-protected diacylglycerols has been developed, starting from enantiopure glycidol. Subsequent migration-free deprotection leads to stereo- and regiochemically pure diacylglycerols. This novel strategy has been applied to the synthesis of a major

  13. An Assessment of Health Literacy Rates in a Sample of Active-Duty Military Personnel at a Major Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Dissertation Advisory Committee: __ _ C. Remediation required prior to making major changes. Completion of remediation must meet the satisfaction...occupation -- --nerves .RuOfy se:1.ŕlaUy -- germs gallbladder alcoholism meals calOlies irritation -- disease dep’l’essioJl constipation cancer...aleoholism -meals calories irritation - - -disease -- depression - constipation -caneer - miscarriage gonorrhea -- -caffeine - pregnancy - inflammatory

  14. 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid: activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens including Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Krishnendu; Haldar, Debasish

    2017-10-01

    We report a new synthetic aromatic ε-amino acid containing a triazole moiety with antimicrobial potential against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and pathogenic bacteria including Vibrio cholerae. Structure-property relationship studies revealed that all the functional groups are essential to enhance the antimicrobial activity. The 1-(2-aminophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylic acid was synthesized by click chemistry. From X-ray crystallography, the amino acid adopts a kink-like structure where the phenyl and triazole rings are perpendicular to each other and the amine and acid groups maintain an angle of 60°. The agar diffusion test shows that the amino acid has significant antibacterial activity. The liquid culture test exhibits that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio cholerae is 59.5 µg ml-1. FE-SEM experiments were performed to study the morphological changes of bacterial shape after treatment with compound 1. The antimicrobial activity of the amino acid was further studied by DNA binding and degradation study, protein binding, dye-binding assay and morphological analysis. Moreover, the amino acid does not have any harmful effect on eukaryotes.

  15. Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the pH-Dependent Activation (Epoxidation) of Prodrug Treosulfan Including the Reaction Inhibition in a Borate Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romański, Michał; Ratajczak, Whitney; Główka, Franciszek

    2017-07-01

    A prodrug treosulfan (T) undergoes a pH-dependent activation to epoxide derivatives. The process seems to involve an intramolecular Williamson reaction (IWR) but clear kinetic evidence is lacking. Moreover, a cis-diol system present in the T structure is expected to promote complexation with boric acid. As a result, the prodrug epoxidation would be inhibited; however, this phenomenon has not been investigated. In this article, the effect of pH on the kinetics of T conversion to its monoepoxide was studied from a mechanistic point of view. Also, the influence of boric acid on the reaction kinetics was examined. The rate constants observed for the activation of T (k obs ) in acetate, phosphate, and carbonate buffers satisfied the equation logk obs  = -7.48 + 0.96 pH. The reaction was inhibited in the excess of boric acid over T, and the k obs decreased with increasing borate buffer concentration. The experimental results were consistent with the inhibition model that included the formation of a tetrahedral, anionic T-boric acid monoester. To conclude, in nonborate buffers, the T activation to (2S,3S)-1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol 4-methanesulfonate follows IWR mechanism. A borate buffer changes the reaction kinetics and complicates kinetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility and acceptability of PrE-operative Physical Activity to improve patient outcomes After major cancer surgery: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial (PEPA Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Daniel; Young, Jane; Beckenkamp, Paula R; Ratcliffe, James; Rubie, Freya; Ansari, Nabila; Pillinger, Neil; Solomon, Michael

    2018-02-17

    There is a need for evidence of the effectiveness of pre-operative exercise for patients undergoing major cancer surgery; however, recruitment to such trials can be challenging. The PrE-operative Physical Activity (PEPA) Trial will establish the feasibility and acceptability of a pre-operative exercise programme aimed to improve patient outcomes after cytoreductive surgery and pelvic exenteration. The secondary aim is to obtain pilot data on the likely difference in key outcomes (post-operative complications, length of hospital stay, post-operative functional capacity and quality of life) to inform the sample size calculation for the substantive randomised clinical trial. Twenty patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and pelvic exenteration at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney will be recruited and randomly allocated (1:1 ratio) to either 2 to 6 weeks' pre-operative exercise programme (intervention group) or usual care (control group). Those randomised to the intervention group will receive up to six individualised, 1-h physiotherapy sessions (including aerobic and endurance exercises, respiratory muscle exercises, stretching and flexibility exercises), home exercises (instruction and recommendations on how to progress the exercises at home) and encouragement to be more active by using an activity tracker to measure the number of steps walked daily. Patients allocated to the control group will not receive any specific advice about exercise training. Feasibility will be assessed with consent rates to the study, and for the intervention group, retention and adherence rates to the exercise programme. Acceptability of the exercise programme will be assessed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The following measures of the effectiveness of the intervention will be collected at baseline (2 to 6 weeks pre-operative), a week before surgery, during hospital stay and pre hospital discharge: post-operative complication rates (Clavien-Dindo), post

  17. PXR (NR1I2): splice variants in human tissues, including brain, and identification of neurosteroids and nicotine as PXR activators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, Vishal; Yasuda, Kazuto; Lamba, Jatinder K.; Assem, Mahfoud; Davila, Julio; Strom, Stephen; Schuetz, Erin G.

    2004-01-01

    To gain insight on the expression of pregnane X receptor (PXR), we analyzed PXR.1 and PXR alternatively spliced transcripts in a panel of 36 human tissues. PXR.1 was expressed in many more tissues than previously determined, including human bone marrow and select regions of the human brain. In each of these tissues, we observed alternative splicing of various exons of PXR that generated multiple distinct PXR isoforms. The most abundant PXR alternative mRNA transcripts lacked 111 nucleotides, deleting 37 amino acids from the PXR LBD (PXR.2), or lacked 123 nt, deleting 41 amino acids from the PXR LBD (PXR.3). CYP3A4, a gene transcriptionally regulated by PXR, showed incomplete overlap with PXR in its tissue distribution. Quantitation of PXR mRNAs in human liver demonstrated that PXR.2 and PXR.3 represented 6.7% and 0.32% of total PXR mRNA transcripts. Brain expression of PXR prompted analysis of whether some brain acting chemicals were PXR ligands. The neurosteroids allopregnanolone and pregnanolone activated PXR and induced transcription of a CYP3A4-luciferase reporter. Nicotine, the psychoactive and addictive chemical in cigarettes, and a known inducer of brain CYP2B6, was an efficacious activator of PXR and inducer of CYP3A4 transcription. Because nicotine activation of PXR will enhance metabolism of nicotine to the non-psychoactive cotinine, these results provide one molecular mechanism for the development of tolerance to nicotine. Moreover, the identification of PXR in many human tissues, such as brain, and activation by tissue specific ligands (such as neurosteroids) suggests additional biological roles for this receptor in these tissues

  18. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  19. Cinnamic Acid Bornyl Ester Derivatives from Valeriana wallichii Exhibit Antileishmanial In Vivo Activity in Leishmania major-Infected BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Anita; Valencia Hernandez, Ana Maria; Hazra, Sudipta; Glaser, Jan; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Hazra, Banasri; Schurigt, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Human leishmaniasis covers a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis to severe and lethal visceral leishmaniasis caused among other species by Leishmania major or Leishmania donovani, respectively. Some drug candidates are in clinical trials to substitute current therapies, which are facing emerging drug-resistance accompanied with serious side effects. Here, two cinnamic acid bornyl ester derivatives (1 and 2) were assessed for their antileishmanial activity. Good selectivity and antileishmanial activity of bornyl 3-phenylpropanoate (2) in vitro prompted the antileishmanial assessment in vivo. For this purpose, BALB/c mice were infected with Leishmania major promastigotes and treated with three doses of 50 mg/kg/day of compound 2. The treatment prevented the characteristic swelling at the site of infection and correlated with reduced parasite burden. Transmitted light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy of Leishmania major promastigotes revealed that compounds 1 and 2 induce mitochondrial swelling. Subsequent studies on Leishmania major promastigotes showed the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) as a putative mode of action. As the cinnamic acid bornyl ester derivatives 1 and 2 had exhibited antileishmanial activity in vitro, and compound 2 in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice in vivo, they can be regarded as possible lead structures for the development of new antileishmanial therapeutic approaches.

  20. Vicilin-A major storage protein of mungbean exhibits antioxidative potential, antiproliferative effects and ACE inhibitory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysates of different food proteins demonstrate health benefits. Search for diet related food protein hydrolysates is therefore of interest within the scope of functional foods. Mungbean is one of the popular foods in India because of rich protein source. In this study, mungbean vicilin protein (MBVP was enzymatically hydrolysed by alcalase and trypsin under optimal conditions. We have studied the antioxidant, antiproliferative and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of mungbean vicilin protein hydrolysate (MBVPH vis-a-vis alcalase-generated mungbean vicilin protein hydrolysate (AMBVPH and trypsin-generated mungbean vicilin protein hydrolysate (TMBVPH. The results showed that MBVPH exhibited higher antioxidant potential, ACE inhibitory and antiproliferative activities than MBVP. The alcalase treated hydrolysate displayed highest ACE inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.32 mg protein/ml. The MBVP showed significant antiproliferative activity against both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells at the doses between 0.2-1.0 mg/ml. The data suggested that MBVPH can be utilized as physiologically active functional foods with sufficient antihypertensive activity. The results indicate that mungbean can be utilized as a rich resource of functional foods.

  1. Non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic activity of blood mononuclear cells stimulated with secreted mycobacterial proteins and other mycobacterial antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1994-01-01

    Several observations indicate that non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity, mediated for example by natural killer cells and lymphokine-activated killer cells, may serve as an important antimicrobial defense mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate...

  2. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  3. Whole-transcriptome brain expression and exon-usage profiling in major depression and suicide: evidence for altered glial, endothelial and ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazatos, S P; Huang, Y-Y; Rosoklija, G B; Dwork, A J; Arango, V; Mann, J J

    2017-05-01

    Brain gene expression profiling studies of suicide and depression using oligonucleotide microarrays have often failed to distinguish these two phenotypes. Moreover, next generation sequencing approaches are more accurate in quantifying gene expression and can detect alternative splicing. Using RNA-seq, we examined whole-exome gene and exon expression in non-psychiatric controls (CON, N=29), DSM-IV major depressive disorder suicides (MDD-S, N=21) and MDD non-suicides (MDD, N=9) in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) of sudden death medication-free individuals post mortem. Using small RNA-seq, we also examined miRNA expression (nine samples per group). DeSeq2 identified 35 genes differentially expressed between groups and surviving adjustment for false discovery rate (adjusted Pdepression, altered genes include humanin-like-8 (MTRNRL8), interleukin-8 (IL8), and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade H (SERPINH1) and chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4), while exploratory gene ontology (GO) analyses revealed lower expression of immune-related pathways such as chemokine receptor activity, chemotaxis and cytokine biosynthesis, and angiogenesis and vascular development in (adjusted Psuicide and depression, and provisional evidence for altered DNA-dependent ATPase expression in suicide only. DEXSEq analysis identified differential exon usage in ATPase, class II, type 9B (adjusted Pdepression. Differences in miRNA expression or structural gene variants were not detected. Results lend further support for models in which deficits in microglial, endothelial (blood-brain barrier), ATPase activity and astrocytic cell functions contribute to MDD and suicide, and identify putative pathways and mechanisms for further study in these disorders.

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on the activity of the major hepatic enzymes implicated in bile acid biosynthesis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, M.; Scanff, P.; Grison, St.; Gourmelon, P.; Aigueperse, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the days following high-dose radiation exposure, damage to small intestinal mucosa is aggravated by changes in the bile acid pool reaching the gut. Intestinal bile acid malabsorption, as described classically, may be associated with altered hepatic bile acid biosynthesis, which was the objective of this work. The activity of the main rate-limiting enzymes implicated in the bile acid biosynthesis were evaluated in the days following an 8-Gy γ Co 60 total body irradiation of rats, with concomitant determination of biliary bile acid profiles and intestinal bile acid content. Modifications of biliary bile acid profiles, observed as early as the first post-irradiation day, were most marked at the third and fourth day, and resulted in an increased hydrophobicity index. In parallel, the intestinal bile acids' content was enhanced and hepatic enzymatic activities leading to bile acids were changed. A marked increase of sterol 12-hydroxylase and decrease of oxy-sterol 7-hydroxylase activity was observed at day 3, whereas both cholesterol 7-hydroxylase and oxy-sterol 7-hydroxylase activities were decreased at day 4 after irradiation. These results show, for the first time, radiation-induced modifications of hepatic enzymatic activities implicated in bile acid biosynthesis and suggest that they are mainly a consequence of radiation-altered intestinal absorption, which induces a physiological response of the entero-hepatic bile acid recirculation. (authors)

  5. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  6. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  7. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Methods Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 - 150 μg/ml. Results The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC50 value of 72.86 μg/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 μg/ml and 86.16 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides. PMID:24731297

  8. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  9. Abundance and activity of major groups of prokaryotic plankton in the coastal North Sea during spring and summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Sintes, Eva; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of the abundance and activity of selected heterotrophic prokaryotic groups were determined in the coastal North Sea during a coastal spring bloom dominated by the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa and in the subsequent spring and summer season using catalyzed reporter

  10. Methanolic Extract’s Activity of Artemisia absinthium, Vitexagnus-castus and Phytolacaamericana Against Leishmania major; in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanjani Jafroodi S.1 MSc,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims Leishmaniasis is the most prevalent vector- borne parasitic disease in Iran. Drug treatment is the best way to treat leishmaniasis, while the common drugs are not efficient enough and inevitable side effects limit using these drugs. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro and in vivo activity of the methanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium, Vitex agnus-castus and Phytolaca americana Against Leishmania major. Materials & Methods The methanolic extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Vitex agnuscastus and Phytolaca americana were prepared by cold percolation method. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 of the plant extracts was determined against L. major promastigotes followed by efficacy evaluation of the extracts against amastigotes and in vivo assay in the BALB/c animal model. The data was analyzed with SPSS 19 software using Student’s T test and ANOVA. Findings Artemisia absinthium had the highest amount of active compounds against promastigotes of L. major (IC50=159.45 and antiprolifrative activity of Artemisia absinthium on both forms of L. major (extracellular promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes was the highest (MI=33%. Vitex agnus-castus had the least toxic effect for macrophages (8%. All extracts limited the progression of lesion size versus control group, however, only inhibitory effect of Artemisia absinthium extract was statistically significant. Conclusion Artemisia absinthium is the most effective growth inhibitor of amastigotes in animal lesions and it is safe for drug application in human and animals.

  11. The Major Trends of Research on Physical Activity in Japan Viewed From the Reports Presented at the JSPE Annual Conventions During Past 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshizuka, Tetsuo

    1978-01-01

    The major research trends over the past 25 years in Japanese physical education are analyzed using oral reports of the Japanese Society of Physical Education. Topics for analysis include: philosophy, sociology, history, administration, psychology, growth and development, health education, teaching methodology, biomechanics, measurement and…

  12. Chemical characterization of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia miers (Winteraceae) and antibacterial activity of their major compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Thalita G.; Dognini, Jocinei; Begnini, Ieda M.; Rebelo, Ricardo A.; Verdi, Marcio; Gasper, Andre L. de; Dalmarco, Eduardo M.

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils have been extensively studied in recent years as a natural source of new antimicrobial agents. In this work, essential oils of leaf and branch from Drimys angustifolia growing in Southern Brazil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatographies with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Drimenol and bicyclogermacrene were isolated by column chromatography from branch and leaf essential oils, respectively. Oils, isolated compounds and combinations of them were assayed against Gram-(+) and Gram-(–) bacteria. The oils showed to be more active against Bacillus cereus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 and 250 μg mL -1 for branch and leaf oils, respectively, strongly inhibiting bacterial growth. Bicyclogermacrene was more active then drimenol, providing a MIC value of 167 μg mL-1 against B. cereus. Synergism was not observed in any of the combinations tested. (author)

  13. Chemical characterization of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia miers (Winteraceae) and antibacterial activity of their major compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Thalita G.; Dognini, Jocinei; Begnini, Ieda M.; Rebelo, Ricardo A., E-mail: ricardorebelo@furb.br [Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB), SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Verdi, Marcio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica; Gasper, Andre L. de [Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB), SC (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Dalmarco, Eduardo M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas

    2013-01-15

    Essential oils have been extensively studied in recent years as a natural source of new antimicrobial agents. In this work, essential oils of leaf and branch from Drimys angustifolia growing in Southern Brazil were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatographies with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and with mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Drimenol and bicyclogermacrene were isolated by column chromatography from branch and leaf essential oils, respectively. Oils, isolated compounds and combinations of them were assayed against Gram-(+) and Gram-(-) bacteria. The oils showed to be more active against Bacillus cereus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 125 and 250 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for branch and leaf oils, respectively, strongly inhibiting bacterial growth. Bicyclogermacrene was more active then drimenol, providing a MIC value of 167 {mu}g mL-1 against B. cereus. Synergism was not observed in any of the combinations tested. (author)

  14. Persistence of insecticidal activities of crude essential oils of three aromatic plants towards four major stored product insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Ngamo, T. S. L.; Ngatanko, I.; Ngassoum, M. B.; Mapongmestsem, P. M.; Hance, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic plants with insecticidal properties are more and more considered as alternative insecticides to protect stored products. Many banned insecticides have high persistence which allow them to occur at several levels of trophic chains. The aim of the present work is to analyse the persistence of insecticidal activity of crude essential oil of three most used local aromatic plants : Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae), Hyptis spicigera L. (Lamiaceae) and Lippia rugosa ...

  15. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Pak Dek, Mohd Sabri; Tan, Chin Ping; Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Asraf; Wee Fang, Evelyn Koh

    2014-01-01

    Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α)-tocopherol, gamma (γ)-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying. PMID:26785067

  16. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmaria F. Ferrazzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H, ethanol (E, and water (W extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans.

  17. Environmental Toxin Acrolein Alters Levels of Endogenous Lipids, Including TRP Agonists: A Potential Mechanism for Headache Driven by TRPA1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Emma; Kunkler, Phillip E; Manchanda, Meera; Sangani, Kishan; Stuart, Jordyn M; Oxford, Gerry S; Hurley, Joyce H; Bradshaw, Heather B

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N -acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N -arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization.

  18. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  19. In Vitro Effects of Plantago Major Extract, Aucubin, and Baicalein on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation, Metabolic Activity, and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Karina Pezo; Windsor, L Jack; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    2017-08-01

    To determine the in vitro effectiveness of Plantago major extract, along with two of its active components, aucubin and baicalein, on the inhibition of Candida albicans growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of each solution. Separately, twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the metabolic activity of established C. albicans biofilm using a 2,3-bis (2- methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-carboxanilide reduction assay. Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity of treated C. albicans biofilm by a two-phase assay using hexadecane. The hydrophobicity percentage of the cell surface was then calculated. A mixed-model ANOVA test was used for intergroup comparisons. The MICs of P. major extract (diluted 1:2 to 1:8), aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml), and baicalein (0.0063 to 100 μg/ml) on the total growth of C. albicans were noticeable at their highest concentrations, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The MFC was evaluated after 48 hours of incubation, and aucubin (244 μg/ml) exhibited a strong fungicidal activity at its highest concentration against C. albicans growth. The MBIC indicated no growth or reduced growth of C. albicans biofilm at the highest concentrations of aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml) and baicalein (25 to 100 μg/ml). Similarly, the effects of these reagents on C. albicans biofilm metabolic activity and hydrophobicity demonstrated high effectiveness at their highest concentrations. P. major extract, aucubin, and baicalein caused a dose-dependent reduction on the total growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity of C. albicans. This demonstrates their

  20. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1984 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-07-01

    The extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir was determined. Salmonids were the single most important food item by weight for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in the restricted zones at McNary tailrace and John Day forebay during all sampling periods. Salmonids accounted for 18.1% of the weight in the diet of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1984 which was at least twice that found in previous years. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) salmonids contributed little to their diet whereas for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fish accounted for 64.1% of the weight in their diet with salmonids responsible for approximately half of this weight. An intensive search of the fisheries literature was conducted to review various fish capture and control techniques which might have potential as predation control measures for the major predators of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River system. Most prey protection measures were judged to have high potential and direct predator control measures were judged to have moderate or low potential.

