WorldWideScience

Sample records for included knowledge representation

  1. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  2. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  3. The Knowledge Representation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    representing k nowledge. I,- ONE was designed to represent the kinds of knowlodge constriicts encountered by developers of natural language processing systems...project called Empirically Valid Knowledge Representation in 1986. One of the first tasks of the new project was to translate NIKL into Common LISP -- a...constraints -- the syntactic structures that appear in LOO% :constraints or implies clauses translate into knowledge structures for which we have

  4. Representation of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    methodology involves the design of programs that exhibit Intelligent behavior, Al researchers have often taken a rather pragmatic approach to the subject...This article has not been about representation formalisms per se, but rather about the pragmatics of epistemology, the study of the nature of knowledge...1977. Levels of complexity In discourse for anaphora disambiguation and speech act interpretation. IJCAI 3, 43-49. Carbonell, J. R. 1970. Al in CAI: An

  5. Concepts, ontologies, and knowledge representation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakus, Grega; Omerovic, Sanida; Tomažic, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Recording knowledge in a common framework that would make it possible to seamlessly share global knowledge remains an important challenge for researchers. This brief examines several ideas about the representation of knowledge addressing this challenge. A widespread general agreement is followed that states uniform knowledge representation should be achievable by using ontologies populated with concepts. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of the three introduced topics, following a uniform outline: definition, organization, and use. This brief is intended for those who want to get to know

  6. Knowledge representation an approach to artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bench-Capon, TJM

    1990-01-01

    Although many texts exist offering an introduction to artificial intelligence (AI), this book is unique in that it places an emphasis on knowledge representation (KR) concepts. It includes small-scale implementations in PROLOG to illustrate the major KR paradigms and their developments.****back cover copy:**Knowledge representation is at the heart of the artificial intelligence enterprise: anyone writing a program which seeks to work by encoding and manipulating knowledge needs to pay attention to the scheme whereby he will represent the knowledge, and to be aware of the consequences of the ch

  7. Paired structures in knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, J.; Bustince, H.; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here...

  8. Guideline Knowledge Representation Model (GLIKREM)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtela, David; Peleška, Jan; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana; Zvolský, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 17-23 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : knowledge representation * GLIF model * guidelines Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/articles/200812/34/1.html

  9. Representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, R; Strijker, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    The representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs, a specific kind of semantic network, is discussed. Knowledge it systematically searched this reveals. inconsistencies, reducing superfluous research and knowledge, and showing gaps in a theory. This representation

  10. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  11. Conceptual Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldager, Steen Nikolaj

    2003-01-01

    One of the main areas in knowledge representation and logic-based artificial intelligence concerns logical formalisms that can be used for representing and reasoning with concepts. For almost 30 years, since research in this area began, the issue of intensionality has had a special status...... in that it has been considered to play an important role, yet it has not been precisely established what it means for a logical formalism to be intensional. This thesis attempts to set matters straight. Based on studies of the main contributions to the issue of intensionality from philosophy of language...

  12. Formal ontologies in biomedical knowledge representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Jansen, L

    2013-01-01

    Medical decision support and other intelligent applications in the life sciences depend on increasing amounts of digital information. Knowledge bases as well as formal ontologies are being used to organize biomedical knowledge and data. However, these two kinds of artefacts are not always clearly distinguished. Whereas the popular RDF(S) standard provides an intuitive triple-based representation, it is semantically weak. Description logics based ontology languages like OWL-DL carry a clear-cut semantics, but they are computationally expensive, and they are often misinterpreted to encode all kinds of statements, including those which are not ontological. We distinguish four kinds of statements needed to comprehensively represent domain knowledge: universal statements, terminological statements, statements about particulars and contingent statements. We argue that the task of formal ontologies is solely to represent universal statements, while the non-ontological kinds of statements can nevertheless be connected with ontological representations. To illustrate these four types of representations, we use a running example from parasitology. We finally formulate recommendations for semantically adequate ontologies that can efficiently be used as a stable framework for more context-dependent biomedical knowledge representation and reasoning applications like clinical decision support systems.

  13. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction

  14. Knowledge Representation for an Uncertain World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koller, Daphne

    1997-01-01

    ...: typically, only very few aspects of the situation directly affect each other. Despite their success, belief networks are inadequate as a knowledge representation language for large, complex domains...

  15. Knowledge Representation and WordNets

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Gabriela Tudorache

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge itself is a representation of “real facts”. Knowledge is a logical model that presents facts from “the real world” witch can be expressed in a formal language. Representation means the construction of a model of some part of reality. Knowledge representation is contingent to both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. In cognitive science it expresses the way people store and process the information. In the AI field the goal is to store knowledge in such way that permits int...

  16. Semantic Knowledge Representation (SKR) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SKR Project was initiated at NLM in order to develop programs to provide usable semantic representation of biomedical free text by building on resources...

  17. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Chemical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2017-01-01

    Chemical representations serve as a communication tool not only in exchanges between scientists but also in chemistry lessons. The goals of the present study were to measure the extent of student teachers' knowledge about chemical representations, focusing on chemical formulae and structures in particular, and to explore which factors related to…

  18. Knowledge representation and natural language processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weischedel, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    In principle, natural language and knowledge representation are closely related. This paper investigates this by demonstrating how several natural language phenomena, such as definite reference, ambiguity, ellipsis, ill-formed input, figures of speech, and vagueness, require diverse knowledge sources and reasoning. The breadth of kinds of knowledge needed to represent morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics is surveyed. Furthermore, several current issues in knowledge representation, such as logic versus semantic nets, general-purpose versus special-purpose reasoners, adequacy of first-order logic, wait-and-see strategies, and default reasoning, are illustrated in terms of their relation to natural language processing and how natural language impact the issues.

  19. Accounting Knowledge Representation in PROLOG Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Patrut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some original techniques for implementing accounting knowledge in PROLOG language. We will represent rules of operation of accounts, the texts of accounting operations, and how to compute the depreciation.Keywords: accounting, knowledge representation, PROLOG, depreciation, natural language processing

  20. Development of ontological knowledge representation: learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the development of an ontological knowledge organization and representation, and explains how application of appropriate methods for its visualization can lead to meaningful learning. We have applied systemic diagrams (SD) as a method of visualizing ontological knowledge organization.

  1. Accounting Knowledge Representation in PROLOG Language

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Patrut

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some original techniques for implementing accounting knowledge in PROLOG language. We will represent rules of operation of accounts, the texts of accounting operations, and how to compute the depreciation.Keywords: accounting, knowledge representation, PROLOG, depreciation, natural language processing

  2. Systematic Representation of Biology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faletti, Joseph

    A major goal of science education is to turn novices (students) into experts (scientists or science literates) with a minimum amount of pain, effort, and time. However, transfer of biology knowledge from instructor to student usually results in a loss of the rich interconnections that an expert has. The papers in this set describe efforts to…

  3. Knowledge representation and knowledge base design for operator advisor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangos, K.M.; Sziano, T.; Tapolcai, L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of knowledge representation, knowledge base handling and design has been described for an Operator Advisor System in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The Operator Advisor System is to be implemented as a part of the 5th and 6th unit. The knowledge of the Operator Advisor system is described by a few elementary knowledge items (diagnostic event functions, fault graph, action trees), weighted directed graphs have been found as their common structure. List-type and relational representation of these graphs have been used for the on-line and off-line part of the knowledge base respectively. A uniform data base design and handling has been proposed which consists of a design system, a knowledge base editor and a knowledge base compiler

  4. Operationalization of a graphical knowledge representation language

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Charreton; Jean-Louis Ermine

    1996-01-01

    International audience; : MOISE is a knowledge engineering methodology which includes a knowledge specification stage which separates static knowledge from dynamic knowledge. This stage integrates a graphical knowledge specification language (KRL) that combines a static specification language (semantic networks) and a dynamic specification language (task language). The modelling language KRL is the source language describing knowledge which becomes available for consultation. Some additional ...

  5. THE INFLUENCE MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION ON KNOWLEDGE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvets Valentyna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence model of knowledge representation and training character testing in MOODLE on progress of students has been investigated in the article. The knowledge representation in the form of graphs and frames is able to raise the level of knowledge significantly. The using of the animation (in Flash and SketchUp leads to better memorization of information owing subconscious reaction of students. The testing of students in training conditions of e-learning platform MOODLE makes more active the programme of the intellectual curiosity that is the function of the brain.

  6. An object-based methodology for knowledge representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)|New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    An object based methodology for knowledge representation is presented. The constructs and notation to the methodology are described and illustrated with examples. The ``blocks world,`` a classic artificial intelligence problem, is used to illustrate some of the features of the methodology including perspectives and events. Representing knowledge with perspectives can enrich the detail of the knowledge and facilitate potential lines of reasoning. Events allow example uses of the knowledge to be represented along with the contained knowledge. Other features include the extensibility and maintainability of knowledge represented in the methodology.

  7. Locally Situated Digital Representation of Indigenous Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg; Rodil, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Digital re-presentation of indigenous knowledge remains an absurdity as long as we fail to deconstruct the prevalent design paradigm and techniques continuously re-framing technology within a western epistemology. This paper discusses key challenges in attempts of co-constructing a digital...... representation based on experiences from a longitudinal community-centred research project in rural Africa. In a quest to shape design from a locally situated viewpoint, we co-design a 3D visualization of an African village with its inhabitants. Prior invisible local perspectives, as well as dominant designer...

  8. Knowledge representation and management: transforming textual information into useful knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, A-M

    2010-01-01

    To summarize current outstanding research in the field of knowledge representation and management. Synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2010. Four interesting papers, dealing with structured knowledge, have been selected for the section knowledge representation and management. Combining the newest techniques in computational linguistics and natural language processing with the latest methods in statistical data analysis, machine learning and text mining has proved to be efficient for turning unstructured textual information into meaningful knowledge. Three of the four selected papers for the section knowledge representation and management corroborate this approach and depict various experiments conducted to .extract meaningful knowledge from unstructured free texts such as extracting cancer disease characteristics from pathology reports, or extracting protein-protein interactions from biomedical papers, as well as extracting knowledge for the support of hypothesis generation in molecular biology from the Medline literature. Finally, the last paper addresses the level of formally representing and structuring information within clinical terminologies in order to render such information easily available and shareable among the health informatics community. Delivering common powerful tools able to automatically extract meaningful information from the huge amount of electronically unstructured free texts is an essential step towards promoting sharing and reusability across applications, domains, and institutions thus contributing to building capacities worldwide.

  9. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... which suggests the emergence of a paired structure and its associated type of neutrality, being there three general types of neutral categories, namely indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Hence, the key issue consists in identifying the semantic opposition characterizing the meaning of concepts...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  10. Tools of knowledge representation: Thesauri versus ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Jiménez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontologies as valid tools of knowledge representation are analysed, by means of the presentation of different aspects that conform this emergent reality. Below, one of the most relevant goals in this paper is to connect ontologies with thesaurus, in order to determine their features in common, their differences and the possibilities of conversion. Finally, from viewpoint of Library and Information Science, the future implications because of generalization of the ontologies are presented

  11. Evaluation, Use, and Refinement of Knowledge Representations through Acquisition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Generative approaches to language have long recognized the natural link between theories of knowledge representation and theories of knowledge acquisition. The basic idea is that the knowledge representations provided by Universal Grammar enable children to acquire language as reliably as they do because these representations highlight the…

  12. Representation of individuals' ideational knowledge through their knowledge maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoz, Ron

    2009-12-01

    The Knowledge Map is considered an external representation of an individual's ideational (commonly called declarative or conceptual) knowledge stored in ideational (or propositional) memory. The Knowledge Map contains 4 graphic components: concepts, concept clusters, multicomponent links, and texts. The graphic components are mutually related by their inclusion and connectedness, and their analysis yields numerous visible and abstract unitary dimensions which have local, intermediate, and global values described by a 3-level framework and correspond to the elements of the ideational memory. That correspondence and the nature of these dimensions imply the Bigness of Change and Interminate Changes principles: all changes in the Knowledge Map and ideational memory are expansive, and in ideational memory they are expansive and never-ending.

  13. Knowledge representation for decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methlie, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book is organized into three sections in accordance with the structure of the conference program. First section contains four major papers which were commissioned by the Programme Committee to set the tone for the conference and to provide a structured source of relevant material from contributing disciplines. The second section contains specific papers submitted to the conference, and concerned with the following topics of specific interest: epistemological issues for decision support systems (DSS), capturing organizational knowledge for DSS, complementarity between human and formal DSS, and representations for adaption. The third section contains the short papers on any topic of relevance to the theme of the conference. It is hoped that the two working conferences organized by WG 8.3 will contribute to the development of a coherent knowledge and understanding of the class of computerized information systems called Decision Support Systems. (Auth.)

  14. Feature selection for domain knowledge representation through multitask learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 Feature selection for domain knowledge representation through multitask learning Benjamin Rosman Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems CSIR South Africa BRosman@csir.co.za Representation learning is a difficult and important problem...

  15. Knowledge representation methods for early failure detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, K.P.; Stiller, P.

    1990-01-01

    To supervise technical processes like nuclear power plants, it is very important to detect failure modes in an early stage. In the nuclear research center at Karlsruhe an expert system is developed, embedded in a computer network of autonomous computers, which are used for intelligent prepocessing. Events, process data and actual parameter values are stored in slots of special frames in the knowledge base of the expert system. Both rule based and fact based knowledge representations are employed to generate cause consequence chains of failure states. By on-line surveillance of the reactor process, the slots of the frames are dynamically actualized. Immediately after the evaluation, the inference engine starts in the special domain experts (triggered by metarules from a manager) and detects the correspondend failures or anomaly state. Matching the members of the chain and regarding a catalogue of instructions and messages, what is to do by the operator, future failure states can be estimated and propagation can be prohibited. That means qualitative failure prediction based on cause consequence in the static part of the knowledge base. Also, a time series of physical data can be used to predict on analytical way future process state and to continue such a theoretical propagation with matching the cause consuquence chain

  16. Knowledge Representation in the Context of E-business Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Elena Varlan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article emphasizes the theoretical principles of knowledge representation. The paper also tries to show how to represent knowledge in the context of e-business applications creating atagging platform for economic knowledge using SKOS language.

  17. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2015-01-01

    Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR) to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining.

  18. Ologs: a categorical framework for knowledge representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, David I; Kent, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the olog, or ontology log, a category-theoretic model for knowledge representation (KR). Grounded in formal mathematics, ologs can be rigorously formulated and cross-compared in ways that other KR models (such as semantic networks) cannot. An olog is similar to a relational database schema; in fact an olog can serve as a data repository if desired. Unlike database schemas, which are generally difficult to create or modify, ologs are designed to be user-friendly enough that authoring or reconfiguring an olog is a matter of course rather than a difficult chore. It is hoped that learning to author ologs is much simpler than learning a database definition language, despite their similarity. We describe ologs carefully and illustrate with many examples. As an application we show that any primitive recursive function can be described by an olog. We also show that ologs can be aligned or connected together into a larger network using functors. The various methods of information flow and institutions can then be used to integrate local and global world-views. We finish by providing several different avenues for future research.

  19. Ologs: a categorical framework for knowledge representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the olog, or ontology log, a category-theoretic model for knowledge representation (KR. Grounded in formal mathematics, ologs can be rigorously formulated and cross-compared in ways that other KR models (such as semantic networks cannot. An olog is similar to a relational database schema; in fact an olog can serve as a data repository if desired. Unlike database schemas, which are generally difficult to create or modify, ologs are designed to be user-friendly enough that authoring or reconfiguring an olog is a matter of course rather than a difficult chore. It is hoped that learning to author ologs is much simpler than learning a database definition language, despite their similarity. We describe ologs carefully and illustrate with many examples. As an application we show that any primitive recursive function can be described by an olog. We also show that ologs can be aligned or connected together into a larger network using functors. The various methods of information flow and institutions can then be used to integrate local and global world-views. We finish by providing several different avenues for future research.

  20. Do Knowledge-Component Models Need to Incorporate Representational Competencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Martina Angela

    2017-01-01

    Traditional knowledge-component models describe students' content knowledge (e.g., their ability to carry out problem-solving procedures or their ability to reason about a concept). In many STEM domains, instruction uses multiple visual representations such as graphs, figures, and diagrams. The use of visual representations implies a…

  1. Hierarchical representation and utilization of plant constitution knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Y.; Asami, K.

    1990-01-01

    A method to represent and utilize plant constitution knowledge is described. A plant system is divided into many subsystems and hierarchically represented using frames. The frames include the slots of an upper-system, lower-systems and components' connections. Connections are divided into subsystems external connections and internal connections. This knowledge representation allows top-down analysis of the plant constitution and components' connectivities. The data are edited by drawing plant diagrams on a CRT and converting them into frames. The frame data area verified by checking upper-lower relationships and components' connectivities. As an example of knowledge utilization a method to find a components' connection route is described. This method prevents the combinatorial explosion of components' connections by finding rough routes in advance of detailed route analysis

  2. development of ontological knowledge representation: learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    This group of authors describes use of ontologies for knowledge organization in a given domain. In the context of computer science, ontologies have been applied in the field of artificial intelligence in order to facilitate knowledge sharing and reuse of acquired knowledge (15). Soon, ontologies have gained great popularity.

  3. Knowledge Representations for Planning Manipulation Tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    In this book, the capability map, a novel general representation of the kinematic capabilities of a robot arm, is introduced. The capability map allows to determine how well regions of the workspace are reachable for the end effector in different orientations. It is a representation that can be machine processed as well as intuitively visualized for the human. The capability map and the derived algorithms are a valuable source of information for high- and low-level planning processes. The versatile applicability of the capability map is shown by examples from several distinct application domains. In human-robot interaction, a bi-manual interface for tele-operation is objectively evaluated. In low-level geometric planning, more human-like motion is planned for a humanoid robot while also reducing the computation time. And in high-level task reasoning, the suitability of a robot for a task is evaluated.    

  4. Knowledge in the loop: Semantics representation for multimodal simulative environments

    OpenAIRE

    Latoschik, Marc Erich; Biermann, Peter; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Butz, Andreas; Fisher, Brian; Krüger, Antonio; Olivier, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the integration of knowledge based techniques into simulative Virtual Reality (VR) applications. The approach is motivated using multimodal Virtual Construction as an example domain. An abstract Knowledge Representation Layer (KRL) is proposed which is expressive enough to define all necessary data for diverse simulation tasks and which additionally provides a base formalism for the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) representations. The KRL supports two differ...

  5. Knowledge representation in a world with vague concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresp, C. [Aachen Technical Univ. (Germany); Becks, A.; Klinkenberg, R.; Hiltner, J. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the foundation of a knowledge representation system is introduced. It deals with fuzzy concepts and uncertain relationships. The problem we finally wish to solve, lays in the fact that on the one hand most actual methods of knowledge representation are not able to deal with vague knowledge. On the other hand, those few methods that care for vagueness lack well-defined semantics and therefore do not have a implementation-independent behavior. The proposed method is designed to model vague knowledge with well-defined semantics. Besides the language definition, basic patterns of reasoning are introduced.

  6. Semantic knowledge representation for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.

  7. The effect of training methodology on knowledge representation in categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hélie

    Full Text Available Category representations can be broadly classified as containing within-category information or between-category information. Although such representational differences can have a profound impact on decision-making, relatively little is known about the factors contributing to the development and generalizability of different types of category representations. These issues are addressed by investigating the impact of training methodology and category structures using a traditional empirical approach as well as the novel adaptation of computational modeling techniques from the machine learning literature. Experiment 1 focused on rule-based (RB category structures thought to promote between-category representations. Participants learned two sets of two categories during training and were subsequently tested on a novel categorization problem using the training categories. Classification training resulted in a bias toward between-category representations whereas concept training resulted in a bias toward within-category representations. Experiment 2 focused on information-integration (II category structures thought to promote within-category representations. With II structures, there was a bias toward within-category representations regardless of training methodology. Furthermore, in both experiments, computational modeling suggests that only within-category representations could support generalization during the test phase. These data suggest that within-category representations may be dominant and more robust for supporting the reconfiguration of current knowledge to support generalization.

  8. Knowledge representation to support reasoning based on multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, April; Seidel, Jorge P.; Parker, Alice C.

    1990-01-01

    Model Based Reasoning is a powerful tool used to design and analyze systems, which are often composed of numerous interactive, interrelated subsystems. Models of the subsystems are written independently and may be used together while they are still under development. Thus the models are not static. They evolve as information becomes obsolete, as improved artifact descriptions are developed, and as system capabilities change. Researchers are using three methods to support knowledge/data base growth, to track the model evolution, and to handle knowledge from diverse domains. First, the representation methodology is based on having pools, or types, of knowledge from which each model is constructed. In addition information is explicit. This includes the interactions between components, the description of the artifact structure, and the constraints and limitations of the models. The third principle we have followed is the separation of the data and knowledge from the inferencing and equation solving mechanisms. This methodology is used in two distinct knowledge-based systems: one for the design of space systems and another for the synthesis of VLSI circuits. It has facilitated the growth and evolution of our models, made accountability of results explicit, and provided credibility for the user community. These capabilities have been implemented and are being used in actual design projects.

  9. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to represent knowledge is often considered essential to build systems with reasoning capabilities. In computer science, a good solution often depends on a good representation. The first step in development of most computer applications is selection of a representation for the input, output, and intermediate results that the program will operate upon. For applications in artificial intelligence, this initial choice of representation is especially important. This is because the possible representational paradigms are diverse and the forcing criteria for the choice are usually not clear in the beginning. Yet, the consequences of an inadequate choice can be devastating in the later state of a project if it is discovered that critical information cannot be encoded within the chosen representational paradigm. Problems arise when designing representational systems to support any kind of Knowledge-Base System, that is a computer system that uses knowledge to perform some task. The general case of knowledge-based systems can be thought of as reasoning agents applying knowledge to achieve goals. Artificial Intelligence (AI) research involves building computer systems to perform tasks of perception and reasoning, as well as storage and retrieval of data. The problem of automatically perceiving large patterns in data is a perceptual task that begins to be important for many expert systems applications. Most of AI research assumes that what needs to be represented is known a priori; an AI researcher's job is just figuring out how to encode the information in the system's data structure and procedures. 10 refs

  10. Frame as representation of knowledge in the cognitive aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Ивашкевич

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of representation of different types of knowledge in cognitive linguistics. The author makes a special emphasis on the presentation of frame which is considered to be one of the cognitive structures of knowledge within the meaning of words.

  11. Qualitative Knowledge Representations for Intelligent Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyoungho; Huh, Young H.

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative Physics(QP) has systematically been approached to qualitative modeling of physical systems for recent two decades. Designing intelligent systems for NPP requires an efficient representation of qualitative knowledge about the behavior and structure of NPP or its components. A novel representation of qualitative knowledge also enables intelligent systems to derive meaningful conclusions from incomplete or uncertain knowledge of a plant behavior. We look mainly into representative QP works on nuclear applications and the representation of qualitative knowledge for the diagnostic model, the qualitative simulation of a mental model of NPP operator, and the qualitative interpretation of the measured raw data from NPP. We present the challenging areas for QP applications in nuclear industry. QP technology will make NPP more intelligent

  12. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    the process of knowing, learning and creating knowledge is the relevant aspect (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995). In this paper knowledge representation is presented in 3D style for the understanding and visualization of dynamics of complex social networks by developing a TANetworkTool (Task Analysis Network Tool......). The standard or normal representation of a typical social network is through a graph data structure in 2D. The dynamics of larger social networks is so complex some time it becomes difficult to understand the various levels of interactions and dependencies just by mere representation through a tree or graph...... of complex social networks and complimenting the analytical results. This representation can also help authorities not necessarily having specific scientific background to understand and perhaps take preventive actions required in certain specific scenarios for example dealing with terrorist/covert networks....

  13. Semantic Network and Frame Knowledge Representation Formalisms in Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Pshtiwan Qader

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Choosing a suitable method to represent the knowledge concerning the real world is one of the major issues involved in Artificial Intelligence. The purpose of this research is to consider the important beneficial roles of semantic network and frame formalisms for knowledge representation in Artificial Intelligence. The basic properties of the above methods for appropriate structuring and arranging the knowledge are presented. Some types of relationships, the conceptual graph...

  14. Knowledge Representation in Patient Safety Reporting: An Ontological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Chen; Yang Gong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The current development of patient safety reporting systems is criticized for loss of information and low data quality due to the lack of a uniformed domain knowledge base and text processing functionality. To improve patient safety reporting, the present paper suggests an ontological representation of patient safety knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a framework for constructing an ontological knowledge base of patient safety. The present paper describes our desig...

  15. Knowledge representation of rock plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, Armita; Babaie, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    The first iteration of the Rock Plastic Deformation (RPD) ontology models the semantics of the dynamic physical and chemical processes and mechanisms that occur during the deformation of the generally inhomogeneous polycrystalline rocks. The ontology represents the knowledge about the production, reconfiguration, displacement, and consumption of the structural components that participate in these processes. It also formalizes the properties that are known by the structural geology and metamorphic petrology communities to hold between the instances of the spatial components and the dynamic processes, the state and system variables, the empirical flow laws that relate the variables, and the laboratory testing conditions and procedures. The modeling of some of the complex physio-chemical, mathematical, and informational concepts and relations of the RPD ontology is based on the class and property structure of some well-established top-level ontologies. The flexible and extensible design of the initial version of the RPD ontology allows it to develop into a model that more fully represents the knowledge of plastic deformation of rocks under different spatial and temporal scales in the laboratory and in solid Earth. The ontology will be used to annotate the datasets related to the microstructures and physical-chemical processes that involve them. This will help the autonomous and globally distributed communities of experimental structural geologists and metamorphic petrologists to coherently and uniformly distribute, discover, access, share, and use their data through automated reasoning and enhanced data integration and software interoperability.

  16. The Application of Classification Structures in Knowledge Organization and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-heng Chiu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Classification is a way of seeing the world. In a classification scheme, phenomena of interest are represented in a context of relationships that provide description, explanation, prediction, heuristics, and the generation of new knowledge. Knowing that information organization isn’t equal to knowledge organization, the author first defines the scope of classification and knowledge organization, and then describes the relationship between the classification and the representation and organization of knowledge. At the end, four kinds of classification structures are compared to show their abilities in representing knowledge. In order to utilize these classification structures, it is very important to understand their advantages and disadvantages.[Article content in Chinese

  17. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we aim to investigate knowledge as approach of describing possible worlds through classification schema, taxonomies, ontologies and semantic web. We focus on the historical background and the methods of culture and civilization representation. In this regard, we studied the ancient concern to classify knowledge, from the biblical period when the Tree Metaphor concentrated the essence of knowledge, to the Francis Bacon classification and then Paul Otlet and we analysed the languages used in the scientific fields and then in the information science filed, emphasizing on the improvements of the ICT: hypertext and semantic web. We paid a special attention to the knowledge construction through math language and exchange standards. The reason of the approach comes from the logic and philosophic base of the knowledge representation that underline the idea that only properly structured scientific domains ensure the progress of the society.

  18. Knowledge Representation Of CT Scans Of The Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Laurens V.; Burke, M. W.; Rada, Roy

    1984-06-01

    We have been investigating diagnostic knowledge models which assist in the automatic classification of medical images by combining information extracted from each image with knowledge specific to that class of images. In a more general sense we are trying to integrate verbal and pictorial descriptions of disease via representations of knowledge, study automatic hypothesis generation as related to clinical medicine, evolve new mathematical image measures while integrating them into the total diagnostic process, and investigate ways to augment the knowledge of the physician. Specifically, we have constructed an artificial intelligence knowledge model using the technique of a production system blending pictorial and verbal knowledge about the respective CT scan and patient history. It is an attempt to tie together different sources of knowledge representation, picture feature extraction and hypothesis generation. Our knowledge reasoning and representation system (KRRS) works with data at the conscious reasoning level of the practicing physician while at the visual perceptional level we are building another production system, the picture parameter extractor (PPE). This paper describes KRRS and its relationship to PPE.

  19. Guideline Formalization and Knowledge Representation for Clinical Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo NOVAIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} The prevalence of situations of medical error and defensive medicine in healthcare institutions is a great concern of the medical community. Clinical Practice Guidelines are regarded by most researchers as a way to mitigate these occurrences; however, there is a need to make them interactive, easier to update and to deploy. This paper provides a model for Computer-Interpretable Guidelines based on the generic tasks of the clinical process, devised to be included in the framework of a Clinical Decision Support System. Aiming to represent medical recommendations in a simple and intuitive way. Hence, this work proposes a knowledge representation formalism that uses an Extension to Logic Programming to handle incomplete information. This model is used to represent different cases of missing, conflicting and inexact information with the aid of a method to quantify its quality. The integration of the guideline model with the knowledge representation formalism yields a clinical decision model that relies on the development of multiple information scenarios and the exploration of different clinical hypotheses.

  20. Guideline Formalization and Knowledge Representation for Clinical Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago OLIVEIRA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} The prevalence of situations of medical error and defensive medicine in healthcare institutions is a great concern of the medical community. Clinical Practice Guidelines are regarded by most researchers as a way to mitigate theseoccurrences; however, there is a need to make them interactive, easier to update and to deploy. This paper provides a model for Computer-Interpretable Guidelines based on the generic tasks of the clinical process, devised to be included in the framework of a Clinical Decision Support System. Aiming to represent medical recommendations in a simple and intuitive way. Hence, this work proposes a knowledge representation formalism that uses an Extension to Logic Programming to handle incomplete information. This model is used to represent different cases of missing, conflicting and inexact information with the aid of a method to quantify its quality. The integration of the guideline model with the knowledge representation formalism yields a clinical decision model that relies on the development of multiple information scenarios and the exploration of different clinical hypotheses.