  1. An everyday activity as a treatment for depression: The benefits of expressive writing for people diagnosed with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpan, Katherine M.; Kross, Ethan; Berman, Marc G.; Deldin, Patricia J.; Askren, Mary K.; Jonides, John

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of expressive writing have been well documented among several populations, but particularly among those who report feelings of dysphoria. It is not known, however, if those diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) would also benefit from expressive writing. Methods Forty people diagnosed with current MDD by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV participated in the study. On day 1 of testing, participants completed a series of questionnaires and cognitive tasks. Participants were then randomly assigned to either an expressive writing condition in which they wrote for 20 min over three consecutive days about their deepest thoughts and feelings surrounding an emotional event (n=20), or to a control condition (n=20) in which they wrote about non-emotional daily events each day. On day 5 of testing, participants completed another series of questionnaires and cognitive measures. These measures were repeated again 4 weeks later. Results People diagnosed with MDD in the expressive writing condition showed significant decreases in depression scores (Beck Depression Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores) immediately after the experimental manipulation (Day 5). These benefits persisted at the 4-week follow-up. Limitations Self-selected sample. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of expressive writing among people formally diagnosed with current MDD. These data suggest that expressive writing may be a useful supplement to existing interventions for depression. PMID:23790815

  2. FOXO/DAF-16 Activation Slows Down Turnover of the Majority of Proteins in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Ineke; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Cai, Huaihan; Vandemeulebroucke, Lieselot; Vierstraete, Andy; Smith, Richard D; Depuydt, Geert; Braeckman, Bart P

    2016-09-13

    Most aging hypotheses assume the accumulation of damage, resulting in gradual physiological decline and, ultimately, death. Avoiding protein damage accumulation by enhanced turnover should slow down the aging process and extend the lifespan. However, lowering translational efficiency extends rather than shortens the lifespan in C. elegans. We studied turnover of individual proteins in the long-lived daf-2 mutant by combining SILeNCe (stable isotope labeling by nitrogen in Caenorhabditiselegans) and mass spectrometry. Intriguingly, the majority of proteins displayed prolonged half-lives in daf-2, whereas others remained unchanged, signifying that longevity is not supported by high protein turnover. This slowdown was most prominent for translation-related and mitochondrial proteins. In contrast, the high turnover of lysosomal hydrolases and very low turnover of cytoskeletal proteins remained largely unchanged. The slowdown of protein dynamics and decreased abundance of the translational machinery may point to the importance of anabolic attenuation in lifespan extension, as suggested by the hyperfunction theory. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FOXO/DAF-16 Activation Slows Down Turnover of the Majority of Proteins in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Dhondt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most aging hypotheses assume the accumulation of damage, resulting in gradual physiological decline and, ultimately, death. Avoiding protein damage accumulation by enhanced turnover should slow down the aging process and extend the lifespan. However, lowering translational efficiency extends rather than shortens the lifespan in C. elegans. We studied turnover of individual proteins in the long-lived daf-2 mutant by combining SILeNCe (stable isotope labeling by nitrogen in Caenorhabditis elegans and mass spectrometry. Intriguingly, the majority of proteins displayed prolonged half-lives in daf-2, whereas others remained unchanged, signifying that longevity is not supported by high protein turnover. This slowdown was most prominent for translation-related and mitochondrial proteins. In contrast, the high turnover of lysosomal hydrolases and very low turnover of cytoskeletal proteins remained largely unchanged. The slowdown of protein dynamics and decreased abundance of the translational machinery may point to the importance of anabolic attenuation in lifespan extension, as suggested by the hyperfunction theory.

  4. Antifungal and cytotoxicity activities of the fresh xylem sap of Hymenaea courbaril L. and its major constituent fisetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Maysa Paula; Bozinis, Marize Campos Valadares; Andrade, Wanessa Machado; Costa, Carolina Rodrigues; da Silva, Alessandro Lopes; Alves de Oliveira, Cecília Maria; Kato, Lucília; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fátima Lisboa; Souza, Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2014-07-16

    The great potential of plants as Hymenaea courbaril L (jatoba) has not yet been throughly explored scientifically and therefore it is very important to investigate their pharmacological and toxicological activities to establish their real efficacy and safety. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of xylem sap of Hymenaea courbaril L and its bioactivity against the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans species complex and dermatophytes. The fresh xylem sap of H. courbaril was filtered resulting in an insoluble brown color precipitate and was identified as fisetin. In the filtrate was identified the mixture of fisetinediol, fustin, 3-O-methyl-2,3-trans-fustin and taxifolin, which were evaluated by broth microdilution antifungal susceptibility testing against C. neoformans species complex and dermatophytes. The fresh xylem sap and fisetin were screened for cytotoxicity against the 3T3-A31 cells of Balb/c using neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. The fresh xylem sap and the fisetin showed higher in vitro activity than the filtrate. The xylem sap of H. courbaril inhibited the growth of dermatophytes and of C. neoformans with minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) < 256 μg/mL, while the fisetin showed MIC < 128 μg/mL for these fungi. Fisetin showed lower toxicity (IC50 = 158 μg/mL) than the fresh xylem sap (IC50 = 109 μg/mL). Naturally occurring fisetin can provide excellent starting points for clinical application and can certainly represent a therapeutic potential against fungal infections, because it showed in vitro antifungal activity and low toxicity on animal cells.

  5. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  6. Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Natalya M; Melamed, Eitan; Wasserman, Elad; Raphael, Bitya; Breuer, Aviva; Stok, Kathryn S; Sondergaard, Rachel; Escudero, Ana V Villarreal; Baraghithy, Saja; Attar-Namdar, Malka; Friedlander-Barenboim, Silvina; Mathavan, Neashan; Isaksson, Hanna; Mechoulam, Raphael; Müller, Ralph; Bajayo, Alon; Gabet, Yankel; Bab, Itai

    2015-10-01

    Cannabinoid ligands regulate bone mass, but skeletal effects of cannabis (marijuana and hashish) have not been reported. Bone fractures are highly prevalent, involving prolonged immobilization and discomfort. Here we report that the major non-psychoactive cannabis constituent, cannabidiol (CBD), enhances the biomechanical properties of healing rat mid-femoral fractures. The maximal load and work-to-failure, but not the stiffness, of femurs from rats given a mixture of CBD and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for 8 weeks were markedly increased by CBD. This effect is not shared by THC (the psychoactive component of cannabis), but THC potentiates the CBD stimulated work-to-failure at 6 weeks postfracture followed by attenuation of the CBD effect at 8 weeks. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), the fracture callus size was transiently reduced by either CBD or THC 4 weeks after fracture but reached control level after 6 and 8 weeks. The callus material density was unaffected by CBD and/or THC. By contrast, CBD stimulated mRNA expression of Plod1 in primary osteoblast cultures, encoding an enzyme that catalyzes lysine hydroxylation, which is in turn involved in collagen crosslinking and stabilization. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy we confirmed the increase in collagen crosslink ratio by CBD, which is likely to contribute to the improved biomechanical properties of the fracture callus. Taken together, these data show that CBD leads to improvement in fracture healing and demonstrate the critical mechanical role of collagen crosslinking enzymes. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Collagenolytic activities of the major secreted cathepsin L peptidases involved in the virulence of the helminth pathogen, Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The temporal expression and secretion of distinct members of a family of virulence-associated cathepsin L cysteine peptidases (FhCL correlates with the entry and migration of the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica in the host. Thus, infective larvae traversing the gut wall secrete cathepsin L3 (FhCL3, liver migrating juvenile parasites secrete both FhCL1 and FhCL2 while the mature bile duct parasites, which are obligate blood feeders, secrete predominantly FhCL1 but also FhCL2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 exhibit differences in their kinetic parameters towards a range of peptide substrates. Uniquely, FhCL2 and FhCL3 readily cleave substrates with Pro in the P2 position and peptide substrates mimicking the repeating Gly-Pro-Xaa motifs that occur within the primary sequence of collagen. FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 hydrolysed native type I and II collagen at neutral pH but while FhCL1 cleaved only non-collagenous (NC, non-Gly-X-Y domains FhCL2 and FhCL3 exhibited collagenase activity by cleaving at multiple sites within the α1 and α2 triple helix regions (Col domains. Molecular simulations created for FhCL1, FhCL2 and FhCL3 complexed to various seven-residue peptides supports the idea that Trp67 and Tyr67 in the S2 subsite of the active sites of FhCL3 and FhCL2, respectively, are critical to conferring the unique collagenase-like activity to these enzymes by accommodating either Gly or Pro residues at P2 in the substrate. The data also suggests that FhCL3 accommodates hydroxyproline (Hyp-Gly at P3-P2 better than FhCL2 explaining the observed greater ability of FhCL3 to digest type I and II collagens compared to FhCL2 and why these enzymes cleave at different positions within the Col domains. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies further our understanding of how this helminth parasite regulates peptidase expression to ensure infection, migration and establishment in host tissues.

  8. Insulin Activates Vagal Afferent Neurons Including those Innervating Pancreas via Insulin Cascade and Ca(2+ Influx: Its Dysfunction in IRS2-KO Mice with Hyperphagic Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusaku Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Some of insulin's functions, including glucose/lipid metabolism, satiety and neuroprotection, involve the alteration of brain activities. Insulin could signal to the brain via penetrating through the blood-brain barrier and acting on the vagal afferents, while the latter remains unproved. This study aimed to clarify whether insulin directly regulates the nodose ganglion neurons (NGNs of vagal afferents in mice. NGs expressed insulin receptor (IR and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2 mRNA, and some of NGNs were immunoreactive to IR. In patch-clamp and fura-2 microfluorometric studies, insulin (10(-12∼10(-6 M depolarized and increased cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]i in single NGNs. The insulin-induced [Ca(2+]i increases were attenuated by L- and N-type Ca(2+ channel blockers, by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor, and in NGNs from IRS2 knockout mice. Half of the insulin-responsive NGNs contained cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. Neuronal fibers expressing IRs were distributed in/around pancreatic islets. The NGNs innervating the pancreas, identified by injecting retrograde tracer into the pancreas, responded to insulin with much greater incidence than unlabeled NGNs. Insulin concentrations measured in pancreatic vein was 64-fold higher than that in circulation. Elevation of insulin to 10(-7 M recruited a remarkably greater population of NGNs to [Ca(2+]i increases. Systemic injection of glibenclamide rapidly released insulin and phosphorylated AKT in NGs. Furthermore, in IRS2 knockout mice, insulin action to suppress [Ca(2+]i in orexigenic ghrelin-responsive neurons in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus was intact while insulin action on NGN was markedly attenuated, suggesting a possible link between impaired insulin sensing by NGNs and hyperphagic obese phenotype in IRS2 knockout mice These data demonstrate that insulin directly activates NGNs via IR-IRS2-PI3K-AKT-cascade and depolarization-gated Ca(2+ influx. Pancreas

  9. Behavioral activation strategies for major depression in transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy: An evidence-based case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchione, Todd J; Boswell, James F; Wilner, Julianne G

    2017-09-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a treatment approach that uses functional analysis and context-dependent strategies to enhance environmental positive reinforcement for adaptive, healthy behavior, and decrease behavioral avoidance. BA has gained considerable support for the treatment of depression and can be broadly applied across a wide range of settings and clinical populations. In this article, we provide a brief description of BA as a therapeutic behavioral strategy for depression and present a clinical case example illustrating the integration of BA with other components of a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment for emotional disorders. Implications for clinical practice and avenues for future research will be discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Ramadan major dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest.

  11. Screening of the ‘Pathogen Box’ identifies an approved pesticide with major anthelmintic activity against the barber's pole worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Preston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial need to develop new medicines against parasitic diseases via public-private partnerships. Based on high throughput phenotypic screens of largely protozoal pathogens and bacteria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV has recently assembled an open-access ‘Pathogen Box’ containing 400 well-curated chemical compounds. In the present study, we tested these compounds for activity against parasitic stages of the nematode Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm. In an optimised, whole-organism screening assay, using exsheathed third-stage (xL3 and fourth-stage (L4 larvae, we measured the inhibition of larval motility, growth and development of H. contortus. We also studied the effect of the ‘hit’ compound on mitochondrial function by measuring oxygen consumption. Among the 400 Pathogen Box compounds, we identified one chemical, called tolfenpyrad (compound identification code: MMV688934 that reproducibly inhibits xL3 motility as well as L4 motility, growth and development, with IC50 values ranging between 0.02 and 3 μM. An assessment of mitochondrial function showed that xL3s treated with tolfenpyrad consumed significantly less oxygen than untreated xL3s, which was consistent with specific inhibition of complex I of the respiratory electron transport chain in arthropods. Given that tolfenpyrad was developed as a pesticide and has already been tested for absorption, distribution, excretion, biotransformation, toxicity and metabolism, it shows considerable promise for hit-to-lead optimisation and/or repurposing for use against H. contortus and other parasitic nematodes. Future work should assess its activity against hookworms and other pathogens that cause neglected tropical diseases.

  12. The Effect of Deployment on the Rate of Major Depression and Substance Abuse in Active Duty Military from 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    DEFINITIONS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE, SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT Substance abuse, the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances , is a psychological...continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption ). 12 An important component of the epidemiology of substance ...DEPLOYMENT ON THE RATE OF MAJOR DEPRESSION AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY FROM 2001–2006 by Melissa K. Burke March 2011 Thesis

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity and major bioactive components of Cinnamomum verum essential oils against cariogenic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhee Choi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The essential oil of C. verum and its major component cinnamaldehyde possessed considerable in vitro antibacterial activities against cariogenic bacteria, S. mutans and S. sobrinus strains. These results showed that the essential oil of C. verum and its bioactive component, cinnamaldehyde, have potential for application as natural agents for the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

  14. Activation of Stat-3 is involved in the induction of apoptosis after ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Nielsen, M; Bregenholt, S

    1998-01-01

    Activation of Janus tyrosine kinases (Jak) and Signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) after ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) was explored in Jurkat T cells. Cross-linking of MHC-I mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Tyk2, but not Jak1, Jak2, and Jak3......-probe derived from the interferon-gamma activated site (GAS) in the c-fos promoter, a common DNA sequence for Stat protein binding. An association between hSIE and Stat-3 after MHC-I ligation was directly demonstrated by precipitating Stat-3 from nuclear extracts with biotinylated hSIE probe and avidin......-coupled agarose. To investigate the function of the activated Stat-3, Jurkat T cells were transiently transfected with a Stat-3 isoform lacking the transactivating domain. This dominant-negative acting Stat-3 isoform significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by ligation of MHC-I. In conclusion, our data suggest...

  15. Insecticidal and repellent activities of pyrethroids to the three major pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Kazunori; Dida, Gabriel O; Sonye, George; Njenga, Sammy M; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-05-02

    The dramatic success of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in African countries has been countered by the rapid development of pyrethroid resistance in vector mosquitoes over the past decade. One advantage of the use of pyrethroids in ITNs is their excito-repellency. Use of the excito-repellency of pyrethroids might be biorational, since such repellency will not induce or delay the development of any physiological resistance. However, little is known about the relationship between the mode of insecticide resistance and excito-repellency in pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. Differences in the reactions of 3 major malaria vectors in western Kenya to pyrethroids were compared in laboratory tests. Adult susceptibility tests were performed using World Health Organization (WHO) test tube kits for F1 progenies of field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s., and laboratory colonies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. The contact repellency to pyrethroids or permethrin-impregnated LLINs (Olyset® Nets) was evaluated with a simple choice test modified by WHO test tubes and with the test modified by the WHO cone bioassay test. Field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s. showed high resistance to both permethrin and deltamethrin. The allelic frequency of the point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (L1014S) in An. gambiae s.s. was 99.3-100%, while no point mutations were detected in the other 2 species. The frequency of takeoffs from the pyrethroid-treated surface and the flying times without contacting the surface increased significantly in pyrethroid-susceptible An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis colonies and wild An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. colonies, while there was no significant increase in the frequency of takeoffs or flying time in the An. gambiae s.s. wild colony. A different repellent reaction was observed in the field-collected An. gambiae s.s. than

  16. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  17. Monoterpenic aldehydes as potential anti-Leishmania agents: activity of Cymbopogon citratus and citral on L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M; Pires, P; Dinis, A M; Santos-Rosa, M; Alves, V; Salgueiro, L; Cavaleiro, C; Sousa, M C

    2012-03-01

    In order to contribute for the search of new drugs for leishmaniasis, we study the susceptibility of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major to Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and major compounds, mrycene and citral. C. citratus and citral were the most active inhibiting L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major growth at IC(50) concentrations ranging from 25 to 52 μg/ml and from 34 to 42 μg/ml, respectively. L. infantum promastigotes exposed to essential oil and citral underwent considerable ultrastructural alterations, namely mitochondrial and kinetoplast swelling, autophagosomal structures, disruption of nuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin condensation. C. citratus essential oil and citral promoted the leishmanicidal effect by triggering a programmed cell death. In fact, the leishmanicidal activity was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidylserine, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell-cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase. Taken together, ours findings lead us to propose that citral was responsible for anti-Leishmania activity of the C. citratus and both may represent a valuable source for therapeutic control of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deal with them. Types of talk therapy include: Cognitive behavioral therapy teaches you how to fight off negative thoughts. ... 2/2016 Updated by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, ...

  19. In vitro activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major component (citral) on Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Marta Regina; dos Santos, Adriana Oliveira; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Ferreira, Izabel Cristina Piloto; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2009-11-01

    Leishmaniasis causes considerable mortality throughout the world, affecting more than 12 million people. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Family Poaceae, is a widely used herb in tropical countries and is also known as a source of ethnomedicines. In this study, the inhibitory effect and the morphological and ultrastructural alterations on Leishmania amazonensis by the essential oil (EO) of C. citratus and its main constituent, citral, were evaluated. The results showed that the antiproliferative activity of EO on promastigotes and axenic amastigotes, and intracellular amastigote forms of L. amazonensis was significantly better than citral, and indicated a dose-dependent effect. Neither compound showed a cytotoxic effect on macrophage strain J774G8. The promastigote forms of L. amazonensis underwent remarkable morphological and ultrastructural alterations compared with untreated cultures. These alterations were visible by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy of promastigotes treated with EO and citral at concentrations corresponding to the IC(50) (1.7 and 8.0 microg/ml) and IC(90) (3.2 and 25 microg/ml), respectively, after 72 h of incubation. This study revealed that citral-rich essential oil from C. citratus has promising antileishmanial properties, and is a good candidate for further research to develop a new anti-protozoan drug.

  20. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Gender differences in brain activity and the relationship between brain activity and differences in prevalence rates between male and female major depressive disorder patients: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijian; Yan, Rui; Wei, Maobin; Tang, Hao; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    We examined the gender-difference effect on abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of male and female major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and the further clarified the relationship between the abnormal ALFF and differences in MDD prevalence rates between male and female patients. Fourteen male MDD patients, 13 female MDD patients and 15 male and 15 female well matched healthy controls (HCs) completed this study. The ALFF approach was used, and Pearson correlation was conducted to observe a possible clinical relevance. There were widespread differences in ALFF values between female and male MDD patients, including some important parts of the frontoparietal network, auditory network, attention network and cerebellum network. In female MDD patients, there was a positive correlation between average ALFF values of the left postcentral gyrus and the severity of weight loss symptom. The gender-difference effect leading to abnormal brain activity is an important underlying pathomechanism for different somatic symptoms in MDD patients of different genders and is likely suggestive of higher MDD prevalence rates in females. The abnormal ALFF resulting from the gender-difference effect might improve our understanding of the differences in prevalence rates between male and female MDD patients from another perspective. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect Of Five Proteases Including Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Papain, Proteinase K And Trypsin On Antioxidative Activities Of Casein Hydrolysate From Goat Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Guowei; Zhang Qian; Chen He; Wan Hongchang; Li Hong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation was related to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Adequate intake of antioxidant activity of food can reduce the levels of free radicals, prevent lipid peroxidation, and help the body against diseases. In the paper, casein from goat milk was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases, namely, Alcalase, flavourzyme, papain, proteinase K and trypsin. The antioxidant activities of casein hydrolysates were assessed by evaluating hydrolysis degree, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, metal-c...