  1. A Representation System User Interface for Knowledge Base Designers

    OpenAIRE

    Fikes, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A major strength of frame-based knowledge representation languages is their ability to provide the knowledge base designer with a concise and intuitively appealing means expression. The claim of intuitive appeal is based on the observation that the object -centered style of description provided by these languages often closely matches a designer's understanding of the domain being modeled and therefore lessens the burden of reformulation involved in developing a formal description. To be effe...

  2. Investigating the Implementation of Knowledge Representation in the COMBATXXI System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Some of their purposes are sharing common structure of information, reusing and analyzing domain knowledge, and separating domain knowledge from...even though object-oriented programming and frame-based representations were developed concurrently sharing many features, they differ in the fact that...Trash MortarShell TankRound RPG_Shell SodaCan Springs SteelTubes Vehicle hasDelivery Method Human DeliveryMethod Man Woman Kid Car Bike Truck Pressur

  3. Chapter 21 The Semantic Web : Webizing Knowledge Representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendler, Jim; van Harmelen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The World Wide Web opens up new opportunities for the use of knowledge representation: a formal description of the semantic content of Web pages can allow better processing by computational agents. Further, the naming scheme of the Web, using Universal Resource Indicators, allows KR systems to avoid

  4. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2018-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...

  5. Disciplinary Representation on Institutional Websites: Changing Knowledge, Changing Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kate; Yates, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses shifts in the representation of history and physics as named organisational units on Australian university websites over the last 15 years in the context of broader questions about the production of knowledge in contemporary times. It derives from a broader project concerned with disciplinarity, changing university contexts and…

  6. Foundation of a Knowledge Representation System for Image Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    the tasks of the system is also basic in systems that use complete indexing, or Conniver, or Lisp. Systems like KRL [11], on the other hand, have a...Winograd, T., "An Overview of KRL , a Knowledge Representation Language," Cogn. Science, pp. 13-45, 1977. [12] Zadeh, L.A., "PRUF - A Memory

  7. Paired fuzzy sets as a basic structure for knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an unifying approach to a number of fuzzy models that share the existence of two opposite concepts. In particular, we stress that standard structures for knowledge representation are being built from a family of related concepts, paired concepts in case we simply consider...

  8. A semiotically oriented cognitive model of knowledge representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, József István

    2008-01-01

    This thesis introduces a model for knowledge representation as a sign recognition process, on the basis of an analysis of the properties of cognitive activity. By offering a logical account of this model, the existence of a `naive' logic underlying human information processing is revealed, which in

  9. Enhancing Conceptual Knowledge of Energy in Biology with Incorrect Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernecke, Ulrike; Schütte, Kerstin; Schwanewedel, Julia; Harms, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Energy is an important concept in all natural sciences, and a challenging one for school science education. Students' conceptual knowledge of energy is often low, and they entertain misconceptions. Educational research in science and mathematics suggests that learning through depictive representations and learning from errors, based on the theory…

  10. Acquisition, representation and rule generation for procedural knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Chris; Saito, Tim; Mithal, Sachin; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1991-01-01

    Current research into the design and continuing development of a system for the acquisition of procedural knowledge, its representation in useful forms, and proposed methods for automated C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) rule generation is discussed. The Task Analysis and Rule Generation Tool (TARGET) is intended to permit experts, individually or collectively, to visually describe and refine procedural tasks. The system is designed to represent the acquired knowledge in the form of graphical objects with the capacity for generating production rules in CLIPS. The generated rules can then be integrated into applications such as NASA's Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) architecture. Also described are proposed methods for use in translating the graphical and intermediate knowledge representations into CLIPS rules.

  11. On knowledge representation for high energy physics control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huuskonen, P.; Kaarela, K.; Meri, M.; Le Goff, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A framework for knowledge representation in the domain of high energy physics control systems is presented. Models of process equipment, controls, documents, information systems, functional dependencies, physical interconnections, and design decisions are necessary to allow for automated reasoning about such systems. A number of support systems can use these models: alarm processing, fault diagnosis, sensor validation, preventive maintenance, action analysis, information abstraction, intelligent help systems, and on-line documentation. Our aim is to achieve representations that would be understood by end users, could be constructed by domain experts, and would be powerful enough to function as a basis for these support systems. It is proposed to base these models on means-end-analysis, implemented through an entity-relationship type of representation and extended with the notion of contribution. The paper outlines class hierarchies and relation types to form a vocabulary for talking about this specific domain. A number of implementation concerns are raised and some examples of how these representations can be used in real cases are offered. The representations are likely to prove most useful for support systems that function in the user assisting mode, as opposed to fully autonomous systems. Intelligent help and information abstraction applications, in particular, are expected to benefit. The main focus of the work is that of the control information system concepts based on encapsulated real- time objects (CICERO) project at CERN, experiment controls, but the results are usable for accelerator control systems and for industrial control systems in general. (author). 37 refs., 7 figs

  12. Increasing verbal knowledge mediates development of multidimensional emotion representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nook, Erik C; Sasse, Stephanie F; Lambert, Hilary K; McLaughlin, Katie A; Somerville, Leah H

    2017-01-01

    How do people represent their own and others' emotional experiences? Contemporary emotion theories and growing evidence suggest that the conceptual representation of emotion plays a central role in how people understand the emotions both they and other people feel. 1-6 Although decades of research indicate that adults typically represent emotion concepts as multidimensional, with valence (positive-negative) and arousal (activating-deactivating) as two primary dimensions, 7-10 little is known about how this bidimensional (or circumplex ) representation arises. 11 Here we show that emotion representations develop from a monodimensional focus on valence to a bidimensional focus on both valence and arousal from age 6 to age 25. We investigated potential mechanisms underlying this effect and found that increasing verbal knowledge mediated emotion representation development over and above three other potential mediators: (i) fluid reasoning, (ii) the general ability to represent non-emotional stimuli bidimensionally, and (iii) task-related behaviors (e.g., using extreme ends of rating scales). These results suggest that verbal development facilitates the expansion of emotion concept representations (and potentially emotional experiences) from a "positive or negative" dichotomy in childhood to a multidimensional organization in adulthood.

  13. A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....

  14. Towards Ontology as Knowledge Representation for Intellectual Capital Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadjabbari, B.; Wongthongtham, P.; Dillon, T. S.

    For many years, physical asset indicators were the main evidence of an organization’s successful performance. However, the situation has changed after information technology revolution in the knowledge-based economy. Since 1980’s business performance has not been limited only to physical assets instead intellectual capital are increasingly playing a major role in business performance. In this paper, we utilize ontology as a tool for knowledge representation in the domain of intellectual capital measurement. The ontology classifies ways of intangible capital measurement.

  15. Sagace: a representation of knowledge for supervision of continuous process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penalva, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the SAGACE project is to meet the requirements of the conception of supervision systems for continuous processes by proposing a modelling language. It would make easier the knowledge acquisition about the process by warranting the representation coherence in order to infer validated operational models. In addition to the flexibility, simplicity and generality of a graphic language issued from SADT, the main idea is that knowledge acquisition and organization are the purposes of this language which rests on a modelling theory. The application domain is chemical engineering and more precisely a nuclear wastes retreatment plant [fr

  16. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Mona

    2017-04-21

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge.We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Our method combines symbolic methods, in particular knowledge representation using symbolic logic and automated reasoning, with neural networks to generate embeddings of nodes that encode for related information within knowledge graphs. Through the use of symbolic logic, these embeddings contain both explicit and implicit information. We apply these embeddings to the prediction of edges in the knowledge graph representing problems of function prediction, finding candidate genes of diseases, protein-protein interactions, or drug target relations, and demonstrate performance that matches and sometimes outperforms traditional approaches based on manually crafted features. Our method can be applied to any biological knowledge graph, and will thereby open up the increasing amount of SemanticWeb based knowledge bases in biology to use in machine learning and data analytics.https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/walking-rdf-and-owl.robert.hoehndorf@kaust.edu.sa.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Mona; Khan, Mohammad Asif; Maddouri, Omar; Kinjo, Akira R; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge. Results: We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Our method combines symbolic methods, in particular knowledge representation using symbolic logic and automated reasoning, with neural networks to generate embeddings of nodes that encode for related information within knowledge graphs. Through the use of symbolic logic, these embeddings contain both explicit and implicit information. We apply these embeddings to the prediction of edges in the knowledge graph representing problems of function prediction, finding candidate genes of diseases, protein-protein interactions, or drug target relations, and demonstrate performance that matches and sometimes outperforms traditional approaches based on manually crafted features. Our method can be applied to any biological knowledge graph, and will thereby open up the increasing amount of Semantic Web based knowledge bases in biology to use in machine learning and data analytics. https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/walking-rdf-and-owl. robert.hoehndorf@kaust.edu.sa. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Representation and Use of Knowledge in Automatic Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendeford, Tor S.

    1996-01-01

    The report relates activities performed within the ongoing project on Integrated Diagnosis Systems (IDS). A unifying aspect of the activities is representation of knowledge applied in diagnosis. New ways of representing such knowledge can improve the diagnoses, enable reuse, and facilitate consistent integration with other operator support systems. The tasks of the diagnostic process, and the roles of domain knowledge, are discussed in relation to different methods of diagnosis. Two primary methods of diagnosis are recognised in the report, model-based and association-based. Distinct differences of these two methods are identified as focus for integration. A methodology for specifying the design of diagnosis systems is reviewed. This methodology seems to provide a good theoretical basis for understanding problems of fault diagnosis. Qualitative and functional modelling methods are studied by application to a common example domain. The two specific techniques are found to be promising in relation to diagnosis. A software setup for simulated diagnosis is presented. This setup is to be used in the activity on knowledge representation, where a blackboard system is the central module of the setup. Presentations of process domain knowledge show the capabilities of the blackboard architecture and suggest schemes for integrated use of the information. The object-oriented architecture is also shown to serve the needs for presentation of diagnostic reasoning, which is a vital aspect when integrating different diagnosis methods. (author)

  19. Knowledge Representation in Patient Safety Reporting: An Ontological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current development of patient safety reporting systems is criticized for loss of information and low data quality due to the lack of a uniformed domain knowledge base and text processing functionality. To improve patient safety reporting, the present paper suggests an ontological representation of patient safety knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: We propose a framework for constructing an ontological knowledge base of patient safety. The present paper describes our design, implementation, and evaluation of the ontology at its initial stage. Findings: We describe the design and initial outcomes of the ontology implementation. The evaluation results demonstrate the clinical validity of the ontology by a self-developed survey measurement. Research limitations: The proposed ontology was developed and evaluated using a small number of information sources. Presently, US data are used, but they are not essential for the ultimate structure of the ontology. Practical implications: The goal of improving patient safety can be aided through investigating patient safety reports and providing actionable knowledge to clinical practitioners. As such, constructing a domain specific ontology for patient safety reports serves as a cornerstone in information collection and text mining methods. Originality/value: The use of ontologies provides abstracted representation of semantic information and enables a wealth of applications in a reporting system. Therefore, constructing such a knowledge base is recognized as a high priority in health care.

  20. A Knowledge Representation Language for Large Knowledge Bases and "Intelligent" Information Retrieval Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    1990-01-01

    Describes a conceptual Knowledge Representation Language (KRL) developed at the French National Center for Scientific Research, that is used for the construction and use of Large Knowledge Bases (LKBs) and/or Intelligent Information Retrieval Systems (IIRSs). Semantic factors are discussed, and the specialization hierarchies used are explained.…

  1. Representation and management of temporal and uncertain knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ziqiang

    1993-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the investigation of uncertain temporal knowledge representation and management, especially for process verification and supervisor systems design. The evolution of process behaviour is time dependent and information describing this temporal evolution is uncertain/imprecise. In Artificial Intelligence, time and uncertainty have been, since long-time, considered as two of the most difficult research fields. Furthermore, these two fields, even different, may be present in an interactive way. We now try to deal with this special kind of uncertainty: temporal uncertainty. Integrating time and uncertainty brings out study issues of temporal information representation, events ordering and temporal reasoning under uncertainty. The investigation of these problems has been guided by preserving the intrinsic properties of time. The main contribution of this thesis can be summarised as follows: (1) unified representation of uncertainty and imprecision over temporal information; (2) formal structuring of time under uncertainty; (3) formalising fuzzy temporal reasoning system; (4) modelling temporal evolution of process, providing associated reasoning mechanism to verify the process evolution, modelling fuzzy temporal Petri nets; (5) design and implementation of SURTEL, a programming tool for dealing with uncertain temporal information and knowledge. (author) [fr

  2. Spatial representations are specific to different domains of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Rowena; Reeve, Robert A; Wilson, Sarah J

    2009-05-20

    There is evidence that many abstract concepts are represented cognitively in a spatial format. However, it is unknown whether similar spatial processes are employed in different knowledge domains, or whether individuals exhibit similar spatial profiles within and across domains. This research investigated similarities in spatial representation in two knowledge domains--mathematics and music. Sixty-one adults completed analogous number magnitude and pitch discrimination tasks: the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes and Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes tasks. Subgroups of individuals with different response patterns were identified through cluster analyses. For both the mathematical and musical tasks, approximately half of the participants showed the expected spatial judgment effect when explicitly cued to focus on the spatial properties of the stimuli. Despite this, performances on the two tasks were largely independent. Consistent with previous research, the study provides evidence for the spatial representation of number and pitch in the majority of individuals. However, there was little evidence to support the claim that the same spatial representation processes underpin mathematical and musical judgments.

  3. Spatial representations are specific to different domains of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena Beecham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many abstract concepts are represented cognitively in a spatial format. However, it is unknown whether similar spatial processes are employed in different knowledge domains, or whether individuals exhibit similar spatial profiles within and across domains. This research investigated similarities in spatial representation in two knowledge domains--mathematics and music. Sixty-one adults completed analogous number magnitude and pitch discrimination tasks: the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes and Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes tasks. Subgroups of individuals with different response patterns were identified through cluster analyses. For both the mathematical and musical tasks, approximately half of the participants showed the expected spatial judgment effect when explicitly cued to focus on the spatial properties of the stimuli. Despite this, performances on the two tasks were largely independent. Consistent with previous research, the study provides evidence for the spatial representation of number and pitch in the majority of individuals. However, there was little evidence to support the claim that the same spatial representation processes underpin mathematical and musical judgments.

  4. Spatial knowledge during skilled action sequencing: Hierarchical versus nonhierarchical representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmer, Lawrence P; Crump, Matthew J C

    2017-11-01

    Typists can type 4 to 5 keystrokes per second at around 95% accuracy, yet they appear to have poor declarative knowledge of key locations. Logan and Crump (2011, Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 54, pp. 1-27) accounted for this paradox by proposing that typing is hierarchically organized into two loops, with an outer loop that transforms sentences into words and passes each word, one at a time, to an inner loop that transforms each word into its constituent keystrokes; however, the nature of the inner loop's spatial knowledge is not well understood. Key locations may be learned through the experiences of locating and traversing between keys. In daily life, people tend to type structured language, and, as a consequence, certain keys and key-to-key transitions are experienced more frequently than others. Here, we asked whether or not this knowledge is structured hierarchically. For example, knowledge of key locations may be nested within representations of words, or the inner loop may rely on knowledge that is independent from higher level structures. To test this, we had people type English, English-like, and random strings during normal, partially occluded, and occluded typing. In both partially occluded and occluded typing, error rates were higher while typing random strings compared to English and English-like strings, whereas there was no difference in error rates between English and English-like strings. This suggests that typists' spatial knowledge of the keyboard is not driven by hierarchical word-level representations, but instead is likely driven by a collection of individual processes, such as knowledge of the sequential structure of language acquired by typing more frequently occurring letters.

  5. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  6. Speech recognition: Acoustic-phonetic knowledge acquisition and representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zue, Victor W.

    1988-09-01

    The long-term research goal is to develop and implement speaker-independent continuous speech recognition systems. It is believed that the proper utilization of speech-specific knowledge is essential for such advanced systems. This research is thus directed toward the acquisition, quantification, and representation, of acoustic-phonetic and lexical knowledge, and the application of this knowledge to speech recognition algorithms. In addition, we are exploring new speech recognition alternatives based on artificial intelligence and connectionist techniques. We developed a statistical model for predicting the acoustic realization of stop consonants in various positions in the syllable template. A unification-based grammatical formalism was developed for incorporating this model into the lexical access algorithm. We provided an information-theoretic justification for the hierarchical structure of the syllable template. We analyzed segmented duration for vowels and fricatives in continuous speech. Based on contextual information, we developed durational models for vowels and fricatives that account for over 70 percent of the variance, using data from multiple, unknown speakers. We rigorously evaluated the ability of human spectrogram readers to identify stop consonants spoken by many talkers and in a variety of phonetic contexts. Incorporating the declarative knowledge used by the readers, we developed a knowledge-based system for stop identification. We achieved comparable system performance to that to the readers.

  7. Knowledge Representation and Management. From Ontology to Annotation. Findings from the Yearbook 2015 Section on Knowledge Representation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, J; Darmoni, S J

    2015-08-13

    To summarize the best papers in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). A comprehensive review of medical informatics literature was performed to select some of the most interesting papers of KRM published in 2014. Four articles were selected, two focused on annotation and information retrieval using an ontology. The two others focused mainly on ontologies, one dealing with the usage of a temporal ontology in order to analyze the content of narrative document, one describing a methodology for building multilingual ontologies. Semantic models began to show their efficiency, coupled with annotation tools.

  8. [Social representations of illness: Comparison of "expert" knowledge and "naïve" knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoffrion, C; Dupont, P; Tripodi, D; Roland-Lévy, C

    2016-06-01

    The link between social practices and representations is now well known. But while many studies have focused on the social representation of mental illness, in various populations, few studies have focused on the notion of disease/illness by comparing professionals and non-professionals health workers representations. Indeed, the disease is both a reality described, explained and treated by medicine; for those who are affected by a disease, it is an individual experience with psychological, social and cultural impacts. The social representation is determined by the structure of the social groups in which it develops; therefore, it is a form of knowledge socially shaped and shared by the members of a social group. Several theoretical extensions have been elaborated and particularly, the structural approach and the central core theory. These approaches sustain the arguments of a hierarchical organization of a social representation with a central core surrounded by peripheral zones. The central core is common and shared by the majority of the members of a given group, whereas the peripheral zones provide space for the individualization of the social knowledge. The main goal of our study is to highlight the social representations of disease in health professionals (HP) and in non-health professionals (NHP). The group of HP has been differentiated into three subgroups: "medical doctors", "nurses" and "pharmacists", while that of NHP in two subgroups: those submitted to a "long period medical treatment" and those "without treatment". Our aim is to show that there are different social and professional Representations of disease. The professional representations are specific social representations related to professional contexts. We formulate the following assumptions (a) that the social representations of HP and NHP will be articulated around a common central core. Nevertheless, we expect to find specific peripheral elements related to professional status, based on

  9. Specialized knowledge representation and the parameterization of context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eFaber

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Though instrumental in numerous disciplines, context has no universally accepted definition. In specialized knowledge resources it is timely and necessary to parameterize context with a view to more effectively facilitating knowledge representation, understanding, and acquisition, the main aims of terminological knowledge bases. This entails distinguishing different types of context as well as how they interact with each other. This is not a simple objective to achieve despite the fact that specialized discourse does not have as many contextual variables as those in general language (i.e. figurative meaning, irony, etc.. Even in specialized text, context is an extremely complex concept. In fact, contextual information can be specified in terms of scope or according to the type of information conveyed. It can be a textual excerpt or a whole document; a pragmatic convention or a whole culture; a concrete situation or a prototypical scenario. Although these versions of context are useful for the users of terminological resources, such resources rarely support context modeling. In this paper we propose a taxonomy of context primarily based on scope (local and global and further divided into syntactic, semantic and pragmatic facets. These facets cover the specification of different types of terminological information, such as predicate-argument structure, collocations, semantic relations, term variants, grammatical and lexical cohesion, communicative situations, subject fields and cultures.

  10. Specialized Knowledge Representation and the Parameterization of Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Pamela; León-Araúz, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Though instrumental in numerous disciplines, context has no universally accepted definition. In specialized knowledge resources it is timely and necessary to parameterize context with a view to more effectively facilitating knowledge representation, understanding, and acquisition, the main aims of terminological knowledge bases. This entails distinguishing different types of context as well as how they interact with each other. This is not a simple objective to achieve despite the fact that specialized discourse does not have as many contextual variables as those in general language (i.e., figurative meaning, irony, etc.). Even in specialized text, context is an extremely complex concept. In fact, contextual information can be specified in terms of scope or according to the type of information conveyed. It can be a textual excerpt or a whole document; a pragmatic convention or a whole culture; a concrete situation or a prototypical scenario. Although these versions of context are useful for the users of terminological resources, such resources rarely support context modeling. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of context primarily based on scope (local and global) and further divided into syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic facets. These facets cover the specification of different types of terminological information, such as predicate-argument structure, collocations, semantic relations, term variants, grammatical and lexical cohesion, communicative situations, subject fields, and cultures.

  11. Knowledge Representation and Management, It's Time to Integrate!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhombres, F; Charlet, J

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To select, present, and summarize the best papers published in 2016 in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). Methods: A comprehensive and standardized review of the medical informatics literature was performed based on a PubMed query. Results: Among the 1,421 retrieved papers, the review process resulted in the selection of four best papers focused on the integration of heterogeneous data via the development and the alignment of terminological resources. In the first article, the authors provide a curated and standardized version of the publicly available US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Such a resource will improve the quality of the underlying data, and enable standardized analyses using common vocabularies. The second article describes a project developed in order to facilitate heterogeneous data integration in the i2b2 framework. The originality is to allow users integrate the data described in different terminologies and to build a new repository, with a unique model able to support the representation of the various data. The third paper is dedicated to model the association between multiple phenotypic traits described within the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) and the corresponding genotype in the specific context of rare diseases (rare variants). Finally, the fourth paper presents solutions to annotation-ontology mapping in genome-scale data. Of particular interest in this work is the Experimental Factor Ontology (EFO) and its generic association model, the Ontology of Biomedical AssociatioN (OBAN). Conclusion: Ontologies have started to show their efficiency to integrate medical data for various tasks in medical informatics: electronic health records data management, clinical research, and knowledge-based systems development. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  12. Physics instruction induces changes in neural knowledge representation during successive stages of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2015-05-01

    Incremental instruction on the workings of a set of mechanical systems induced a progression of changes in the neural representations of the systems. The neural representations of four mechanical systems were assessed before, during, and after three phases of incremental instruction (which first provided information about the system components, then provided partial causal information, and finally provided full functional information). In 14 participants, the neural representations of four systems (a bathroom scale, a fire extinguisher, an automobile braking system, and a trumpet) were assessed using three recently developed techniques: (1) machine learning and classification of multi-voxel patterns; (2) localization of consistently responding voxels; and (3) representational similarity analysis (RSA). The neural representations of the systems progressed through four stages, or states, involving spatially and temporally distinct multi-voxel patterns: (1) initially, the representation was primarily visual (occipital cortex); (2) it subsequently included a large parietal component; (3) it eventually became cortically diverse (frontal, parietal, temporal, and medial frontal regions); and (4) at the end, it demonstrated a strong frontal cortex weighting (frontal and motor regions). At each stage of knowledge, it was possible for a classifier to identify which one of four mechanical systems a participant was thinking about, based on their brain activation patterns. The progression of representational states was suggestive of progressive stages of learning: (1) encoding information from the display; (2) mental animation, possibly involving imagining the components moving; (3) generating causal hypotheses associated with mental animation; and finally (4) determining how a person (probably oneself) would interact with the system. This interpretation yields an initial, cortically-grounded, theory of learning of physical systems that potentially can be related to cognitive

  13. Knowledge Representation and Inference for Analysis and Design of Database and Tabular Rule-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Ligeza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rulebased systems constitute a powerful tool for specification of knowledge in design and implementation of knowledge based systems. They provide also a universal programming paradigm for domains such as intelligent control, decision support, situation classification and operational knowledge encoding. In order to assure safe and reliable performance, such system should satisfy certain formal requirements, including completeness and consistency. This paper addresses the issue of analysis and verification of selected properties of a class of such system in a systematic way. A uniform, tabular scheme of single-level rule-based systems is considered. Such systems can be applied as a generalized form of databases for specification of data pattern (unconditional knowledge, or can be used for defining attributive decision tables (conditional knowledge in form of rules. They can also serve as lower-level components of a hierarchical multi-level control and decision support knowledge-based systems. An algebraic knowledge representation paradigm using extended tabular representation, similar to relational database tables is presented and algebraic bases for system analysis, verification and design support are outlined.

  14. What Does Knowledge Look Like? Drawing as a Means of Knowledge Representation and Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Tracey; Evans, M. Max

    2015-01-01

    The most common tools individuals use to articulate complex and abstract concepts are writing and spoken language, long privileged as primary forms of communication. However, our, explanations of these concepts may be more aptly communicated through visual means, such as drawings. Interpreting and analyzing abstract graphic representations is…

  15. Towards a unified account of the representation, processing and acquisition of second language knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article argues for the need to reconcile symbolist and connectionist accounts of (second) language learning by propounding nine claims, aimed at integrating accounts of the representation, processing and acquisition of second language (L2) knowledge. Knowledge representation is claimed to be

  16. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  17. Mobile Knowledge, Karma Points and Digital Peers: The Tacit Epistemology and Linguistic Representation of MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmess, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Media representations of massive open online courses (MOOCs) such as those offered by Coursera, edX and Udacity reflect tension and ambiguity in their bold promise of democratized education and global knowledge sharing. An approach to MOOCs that emphasizes the tacit epistemology of such representations suggests a richer account of the ambiguities…

  18. Health expert's tacit knowledge acquisition and representation using specialised healthcare scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y N; Abidi, S S

    2000-01-01

    The abundance and transient nature to healthcare knowledge has rendered it difficult to acquire with traditional knowledge acquisition methods. In this paper, we propose a Knowledge Management approach, through the use of scenarios, as a mean to acquire and represent tacit healthcare knowledge. This proposition is based on the premise that tacit knowledge is best manifested in atypical situations. We also provide an overview of the representational scheme and novel acquisition mechanism of scenarios.

  19. Ontology-based data integration from heterogeneous urban systems : A knowledge representation framework for smart cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psyllidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel knowledge representation framework for smart city planning and management that enables the semantic integration of heterogeneous urban data from diverse sources. Currently, the combination of information across city agencies is cumbersome, as the increasingly available

  20. Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

    2008-11-06

    PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration.

  1. The Role of Knowledge in Visual Shape Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    EMDR ), of either the Energy-Trough or Parallel Forces type, can be used as a modular building block for constructing shape representations. Each EMDR ...In the bottom-up direction, a shape description enters the primitive feature side of an EMDR as a vector, S, describing a point in the high dimensional...feature space. An interpretation of this description, in terms of a location on the constraint surface maintained by this EMDR , emerges at the

  2. Logical knowledge representation of regulatory relations in biomedical pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Hansen, Jens Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on regulatory relations, in for example regulatory pathways in biology, is used widely in experiment design by biomedical researchers and in systems biology. The knowledge has typically either been represented through simple graphs or through very expressive differential equation simula...

  3. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to approach in this essay the technical paths used to represent hibrid documents in online environment using specific standars. The multimedia contents increase and the diverse storage formats need refined instruments for the search and retrieval process. Dedicated applications require a high level of interperability therefore the necesity of standardization. This study tries to argument theoretically the need to set and reflect logically the media objects properties in metadata schema and to illustrate the importance of ontologies and taxonomies in online environment representation.

  4. Mathematics Teacher Candidates’ Multiple Representation and Conceptual-Procedural Knowledge Level in Definite Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali DELİCE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning a subject conceptually requires establishing a relationship between the conceptual and the operational knowledge. Definite integral, being one of the topics of the calculus course is where learners face extensive learning difficulties mostly stemming from the lack of the knowledge of multiple representations. It is thought that the conceptual and the operational knowledge that mathematics teacher candidates influences the skill of using multiple representations. The study uses a case study approach which is based on an interpretivist qualitative paradigm. The participants of the study are 45 teacher candidates who are in their second year in the mathematics teacher training program of a state university. The data collection instruments were definite integral competency test, representation preference and transition test, semi structured interviews and document analysis. Findings suggest that algebraic representations are the dominant type in candidates’ solutions of integral problems. Candidates who are successful in terms of conceptual knowledge tend to use the representations more interrelated. Candidates who are successful in terms of operational knowledge tend mostly to use algebraic representations

  5. The recommendation system knowledge representation and reasoning procedures under uncertainty for metal casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kluska-Nawarecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an information system dedicated to requirements recommendation and knowledge sharing. It presents methodology of constructing domain knowledge base and application procedure on the example of production technology of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI. For knowledge representation and reasoning Logic of Plausible Reasoning (LPR is used. Both equally applicable LPR for formalization the knowledge of foundry technology, as well as the described system solution have the unique character.

  6. Top-down attention based on object representation and incremental memory for knowledge building and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumhwi; Ban, Sang-Woo; Lee, Minho

    2013-10-01

    Humans can efficiently perceive arbitrary visual objects based on an incremental learning mechanism with selective attention. This paper proposes a new task specific top-down attention model to locate a target object based on its form and color representation along with a bottom-up saliency based on relativity of primitive visual features and some memory modules. In the proposed model top-down bias signals corresponding to the target form and color features are generated, which draw the preferential attention to the desired object by the proposed selective attention model in concomitance with the bottom-up saliency process. The object form and color representation and memory modules have an incremental learning mechanism together with a proper object feature representation scheme. The proposed model includes a Growing Fuzzy Topology Adaptive Resonance Theory (GFTART) network which plays two important roles in object color and form biased attention; one is to incrementally learn and memorize color and form features of various objects, and the other is to generate a top-down bias signal to localize a target object by focusing on the candidate local areas. Moreover, the GFTART network can be utilized for knowledge inference which enables the perception of new unknown objects on the basis of the object form and color features stored in the memory during training. Experimental results show that the proposed model is successful in focusing on the specified target objects, in addition to the incremental representation and memorization of various objects in natural scenes. In addition, the proposed model properly infers new unknown objects based on the form and color features of previously trained objects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Visualization Through Knowledge Representation Model for Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Athar Javed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zaki

    2011-01-01

    , document/team management system, data warehouses, data mining processes, databases, contact lists, virtual teams, collaboration tools, customer relationship management, applications and news (Davenport and Prusak 1998, Jashapara 2004). Knowledge is not important per se (Agostini et al 2003) instead...

  8. Knowledge extraction and representation learning for music recommendation and classification

    OpenAIRE

    Oramas Martín, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we address the problems of classifying and recommending music present in large collections. We focus on the semantic enrichment of descriptions associated to musical items (e.g., artists biographies, album reviews, metadata), and the exploitation of multimodal data (e.g., text, audio, images). To this end, we first focus on the problem of linking music-related texts with online knowledge repositories and on the automated construction of music knowledge bases. Then, we show how...

  9. Specifying Geographic Information - Ontology, Knowledge Representation, and Formal Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Vinther

    2007-01-01

    of a joint infrastructure. The motivation for the presented work is to meet the need for topical geographic information at any time, so that the requirements for data content and quality are fulfilled, and the information can thus form actively part of the task performance in public administration as well...... of domains and conceptualization of these. The thesis contributes a formalization of what is understood by domain models and conceptual models, when the focus is on geographic information. Moreover, it is shown how specifications for geographic information are related to this representational system...... produced according to a given specification and the requirements for the quality parameters used to describe this information. The two notions are incorporated and related to the developed system of notions for specification for geographic information. It is an important part of an infrastructure...

  10. Practitioner's knowledge representation a pathway to improve software effort estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to help organizations improve their effort estimates and effort estimation processes by providing a step-by-step methodology that takes them through the creation and validation of models that are based on their own knowledge and experience. Such models, once validated, can then be used to obtain predictions, carry out risk analyses, enhance their estimation processes for new projects and generally advance them as learning organizations.Emilia Mendes presents the Expert-Based Knowledge Engineering of Bayesian Networks (EKEBNs) methodology, which she has used and adapted during the course of several industry collaborations with different companies world-wide over more than 6 years. The book itself consists of two major parts: first, the methodology's foundations in knowledge management, effort estimation (with special emphasis on the intricacies of software and Web development) and Bayesian networks are detailed; then six industry case studies are presented which illustrate the pra...

  11. Representation and Non-representation of Knowledge Mediation in Legal Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Aase Voldgaard

    In this paper, focus is on mediation of legal knowledge between expert and layman in connection with German legal contracts. Focus is not, however, on the role of a classical mediator (e.g. a translator), but on knowledge mediation performed by the expert himself. This mediation of legal knowledge...... takes place in different ways. A survey among lawyers (Larsen 2009) showed that, concerning legal contracts, mediation of knowledge is largely performed by legal experts, i.e. lawyers, to their clients during personal consultations before the contract is signed. Many lawyers prefer to explain difficult...... legal terms or other contents to their clients orally, instead of doing it in writing within the frames of the legal contract. The lawyers who choose to explain the legal contents orally have several reasons for doing so, but in my paper, I will argue that this form of mediation causes certain problems...

  12. Knowledge representation for integrated plant operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Integrated operation and maintenance of process plants has many advantages. One advantage is the improved economy obtained by reducing the number of plant shutdowns. Another is to increase reliability of operation by monitoring of risk levels during on-line maintenance. Integrated plant operation...... and maintenance require knowledge bases which can capture the interactions between the two plant activities. As an example, taking out a component or a subsystem for maintenance during operation will require a knowledge base representing the interactions between plant structure, functions, operating states...

  13. The Representation of Pragmatic Knowledge in Recent ELT Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Han, Zhengrui

    2016-01-01

    Pragmatic competence has become an increasingly crucial component of language pedagogy. This article reports on a quantitative and qualitative study of ten English language textbooks used in Chinese universities with a particular focus on their coverage of pragmatic knowledge. Detailed analysis focused specifically on the mention of pragmatic…

  14. Looking beyond superficial knowledge gaps: understanding public representations of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practices of STIs including HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings of the study show that adolescents in the sample have a wide gap between knowledge, attitude and practice with regards to STIs and HIV/AIDS though they become sexually active at an early age. There is also a lack of behavioural change which is reinforced by perceptions and misconception regarding STIs and ...

  16. Text Mining approaches for automated literature knowledge extraction and representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Angelo; Mulas, Francesca; Gabetta, Matteo; Arbustini, Eloisa; Zupan, Blaz; Larizza, Cristiana; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Due to the overwhelming volume of published scientific papers, information tools for automated literature analysis are essential to support current biomedical research. We have developed a knowledge extraction tool to help researcher in discovering useful information which can support their reasoning process. The tool is composed of a search engine based on Text Mining and Natural Language Processing techniques, and an analysis module which process the search results in order to build annotation similarity networks. We tested our approach on the available knowledge about the genetic mechanism of cardiac diseases, where the target is to find both known and possible hypothetical relations between specific candidate genes and the trait of interest. We show that the system i) is able to effectively retrieve medical concepts and genes and ii) plays a relevant role assisting researchers in the formulation and evaluation of novel literature-based hypotheses.

  17. Knowledge Representation Artifacts for Use in Sensemaking Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    Elements of Information Fusion and Knowledge- Based Systems to Support Situation Analysis”, Proceedings of Multisensor , Multisource Information Fusion ...Maritime Anomaly Detection”, Proceedings of the NATO Workshop on Data Fusion and Anomaly Detection for Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA 2009), NATO...progress has been achieved in recent years, the processing of a large proportion of the data and information made available from the ever increasing number

  18. Collaboration on ISS experiment data and knowledge representation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijpers, Ed; Carotenuto, Luigi; Malapert, Jean-Christophe; Markov-Vetter, Daniela; Melatti, Igor; Orlandini, Andrea; Pinchuk, Rani

    2013-01-01

    The USOCs (User Support and Operation Centres) are a network of collaborating centres. They have been established in various EU countries with the support of national space agencies and are engaged by the European Space Agency (ESA) to conduct the operations for European scientific experiments on board the International Space Station. The USOCs Knowledge Integration and dissemination for Space Science Experimentation (ULISSE) project aims at developing a platform and tools for improving prese...

  19. Knowledge representation and indexing using the unified medical language system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baclawski, K; Cigna, J; Kokar, M M; Mager, P; Indurkhya, B

    2000-01-01

    Ontologies and semantic frameworks can be used to improve the accuracy and expressiveness of natural language processing for the purpose of extracting meaning from technical documents. This is especially true when a rich ontology such as the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is available. This paper reports on some tools being developed to make this possible and on some experience with a user interface based on ontologies and semantic networks that allows for interactive knowledge exploration.

  20. Sentiments analysis at conceptual level making use of the Narrative Knowledge Representation Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    2014-10-01

    This paper illustrates some of the knowledge representation structures and inference procedures proper to a high-level, fully implemented conceptual language, NKRL (Narrative Knowledge Representation Language). The aim is to show how these tools can be used to deal, in a sentiment analysis/opinion mining context, with some common types of human (and non-human) "behaviors". These behaviors correspond, in particular, to the concrete, mutual relationships among human and non-human characters that can be expressed under the form of non-fictional and real-time "narratives" (i.e., as logically and temporally structured sequences of "elementary events"). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Knowledge representation and management: towards an integration of a semantic web in daily health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, N; Charlet, J; Darmoni, Sj

    2013-01-01

    To summarize the best papers in the field of Knowledge Representation and Management (KRM). A synopsis of the four selected articles for the IMIA Yearbook 2013 KRM section is provided, as well as highlights of current KRM trends, in particular, of the semantic web in daily health practice. The manual selection was performed in three stages: first a set of 3,106 articles, then a second set of 86 articles followed by a third set of 15 articles, and finally the last set of four chosen articles. Among the four selected articles (see Table 1), one focuses on knowledge engineering to prevent adverse drug events; the objective of the second is to propose mappings between clinical archetypes and SNOMED CT in the context of clinical practice; the third presents an ontology to create a question-answering system; the fourth describes a biomonitoring network based on semantic web technologies. These four articles clearly indicate that the health semantic web has become a part of daily practice of health professionals since 2012. In the review of the second set of 86 articles, the same topics included in the previous IMIA yearbook remain active research fields: Knowledge extraction, automatic indexing, information retrieval, natural language processing, management of health terminologies and ontologies.

  2. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Navarrete

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  3. Towards a category theory approach to analogy: Analyzing re-representation and acquisition of numerical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Jairo A; Dartnell, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a) we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b) we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence. Finally, (c) we build a formal learning model which shows that re-representation, language processing and analogy making can explain the acquisition of knowledge of rational numbers. These objects of study provide a picture of acquisition of numerical knowledge that is compatible with empirical evidence and offers insights on possible connections between notions such as relational knowledge, analogy, learning, conceptual knowledge, re-representation and procedural knowledge. This suggests that the approach presented here facilitates mathematical modeling of cognition and provides novel ways to think about analogy-related cognitive phenomena.

  4. Enabling knowledge representation on the Web by extending RDF Schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, Jeen; Klein, Michel; Decker, Stefan; Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Horrocks, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a widespread interest has emerged in using ontologies on the Web. Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) is a basic tool that enables users to define vocabulary, structure and constraints for expressing meta data about Web resources. However, it includes no provisions for formal

  5. Representation-free description of light-pulse atom interferometry including non-inertial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.kleinert@uni-ulm.de [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Kajari, Endre; Roura, Albert [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Texas A& M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2015-12-30

    Light-pulse atom interferometers rely on the wave nature of matter and its manipulation with coherent laser pulses. They are used for precise gravimetry and inertial sensing as well as for accurate measurements of fundamental constants. Reaching higher precision requires longer interferometer times which are naturally encountered in microgravity environments such as drop-tower facilities, sounding rockets and dedicated satellite missions aiming at fundamental quantum physics in space. In all those cases, it is necessary to consider arbitrary trajectories and varying orientations of the interferometer set-up in non-inertial frames of reference. Here we provide a versatile representation-free description of atom interferometry entirely based on operator algebra to address this general situation. We show how to analytically determine the phase shift as well as the visibility of interferometers with an arbitrary number of pulses including the effects of local gravitational accelerations, gravity gradients, the rotation of the lasers and non-inertial frames of reference. Our method conveniently unifies previous results and facilitates the investigation of novel interferometer geometries.

  6. Paired structures, imprecision types and two-level knowledge representation by means of opposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Opposition-based models are a current hot-topic in knowledge representation. The point of this paper is to suggest that opposition can be in fact introduced at two different levels, those of the predicates of interest being represented (as short/tall) and of the logical references (true/false) us...

  7. Advantages of Thesaurus Representation Using the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) Compared with Proposed Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio; Martinez Mendez, Francisco Javier; Rodriguez-Munoz, Jose Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an analysis of the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) compared with other alternatives for thesaurus representation in the Semantic Web. Method: Based on functional and structural changes of thesauri, provides an overview of the current context in which lexical paradigm is abandoned in favour of the…

  8. Effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of representations in a mobile learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.-C. Liu (Tzu-Chien); Y.-C. Lin (Yi-Chun); G.W.C. Paas (Fred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTwo experiments examined the effects of prior knowledge on learning from different compositions of multiple representations in a mobile learning environment on plant leaf morphology for primary school students. Experiment 1 compared the learning effects of a mobile learning environment

  9. A schema for knowledge representation and its implementation in a computer-aided design and manufacturing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamir, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Modularity in the design and implementation of expert systems relies upon cooperation among the expert systems and communication of knowledge between them. A prerequisite for an effective modular approach is some standard for knowledge representation to be used by the developers of the different modules. In this work the author presents a schema for knowledge representation, and apply this schema in the design of a rule-based expert system. He also implements a cooperative expert system using the proposed knowledge representation method. A knowledge representation schema is a formal specification of the internal, conceptual, and external components of a knowledge base, each specified in a separate schema. The internal schema defines the structure of a knowledge base, the conceptual schema defines the concepts, and the external schema formalizes the pragmatics of a knowledge base. The schema is the basis for standardizing knowledge representation systems and it is used in the various phases of design and specification of the knowledge base. A new model of knowledge representation based on a pattern recognition interpretation of implications is developed. This model implements the concept of linguistic variables and can, therefore, emulate human reasoning with linguistic imprecision. The test case for the proposed schema of knowledge representation is a system is a cooperative expert system composed of two expert systems. This system applies a pattern recognition interpretation of a generalized one-variable implication with linguistic variables.

  10. Knowledge representation in safety assessment: improving transparency and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, F.L. de; Sullivan, T.; Ross, T.; Guimaraes, L.N.F.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency and traceability are key factors for confidence building, acceptability, and quality enhancement of the safety assessment, and safety case for a radioactive waste disposal facility. In order to facilitate analysis and promote discussions, all of the information used to make decisions should be readily available to stake holders. The information should convey a good understanding of the intermediate decisions processes, allowing examination of alternatives and 'what if questions'. In an ideal situation all stake holders, including scientists and the public, should be able to follow the path of a certain parameter, from the beginning where it was defined, its assumptions and uncertainties, throughout the calculations until the final results of the safety assessment. One of the main challenges, to achieving such a transparency and traceability, is that stake holders are a very diverse audience, with very different backgrounds. This could require preparation of various versions of the same documentation, which would be impractical. While the linguistic information is of crucial importance to understanding the reasoning, it is very difficult to convey the supporting conditions, and consequent uncertainties for the selection of parameters values. Even scientists involved in the process can become confused due to the overwhelming amount of information that is used to support parameter value selection. The amount of details makes it difficult to track the decisions, which lead to the selection of a certain parameter, throughout the calculations. This paper presents a methodology to represent the linguistic information used in the safety assessment in terms of mathematical expressions by using the fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic tools. This methodology aims to help information to be readily available while keeping, as much as possible, the original meaning of the linguistic expressions and, consequently, to be available at any time as a quick reference. This would

  11. Identifying knowledge activism in worker health and safety representation: A cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan; Oudyk, John; King, Andrew; Naqvi, Syed; Lewchuk, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Although worker representation in OHS has been widely recognized as contributing to health and safety improvements at work, few studies have examined the role that worker representatives play in this process. Using a large quantitative sample, this paper seeks to confirm findings from an earlier exploratory qualitative study that worker representatives can be differentiated by the knowledge intensive tactics and strategies that they use to achieve changes in their workplace. Just under 900 worker health and safety representatives in Ontario completed surveys which asked them to report on the amount of time they devoted to different types of representation activities (i.e., technical activities such as inspections and report writing vs. political activities such as mobilizing workers to build support), the kinds of conditions or hazards they tried to address through their representation (e.g., housekeeping vs. modifications in ventilation systems), and their reported success in making positive improvements. A cluster analysis was used to determine whether the worker representatives could be distinguished in terms of the relative time devoted to different activities and the clusters were then compared with reference to types of intervention efforts and outcomes. The cluster analysis identified three distinct groupings of representatives with significant differences in reported types of interventions and in their level of reported impact. Two of the clusters were consistent with the findings in the exploratory study, identified as knowledge activism for greater emphasis on knowledge based political activity and technical-legal representation for greater emphasis on formalized technical oriented procedures and legal regulations. Knowledge activists were more likely to take on challenging interventions and they reported more impact across the full range of interventions. This paper provides further support for the concepts of knowledge activism and technical

  12. Representation of Industrial Knowledge - as a Basis for Developing and Maintaning Product Configurators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A product configurator is a software-based expert system that supports the user in the creation of product specifications by restricting how different components and properties may be combined. The use of product configurators has for several years provided many engineering...... by answering seven research questions in nine papers, produced during the course of the PhD project. The questions are grouped under three topics: domain expert knowledge; knowledge representation techniques; and documentation of configuration knowledge. The thesis takes its point of departure in analysing...... relevant domain knowledge. Despite this fact, research in the knowledge acquisition process of configuration projects is an area that has been much neglected till now. Therefore, this thesis deals with some of the most important aspects of the knowledge acquisition process in configuration projects...

  13. Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, Tobias; Airey, John; Linder, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that interactive engagement enhances student learning outcomes. A growing body of research suggests that the representations we use in physics are important in such learning environments. In this paper we draw on a number of sources in the literature to explore the role of representations in interactive engagement in physics. In particular we are interested in the potential for sharing disciplinary knowledge inherent in so-called persistent representations (such as equations, diagrams and graphs), which we use in physics. We use selected extracts from a case study, where a group of senior undergraduate physics students are asked to explain the phenomenon of refraction, to illustrate implications for interactive engagement. In this study the ray diagram that was initially introduced by the students did not appear to sufficiently support their interactive engagement. However, the introduction of a wavefront diagram quickly led their discussion to an agreed conclusion. From our analysis we conclude that in interactive engagement it is important to choose appropriate persistent representations to coordinate the use of other representations such as speech and gestures. Pedagogical implications and future research are proposed. (paper)

  14. Knowledge representation and communication with concept maps in teacher training of science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes Pedrajas, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an educational innovation that we have made in the context of initial teacher training for secondary education of science and technology. In this educational experience computing resources and concept maps are used to develop teaching skills related to knowledge representation, oral communication, teamwork and practical use of ICT in the classroom. Initial results indicate that future teachers value positively the use of concept maps and computer resources as useful tools for teacher training.

  15. Automatically extracting cancer disease characteristics from pathology reports into a Disease Knowledge Representation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coden, Anni; Savova, Guergana; Sominsky, Igor; Tanenblatt, Michael; Masanz, James; Schuler, Karin; Cooper, James; Guan, Wei; de Groen, Piet C

    2009-10-01

    We introduce an extensible and modifiable knowledge representation model to represent cancer disease characteristics in a comparable and consistent fashion. We describe a system, MedTAS/P which automatically instantiates the knowledge representation model from free-text pathology reports. MedTAS/P is based on an open-source framework and its components use natural language processing principles, machine learning and rules to discover and populate elements of the model. To validate the model and measure the accuracy of MedTAS/P, we developed a gold-standard corpus of manually annotated colon cancer pathology reports. MedTAS/P achieves F1-scores of 0.97-1.0 for instantiating classes in the knowledge representation model such as histologies or anatomical sites, and F1-scores of 0.82-0.93 for primary tumors or lymph nodes, which require the extractions of relations. An F1-score of 0.65 is reported for metastatic tumors, a lower score predominantly due to a very small number of instances in the training and test sets.

  16. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-04-22

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge-as an ontological and/or aesthetic category-has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world.

  17. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK Representation in Vibration and Wave Teaching for Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning materials of vibrations and waves in physics involve abstract mathematical knowledge, not easy to be understood, and frequently generate misconceptions. However, the subject is fundamental prerequisite for mastering more complicated physical concepts. On the other hand, teachers´ materials comprehension itself can affect the way teachers teaching and giving learning experience to the students. Here, we use descriptive research to figure out teacher´s pedagogical content knowledge (PCK representation during teaching and learning process of vibrations and waves for junior high school grade VIII. Four professional junior high school teachers were chosen as sample. The PCK representation was focused on the content representation (CoRe which represents teachers´ materials comprehension and their special aspects. Data collections have been done by means documentation study, ongoing classroom activities observation and interviews with the teachers as well as the students. Outcome of this research are: 1 Basic ideas/concepts expected by teachers for students to learn are not yet covering the basic concept needed to understand the concept itself, 2 Teachers are not yet mastering the teaching materials comprehensively, 3 Classroom activities/learning experiences and the method given to the students are not varied.

  18. The Effects of Idealized and Grounded Materials on Learning, Transfer, and Interest: An Organizing Framework for Categorizing External Knowledge Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Daniel M.; Schalk, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Research in both cognitive and educational psychology has explored the effect of different types of external knowledge representations (e.g., manipulatives, graphical/pictorial representations, texts) on a variety of important outcome measures. We place this large and multifaceted research literature into an organizing framework, classifying three…

  19. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge—as an ontological and/or aesthetic category—has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world. PMID:26290654

  20. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Results Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. Conclusions By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full

  1. Chemical Entity Semantic Specification: Knowledge representation for efficient semantic cheminformatics and facile data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Leonid L; Dumontier, Michel

    2011-05-19

    Over the past several centuries, chemistry has permeated virtually every facet of human lifestyle, enriching fields as diverse as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, warfare, and electronics, among numerous others. Unfortunately, application-specific, incompatible chemical information formats and representation strategies have emerged as a result of such diverse adoption of chemistry. Although a number of efforts have been dedicated to unifying the computational representation of chemical information, disparities between the various chemical databases still persist and stand in the way of cross-domain, interdisciplinary investigations. Through a common syntax and formal semantics, Semantic Web technology offers the ability to accurately represent, integrate, reason about and query across diverse chemical information. Here we specify and implement the Chemical Entity Semantic Specification (CHESS) for the representation of polyatomic chemical entities, their substructures, bonds, atoms, and reactions using Semantic Web technologies. CHESS provides means to capture aspects of their corresponding chemical descriptors, connectivity, functional composition, and geometric structure while specifying mechanisms for data provenance. We demonstrate that using our readily extensible specification, it is possible to efficiently integrate multiple disparate chemical data sources, while retaining appropriate correspondence of chemical descriptors, with very little additional effort. We demonstrate the impact of some of our representational decisions on the performance of chemically-aware knowledgebase searching and rudimentary reaction candidate selection. Finally, we provide access to the tools necessary to carry out chemical entity encoding in CHESS, along with a sample knowledgebase. By harnessing the power of Semantic Web technologies with CHESS, it is possible to provide a means of facile cross-domain chemical knowledge integration with full preservation of data

  2. Analysis of Student Understanding of Science Concepts Including Mathematical Representations: Ph Values and the Relative Differences of pH Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    In general, mathematical representations such as formulae, numbers, and graphs are the inseparable components in science used to better describe or explain scientific phenomena or knowledge. Regardless of their necessity and benefit, science seems to be difficult for some students, as a result of the mathematical representations and problem…

  3. The genius and the new forms of cinematic representation of the subject of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Godoy Del Picchia Zanoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at questioning new forms of cinematic representation of the genius, this article, in the wake of Foucault's theories, seeks to extend the understanding of the effects, operatting in contemporarily, of the social circulation of new figures of the subject of knowledge, emphasizing, thus, the silent assumptions that have come to inform the way in which viewers can and should imagine themselves and others as subjects capable of producing specific modalities of know-how. Therefore, this article relies on an empirical platform consisting of four films: My left foot (1989, Good Will Hunting (1997, Billy Elliot (2000 and Finding Forrester (2000.

  4. A knowledge representation model for the optimisation of electricity generation mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee Tahir, Aidid; Bañares-Alcántara, René

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Prototype energy model which uses semantic representation (ontologies). ► Model accepts both quantitative and qualitative based energy policy goals. ► Uses logic inference to formulate equations for linear optimisation. ► Proposes electricity generation mix based on energy policy goals. -- Abstract: Energy models such as MARKAL, MESSAGE and DNE-21 are optimisation tools which aid in the formulation of energy policies. The strength of these models lie in their solid theoretical foundations built on rigorous mathematical equations designed to process numerical (quantitative) data related to economics and the environment. Nevertheless, a complete consideration of energy policy issues also requires the consideration of the political and social aspects of energy. These political and social issues are often associated with non-numerical (qualitative) information. To enable the evaluation of these aspects in a computer model, we hypothesise that a different approach to energy model optimisation design is required. A prototype energy model that is based on a semantic representation using ontologies and is integrated to engineering models implemented in Java has been developed. The model provides both quantitative and qualitative evaluation capabilities through the use of logical inference. The semantic representation of energy policy goals is used (i) to translate a set of energy policy goals into a set of logic queries which is then used to determine the preferred electricity generation mix and (ii) to assist in the formulation of a set of equations which is then solved in order to obtain a proposed electricity generation mix. Scenario case studies have been developed and tested on the prototype energy model to determine its capabilities. Knowledge queries were made on the semantic representation to determine an electricity generation mix which fulfilled a set of energy policy goals (e.g. CO 2 emissions reduction, water conservation, energy supply

  5. Towards symbiosis in knowledge representation and natural language processing for structuring clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chunhua; Payne, Philip R O; Velez, Mark; Johnson, Stephen B; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The successful adoption by clinicians of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) contained in clinical information systems requires efficient translation of free-text guidelines into computable formats. Natural language processing (NLP) has the potential to improve the efficiency of such translation. However, it is laborious to develop NLP to structure free-text CPGs using existing formal knowledge representations (KR). In response to this challenge, this vision paper discusses the value and feasibility of supporting symbiosis in text-based knowledge acquisition (KA) and KR. We compare two ontologies: (1) an ontology manually created by domain experts for CPG eligibility criteria and (2) an upper-level ontology derived from a semantic pattern-based approach for automatic KA from CPG eligibility criteria text. Then we discuss the strengths and limitations of interweaving KA and NLP for KR purposes and important considerations for achieving the symbiosis of KR and NLP for structuring CPGs to achieve evidence-based clinical practice.

  6. A knowledge representation meta-model for rule-based modelling of signalling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Basso-Blandin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of cellular signalling pathways and their deregulation in disease states, such as cancer, is a large and extremely complex task. Indeed, these systems involve many parts and processes but are studied piecewise and their literatures and data are consequently fragmented, distributed and sometimes—at least apparently—inconsistent. This makes it extremely difficult to build significant explanatory models with the result that effects in these systems that are brought about by many interacting factors are poorly understood. The rule-based approach to modelling has shown some promise for the representation of the highly combinatorial systems typically found in signalling where many of the proteins are composed of multiple binding domains, capable of simultaneous interactions, and/or peptide motifs controlled by post-translational modifications. However, the rule-based approach requires highly detailed information about the precise conditions for each and every interaction which is rarely available from any one single source. Rather, these conditions must be painstakingly inferred and curated, by hand, from information contained in many papers—each of which contains only part of the story. In this paper, we introduce a graph-based meta-model, attuned to the representation of cellular signalling networks, which aims to ease this massive cognitive burden on the rule-based curation process. This meta-model is a generalization of that used by Kappa and BNGL which allows for the flexible representation of knowledge at various levels of granularity. In particular, it allows us to deal with information which has either too little, or too much, detail with respect to the strict rule-based meta-model. Our approach provides a basis for the gradual aggregation of fragmented biological knowledge extracted from the literature into an instance of the meta-model from which we can define an automated translation into executable Kappa programs.

  7. Cross-domain Collaborative Research and People Interoperability: Beyond Knowledge Representation Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. A.; Diviacco, P.; Busato, A.

    2016-12-01

    Geo-scientific research collaboration commonly faces of complex systems where multiple skills and competences are needed at the same time. Efficacy of such collaboration among researchers then becomes of paramount importance. Multidisciplinary studies draw from domains that are far from each other. Researchers also need to understand: how to extract what data they need and eventually produce something that can be used by others. The management of information and knowledge in this perspective is non-trivial. Interoperability is frequently sought in computer-to-computer environements, so-as to overcome mismatches in vocabulary, data formats, coordinate reference system and so on. Successful researcher collaboration also relies on interoperability of the people! Smaller, synchronous and face-to-face settings for researchers are knownn to enhance people interoperability. However changing settings; either geographically; temporally; or with increasing the team size, diversity, and expertise requires people-computer-people-computer (...) interoperability. To date, knowledge representation framework have been proposed but not proven as necessary and sufficient to achieve multi-way interoperability. In this contribution, we address epistemology and sociology of science advocating for a fluid perspective where science is mostly a social construct, conditioned by cognitive issues; especially cognitive bias. Bias cannot be obliterated. On the contrary it must be carefully taken into consideration. Information-centric interfaces built from different perspectives and ways of thinking by actors with different point of views, approaches and aims, are proposed as a means for enhancing people interoperability in computer-based settings. The contribution will provide details on the approach of augmenting and interfacing to knowledge representation frameworks to the cognitive-conceptual frameworks for people that are needed to meet and exceed collaborative research goals in the 21st

  8. SHARC: ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Surface Hopping in the Adiabatic Representation Including Arbitrary Couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Martin; Marquetand, Philipp; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Sola, Ignacio; González, Leticia

    2011-05-10

    We present a semiclassical surface-hopping method which is able to treat arbitrary couplings in molecular systems including all degrees of freedom. A reformulation of the standard surface-hopping scheme in terms of a unitary transformation matrix allows for the description of interactions like spin-orbit coupling or transitions induced by laser fields. The accuracy of our method is demonstrated in two systems. The first one, consisting of two model electronic states, validates the semiclassical approach in the presence of an electric field. In the second one, the dynamics in the IBr molecule in the presence of spin-orbit coupling after laser excitation is investigated. Due to an avoided crossing that originates from spin-orbit coupling, IBr dissociates into two channels: I + Br((2)P3/2) and I + Br*((2)P1/2). In both systems, the obtained results are in very good agreement with those calculated from exact quantum dynamical simulations.