  3. Effect Of Five Proteases Including Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Papain, Proteinase K And Trypsin On Antioxidative Activities Of Casein Hydrolysate From Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation was related to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Adequate intake of antioxidant activity of food can reduce the levels of free radicals, prevent lipid peroxidation, and help the body against diseases. In the paper, casein from goat milk was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases, namely, Alcalase, flavourzyme, papain, proteinase K and trypsin. The antioxidant activities of casein hydrolysates were assessed by evaluating hydrolysis degree, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, metal-chelating activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The results showed as follows: the DH of proteinase K, Alcalase, and trypsin were higher significantly than those of papain and flavourzyme. The Fe2+-chelation activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity of casein hydrolysates from goat milk by Alcalase was higher than the others, the DPPH scavenging activities of casein hydrolysates by Alcalase and papain was higher than the others and the DPPH scavenging activities by Alcalase and papain had no significant diffierence (p<0.05, so the optimal proteinase for hydrolysis casein from goat milk to produce antioxidant peptide was Alcalase.

  4. [Experimental study of the effect of the phytomixture made of leaves of Plantago major L. and Achillea millenfolium L. on the secretion activity of the stomach in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author used plants with an obvious anti-ulcerous effect, which are often jointly included in gastroenterological phytomixtures. It was shown that the extract from leaves of Plantago major L. has a stimulating effect on gastric secretion, mostly on parietal cells. The extract from Achillea millenfolium L. reduced aggressive properties and enhanced protective properties of gastric juice. The common effect was demonstrated by the increased acid production and enhanced protective properties of gastric mucus.

  5. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2006-12-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal yielded conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in an RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single-dose and multiple-dose activated charcoal (SDAC and MDAC, respectively) compared with no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated with a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups by determining the area under the curve for each patient in the 24 hours following admission, the 24-hour mean residence time, and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points, adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9 hours. There was a reduction in 24-hour mean residence time and in the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal, versus the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favorably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning and may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, these mechanistic data support the need for further studies to determine whether a particular subgroup

  7. Skin peptides from anurans of the Litoria rubella Group: sequence determination using electrospray mass spectrometry. Opioid activity of two major peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackway, Rebecca J; Maselli, Vita M; Musgrave, Ian F; Maclean, Micheal J; Tyler, Michael J; Bowie, John H

    2009-04-01

    Many species of frogs of the genus Litoria secrete bioactive peptides from their skin glands. These peptides are normally host-defence compounds and may have one, or more of the following activities; smooth muscle contraction, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, lymphocyte proliferator (immunomodulator) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inactivation. Two frog species of the Litoria rubella Group that have been studied before, namely, Litoria electrica and Litoria rubella, are different from other species of the genus Litoria in that they produce small peptides that show neither membrane, lymphocyte nor nNOS activity. In this study we have used electrospray mass spectrometry together with Edman sequencing to identify eight skin peptides of the third member of this Group, Litoria dentata: surprisingly, none of these peptides show activity in our biological screening program. However, two major peptides (FPWL-NH(2) and FPWP-NH(2)) from L. electrica and L. rubella are opioids at the micromolar concentration.

  8. Isolation, structural elucidation and in vitro activity of 2-acetyl-2-decarboxamido-oxytetracycline against environmental relevant bacteria, including tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkeberg, Anne Kruse; Sengeløv, Gitte; Cornett, Claus

    2004-01-01

    i.d., 5 microm), and the mobile phase contained methanol-water (27:73 (v/v)) with 0.08 M formic acid added. The flow rate was 9.0 ml/min. It was possible to isolate few milligram ADOTC in a day. The compound was unambiguously identified using NMR and MS-MS. The anti-microbial activity against...... activated sludge bacteria was determined giving a potency of only 3% of that of OTC. With tetracycline-resistant bacteria, no anti-microbial activity was observed, indicating a mode of action similar to that of OTC....

  9. Personal Hearing Protection including Active Noise Reduction (Les dispositifs de protection de l'ouie, y compris l'attenuation du bruit actif) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steeneken, H. J; Dancer, A; McKinley, R; Buck, K; James, S

    2005-01-01

    .... SYSTEMS DETAIL NOTE: Adobe Acrobat Reader is included on disc. ABSTRACT: Personal hearing protection and speech communication facilities are essential for optimal performance in military operations...

  10. Self-reported activity in tortured refugees with long-term sequelae including pain and the impact of foot pain from falanga - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, Karen; Persson, Ann L; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe activity limitations in tortured refugees referred for rehabilitation, particularly the impact of neuropathic pain resulting from falanga (beatings under the feet). Methods. Physiotherapists assessed 103 consecutively referred torture victims with a long history of sequelae......, among them pain and mobility problems. All had been subjected to various forms of physical and psychological torture and 71 victims had also suffered falanga. Main outcome measures used were: the Disability Rating Index (DRI; 12 items) to assess self-reported capacity to carry out daily activities...... of victims who had chronic pain for at least 5 years after torture, all perceived activity limitations, but pain from falanga had a greater overall impact on disability assessed in terms of daily activities....

  11. Approaching a Conceptual Understanding of Enzyme Kinetics and Inhibition: Development of an Active Learning Inquiry Activity for Prehealth and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Chloe; Meades, Glen; Linenberger, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Presented is a guided inquiry activity designed to be conducted with prenursing students using an analogous system to help develop a conceptual understanding of factors impacting enzyme kinetics and the various types of enzyme inhibition. Pre- and postconceptual understanding evaluations and effectiveness of implementation surveys were given to…

  12. A booming economy means a bursting trauma system: association between hospital admission for major injury and indicators of economic activity in a large Canadian health region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Das, Debanjana; Mercado, Michelle; Vis, Christine; Kortbeek, John B; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G

    2014-05-01

    Injury epidemiology fluctuates with economic activity in many countries. These relationships remain unclear in Canada. The annual risk of admission for major injury (Injury Severity Score ≥12) to a high-volume, level-1 Canadian trauma center was compared with indicators of economic activity over a 16-year period using linear regression. An increased risk of injured patient admissions was associated with rising mean gross domestic product (GDP [millions of chained 2002 dollars]) (.36 person increase per 100,000 population/$1,000 increase in GDP; P = .001) and annual gasoline prices (.47 person increase per 100,000 population/cent increase in gasoline price; P = .001). Recreation-related vehicle injuries were also associated with economic affluence. The risk of trauma patient mortality with increasing mean annual GDP (P = .72) and gasoline prices (P = .32) remained unchanged. Hospital admissions for major injury, but not trauma patient mortality, were associated with economic activity in a large Canadian health care region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of solar magnetic fields below the surface, at the surface, and in the solar atmosphere - understanding the cause of major solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields govern all aspects of solar activity from the 11-year solar cycle to the most energetic events in the solar system, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). As seen on the surface of the sun, this activity emanates from localized concentrations of magnetic fields emerging sporadically from the solar interior. These locations are called solar Active Regions (ARs). However, the fundamental processes regarding the origin, emergence and evolution of solar magnetic fields as well as the generation of solar activity are largely unknown or remain controversial. In this dissertation, multiple important issues regarding solar magnetism and activities are addressed, based on advanced observations obtained by AIA and HMI instruments aboard the SDO spacecraft. First, this work investigates the formation of coronal magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), structures associated with major solar activity such as CMEs. In the past, several theories have been proposed to explain the cause of this major activity, which can be categorized in two contrasting groups (a) the MFR is formed in the eruption, and (b) the MFR pre-exists the eruption. This remains a topic of heated debate in modern solar physics. This dissertation provides a complete treatment of the role of MFRs from their genesis all the way to their eruption and even destruction. The study has uncovered the pre-existence of two weakly twisted MFRs, which formed during confined flaring 12 hours before their associated CMEs. Thus, it provides unambiguous evidence for MFRs truly existing before the CME eruptions, resolving the pre-existing MFR controversy. Second, this dissertation addresses the 3-D magnetic structure of complex emerging ARs. In ARs the photospheric fields might show all aspects of complexity, from simple bipolar regions to extremely complex multi-polar surface magnetic distributions. In this thesis, we introduce a novel technique to infer the subphotospheric configuration of emerging

  14. T-cell activation. V. Anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody-induced activation and clonal abortion in Jurkat T-leukaemic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, M H; Dissing, S; Tscherning, T

    1993-01-01

    We have studied activation-induced changes in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion, and clonal abortion of the human leukaemic T-cell line Jurkat and three T-cell receptor (TcR)/CD3 receptor negative clones deficient for the TcR alpha, TcR beta and CD3 gamma chains...... to an increased IL-2 secretion was preceded by a rise in [Ca2+]i and was relatively dependent on the expression of the a TcR/CD3 complex. In contrast, anti-MHC class I mAb-induced clonal abortion in Jurkat T cells may occur without previous fluctuations in [Ca2+]i and appeared to be independent of TcR/CD3...... expression. The present observation suggest the existence of different secondary messenger systems operating in Jurkat cells following activation via the TcR/CD3, CD2 and the MHC class I pathways, respectively....

  15. Efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram versus citalopram in major depressive disorder: a 6-week, multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study in adult outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevtushenko, Valery Y; Belous, Alexander I; Yevtushenko, Yevgenia G; Gusinin, Sergei E; Buzik, Oleg J; Agibalova, Tatiana V

    2007-11-01

    The S-enantiomer of citalopram (escitalopram) is the active moiety linked to the anti-depressant effects associated with citalopram (the racemate). For escitalopram to be approved for the treatment of depression in Europe, findings from clinical trials of escitalopram are required to match previous results from studies of the racemate, citalopram. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram and citalopram in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study was conducted at 8 psychiatric outpatient clinics in the Federation of Russia. Adult outpatients aged 25 to 45 years with MDD and a total score > or =25 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks of treatment with fixed daily doses of escitalopram 10 mg, citalopram 10 mg, or citalopram 20 mg. Efficacy assessments were made at weeks 0 (baseline), 1, 4, and 6 (study end or last observation carried forward). The primary efficacy parameter was the change from baseline in MADRS total score. Secondary measures were the change from baseline in MADRS total score in a subgroup of severely depressed patients (baseline MADRS total score, > or =35), MADRS core depression subscale score, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity and Improvement (CGI-S and CGI-I) scores; and the proportions of patients classified as responders and remitters at study end. Tolerability was assessed using adverse events (AEs) recorded by the investigator. Of 330 assessable randomized patients, 8 withdrew, including 7 who withdrew consent and 1 who withdrew due to recurrence of a preexisting event. Thus, 322 patients were included in the assessment (mean age, 35 years; 41.6% male; all white; escitalopram 10 mg, 108 patients; citalopram 10 mg, 106; citalopram 20 mg, 108). At study end, the mean (SE) change from baseline in MADRS total score was significantly greater

  16. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 222}Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Cassette, P. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-02-15

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 222}Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. (authors)

  17. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oil and its Major Terpenes of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Rafael; García-Rodríguez, Yolanda Magdalena; Ríos-Chávez, Patricia; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Garciglia, Rafael Salgado

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) essential oil, a Mexican medicinal plant known as nurite. Fresh aerial parts of S. macrostema plants cultivated in greenhouse for 3 months were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry. Antioxidant effectiveness of essential oil and its major terpenes of S. macrostema was examined by three different radical scavenging methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The concentrations tested were 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL. The major volatile compounds were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone, and thymol. S. macrostema essential oil showed the highest free radical scavenging activity with DPPH and ABTS methods (53.10% and 92.12%, respectively) at 1 mg/mL and 98% with TAC method at 0.1 mg/mL. Thymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity with 0.1 mg/mL, reaching 83.38%, 96.96%, and 98.57% by DPPH, ABTS, and TAC methods. Caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, and menthone exhibited an antioxidant capacity essential oil of S. macrostema and thymol showed a free radical scavenging activity close to that of the synthetic butylated hydroxytoluene. The major volatile compounds of essential oil of Satureja macrostema were caryophyllene, limonene, linalool, pulegone, menthone and thymolThe essential oil of S. macrostema showed a high free radical scavengingThymol exerted the highest antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS and TAC methods. Abbreviations used: GC: Gas Chromatography; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS: 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid; TAC: Total antioxidant capacity.

  18. Self-reported physical activity and major adverse events in patients with atrial fibrillation: a report from the EURObservational Research Programme Pilot Survey on Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) General Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Marco; Boriani, Giuseppe; Laroche, Cécile; Diemberger, Igor; Popescu, Mircea I; Rasmussen, Lars H; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Maggioni, Aldo P; Tavazzi, Luigi; Lane, Deirdre A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity is protective against cardiovascular (CV) events, both in general population and in high-risk CV cohorts. However, the relationship between physical activity with major adverse outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) is not well-established. Our aim was to analyse this relationship in a 'real-world' AF population. Second, we investigated the influence of physical activity on arrhythmia progression. We studied all patients enrolled in the EURObservational Research Programme on AF (EORP-AF) Pilot Survey. Physical activity was defined as 'none', 'occasional', 'regular', and 'intense', based on patient self-reporting. Data on physical activity were available for 2442 patients: 38.9% reported none, 34.7% occasional, 21.7% regular, and 4.7% intense physical activity. Prevalence of the principal CV risk factors progressively decreased from none to intense physical activity. Lower rates of CV death, all-cause death, and composite outcomes were found in AF patients who reported regular and intense physical activity (P < 0.0001). Increasing physical activity was inversely associated with CV death/any thromboembolic event (TE)/bleeding in the whole cohort, irrespective of gender, paroxysmal AF, elderly age, or high stroke risk. Any level of physical activity intensity was significantly associated with lower risk of CV death/any TE/bleeding at 1-year follow-up. Physical activity was not significantly associated with arrhythmia progression. Atrial fibrillation patients taking regular exercise were associated with a lower risk of all-cause death, even when we considered various subgroups, including gender, elderly age, symptomatic status, and stroke risk class. Efforts to increase physical activity among AF patients may improve outcomes in these patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Zebrafish homologs of genes within 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Blaker-Lee

    2012-11-01

    Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, intellectual disability disorder (IDD and other phenotypes, indicating the importance of gene dosage in this copy number variant region (CNV. The core of this CNV includes 25 genes; however, the number of genes that contribute to these phenotypes is not known. Furthermore, genes whose functional levels change with deletion or duplication (termed ‘dosage sensors’, which can associate the CNV with pathologies, have not been identified in this region. Using the zebrafish as a tool, a set of 16p11.2 homologs was identified, primarily on chromosomes 3 and 12. Use of 11 phenotypic assays, spanning the first 5 days of development, demonstrated that this set of genes is highly active, such that 21 out of the 22 homologs tested showed loss-of-function phenotypes. Most genes in this region were required for nervous system development – impacting brain morphology, eye development, axonal density or organization, and motor response. In general, human genes were able to substitute for the fish homolog, demonstrating orthology and suggesting conserved molecular pathways. In a screen for 16p11.2 genes whose function is sensitive to hemizygosity, the aldolase a (aldoaa and kinesin family member 22 (kif22 genes were identified as giving clear phenotypes when RNA levels were reduced by ∼50%, suggesting that these genes are deletion dosage sensors. This study leads to two major findings. The first is that the 16p11.2 region comprises a highly active set of genes, which could present a large genetic target and might explain why multiple brain function, and other, phenotypes are associated with this interval. The second major finding is that there are (at least two genes with deletion dosage sensor properties among the 16p11.2 set, and these could link this CNV to brain disorders such as ASD and IDD.

  20. Phosphoproteome and transcription factor activity profiling identify actions of the anti-inflammatory agent UTL-5g in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells including disrupting actin remodeling and STAT-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Nicholas J; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Frederick; Gao, Xiaohua; Guatam, Subhash C; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2017-09-15

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator. It reduces cisplatin-induced side effects by protecting kidney, liver, and platelets, thereby increasing tolerance for cisplatin. UTL-5g also reduces radiation-induced acute liver toxicity. The mechanism of action for UTL-5g is not clear at the present time. A phosphoproteomic analysis to a depth of 4943 phosphopeptides and a luminescence-based transcription factor activity assay were used to provide complementary analyses of signaling events that were disrupted by UTL-5g in RAW 264.7 cells. Transcriptional activity downstream of the interferon gamma, IL-6, type 1 Interferon, TGF-β, PKC/Ca 2+ and the glucocorticoid receptor pathways were disrupted by UTL-5g. Phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that hyperphosphorylation of proteins involved in actin remodeling was suppressed by UTL-5g (gene set analysis, FDR 5g. This global characterization of UTL-5g activity in a macrophage cell line discovered that it disrupts selected aspects of LPS signaling including Stat3 activation and actin remodeling providing new insight on how UTL-5g acts to reduce cisplatin-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical Composition, In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oils of Ocimum Gratissimum, O. Sanctum and their Major Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils of the flowering aerial parts of two Ocimum species viz., Ocimum gratissimum and O. sanctum were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The principal constituent of O. gratissimum and O. sanctum was eugenol (75.1%) and methyl eugenol (92.4%), comprising 99.3 and 98.9% of the total oils, respectively. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of O. gratissimum, O. sanctum and their major compounds eugenol and methyl eugenol were ...