  9. The Emergence and Representation of Knowledge about Social and Nonsocial Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the development of knowledge about a social, but not a nonsocial, hierarchy. Further, structural variations in amygdala gray matter volume accounted for interindividual differences in social transitivity performance. Finally, the amygdala expressed a neural signal selectively coding for social rank, whose robustness predicted the influence of rank on participants’ investment decisions. In contrast, we observed that the linear structure of both social and nonsocial hierarchies was represented at a neural level in the hippocampus. Our study implicates the amygdala in the emergence and representation of knowledge about social hierarchies and distinguishes the domain-general contribution of the hippocampus. PMID:23141075

  10. The emergence and representation of knowledge about social and nonsocial hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-11-08

    Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the development of knowledge about a social, but not a nonsocial, hierarchy. Further, structural variations in amygdala gray matter volume accounted for interindividual differences in social transitivity performance. Finally, the amygdala expressed a neural signal selectively coding for social rank, whose robustness predicted the influence of rank on participants' investment decisions. In contrast, we observed that the linear structure of both social and nonsocial hierarchies was represented at a neural level in the hippocampus. Our study implicates the amygdala in the emergence and representation of knowledge about social hierarchies and distinguishes the domain-general contribution of the hippocampus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Landmark and route knowledge in children's spatial representation of a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Marion; Gyselinck, Valérie; Orriols, Eric; Hickmann, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the development of landmark and route knowledge in complex wayfinding situations. It focuses on how children (aged 6, 8, and 10 years) and young adults (n = 79) indicate, recognize, and bind landmarks and directions in both verbal and visuo-spatial tasks after learning a virtual route. Performance in these tasks is also related to general verbal and visuo-spatial abilities as assessed by independent standardized tests (attention, working memory, perception of direction, production and comprehension of spatial terms, sentences and stories). The results first show that the quantity and quality of landmarks and directions produced and recognized by participants in both verbal and visuo-spatial tasks increased with age. In addition, an increase with age was observed in participants' selection of decisional landmarks (i.e., landmarks associated with a change of direction), as well as in their capacity to bind landmarks and directions. Our results support the view that children first acquire landmark knowledge, then route knowledge, as shown by their late developing ability to bind knowledge of directions and landmarks. Overall, the quality of verbal and visuo-spatial information in participants' spatial representations was found to vary mostly with their visuo-spatial abilities (attention and perception of directions) and not with their verbal abilities. Interestingly, however, when asked to recognize landmarks encountered during the route, participants show an increasing bias with age toward choosing a related landmark of the same category, regardless of its visual characteristics, i.e., they incorrectly choose the picture of another fountain. The discussion highlights the need for further studies to determine more precisely the role of verbal and visuo-spatial knowledge and the nature of how children learn to represent and memorize routes.

  12. Investigating Years 7 to 12 students' knowledge of linear relationships through different contexts and representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Karina J.; Ayalon, Michal

    2018-02-01

    A foundational component of developing algebraic thinking for meaningful calculus learning is the idea of "function" that focuses on the relationship between varying quantities. Students have demonstrated widespread difficulties in learning calculus, particularly interpreting and modeling dynamic events, when they have a poor understanding of relationships between variables. Yet, there are differing views on how to develop students' functional thinking over time. In the Australian curriculum context, linear relationships are introduced to lower secondary students with content that reflects a hybrid of traditional and reform algebra pedagogy. This article discusses an investigation into Australian secondary students' understanding of linear functional relationships from Years 7 to 12 (approximately 12 to 18 years old; n = 215) in their approaches to three tasks (finding rate of change, pattern generalisation and interpretation of gradient) involving four different representations (table, geometric growing pattern, equation and graph). From the findings, it appears that these students' knowledge of linear functions remains context-specific rather than becoming connected over time.

  13. Visual representation of knowledge in the field of Library and Information Science of IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoon Sabetpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present research has been done to visual representation of knowledge and determination vacuum and density points of scientific trends of faculty members of state universities of IRAN in Library & Information Science field. Method: Curriculum Vitae of each faculty member with census method were collected and its content analyzed. Then using a checklist, the rate scientific tendencies were extracted. NodeXL software was deployed to map out the levels. Results: The results showed that the trends are concentrated in Scientometrics, Research method in Library & Information Science, information organization, information resources, psychology, Education, Management, the Web, Knowledge management, Academic Libraries, Information services, Information Theories and collection management. Apparently, the Library & Information Science community of experts pays little or no attention to the Library & Information Science applications in the fields of chemistry, Cartography, museum, law, art, school libraries as well as to independent subject clusters such as minorities in library, information architecture, mentoring in library science, library automation, preservation, oral history, cybernetics, copyright, information marketing and information economy. Lack of efforts on these areas is remarkable.

  14. KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION OF SECURITY DESIGN PATTERN LANDSCAPE USING FORMAL CONCEPT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POONAM S. PONDE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Security design patterns are proven solutions to recurring security problems. They are classified into various categories, each containing a set of attributes. However, the large number of patterns and classification schemes makes it difficult to choose a pattern for a given security problem. To apply patterns effectively, there must be a systematic method of organizing the patterns, so that it is possible to look up a design pattern unambiguously according to its purpose. While a lot of research focuses on developing new patterns and classifications, these issues have not been adequately addressed. In this paper, we present a novel approach of applying Formal Concept Analysis (FCA on a chosen set of patterns classified according to a common set of attributes. The resulting concept lattice can be used for mining knowledge from the concepts, identifying pattern groups, and their relationships with the goal of applying appropriate patterns to security requirements. We propose the use of FCA over conventional data analysis methods for the simplicity of data preparation, the discovery of hidden knowledge, and cluster interpretation, with a visual representation of the pattern domain.

  15. Issues in knowledge representation to support maintainability: A case study in scientific data preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Kandt, R. Kirk; Roden, Joseph; Burleigh, Scott; King, Todd; Joy, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Scientific data preparation is the process of extracting usable scientific data from raw instrument data. This task involves noise detection (and subsequent noise classification and flagging or removal), extracting data from compressed forms, and construction of derivative or aggregate data (e.g. spectral densities or running averages). A software system called PIPE provides intelligent assistance to users developing scientific data preparation plans using a programming language called Master Plumber. PIPE provides this assistance capability by using a process description to create a dependency model of the scientific data preparation plan. This dependency model can then be used to verify syntactic and semantic constraints on processing steps to perform limited plan validation. PIPE also provides capabilities for using this model to assist in debugging faulty data preparation plans. In this case, the process model is used to focus the developer's attention upon those processing steps and data elements that were used in computing the faulty output values. Finally, the dependency model of a plan can be used to perform plan optimization and runtime estimation. These capabilities allow scientists to spend less time developing data preparation procedures and more time on scientific analysis tasks. Because the scientific data processing modules (called fittings) evolve to match scientists' needs, issues regarding maintainability are of prime importance in PIPE. This paper describes the PIPE system and describes how issues in maintainability affected the knowledge representation used in PIPE to capture knowledge about the behavior of fittings.

  16. A knowledge representation approach using fuzzy cognitive maps for better navigation support in an adaptive learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysafiadi, Konstantina; Virvou, Maria

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a knowledge representation approach of an adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system is presented. The domain knowledge should be represented in a more realistic way in order to allow the adaptive and/or personalized tutoring system to deliver the learning material to each individual learner dynamically taking into account her/his learning needs and her/his different learning pace. To succeed this, the domain knowledge representation has to depict the possible increase or decrease of the learner's knowledge. Considering that the domain concepts that constitute the learning material are not independent from each other, the knowledge representation approach has to allow the system to recognize either the domain concepts that are already partly or completely known for a learner, or the domain concepts that s/he has forgotten, taking into account the learner's knowledge level of the related concepts. In other words, the system should be informed about the knowledge dependencies that exist among the domain concepts of the learning material, as well as the strength on impact of each domain concept on others. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) seem to be an ideal way for representing graphically this kind of information. The suggested knowledge representation approach has been implemented in an e-learning adaptive system for teaching computer programming. The particular system was used by the students of a postgraduate program in the field of Informatics in the University of Piraeus and was compared with a corresponding system, in which the domain knowledge was represented using the most common used technique of network of concepts. The results of the evaluation were very encouraging.

  17. From Content Knowledge to Community Change: A Review of Representations of Environmental Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen M.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental health literacy (EHL) is a relatively new framework for conceptualizing how people understand and use information about potentially harmful environmental exposures and their influence on health. As such, information on the characterization and measurement of EHL is limited. This review provides an overview of EHL as presented in peer-reviewed literature and aggregates studies based on whether they represent individual level EHL or community level EHL or both. A range of assessment tools has been used to measure EHL, with many studies relying on pre-/post-assessment; however, a broader suite of assessment tools may be needed to capture community-wide outcomes. This review also suggests that the definition of EHL should explicitly include community change or collective action as an important longer-term outcome and proposes a refinement of previous representations of EHL as a theoretical framework, to include self-efficacy. PMID:29518955

  18. Acquiring Knowledge in Learning Concepts from Electrical Circuits: The Use of Multiple Representations in Technology-Based Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljalil Métioui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The constructivists approach on the conception of relative software of modelling to training and teaching of the concepts of current and voltage requires appraisal of several disciplinary fields in order to provide to the learners a training adapted to their representations. Thus, this approach requires the researchers to have adequate knowledge or skills in data processing, didactics and science content. In this regard, several researches underline that the acquisition of basic concepts that span a field of a given knowledge, must take into account the student and the scientific representations. The present research appears in this perspective, and aims to present the interactive computer environments that take into account the students (secondary and college and scientific representations related to simple electric circuits. These computer environments will help the students to analyze the functions of the electric circuits adequately.

  19. Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

  20. Structural priming is a useful but imperfect technique for studying all linguistic representations, including those of pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alice; Bott, Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is a useful tool for investigating linguistics representations. We argue that structural priming can be extended to the investigation of pragmatic representations such as Gricean enrichments. That is not to say priming is without its limitations, however. Interpreting a failure to observe priming may not be as simple as Branigan & Pickering (B&P) imply.

  1. The Linguistic Representation of Rhetorical Function: A Study of How Economists Present Their Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Trine

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how economists present their new knowledge claim in the genre of the research article. In the discipline of economics today, the claim is typically included not only in the obvious results/discussion section(s) but also in three other locations of the article: the abstract, the introduction, and the conclusion. The present…

  2. A Knowledge Representation Scheme Using Ordinary Words and the Inference Mechanism on Order-sorted Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tsutomu

    We propose a knowledge representation scheme (called WPL) and an inference method for the scheme. In WPL, both simple sentence and complex sentence are represented in one atomic formula. Subordinate clauses in a complex sentence are embedded into the formula forming the main clause. WPL is an extended order-sorted logic that can deal with structured sort symbols consisting of multiple ordinary words like noun phrases. Each word in a sort symbol can represent a general concept or a particular object. If it is the latter, each word stands for a variable or constant having itself as a sort symbol. It may also be a proper noun or variable itself. The inference processes for WPL is executed based on the resolution principle, semantically interpreting the sort symbols word by word. We extend the inference rules proposed by Beierle et al. in order to deal with complex sort symbols. This paper also describes an application scheme of the proposed inference rules and an algorithm for judging the subsort relation between complex sort symbols.

  3. Verbal Protocol in Group at Brazilian research in Knowledge Organization and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cristina Dal'Evedove Tartarotti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2017v22n48p41 In order to enable the qualitative data collection of introspective nature, some studies in Information Science are conducted through the Verbal Protocol. The option for the technical results from the feasibility is magnified observation studies, mostly related to the mental processes of research subjects in reading activities. As a way to contribute to the operation of Verbal Protocol in qualitative research in the Organization and Representation of Knowledge and offer subsidies for the correct use of emphasis on technique, the purpose of this article is to present the Verbal Protocol in Group, its main advantages and disadvantages as a qualitative technique of data collection, characterize the Brazilian scientific community in the theme through production and connection bibliometric indicators and present examples of its applicability in Brazilian research. The analysis enabled the identification of relevant aspects of scientific production in the highlighted modality, whose results contribute to the direction of future research by the scientific community of Information Science. It concludes that the modality of Verbal Protocol in Group contributes as an introspective and interactive technique of data collection to provide consistent results for a significant body of research that was used.

  4. Logical and Geometrical Distance in Polyhedral Aristotelian Diagrams in Knowledge Representation

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    Lorenz Demey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aristotelian diagrams visualize the logical relations among a finite set of objects. These diagrams originated in philosophy, but recently, they have also been used extensively in artificial intelligence, in order to study (connections between various knowledge representation formalisms. In this paper, we develop the idea that Aristotelian diagrams can be fruitfully studied as geometrical entities. In particular, we focus on four polyhedral Aristotelian diagrams for the Boolean algebra B 4 , viz. the rhombic dodecahedron, the tetrakis hexahedron, the tetraicosahedron and the nested tetrahedron. After an in-depth investigation of the geometrical properties and interrelationships of these polyhedral diagrams, we analyze the correlation (or lack thereof between logical (Hamming and geometrical (Euclidean distance in each of these diagrams. The outcome of this analysis is that the Aristotelian rhombic dodecahedron and tetrakis hexahedron exhibit the strongest degree of correlation between logical and geometrical distance; the tetraicosahedron performs worse; and the nested tetrahedron has the lowest degree of correlation. Finally, these results are used to shed new light on the relative strengths and weaknesses of these polyhedral Aristotelian diagrams, by appealing to the congruence principle from cognitive research on diagram design.

  5. Hologram representation of design data in an expert system knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, S. G.; Klon, Peter F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel representational scheme for design object descriptions is presented. An abstract notion of modules and signals is developed as a conceptual foundation for the scheme. This abstraction relates the objects to the meaning of system descriptions. Anchored on this abstraction, a representational model which incorporates dynamic semantics for these objects is presented. This representational model is called a hologram scheme since it represents dual level information, namely, structural and semantic. The benefits of this scheme are presented.

  6. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity – Part 2: Including solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a particle to serve as a cloud condensation nucleus in the atmosphere is determined by its size, hygroscopicity and its solubility in water. Usually size and hygroscopicity alone are sufficient to predict CCN activity. Single parameter representations for hygroscopicity have been shown to successfully model complex, multicomponent particles types. Under the assumption of either complete solubility, or complete insolubility of a component, it is not necessary to explicitly include that component's solubility into the single parameter framework. This is not the case if sparingly soluble materials are present. In this work we explicitly account for solubility by modifying the single parameter equations. We demonstrate that sensitivity to the actual value of solubility emerges only in the regime of 2×10−1–5×10−4, where the solubility values are expressed as volume of solute per unit volume of water present in a saturated solution. Compounds that do not fall inside this sparingly soluble envelope can be adequately modeled assuming they are either infinitely soluble in water or completely insoluble.

  7. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The SP theory of intelligence , with its realization in the SP computer model , aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory- SP-neural -is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory-outlined in the paper-provides indirect support for SP-neural. In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract), all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns , where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a "pattern" is realized as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly , similar to Hebb's concept of a "cell assembly" but with important differences. Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP) and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment , borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another. It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from sensory information and from the

  8. Exploring the Progression in Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Representations: The Case of "Behavior of Gases"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adadan, Emine; Oner, Diler

    2014-12-01

    This multiple case study investigated how two preservice chemistry teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) representations of behavior of gases progressed in the context of a semester-long chemistry teaching methods course. The change in the participants' PCK components was interpreted with respect to the theoretical PCK learning progression trajectory criteria established in the literature. The data were collected using the PCK capturing approach, called Content Representations, or "CoRes" (twice), and two interviews with each preservice teacher during the semester. The results indicated that neither preservice teacher initially held an extensive repertoire of representations for all components of PCK in their knowledge base. However, these preservice teachers noticeably increased their number of representations over the course of the semester. The components of PCK did not progress to the same extent for each participant. Likewise, the constituent elements of each PCK component indicated relatively dissimilar features across the participants. Implications for science teacher education and the methodological contributions of the study to educational research are discussed.

  9. Advanced techniques for the storage and use of very large, heterogeneous spatial databases. The representation of geographic knowledge: Toward a universal framework. [relations (mathematics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuquet, Donna J.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to building geographic data models that is based on the fundamental characteristics of the data is presented. An overall theoretical framework for representing geographic data is proposed. An example of utilizing this framework in a Geographic Information System (GIS) context by combining artificial intelligence techniques with recent developments in spatial data processing techniques is given. Elements of data representation discussed include hierarchical structure, separation of locational and conceptual views, and the ability to store knowledge at variable levels of completeness and precision.

  10. A Service Oriented Web Application for Learner Knowledge Representation, Management and Sharing Conforming to IMS LIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarinis, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    iLM is a Web based application for representation, management and sharing of IMS LIP conformant user profiles. The tool is developed using a service oriented architecture with emphasis on the easy data sharing. Data elicitation from user profiles is based on the utilization of XQuery scripts and sharing with other applications is achieved through…

  11. The Visual Representation and Acquisition of Driving Knowledge for Autonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxia; Jiang, Qing; Li, Ping; Song, LiangTu; Wang, Rujing; Yu, Biao; Mei, Tao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the driving knowledge base of autonomous vehicle is designed. Based on the driving knowledge modeling system, the driving knowledge of autonomous vehicle is visually acquired, managed, stored, and maintenanced, which has vital significance for creating the development platform of intelligent decision-making systems of automatic driving expert systems for autonomous vehicle.

  12. 3D base: a geometrical data base system for the analysis and visualisation of 3D-shapes obtained from parallel serial sections including three different geometrical representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, F. J.; de Groot, M. M.; Huijsmans, D. P.; Lamers, W. H.; Young, I. T.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a geometrical data base that includes three different geometrical representations of one and the same reconstructed 3D shape: the contour-pile, the voxel enumeration, and the triangulation of a surface. The data base is tailored for 3D shapes obtained from plan-parallel

  13. An Ontology-Based Approach to Enable Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Worker–Cobot Agile Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R. Sadik

    2017-11-01

    accomplish the cooperative manufacturing concept, a proper approach is required to describe the shared environment between the worker and the cobot. The cooperative manufacturing shared environment includes the cobot, the co-worker, and other production components such as the product itself. Furthermore, the whole cooperative manufacturing system components need to communicate and share their knowledge, to reason and process the shared information, which eventually gives the control solution the capability of obtaining collective manufacturing decisions. Putting into consideration that the control solution should also provide a natural language which is human readable and in the same time can be understood by the machine (i.e., the cobot. Accordingly, a distributed control solution which combines an ontology-based Multi-Agent System (MAS and a Business Rule Management System (BRMS is proposed, in order to solve the mentioned challenges in the cooperative manufacturing, which are: manufacturing knowledge representation, sharing, and reasoning.

  14. An Object-Oriented Approach to Knowledge Representation in a Biomedical Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, M.; Paton, R.; Speel, P.H.W.M.; Speel, P.H.W.M.; Rada, R.

    1994-01-01

    An object-oriented approach has been applied to the different stages involved in developing a knowledge base about insulin metabolism. At an early stage the separation of terminological and assertional knowledge was made. The terminological component was developed by medical experts and represented

  15. Aware Computing in Spatial Language Understanding Guided by Cognitively Inspired Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yokota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST has proposed an omnisensory mental image model and its description language Lmd. This language is designed to represent and compute human intuitive knowledge of space and can provide multimedia expressions with intermediate semantic descriptions in predicate logic. It is hypothesized that such knowledge and semantic descriptions are controlled by human attention toward the world and therefore subjective to each human individual. This paper describes Lmd expression of human subjective knowledge of space and its application to aware computing in cross-media operation between linguistic and pictorial expressions as spatial language understanding.

  16. SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS DEL GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BRAZILIAN NURSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Éder Dias da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One is a documentary investigation whose objective to characterize the social representations on the gynecological cancer gifts in theses and dissertations of the Brazilian infirmary in the period from 2001 to 2007. The investigation source was the Bank of Thesis and Dissertations of the Brazilian Association of Infirmary. 51 studies had been identified. The analysis of the dices originated the following thematic categories: Imaginary the Social one of Women in front of the Gynecological Cancer; The daily one of the mastectomizada woman; The gynecological cancer and its treatment; Prevention of the gynecological cancer in the vision of the infirmary. The studies caused to apprehend the aspects of the psycho-social context, so important and necessary in the sense more atenciosamente to watch the welfare practice of the infirmary.

  17. Knowledge acquisition and representation for the Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamster, Thomas L.; Eike, David R.; Ames, Troy J.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation concentrates on knowledge acquisition and its application to the development of an expert module and a user interface for an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). The Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) ITS is being developed to assist NASA control center personnel in learning a command and control language as it is used in mission operations rooms. The objective of the tutor is to impart knowledge and skills that will permit the trainee to solve command and control problems in the same way that the STOL expert solves those problems. The STOL ITS will achieve this object by representing the solution space in such a way that the trainee can visualize the intermediate steps, and by having the expert module production rules parallel the STOL expert's knowledge structures.

  18. Expert knowledge, cognitive polyphasia and health: a study on social representations of homelessness among professionals working in the voluntary sector in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renedo, Alicia; Jovchelovitch, Sandra

    2007-09-01

    This article develops a social representational approach to understanding expert knowledge and its relation to health. Research with homelessness professionals (HPs) working in the UK voluntary sector shows that expert definitions of homelessness can either undermine or enhance the health of the homeless. Guided by the concepts of social representations and cognitive polyphasia, the analysis reveals a contradictory field of knowledge, which reflects the struggle of professionals to sustain a humanizing approach and resist the pressures of statutory agendas. We conclude pointing to the need of recognizing the impact of professional's knowledge on the health and care policies for the homeless.

  19. Caregiving Antecedents of Secure Base Script Knowledge: A Comparative Analysis of Young Adult Attachment Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ryan D.; Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bost, Kelly K.; Vaughn, Brian E.; Truitt, Warren; Waters, Harriet S.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a subsample (N = 673) of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) cohort, this article reports data from a follow-up assessment at age 18 years on the antecedents of "secure base script knowledge", as reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related difficulties are…

  20. Prior knowledge about objects determines neural color representation in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Meuwese, J.D.I.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2016-01-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and

  1. A Bayesian network approach to knowledge integration and representation of farm irrigation: 1. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. J.; Robertson, D. E.; Haines, C. L.

    2009-02-01

    Irrigation is important to many agricultural businesses but also has implications for catchment health. A considerable body of knowledge exists on how irrigation management affects farm business and catchment health. However, this knowledge is fragmentary; is available in many forms such as qualitative and quantitative; is dispersed in scientific literature, technical reports, and the minds of individuals; and is of varying degrees of certainty. Bayesian networks allow the integration of dispersed knowledge into quantitative systems models. This study describes the development, validation, and application of a Bayesian network model of farm irrigation in the Shepparton Irrigation Region of northern Victoria, Australia. In this first paper we describe the process used to integrate a range of sources of knowledge to develop a model of farm irrigation. We describe the principal model components and summarize the reaction to the model and its development process by local stakeholders. Subsequent papers in this series describe model validation and the application of the model to assess the regional impact of historical and future management intervention.

  2. Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Fraction Multiplication, Representational Knowledge, and Computational Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of teacher fractional knowledge, there are several areas of teacher understanding that are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to characterise profiles of pre-service teachers' (PSTs) mathematical competence on the topic of fraction multiplication by examining PSTs' understanding of multiplication of fractions…

  3. An Overview of Seabed Mining Including the Current State of Development, Environmental Impacts, and Knowledge Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand for minerals and metals, including for use in the technology sector, has led to a resurgence of interest in exploration of mineral resources located on the seabed. Such resources, whether seafloor massive (polymetallic sulfides around hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich crusts (CRCs on the flanks of seamounts or fields of manganese (polymetallic nodules on the abyssal plains, cannot be considered in isolation of the distinctive, in some cases unique, assemblages of marine species associated with the same habitats and structures. In addition to mineral deposits, there is interest in extracting methane from gas hydrates on continental slopes and rises. Many of the regions identified for future seabed mining are already recognized as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs. Since its inception in 1982, the International Seabed Authority (ISA, charged with regulating human activities on the deep-sea floor beyond the continental shelf, has issued 27 contracts for mineral exploration, encompassing a combined area of more than 1.4 million km2, and continues to develop rules for commercial mining. At the same time, some seabed mining operations are already taking place within continental shelf areas of nation states, generally at relatively shallow depths, and with others at advanced stages of planning. The first commercial enterprise, expected to target mineral-rich sulfides in deeper waters, at depths between 1,500 and 2,000 m on the continental shelf of Papua New Guinea, is scheduled to begin early in 2019. In this review, we explore three broad aspects relating to the exploration and exploitation of seabed mineral resources: (1 the current state of development of such activities in areas both within and beyond national jurisdictions, (2 possible environmental impacts both close to and more distant from mining activities and (3 the uncertainties and gaps in scientific knowledge and understanding which render baseline and impact assessments

  4. PDON: Parkinson's disease ontology for representation and modeling of the Parkinson's disease knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Gündel, Michaela; Scordis, Phil; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Page, Matt; Müller, Bernd; Springstubbe, Stephan; Wüllner, Ullrich; Scheller, Dieter; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-09-22

    Despite the unprecedented and increasing amount of data, relatively little progress has been made in molecular characterization of mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease. In the area of Parkinson's research, there is a pressing need to integrate various pieces of information into a meaningful context of presumed disease mechanism(s). Disease ontologies provide a novel means for organizing, integrating, and standardizing the knowledge domains specific to disease in a compact, formalized and computer-readable form and serve as a reference for knowledge exchange or systems modeling of disease mechanism. The Parkinson's disease ontology was built according to the life cycle of ontology building. Structural, functional, and expert evaluation of the ontology was performed to ensure the quality and usability of the ontology. A novelty metric has been introduced to measure the gain of new knowledge using the ontology. Finally, a cause-and-effect model was built around PINK1 and two gene expression studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were re-annotated to demonstrate the usability of the ontology. The Parkinson's disease ontology with a subclass-based taxonomic hierarchy covers the broad spectrum of major biomedical concepts from molecular to clinical features of the disease, and also reflects different views on disease features held by molecular biologists, clinicians and drug developers. The current version of the ontology contains 632 concepts, which are organized under nine views. The structural evaluation showed the balanced dispersion of concept classes throughout the ontology. The functional evaluation demonstrated that the ontology-driven literature search could gain novel knowledge not present in the reference Parkinson's knowledge map. The ontology was able to answer specific questions related to Parkinson's when evaluated by experts. Finally, the added value of the Parkinson's disease ontology is demonstrated by ontology-driven modeling of PINK1

  5. Dictionaries and distributions: Combining expert knowledge and large scale textual data content analysis : Distributed dictionary representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Justin; Hoover, Joe; Johnson, Kate M; Boghrati, Reihane; Iskiwitch, Carol; Dehghani, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    Theory-driven text analysis has made extensive use of psychological concept dictionaries, leading to a wide range of important results. These dictionaries have generally been applied through word count methods which have proven to be both simple and effective. In this paper, we introduce Distributed Dictionary Representations (DDR), a method that applies psychological dictionaries using semantic similarity rather than word counts. This allows for the measurement of the similarity between dictionaries and spans of text ranging from complete documents to individual words. We show how DDR enables dictionary authors to place greater emphasis on construct validity without sacrificing linguistic coverage. We further demonstrate the benefits of DDR on two real-world tasks and finally conduct an extensive study of the interaction between dictionary size and task performance. These studies allow us to examine how DDR and word count methods complement one another as tools for applying concept dictionaries and where each is best applied. Finally, we provide references to tools and resources to make this method both available and accessible to a broad psychological audience.

  6. Developing Knowledge Representation in Emergency Medical Assistance by Using Semantic Web Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Heloise; Rocha, Cristiano C.; Todesco, José Leomar; Dantas, M. A. R.

    In this research, a knowledge-based architecture for a mobile emergency medical assistance system is presented. It is based on the France SAMU model and dopts the ontology and mobile computing approaches. The contribution is characterized for providing routines and medical protocol specifications for specialists through the use of their natural language, collecting elements from this language to develop an ontology domain, and using a semantic cache for an enhanced utilization of mobile devices. A prototype of the proposal was implemented in order to support specialists during a day-to-day basis considering knowledge engineering aided by mobile computing techniques. These differentiated characteristics have proved to be successfully at early experiments utilizing the implemented prototype.

  7. The Representation of Self and Person Knowledge in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Haxby, James V.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly forty years ago, social psychologists began applying the information processing framework of cognitive psychology to the question of how humans understand and represent knowledge about themselves and others. This approach gave rise to the immensely successful field of social cognition and fundamentally changed the way in which social psychological phenomena are studied. More recently, social scientists of many stripes have turned to the methods of cognitive neuroscience to understand t...

  8. The Emergence and Representation of Knowledge about Social and Nonsocial Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Melo, Hans?Ludwig; Duzel, Emrah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Primates are remarkably adept at ranking each other within social hierarchies, a capacity that is critical to successful group living. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the neurobiology underlying this quintessential aspect of primate cognition. In our experiment, participants first acquired knowledge about a social and a nonsocial hierarchy and then used this information to guide investment decisions. We found that neural activity in the amygdala tracked the developme...

  9. Introduction of an agent-based multi-scale modular architecture for dynamic knowledge representation of acute inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Gary

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the greatest challenges facing biomedical research is the integration and sharing of vast amounts of information, not only for individual researchers, but also for the community at large. Agent Based Modeling (ABM can provide a means of addressing this challenge via a unifying translational architecture for dynamic knowledge representation. This paper presents a series of linked ABMs representing multiple levels of biological organization. They are intended to translate the knowledge derived from in vitro models of acute inflammation to clinically relevant phenomenon such as multiple organ failure. Results and Discussion ABM development followed a sequence starting with relatively direct translation from in-vitro derived rules into a cell-as-agent level ABM, leading on to concatenated ABMs into multi-tissue models, eventually resulting in topologically linked aggregate multi-tissue ABMs modeling organ-organ crosstalk. As an underlying design principle organs were considered to be functionally composed of an epithelial surface, which determined organ integrity, and an endothelial/blood interface, representing the reaction surface for the initiation and propagation of inflammation. The development of the epithelial ABM derived from an in-vitro model of gut epithelial permeability is described. Next, the epithelial ABM was concatenated with the endothelial/inflammatory cell ABM to produce an organ model of the gut. This model was validated against in-vivo models of the inflammatory response of the gut to ischemia. Finally, the gut ABM was linked to a similarly constructed pulmonary ABM to simulate the gut-pulmonary axis in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure. The behavior of this model was validated against in-vivo and clinical observations on the cross-talk between these two organ systems Conclusion A series of ABMs are presented extending from the level of intracellular mechanism to clinically observed behavior

  10. USE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES OF KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION AS A FACTOR OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION HUMANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sagan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of educational projects get no further development primarily due to the lack of competent academic staff. It is not only the professional knowledge, abilities and skills, but also the ability to perceive educational innovations and ability to implement them. With regard to the mathematics education the most urgent is the problem of humanization, which appears in the ratio of scientific knowledge, national and cultural revival, issues of values and new type of education content. The problem of humanizing of mathematical education isexamined in the article, in particular in the field of training ofpedagogical personnels. As for the serve of mathematicalmaterial the language of formal logic, that is regulated by thesecond alarm system, is used, it results in the deficit ofinformation of the first alarm system, that is responsible forperception, imagination, supervision, experience. Logical isthe use of such methods serves of information, thatmaximally use both сигнальних systems of man. It issuggested one of directions of upgrading of educating tomathematics of future teachers except the traditionallanguage of formal logic to use the alternative languages ofserve of material : language of semantic networks, languageof the system of frames, language of productional.

  11. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. On the broad applicability of the affective circumplex: representations of affective knowledge among schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Gard, David E

    2003-05-01

    Studies of affective experience are guided by the assumption that the structure of affect generalizes across people. Yet this assumption has not been tested among educationally and economically diverse community residents or among individuals with psychopathology. This study explicitly examined the broad applicability of the valence-arousal circumplex and whether schizophrenia patients and nonpatients have comparable knowledge structures of affective phenomena. Patients and nonpatients completed similarity ratings of 120 pairs of affect words. Similarity judgments were analyzed separately for each group using a multidimensional scaling procedure, and solutions were compared. Results revealed the same two-dimensional valence-arousal solution for schizophrenia patients and nonpatients, although there were subtle differences between the groups. These findings provide additional evidence that the circumplex model is a useful formalism for representing affective phenomena across diverse populations, and they bolster confidence in existing interpretations of schizophrenia patients' reports of affective experience.

  13. Knowledge structure representation and automated updates in intelligent information management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Stephen; Carnahan, Richard S., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A continuing effort to apply rapid prototyping and Artificial Intelligence techniques to problems associated with projected Space Station-era information management systems is examined. In particular, timely updating of the various databases and knowledge structures within the proposed intelligent information management system (IIMS) is critical to support decision making processes. Because of the significantly large amounts of data entering the IIMS on a daily basis, information updates will need to be automatically performed with some systems requiring that data be incorporated and made available to users within a few hours. Meeting these demands depends first, on the design and implementation of information structures that are easily modified and expanded, and second, on the incorporation of intelligent automated update techniques that will allow meaningful information relationships to be established. Potential techniques are studied for developing such an automated update capability and IIMS update requirements are examined in light of results obtained from the IIMS prototyping effort.

  14. Expert Knowledge Representation in Bilingual e-Dictionaries. A Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ortego Antón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of new concepts and terms has risen rapidly due to scientific and technological development. Additionally, expert knowledge, which used to be exclusive for experts, also interests middlebrow language users. Compilers of e-dictionaries, aware of this change, are gathering in new editions specialised terms that have become part of our daily lives. In the current globalised world, the need to transfer scientific knowledge to other languages arises, so one of the main tools that translators and, specially, translation trainees employ to look up an unknown term are bilingual dictionaries. Hence, we consider that the study of the treatment given to computing terms in bilingual dictionaries is a field that needs to be reviewed. From an ad hoc corpus composed of texts from the main journals published in the UK and the USA, the most frequent terms belonging to computing are extracted using TermoStat Web 3.0 (Drouin, 2003. Then, we verify how terms are gathered in the dictionary wordlist, if they are labelled or not, which translation equivalents are given and if they are followed by contextual data. In addition, we check the use of the given equivalents in two Spanish reference corpora: Corpus del Español and Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual. The results from the analysis might suggest a need to take into account new proposals in order to implement the data gathered in these reference works as well as inform new procedures in the design and use of these tools from the point of view of translators as main users.

  15. Knowledge representation and management: benefits and challenges of the semantic web for the fields of KRM and NLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassinoux, A-M

    2011-01-01

    To summarize excellent current research in the field of knowledge representation and management (KRM). A synopsis of the articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2011 is provided and an attempt to highlight the current trends in the field is sketched. This last decade, with the extension of the text-based web towards a semantic-structured web, NLP techniques have experienced a renewed interest in knowledge extraction. This trend is corroborated through the five papers selected for the KRM section of the Yearbook 2011. They all depict outstanding studies that exploit NLP technologies whenever possible in order to accurately extract meaningful information from various biomedical textual sources. Bringing semantic structure to the meaningful content of textual web pages affords the user with cooperative sharing and intelligent finding of electronic data. As exemplified by the best paper selection, more and more advanced biomedical applications aim at exploiting the meaningful richness of free-text documents in order to generate semantic metadata and recently to learn and populate domain ontologies. These later are becoming a key piece as they allow portraying the semantics of the Semantic Web content. Maintaining their consistency with documents and semantic annotations that refer to them is a crucial challenge of the Semantic Web for the coming years.

  16. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  17. Representations of knowledge about dominoes in demented and normal elderly players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, W W; English, S; Dean, K; Rogers, C L; Olson, K A

    1999-04-01

    1. Dementia patients who retain musical and game-playing skills exhibit impaired performance on explicit memory tests of knowledge about their retained skill. 2. Dementia patients who retain skill at playing dominoes can answer complex questions about the play of the game almost as well as normal elderly domino players when the questions are presented with real dominoes. 3. The aim of this study was to determine if skilled dementia patients could answer questions about domino play when the stimuli were two-dimensional drawings of dominoes. 4. Seventeen dementia patients and eight normal elderly domino players were tested on two forms of the Domino Quiz: first with real dominoes, then with two-dimensional drawings; other neuropsychological tests were given at the same time. 5. Fourteen of the 17 patients and all of the controls showed no decline in answering questions about domino play when two-dimensional drawings were used. These patients showed retained symbolic processing of information about dominoes despite declines in overall mental status, generation of words from specific semantic categories, and recognition memory for domino terminology. 6. Because the 14 patients with retained domino skill performed as accurately as controls on both administrations of a letter cancellation task, the ability to process familiar symbols may be important to their game-playing skill.

  18. Combining prior knowledge with data driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, PF; Betlem, BHL; Roffel, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  19. Classification of the universe of immune epitope literature: representation and knowledge gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince Davies

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the more than 18 million scientific articles currently indexed in the PubMed database are related to immune responses to various agents, including infectious microbes, autoantigens, allergens, transplants, cancer antigens and others. The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB is an online repository that catalogs immune epitope reactivity data derived from articles listed in the National Library of Medicine PubMed database. The IEDB is maintained and continually updated by monitoring PubMed for new, potentially relevant references.Herein we detail the classification of all epitope-specific literature in over 100 different immunological domains representing Infectious Diseases and Microbes, Autoimmunity, Allergy, Transplantation and Cancer. The relative number of references in each category reflects past and present areas of research on immune reactivities. In addition to describing the overall landscape of data distribution, this particular characterization of the epitope reference data also allows for the exploration of possible correlations with global disease morbidity and mortality data.While in most cases diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality rates were amongst the most studied, a number of high impact diseases such as dengue, Schistosoma, HSV-2, B. pertussis and Chlamydia trachoma, were found to have very little coverage. The data analyzed in this fashion represents the first estimate of how reported immunological data corresponds to disease-related morbidity and mortality, and confirms significant discrepancies in the overall research foci versus disease burden, thus identifying important gaps to be pursued by future research. These findings may also provide a justification for redirecting a portion of research funds into some of the underfunded, critical disease areas.

  20. Poetic representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    , and dialogue, of situated participants. The article includes a lengthy example of a poetic representation of one participant’s story, and the author comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways that challenges what sometimes goes unasked in participative social...

  1. Limited knowledge of fraction representations differentiates middle school students with mathematics learning disability (dyscalculia) versus low mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Myers, Gwen F; Lewis, Katherine E; Hanich, Laurie B; Murphy, Melissa M

    2013-06-01

    Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions equivalent to one-half, fraction pairs with common denominators) differentiates those with mathematics learning disability (MLD) versus low achievement (LA) or typical achievement (TA) in mathematics and whether long-term learning trajectories of this knowledge also differentiate these groups. We confirmed that although fourth graders with TA (n=93) were more accurate in evaluating "one-half" fractions than in evaluating "non-half" fractions (until they reached ceiling performance levels on both types of fractions), children with MLD (n=11) did not show a one-half advantage until Grade 7 and did not reach ceiling performance even by Grade 8. Both the MLD and LA groups had early difficulties with fractions, but by Grade 5 the LA group approached performance levels of the TA group and deviated from the MLD group. All groups showed a visual model advantage over Arabic number representation of fractions, but this advantage was short-lived for the TA group (because ceiling level was achieved across formats), whereas it was slightly more persistent for the LA group and persisted through Grade 8 for children with MLD. Thus, difficulties with fractions persist through Grade 8 for many students, but the nature and trajectories of those difficulties vary across children with math difficulties (MLD or LA). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Limited knowledge of fraction representations differentiates middle school students with mathematics learning disability (dyscalculia) vs. low mathematics achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Myers, Gwen F.; Lewis, Katherine E.; Hanich, Laurie B.; Murphy, Melissa M.

    2014-01-01

    Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions equivalent to “one-half,” and fraction pairs with common denominators) differentiates those with mathematical learning disability (MLD) versus low achievement (LA) or typical achievement (TA) in mathematics, and whether long term learning trajectories of this knowledge also differentiate these groups. We confirmed that although 4th graders with LA (n = 18) or TA (n = 93) are more accurate evaluating one-half vs. non-half fractions (until they reach ceiling performance levels on both types of fractions), children with MLD (n=11) do not show a one-half advantage until Grade 7 and do not reach ceiling performance even by Grade 8. Both the MLD and LA groups have early difficulties with fractions, but by Grade 5 the LA group approaches performance levels of the TA group and deviates from the MLD group. All groups showed a visual model advantage over Arabic number representation of fractions, but this advantage was short lived for the TA group (because ceiling level was achieved across formats), slightly more persistent for the LA group, and persisted through Grade 8 for children with MLD. Thus, difficulties with fractions persist through Grade 8 for many students, but the nature and trajectories of those difficulties varies across children with math difficulties (MLD or LA). PMID:23587941

  3. Knowledge management: processes and systems | Igbinovia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management: processes and systems. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... observation, role reversal technique, and discussion forums as well as the forms of knowledge representation to include report writing, database management system and institutional repositories.

  4. Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  5. Promoting pedagogical content knowledge development for early career secondary teachers in science and technology using content representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John; Eames, Chris; Hume, Anne; Lockley, John

    2012-11-01

    Background: This research addressed the key area of early career teacher education and aimed to explore the use of a 'content representation' (CoRe) as a mediational tool to develop early career secondary teacher pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study was situated in the subject areas of science and technology, where sound teacher knowledge is particularly important to student engagement. Purpose: The study was designed to examine whether such a tool (a CoRe), co-designed by an early career secondary teacher with expert content and pedagogy specialists, can enhance the PCK of early career teachers. The research questions were: How can experts in content and pedagogy work together with early career teachers to develop one science topic CoRe and one technology topic CoRe to support the development of PCK for early career secondary teachers? How does the use of a collaboratively designed CoRe affect the planning of an early career secondary teacher in science or technology? How has engagement in the development and use of an expert-informed CoRe developed an early career teacher's PCK? Sample: The research design incorporated a unique partnership between two expert classroom teachers, two content experts, four early career teachers, and four researchers experienced in science and technology education. Design: This study employed an interpretivist-based methodology and an action research approach within a four-case study design. Data were gathered using qualitative research methods focused on semi-structured interviews, observations and document analysis. Results: The study indicated that CoRes, developed through this collaborative process, helped the early career teachers focus on the big picture of the topic, emphasize particularly relevant areas of content and consider alternative ways of planning for their teaching. Conclusions: This paper presents an analysis of the process of CoRe development by the teacher-expert partnerships and the effect that had on

  6. Influence of the knowledge representation on the results of risks calculation; Influence de la representation de la connaissance sur les resultats de calcul de risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudrit, C. [Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse, 31 (France); Mercat-Rommens, C.; Chojnacki, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (DPAM/SEMIC/LMPC), Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    In the field of radioecology, uncertainty was especially apprehended within a purely probabilistic framework. This report presents the various mathematical theories which make it possible to represent dubious information: theory of probabilities, theory of possibilities, theory of belief function. The influence of the choice of these various mathematical models to represent knowledge is then studied on the example of the transfer of strontium 90 from an atmospheric deposit to the man through the cow s milk consumption. (authors)

  7. Meaningful main effects or intriguing interactions? Examining the influences of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations on cognitive processing and conceptual change when learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gina M.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations in cognitive and metacognitive processing and conceptual change when learning about physics concepts through text. Specifically, I manipulated the representation of physics concepts in texts about Newtonian mechanics and explored how these texts interacted with individuals' epistemic beliefs to facilitate or constrain learning. In accordance with definitions from Royce's (1983) framework of psychological epistemology, texts were developed to present Newtonian concepts in either a rational or a metaphorical format. Seventy-five undergraduate students completed questionnaires designed to measure their epistemic beliefs and their misconceptions about Newton's laws of motion. Participants then read the first of two instructional texts (in either a rational or metaphorical format), and were asked to think aloud while reading. After reading the text, participants completed a recall task and a post-test of selected items regarding Newtonian concepts. These steps were repeated with a second instructional text (in either a rational or metaphorical format, depending on which format was assigned previously). Participants' think-aloud sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and then blindly coded, and their recalls were scored for total number of correctly recalled ideas from the text. Changes in misconceptions were analyzed by examining changes in participants' responses to selected questions about Newtonian concepts from pretest to posttest. Results revealed that when individuals' epistemic beliefs were congruent with the knowledge representations in their assigned texts, they performed better on both online measures of learning (e.g., use of processing strategies) and offline products of learning (e.g., text recall, changes in misconceptions) than when their epistemic beliefs were incongruent with the knowledge representations. These results have implications for how

  8. Social Representations of the "Musical Child": An Empirical Investigation on Implicit Music Knowledge in Higher Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Carugati, Felice

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an empirical study undertaken at the University of Bologna about the social representations of music held by university students studying to become teachers in nursery, kindergarten and primary education. An open questionnaire was submitted to the university students at the beginning and end of the music education teaching…

  9. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  10. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects...

  11. Data-mining to build a knowledge representation store for clinical decision support. Studies on curation and validation based on machine performance in multiple choice medical licensing examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry; Boray, Srinidhi

    2016-06-01

    Extracting medical knowledge by structured data mining of many medical records and from unstructured data mining of natural language source text on the Internet will become increasingly important for clinical decision support. Output from these sources can be transformed into large numbers of elements of knowledge in a Knowledge Representation Store (KRS), here using the notation and to some extent the algebraic principles of the Q-UEL Web-based universal exchange and inference language described previously, rooted in Dirac notation from quantum mechanics and linguistic theory. In a KRS, semantic structures or statements about the world of interest to medicine are analogous to natural language sentences seen as formed from noun phrases separated by verbs, prepositions and other descriptions of relationships. A convenient method of testing and better curating these elements of knowledge is by having the computer use them to take the test of a multiple choice medical licensing examination. It is a venture which perhaps tells us almost as much about the reasoning of students and examiners as it does about the requirements for Artificial Intelligence as employed in clinical decision making. It emphasizes the role of context and of contextual probabilities as opposed to the more familiar intrinsic probabilities, and of a preliminary form of logic that we call presyllogistic reasoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Constructible Authentic Representations: Designing Video Games That Enable Players to Utilize Knowledge Developed In-Game to Reason about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Nathan R.; Wilensky, Uri

    2014-01-01

    While video games have become a source of excitement for educational designers, creating informal game experiences that players can draw on when thinking and reasoning in non-game contexts has proved challenging. In this paper we present a design principle for creating educational video games that enables players to draw on knowledge resources…

  13. Totality and Representation: A History of Knowledge Management through European Documentation, Critical Modernity, and Post-Fordism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents European documentalist, critical modernist, and Autonomous Marxist influenced post-Fordist views regarding the management of knowledge in mid- and late-twentieth century Western modernity and postmodernity, and the complex theoretical and ideological debates, especially concerning issues of language and community. Discusses views of…

  14. Limits of Generalizing in Education Research: Why Criteria for Research Generalization Should Include Population Heterogeneity and Uses of Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Generalization is a critical concept in all research designed to generate knowledge that applies to all elements of a unit (population) while studying only a subset of these elements (sample). Commonly applied criteria for generalizing focus on experimental design or representativeness of samples of the population of units. The criteria…

  15. Representational coexistence in the God concept: Core knowledge intuitions of God as a person are not revised by Christian theology despite lifelong experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlev, Michael; Mermelstein, Spencer; German, Tamsin C

    2018-01-25

    Previous research has shown that in the minds of young adult religious adherents, acquired theology about the extraordinary characteristics of God (e.g., omniscience) coexists with, rather than replaces, an initial concept of God formed by co-option of the person concept. We tested the hypothesis that representational coexistence holds even after extensive experience with Christian theology, as indexed by age. Christian religious adherents ranging in age from 18 to 87 years were asked to evaluate as true or false statements on which core knowledge intuitions about persons and Christian theology about God were consistent (both true or both false) or inconsistent (true on one and false on the other). Results showed, across adulthood, more theological errors in evaluating inconsistent versus consistent statements. Older adults also exhibited slower response times to inconsistent versus consistent statements. These findings show that despite extensive experience, indeed a lifetime of experience for some participants, the Christian theological God concept does not separate from the initial person concept from which it is formed. In fact, behavioral signatures of representational coexistence were not attenuated by experience. We discuss the broader implications of these findings to the acquisition of evolutionarily new concepts.

  16. Representation and Management of the Knowledge of Brittle Deformation in Shear Zones Using Microstructural Data From the SAFOD Core Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, H. A.; Broda, C. M.; Kumar, A.; Hadizadeh, J.

    2010-12-01

    Web access to data that represent knowledge acquired by investigators studying the microstructures in the core samples of the SAFOD (San Andreas Observatory at Depth) project can help scientists efficiently integrate and share knowledge, query the data, and update the knowledge base on the Web. To achieve this, we have used OWL (Web Ontology Language) to build the brittle deformation ontology for the microstructures observed in the SAFOD core samples, by explicitly formalizing the knowledge about deformational processes, geological objects undergoing deformation, and the underlying mechanical and environmental conditions in brittle shear zones. The developed Web-based ‘SAFOD Brittle Microstructure and Mechanics Knowledge base’ (SAFOD BM2KB), which instantiates this ontology and is available at http://codd.cs.gsu.edu:9999/safod/index.jsp, will host and serve data that pertains to spatial objects, such as microstructure, gouge, fault, and SEM image, acquired by the SAFOD investigators through the studies of the SAFOD core samples. Deformation in shear zones involves complex brittle and ductile processes that alter, create, and/or destroy a wide variety of one- to three-dimensional, multi-scale spatial entities such as rocks and their constituent minerals and structure. These processes occur through a series of sub-processes that happen in different time intervals, and affect the spatial objects at granular to regional scales within shear zones. The processes bring about qualitative change to the spatial entities over time intervals that start and end with events. Processes, such as mylonitization and cataclastic flow, change the spatial location, distribution, dimension, size, shape, and orientation of some objects through translation, rotation and strain. These processes may also result in newly formed entities, such as a new mineral, gouge, vein, or fault, during one or more phases of deformation. Deformation processes may also destroy entities, such as a

  17. Pharmacogenomic knowledge representation, reasoning and genome-based clinical decision support based on OWL 2 DL ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samwald, Matthias; Miñarro Giménez, Jose Antonio; Boyce, Richard D; Freimuth, Robert R; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Dumontier, Michel

    2015-02-22

    Every year, hundreds of thousands of patients experience treatment failure or adverse drug reactions (ADRs), many of which could be prevented by pharmacogenomic testing. However, the primary knowledge needed for clinical pharmacogenomics is currently dispersed over disparate data structures and captured in unstructured or semi-structured formalizations. This is a source of potential ambiguity and complexity, making it difficult to create reliable information technology systems for enabling clinical pharmacogenomics. We developed Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontologies and automated reasoning methodologies to meet the following goals: 1) provide a simple and concise formalism for representing pharmacogenomic knowledge, 2) finde errors and insufficient definitions in pharmacogenomic knowledge bases, 3) automatically assign alleles and phenotypes to patients, 4) match patients to clinically appropriate pharmacogenomic guidelines and clinical decision support messages and 5) facilitate the detection of inconsistencies and overlaps between pharmacogenomic treatment guidelines from different sources. We evaluated different reasoning systems and test our approach with a large collection of publicly available genetic profiles. Our methodology proved to be a novel and useful choice for representing, analyzing and using pharmacogenomic data. The Genomic Clinical Decision Support (Genomic CDS) ontology represents 336 SNPs with 707 variants; 665 haplotypes related to 43 genes; 22 rules related to drug-response phenotypes; and 308 clinical decision support rules. OWL reasoning identified CDS rules with overlapping target populations but differing treatment recommendations. Only a modest number of clinical decision support rules were triggered for a collection of 943 public genetic profiles. We found significant performance differences across available OWL reasoners. The ontology-based framework we developed can be used to represent, organize and reason over the growing wealth of

  18. Emotionalization in Science Communication: The Impact of Narratives and Visual Representations on Knowledge Gain and Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Flemming

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication of scientific information plays an increasingly important role for scientists and scientific institutions. This is especially true of institutions in the field of biodiversity and conservation research, since the transfer of research results to the public is a prerequisite for decision-making, and the success of conservation measures often depends on public acceptance or active contribution. To have the desired impact, science communication in the context of human–wildlife interactions must enable recipients to (1 gain valid knowledge, (2 form an attitude toward the subject matter, and (3 develop an adequate understanding of the risks and dangers associated with human–wildlife interactions, which are usually overestimated by the general public. Using the topic of foxes in urban habitats, we investigated the role of emotionalization in science communication. In a laboratory experiment with 127 university students (91 females, we manipulated textual and visual features in an information brochure about foxes and examined their impact on people’s knowledge gain, attitude development, and modified risk perception. In particular, we compared a narrative presentation to a non-narrative list of facts and examined the use of photographs of young foxes. We found a positive development in all of the outcome variables from the pre- to the posttest (more knowledge, more positive attitude, lower risk perception. We also found an interaction effect of text type and visualization on knowledge gain that highlighted the importance of the fit between text type and visualization. In contrast to our expectations, we did not find any differential effects of specific treatments on attitude development. Finally, we found a main effect of text type on modified risk perception, indicating less reduction of risk perception with a narrative article than with a fact list. We discuss our findings with respect to the role of emotionalization in science

  19. Social representations of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  20. HIV/AIDS among adolescents in Eastern Europe: knowledge of HIV/AIDS, social representations of risk and sexual activity among school children and homeless adolescents in Russia, Georgia and the Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Kozlova, Alexandra; Nizharadze, George; Polyakova, Galina

    2004-05-01

    The two studies reported here focus on knowledge and representations of HIV/AIDS (study 1) plus sexual behaviour and hedonistic values (study 2) among 14-17-year-old school children and similar aged shelter children. Results indicate that shelter children are more sexually active, less knowledgeable about means of HIV transmission and are more likely to hold stereotyped representations of those most at risk of infection. Russian respondents were the most sexually active, a finding which could at least be partly explained by their higher levels of hedonistic values. These findings are discussed in the context of a climate of continuing social change in this region.

  1. An investigation of constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Originally, computer programs for engineering design focused on detailed geometric design. Later, computer programs for algorithmically performing the preliminary design of specific well-defined classes of objects became commonplace. However, due to the need for extreme flexibility, it appears unlikely that conventional programming techniques will prove fruitful in developing computer aids for engineering conceptual design. The use of symbolic processing techniques, such as object-oriented programming and constraint propagation, facilitate such flexibility. Object-oriented programming allows programs to be organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, rather than around fixed sequences of function- and subroutine-calls. Constraint propagation allows declarative statements to be understood as designating multi-directional mathematical relationships among all the variables of an equation, rather than as unidirectional assignments to the variable on the left-hand side of the equation, as in conventional computer programs. The research has concentrated on applying these two techniques to the development of a general-purpose computer aid for engineering conceptual design. Object-oriented programming techniques are utilized to implement a user-extensible database of design components. The mathematical relationships which model both geometry and physics of these components are managed via constraint propagation. In addition, to this component-based hierarchy, special-purpose data structures are provided for describing component interactions and supporting state-dependent parameters. In order to investigate the utility of this approach, a number of sample design problems from the field of aerospace engineering were implemented using the prototype design tool, Rubber Airplane. The additional level of organizational structure obtained by representing design knowledge in terms of components is observed to provide greater convenience to the program user, and to

  2. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-07-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally valuable information related to amino acid depletion. Seq2logo aims at resolving these issues allowing the user to include sequence weighting to correct for data redundancy, pseudo counts to correct for low number of observations and different logotype representations each capturing different aspects related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein of interest. The output from the server is a sequence logo and a PSSM. Seq2Logo is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/biotools/Seq2Logo (14 May 2012, date last accessed).

  3. Combining prior knowledge with data-driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, P.F.; van Lith, Pascal F.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  4. Training and knowledge development for use of software for safety analysis including ANSYS. Simulation of thermal-hydraulic benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of both axial mean and rms velocities of the current analysis with the benchmark submissions and experimental results were consistent, showing that the LES transient model of ANSYS CFX is applicable to the problem of T-junction mixing and to predict the location of thermal fatigue from temperature differences. Study of ICEM CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) should be able to provide more tools for a finer hexahedral mesh of the T-junction leading to better results. A video of the flow in time obtained from CFD Post is included with this report to help with visualizing the results of the temperature variation along the pipe

  5. Neural Representation of Conceptual Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    psychotherapy , public information and inter-personal communication (Roediger 1980]. Research in the behavioral and brain sciences entrails implicit assumptions...and saddle and hat, etc.? How do they fit together to keep a gestalt of the scene and scenario? What is happening with all the other visual

  6. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles ......-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications....

  7. The abstract representations in speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Anne

    2008-11-01

    Speech processing by human listeners derives meaning from acoustic input via intermediate steps involving abstract representations of what has been heard. Recent results from several lines of research are here brought together to shed light on the nature and role of these representations. In spoken-word recognition, representations of phonological form and of conceptual content are dissociable. This follows from the independence of patterns of priming for a word's form and its meaning. The nature of the phonological-form representations is determined not only by acoustic-phonetic input but also by other sources of information, including metalinguistic knowledge. This follows from evidence that listeners can store two forms as different without showing any evidence of being able to detect the difference in question when they listen to speech. The lexical representations are in turn separate from prelexical representations, which are also abstract in nature. This follows from evidence that perceptual learning about speaker-specific phoneme realization, induced on the basis of a few words, generalizes across the whole lexicon to inform the recognition of all words containing the same phoneme. The efficiency of human speech processing has its basis in the rapid execution of operations over abstract representations.

  8. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  9. 16 CFR 1115.11 - Imputed knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imputed knowledge. 1115.11 Section 1115.11... PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.11 Imputed knowledge. (a) In evaluating whether or... care to ascertain the truth of complaints or other representations. This includes the knowledge a firm...

  10. A course in finite group representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This graduate-level text provides a thorough grounding in the representation theory of finite groups over fields and rings. The book provides a balanced and comprehensive account of the subject, detailing the methods needed to analyze representations that arise in many areas of mathematics. Key topics include the construction and use of character tables, the role of induction and restriction, projective and simple modules for group algebras, indecomposable representations, Brauer characters, and block theory. This classroom-tested text provides motivation through a large number of worked examples, with exercises at the end of each chapter that test the reader's knowledge, provide further examples and practice, and include results not proven in the text. Prerequisites include a graduate course in abstract algebra, and familiarity with the properties of groups, rings, field extensions, and linear algebra.

  11. Representation theory of finite monoids

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...

  12. Representação do conhecimento na perspectiva do ciência da informação em templ e espaço digitaisRepresentation of the knowledge in the perspective of the science of the information in digital time and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Alvarenga

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Trying studying cognition inside information science area, this essay has the aim of discussing some knowledge representation process elements, inside digital archives and libraries context. As a preliminary schema, including ideas for future studies, this text is adressed to information science researchers and students. An introductory part stand out representation process occurring in diferent moments: in knowledge production, in document system organization and in the users acess to documents. Some preliminary discussions concerning the relationship of representation process with ontology and epistemology are including and also other topics relating to the principal theme, such as: cognition and transdiciplinarity; concepts as primary representation process product or as subsidies for creating secondary representation; new spaces and knowledge representation methods.Abordando algumas interfaces do fenômeno da cognição com a ciência da informação, este ensaio tem por objetivo refletir sobre alguns componentes do processo de representação de conhecimentos, no contexto atual balizado pelo surgimento e desenvolvimento dos arquivos e bibliotecas digitais. Como um esquema básico, contendo idéias introdutórias a serem posteriormente trabalhadas, destina-se especialmente a pesquisadores e estudantes de cursos oferecidos no âmbito disciplinar da ciência da informação. O texto se inicia com uma introdução que ressalta os processos de representação, passíveis de ocorrer em momentos distintos: na produção dos registros de conhecimento, na organização dos sistemas de informações documentais e no acesso às informações pelos usuários. São também incluídas neste texto discussões preliminares sobre as relações da representação com a ontologia e a epistemologia, campos tradicionais da filosofia. Seguem se outros tópicos relacionados ao tema, cujos títulos denotam seus conteúdos específicos: cognição e

  13. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...