  2. Antihypertensive Use and the Effect of a Physical Activity Intervention in the Prevention of Major Mobility Disability Among Older Adults: The LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; Miller, Michael E; Church, Timothy S; Gill, Thomas M; Henderson, Rebecca; Hsu, Fang-Chi; McDermott, Mary M; Nadkarni, Neelesh; Pahor, Marco; Stafford, Randall S; Carter, Christy S

    2016-07-01

    This subgroup analysis of the Lifestyle Intervention and Independence for Elders trial evaluates the impact of a long-term physical activity (PA) intervention on rates of major mobility disability (MMD) among older adults according to their antihypertensive medication use. Lifestyle Intervention and Independence for Elders study participants were randomized to center-based PA or health education for a median of 2.7 years. Participants were sedentary men and women aged 70-89 years with objectively measured physical limitations. This analysis evaluated rates of MMD and persistent MMD among 1,633 participants, according to antihypertensive medication use. Participants were designated as either (i) an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor user (ACEi+), (ii) a user of other antihypertensives not including ACEi (ACEi-), or (iii) nonusers of antihypertensive medications (AHT-). Interactions were explored between antihypertensive use and randomized arm. Interaction terms for MMD (p = .214) and persistent MMD (p = .180) did not reach statistical significance. For MMD, PA displayed marginal effects among ACEi+ (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57, 1.02) and ACEi- (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.97) but not AHT- (HR = 1.19; 95% CI = 0.75, 1.87). For persistent MMD, the effect of PA was greatest among ACEi+ (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.39, 0.84) when compared to ACEi- (HR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.55, 1.06) or AHT- (HR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.59, 2.36). The effects of long-term PA on the incidence of MMD and persistent MMD were similar among three subgroups of older adults stratified by their antihypertensive medication use. However, though statistical interactions did not reach significance, several findings may warrant future study in other cohorts given the post hoc nature of this study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Occupancy of serotonin transporters in the amygdala by paroxetine in association with attenuation of left amygdala activation by negative faces in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhé, Henricus G; Koster, Michiel; Booij, Jan; van Herk, Marcel; Veltman, Dick J; Schene, Aart H

    2014-02-28

    Amygdala hyperactivation in major depressive disorder (MDD) might be attenuated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but the working mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher amygdala serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy by paroxetine results in greater attenuation of amygdala activation by negative facial expressions in MDD patients. We treated fifteen MDD patients (22-55 years) with paroxetine 20-50mg/day. After 6 and 12 weeks, we quantified (1) clinical response (≥50% decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), (2) SERT occupancy in both amygdala measured by repeated [123I]β-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and (3) amygdala activation when viewing fearful and angry (negative) faces with repeated functional MRI scans. Response rates were 4/15 and 9/15 at 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. Attenuation of left amygdala activation was associated with amygdala SERT occupancy (P=0.006) and response (P=0.015). This association may provide a rationale for decreased limbic activity seen during treatment of MDD. It might also explain the rapid decrease in negative attentional bias and amygdala activation caused by SSRIs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural activity to intense positive versus negative stimuli can help differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar major depressive disorder in depressed adolescents: a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Rasim Somer; de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Ladouceur, Cecile; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary

    2013-12-30

    Failure to distinguish bipolar depression (BDd) from the unipolar depression of major depressive disorder (UDd) in adolescents has significant clinical consequences. We aimed to identify differential patterns of functional neural activity in BDd versus UDd and employed two (fearful and happy) facial expression/ gender labeling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study emotion processing in 10 BDd (8 females, mean age=15.1 ± 1.1) compared to age- and gender-matched 10 UDd and 10 healthy control (HC) adolescents who were age- and gender-matched to the BDd group. BDd adolescents, relative to UDd, showed significantly lower activity to both intense happy (e.g., insula and temporal cortex) and intense fearful faces (e.g., frontal precentral cortex). Although the neural regions recruited in each group were not the same, both BDd and UDd adolescents, relative to HC, showed significantly lower neural activity to intense happy and mild happy faces, but elevated neural activity to mild fearful faces. Our results indicated that patterns of neural activity to intense positive and negative emotional stimuli can help differentiate BDd from UDd in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A probiotic mixture including galactooligosaccharides decreases fecal β-glucosidase activity but does not affect serum enterolactone concentration in men during a two-week intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekkonen, Riina A; Holma, Reetta; Hatakka, Katja; Suomalainen, Tarja; Poussa, Tuija; Adlercreutz, Herman; Korpela, Riitta

    2011-05-01

    A high serum concentration of enterolactone, an enterolignan produced by colonic microbiota from precursors in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, is associated with reduced risk of acute coronary events. Probiotics and prebiotics modify colonic metabolism and may affect the serum enterolactone concentration. The effects of a probiotic mixture alone and with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on serum enterolactone concentration and fecal metabolism were investigated in 18 healthy men. Participants received 3 interventions, each for 2 wk: 1) probiotics [Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG (LGG) and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium breve Bb99, for a total amount of 2 × 10(10) CFU/d]; 2) probiotics and GOS 3.8 g/d; 3) probiotics, GOS, and rye bread (minimum 120 g/d). Serum enterolactone and fecal dry weight, enzyme activities, pH, SCFA, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, propionibacteria, and the strains LGG and LC705 were determined. The serum enterolactone concentration (nmol/L) tended to be decreased from baseline [mean (95% CI) 18.6 (10.8-26.4)] by probiotics alone [15.2 (7.8-22.7); P = 0.095], was not significantly affected by probiotics with GOS [21.5 (13.2-29.8)], and was increased by probiotics with GOS and rye bread [24.6 (15.4-33.7); P < 0.05]. Probiotics alone did not affect fecal β-glucosidase activity and bifidobacteria, but probiotics with GOS decreased β-glucosidase activity and increased bifidobacteria compared with baseline (P < 0.05) and with probiotics alone (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this probiotic mixture with or without GOS does not significantly affect serum enterolactone concentration. Because probiotics with GOS decreased fecal β-glucosidase activity but not serum enterolactone, the reduced fecal β-glucosidase, within the range of activities measured, does not seem to limit the formation of enterolactone.

  6. Modulation of chaperone-like and membranolytic activities of major horse seminal plasma protein HSP-1/2 by L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer Kumar, C; Swamy, Musti J

    2017-09-01

    The major protein of horse seminal plasma, HSP-1/2, exhibits membranolytic and chaperone-like activities and plays a crucial role in regulating sperm capacitation. L-Carnitine is a small polar molecule present in high concentrations in mammalian seminal plasma. The present results demonstrate that L-carnitine binds to HSP-1/2 and increases its thermal stability, enhances cooperativity of its chemical unfolding and decreases both chaperone-like and membranolytic activities of this protein. The HSP-1/2-L-carnitine complex exhibits anti-oxidative behaviour by inhibiting the production of hydroxyl radicals, suggesting that it can protect other constituents of seminal plasma from damage by hydroxyl radicals. As HSP-1/2 and L-carnitine share the same spatiotemporal location in the horse reproductive tract, this interaction is physiologically significant and may prevent premature interaction of HSP-1/2 with sperm, which in turn regulates the sperm capacitation.

  7. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Intravaginal Swab for PCR Detection of Genitourinary Tract Infections Including Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Trichomonas and Human Papillomavirus in Active Duty Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Baltimore, Maryland’ Cayetano Heredia University, Lima , Peru ;2 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health...STDs or gynecologic infection, drug or alcohol use pattern relative to sexual activity, and drug and alcohol use pattern among sexual partners. The... adolescents and pregnancy outcome. Lancet ii: prompt transport, and laboratory processing before the organ- 333-337. ism lyses or loses motility. In

  8. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Serapio-Palacios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS, but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v caspase-9 activation, (vi cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii PARP proteolysis, and (ix nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC.

  9. Activity concentration of 210Po and 210Pb, its contribution to the radiation dose and distribution coefficient in aquatic ecosystem of major rivers of coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajashekara, K.M.; Prakash, V.; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rivers are the major pathways for the transport of weathered materials from the land to the oceans. The geochemical studies on river waters provide an insight into the weathering process that control the distribution of elements in dissolved and particulate phases and their fluxes to the estuaries. Concentrations of natural series radionuclide in fresh water bodies are liable to be much more variable than those in the marine environment since they are heavily influenced by the local geochemistry of the watershed. The concentrations of radioactive materials vary from region to region and this variation is found to be significantly high in some areas. Some of the regions are rich with the flow of major rivers and estuaries of these rivers, and investigations of these riverine and estuarine aquatic environments would throw light on the transportation, distribution and enrichment mechanism of radionuclides. In this context, the activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured in different matrices of aquatic ecosystem of the major rivers namely, Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi river of Coastal Karnataka

  10. Insecticidal Activity of the Leaf Essential Oil of Peperomia borbonensis Miq. (Piperaceae) and Its Major Components against the Melon Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorla, Emmanuelle; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC/MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC 50 ) and 90% (LC 90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC 50 value was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm 2 and the LC 90 value was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm 2 for the EO. The median lethal time (LT 50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT 50  = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT 50  = 127 ± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  12. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  13. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme Transcriptomes Induced during Infection of Soybean Roots Suggests that Enzymes with Hydrolytic Activities Could Play a Major Role in Root Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Binod B; Baumbach, Jordan L; Singh, Prashant; Srivastava, Subodh K; Yi, Xiaoping; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-01-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, and is a major threat to soybean production in North America. There are two major components of this disease: (i) root necrosis and (ii) foliar SDS. Root symptoms consist of root necrosis with vascular discoloration. Foliar SDS is characterized by interveinal chlorosis and leaf necrosis, and in severe cases by flower and pod abscission. A major toxin involved in initiating foliar SDS has been identified. Nothing is known about how root necrosis develops. In order to unravel the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause root necrosis, the transcriptome of the pathogen in infected soybean root tissues of a susceptible cultivar, 'Essex', was investigated. The transcriptomes of the germinating conidia and mycelia were also examined. Of the 14,845 predicted F. virguliforme genes, we observed that 12,017 (81%) were expressed in germinating conidia and 12,208 (82%) in mycelia and 10,626 (72%) in infected soybean roots. Of the 10,626 genes induced in infected roots, 224 were transcribed only following infection. Expression of several infection-induced genes encoding enzymes with oxidation-reduction properties suggests that degradation of antimicrobial compounds such as the phytoalexin, glyceollin, could be important in early stages of the root tissue infection. Enzymes with hydrolytic and catalytic activities could play an important role in establishing the necrotrophic phase. The expression of a large number of genes encoding enzymes with catalytic and hydrolytic activities during the late infection stages suggests that cell wall degradation could be involved in root necrosis and the establishment of the necrotrophic phase in this pathogen.

  14. CD8+ T cells are preferentially activated during primary low dose leishmania major infection but are completely dispensable during secondary anti-Leishmania immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma B; Jia, Ping; Mou, Zhirong; Onyilagha, Chukwunonso; Uzonna, Jude E

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that CD8+ T cells are required for optimal primary immunity to low dose Leishmania major infection. However, it is not known whether immunity induced by low dose infection is durable and whether CD8+ T cells contribute to secondary immunity following recovery from low dose infection. Here, we compared primary and secondary immunity to low and high dose L. major infections and assessed the influence of infectious dose on the quality and magnitude of secondary anti-Leishmania immunity. In addition, we investigated the contribution of CD8+ T cells in secondary anti-Leishmania immunity following recovery from low and high dose infections. We found that the early immune response to low and high dose infections were strikingly different: while low dose infection preferentially induced proliferation and effector cytokine production by CD8+ T cells, high dose infection predominantly induced proliferation and cytokine production by CD4+ T cells. This differential activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by high and low dose infections respectively, was imprinted during in vitro and in vivo recall responses in healed mice. Both low and high dose-infected mice displayed strong infection-induced immunity and were protected against secondary L. major challenge. While depletion of CD4+ cells in mice that healed low and high dose infections abolished resistance to secondary challenge, depletion of CD8+ cells had no effect. Collectively, our results show that although CD8+ T cells are preferentially activated and may contribute to optimal primary anti-Leishmania immunity following low dose infection, they are completely dispensable during secondary immunity.

  15. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Ochoa, Sergio; Sánchez-Aldana, Daniela; Chacón-Vargas, Karla Fabiola; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E.; Camacho, Alejandro D.; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2018-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl), Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus), clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry), laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus), Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus)) and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs. PMID:29443951

  16. Enzymatic activities and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in a soil root zone under heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucwa-Przepióra, Ewa; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Fojcik, Barbara; Chmura, Damian

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the present field study were to examine the soil enzyme activities in the soil root zones of Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major in different heavy metal contaminated stands. Moreover, the investigations concerned the intensity of root endophytic colonization and metal bioaccumulation in roots and shoots. The investigated Plantago species exhibited an excluder strategy, accumulating higher metal content in the roots than in the shoots. The heavy metal accumulation levels found in the two plantain species in this study were comparable to other plants suggested as phytostabilizers; therefore, the selected Plantago species may be applied in the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated areas. The lower level of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, acid, and alkaline phosphatase) as well as the higher bioavailability of metals in the root zone soil of the two plantain species were found in an area affected by smelting activity, where organic matter content in the soil was also the smallest. Mycorrhizal colonization on both species in the contaminated area was similar to colonization in non-contaminated stands. However, the lowest arbuscule occurrence and an absence of dark septate endophytes were found in the area affected by the smelting activity. It corresponded with the lowest plant cover observed in this stand. The assessment of enzyme activity, mycorrhizal colonization, and the chemical and physical properties of soils proved to be sensitive to differences between sites and between Plantago species.

  17. Oviposition Deterrent and Larvicidal and Pupaecidal Activity of Seven Essential Oils and their Major Components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae: Synergism–antagonism Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Andrade-Ochoa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal activity of essential oils cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum J. Presl, Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle cumin (Cuminum cyminum Linnaeus, clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M.Perry, laurel (Laurus nobilis Linnaeus, Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer and anise (Pimpinella anisum Linnaeus and their major components are tested against larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Third instar larvae and pupae are used for determination of lethality and mortality. Essential oils with more than 90% mortality after a 30-min treatment are evaluated at different time intervals. Of the essential oils tested, anise and Mexican oregano are effective against larvae, with a median lethal concentration (LC50 of 4.7 and 6.5 µg/mL, respectively. Anise essential oil and t-anethole are effective against pupae, with LC50 values of 102 and 48.7 µg/mL, respectively. Oregano essential oil and carvacrol also have relevant activities. A kinetic analysis of the larvicidal activity, the oviposition deterrent effect and assays of the effects of the binary mixtures of chemical components are undertaken. Results show that anethole has synergistic effects with other constituents. This same effect is observed for carvacrol and thymol. Limonene shows antagonistic effect with β-pinene. The high larvicidal and pupaecidal activities of essential oils and its components demonstrate that they can be potential substitutes for chemical compounds used in mosquitoes control programs.

  18. [Protective activity of different concentration of tea polyphenols and its major compound EGCG against whole body irradiation-induced injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaolai; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping; Wang, Yuyu; Guo, Daihong; Wang, Dongxiao; Liao, Hongho

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the different concentrate of tea polyphenols (TP) and its compound for irradiation-protection and investigate its mechanism. To evaluate the radioprotective activity, mice were exposed to whole body gamma irradiation. TP 80 and TP 50 (50, 10 mg x kg(-1)) and its major constituent epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (50, 10 mg x kg(-1)) were administered after irradiation to examine its inhibition against irradiation-induced injury. This study indicate that in comparison with non-irradiated controls, irradiation resulted in a significant reduction the spleen index (spleen weight/body weight 100), haematological parameters (RBC, WBC and PLT), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase of malondialdehde (MDA) level in 28 days. Oral administration of TP (50 mg x kg(-1)) shown the best effect on reducing the irradiation-induced injury on mice studied, and showed a protective effect against irradiation-induced haematological parameters (RBC, WBC and PLT), the spleen index and MDA level significant reduction, and antioxidase activity (SOD) decrease. The results suggest that TP 50 mg x kg(-1) and EGCG have in vivo antioxidant potential and radioprotective activity against whole body gamma irradiation in mice. It may be concluded that TP (50% EGCG) possess good irradiation-protective and antioxidant effect.

  19. The use of ‘ecological risk‘ for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nunneri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the move from the uncertainty surrounding ecosystem thresholds and addresses the issue of ecosystem-state assessment by means of ecological integrity indicators and ‘ecological risk‘. The concept of ‘ecological risk‘ gives a measure of the likelihood of ecosystem failure to provide the level of natural ecological goods and services expected/desired by human societies. As a consequence of human pressures (use of resources and discharge into the environment, ecosystem thresholds can be breached thus resulting in major threats to human health, safety and well-being. In this study we apply the concept of ‘ecological risk‘ to two case-studies in the German exclusive economic zone: eutrophication and construction of offshore wind farms. The effects of different future scenarios for single-uses upon ecosystem integrity are analysed as well as the effects of one combined scenario. We conclude that in the short term construction of offshore wind farms can influence some processes to a much larger degree than eutrophication, however, combined impacts deriving from eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction need a more detailed analysis. Due to non-linear ecosystem processes, effects of combined or multiple uses of marine resources in terms of ‘ecological risk‘, cannot be extrapolated from single-use scenarios.

  20. Cooperative transcriptional activation of ATP-binding cassette sterol transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes by nuclear receptors including Liver-X-Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Sun Back

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 formheterodimers that limit absorption of dietary sterols in theintestine and promote cholesterol elimination from the bodythrough hepatobiliary secretion. To identify cis-regulatoryelements of the two genes, we have cloned and analyzedtwenty-three evolutionary conserved region (ECR fragmentsusing the CMV-luciferase reporter system in HepG2 cells. TwoECRs were found to be responsive to the Liver-X-Receptor (LXR.Through elaborate deletion studies, regions containing putativeLXREs were identified and the binding of LXRα wasdemonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assay. When the LXREs wereinserted upstream of the intergenic promoter, synergisticactivation by LXRα/RXRα in combination with GATA4, HNF4α,and LRH-1, which had been shown to bind to the intergenicregion, was observed. In conclusion, we have identified twoLXREs in ABCG5/ABCG8 genes for the first time and proposethat these LXREs, especially in the ECR20, play major roles inregulating these genes. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(6: 322-327

  1. Arabidopsis cpFtsY mutants exhibit pleiotropic defects including an inability to increase iron deficiency-inducible root Fe(III) chelate reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, Timothy P; Connolly, Erin L; Rogers, Elizabeth E

    2006-08-01

    All plants, except for the grasses, must reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) in order to acquire iron. In Arabidopsis, the enzyme responsible for this reductase activity in the roots is encoded by FRO2. Two Arabidopsis mutants, frd4-1 and frd4-2, were isolated in a screen for plants that do not induce Fe(III) chelate reductase activity in their roots in response to iron deficiency. frd4 mutant plants are chlorotic and grow more slowly than wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, frd4 chloroplasts are smaller in size and possess dramatically fewer thylakoid membranes and grana stacks when compared with wild-type chloroplasts. frd4 mutant plants express both FRO2 and IRT1 mRNA normally in their roots under iron deficiency, arguing against any defects in systemic iron-deficiency signaling. Further, transgenic frd4 plants accumulate FRO2-dHA fusion protein under iron-deficient conditions, suggesting that the frd4 mutation acts post-translationally in reducing Fe(III) chelate reductase activity. FRO2-dHA appears to localize to the plasma membrane of root epidermal cells in both Col-0 and frd4-1 transgenic plants when grown under iron-deficient conditions. Map-based cloning revealed that the frd4 mutations reside in cpFtsY, which encodes a component of one of the pathways responsible for the insertion of proteins into the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. The presence of cpFtsY mRNA and protein in the roots of wild-type plants suggests additional roles for this protein, in addition to its known function in targeting proteins to the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts.

  2. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  3. Estimation of lunar major elemental abundances in Chang'E-3 landing site based on Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianmin

    2015-09-01

    Elemental abundance provides an effective vehicle to understand lunar petrologic characteristics and evolutional history. The APXS mounted on the Yutu rover provides a valuable opportunity to determine the major elemental abundances in lunar soil within a short distance. In this study, we processed the APXS spectra including energy calibration, dead time correction and nonlinear least-squares fitting, and determined the abundances of the lunar major elements using the fundamental parameter method. In the calculation of X-ray fluorescence yield, a finite element method (FEM) was employed to improve the accuracy. The major elemental abundances derived from Chang'E-3 (CE-3) APXS possess a good consistency with the result of LP-GRS (Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometer) data in the landing region. Compared with the chemical composition of the returned lunar rock samples, we draw the conclusion that the lunar soils in CE-3 landing site are fragments of mare basalts. Our conclusion is supported by the geological map of Mare Imbrium.