  14. Reflective Abstraction and Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Philip

    Piaget's theory of reflective abstraction can supplement cognitive science models of representation by specifying both the act of construction and the component steps through which knowers pass as they acquire knowledge. But, while approaches suggested by cognitive science supplement Piaget by awakening researchers to the role of auxiliary factors…

  15. Boundary representation modelling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.

  16. Revealing Children's Implicit Spelling Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J.; Messer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned…

  17. Harmonic Analysis and Group Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Figa-Talamanca, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: Lectures - A. Auslander, R. Tolimeri - Nilpotent groups and abelian varieties, M Cowling - Unitary and uniformly bounded representations of some simple Lie groups, M. Duflo - Construction de representations unitaires d'un groupe de Lie, R. Howe - On a notion of rank for unitary representations of the classical groups, V.S. Varadarajan - Eigenfunction expansions of semisimple Lie groups, and R. Zimmer - Ergodic theory, group representations and rigidity; and, Seminars - A. Koranyi - Some applications of Gelfand pairs in classical analysis.

  18. Using Representations of Practice to Elicit Mathematics Teachers' Tacit Knowledge of Practice: A Comparison of Responses to Animations and Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Patricio; Kosko, Karl W.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared conversations among groups of teachers of high school geometry that had been elicited by a representation of instruction (either a video or an animation) and facilitated with an open-ended agenda. All artifacts used represented instruction scenarios that departed from what, according to prior work, had been hypothesized as…

  19. Representations for Supporting Students' Context Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2005-01-01

    The context of the specific situation where knowledge is applied affects significantly the problem solving process by forcing people to negotiate and reconsider the priorities of their mental representations and problem solving operators, in relation to this process. In this work we argue that st...... awareness. A research agenda is also included, suggesting specific research activities for evaluating the instructional efficiency of the proposed design....

  20. Como poderia a Gerontologia, um campo multidisciplinar do saber, estar presente na Tabela das Áreas do Conhecimento do CNPq? How could Gerontology, a multidisciplinary field of knowledge, be included in CNPq's Table of Knowledge Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Donizete Prado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Discutimos a possibilidade da inserção da Gerontologia na Tabela das Áreas do Conhecimento do CNPq num cenário em essa tabela vem sendo questionada na comunidade científica, particularmente no que se refere à inclusão de áreas multidisciplinares. A partir de Foucault, entendemos a Árvore do Conhecimento como uma taxonomia, um continuum, onde todas as áreas são colocadas lado a lado, mais próximas ou mais afastadas conforme semelhanças e diferenças entre si. Trata-se de um tratamento linear e finito que estabelece que uma determinada área do conhecimento só pode estar situada num ponto da parte da linha que corresponde a uma grande área. A Gerontologia caracteristicamente multidisciplinar não alcançou lugar nessa taxonomia institucionalizada, seja porque haveria problemas em relação a conceitos, interesses e projeto político em sua constituição como área do conhecimento, seja porque a taxonomia seria incompatível com a multidisciplinaridade. Concluímos que é possível conceber uma nova Tabela de Campos de Conhecimentos e de Saberes e proceder visualizações dos estudos sobre o envelhecimento e sobre toda e qualquer região dos conhecimentos e dos saberes na plenitude de sua muldisciplinaridade e de suas transformações ao longo dos tempos.We discuss the possibility of including Gerontology in the CNPq Areas of Knowledge Table, in a scenario where this Table is being questioned by the scientific community, particularly with regard to the inclusion of multidisciplinary areas. Based on Foucault, we view the Tree of Knowledge as taxonomy, a continuum in which all areas are placed side by side, closer together or further apart, depending on their similarities and differences. This finite linear approach establishes that a certain Area of knowledge may be placed only at a point along the line corresponding to a Greater Area. Inherently multidisciplinary, gerontology has not been placed in this institutionalized taxonomy

  1. Representations of distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how Danish tourists represent distance in relation to their holiday mobility and how these representations of distance are a result of being aero-mobile as opposed to being land-mobile. Based on interviews with Danish tourists, whose holiday mobility ranges from the European...... continent to global destinations, the first part of this qualitative study identifies three categories of representations of distance that show how distance is being ‘translated’ by the tourists into non-geometric forms: distance as resources, distance as accessibility, and distance as knowledge....... The representations of distance articulated by the Danish tourists show that distance is often not viewed in ‘just’ kilometres. Rather, it is understood in forms that express how transcending the physical distance through holiday mobility is dependent on individual social and economic contexts, and on whether...

  2. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  3. Unifying Class-Based Representation Formalisms

    OpenAIRE

    Calvanese, D.; Lenzerini, M.; Nardi, D.

    2011-01-01

    The notion of class is ubiquitous in computer science and is central in many formalisms for the representation of structured knowledge used both in knowledge representation and in databases. In this paper we study the basic issues underlying such representation formalisms and single out both their common characteristics and their distinguishing features. Such investigation leads us to propose a unifying framework in which we are able to capture the fundamental aspects of several representatio...

  4. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out...... environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic...

  5. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological......, technical, and institutional mechanisms. Geographically, bodily, and geometrically, the camera has positioned its subjects in social structures and hierarchies, in recognizable localities, and in iconic depth constructions which, although they show remarkable variation, nevertheless belong specifically...

  6. Language, knowledge, and mystical mediation: magic, clergy and intervention on the nature in the quotidian and representations in Medieval West - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.15881

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Reading of documents of ecclesiastical source produced during Middle Ages provides the very clear percept of the presence of various categories of mediators between the natural world and mystical forces, in the daily routine of the western men. On the one hand, there were the wizards, expert supposedly endowed with special knowledge, who used as a resource various forms of exercise of divinatory arts and techniques of manipulation of elements of nature. During Middle Ages the ecclesiastical discourse searched opposing to their actions the knowledge and the achievements of the ‘true’ agents of sacred one, those who were organized in an ordo apart of the rest of society, ordoclericorum, enjoyed the privilege of access to the reading and writing of Latin. The concept of the clergy with which the Christian Church intended to qualify their members brought implicitly a cultural value which unified and distinguished them from the first ones. However, in the eyes of the people, the magical agents, as much as the clergies were endowed with specialized knowledge which granted to them the exercise of strange powers to the common mortals and made it possible for them controlling impersonal forces capable of altering the course of events. It is our intention to discuss the relationship between language, knowledge, and mystical Mediation in the current representations of magical agents and clergies in Middle Ages. 

  7. Model of educational field on the basis of technology of knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виталий Алексеевич Кудинов

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to the description of educational field-based technologies for knowledge management. Two level system of knowledge representation, including the concepts of knowledge and training facilities is proposed. Such organization allows corporate knowledge management portal to easily adapt training to the individual needs of a learner.

  8. Commonalities and differences in the neural representations of English, Portuguese, and Mandarin sentences: When knowledge of the brain-language mappings for two languages is better than one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Jing; Bailer, Cyntia; Cherkassky, Vladimir; Just, Marcel Adam

    2017-12-01

    This study extended cross-language semantic decoding (based on a concept's fMRI signature) to the decoding of sentences across three different languages (English, Portuguese and Mandarin). A classifier was trained on either the mapping between words and activation patterns in one language or the mappings in two languages (using an equivalent amount of training data), and then tested on its ability to decode the semantic content of a third language. The model trained on two languages was reliably more accurate than a classifier trained on one language for all three pairs of languages. This two-language advantage was selective to abstract concept domains such as social interactions and mental activity. Representational Similarity Analyses (RSA) of the inter-sentence neural similarities resulted in similar clustering of sentences in all the three languages, indicating a shared neural concept space among languages. These findings identify semantic domains that are common across these three languages versus those that are more language or culture-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mobilities and Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    , literature, and film. Moreover, we hope the authors of future reviews will reflect on the ways they approached those representations. Such commentaries would provide valuable methodological insights, and we hope to begin that effort with this interview. We have asked four prominent mobility scholars......As the centerpiece of the eighth T2M yearbook, the following interview about representations of mobility signals a new and exciting focus area for Mobility in History. In future issues we hope to include reviews that grapple more with how mobilities have been imagined and represented in the arts...

  10. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious

  11. Homological methods, representation theory, and cluster algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Trepode, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    This text presents six mini-courses, all devoted to interactions between representation theory of algebras, homological algebra, and the new ever-expanding theory of cluster algebras. The interplay between the topics discussed in this text will continue to grow and this collection of courses stands as a partial testimony to this new development. The courses are useful for any mathematician who would like to learn more about this rapidly developing field; the primary aim is to engage graduate students and young researchers. Prerequisites include knowledge of some noncommutative algebra or homological algebra. Homological algebra has always been considered as one of the main tools in the study of finite-dimensional algebras. The strong relationship with cluster algebras is more recent and has quickly established itself as one of the important highlights of today’s mathematical landscape. This connection has been fruitful to both areas—representation theory provides a categorification of cluster algebras, wh...

  12. Multiple Interactive Representations for Fractions Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Laurens; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol; Taatgen, Niels; Aleven,; Kay, J; Mostow, J

    2010-01-01

    Multiple External Representations (MERs) have been used successfully in instructional activities, including fractions However, students often have difficulties making the connections between the MERs spontaneously We argue that interactive fraction representations may help students in discovering

  13. Representational Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    Contemporary communicational and informational processes contribute to the shaping of our physical environment by having a powerful influence on the process of design. Applications of virtual reality (VR) are transforming the way architecture is conceived and produced by introducing dynamic...... elements into the process of design. Through its immersive properties, virtual reality allows access to a spatial experience of a computer model very different to both screen based simulations as well as traditional forms of architectural representation. The dissertation focuses on processes of the current...... by ‘professionals’ to ‘laypeople’. The thesis articulates problems in VR’s current application, specifically the CAVE and Panorama theatres, and seeks an understanding of how these problems may be addressed. The central questions that have motivated this research project are thus: What is architectural VR...

  14. When data representation compromise data security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    WHEN DATA REPRESENTATION COMPROMISE DATA SECURITY The workflow of transforming data into informative representations makes extensive usage of computers and software. Scientists have a conventional tradition for producing publications that include tables and graphs as data representations. These r...... the software companies having more interest in understanding and solving this type of data security issues.......WHEN DATA REPRESENTATION COMPROMISE DATA SECURITY The workflow of transforming data into informative representations makes extensive usage of computers and software. Scientists have a conventional tradition for producing publications that include tables and graphs as data representations....... These representations can be used for multiple purposes such as publications in journals, teaching and conference material. But when created, stored and distributed in a digital form there is a risk of compromising data security. Data beyond the once used specifically to create the representation can be included...

  15. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Homogeneous Operators and Projective Representations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper surveys the existing literature on homogeneous operators and their relationships with projective representations of P S L ( 2 , R ) and other Lie groups. It also includes a list of open problems in this area.

  17. El impacto de las representaciones sociales en la psicología de los conocimientos sociales: problemas y perspectivas The impact of social representations on the psychology of social knowledge: issues and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Castorina

    2008-12-01

    the minimum epistemic conditions for establishing a dialogue between some investigation programs in knowledge psychology and the psychology of social representations.

  18. Numerical Magnitude Representations Influence Arithmetic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Julie L.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the quality of first graders' (mean age = 7.2 years) numerical magnitude representations is correlated with, predictive of, and causally related to their arithmetic learning. The children's pretest numerical magnitude representations were found to be correlated with their pretest arithmetic knowledge and to be…

  19. Science, education and industry information resources complementarity as a basis for design of knowledge management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, N. V.; Tikhomirov, G. V.; Golitsyna, O. L.

    2017-01-01

    The main problems and circumstances that influence the processes of creating effective knowledge management systems were described. These problems particularly include high species diversity of instruments for knowledge representation, lack of adequate lingware, including formal representation of semantic relationships. For semantic data descriptions development a conceptual model of the subject area and a conceptual-lexical system should be designed on proposals of ISO-15926 standard. It is proposed to conduct an information integration of educational and production processes on the basis of information systems technologies. Integrated knowledge management system information environment combines both traditional information resources and specific information resources of subject domain including task context and implicit/tacit knowledge.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 10: Summary report to phase 3 academic library respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 3 of a 4 part study was undertaken to study the use of scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic aerospace community. Phase 3 of this project used three questionnaires that were sent to three groups (i.e., faculty, librarians, and students) in the academic aerospace community. Specific attention was paid to the types of STI used and the methods in which academic users acquire STI. The responses of the academic libraries are focussed on herein. Demographic information on academic aerospace libraries is provided. Data regarding NASA interaction with academic aerospace libraries is also included, as is the survey instrument.

  1. Knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayfun Gülle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The book includes detailed information concerning knowledge and knowledge management with current resources in seven chapters uder the titles of “organizational effects of knowlegde management, knowledge management systems, new knowledge discovery: data mining, computer as an information sharing platform, technologies as knowledge management: artificial intelligence and knowledge based systems, future of knowlegde management”. Concepts of knowledge and knowledge management becomes phenomenon for all disciplinaries so global companies, other companies, state sector, epistemologists, experts of innovation and governance, information professionals etc may find informative to it. The book also includes three prefaces which are well-informed and so all of them is summarized in the text.

  2. Media Reporting on Suicide: Evaluating the Effects of Including Preventative Resources and Psychoeducational Information on Suicide Risk, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Help-Seeking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin L; Witte, Tracy K

    2017-05-15

    We evaluated the effects of exposure to a suicide news article on a variety of outcome variables and whether adhering to one specific media guideline (i.e., including psychoeducational information and preventative resources) buffered any of the negative effects of exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three articles and then asked to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires. Overall, we found no effect of exposure to a suicide news article, regardless of the inclusion of resources and information, with a few minor exceptions. Although researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of media guidelines in the aggregate at reducing imitative suicidal behavior, it remains unclear which guidelines in particular are responsible for this effect. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  3. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...... to the style. We focus on grammars for representing and generating styles of design and review the use of grammar transformations for modelling changes in style and design language. We identify a gap in knowledge in the representation of style in grammars and in driving strategic style change using grammar...

  4. Students' Representational Fluency at University: A Cross-Sectional Measure of How Multiple Representations Are Used by Physics Students Using the Representational Fluency Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew; Sharma, Manjula Devi

    2015-01-01

    To succeed within scientific disciplines, using representations, including those based on words, graphs, equations, and diagrams, is important. Research indicates that the use of discipline specific representations (sometimes referred to as expert generated representations), as well as multi-representational use, is critical for problem solving…

  5. Formal representation of eligibility criteria: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chunhua; Tu, Samson W; Sim, Ida; Richesson, Rachel

    2010-06-01

    Standards-based, computable knowledge representations for eligibility criteria are increasingly needed to provide computer-based decision support for automated research participant screening, clinical evidence application, and clinical research knowledge management. We surveyed the literature and identified five aspects of eligibility criteria knowledge representation that contribute to the various research and clinical applications: the intended use of computable eligibility criteria, the classification of eligibility criteria, the expression language for representing eligibility rules, the encoding of eligibility concepts, and the modeling of patient data. We consider three of these aspects (expression language, codification of eligibility concepts, and patient data modeling) to be essential constructs of a formal knowledge representation for eligibility criteria. The requirements for each of the three knowledge constructs vary for different use cases, which therefore should inform the development and choice of the constructs toward cost-effective knowledge representation efforts. We discuss the implications of our findings for standardization efforts toward knowledge representation for sharable and computable eligibility criteria.

  6. Digital models for architectonical representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brusaporci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital instruments and technologies enrich architectonical representation and communication opportunities. Computer graphics is organized according the two phases of visualization and construction, that is modeling and rendering, structuring dichotomy of software technologies. Visualization modalities give different kinds of representations of the same 3D model and instruments produce a separation between drawing and image’s creation. Reverse modeling can be related to a synthesis process, ‘direct modeling’ follows an analytic procedure. The difference between interactive and not interactive applications is connected to the possibilities offered by informatics instruments, and relates to modeling and rendering. At the same time the word ‘model’ describes different phenomenon (i.e. files: mathematical model of the building and of the scene; raster representation and post-processing model. All these correlated different models constitute the architectonical interpretative model, that is a simulation of reality made by the model for improving the knowledge.

  7. ONTIC: A Knowledge Representation System for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    1.17 ([Bell & Machover 77] page 127). In the proof a O.o F,- 34 CHAPTER 1. ONTIC IN BRIEF least upper bound is called a supremum and a greatest lower... Machover 771 page 136. Let F be the set of all filters in a Boolean algebra B; F can be partially ordered by inclusion. We will show that, with...proof that if F is an ultrafilter and if xVy E F then x E F or y E F. The following natural argument is taken from [Bell & Machover 77] , top of page

  8. Knowledge Representation and Natural-Language Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-07

    metaphysical concerns. A careful examination of the relevant examples, however, shows that neither Davidson nor Perry have the story quite right, and...little head a token of an eternal sentence with that content. States containing such tokens are, by thernsleves, useless and nothing short of magical ...a theory of adverbial modification. The strongest considerations motivating their analyses are more general logical and metaphysical concerns. A more

  9. Systematic Representation of Molecular Biology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.

    A small set of relationships has been identified which appears to be sufficient for describing all molecular and cellular reactions and structures discussed in an introductory biology course. A precise definition has been developed for each relationship. These 20 relationships are of four types: (1) analytical; (2) spatial; (3) temporal; and (4)…

  10. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  11. Management of Knowledge Representation Standards Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ramesh S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the efforts undertaken over the last two years to identify the issues underlying the current difficulties in sharing and reuse, and a community wide initiative to overcome them. First, we discuss four bottlenecks to sharing and reuse, present a vision of a future in which these bottlenecks have been ameliorated, and describe the efforts of the initiative's four working groups to address these bottlenecks. We then address the supporting technology and infrastructure that is critical to enabling the vision of the future. Finally, we consider topics of longer-range interest by reviewing some of the research issues raised by our vision.

  12. An Episodic Knowledge Representation for Narrative Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    inference process. 32 now will be replaced by a term with fixed reference to the time of speech. 44 - In the following, RI [A; B] {Subst C/v; Imm- Skol C’/v...an instance of someone’s trying to eat LRRH." RI [2, 3, 1, S8, 4; K3] {Subst (K8 (try (K (eat LRRH))))/al, (K, (attack LRRH))/a2, W/x, El/el; Imm- Skol ...K. (eat y))] ** eli))) - (3e2:[e2 during el] [x attack y] ** e2]) Specifically, RI [S8, S5, S11, S3; K2’] {Subst W/x, LRRH/y, El/el; Imm- Skol E2/e2

  13. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 2: Novel system Architecture, Information/Knowledge Representation, Algorithm Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Boschetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the Quality Indexes of Operativeness (OQIs of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. Based on an original multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches, the first part of this work promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification capable of accomplishing image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the present second part of this work, a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design, (b information/knowledge representation, (c algorithm design and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time, multi-sensor, multi-resolution, application-independent Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage

  14. Pioneers of representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Charles W

    1999-01-01

    The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductor...

  15. The Necessity of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M. Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of artificial intelligence, focusing on three interrelated issues: (1) representation of knowledge, which is roughly the machine equivalent of human memory; (2) control and use of knowledge, which corresponds to human abilities in problem solving and planning; and (3) the acquisition of knowledge, or what humans call…

  16. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  17. (Self)-representations on youtube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    This paper examines forms of self-representation on YouTube with specific focus on Vlogs (Video blogs). The analytical scope of the paper is on how User-generated Content on YouTube initiates a certain kind of audiovisual representation and a particular interpretation of reality that can...... be distinguished within Vlogs. This will be analysed through selected case studies taken from a representative sample of empirically based observations of YouTube videos. The analysis includes a focus on how certain forms of representation can be identified as representations of the self (Turkle 1995, Scannell...... 1996, Walker 2005) and further how these forms must be comprehended within a context of technological constrains, institutional structures and social as well as economical practices on YouTube (Burgess and Green 2009, Van Dijck 2009). It is argued that these different contexts play a vital part...

  18. The relationship between priming and linguistic representations is mediated by processing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Ivanova, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the nature of linguistic representations undoubtedly will benefit from multiple types of evidence, including structural priming. Here, we argue that successfully gaining linguistic insights from structural priming requires us to better understand (1) the precise mappings between linguistic input and comprehenders' syntactic knowledge; and (2) the role of cognitive faculties such as memory and attention in structural priming.

  19. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  20. How do we Remain Us in a Time of Change: Culture and Knowledge Management at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of findings of a NASA agency-wide Knowledge Management Team considering culture and knowledge management issues at the agency. Specific issues identified by the team include: (1) NASA must move from being a knowledge hoarding culture to a knowledge sharing culture; (2) NASA must move from being center focused to being Agency focused; (3) NASA must capture the knowledge of a departing workforce. Topics considered include: what must NASA know to remain NASA, what were previous forms of knowledge reproduction and how has technological innovations changed these systems, and what changes in funding and relationships between contractors and NASA affected knowledge reproduction.

  1. Representation as the representation of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, FR

    This essay deals, mainly, with the notion of representation. Representation is associated with texts and, as such, is contrasted to the true singular statement. It is argued that the relationship between the text and what the text represents can never be modeled on the relationship between the true

  2. An Argument from Acquisition: Comparing English Metrical Stress Representations by How Learnable They Are from Child-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa; Ho, Timothy; Detrano, Zephyr

    2017-01-01

    It has long been recognized that there is a natural dependence between theories of knowledge representation and theories of knowledge acquisition, with the idea that the right knowledge representation enables acquisition to happen as reliably as it does. Given this, a reasonable criterion for a theory of knowledge representation is that it be…

  3. Degree of proximity in the construction of social representations: the case of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Isabel; Valentim, Joaquim Pires; Carugati, Felice

    2012-11-01

    The present article is devoted to the empirical endeavor of studying the effect of the degree of proximity, defined by specific socio-educational insertions, on the organization of social representations of intelligence. A questionnaire was answered by a sample of 752 participants belonging to five different social categories with different degrees of proximity and knowledge about intelligence: mothers, fathers, mother-teachers and non-parent students (psychology and science students). The questionnaire included different topics, namely concerning the concept of intelligence, its development and the effectiveness of teaching procedures. Results show that the principles organizing the contents of representations are linked to the personal involvement in intelligence, on which subjects more or less implied take different positions. Results produced suggest, therefore, that the content of representations is directly linked to the activation of social roles and the salience of the object, reflecting the functional character that the organization of representations has to specific social dynamics.

  4. Representation and propagation of imprecise and uncertain knowledge: applied to risk assessments related by polluted sites and soils; Representation et propagation de connaissances imprecises et incertaines: application a l'evaluation des risques lies aux sites et aux sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudrit, C

    2005-10-15

    Currently, decisions pertaining to the management of potentially polluted sites very often rely on the evaluation of risks for man and the environment. This evaluation is carried out with the help of models which simulate the transfer of pollutants from a source to a vulnerable target, for different scenarios of exposure. The selection of parameter values of these models is based as much as possible on the data collected at the time of on-site investigations (phase of diagnosis). However, due to time and financial constraints, information regarding model parameters is often incomplete and imprecise. This leads to uncertainty that needs to be accounted for the decision-making process. Uncertainty regarding model parameters may have essentially two origins. It may arise from randomness due to natural variability resulting from heterogeneity of population or the fluctuations of a quantity in time. Or it may be caused by impreciseness due to a lack of information resulting, for example, from systematic measurement errors or expert opinions. In risk assessment, no distinction is traditionally made between these two types of uncertainty, both being represented by means of a single probability distribution. So, uncertainty in risk assessment models is generally addressed within a purely probabilistic framework. This approach comes down to assuming that knowledge regarding model parameters is always of random nature (variability). Such knowledge is represented by single probability distributions typically propagated through the risk model using the Monte-Carlo technique. Even if this approach is well-known, the difficulty is to avoid an arbitrary choice of the shape of probability distributions assigned to model parameters. Indeed in the context of risk assessment related to pollutant exposure, knowledge of some parameters is often imprecise or incomplete. The use of single probability distribution to represent this type of knowledge becomes subjective and partly arbitrary

  5. SABERES DEL DOCENTE Y REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES: IMPLICANCIAS PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE LAS CIENCIAS NATURALES (KNOWLEDGE OF THE TEACHER AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING OF NATURAL SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Aguilar Susana

    2011-08-01

    hierarchical organization of terms – about different aspects related to the teaching and learning of Natural Sciences. To analyze the structures and identify the common elements that cut across these studies and present certain stability, we considered the classification of teacher‟s knowledge offered by Braslavsky and Birgin (substantive, pedagogic and institutional. The obtained results have allowed us to have access to important information about the meanings shared by this professional group. Thus, the similarity between the structures of the different groups shows that there exists a representation that allows us to describe what these teachers are and what they do, which correspond to traditional education approaches, marking the differences with other groups and other professional activities. The categories that appear in a constant way, beyond the topics proposed in every particular case, are related to the fact of "educating", that is, developing schooled subjects for the social world in which they live. Consequently, it can be inferred that the social demands puts strong pressure on the teachers and seem to turn their attention to other functions (supportive, sanitary, of social assistance away from their professional performance and which do not constitute the essence of the social function they attribute to themselves and which they aim at retaining over time.

  6. Representation of speech variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael F

    2017-07-01

    Speech signals provide both linguistic information (e.g., words and sentences) as well as information about the speaker who produced the message (i.e., social-indexical information). Listeners store highly detailed representations of these speech signals, which are simultaneously indexed with linguistic and social category membership. A variety of methodologies-forced-choice categorization, rating, and free classification-have shed light on listeners' cognitive-perceptual representations of the social-indexical information present in the speech signal. Specifically, listeners can accurately identify some talker characteristics, including native language status, approximate age, sex, and gender. Additionally, listeners have sensitivity to other speaker characteristics-such as sexual orientation, regional dialect, native language for non-native speakers, race, and ethnicity-but listeners tend to be less accurate or more variable at categorizing or rating speakers based on these constructs. However, studies have not necessarily incorporated more recent conceptions of these constructs (e.g., separating listeners' perceptions of race vs ethnicity) or speakers who do not fit squarely into specific categories (e.g., for sex perception, intersex individuals; for gender perception, genderqueer speakers; for race perception, multiracial speakers). Additional research on how the intersections of social-indexical categories influence speech perception is also needed. As the field moves forward, scholars from a variety of disciplines should be incorporated into investigations of how listeners' extract and represent facets of personal identity from speech. Further, the impact of these representations on our interactions with one another in contexts outside of the laboratory should continue to be explored. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1434. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1434 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain Psychology

  7. On Representation in Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Brenner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Semiotics is widely applied in theories of information. Following the original triadic characterization of reality by Peirce, the linguistic processes involved in information—production, transmission, reception, and understanding—would all appear to be interpretable in terms of signs and their relations to their objects. Perhaps the most important of these relations is that of the representation-one, entity, standing for or representing some other. For example, an index—one of the three major kinds of signs—is said to represent something by being directly related to its object. My position, however, is that the concept of symbolic representations having such roles in information, as intermediaries, is fraught with the same difficulties as in representational theories of mind. I have proposed an extension of logic to complex real phenomena, including mind and information (Logic in Reality; LIR, most recently at the 4th International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science (Beijing, August, 2010. LIR provides explanations for the evolution of complex processes, including information, that do not require any entities other than the processes themselves. In this paper, I discuss the limitations of the standard relation of representation. I argue that more realistic pictures of informational systems can be provided by reference to information as an energetic process, following the categorial ontology of LIR. This approach enables naïve, anti-realist conceptions of anti-representationalism to be avoided, and enables an approach to both information and meaning in the same novel logical framework.

  8. Current trends on knowledge-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia-García, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book presents innovative and high-quality research on the implementation of conceptual frameworks, strategies, techniques, methodologies, informatics platforms and models for developing advanced knowledge-based systems and their application in different fields, including Agriculture, Education, Automotive, Electrical Industry, Business Services, Food Manufacturing, Energy Services, Medicine and others. Knowledge-based technologies employ artificial intelligence methods to heuristically address problems that cannot be solved by means of formal techniques. These technologies draw on standard and novel approaches from various disciplines within Computer Science, including Knowledge Engineering, Natural Language Processing, Decision Support Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Databases, Software Engineering, etc. As a combination of different fields of Artificial Intelligence, the area of Knowledge-Based Systems applies knowledge representation, case-based reasoning, neural networks, Semantic Web and TICs used...

  9. An introduction to quiver representations

    CERN Document Server

    Derksen, Harm

    2017-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the representation theory of quivers and finite dimensional algebras. It gives a thorough and modern treatment of the algebraic approach based on Auslander-Reiten theory as well as the approach based on geometric invariant theory. The material in the opening chapters is developed starting slowly with topics such as homological algebra, Morita equivalence, and Gabriel's theorem. Next, the book presents Auslander-Reiten theory, including almost split sequences and the Auslander-Reiten transform, and gives a proof of Kac's generalization of Gabriel's theorem. Once this basic material is established, the book goes on with developing the geometric invariant theory of quiver representations. The book features the exposition of the saturation theorem for semi-invariants of quiver representations and its application to Littlewood-Richardson coefficients. In the final chapters, the book exposes tilting modules, exceptional sequences and a connection to cluster categories. The book is su...