  4. The effect of active learning on college students' achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy in a human physiology course for non-majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Roger Russell

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated the effects active learning strategies had on college students' achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy, in a human physiology course for non-majors. A continuum-based active learning instructional model was implemented over the course of a semester to assess the effects on the variables and specific student outcomes of learning mentioned above. In addition analyses were conducted to explore what learner characteristics contributed to the successful implementation of the model such as students' gender, classification, major, grade point average, ACT and SAT scores, motivation, and self-efficacy. A quasi-experimental, Solomon-4 Group design was undertaken on 171 students in a small west-Texas university. Treatment groups were taught using the model while controls were taught using traditional lecture methods. Students were administered a comprehensive physiology content exam, sections of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and attitude surveys to assess the effects of the continuum-based active learning strategies. Factorial analyses indicated the treatment group acquired significantly more content knowledge and were significantly more self-efficacious than students in the control group. There were no significant differences in motivation. Factorial and modified regression analyses in the aptitude by treatment interaction exploration determined that males in the treatment group performed significantly better on the comprehensive physiology content exam versus males in the control group. While females performed better overall than males, there were no significant differences in achievement between females in the treatment group and those in the control. No significant interactions were found for the other learner characteristics. The results also indicated that students' general cognitive ability as measured by their grade point average, ACT, and SAT scores and their self-efficacy contributed significantly to their

  5. ComparativeIn VitroActivities of Relebactam, Imipenem, the Combination of the Two, and Six Comparator Antimicrobial Agents against 432 Strains of Anaerobic Organisms, Including Imipenem-Resistant Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Tyrrell, Kerin L; Leoncio, Eliza; Merriam, C Vreni

    2018-02-01

    Relebactam is an important beta-lactamase inhibitor for certain aerobic organisms, but alone it has no antianaerobic activity, with most anaerobes having MICs of ≥32 μg/ml with the exception of a very few strains. There was no enhancement or antagonism of imipenem activity with the addition of relebactam, including activity against imipenem-resistant strains. The relebactam-imipenem combination had excellent overall activity against the anaerobes tested. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Effect of pH, water activity and gel micro-structure, including oxygen profiles and rheological characterization, on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, T E; Geeraerd, A H; Verhulst, A; Poot, K; Van Bree, I; Devlieghere, F; Moldenaers, P; Wilson, D; Brocklehurst, T; Van Impe, J F

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tryptic Soy Broth was examined at different pH (4.50-5.50), water activity a(w) (0.970-0.992) and gelatin concentration (0%, 1% and 5% ) at 20 degrees C. Experiments in TSB with 0% gelatin were carried out in shaken erlenmeyers, in the weak 1% gelatin media in petri plates and in the firm 5% gelatin media in gel cassettes. A quantification of gel strength was performed by rheological measurements and the influence of oxygen supply on the growth of S. Typhimurium was investigated. pH, as well as a(w) as well as gelatin concentration had an influence on the growth rate. Both in broth and in gelatinized media, lowering pH or water activity caused a decrease of growth rate. In media with 1% gelatin a reduction of growth rate and maximal cell density was observed compared to broth at all conditions. However, the effects of decreasing pH and a(w) were less pronounced. A further increase in gelatin concentration to 5% gelatin caused a small or no additional drop of growth rate. The final oxygen concentration dropped from 5.5 ppm in stirred broth to anoxic values in petri plates, also when 0% and 5% gelatin media were tested in this recipient. Probably, not stirring the medium, which leads to anoxic conditions, has a more pronounced effect on the growth rate of S. Typhimurium then medium solidness. Finally, growth data were fitted with the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J. and Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294]. An additional factor was introduced into the secondary model of Ross et al. [Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. and Mellefont, L. A. and McMeekin, T. A., 2003. Modelling the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth rate of Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 33-43.] to incorporate the effect of gelatin concentration, next to

  7. ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF R&D ACTIVITIES AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMIES INCLUDING REPUBLIC OF BELARUS WITH STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates efficiency of R&D activities based on the stochastic frontier analysis across 69 counties with developed and developing economies. Gross domestic expenditures on R&D in purchasing power parity, researchers per million inhabitants, technicians per million inhabitants are treated as inputs while patents granted to residents and scientific and technical journal articles are considered as outputs. According to the analysis results Costa Rica, Israel and Singapore are the most efficient in terms of transformation of available resources into the R&D results. What concerns Belarus it is necessary that additional investments in R&D go together with increasing efficiency of available resources’ usage. 

  8. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of the Ethyl Yttrium Metallocene, (C5Me5)2Y(CH2CH3), Including Activation of Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Matthew R; Langeslay, Ryan R; Ziller, Joseph W; Evans, William J

    2015-11-25

    (C5Me5)2Y(μ-Ph)2BPh2, 1, reacted with ethyllithium at -15 °C to make (C5Me5)2Y(CH2CH3), 2, which is thermally unstable at room temperature and formed the C-H bond activation product, (C5Me5)2Y(μ-H)(μ-η(1):η(5)-CH2C5Me4)Y(C5Me5), 3, containing a metalated (C5Me5)(1-) ligand. Spectroscopic evidence for 2 was obtained at low temperature, and trapping experiments with (i)PrNCN(i)Pr and CO2 gave the Y-CH2CH3 insertion products, (C5Me5)2Y[(i)PrNC(Et)N(i)Pr-κ(2)N,N'], 4, and [(C5Me5)2Y(μ-O2CEt)]2, 5. Although 2 is highly reactive, low temperature isolation methods allowed the isolation of single crystals which revealed an 82.6(2)° Y-CH2-CH3 bond angle consistent with an agostic structure in the solid state. Complex 2 reacted with benzene and toluene to make (C5Me5)2YPh, 7, and (C5Me5)2YCH2Ph, 8, respectively. The reaction of 2 with [(C5Me5)2YCl]2 formed (C5Me5)2Y(μ-Cl)(μ-η(1):η(5)-CH2C5Me4)Y(C5Me5) in which a (C5Me5)(1-) ligand was metalated. C-H bond activation also occurred with methane which reacted with 2 to make [(C5Me5)2YMe]2, 9.

  9. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  10. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G 0 /G 1 phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research highlights: → Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. → Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. → Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. → Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  11. Activation of human monocytes by live Borrelia burgdorferi generates TLR2-dependent and -independent responses which include induction of IFN-beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Salazar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-beta and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1beta in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1beta, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-beta and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs.

  12. In vitro screening of major neurotransmitter systems possibly involved in the mechanism of action of antibodies to S100 protein in released-active form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov EA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Evgeniy A Gorbunov, Irina A Ertuzun, Evgeniya V Kachaeva, Sergey A Tarasov, Oleg I EpsteinOOO “NPF “MATERIA MEDICA HOLDING”, Moscow, Russian FederationAbstract: Experimentally and clinically, it was shown that released-active form of antibodies to S100 protein (RAF of Abs to S100 exerts a wide range of pharmacological activities: anxiolytic, antiasthenic, antiaggressive, stress-protective, antihypoxic, antiischemic, neuroprotective, and nootropic. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of RAF of Abs to S100 on major neurotransmitter systems (serotoninergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and on sigma receptors as well which are possibly involved in its mechanism of pharmacological activity. Radioligand binding assays were used for assessment of the drug influence on ligand–receptor interaction. [35S]GTPγS binding assay, cyclic adenosine monophosphate HTRF™, cellular dielectric spectroscopy assays, and assays based on measurement of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ions were used for assessment of agonist or antagonist properties of the drug toward receptors. RAF of Abs to S100 increased radioligand binding to 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2Cedited, 5-HT3, and to D3 receptors by 142.0%, 131.9%, 149.3%, 120.7%, and 126.3%, respectively. Also, the drug significantly inhibited specific binding of radioligands to GABAB1A/B2 receptors by 25.8%, and to both native and recombinant human sigma1 receptors by 75.3% and 40.32%, respectively. In the functional assays, it was shown that the drug exerted antagonism at 5-HT1B, D3, and GABAB1A/B2 receptors inhibiting agonist-induced responses by 23.24%, 32.76%, and 30.2%, respectively. On the contrary, the drug exerted an agonist effect at 5-HT1A receptors enhancing receptor functional activity by 28.0%. The pharmacological profiling of RAF of Abs to S100 among 27 receptor provides evidence for drug-related modification of major neurotransmitter systems.Keywords: dopamine agent, released-activity

  13. Endothelin-2/Vasoactive Intestinal Contractor: Regulation of Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by CoCl22, and Biological Activities Including Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the local hormone endothelin-2 (ET-2, or vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC, a member of the vasoconstrictor ET peptide family, where ET-2 is the human orthologous peptide of the murine VIC. While ET-2/VIC gene expression has been observed in some normal tissues, ET-2 recently has been reported to act as a tumor marker and as a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor in tumor cells. A recently published study reported that the hypoxic mimetic agent CoCl2 at 200 µM increased expression of the ET-2/VIC gene, decreased expression of the ET-1 gene, and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increase and neurite outgrowth in neuronal model PC12 cells. The ROS was generated by addition of CoCl2 to the culture medium, and the CoCl2-induced effects were completely inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6 gene expression was up-regulated upon the differentiation induced by CoCl2. These results suggest that expression of ET-2/VIC and ET-1 mediated by CoCl2-induced ROS may be associated with neuronal differentiation through the regulation of IL-6 expression. CoCl2 acts as a pro-oxidant, as do Fe(II, III and Cu(II. However, some biological activities have been reported for CoCl2 that have not been observed for other metal salts such as FeCl3, CuSO4, and NiCl2. The characteristic actions of CoCl2 may be associated with the differentiation of PC12 cells. Further elucidation of the mechanism of neurite outgrowth and regulation of ET-2/VIC expression by CoCl2 may lead to the development of treatments for neuronal disorders.

  14. Initial Awareness as Perceived by a Group of Senior Students Majoring in High School Teaching in regards to their Own Teaching Process Focused on Assessment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Developed in a regional campus of a university located 200 miles south of Santiago de Chile, the research showed the initial awareness of 50 senior students majoring in three High School Teaching Training Programs: Spanish Language; History; and Math, in regards to their own teaching process The qualitative approach used in this research is supported by the grounded theory. The critical incident technique was used to obtain the information about the individuals mentioned above, after their first period as in-practice High School teachers. Results show that the assessment teaching functions are mostly mentioned as essential to improve their teaching activities focused on the learning process of high school students. However, Teacher Training Programs should also emphasize real challenges and the abilities that a teacher must successfully develop during the process, instead of mainly focusing on measurement instruments and theoretical outlines

  15. Ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I) prevents apoptosis induced by Fas or SAPK/JNK activation in T-lymphoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberth, K; Claesson, M H

    2001-01-01

    Early apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphoma cells was induced by agonistic anti-Fas Ab or by anisomycin which activates the stress kinases SAPK/JNK. Apoptosis was inhibited by ligation of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens (MHC-I). MHC-I ligation induced upregulation of the anti......-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim). MHC-I ligation also prevented downregulation of Bcl-2 and destabilization of Deltapsim induced by anti-Fas Ab treatment or anisomycin exposure. Studies on three different Jurkat cell mutants deficient for src p56(lck), ZAP......-70 kinase, or TCR/CD3 gamma-chain showed that the cells undergo apoptosis after Fas ligation. Anisomycin exposure induced apoptosis in the src p56(lck)-deficient cell line but not in the two other mutant cell lines. Simultaneous cross-linking of MHC-I and Fas ligation inhibited apoptosis in the ZAP...

  16. Chemical composition and major odor-active compounds of essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER (dried rhizome of Pinellia ternata) as crude drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Megumi; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Ono, Toshirou; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER (Japanese name: Hange), the dried rhizome of Pinellia ternata, was investigated by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses. The oil obtained from Pinellia tuber was revealed the presence of 114 compounds, representing 90.6% of the total oil identified. This colorless oil had a spicy and woody odor. The main components of the oil were β-cubebene (8.8%), atractylon (7.8%), methyl eugenol (6.2%), and δ-cadinene (5.3%). Fifteen major odor-active compounds were identified in the essential oil from PINELLIA TUBER by the GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Among these, safrole (spicy) and β-vatirenene (woody) showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor (128), followed by paeonol (FD = 64; woody, spicy), α-humulene (FD = 64; woody), and β-phenylnaphthalene (FD = 64; spicy).

  17. Gibberellin-like effects of KAR1 on dormancy release of Avena fatua caryopses include participation of non-enzymatic antioxidants and cell cycle activation in embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowska-Lech, Danuta; Kępczyński, Jan

    2016-02-01

    The induction of dormancy release and germination of Avena fatua caryopses by KAR 1 involves ABA degradation to phaseic acid. Both, KAR 1 and GA 3 , control the AsA-GSH cycle, DNA replication and accumulation of β-tubulin in embryos before caryopses germination. Avena fatua caryopses cannot germinate in darkness at 20 °C because of dormancy, but karrikinolide-1 (KAR1), a compound in plant-derived smoke, and gibberellic acid (GA3) induced an almost complete germination. The radicle protrusion through the coleorhiza was preceded by increased water uptake, rupture of coat, increased embryo size and coleorhiza length as well as coleorhiza protrusion through covering structures. The stimulatory effect of KAR1 was correlated with the reduced content of abscisic acid (ABA) and an increase in phaseic acid (PA) in embryos from caryopses before coleorhiza protrusion. Two non-enzymatic antioxidants, ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), did not affect the germination of dormant caryopses, but in the presence of KAR1 or GA3 they only slightly delayed the germination. The stimulatory effect of KAR1 or GA3 on the final germination percentage was markedly antagonized by lycorine, an AsA biosynthesis inhibitor. KAR1 and GA3 applied during caryopses imbibition resulted in increases of AsA, dehydroascorbate (DHA) and GSH, but reduced the embryos' oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content. Furthermore, both KAR1 and GA3 induced an additional ascorbate peroxidase (APX) isoenzyme and increased the glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Both compounds stimulated β-tubulin accumulation in radicle+coleorhiza (RC) and plumule+coleoptile (PC), and enhanced the transition from G1 to S and also from S to G2 phases. The comparison of the effects produced by KAR1 and GA3  shows a similar action; thus the KAR1 effect may not be specific. The study provides new data regarding the mechanism with which KAR1, a representative of a novel class of plant growth regulators, regulates dormancy and

  18. HCO3(-)-coupled Na+ influx is a major determinant of Na+ turnover and Na+/K+ pump activity in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, J.G.; Lidofsky, S.D.; Weisiger, R.A.; Xie, M.H.; Cochran, M.; Grotmol, T.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies in hepatocytes indicate that Na(+)-coupled HCO3- transport contributes importantly to regulation of intracellular pH and membrane HCO3- transport. However, the direction of net coupled Na+ and HCO3- movement and the effect of HCO3- on Na+ turnover and Na+/K+ pump activity are not known. In these studies, the effect of HCO3- on Na+ influx and turnover were measured in primary rat hepatocyte cultures with 22Na+, and [Na+]i was measured in single hepatocytes using the Na(+)-sensitive fluorochrome SBFI. Na+/K+ pump activity was measured in intact perfused rat liver and hepatocyte monolayers as Na(+)-dependent or ouabain-suppressible 86Rb uptake, and was measured in single hepatocytes as the effect of transient pump inhibition by removal of extracellular K+ on membrane potential difference (PD) and [Na+]i. In hepatocyte monolayers, HCO3- increased 22Na+ entry and turnover rates by 50-65%, without measurably altering 22Na+ pool size or cell volume, and HCO3- also increased Na+/K+ pump activity by 70%. In single cells, exposure to HCO3- produced an abrupt and sustained rise in [Na+]i from approximately 8 to 12 mM. Na+/K+ pump activity assessed in single cells by PD excursions during transient K+ removal increased congruent to 2.5-fold in the presence of HCO3-, and the rise in [Na+]i produced by inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump was similarly increased congruent to 2.5-fold in the presence of HCO3-. In intact perfused rat liver, HCO3- increased both Na+/K+ pump activity and O2 consumption. These findings indicate that, in hepatocytes, net coupled Na+ and HCO3- movement is inward and represents a major determinant of Na+ influx and Na+/K+ pump activity. About half of hepatic Na+/K+ pump activity appears dedicated to recycling Na+ entering in conjunction with HCO3- to maintain [Na+]i within the physiologic range

  19. Associations of Leisure-Time and Occupational Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Incident and Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder, Depressive Symptoms, and Incident Anxiety in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Sebastian E; Leitzmann, Michael F; Bahls, Martin; Dörr, Marcus; Schmid, Daniela; Schomerus, Georg; Appel, Katja; Markus, Marcello R P; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness may help prevent depression and anxiety. Previous studies have been limited by error-prone measurements. We examined whether self-reported physical activity domains and peak exercise capacity (peakVO₂) are associated with incident and recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms, and anxiety disorders. This was a prospective population-based study of 1,080 adult men and women (25-83 years) with a median follow-up of 4.5 years and measures of physical activity during leisure time, sports, and work (Baecke questionnaire); a measure of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II); symptom-limited cycle ergometer testing (peakVO₂, oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold [VO₂@AT], maximum power output at peak exertion); and a structured psychiatric interview (Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview). Baseline data were collected between 2002 and 2006, and follow-up data, between 2007 and 2010. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, and waist circumference, the relative risks for incident MDD per standard deviation (SD) increase in leisure-time physical activity, physical activity during sport, physical activity at work, peakVO₂, VO₂@AT, and maximum power output were 1.002 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.12), 1.02 (0.90 to 1.15), 0.94 (0.80 to 1.10), 0.71 (0.52 to 0.98), 0.83 (0.66 to 1.04), and 0.71 (0.52 to 0.96), respectively. PeakVO₂, VO₂@AT, and maximum power output were associated with recurrent MDD, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. PeakVO₂ was more strongly related to the co-occurrence of MDD and anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.45 [0.24 to 0.84]) than depression or anxiety alone (OR = 0.71 [0.53 to 0.94]). Greater cardiorespiratory fitness but not domain-specific physical activity was associated with a lower incidence of MDD and clinical anxiety. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. The impact of sitting time and physical activity on major depressive disorder in South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jin Young; Kim, Juyeong; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Choi, Jaewoo; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-07-28

    Previous studies have examined associations between sitting time and negative health outcomes and mental health. However, the relationship between overall sitting time and major depressive disorder (MDD) in South Korea has not been studied. This study examined the association between MDD and overall sitting time and physical activity in South Koreans. Data from the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey, were analyzed. Total participants were 4145 in 2014. MDD was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Participants' data regarding self-reported sitting time and physical activity were analyzed via multiple logistic regression. Results showed that people who sat for 8-10 h (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.15-2.11) or more than 10 h (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.23-2.39) had increased risk of MDD compared to those who sat for less than 5 h a day. Subgroup analysis showed that the strongest effect of reported sitting time on risk of MDD was found in men with lower levels of physical activity who sat for 8 to 10 h (OR: 3.04, 95% CI: 1.15-8.01) or more than 10 h (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 1.26-9.35). Level of physical activity was not an independent predictor for MDD. Sitting for long periods was associated with greater risk of MDD in South Korean adults. Reducing sitting time in people with MDD could help to prevent associated physical health problems and may improve mental health.

  1. Insecticidal activity of essential oils from eleven Eucalyptus spp. and two hybrids: lethal and sublethal effects of their major components on Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzogaray, Raul A; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the fumigant activity of the essential oils from 11 species of the genus Eucalyptus and two of their hybrids on first instar of Blattella germanica L. The fumigant activity and repellence of the four major monoterpene components of these essential oils also were tested. Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing nymphs to the vapors emitted by 50 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed container. The lowest knockdown time 50% (KT50) values, expressed in minutes, were elicited by the essential oils of the Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus tereticornis (57.9) hybrid, Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn (62.0), E. grandis X Eucalyptus camaldulensis (63.8) hybrid, Eucalyptus viminalis Labill (64.1), Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden (64.5), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden (68.7). The KT50 values for the remaining essential oils ranged between 74.5 (E. saligna Smith) and 161.4 min (E. tereticornis Smith). The essential oil from the hybrid E. grandis X E. tereticornis was 3.7 times less toxic than dichlorvos (positive control). The KT50 values of monoterpenes were 38.8 for alpha-pinene, 55.3 for 1,8-cineole, 175.6 for p-cymene, and 178.3 for gamma-terpinene. Alpha-pinene was 2.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. There was a strong positive correlation between the fumigant activity of essential oils and their corresponding 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene concentration. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of monoterpenes were studied (7 and 70 microg/cm2). All compounds produced a light repellent effect but only when applied at 70 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was less than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (positive control).

  2. Eugenia calycina Cambess extracts and their fractions: Their antimicrobial activity and the identification of major polar compounds using electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Morais, Sandra R; Bara, Maria T F; Conceição, Edemilson C; Paula, José R; Carvalho, Thays C; Vaz, Boniek G; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Rezende, Maria H

    2014-10-01

    Eugenia calycina, which is described as "red pitanga or pitanga cherry of cerrado," is widely distributed in the Cerrado area of Brazil. Its leaf and bark extracts are used in folk medicine for many applications. In this study, the compositions of the major polar compounds of the bark and leaf extracts and their fractions were obtained from a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water. They were then evaluated using electrospray ionization negative FT-ICR mass spectrometry (ESI(-) FT-ICR MS), which revealed a large number of oxygen-containing compounds, such as flavonoids, terpenes, tanins, steroids, and fat acids. The biological activity of these extracts towards several bacterial and fungal strains was then evaluated. The highest activity was found using aqueous fractions, in which the ESI(-) FT-ICR MS analysis revealed compounds with a high content of oxygen (e.g., glycosed flavonoids, tannins, and polyphenolic compounds) against Cryptococcus sp. D (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=15.62μg/mL). Strong activity was also found using the hexanic fractions-in which the ESI(-) FT-ICR MS analysis revealed that the compounds contained a decreased amount of oxygen (e.g., fat acids and steroids)-towards Cryptococcus gatti L48, Cryptococcus neoformans L3 (MIC=31.2μg/mL), and Cryptococcus sp. D (MIC=62.5μg/mL). Therefore, antimicrobial assays using the bark/leaf extracts of E. calycina present prospects for the research of active substances that may be used for the treatment of cryptococcosis, a disease that is common in immunosuppressed patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is the major toxic mode of action of an organic extract of a reference urban dust particulate matter mixture: The role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrysik, Zdenek; Vondracek, Jan; Marvanova, Sona; Ciganek, Miroslav; Neca, Jiri; Pencikova, Katerina; Mahadevan, Brinda; Topinka, Jan; Baird, William M.; Kozubik, Alois; Machala, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → SRM1649a extract and its fractions are potent activators of AhR in a model of epithelial cells. → AhR-dependent effects include both induction of CYP1 enzymes and disruption of cell proliferation control. → Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the neutral SRM1649a fraction are major contributors to the AhR-mediated toxic effects. → Activation of AhR and related nongenotoxic effects occur at significantly lower doses than the formation of DNA adducts and activation of DNA damage response. → More attention should be paid to the AhR-dependent nongenotoxic events elicited by urban particulate matter constituents. - Abstract: Many of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution have been linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to airborne particulate matter (PM). The carcinogenic properties of PAHs in complex organic mixtures derived from PM have been chiefly attributed to their mutagenicity. Nevertheless, PAHs are also potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which may contribute to their nongenotoxic effects, including tumor promotion. As the genotoxicity of carcinogenic PAHs in complex mixtures derived from urban PM is often inhibited by other mixture constituents, the AhR-mediated activity of urban PM extracts might significantly contribute to the carcinogenic activity of such mixtures. In the present study, we used an organic extract of the urban dust standard reference material, SRM1649a, as a model mixture to study a range of toxic effects related to DNA damage and AhR activation. Both the organic extract and its neutral aromatic fraction formed a low number of DNA adducts per nucleotide in the liver epithelial WB-F344 cells model, without inducing DNA damage response, such as tumor suppressor p53 activation and apoptosis. In contrast, we found that this extract, as well as its neutral and polar fractions, were potent inducers of a range of AhR-mediated responses, including induction

  4. The Study of Supporting Learning Sufficiency Economy Philosophy of Students Majoring in Early Childhood Education by Backyard Gardening Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannisa Hakoon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to make students majoring in early childhood education learn about the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy by integrating learning process through practicing planting vegetables and herbs, harvesting, processing products and selling the products at the CEECE farm. This case study include 104 students in total, 2 males students and 102 females students majoring in early childhood education in the second semester of academic year 2016, Mahasarakham university. The researcher integrated the learning with subjects in early childhood education field such as Story and literature for young Children, Thai languages and literacy for young children, Independent study in early childhood education and Early childhood education quality assurance. The research instruments were 1 CEECE Farm area for practicing growing vegetables and herbs and 2 Self Reflection from the students. Data collection was conducted through three phases including 1 preparation 2 process and 3 data collection. The researcher analyzed the content by describing and drawing conclusions from students opinions about the learning. This research revealed: 1. Factors affecting success or barriers to learning include students, location, materials, budget, academic advisors and other factors such as climate and workloads of students. 2. Students majoring in early childhood education learn the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy through practicing at the CEECE farm. Students learn Sufficiency Economy Philosophy and knowledge as follows ; 2.1 Moderation: Students learn to use the resources sufficiently. Students realize the value and use resources in order to maximize savings ; location, materials and budget. 2.2 Reasonableness: Students learn to apply the principles of reason and critical thinking to planning decisions and resolving issues arising from the implementation based on information that they have gathered and relies on the concept, “if students are consumers, will they

  5. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels essential oil and its major constituent α-pinene exhibit anti-Leishmania activity through immunomodulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2015-02-03

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), commonly known as "jambolão" in Brazil is widely used in folk medicine against leishmaniasis, inflammation, chronic diarrhea, and ulcers. It is one of the most commonly used plants for the treatment of diabetes worldwide. In previous studies, Syzygium cumini was shown to possess antihyperlipidemic and anti-allergic properties, and to exhibit good performance as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria, fungi, and protozoa parasites of the genus Leishmania and Trypanosoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of S. cumini essential oil (ScEO) and its major component α-pinene on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, as well as their cytotoxicity and possible mechanisms of action. To evaluate the anti-proliferative effect on Leishmania, effects on promastigote and axenic amastigote forms were assessed using tetrazolium salt (MTT) assay. The intramacrophagic amastigotes were exposed to ScEO and α-pinene to determine the survival index. To gain insight into the mechanism of action involved in the effect on the samples, we evaluated the modulation of macrophage activation state by observing structural (phagocytic and lysosomal activities) and cellular (nitric oxide increase) changes. To assess the safety profile of ScEO and α-pinene, murine macrophages and human red blood cells were treated with ScEO and α-pinene and the selectivity index was calculated for each treatment. α-Pinene was effective against Leishmania amazonensis promastigote forms, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 19.7µg/mL. α-Pinene was more active (IC50 values of 16.1 and 15.6µg/mL against axenic and intracellular amastigotes, respectively) than ScEO (IC50 values of 43.9 and 38.1µg/mL against axenic and intracellular amastigotes, respectively). Our results showed that the anti-Leishmania effects were mediated by immunomodulatory activity, as evidenced by the observed increases in both phagocytic and lysosomal activity

  6. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  7. Overview of the taxonomy and of the major secondary metabolites and their biological activities related to human health of the Laurencia complex (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutue T. Fujii

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the Laurencia complex is represented by twenty taxa: Laurencia s.s. with twelve species, Palisada with four species (including Chondrophycus furcatus now that the proposal of its transference to Palisada is in process, and Osmundea and Yuzurua with two species each. The majority of the Brazilian species of the Laurencia complex have been phylogenetically analyzed by 54 rbcL sequences, including five other Rhodomelacean species as outgroups. The analysis showed that the Laurencia complex is monophyletic with high posterior probability value. The complex was separated into five clades, corresponding to the genera: Chondrophycus, Laurencia, Osmundea, Palisada, and Yuzurua. A bibliographical survey of the terpenoids produced by Brazilian species showed that only six species of Laurencia and five of Palisada (including C. furcatcus have been submitted to chemical analysis with 48 terpenoids (47 sesquiterpenes and one triterpene isolated. No diterpenes were found. Of the total, 23 sesquiterpenes belong to the bisabolane class and eighteen to the chamigrene type, whose biochemical precursor is bisabolane, two are derived from lauranes and four are triquinols. Despite the considerable number of known terpenes and their ecological and pharmacological importance, few experimental biological studies have been performed. In this review, only bioactivities related to human health were considered.

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticles to an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita: Impacts on hematology, iono regulation and gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sadanandan Remya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the chronic toxicity effects of iron oxide (Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs (500 mg l−l on certain hematological, ionoregulatory and gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita were estimated for a period of 25 days under static bioassay. A significant increase in hemoglobin (Hb content, red blood cell (RBC count and hematocrit (Ht value was noticed throughout the study period when compared to control groups. In contrast, mean cellular volume (MCV, mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH (except on 5th day and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC levels and white blood cell (WBC counts were found to be decreased during the above study period. Fe2O3 NPs also caused alterations in iono regulation resulting in hyponatremia (Na+, hypochloremia (Cl− (except on 5th day and hypokalemia (K+ (except up to 15th day. A biphasic trend in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity was noticed during the above treatment period. Our results demonstrate that high Fe2O3 NP concentrations in the aquatic environment may have adverse physiological effects on fish. These data may be useful to assess the environmental risk posed by NPs. However the toxicity of various sizes of the nanoparticle could be evaluated using different aquatic organisms.

  9. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  10. Antileishmanial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia and Rosmarinus Officinalis Essential Oils and Nano-emulsions on Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar SHOKRI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: The aim of present study was to evaluate antileishmanial effects of Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia and Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis medicinal plants essential oils and nano-emulsions on Leishmania major (L. major. Methods: The present study was performed in Leishmaniasis Reference Lab at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2016-2017. The IC50 values were calculated in both the promastigote and amastigote stages in J774 macrophage in comparison with meglumine antimoniate (MA as positive control. In addition, cytotoxicity effects of essential oils and nano-emulsions prepared from both plants against macrophages were evaluated.Results: Both essential oil and nano-emulsion of Lavander and Rosemary showed anti-leishmania activity on promastigote with IC50=0.11 μl/mL, IC50=0.26 μl/mL, and IC50=0.08 μl/mL respectively. Moreover, during amastigote assay, Lavander and Rosemary essential oils and nano-emulsion were effective at least in concentration of 0.12 μl/mL and 0.06 µl/mL (P=0.0001 respectively, on mean infected macrophages (MIR and amastigotes in macrophages (P=0.0001. Additionally, cytotoxicity assay against macrophage revealed no toxicity on the host cells at IC50 concentrations.Conclusion: The nano-emulsions of both plants were more effective than essential oil in both MIR and amastigote. However, in comparison with MA, the Lavander essential oil is more effective in reducing MIR. Rosemary nano-emulsion reduced MIR significantly more than MA in concentration of 0.25 μl/mL (P<0.001. Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the effect of these medicinal plants in murine models.

  11. Antileishmanial Activity of Lavandula angustifolia and Rosmarinus Officinalis Essential Oils and Nano-emulsions on Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Azar; Saeedi, Majid; Fakhar, Mahdi; Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Keighobadi, Masoud; Hosseini Teshnizi, Saeed; Kelidari, Hamid Reza; Sadjadi, Siamak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate antileishmanial effects of Lavandula angustifolia ( L. angustifolia ) and Rosmarinus officinalis ( R. officinalis ) medicinal plants essential oils and nano-emulsions on Leishmania major (L . major). The present study was performed in Leishmaniasis Reference Lab at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2016-2017. The IC50 values were calculated in both the promastigote and amastigote stages in J774 macrophage in comparison with meglumine antimoniate (MA) as positive control. In addition, cytotoxicity effects of essential oils and nano-emulsions prepared from both plants against macrophages were evaluated. Both essential oil and nano-emulsion of Lavander and Rosemary showed anti-leishmania activity on promastigote with IC 50 =0.11 μl/mL, IC 50 =0.26 μl/mL, and IC 50 =0.08 μl/mL respectively. Moreover, during amastigote assay, Lavander and Rosemary essential oils and nano-emulsion were effective at least in concentration of 0.12 μl/mL and 0.06 μl/mL ( P =0.0001) respectively, on mean infected macrophages (MIR) and amastigotes in macrophages ( P =0.0001). Additionally, cytotoxicity assay against macrophage revealed no toxicity on the host cells at IC 50 concentrations. The nano-emulsions of both plants were more effective than essential oil in both MIR and amastigote. However, in comparison with MA, the Lavander essential oil is more effective in reducing MIR. Rosemary nano-emulsion reduced MIR significantly more than MA in concentration of 0.25 μl/mL ( P <0.001). Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the effect of these medicinal plants in murine models.

  12. Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure-activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, Kayode K; Arakaki, Tracy L; Napuli, Alberto J; Inampudi, Krishna K; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlind, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C [UWASH

    2012-04-24

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18_V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 Å resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3β (HsGSK-3β) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

  13. Quantification of temporal changes in calcium score in active atherosclerotic plaque in major vessels by {sup 18}F-sodium fluoride PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Yoshinobu; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Nawata, Shintaro; Hino-Shishikura, Ayako; Yoshida, Keisuke; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    Our aim was to assess whether {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT is able to predict progression of the CT calcium score. Between August 2007 and November 2015, 34 patients (18 women, 16 men; age, mean ± standard deviation, 57.5 ± 13.9 years; age range 19-78 years) with malignancy or orthopaedic disease were enrolled in this study, with approximately 1-year follow-up data. Baseline and follow-up CT images were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of calcification sites in major vessel walls. The maximum and mean CT values (CTmax and CTmean, in Hounsfield units), calcification volumetric score (CVS, in cubic millimetres) and Agatston units score (AU) were evaluated for each site. Subsequent changes in CTmax, CTmean, CVS and AU were calculated and expressed as ΔCTmax, ΔCTmean, ΔCVS and ΔAU, respectively. We then evaluated the relationship between {sup 18}F-NaF uptake (using the maximum target-to-background ratio, TBRmax, and the maximum blood-subtracted {sup 18}F-NaF activity, bsNaFmax, which was obtained by subtracting the SUVmax of each calcified plaque lesion and NaF-avid site from the SUVmean in the right atrium blood pool) and the change in calcified plaque volume and characteristics obtained after 1 year. We detected and analysed 182 calcified plaque sites and 96 hot spots on major vessel walls. {sup 18}F-NaF uptake showed very weak correlations with CTmax, CTmean, CVS, CVS after 1 year, AU and AU after 1 year on both baseline and follow-up PET/CT scans for each site. {sup 18}F-NaF uptake showed no correlation with ΔCTmax or ΔCTmean. However, there was a significant correlation between the intensity of {sup 18}F-NaF uptake and ΔCVS and ΔAU. {sup 18}F-NaF uptake has a strong correlation with calcium score progression which was a predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk. PET/CT using {sup 18}F-NaF may be able to predict calcium score progression which is known to be the major characteristic of atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  14. Interference with daily activities and major adverse events during esophageal pH monitoring with bravo wireless capsule versus conventional intranasal catheter: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluyomade, A; Olowoyeye, A; Fadahunsi, O; Thomas, L; Libend, C N; Ragunathan, K; Fenster, J; Vignesh, S

    2017-02-01

    For three decades, ambulatory 24-hour intranasal pH monitoring has been the established gold standard for detecting acid reflux in patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, device-associated adverse events and unpleasant experiences, reported by patients during pH monitoring have led to the invention of more convenient pH monitors such as Bravo wireless capsule. To compare the interference with daily activities and major adverse events during pH monitoring with Bravo wireless capsule (Bravo) versus conventional intranasal catheter (catheter), PubMed, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials.gov, and Google Scholar were searched up to March 20, 2015. Only randomized controlled trials in adult patients that compared the interference with routine daily activities and adverse events between Bravo and catheter pH monitors were included. After screening 574 articles, three unique studies with 167 patients met our inclusion criteria. The average age of patients enrolled in these studies was 51 years. Interference with normal daily activities was more in the catheter than Bravo group: 75 ± 5 versus 92 ± 2, P wireless capsule pH monitor interfered less with daily activities and adverse events were minimal compared to conventional intranasal catheter. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of cucurbit fruit vegetables and identification of active and major constituents from phenolic-rich extracts of Lagenaria siceraria and Sechium edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong; Supriatno

    2013-10-23

    Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities and total phenolic contents (TPC) in sequential extracts of dried pulps from seven cucurbit fruit vegetables were determined for the first time. The highest TPC and metal chelating activity were obtained from the chloroform extracts of Luffa acutangula (28.04 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g extract) and Benincasa hispida (EC50 = 0.44 ± 0.03 mg/mL), respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Sechium edule showed the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (951.73 ± 29.14 mM TE/g extract). The highest reducing and anti-α-glucosidase activities were shown by the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia (692.56 ± 43.38 mM AscAE/g extract; 66.64 ± 2.94%, respectively). The highest correlation (r = 0.99) was observed between the TPC and DPPH values of S. edule. Although caffeic acid was quantified as the major constituent in the methanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria , isoquercetin was found to be the main contributor to the activities. Gallic acid was identified as both the main and most active antioxidant constituent in the ethyl acetate extract of S. edule.

  16. Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of glutamate in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: anterior cingulate activity during a color-word Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Reggie; Neufeld, Richard W J; Schaefer, Betsy; Densmore, Maria; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Théberge, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate abnormalities have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-fMRS), it is possible to monitor glutamate dynamically in the activated brain areas, which has yet to be reported in schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would have weaker glutamatergic responses in the anterior cingulate to a color-word Stroop Task. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the health of GLU neurotransmission and the GLU-GLN cycle in SZ using a (1)H-fMRS protocol. Spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate of 16 participants with schizophrenia, 16 healthy controls and 16 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) while performing the Stroop task in a 7T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. (1)H-fMRS spectra were acquired for 20 min in which there were three 4-min blocks of cross fixation interleaved with two 4-min blocks of the Stroop paradigm. A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect of time for glutamate concentrations of all groups (PStroop task (P=0.006) followed by a decrease in the recovery period (P=0.007). Neither the schizophrenia (P=0.107) nor MDD (P=0.081) groups had significant glutamate changes in the first run of the task, while the schizophrenia group had a significant increase in glutamine (P=0.005). The MDD group decreased glutamate concentrations in the second run of the task (P=0.003), as did all the groups combined (P=0.003). (1)H-fMRS data were successfully acquired from psychiatric subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorder using a cognitive paradigm for the first time. Future study designs should further elucidate the glutamatergic response to functional activation in schizophrenia.

  17. Social Participation Modifies the Effect of a Structured Physical Activity Program on Major Mobility Disability Among Older Adults: Results From the LIFE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Duane B; Rejeski, W Jack; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Glynn, Nancy W; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; McDermott, Mary M; Church, Timothy S; Fielding, Roger A; Gill, Thomas M; King, Abby C; Miller, Michael E; Chen, Haiying; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M

    2017-05-08

    To investigate whether baseline social participation modifies the effect of a long-term structured physical activity (PA) program on major mobility disability (MMD). 1,635 sedentary adults (70-89 years) with physical limitations were randomized to either a structured PA or health education (HE) intervention. Social participation was defined categorically at baseline. High social participation was defined as attending organized group functions at least once per week and visiting with noncohabitating friends and family ≥7 hr per week. Anything less was considered limited social participation. Participants performed a standardized walking test at baseline and every 6 months for up to 42 months. MMD was defined as the loss in the ability to walk 400 m. There was a significant intervention by social participation interaction (p = .003). Among individuals with high levels of social participation, those randomized to PA had significantly lower incidence of MMD (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.68]; p social participation showed no mobility benefit of the PA intervention when compared with their HE counterparts (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.77-1.11]; p = .40). Our findings suggest that baseline social participation is an important factor for the success of a PA intervention aimed at delaying mobility disability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Prosthesis use in adult acquired major upper-limb amputees: patterns of wear, prosthetic skills and the actual use of prostheses in activities of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østlie, Kristin; Lesjø, Ingrid Marie; Franklin, Rosemary Joy; Garfelt, Beate; Skjeldal, Ola Hunsbeth; Magnus, Per

    2012-11-01

    To describe patterns of prosthesis wear and perceived prosthetic usefulness in adult acquired upper-limb amputees (ULAs). To describe prosthetic skills in activities of daily life (ADL) and the actual use of prostheses in the performance of ADL tasks. To estimate the influence of prosthetic skills on actual prosthesis use and the influence of background factors on prosthetic skills and actual prosthesis use. Cross-sectional study analysing population-based questionnaire data (n = 224) and data from interviews and clinical testing in a referred/convenience sample of prosthesis-wearing ULAs (n = 50). Effects were analysed using linear regression. 80.8% wore prostheses. 90.3% reported their most worn prosthesis as useful. Prosthetic usefulness profiles varied with prosthetic type. Despite demonstrating good prosthetic skills, the amputees reported actual prosthesis use in only about half of the ADL tasks performed in everyday life. In unilateral amputees, increased actual use was associated with sufficient prosthetic training and with the use of myoelectric vs cosmetic prostheses, regardless of amputation level. Prosthetic skills did not affect actual prosthesis use. No background factors showed significant effect on prosthetic skills. Most major ULAs wear prostheses. Individualised prosthetic training and fitting of myoelectric rather than passive prostheses may increase actual prosthesis use in ADL.