  10. Design of an extensive information representation scheme for clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deléger, Louise; Campillos, Leonardo; Ligozat, Anne-Laure; Névéol, Aurélie

    2017-09-11

    Knowledge representation frameworks are essential to the understanding of complex biomedical processes, and to the analysis of biomedical texts that describe them. Combined with natural language processing (NLP), they have the potential to contribute to retrospective studies by unlocking important phenotyping information contained in the narrative content of electronic health records (EHRs). This work aims to develop an extensive information representation scheme for clinical information contained in EHR narratives, and to support secondary use of EHR narrative data to answer clinical questions. We review recent work that proposed information representation schemes and applied them to the analysis of clinical narratives. We then propose a unifying scheme that supports the extraction of information to address a large variety of clinical questions. We devised a new information representation scheme for clinical narratives that comprises 13 entities, 11 attributes and 37 relations. The associated annotation guidelines can be used to consistently apply the scheme to clinical narratives and are https://cabernet.limsi.fr/annotation_guide_for_the_merlot_french_clinical_corpus-Sept2016.pdf . The information scheme includes many elements of the major schemes described in the clinical natural language processing literature, as well as a uniquely detailed set of relations.

  11. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  12. Generative Representations for Automated Design of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homby, Gregory S.; Lipson, Hod; Pollack, Jordan B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated design of complex, modular robots involves an evolutionary process in which generative representations of designs are used. The term generative representations as used here signifies, loosely, representations that consist of or include algorithms, computer programs, and the like, wherein encoded designs can reuse elements of their encoding and thereby evolve toward greater complexity. Automated design of robots through synthetic evolutionary processes has already been demonstrated, but it is not clear whether genetically inspired search algorithms can yield designs that are sufficiently complex for practical engineering. The ultimate success of such algorithms as tools for automation of design depends on the scaling properties of representations of designs. A nongenerative representation (one in which each element of the encoded design is used at most once in translating to the design) scales linearly with the number of elements. Search algorithms that use nongenerative representations quickly become intractable (search times vary approximately exponentially with numbers of design elements), and thus are not amenable to scaling to complex designs. Generative representations are compact representations and were devised as means to circumvent the above-mentioned fundamental restriction on scalability. In the present method, a robot is defined by a compact programmatic form (its generative representation) and the evolutionary variation takes place on this form. The evolutionary process is an iterative one, wherein each cycle consists of the following steps: 1. Generative representations are generated in an evolutionary subprocess. 2. Each generative representation is a program that, when compiled, produces an assembly procedure. 3. In a computational simulation, a constructor executes an assembly procedure to generate a robot. 4. A physical-simulation program tests the performance of a simulated constructed robot, evaluating the performance

  13. A hierarachical data structure representation for fusing multisensor information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maren, A.J. [Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.; Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T. [Accurate Automation Corp., Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1989-12-31

    A major problem with MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the data element, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Data-element fusion has problems with coregistration. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented data relies on a Presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing (including object identification) to be useful. MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Data Structure (HDS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The HDS is an intermediate representation between the raw or smoothed data stream and symbolic interpretation of the data. it represents the structural organization of the data. Fused HDSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based region interpretation.

  14. A hierarachical data structure representation for fusing multisensor information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maren, A.J. (Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.); Pap, R.M.; Harston, C.T. (Accurate Automation Corp., Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1989-01-01

    A major problem with MultiSensor Information Fusion (MSIF) is establishing the level of processing at which information should be fused. Current methodologies, whether based on fusion at the data element, segment/feature, or symbolic levels, are each inadequate for robust MSIF. Data-element fusion has problems with coregistration. Attempts to fuse information using the features of segmented data relies on a Presumed similarity between the segmentation characteristics of each data stream. Symbolic-level fusion requires too much advance processing (including object identification) to be useful. MSIF systems need to operate in real-time, must perform fusion using a variety of sensor types, and should be effective across a wide range of operating conditions or deployment environments. We address this problem through developing a new representation level which facilitates matching and information fusion. The Hierarchical Data Structure (HDS) representation, created using a multilayer, cooperative/competitive neural network, meets this need. The HDS is an intermediate representation between the raw or smoothed data stream and symbolic interpretation of the data. it represents the structural organization of the data. Fused HDSs will incorporate information from multiple sensors. Their knowledge-rich structure aids top-down scene interpretation via both model matching and knowledge-based region interpretation.

  15. Analysis of visual representation techniques for product configuration systems in industrial companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    2016-01-01

    with knowledge representations and communications with domain experts. The results presented in the paper are therefore aimed to provide insight into the impact from using visual knowledge representations techniques in PCSs projects. The findings indicate that use of visual knowledge representations techniques...... in PCSs projects will result in improved quality of maintenance and development support for the knowledge base and improved quality of the communication with domain experts....

  16. General knowledge structure for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinar Brendeford, T.

    1996-01-01

    At the OECD Halden Reactor Project work has been going on for several years in the field of automatic fault diagnosis for nuclear power plants. Continuing this work, studies are now carried out to combine different diagnostic systems within the same framework. The goal is to establish a general knowledge structure for diagnosis applied to a NPP process. Such a consistent and generic storage of knowledge will lighten the task of combining different diagnosis techniques. An integration like this is expected to increase the robustness and widen the scope of the diagnosis. Further, verification of system reliability and on-line explanations of hypotheses can be helped. Last but not least there is a potential in reuse of both specific and generic knowledge. The general knowledge framework is also a prerequisite for a successful integration of computerized operator support systems within the process supervision and control complex. Consistency, verification and reuse are keywords also in this respect. Systems that should be considered for integration are; automatic control, computerized operator procedures, alarm - and alarm filtering, signal validation, diagnosis and condition based maintenance. This paper presents three prototype diagnosis systems developed at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. A software arrangement for process simulation with these three systems attached in parallel is briefly described. The central part of this setup is a 'blackboard' system to be used for representing shared knowledge. Examples of such knowledge representations are included in the paper. The conclusions so far in this line of work are only tentative. The studies of existing methodologies for diagnosis, however, show a potential for several generalizations to be made in knowledge representation and use. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

  17. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social eventsunder the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structuralapproach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  18. Interpretive Viewers and Structured Programs: The Implicit Representation of Soap Opera Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates regular viewers' representations of soap opera characters to discover the nature of these representations, the extent to which they reflect the application of social knowledge, and the extent to which they reflect the structure of the program. (MS)

  19. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  20. What recent research on diagrams suggests about learning with rather than learning from visual representations in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Christine D.

    2016-03-01

    The move from learning science from representations to learning science with representations has many potential and undocumented complexities. This thematic analysis partially explores the trends of representational uses in science instruction, examining 80 research studies on diagram use in science. These studies, published during 2000-2014, were located through searches of journal databases and books. Open coding of the studies identified 13 themes, 6 of which were identified in at least 10% of the studies: eliciting mental models, classroom-based research, multimedia principles, teaching and learning strategies, representational competence, and student agency. A shift in emphasis on learning with rather than learning from representations was evident across the three 5-year intervals considered, mirroring a pedagogical shift from science instruction as transmission of information to constructivist approaches in which learners actively negotiate understanding and construct knowledge. The themes and topics in recent research highlight areas of active interest and reveal gaps that may prove fruitful for further research, including classroom-based studies, the role of prior knowledge, and the use of eye-tracking. The results of the research included in this thematic review of the 2000-2014 literature suggest that both interpreting and constructing representations can lead to better understanding of science concepts.

  1. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This article elucidates the important role the no- tion of symmetry has played in physics. It dis- cusses the proof of one of the important theorems of quantum mechanics, viz., Wigner's Symmetry. Representation Theorem. It also shows how the representations of various continuous and dis- crete symmetries follow from the ...

  2. Extensions of tempered representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, E.; Solleveld, M.

    2013-01-01

    Let π, π′ be irreducible tempered representations of an affine Hecke algebra H with positive parameters. We compute the higher extension groups Ext nH(π,π′) explicitly in terms of the representations of analytic R-groups corresponding to π and π′. The result has immediate applications to the

  3. Representation and Reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankersmit, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This essay focuses on the historical text as a whole. It does so by conceiving of the historical text as representation - in the way the we may say of a photo or a painting that it represents the person depicted on it. It is argued that representation cannot be properly understood by modelling it on

  4. Using Distributed Representations to Disambiguate Biomedical and Clinical Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Tulkens, Stéphan; Šuster, Simon; Daelemans, Walter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a knowledge-based method for Word Sense Disambiguation in the domains of biomedical and clinical text. We combine word representations created on large corpora with a small number of definitions from the UMLS to create concept representations, which we then compare to representations of the context of ambiguous terms. Using no relational information, we obtain comparable performance to previous approaches on the MSH-WSD dataset, which is a well-known dataset in the bi...

  5. Group and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2017-01-01

    This volume goes beyond the understanding of symmetries and exploits them in the study of the behavior of both classical and quantum physical systems. Thus it is important to study the symmetries described by continuous (Lie) groups of transformations. We then discuss how we get operators that form a Lie algebra. Of particular interest to physics is the representation of the elements of the algebra and the group in terms of matrices and, in particular, the irreducible representations. These representations can be identified with physical observables. This leads to the study of the classical Lie algebras, associated with unitary, unimodular, orthogonal and symplectic transformations. We also discuss some special algebras in some detail. The discussion proceeds along the lines of the Cartan-Weyl theory via the root vectors and root diagrams and, in particular, the Dynkin representation of the roots. Thus the representations are expressed in terms of weights, which are generated by the application of the elemen...

  6. The spatial representation of market information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeSarbo, WS; Degeratu, AM; Wedel, M; Saxton, MK

    2001-01-01

    To be used effectively, market knowledge and information must be structured and represented in ways that are parsimonious and conducive to efficient managerial decision making. This manuscript proposes a new latent structure spatial model for the representation of market information that meets this

  7. An introduction to quasigroups and their representations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jonathan D H

    2006-01-01

    Collecting results scattered throughout the literature into one source, An Introduction to Quasigroups and Their Representations shows how representation theories for groups are capable of extending to general quasigroups and illustrates the added depth and richness that result from this extension.To fully understand representation theory, the first three chapters provide a foundation in the theory of quasigroups and loops, covering special classes, the combinatorial multiplication group, universal stabilizers, and quasigroup analogues of abelian groups. Subsequent chapters deal with the three main branches of representation theory-permutation representations of quasigroups, combinatorial character theory, and quasigroup module theory. Each chapter includes exercises and examples to demonstrate how the theories discussed relate to practical applications. The book concludes with appendices that summarize some essential topics from category theory, universal algebra, and coalgebras.Long overshadowed by general ...

  8. ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi

    2013-06-01

    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.

  9. ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honda, Masazumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-06-15

    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.

  10. Representations of affine Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Nanhua

    1994-01-01

    Kazhdan and Lusztig classified the simple modules of an affine Hecke algebra Hq (q E C*) provided that q is not a root of 1 (Invent. Math. 1987). Ginzburg had some very interesting work on affine Hecke algebras. Combining these results simple Hq-modules can be classified provided that the order of q is not too small. These Lecture Notes of N. Xi show that the classification of simple Hq-modules is essentially different from general cases when q is a root of 1 of certain orders. In addition the based rings of affine Weyl groups are shown to be of interest in understanding irreducible representations of affine Hecke algebras. Basic knowledge of abstract algebra is enough to read one third of the book. Some knowledge of K-theory, algebraic group, and Kazhdan-Lusztig cell of Cexeter group is useful for the rest

  11. EL GRECO'S REPRESENTATION OF MYSTICAL ECSTASY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decorous gesture” is expressed by figures ..... the waters from St John, and the simultaneous epiphany of the Godhead”. (Tanner:1972:1). El Greco painted two versions of the Baptism scene. By including angels in his Baptism representations, ...

  12. Homogeneous operators and projective representations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper surveys the existing literature on homogeneous operators and their relationships with projective representations of P S L ( 2 , R ) and other Lie groups. It also includes a list of open problems in this area.

  13. Unpacking Exoplanet Detection Using Pedagogical Discipline Representations (PDRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Edward E.; Chambers, Timothy G.; Wallace, Colin Scott; Brissenden, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Successful educators know the importance of using multiple representations to teach the content of their disciplines. We have all seen the moments of epiphany that can be inspired when engaging with just the right representation of a difficult concept. The formal study of the cognitive impact of different representations on learners is now an active area of education research. The affordances of a particular representation are defined as the elements of disciplinary knowledge that students are able to access and reason about using that representation. Instructors with expert pedagogical content knowledge teach each topic using representations with complementary affordances, maximizing their students’ opportunity to develop fluency with all aspects of the topic. The work presented here examines how we have applied the theory of affordances to the development of pedagogical discipline representation (PDR) in an effort to provide access to, and help non-science-majors engage in expert-like reasoning about, general relativity as applied to detection of exoplanets. We define a pedagogical discipline representation (PDR) as a representation that has been uniquely tailored for the purpose of teaching a specific topic within a discipline. PDRs can be simplified versions of expert representations or can be highly contextualized with features that purposefully help unpack specific reasoning or concepts, and engage learners’ pre-existing mental models while promoting and enabling critical discourse. Examples of PDRs used for instruction and assessment will be provided along with preliminary results documenting the effectiveness of their use in the classroom.

  14. 40 CFR 97.113 - Certificate of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of representation. 97.113... Representative for CAIR NOX Sources § 97.113 Certificate of representation. (a) A complete certificate of representation for a CAIR designated representative or an alternate CAIR designated representative shall include...

  15. 40 CFR 97.213 - Certificate of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of representation. 97.213... Representative for CAIR SO2 Sources § 97.213 Certificate of representation. (a) A complete certificate of representation for a CAIR designated representative or an alternate CAIR designated representative shall include...

  16. Evaluation of an Intelligent Tutoring System in Pathology: Effects of External Representation on Performance Gains, Metacognition, and Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rebecca S.; Legowski, Elizabeth; Medvedeva, Olga; Tseytlin, Eugene; Roh, Ellen; Jukic, Drazen

    2007-01-01

    Objective Determine effects of computer-based tutoring on diagnostic performance gains, meta-cognition, and acceptance using two different problem representations. Describe impact of tutoring on spectrum of diagnostic skills required for task performance. Identify key features of student-tutor interaction contributing to learning gains. Design Prospective, between-subjects study, controlled for participant level of training. Resident physicians in two academic pathology programs spent four hours using one of two interfaces which differed mainly in external problem representation. The case-focused representation provided an open-learning environment in which students were free to explore evidence-hypothesis relationships within a case, but could not visualize the entire diagnostic space. The knowledge-focused representation provided an interactive representation of the entire diagnostic space, which more tightly constrained student actions. Measurements Metrics included results of pretest, post-test and retention-test for multiple choice and case diagnosis tests, ratios of performance to student reported certainty, results of participant survey, learning curves, and interaction behaviors during tutoring. Results Students had highly significant learning gains after one tutoring session. Learning was retained at one week. There were no differences between the two interfaces in learning gains on post-test or retention test. Only students in the knowledge-focused interface exhibited significant metacognitive gains from pretest to post-test and pretest to retention test. Students rated the knowledge-focused interface significantly higher than the case-focused interface. Conclusions Cognitive tutoring is associated with improved diagnostic performance in a complex medical domain. The effect is retained at one-week post-training. Knowledge-focused external problem representation shows an advantage over case-focused representation for metacognitive effects and user

  17. Information processing in illness representation: Implications from an associative-learning framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul

    2017-03-01

    The common-sense model (Leventhal, Meyer, & Nerenz, 1980) outlines how illness representations are important for understanding adjustment to health threats. However, psychological processes giving rise to these representations are little understood. To address this, an associative-learning framework was used to model low-level process mechanics of illness representation and coping-related decision making. Associative learning was modeled within a connectionist network simulation. Two types of information were paired: Illness identities (indigestion, heart attack, cancer) were paired with illness-belief profiles (cause, timeline, consequences, control/cure), and specific illness beliefs were paired with coping procedures (family doctor, emergency services, self-treatment). To emulate past experience, the network was trained with these pairings. As an analogue of a current illness event, the trained network was exposed to partial information (illness identity or select representation beliefs) and its response recorded. The network (a) produced the appropriate representation profile (beliefs) for a given illness identity, (b) prioritized expected coping procedures, and (c) highlighted circumstances in which activated representation profiles could include self-generated or counterfactual beliefs. Encoding and activation of illness beliefs can occur spontaneously and automatically; conventional questionnaire measurement may be insensitive to these automatic representations. Furthermore, illness representations may comprise a coherent set of nonindependent beliefs (a schema) rather than a collective of independent beliefs. Incoming information may generate a "tipping point," dramatically changing the active schema as a new illness-knowledge set is invoked. Finally, automatic activation of well-learned information can lead to the erroneous interpretation of illness events, with implications for [inappropriate] coping efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all

  18. Modular representation of layered neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Hiramatsu, Kaoru; Kashino, Kunio

    2018-01-01

    Layered neural networks have greatly improved the performance of various applications including image processing, speech recognition, natural language processing, and bioinformatics. However, it is still difficult to discover or interpret knowledge from the inference provided by a layered neural network, since its internal representation has many nonlinear and complex parameters embedded in hierarchical layers. Therefore, it becomes important to establish a new methodology by which layered neural networks can be understood. In this paper, we propose a new method for extracting a global and simplified structure from a layered neural network. Based on network analysis, the proposed method detects communities or clusters of units with similar connection patterns. We show its effectiveness by applying it to three use cases. (1) Network decomposition: it can decompose a trained neural network into multiple small independent networks thus dividing the problem and reducing the computation time. (2) Training assessment: the appropriateness of a trained result with a given hyperparameter or randomly chosen initial parameters can be evaluated by using a modularity index. And (3) data analysis: in practical data it reveals the community structure in the input, hidden, and output layers, which serves as a clue for discovering knowledge from a trained neural network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Representation and management of narrative information theoretical principles and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    Written from a multidisciplinary perspective, this book supplies an exhaustive description of NKRL and of the associated knowledge representation principles. It also constitutes an invaluable source of reference for practitioners, researchers and graduates.

  20. Representations sociales de la consommation de tramadol au Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain medications. Its smuggling, diversion and abuse have become a social problem in Niger. The objective of this study was to describe the social representations of tramadol evaluated through the knowledge and attitudes of communities ...

  1. Body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmus, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychological literature suggests that body representation is a multidimensional concept consisting of various types of representations. Previous studies have demonstrated dissociations between three types of body representation specified by the kind of data and processes, i.e. body schema, body structural description, and body semantics. The aim of the study was to describe the state of body representation in patients after vascular brain injuries and to provide evidence for the different types of body representation. The question about correlations between body representation deficits and neuropsychological dysfunctions was also investigated. Fifty patients after strokes and 50 control individuals participated in the study. They were examined with tasks referring to dynamic representation of body parts positions, topological body map, and lexical and semantic knowledge about the body. Data analysis showed that vascular brain injuries result in deficits of body representation, which may co-occur with cognitive dysfunctions, but the latter are a possible risk factor for body representation deficits rather than sufficient or imperative requisites for them. The study suggests that types of body representation may be separated on the basis not only of their content, but also of their relation with self. Principal component analysis revealed three factors, which explained over 66% of results variance. The factors, which may be interpreted as types or dimensions of mental model of a body, represent different degrees of connection with self. The results indicate another possibility of body representation types classification, which should be verified in future research.

  2. Distorted representation in visual tourism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations. On this backgro......Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations....... On this background, this paper develops the notion ‘distorted representation’ to illustrate that blurred and obscure photos can in fact be intelligible and sensible in understanding tourism. Through an exploration of the overwhelmed and unintended practices of visual fieldwork, distorted representation illustrates...... how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data...

  3. The semantic representation of prejudice and stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep

    2017-07-01

    We use a theory of semantic representation to study prejudice and stereotyping. Particularly, we consider large datasets of newspaper articles published in the United States, and apply latent semantic analysis (LSA), a prominent model of human semantic memory, to these datasets to learn representations for common male and female, White, African American, and Latino names. LSA performs a singular value decomposition on word distribution statistics in order to recover word vector representations, and we find that our recovered representations display the types of biases observed in human participants using tasks such as the implicit association test. Importantly, these biases are strongest for vector representations with moderate dimensionality, and weaken or disappear for representations with very high or very low dimensionality. Moderate dimensional LSA models are also the best at learning race, ethnicity, and gender-based categories, suggesting that social category knowledge, acquired through dimensionality reduction on word distribution statistics, can facilitate prejudiced and stereotyped associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of the Bonding Representations Inventory to Identify Student Misconceptions about Covalent and Ionic Bonding Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Teachers use multiple representations to communicate the concepts of bonding, including Lewis structures, formulas, space-filling models, and 3D manipulatives. As students learn to interpret these multiple representations, they may develop misconceptions that can create problems in further learning of chemistry. Interviews were conducted with 28…

  5. Representations and Relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koťátko, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), s. 282-302 ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : representation * proposition * truth-conditions * belief-ascriptions * reference * externalism * fiction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...

  7. Distinguishing Representations as Origin and Representations as Input: Roles for Individual Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C.W. Edwards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely perceived that there is a problem in giving a naturalistic account of mental representation that deals adequately with meaning, interpretation or significance (semantic content. It is suggested here that this problem may arise partly from the conflation of two vernacular senses of representation: representation-as-origin and representation-as-input. The flash of a neon sign may in one sense represent a popular drink, but to function as representation it must provide an input to a ‘consumer’ in the street. The arguments presented draw on two principles – the neuron doctrine and the need for a venue for ‘presentation’ or ‘reception’ of a representation at a specified site, consistent with the locality principle. It is also argued that domains of representation cannot be defined by signal traffic, since they can be expected to include ‘null’ elements based on non-firing cells. In this analysis, mental representations-as-origin are distributed patterns of cell firing. Each firing cell is given semantic value in its own right - some form of atomic propositional significance – since different axonal branches may contribute to integration with different populations of signals at different downstream sites. Representations-as-input are patterns of local co-arrival of signals in the form of synaptic potentials in dendrites. Meaning then draws on the relationships between active and null inputs, forming ‘scenarios’ comprising a molecular combination of ‘premises’ from which a new output with atomic propositional significance is generated. In both types of representation, meaning, interpretation or significance pivots on events in an individual cell. (This analysis only applies to ‘occurrent’ representations based on current neural activity. The concept of representations-as-input emphasises the need for a ‘consumer’ of a representation and the dependence of meaning on the co-relationships involved in an

  8. Distributed Representation of Subgraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Bijaya; Zhang, Yao; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Prakash, B. Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Network embeddings have become very popular in learning effective feature representations of networks. Motivated by the recent successes of embeddings in natural language processing, researchers have tried to find network embeddings in order to exploit machine learning algorithms for mining tasks like node classification and edge prediction. However, most of the work focuses on finding distributed representations of nodes, which are inherently ill-suited to tasks such as community detection w...

  9. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  10. DIFFERENCES IN ILLNESS REPRESENTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagels, Agneta A; Söderquist, Birgitta Klang; Heiwe, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    To explore the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on individual illness representations, including symptoms and causal attributions. Fifty-four patients responded to the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a further seven patients undertook cognitive interviews regarding the IPQ-R. All respondents had CKD stage 2-5, not undergoing renal replacement therapy. Those in earlier CKD stages and those with fewer symptoms perceived a significantly different understanding of their condition than those in more advanced disease stages or with more symptoms. Behavioural and psychological attributions were commonly referred to as contributing causes to CKD. These attributions were associated to negative illness representations. An uncertainty assessing symptoms attributed to CKD was indicated, especially in earlier disease stages. Illness representations differ with CKD stages and symptom burden. The patients in earlier disease stages or with fewer symptoms did not hold as strong beliefs about their illness as being a threat as those in advanced stages or with more symptoms. Self-blame emerged as a common causal attribution. Patients did not always relate symptoms to CKD, therefore this study identifies a gap in patients' disease knowledge, especially in earlier stages of the condition. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  11. Evaluating word representation features in biomedical named entity recognition tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Buzhou; Cao, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Xu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER), which extracts important entities such as genes and proteins, is a crucial step of natural language processing in the biomedical domain. Various machine learning-based approaches have been applied to BNER tasks and showed good performance. In this paper, we systematically investigated three different types of word representation (WR) features for BNER, including clustering-based representation, distributional representation, and word embeddings. We selected one algorithm from each of the three types of WR features and applied them to the JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE II BNER tasks. Our results showed that all the three WR algorithms were beneficial to machine learning-based BNER systems. Moreover, combining these different types of WR features further improved BNER performance, indicating that they are complementary to each other. By combining all the three types of WR features, the improvements in F-measure on the BioCreAtIvE II GM and JNLPBA corpora were 3.75% and 1.39%, respectively, when compared with the systems using baseline features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the effect of three different types of WR features for BNER tasks.

  12. BIM-Enabled Conceptual Modelling and Representation of Building Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kook Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a building information modelling (BIM-based approach for building circulation enables us to change the process of building design in terms of its computational representation and processes, focusing on the conceptual modelling and representation of circulation within buildings. BIM has been designed for use by several BIM authoring tools, in particular with the widely known interoperable industry foundation classes (IFCs, which follow an object-oriented data modelling methodology. Advances in BIM authoring tools, using space objects and their relations defined in an IFC's schema, have made it possible to model, visualize and analyse circulation within buildings prior to their construction. Agent-based circulation has long been an interdisciplinary topic of research across several areas, including design computing, computer science, architectural morphology, human behaviour and environmental psychology. Such conventional approaches to building circulation are centred on navigational knowledge about built environments, and represent specific circulation paths and regulations. This paper, however, places emphasis on the use of ‘space objects’ in BIM-enabled design processes rather than on circulation agents, the latter of which are not defined in the IFCs' schemas. By introducing and reviewing some associated research and projects, this paper also surveys how such a circulation representation is applicable to the analysis of building circulation-related rules.

  13. Representation of analysis results involving aleatory and epistemic uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Sallaberry, Cedric J.

    2008-08-01

    Procedures are described for the representation of results in analyses that involve both aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty, with aleatory uncertainty deriving from an inherent randomness in the behavior of the system under study and epistemic uncertainty deriving from a lack of knowledge about the appropriate values to use for quantities that are assumed to have fixed but poorly known values in the context of a specific study. Aleatory uncertainty is usually represented with probability and leads to cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) or complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for analysis results of interest. Several mathematical structures are available for the representation of epistemic uncertainty, including interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory and probability theory. In the presence of epistemic uncertainty, there is not a single CDF or CCDF for a given analysis result. Rather, there is a family of CDFs and a corresponding family of CCDFs that derive from epistemic uncertainty and have an uncertainty structure that derives from the particular uncertainty structure (i.e., interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory, probability theory) used to represent epistemic uncertainty. Graphical formats for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in families of CDFs and CCDFs are investigated and presented for the indicated characterizations of epistemic uncertainty.

  14. Fuzzy knowledge management for the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Zongmin; Yan, Li; Cheng, Jingwei

    2014-01-01

    This book goes to great depth concerning the fast growing topic of technologies and approaches of fuzzy logic in the Semantic Web. The topics of this book include fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontologies, queries of fuzzy description logics and fuzzy ontology knowledge bases, extraction of fuzzy description logics and ontologies from fuzzy data models, storage of fuzzy ontology knowledge bases in fuzzy databases, fuzzy Semantic Web ontology mapping, and fuzzy rules and their interchange in the Semantic Web. The book aims to provide a single record of current research in the fuzzy knowledge representation and reasoning for the Semantic Web. The objective of the book is to provide the state of the art information to researchers, practitioners and graduate students of the Web intelligence and at the same time serve the knowledge and data engineering professional faced with non-traditional applications that make the application of conventional approaches difficult or impossible.

  15. Relationships between magnitude representation, counting and memory in 4- to 7-year-old children: A developmental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szűcs Dénes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of an evolutionarily grounded analogue magnitude representation linked to the parietal lobes is frequently thought to be a major factor in the arithmetic development of humans. We investigated the relationship between counting and the development of magnitude representation in children, assessing also children's knowledge of number symbols, their arithmetic fact retrieval, their verbal skills, and their numerical and verbal short-term memory. Methods The magnitude representation was tested by a non-symbolic magnitude comparison task. We have perfected previous experimental designs measuring magnitude discrimination skills in 65 children kindergarten (4-7-year-olds by controlling for several variables which were not controlled for in previous similar research. We also used a large number of trials which allowed for running a full factorial ANOVA including all relevant factors. Tests of verbal counting, of short term memory, of number knowledge, of problem solving abilities and of verbal fluency were administered and correlated with performance in the magnitude comparison task. Results and discussion Verbal counting knowledge and performance on simple arithmetic tests did not correlate with non-symbolic magnitude comparison at any age. Older children performed successfully on the number comparison task, showing behavioural patterns consistent with an analogue magnitude representation. In contrast, 4-year-olds were unable to discriminate number independently of task-irrelevant perceptual variables. Sensitivity to irrelevant perceptual features of the magnitude discrimination task was also affected by age, and correlated with memory, suggesting that more general cognitive abilities may play a role in performance in magnitude comparison tasks. Conclusion We conclude that young children are not able to discriminate numerical magnitudes when co-varying physical magnitudes are methodically pitted against number. We

  16. Questions of Representations in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture.......Questions of Representations in Architecture is the first major Danish contribution to the current international discussion on architects' use of representations and the significance of visual media for architecture....

  17. Operator representations of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider representations of frames {fk}k∈I in a Hilbert space ℋ of the form {fk}k∈I = {Tkf0}k∈I for a linear operator T; here the index set I is either ℤ or ℒ0. While a representation of this form is available under weak conditions on the frame, the analysis...... of the properties of the operator T requires more work. For example it is a delicate issue to obtain a representation with a bounded operator, and the availability of such a representation not only depends on the frame considered as a set, but also on the chosen indexing. Using results from operator theory we show...... that by embedding the Hilbert space ℋ into a larger Hilbert space, we can always represent a frame via iterations of a bounded operator, composed with the orthogonal projection onto ℋ. The paper closes with a discussion of an open problem concerning representations of Gabor frames via iterations of a bounded...