  19. HP1 recruits activity-dependent neuroprotective protein to H3K9me3 marked pericentromeric heterochromatin for silencing of major satellite repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Mosch

    Full Text Available H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3 is a histone posttranslational modification (PTM that has emerged as hallmark of pericentromeric heterochromatin. This constitutive chromatin domain is composed of repetitive DNA elements, whose transcription is differentially regulated. Mammalian cells contain three HP1 proteins, HP1α, HP1β and HP1γ These have been shown to bind to H3K9me3 and are thought to mediate the effects of this histone PTM. However, the mechanisms of HP1 chromatin regulation and the exact functional role at pericentromeric heterochromatin are still unclear. Here, we identify activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP as an H3K9me3 associated factor. We show that ADNP does not bind H3K9me3 directly, but that interaction is mediated by all three HP1 isoforms in vitro. However, in cells ADNP localization to areas of pericentromeric heterochromatin is only dependent on HP1α and HP1β. Besides a PGVLL sequence patch we uncovered an ARKS motif within the ADNP homeodomain involved in HP1 dependent H3K9me3 association and localization to pericentromeric heterochromatin. While knockdown of ADNP had no effect on HP1 distribution and heterochromatic histone and DNA modifications, we found ADNP silencing major satellite repeats. Our results identify a novel factor in the translation of H3K9me3 at pericentromeric heterochromatin that regulates transcription.

  20. Exposure to injury in major college football. A preliminary report of data collection to determine injury exposure rates and activity risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, B R; Griffith, E H

    1979-01-01

    Five football teams from major colleges in the nation were surveyed during practices and games in the 1976 season. Data were collected on three packages of information designed as a computer program for tabulation, analysis, and storage of data. Investigators, with a thorough knowledge of football and trained in the use of the program, obtained the data from a given team during every drill, practice, and game of the season. Injury exposure rate was calculated as a ratio of injuries to minutes of exposure in 14 categories (12 specific drills, practice games, and other activities). Agility drills produced the fewest number of injuries for the amount of exposure time (exposure rate, 47,138; risk ractor, 1) and, therefore, it served as a base from which risk factors for all other categories would be calculated. No injuries were recorded in calisthenics. Practice games had the lowest injury exposure rate (1,009) and the highest risk factor (47). Analysis of data is incomplete at this time. The ultimate intent of the study is to help identify and eliminate harmful factors, establish norms, and provide a service to other schools that may desire exposure rate/risk factor data analyzed at a reasonable cost.

  1. Differential modulation of the chaperone-like activity of HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma by anionic and cationic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C Sudheer; Swamy, Musti J

    2017-03-01

    The major protein of equine seminal plasma, HSP-1/2 exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA) by protecting various target proteins against thermal, chemical and oxidative stress. Polydispersity and surface hydrophobicity of HSP-1/2 were found to be important for its CLA. Surfactants are known to alter certain properties of proteins, e.g. hydrophobicity, charge and conformation either by altering properties of the medium or by direct binding. In the current study, thermal aggregation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and enolase has been studied in the presence of HSP-1/2, different surfactants and their combinations. The results obtained show that anionic surfactants (SDS, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfate) and neutral surfactants (tween-20, triton X-100) increase the CLA of HSP-1/2 and also inhibit aggregation of the target proteins independently. On the other hand, cationic surfactants (CTAB, alanine palmityl ester) increased the thermal aggregation of ADH and enolase and also decreased the CLA of HSP-1/2. These results are of significant interest as they show that surfactants such as SDS and tween-20 can potentially be used as anti-aggregation agents to prevent thermal aggregation of target proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    OpenAIRE

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) curren...

  3. Microarray analysis reveals increased transcriptional repression and reduced metabolic activity but not major changes in the core apoptotic machinery during maturation of sympathetic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikk eRaba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal maturation of the neurons whose main phenotype and basic synaptic contacts are already established includes neuronal growth, refinement of synaptic contacts, final steps of differentiation, programmed cell death period (PCD etc. In the sympathetic neurons, postnatal maturation includes permanent end of the PCD that occurs with the same time schedule in vivo and in vitro suggesting that the process could be genetically determined. Also many other changes in the neuronal maturation could be permanent and thus based on stable changes in the genome expression. However, postnatal maturation of the neurons is poorly studied. Here we compared the gene expression profiles of immature and mature sympathetic neurons using Affymetrix microarray assay. We found 1310 significantly up-regulated and 1151 significantly down-regulated genes in the mature neurons. Gene ontology analysis reveals up-regulation of genes related to neuronal differentiation, chromatin and epigenetic changes, extracellular factors and their receptors, and cell adhesion, whereas many down-regulated genes were related to metabolic and biosynthetic processes. We show that termination of PCD is not related to major changes in the expression of classical genes for apoptosis or cell survival. Our dataset is deposited to the ArrayExpress database and is a valuable source to select candidate genes in the studies of neuronal maturation. As an example, we studied the changes in the expression of selected genes Igf2bp3, Coro1A, Zfp57, Dcx, and Apaf1 in the young and mature sympathetic ganglia by quantitative PCR and show that these were strongly downregulated in the mature ganglia.

  4. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  5. Promoting Diversity in STEM through Active Recruiting and Mentoring: The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) at the University of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Binder, Breanna; Tremmel, Michael; Garofali, Kristen; Agol, Eric; Meadows, Victoria

    2015-11-01

    The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) is a research and mentoring program for underclassmen and transfer students offered by the University of Washington Astronomy Department since 2005. The primary goal of Pre-MAP is to recruit and retain students from groups traditionally underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through early exposure to research. The Pre-MAP seminar is the core component of the program and offers instruction in computing skills, data manipulation, science writing, statistical analysis, and scientific speaking and presentation skills. Students choose research projects proposed by faculty, post-docs and graduate students in areas related to astrophysics, planetary science, and astrobiology. Pre-MAP has been successful in retaining underrepresented students in STEM fields relative to the broader UW population, and we've found these students are more likely to graduate and excel academically than their peers. As of spring 2015, more than one hundred students have taken the Pre-MAP seminar, and both internal and external evaluations have shown that all groups of participating students report an increased interest in astronomy and science careers at the end of the seminar. Several former Pre-MAP students have obtained or are pursuing doctoral and master’s degrees in STEM fields; many more work at NASA centers, teaching colleges, or as engineers or data analysts. Pre- MAP student research has produced dozens of publications in peer-reviewed research journals. This talk will provide an overview of the program: the structure of the seminar, examples of projects completed by students, cohort-building activities outside the seminar, funding sources, recruitment strategies, and the aggregate demographic and achievement data of our students. It is our hope that similar programs may be adopted successfully at other institutions.

  6. Alterations in regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in patients with major depressive disorder screening positive on the 32-item hypomania checklist (HCL-32).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haichen; Li, Linling; Peng, Hongjun; Liu, Tiebang; Young, Allan H; Angst, Jules; Ye, Rong; Rong, Han; Ji, Erni; Qiu, Yunhai; Li, Lingjiang

    2016-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is difficult to diagnose in the early stages of the illness, with the most frequent misdiagnosis being major depressive disorder (MDD). We aimed to use a regional homogeneity (ReHo) approach with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the features of spontaneous brain activity in MDD patients screening positive on the 32-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32). Nineteen MDD patients screening positive (HCL-32(+); 9 males; 24.9±5.7 years) and 18 patients screening negative (HCL-32(-); 9 males; 27.1±6.7 years), together with 24 healthy controls (HC; 11 males; 26.4±3.9 years) were studied. ReHo maps were compared and an receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to confirm the utility of the identified ReHo differences in classifying the patients. The MDD versus HC showed different ReHo in many brain areas, especially in the frontal and parietal cortex. The HCL-32(+) versus HCL-32(-) showed significant increase of ReHo in the right medial superior frontal cortex, left inferior parietal cortex and middle/inferior temporal cortex, and decrease of ReHo in the left postcentral cortex and cerebellum. ROC analysis showed good sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing these two subgroups of MDD. Recruited patients were all on antidepressants and standard mania rating scales were not performed to assess their hypomanic symptoms. The rs-fMRI measurement of ReHo in distributed brain regions may be putative biomarkers which could differentiate subthreshold BD from MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional characterization of the 1,5-benzodiazepine clobazam and its major active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam at human GABA(A receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Hammer

    Full Text Available The 1,5-benzodiazepine clobazam is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients 2 years of age or older in the United States, and for treatment of anxiety and various forms of epilepsy elsewhere. Clobazam has been reported to exhibit different in vivo adverse effects and addiction liability profile than the classic 1,4-benzodiazepines. In this study, it was investigated whether the in vitro pharmacological properties of clobazam and its major active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam could explain some of these clinical differences. The functional properties of the two 1,5-benzodiazepines were characterized at the human γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(AR subtypes α1β2γ(2S, α2β2γ(2S, α3β2γ(2S, α5β2γ(2S and α6β2δ expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by use of two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology and compared to those exhibited by the 1,4-benzodiazepine clonazepam. All three compounds potentiated GABA EC20-evoked responses through the α(1,2,3,5β2γ(2S GABA(ARs in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner, with each displaying similar EC50 values at the four subtypes. Furthermore, the degrees of potentiation of the GABA EC20 currents through the four receptors mediated by saturating modulator concentrations did not differ substantially for any of the three benzodiazepines. The three compounds were substantially less potent (200-3900 fold as positive allosteric modulators at the α6β2δ GABA(AR than at the α(1,2,3,5β2γ(2S receptors. Interestingly, however, clobazam and especially N-desmethylclobazam were highly efficacious potentiators of α6β2δ receptor signaling. Although this activity component is unlikely to contribute to the in vivo effects of clobazam/N-desmethylclobazam, the 1,5-benzodiazepine could constitute an interesting lead for novel modulators targeting this low-affinity binding site in GABAARs. In conclusion, the non

  8. Description of two new species of Marilia Müller (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae from southeastern Brazil, including the description of the female of Marilia major Müller Descrição de duas novas espécies de Marilia Müller (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae para o sudeste do Brasil, incluindo a descrição da fêmea de Marilia major Müller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Lourenço Dumas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Marilia Müller (Odontoceridae, M. aiuruoca sp. nov. and M. huamantincoae sp. nov., are described and figured from Itatiaia massif, Mantiqueira mountain range, southeastern Brazil. The female of M. major Müller, 1880 is described and the species is recorded for the first time from Rio de Janeiro state.Duas novas espécies de Marilia Müller (Odontoceridae, M. aiuruoca sp. nov. e M. huamantincoae sp. nov., são descritas e ilustradas para o Maciço do Itatiaia, Serra da Mantiqueira, Sudeste do Brasil. A fêmea de M. major Müller, 1880 é descrita, sendo a espécie registrada pela primeira vez para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro.

  9. An Investigation of the Linkage between Technology-Based Activities and STEM Major Selection in 4-Year Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Multilevel Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahlam

    2015-01-01

    Among the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), much attention has been paid to the influences of math- and science-related learning contexts on students' STEM major selection. However, the technology and engineering learning contexts that are linked to STEM major selection have been overlooked. In response, a…

  10. A comparative study of night-time enhancement of TEC at a low latitude station on storm and quiet nights including the local time, seasonal and solar activity dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of night-time enhancements in TEC during magnetic storms are compared with those during quiet nights for different seasons and solar activity conditions at Palehua, a low latitude station during the period 1980–1989. We find that the mean amplitude has both a seasonal and solar activity dependence: in winter, the values are higher for weak storms as compared to those during quiet nights and increase with an increase in solar activity. In summer, the mean amplitude values during weak storms and quiet nights are almost equal. But during equinox, the mean amplitude values for quiet nights are greater than those during weak storms. The mean half-amplitude duration is higher during weak storms as compared to that during quiet nights in summer. However, during winter and equinox, the durations are almost equal for both quiet and weak storm nights. For the mean half-amplitude duration, the quiet night values for all the seasons and equinoctial weak storm values increase with an increase in solar activity. The occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement during weak storms is greater than during quiet nights for all seasons. The mean amplitude, the mean half-amplitude duration and the occurrence frequency (in percent of TEC enhancement values are higher during major storms as compared to those during quiet nights. The above parameters have their highest values during pre-midnight hours. From the data analysed, this behaviour is true in the case of major storms also.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; plasma convection Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  11. Occupancy of serotonin transporters in the amygdala by paroxetine in association with attenuation of left amygdala activation by negative faces in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhe, Henricus G.; Koster, Michiel; Booij, Jan; van Herk, Marcel; Veltman, Dick J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2014-01-01

    Amygdala hyperactivation in major depressive disorder (MDD) might be attenuated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRls), but the working mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher amygdala serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy by paroxetine results in greater attenuation of

  12. Occupancy of serotonin transporters in the amygdala by paroxetine in association with attenuation of left amygdala activation by negative faces in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhé, Henricus G.; Koster, Michiel; Booij, Jan; van Herk, Marcel; Veltman, Dick J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2014-01-01

    Amygdala hyperactivation in major depressive disorder (MDD) might be attenuated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but the working mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that higher amygdala serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy by paroxetine results in greater attenuation of

  13. T-cell activation. VI. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibodies in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Röpke, C; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1993-01-01

    Murine T splenocytes stimulated in primary allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) were incubated with soluble anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies induced inhibition in the cytotoxicity of the responding population and this inhibition...

  14. Serum BDNF levels in relation to illness severity, suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity in patients with major depressive disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Um, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sollip

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are correlated with the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). The question of whether there is a difference in BDNF levels between depressive patients according to their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity was also addressed. A sample of 51 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder following diagnosis using axis I of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - text revision comprised the study subjects. The patients were stratified into two subgroups based on their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and their LDAEP values. The LDAEP was evaluated by measuring the auditory event-related potentials, and serum BDNF was measured using blood sampling before beginning medication with serotonergic agents. There was no difference in serum BDNF levels between the two patient subgroups. The subgroup with moderate-to-severe depression (n = 16) was reanalyzed after stratifying it into two subgroups according to LDAEP and BDNF values (dichotomized at the medians into low and high). The high-LDAEP subgroup had higher serum BDNF levels and total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale score than the low-LDAEP subgroup (p = 0.03 and 0.036, respectively). Serum BDNF levels were positively correlated with LDAEP and total Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) score (r = 0.56, p = 0.025, and r = 0.59, p = 0.016, respectively). The high-BDNF subgroup had a higher LDAEP and total BHS score than the low-BDNF subgroup (p = 0.046 and p = 0.011, respectively). This is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the BDNF level and LDAEP in Asian depressive patients. Intriguingly, the high-BDNF subgroup (divided according to illness severity) exhibited a more severe psychopathology on some psychometric rating scales, a finding that

  15. CD8+ T cells Are Preferentially Activated during Primary Low Dose Leishmania major Infection but Are Completely Dispensable during Secondary Anti-Leishmania Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Okwor, Ifeoma B.; Jia, Ping; Mou, Zhirong; Onyilagha, Chukwunonso; Uzonna, Jude E.

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that CD8+ T cells are required for optimal primary immunity to low dose Leishmania major infection. However, it is not known whether immunity induced by low dose infection is durable and whether CD8+ T cells contribute to secondary immunity following recovery from low dose infection. Here, we compared primary and secondary immunity to low and high dose L. major infections and assessed the influence of infectious dose on the quality and magnitude of secondary anti-Leishman...

  16. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  17. In vitro activity of the new fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) against a large collection of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and international reference strains, including those with high-level antimicrobial resistance: potential treatment option for gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-05-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea.

  18. Uso de fator VII recombinante ativado para tratamento e profilaxia de grandes sangramentos Use of recombinant activated factor VII for treatment and prophylaxis of major bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Henriques Vince

    2009-09-01

    pacientes. Dessa forma, o recente aumento do uso de rFVIIa em situações ainda não aprovadas levou ao crescente questionamento sobre eficácia e segurança desta específica medicação em tais situações.INTRODUCTION: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa is a protein produced by genetic engineering, the structure is very similar to the structure of intrinsic activated factor VII (FVII. Its action is based on knowledge of the coagulation mechanism in vivo by acting in direct activation of factor X independent resulting in formation of thrombin at the injury site and thereby contributing to the formation of stable fibrin clots without the action of factor VIII and factor IX. METHODS: Was conducted extensive review of the literature in order to determine the new findings related to the use of recombinant activated factor VII in patients with severe bleeding. RESULTS: It was found that the use of rFVIIa started in the 80's for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding in patients with a history of hemophilia A or B with inhibitors to factor VIII and IX, factor VII deficiency and Glanzmann's thrombasthenia refractory to replacement platelet. In 1999 its use was expanded to other clinical situations and thus began to be published several studies showing the efficacy of rFVIIa as a pro-hemostatic agent in patients with bleeding disorders or other previously healthy patients with a history of acute bleeding of major consequence. Trauma is the leading cause of mortality worldwide and uncontrolled bleeding the main challenge in caring for these patients. It is common for the association of trauma with coagulopathy, requiring in some cases specific therapy to treat it. At this point in adjuvant therapy with rFVIIa should be considered. Other common causes of bleeding are the heart, gynecologic/obstetric surgeries and diseases involving the liver. The coagulopathy in these cases is deficiency of factors dependent on vitamin K, and the FVII factor with smaller half life. CONCLUSION

  19. Comparação dos fatores de risco para amputações maiores e menores em pacientes diabéticos de um Programa de Saúde da Família Comparison of risk factors for major and minor amputation in diabetic patients included in a Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Cancio Assumpção

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Dentre as maiores causas de internamento hospitalar em pacientes com diabetes melito tipos 1 e 2 estão as complicações do pé diabético, principalmente pelas sequelas, muitas vezes incapacitantes, destacando-se as amputações de membros inferiores. A insuficiência vascular periférica ocorre mais precocemente nesses pacientes. A coexistência de neuropatia, isquemia e imunodeficiência favorece o desenvolvimento de infecções nos membros inferiores, que, se não tratadas adequadamente, podem levar a amputações e até à morte. OBJETIVOS: Comparar os fatores de risco para amputações maiores e menores em pacientes diabéticos de um Programa de Saúde da Família do CAIC Virgem dos Pobres III, em Maceió, AL. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 93 pacientes com o diagnóstico de diabetes melito, sendo avaliada a realização ou não de amputações de membros inferiores. As variáveis analisadas foram: sexo, idade, tipo do diabetes, pressão arterial, amputação prévia (se maior ou menor, alterações dermatológicas, alterações de pulsos arteriais pedioso e tibial posterior, deformidades e neuropatia, e foram classificadas de acordo com a classificação de Wagner e de Texas. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes eram diabéticos tipo 2. Verificou-se que 4,30% dos pacientes evoluíram para amputação de membros inferiores. Não se observou variação significativa da hipertensão, deformidades e neuropatia em relação ao grupo de pacientes que foram amputados. Entretanto, a ausência de detecção dos pulsos distais dos membros inferiores revelou-se bastante significativa com relação ao desfecho de amputação. CONCLUSÃO: Deve-se proporcionar aos diabéticos um atendimento ambulatorial adequado para que seja possível prevenir ou minimizar tais complicações.BACKGROUND: The main causes of hospital admission in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus include diabetic foot complications, which may result in particularly disabling

  20. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and natural gas activities: compositional comparison of 13 major shale basins via NOAA airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Aikin, K. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Graus, M.; Tokarek, T. W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The recent and unprecedented increase in natural gas production from shale formations is associated with a rise in the production of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including natural gas plant liquids (e.g., ethane, propane, and butanes) and liquid lease condensate (e.g., pentanes, hexanes, aromatics and cycloalkanes). Since 2010, the production of natural gas liquids and the amount of natural gas vented/flared has increased by factors of ~1.28 and 1.57, respectively (U.S. Energy and Information Administration), indicating an increasingly large potential source of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Emission of VOCs may affect local and regional air quality due to the potential to form tropospheric ozone and organic particles as well as from the release of toxic species such as benzene and toluene. The 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNex) campaign studied emissions from oil and natural gas activities across the central United States in order to better understand their potential air quality and climate impacts. Here we present VOC measurements from 19 research flights aboard the NOAA WP-3D over 11 shale basins across 8 states. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured using an improved whole air sampler (iWAS) with post-flight analysis via a custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The whole air samples are complimented by higher-time resolution measurements of methane (Picarro spectrometer), ethane (Aerodyne spectrometer), and VOCs (H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Preliminary analysis show that the Permian Basin on the New Mexico/Texas border had the highest observed VOC mixing ratios for all basins studied. We will utilize VOC enhancement ratios to compare the composition of methane and VOC emissions for each basin and the associated reactivities of these gases with the hydroxyl radical, OH, as a proxy for potential ozone formation.

  1. In vitro and in vivo activity of essential oils against major postharvest pathogens of Kinnow (Citrus nobilis × C. deliciosa) mandarin

    OpenAIRE

    Jhalegar, MD. Jameel; Sharma, R. R.; Singh, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    The present study envisages the influence of essential oils namely lemon grass, eucalyptus, clove and neem on Kinnow mandarin with the objective to combat major post harvest diseases and to prolong its availability for longer time in the season. For this, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted. Poisoned food technique was used for in vitro studies, and for in vivo studies, Kinnow fruit were pre-inoculated with pathogens (Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum), treated with different esse...

  2. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. For some individuals, major depression can result in severe impairments that interfere with ...

  3. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc to include new results for the LNE-LNHB and the NPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif sur Yvette (France); Johansson, L.; Keightley, J. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    In 2007 and 2008 respectively, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, submitted ampoules with between 10 MBq and 130 MBq activity of {sup 99m}Tc to the International Reference System (SIR), to update their results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison. Together with the four other national metrology institutes (NMI) that are participants, thirteen samples have been submitted since 1983. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest primary results of the PTB and the LNE-LNB as this makes the evaluation more robust. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR are given in the form of a matrix for all six NMIs. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  4. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  5. A Tool for Empirical Forecasting of Major Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Solar Particle Events from a Proxy of Active-Region Free Magnetic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Falconer, D. A.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a new forecasting tool developed for and is currently being tested by NASA s Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at JSC, which is responsible for the monitoring and forecasting of radiation exposure levels of astronauts. The new software tool is designed for the empirical forecasting of M and X-class flares, coronal mass ejections, as well as solar energetic particle events. Its algorithm is based on an empirical relationship between the various types of events rates and a proxy of the active region s free magnetic energy, determined from a data set of approx.40,000 active-region magnetograms from approx.1,300 active regions observed by SOHO/MDI that have known histories of flare, coronal mass ejection, and solar energetic particle event production. The new tool automatically extracts each strong-field magnetic areas from an MDI full-disk magnetogram, identifies each as an NOAA active region, and measures a proxy of the active region s free magnetic energy from the extracted magnetogram. For each active region, the empirical relationship is then used to convert the free magnetic energy proxy into an expected event rate. The expected event rate in turn can be readily converted into the probability that the active region will produce such an event in a given forward time window. Descriptions of the datasets, algorithm, and software in addition to sample applications and a validation test are presented. Further development and transition of the new tool in anticipation of SDO/HMI is briefly discussed.

  6. Enhanced casein kinase II activity during mouse embryogenesis. Identification of a 110-kDa phosphoprotein as the major phosphorylation product in mouse embryos and Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, H R; Reichert, G H; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    Mouse embryos at various stages of development were used to study the relationship of protein kinase activities with normal embryogenesis. Casein kinase II (CKII) activity in developing mouse embryos shows a 3-4-fold activity increase at day 12 of gestation. Together with the CKII activity......, increased phosphorylation of a 110-kDa protein is observed. Treatment of the embryo extracts with heparin, a highly specific inhibitor of CKII activity, results in a drastic reduction of the 110-kDa protein phosphorylation indicating that the protein might be a CKII-specific substrate. Rapidly proliferating...... mouse tumour cells also show an enhanced CKII activity. Here too, a 110-kDa phosphoprotein was the major phosphoryl acceptor. Partial proteolytic digestion shows that both proteins are identical. Other protein kinases tested (cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases) only show a basal level of enzyme...

  7. Soil pH, total phosphorus, climate and distance are the major factors influencing microbial activity at a regional spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Haichuan; Chen, Ruirui; Wang, Libing

    2016-01-01

    Considering the extensive functional redundancy in microbial communities and great difficulty in elucidating it based on taxonomic structure, studies on the biogeography of soil microbial activity at large spatial scale are as important as microbial community structure. Eighty-four soil samples...... scaling clearly revealed that soil microbial activities showed distinct differentiation at different sites over a regional spatial scale, which were strongly affected by soil pH, total P, rainfall, temperature, soil type and location. In addition, microbial community structure was greatly influenced...... scales. There are common (distance, climate, pH and soil type) but differentiated aspects (TP, SOC and N) in the biogeography of soil microbial community structure and activity....

  8. Release of biologically active kinin peptides, Met-Lys-bradykinin and Leu-Met-Lys-bradykinin from human kininogens by two major secreted aspartic proteases of Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Grazyna; Bochenska, Oliwia; Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Guevara-Lora, Ibeth; Faussner, Alexander; Kamysz, Wojciech; Kozik, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    In terms of infection incidence, the yeast Candida parapsilosis is the second after Candida albicans as causative agent of candidiases in humans. The major virulence factors of C. parapsilosis are secreted aspartic proteases (SAPPs) which help the pathogen to disseminate, acquire nutrients and dysregulate the mechanisms of innate immunity of the host. In the current work we characterized the action of two major extracellular proteases of C. parapsilosis, SAPP1 and SAPP2, on human kininogens, proteinaceous precursors of vasoactive and proinflammatory bradykinin-related peptides, collectively called the kinins. The kininogens, preferably the form with lower molecular mass, were effectively cleaved by SAPPs, with the release of two uncommon kinins, Met-Lys-bradykinin and Leu-Met-Lys-bradykinin. While optimal at acidic pH (4-5), the kinin release yield was only 2-3-fold lower at neutral pH. These peptides were able to interact with cellular kinin receptors of B2 subtype and to stimulate the human endothelial cells HMEC-1 to increased secretion of proinflammatory interleukins (ILs), IL-1β and IL-6. The analysis of the stability of SAPP-generated kinins in plasma suggested that they are biologically equivalent to bradykinin, the best agonist of B2 receptor subtype and can be quickly converted to des-Arg(9)-bradykinin, the agonist of inflammation-inducible B1 receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  10. Antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from different Hibiscus sabdariffa accessions and simultaneous determination five major antioxidant compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Jiang, Hao; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit L; Yue, Yongde

    2014-12-17

    Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained attention for its antioxidant activity. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa in the world. However, information on the quantification of antioxidant compounds in different accessions is rather limited. In this paper, a liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) method for simultaneous determination of five antioxidant compounds (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, and isoquercitrin) in H. sabdariffa leaves was developed. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The validated method has been successfully applied for determination of the five analytes in eight accessions of H. sabdariffa. The eight accessions of H. sabdariffa were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The investigated accessions of H. sabdariffa were rich in rutin and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. The two accessions showing the highest antioxidant activities were from Cuba (No. 2) and Taiwan (No. 5). The results indicated that H. sabdariffa leaves could be considered as a potential antioxidant source for the food industry. The developed LC-Q-TOF-MS method is helpful for quality control of H. sabdariffa.

  11. Antileishmanial activity of licochalcone A in mice infected with Leishmania major and in hamsters infected with Leishmania donovani

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Christensen, S B; Theander, T G

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the antileishmanial activity of the oxygenated chalcone licochalcone A in mice and hamsters infected with Leishmania parasites. Intraperitoneal administration of licochalcone A at doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of body weight per day completely prevented lesion develo...

  12. Ser649 and Ser650 are the major determinants of protein kinase A-mediated activation of human hormone-sensitive lipase against lipid substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintel, Christian; Osmark, Peter; Larsen, Martin Rask

    2008-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a key enzyme in the mobilization of fatty acids from stored triacylglycerols. Its activity is regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation. In rat HSL Ser563, Ser659 and Ser660 have been shown to be phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) in vitro as well...

  13. Cytosolic calcium ions exert a major influence on the firing rate and maintenance of pacemaker activity in guinea-pig sinus node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Anne Capel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sino-atrial node (SAN provides the electrical stimulus to initiate every heart beat. Cellular processes underlying this activity have been debated extensively, especially with regards to the role of intracellular calcium. We have used whole-cell application of 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxyethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA, a rapid calcium chelator, to guinea pig isolated SAN myocytes to assess the effect of rapid reduction of intracellular calcium on SAN cell electrical activity. High-dose (10 mM BAPTA induced rapid and complete cessation of rhythmic action potential (AP firing (time to cessation 5.5±1.7 s. Over a range of concentrations, BAPTA induced slowing of action potential firing and disruption of rhythmic activity, which was dose-dependent in its time of onset. Exposure to BAPTA was associated with stereotyped action potential changes similar to those previously reported in the presence of ryanodine, namely depolarisation of the most negative diastolic potential, prolongation of action potentials and a reduction in action potential amplitude. These experiments are consistent with the view that cytosolic calcium is essential to the maintenance of rhythmic pacemaker activity.

  14. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in the John Day Pool. 1982 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Gerard A.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1984-03-01

    This study was initiated to determine the extent of predation by resident populations of native and introduced fish on juvenile salmonids in main stem Columbia River Reservoirs. The John Day Reservoir and tailrace was selected as the study area. First year objectives were: (1) determine whether native and introduced predators preyed on juvenile salmonids; (2) determine which species were major predators; and (3) locate areas where predation was most intense. Results indicated that juvenile salmonids were consumed by all four predatory fish species studied: northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). However, degree of predation varied among predators as a function of spatial distribution, apparent abundance, size, and temporal feeding behavior. 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. The Major Isoforms of Bim Contribute to Distinct Biological Activities that Govern the Processes of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Interleukin-7 Dependent Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Shannon; Li, Wenqing; Zhang, Ge; Carlson, Adina L.; Limaye, Arati; Durum, Scott K.; Khaled, Annette R.

    2012-01-01

    Bim is a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family that enables the death of T-cells. Partial rescue of cytokine-deprived T-cells occurs when Bim and the receptor for the T-cell growth factor, interleukin-7 (IL-7), are deleted, implicating Bim as a possible target of IL-7-mediated signaling. Alternative splicing yields three major isoforms: BimEL, BimL and BimS. To study the effect of Bim deficiency and define the function of the major isoforms, Bim-containing and Bim-deficient T-cells, dependent on IL-7 for growth, were used. Loss of total Bim in IL-7-deprived T-cells resulted in delayed apoptosis. However, loss of Bim also impeded the later degradative phase of autophagy. p62, an autophagy-adaptor protein which is normally degraded, accumulated in Bim deficient cells. To explain this, BimL was found to support acidification of lysosomes that later may associate with autophagic vesicles. Key findings showed that inhibition of lysosomal acidification accelerated death upon IL-7 withdrawal only in Bim-containing T-cells. IL-7 dependent T-cells lacking Bim were less sensitive to inhibition of lysosomal acidification. BimL co-immunoprecipitated with dynein and Lamp1-containing vesicles, indicating BimL could be an adaptor for dynein to facilitate loading of lysosomes. In Bim deficient T-cells, lysosome-tracking probes revealed vesicles of less acidic pH. Over-expression of BimL restored acidic vesicles in Bim deficient T-cells, while other isoforms, BimEL and BimS, promoted intrinsic cell death. These results reveal a novel role for BimL in lysosomal positioning that may be required for the formation of degradative autolysosomes. PMID:22728771

  16. Activation of mTOR and RhoA is a major mechanism by which Ceramide 1-phosphate stimulates macrophage proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Patricia; Arana, Lide; Ouro, Alberto; Granado, Maria H; Trueba, Miguel; Gómez-Muñoz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates macrophage proliferation through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We first reported that C1P is mitogenic for fibroblasts and macrophages, but the mechanisms whereby it stimulates cell proliferation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that C1P causes phosphorylation of mTOR in primary (bone marrow-derived) macrophages. Activation of this kinase was tested my measuring the phosphorylation state of its downstream target p70S6K after treatment with C1P. These actions were dependent upon prior activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3-K), as selective inhibition of this kinase blocked mTOR phosphorylation and activation. In addition, C1P caused phosphorylation of PRAS40, a component of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) that is absent in mTORC2. Furthermore, inhibition of the small G protein Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb), which is also a specific component of mTORC1, with FTI277, completely blocked C1P-stimulated mTOR phosphorylation, DNA synthesis and macrophage growth. In addition, C1P caused phosphorylation of another Ras homolog gene family member, RhoA, which is also involved in cell proliferation. Interestingly, inhibition of the RhoA downstream effector RhoA-associated kinase (ROCK) also blocked C1P-stimulated mTOR and cell proliferation. It can be concluded that mTORC1, and RhoA/ROCK are essential components of the mechanism whereby C1P stimulates macrophage proliferation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patch-occupancy models indicate human activity as major determinant of forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis seasonal distribution in an industrial corridor in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buij, R.; McShea, W.J.; Campbell, P.; Lee, M.E.; Dallmeier, F.; Guimondou, S.; Mackaga, L.; Guisseougou, N.; Mboumba, S.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Alonso, A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of human activity and ecological features in influencing African forest elephant ranging behaviour was investigated in the Rabi-Ndogo corridor of the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas in southwest Gabon. Locations in a wide geographical area with a range of environmental variables were selected for patch-occupancy surveys using elephant dung to assess seasonal presence and absence of elephants. Patch-occupancy procedures allowed for covariate modelling evaluating hypotheses for both occupancy in relation to human activity and ecological features, and detection probability in relation to vegetation density. The best fitting models for old and fresh dung data sets indicate that (1) detection probability for elephant dung is negatively related to the relative density of the vegetation, and (2) human activity, such as presence and infrastructure, are more closely associated with elephant distribution patterns than are ecological features, such as the presence of wetlands and preferred fresh fruit. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of elephants to human disturbance, in this case infrastructure development associated with gas and oil production. Patch-occupancy methodology offers a viable alternative to current transect protocols for monitoring programs with multiple covariates.

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms, T-cell activation, and CCR5 genetics interact to regulate T-cell expression of CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornalusse, German G; Mummidi, Srinivas; Gaitan, Alvaro A; Jimenez, Fabio; Ramsuran, Veron; Picton, Anabela; Rogers, Kristen; Manoharan, Muthu Saravanan; Avadhanam, Nymisha; Murthy, Krishna K; Martinez, Hernan; Molano Murillo, Angela; Chykarenko, Zoya A; Hutt, Richard; Daskalakis, Demetre; Shostakovich-Koretskaya, Ludmila; Abdool Karim, Salim; Martin, Jeffrey N; Deeks, Steven G; Hecht, Frederick; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Clark, Robert A; Okulicz, Jason; Valentine, Fred T; Martinson, Neil; Tiemessen, Caroline Tanya; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Hunt, Peter W; He, Weijing; Ahuja, Sunil K

    2015-08-25

    T-cell expression levels of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) are a critical determinant of HIV/AIDS susceptibility, and manifest wide variations (i) between T-cell subsets and among individuals and (ii) in T-cell activation-induced increases in expression levels. We demonstrate that a unifying mechanism for this variation is differences in constitutive and T-cell activation-induced DNA methylation status of CCR5 cis-regulatory regions (cis-regions). Commencing at an evolutionarily conserved CpG (CpG -41), CCR5 cis-regions manifest lower vs. higher methylation in T cells with higher vs. lower CCR5 levels (memory vs. naïve T cells) and in memory T cells with higher vs. lower CCR5 levels. HIV-related and in vitro induced T-cell activation is associated with demethylation of these cis-regions. CCR5 haplotypes associated with increased vs. decreased gene/surface expression levels and HIV/AIDS susceptibility magnify vs. dampen T-cell activation-associated demethylation. Methylation status of CCR5 intron 2 explains a larger proportion of the variation in CCR5 levels than genotype or T-cell activation. The ancestral, protective CCR5-HHA haplotype bears a polymorphism at CpG -41 that is (i) specific to southern Africa, (ii) abrogates binding of the transcription factor CREB1 to this cis-region, and (iii) exhibits a trend for overrepresentation in persons with reduced susceptibility to HIV and disease progression. Genotypes lacking the CCR5-Δ32 mutation but with hypermethylated cis-regions have CCR5 levels similar to genotypes heterozygous for CCR5-Δ32. In HIV-infected individuals, CCR5 cis-regions remain demethylated, despite restoration of CD4+ counts (≥800 cells per mm(3)) with antiretroviral therapy. Thus, methylation content of CCR5 cis-regions is a central epigenetic determinant of T-cell CCR5 levels, and possibly HIV-related outcomes.

  19. Analysis of the transcriptome of the protozoan Theileria parva using MPSS reveals that the majority of genes are transcriptionally active in the schizont stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Richard; Shah, Trushar; Pelle, Roger; Hoyle, David; Pearson, Terry; Haines, Lee; Brass, Andrew; Hulme, Helen; Graham, Simon P; Taracha, Evans L N; Kanga, Simon; Lu, Charles; Hass, Brian; Wortman, Jennifer; White, Owen; Gardner, Malcolm J; Nene, Vishvanath; de Villiers, Etienne P

    2005-01-01

    Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) was used to analyze the transcriptome of the intracellular protozoan Theileria parva. In total 1,095,000, 20 bp sequences representing 4371 different signatures were generated from T.parva schizonts. Reproducible signatures were identified within 73% of potentially detectable predicted genes and 83% had signatures in at least one MPSS cycle. A predicted leader peptide was detected on 405 expressed genes. The quantitative range of signatures was 4-52,256 transcripts per million (t.p.m.). Rare transcripts (genes. Sequence signatures approximated a lognormal distribution, as in microarray. Transcripts were widely distributed throughout the genome, although only 47% of 138 telomere-associated open reading frames exhibited signatures. Antisense signatures comprised 13.8% of the total, comparable with Plasmodium. Eighty five predicted genes with antisense signatures lacked a sense signature. Antisense transcripts were independently amplified from schizont cDNA and verified by sequencing. The MPSS transcripts per million for seven genes encoding schizont antigens recognized by bovine CD8 T cells varied 1000-fold. There was concordance between transcription and protein expression for heat shock proteins that were very highly expressed according to MPSS and proteomics. The data suggests a low level of baseline transcription from the majority of protein-coding genes.

  20. The aqueous extract of Triumfetta semitriloba (Tiliaceae does not inhibit the in-vitro hydrolytic activity of the major pancreatic enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Arce-Urbina

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Triumfetta semitriloba is part of the Costa Rican folk pharmacopoeia. It shows no in-vitro inhibitory action on the hydrolytic activity of porcine pancreatic amylase, lipase or proteases, thus diminishing the concern of intestinal malabsorption in human beings.El extracto acuoso de Triumfetta semitriloba es parte de la farmacopea popular de Costa Rica. Éste no muestra acción inhibitoria in vitro sobre las actividades hidrolíticas de la amilasa, la lipasa y las proteasas pancreáticas porcinas, disminuyendo la preocupación de que su uso provoque malabsorción intestinal.

  1. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  2. In vitro and in vivo activity of essential oils against major postharvest pathogens of Kinnow (Citrus nobilis × C. deliciosa) mandarin.