  18. Why Are the Right and Left Hemisphere Conceptual Representations Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gainotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present survey develops a previous position paper, in which I suggested that the multimodal semantic impairment observed in advanced stages of semantic dementia is due to the joint disruption of pictorial and verbal representations, subtended by the right and left anterior temporal lobes, rather than to the loss of a unitary, amodal semantic system. The main goals of the present review are (a to survey a larger set of data, in order to confirm the differences in conceptual representations at the level of the right and left hemispheres, (b to examine if language-mediated information plays a greater role in left hemisphere semantic knowledge than sensory-motor information in right hemisphere conceptual knowledge, and (c to discuss the models that could explain both the differences in conceptual representations at the hemispheric level and the prevalence of the left hemisphere language-mediated semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually based conceptual representations.

  19. Domain knowledge patterns in pedagogical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    This paper shows a proposal of representation of knowledge patterns in RDF(S) language. Knowledge patterns are used for reuse of knowledge. They can be divided into two groups - Top-level knowledge patterns and Domain knowledge patterns. Pedagogical diagnostics is aimed at testing of knowledge of students at primary and secondary school. An example of domain knowledge pattern from pedagogical diagnostics is part of this paper.

  20. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  1. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  2. Introduction to computer data representation

    CERN Document Server

    Fenwick, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Computer Data Representation introduces readers to the representation of data within computers. Starting from basic principles of number representation in computers, the book covers the representation of both integer and floating point numbers, and characters or text. It comprehensively explains the main techniques of computer arithmetic and logical manipulation. The book also features chapters covering the less usual topics of basic checksums and 'universal' or variable length representations for integers, with additional coverage of Gray Codes, BCD codes and logarithmic repre

  3. Contractions of group representations. - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celeghini, E.; Tarlini, M.

    1981-01-01

    A new definition of contraction as a limit on the parameters defining the basis of the space of representations is given. From the representations of the original group, those of the contracted one are directly obtained. The contraction of inner automorphisms into outer automorphisms and the splitting of one representation into representations of the same or different group are discussed and illustrated by examples. The procedure is also a technique for the study of representations of non-semi-simple groups. (author)

  4. Interpreting the dimensions of neural feature representations revealed by dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Erin; Klein, Colin; Solomon, Samuel G; Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A

    2017-06-27

    Recent progress in understanding the structure of neural representations in the cerebral cortex has centred around the application of multivariate classification analyses to measurements of brain activity. These analyses have proved a sensitive test of whether given brain regions provide information about specific perceptual or cognitive processes. An exciting extension of this approach is to infer the structure of this information, thereby drawing conclusions about the underlying neural representational space. These approaches rely on exploratory data-driven dimensionality reduction to extract the natural dimensions of neural spaces, including natural visual object and scene representations, semantic and conceptual knowledge, and working memory. However, the efficacy of these exploratory methods is unknown, because they have only been applied to representations in brain areas for which we have little or no secondary knowledge. One of the best-understood areas of the cerebral cortex is area MT of primate visual cortex, which is known to be important in motion analysis. To assess the effectiveness of dimensionality reduction for recovering neural representational space we applied several dimensionality reduction methods to multielectrode measurements of spiking activity obtained from area MT of marmoset monkeys, made while systematically varying the motion direction and speed of moving stimuli. Despite robust tuning at individual electrodes, and high classifier performance, dimensionality reduction rarely revealed dimensions for direction and speed. We use this example to illustrate important limitations of these analyses, and suggest a framework for how to best apply such methods to data where the structure of the neural representation is unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-representational cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  6. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  7. Acquisition of a space representation by a naive agent from sensorimotor invariance and proprioceptive compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvan Le Clec’H

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a simple agent which learns an internal representation of space without a priori knowledge of its environment, body, or sensors. The learned environment is seen as an internal space representation. This representation is isomorphic to the group of transformations applied to the environment. The model solves certain theoretical and practical issues encountered in previous work in sensorimotor contingency theory. Considering the mathematical description of the internal representation, analysis of its properties and simulations, we prove that this internal representation is equivalent to knowledge of space.

  8. Reimagining Game Design: Exploring the Design of Constructible Authentic Representations for Science Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Nathan Ryan

    players developed useful knowledge resources, likely gained and/or refined from experiences in-game, that are employed to solve non-game problems and tasks. Furthermore, players utilized in-game representations as objects-to-think-with when explaining real world phenomena and formal concepts. The results suggest that games designed to include constructible authentic representations can provide players with powerful and useful knowledge resources accessible when thinking and reasoning in a variety of contexts.

  9. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  10. On the spinor representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff da Silva, J.M.; Rogerio, R.J.B. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Villalobos, C.H.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [Universidade Federal do ABC-UFABC, Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    A systematic study of the spinor representation by means of the fermionic physical space is accomplished and implemented. The spinor representation space is shown to be constrained by the Fierz-Pauli-Kofink identities among the spinor bilinear covariants. A robust geometric and topological structure can be manifested from the spinor space, wherein the first and second homotopy groups play prominent roles on the underlying physical properties, associated to fermionic fields. The mapping that changes spinor fields classes is then exemplified, in an Einstein-Dirac system that provides the spacetime generated by a fermion. (orig.)

  11. Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel between Teaching Chemical Engineering and Developing Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are expert systems development and teaching, the representation and processing of knowledge, knowledge representation in chemical engineering, and expert systems in chemical engineering. The seven phases of expert system development are illustrated. (CW)

  12. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentjes, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  13. SUBJECTIVITY: SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdete Rejane Ferro Zago

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The family, first family group of human beings, is the collective dimension of human existence and becomes responsible for the formation of the first social identity, as well as the constitution of subjectivity. Subjectivity is the inner world of each and every human being. This inner world is made up of emotions, feelings and thoughts. It is through this inner world that the individual relates to the social world, appointed by the outside world. This relationship follows the individual characteristics that mark the individual as unique, originated in shaping the individual, when they built the knowledge and beliefs. social representation as a form of knowledge, socially elaborated, shared with a practical purpose, contributing to the construction of a common reality to a social group. Is thus built up the social representation of the family.

  14. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    . At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  15. Hyperfinite representation of distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nonstandard treatment of the theory of distributions in terms of a hyperfinite representa- tion has been presented in papers [2,3] by Kinoshita. A further exploitation of this treatment in an N-dimensional context has been given by Grenier [1]. In the present paper we offer a different approach to the hyperfinite representation, ...

  16. Going beyond representational anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Going beyond representational anthropology: Re-presenting bodily, emotional and virtual practices in everyday life. Separated youngsters and families in Greenland Greenland is a huge island, with a total of four high-schools. Many youngsters (age 16-18) move far away from home in order to get...

  17. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  18. Representation of the Divine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loddegaard, Anne

    2012-01-01

    out of place in a novel belonging to the serious combat literature of the Catholic Revival, and the direct representation of the supernatural is also surprising because previous Catholic Revival novelists, such as Léon Bloy and Karl-Joris Huysmans, maintain a realistic, non-magical world and deal...

  19. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  20. Locating relevant patient information in electronic health record data using representations of clinical concepts and database structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians and clinical researchers often seek information in electronic health records (EHRs) that are relevant to some concept of interest, such as a disease or finding. The heterogeneous nature of EHRs can complicate retrieval, risking incomplete results. We frame this problem as the presence of two gaps: 1) a gap between clinical concepts and their representations in EHR data and 2) a gap between data representations and their locations within EHR data structures. We bridge these gaps with a knowledge structure that comprises relationships among clinical concepts (including concepts of interest and concepts that may be instantiated in EHR data) and relationships between clinical concepts and the database structures. We make use of available knowledge resources to develop a reproducible, scalable process for creating a knowledge base that can support automated query expansion from a clinical concept to all relevant EHR data.

  1. Language, knowledge, and mystical mediation: magic, clergy and intervention on the nature in the quotidian and representations in Medieval West - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.15881

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The Reading of documents of ecclesiastical source produced during Middle Ages provides the very clear percept of the presence of various categories of mediators between the natural world and mystical forces, in the daily routine of the western men. On the one hand, there were the wizards, expert supposedly endowed with special knowledge, who used as a resource various forms of exercise of divinatory arts and techniques of manipulation of elements of nature. During Middle Ages the ecclesiastic...

  2. A scalable architecture for incremental specification and maintenance of procedural and declarative clinical decision-support knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsek, Avner; Shahar, Yuval; Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Shalom, Erez; Klimov, Denis; Lunenfeld, Eitan

    2010-01-01

    Clinical guidelines have been shown to improve the quality of medical care and to reduce its costs. However, most guidelines exist in a free-text representation and, without automation, are not sufficiently accessible to clinicians at the point of care. A prerequisite for automated guideline application is a machine-comprehensible representation of the guidelines. In this study, we designed and implemented a scalable architecture to support medical experts and knowledge engineers in specifying and maintaining the procedural and declarative aspects of clinical guideline knowledge, resulting in a machine comprehensible representation. The new framework significantly extends our previous work on the Digital electronic Guidelines Library (DeGeL) The current study designed and implemented a graphical framework for specification of declarative and procedural clinical knowledge, Gesher. We performed three different experiments to evaluate the functionality and usability of the major aspects of the new framework: Specification of procedural clinical knowledge, specification of declarative clinical knowledge, and exploration of a given clinical guideline. The subjects included clinicians and knowledge engineers (overall, 27 participants). The evaluations indicated high levels of completeness and correctness of the guideline specification process by both the clinicians and the knowledge engineers, although the best results, in the case of declarative-knowledge specification, were achieved by teams including a clinician and a knowledge engineer. The usability scores were high as well, although the clinicians' assessment was significantly lower than the assessment of the knowledge engineers.

  3. A Scalable Architecture for Incremental Specification and Maintenance of Procedural and Declarative Clinical Decision-Support Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsek, Avner; Shahar, Yuval; Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Shalom, Erez; Klimov, Denis; Lunenfeld, Eitan

    2010-01-01

    Clinical guidelines have been shown to improve the quality of medical care and to reduce its costs. However, most guidelines exist in a free-text representation and, without automation, are not sufficiently accessible to clinicians at the point of care. A prerequisite for automated guideline application is a machine-comprehensible representation of the guidelines. In this study, we designed and implemented a scalable architecture to support medical experts and knowledge engineers in specifying and maintaining the procedural and declarative aspects of clinical guideline knowledge, resulting in a machine comprehensible representation. The new framework significantly extends our previous work on the Digital electronic Guidelines Library (DeGeL) The current study designed and implemented a graphical framework for specification of declarative and procedural clinical knowledge, Gesher. We performed three different experiments to evaluate the functionality and usability of the major aspects of the new framework: Specification of procedural clinical knowledge, specification of declarative clinical knowledge, and exploration of a given clinical guideline. The subjects included clinicians and knowledge engineers (overall, 27 participants). The evaluations indicated high levels of completeness and correctness of the guideline specification process by both the clinicians and the knowledge engineers, although the best results, in the case of declarative-knowledge specification, were achieved by teams including a clinician and a knowledge engineer. The usability scores were high as well, although the clinicians’ assessment was significantly lower than the assessment of the knowledge engineers. PMID:21611137

  4. Exploring the Structure of Spatial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tamas; Franklin, Stan; Chen, Ke; Trappl, Robert; Montaldi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the map-like representations that support human spatial memory are fragmented into sub-maps with local reference frames, rather than being unitary and global. However, the principles underlying the structure of these ‘cognitive maps’ are not well understood. We propose that the structure of the representations of navigation space arises from clustering within individual psychological spaces, i.e. from a process that groups together objects that are close in these spaces. Building on the ideas of representational geometry and similarity-based representations in cognitive science, we formulate methods for learning dissimilarity functions (metrics) characterizing participants’ psychological spaces. We show that these learned metrics, together with a probabilistic model of clustering based on the Bayesian cognition paradigm, allow prediction of participants’ cognitive map structures in advance. Apart from insights into spatial representation learning in human cognition, these methods could facilitate novel computational tools capable of using human-like spatial concepts. We also compare several features influencing spatial memory structure, including spatial distance, visual similarity and functional similarity, and report strong correlations between these dimensions and the grouping probability in participants’ spatial representations, providing further support for clustering in spatial memory. PMID:27347681

  5. Exploring the Structure of Spatial Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tamas; Franklin, Stan; Chen, Ke; Trappl, Robert; Montaldi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the map-like representations that support human spatial memory are fragmented into sub-maps with local reference frames, rather than being unitary and global. However, the principles underlying the structure of these 'cognitive maps' are not well understood. We propose that the structure of the representations of navigation space arises from clustering within individual psychological spaces, i.e. from a process that groups together objects that are close in these spaces. Building on the ideas of representational geometry and similarity-based representations in cognitive science, we formulate methods for learning dissimilarity functions (metrics) characterizing participants' psychological spaces. We show that these learned metrics, together with a probabilistic model of clustering based on the Bayesian cognition paradigm, allow prediction of participants' cognitive map structures in advance. Apart from insights into spatial representation learning in human cognition, these methods could facilitate novel computational tools capable of using human-like spatial concepts. We also compare several features influencing spatial memory structure, including spatial distance, visual similarity and functional similarity, and report strong correlations between these dimensions and the grouping probability in participants' spatial representations, providing further support for clustering in spatial memory.

  6. Exploring the Structure of Spatial Representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Madl

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the map-like representations that support human spatial memory are fragmented into sub-maps with local reference frames, rather than being unitary and global. However, the principles underlying the structure of these 'cognitive maps' are not well understood. We propose that the structure of the representations of navigation space arises from clustering within individual psychological spaces, i.e. from a process that groups together objects that are close in these spaces. Building on the ideas of representational geometry and similarity-based representations in cognitive science, we formulate methods for learning dissimilarity functions (metrics characterizing participants' psychological spaces. We show that these learned metrics, together with a probabilistic model of clustering based on the Bayesian cognition paradigm, allow prediction of participants' cognitive map structures in advance. Apart from insights into spatial representation learning in human cognition, these methods could facilitate novel computational tools capable of using human-like spatial concepts. We also compare several features influencing spatial memory structure, including spatial distance, visual similarity and functional similarity, and report strong correlations between these dimensions and the grouping probability in participants' spatial representations, providing further support for clustering in spatial memory.

  7. Shared knowledge or shared affordances? Insights from an ecological dynamics approach to team coordination in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro; Garganta, Júlio; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Aguiar, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has proposed that team coordination is based on shared knowledge of the performance context, responsible for linking teammates' mental representations for collective, internalized action solutions. However, this representational approach raises many questions including: how do individual schemata of team members become reformulated together? How much time does it take for this collective cognitive process to occur? How do different cues perceived by different individuals sustain a general shared mental representation? This representational approach is challenged by an ecological dynamics perspective of shared knowledge in team coordination. We argue that the traditional shared knowledge assumption is predicated on 'knowledge about' the environment, which can be used to share knowledge and influence intentions of others prior to competition. Rather, during competitive performance, the control of action by perceiving surrounding informational constraints is expressed in 'knowledge of' the environment. This crucial distinction emphasizes perception of shared affordances (for others and of others) as the main communication channel between team members during team coordination tasks. From this perspective, the emergence of coordinated behaviours in sports teams is based on the formation of interpersonal synergies between players resulting from collective actions predicated on shared affordances.

  8. Why Use Multiple Representations in the Mathematics Classroom? Views of English and German Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Anika; Kuntze, Sebastian; Lerman, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with multiple representations and their connections plays a key role for learners to build up conceptual knowledge in the mathematics classroom. Hence, professional knowledge and views of mathematics teachers regarding the use of multiple representations certainly merit attention. In particular, investigating such views of preservice…

  9. Realizations of the canonical representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  10. Language knowledge and event knowledge in language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Jon A; Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how semantic knowledge is used in language comprehension and in making judgments about events in the world. We contrast knowledge gleaned from prior language experience ("language knowledge") and knowledge coming from prior experience with the world ("world knowledge"). In two corpus analyses, we show that previous research linking verb aspect and event representations have confounded language and world knowledge. Then, using carefully chosen stimuli that remove this confound, we performed four experiments that manipulated the degree to which language knowledge or world knowledge should be salient and relevant to performing a task, finding in each case that participants use the type of knowledge most appropriate to the task. These results provide evidence for a highly context-sensitive and interactionist perspective on how semantic knowledge is represented and used during language processing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Functional representations for quantized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides information on Representing transformations in quantum theory bosonic quantum field theories: Schrodinger Picture; Represnting Transformations in Bosonic Quantum Field Theory; Two-Dimensional Conformal Transformations, Schrodinger picture representation, Fock space representation, Inequivalent Schrodinger picture representations; Discussion, Self-Dual and Other Models; Field Theory in de Sitter Space. Fermionic Quantum Field Theories: Schroedinger Picture; Schrodinger Picture Representation for Two-Dimensional; Conformal Transformations; Fock Space Dynamics in the Schrodinger Picture; Fock Space Evaluation of Anomalous Current and Conformal Commutators

  12. Naturalising Representational Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  13. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  14. Higher Representations Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We uncover novel solutions of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for scalarless gauge theories with matter transforming according to higher dimensional representations of the underlying gauge group. We argue that, if the duals exist, they are gauge theories with fermions transforming accord......-Dyson approximation. We use the solutions to gain useful insight on the conformal window of the associated electric theory. A consistent picture emerges corroborating previous results obtained via different analytic methods and in agreement with first principle lattice explorations....

  15. Compact Information Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    information representations, for solving very large-scale engineering problems in data stream computations, real-time network monitoring & anomaly...algorithms. Under the support of this AFOSR grant, a lot of excited research problems have been solved and many more arise. We will continue many...applied computer science, and applied math . Within the scope of this proposal, the focus is preliminarily on the fundamental, theoretical research

  16. Could representations influence strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Ruiz, Carlos; Kowalkowski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A central question in industrial marketing is whether the form in which the external environment of a firm is represented influences the marketing strategy. This influence has been studied generally through case study research, and quantitative evidence is limited. In response to this limitation, this paper reports on a quasi-experiment investigating whether market representations have a constructive aspect in business. Empirically, this study compares two types of ostensive and performative ...

  17. Non-Representational Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    Dette kapitel gennemgår den såkaldte ”Non-Representational Theory” (NRT), der primært er kendt fra den Angelsaksiske humangeografi, og som særligt er blevet fremført af den engelske geograf Nigel Thrift siden midten af 2000 årtiet. Da positionen ikke kan siges at være specielt homogen vil kapitlet...

  18. Representation Without Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, Shimon

    1994-01-01

    According to the paradigmatic reconstructionist approach to vision, a visual system must first reconstruct the world internally, then extract from the resulting representation whatever features are necessary for the task at hand. Recent developments in computational vision and visual neuroscience show that many of the features needed for tasks ranging from spatial discrimination to object recognition can be extracted from the image directly, much as in Gibson's hypothesis of direct perception...

  19. Metric representation of DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B

    2000-07-01

    A metric representation of DNA sequences is borrowed from symbolic dynamics. In view of this method, the pattern seen in the chaos game representation of DNA sequences is explained as the suppression of certain nucleotide strings in the DNA sequences. Frequencies of short nucleotide strings and suppression of the shortest ones in the DNA sequences can be determined by using the metric representation.

  20. Mental Representations of Weekdays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Ellis

    Full Text Available Keeping social appointments involves keeping track of what day it is. In practice, mismatches between apparent day and actual day are common. For example, a person might think the current day is Wednesday when in fact it is Thursday. Here we show that such mismatches are highly systematic, and can be traced to specific properties of their mental representations. In Study 1, mismatches between apparent day and actual day occurred more frequently on midweek days (Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday than on other days, and were mainly due to intrusions from immediately neighboring days. In Study 2, reaction times to report the current day were fastest on Monday and Friday, and slowest midweek. In Study 3, participants generated fewer semantic associations for "Tuesday", "Wednesday" and "Thursday" than for other weekday names. Similarly, Google searches found fewer occurrences of midweek days in webpages and books. Analysis of affective norms revealed that participants' associations were strongly negative for Monday, strongly positive for Friday, and graded over the intervening days. Midweek days are confusable because their mental representations are sparse and similar. Mondays and Fridays are less confusable because their mental representations are rich and distinctive, forming two extremes along a continuum of change.

  1. Wigner representation in scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remler, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The basic equations of quantum scattering are translated into the Wigner representation. This puts quantum mechanics in the form of a stochastic process in phase space. Instead of complex valued wavefunctions and transition matrices, one now works with real-valued probability distributions and source functions, objects more responsive to physical intuition. Aside from writing out certain necessary basic expressions, the main purpose is to develop and stress the interpretive picture associated with this representation and to derive results used in applications published elsewhere. The quasiclassical guise assumed by the formalism lends itself particularly to approximations of complex multiparticle scattering problems is laid. The foundation for a systematic application of statistical approximations to such problems. The form of the integral equation for scattering as well as its mulitple scattering expansion in this representation are derived. Since this formalism remains unchanged upon taking the classical limit, these results also constitute a general treatment of classical multiparticle collision theory. Quantum corrections to classical propogators are discussed briefly. The basic approximation used in the Monte Carlo method is derived in a fashion that allows for future refinement and includes bound state production. The close connection that must exist between inclusive production of a bound state and of its constituents is brought out in an especially graphic way by this formalism. In particular one can see how comparisons between such cross sections yield direct physical insight into relevant production mechanisms. A simple illustration of scattering by a bound two-body system is treated. Simple expressions for single- and double-scattering contributions to total and differential cross sections, as well as for all necessary shadow corrections thereto, are obtained and compared to previous results of Glauber and Goldberger

  2. Population Representation in the Military ServicesFY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Cleared for Public Release Distribution unlimited Population Representation in the Military Services—FY 2014 Aline O. Quester...include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 1 Population Representation in the Military...Services—FY 2014 To view the FY 2014 Population Representation in the Military Services Summary document and all related tables, please visit https

  3. Graphical representation of the process of solving problems in statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    It is presented a method of construction to a graphical representation technique of knowledge called Conceptual Chains. Especially, this tool has been focused to the representation of processes and applied to solving problems in physics, mathematics and engineering. The method is described in ten steps and is illustrated with its development in a particular topic of statics. Various possible didactic applications of this technique are showed.

  4. Medical Named Entity Recognition for Indonesian Language Using Word Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Arief

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, Named Entity Recognition (NER) system is used in medical texts to obtain important medical information, like diseases, symptoms, and drugs. While most NER systems are applied to formal medical texts, informal ones like those from social media (also called semi-formal texts) are starting to get recognition as a gold mine for medical information. We propose a theoretical Named Entity Recognition (NER) model for semi-formal medical texts in our medical knowledge management system by comparing two kinds of word representations: cluster-based word representation and distributed representation.

  5. Learning Semantic-Aligned Action Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bingbing; Li, Teng; Yang, Xiaokang

    2017-08-31

    A fundamental bottleneck for achieving highly discriminative action representation is that local motion/appearance features are usually not semantic aligned. Namely, a local feature, such as a motion vector or motion trajectory, does not possess any attribute that indicates which moving body part or operated object it is associated with. This mostly leads to global feature pooling/representation learning methods that are often too coarse. Inspired by the recent success of end-to-end (pixel-to-pixel) deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs), in this paper, we first propose a DCNN architecture, which maps a human centric image region onto human body part response maps. Based on these response maps, we propose a second DCNN, which achieves semantic-aligned feature representation learning. Prior knowledge that only a few parts are responsible for a certain action is also utilized by introducing a group (part) sparseness prior during feature learning. The learned semantic-aligned feature not only boosts the discriminative capability of action representation, but also possesses the good nature of robustness to pose variations and occlusions. Finally, an iterative mining method is employed for learning discriminative action primitive detectors. Extensive experiments on action recognition benchmarks demonstrate a superior recognition performance of the proposed framework.

  6. The role of physical digit representation and numerical magnitude representation in children's multiplication fact retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, Alice; Noël, Marie-Pascale; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-12-01

    Arithmetic facts, in particular multiplication tables, are thought to be stored in long-term memory and to be interference prone. At least two representations underpinning these arithmetic facts have been suggested: a physical representation of the digits and a numerical magnitude representation. We hypothesized that both representations are possible sources of interference that could explain individual differences in multiplication fact performance and/or in strategy use. We investigated the specificity of these interferences on arithmetic fact retrieval and explored the relation between interference and performance on the different arithmetic operations and on general mathematics achievement. Participants were 79 fourth-grade children (M age =9.6 years) who completed a products comparison and a multiplication production task with verbal strategy reports. Performances on a speeded calculation test including the four operations and on a general mathematics achievement test were also collected. Only the interference coming from physical representations was a significant predictor of the performance across multiplications. However, both the magnitude and physical representations were unique predictors of individual differences in multiplication. The frequency of the retrieval strategy across multiplication problems and across individuals was determined only by the physical representation, which therefore is suggested as being responsible for memory storage issues. Interestingly, this impact of physical representation was not observed when predicting performance on subtraction or on general mathematical achievement. In contrast, the impact of the numerical magnitude representation was more general in that it was observed across all arithmetic operations and in general mathematics achievement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 7th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianrui; Li, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings present technical papers selected from the 2012 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering (ISKE 2012), held on December 15-17 in Beijing. The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, and to present new findings and perspectives on future developments. The proceedings introduce current scientific and technical advances in the fields of artificial intelligence, machine learning, pattern recognition, data mining, knowledge engineering, information retrieval, information theory, knowledge-based systems, knowledge representation and reasoning, multi-agent systems, and natural-language processing, etc. Furthermore they include papers on new intelligent computing paradigms, which combine new computing methodologies, e.g., cloud computing, service computing and pervasive computing with traditional intelligent methods. By presenting new method...

  8. The representation of risk in routine medical experience: what actions for contemporary health policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Riva

    Full Text Available The comprehension of appropriate information about illnesses and treatments, can have beneficial effects on patients' satisfaction and on important health outcomes. However, it is questionable whether people are able to understand risk properly.To describe patients' representation of risk in common medical experiences by linking such a representation to the concept of trust. A further goal was to test whether the representation of risk in the medical domain is associated to the level of expertise. The third goal was to verify whether socio-demographic differences influence the representation of risk.Eighty voluntary participants from 6 health-centers in northern Italy were enrolled to conduct a semi-structured interview which included demographic questions, term-associations about risk representation, closed and open questions about attitudes and perception of risk in the medical context, as well as about medical expertise and trust.The results showed that people do not have in mind a scientific definition of risk in medicine. Risk is seen as a synonym for surgery and disease and it is often confused with fear. However, general knowledge of medical matters helps people to have a better health management through risk identification and risk information, adoption of careful behaviors and tendency to have a critical view about safety and medical news. Finally, trust proved to be an important variable in risk representation and risk and trust were correlated positively.People must receive appropriate information about the risks and benefits of treatment, in a form that they can understand and apply to their own circumstances. Moreover, contemporary health policy should empower patients to adopt an active self-care attitude. Methodologies to enhance people's decision-making outcomes based on better risk communication should be improved in order to enable low literacy population as well elderly people to better understand their treatment and

  9. Categorification and higher representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorified representation theory, or higher representation theory, aims to understand a new level of structure present in representation theory. Rather than studying actions of algebras on vector spaces where algebra elements act by linear endomorphisms of the vector space, higher representation theory describes the structure present when algebras act on categories, with algebra elements acting by functors. The new level of structure in higher representation theory arises by studying the natural transformations between functors. This enhanced perspective brings into play a powerful new set of tools that deepens our understanding of traditional representation theory. This volume exhibits some of the current trends in higher representation theory and the diverse te...

  10. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  11. Semantically-enabled Knowledge Discovery in the Deep Carbon Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X.; Erickson, J. S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) is a decadal effort aimed at transforming scientific and public understanding of carbon in the complex deep earth system from the perspectives of Deep Energy, Deep Life, Extreme Physics and Chemistry, and Reservoirs and Fluxes. Over the course of the decade DCO scientific activities will generate a massive volume of data across a variety of disciplines, presenting significant challenges in terms of data integration, management, analysis and visualization, and ultimately limiting the ability of scientists across disciplines to make insights and unlock new knowledge. The DCO Data Science Team (DCO-DS) is applying Semantic Web methodologies to construct a knowledge representation focused on the DCO Earth science disciplines, and use it together with other technologies (e.g. natural language processing and data mining) to create a more expressive representation of the distributed corpus of DCO artifacts including datasets, metadata, instruments, sensors, platforms, deployments, researchers, organizations, funding agencies, grants and various awards. The embodiment of this knowledge representation is the DCO Data Science Infrastructure, in which unique entities within the DCO domain and the relations between them are recognized and explicitly identified. The DCO-DS Infrastructure will serve as a platform for more efficient and reliable searching, discovery, access, and publication of information and knowledge for the DCO scientific community and beyond.

  12. Progress in visual representations of chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osolodkin, Dmitry I; Radchenko, Eugene V; Orlov, Alexey A; Voronkov, Andrey E; Palyulin, Vladimir A; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'chemical space' reveals itself in two forms: the discrete set of all possible molecules, and multi-dimensional descriptor space encompassing all the possible molecules. Approaches based on this concept are widely used for the analysis and enumeration of compound databases, library design, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) and landscape studies. Visual representations of chemical space differ in their applicability domains and features and require expert knowledge for choosing the right tool for a particular problem. In this review, the authors present recent advances in visualization of the chemical space in the framework of current general understanding of this topic. Attention is given to such methods as van Krevelen diagrams, descriptor plots, principal components analysis (PCA), self-organizing maps (SOM), generative topographic mapping (GTM), graph and network-based approaches. Notable application examples are provided. With the growth of computational power, representations of large datasets are becoming more and more common instruments in the toolboxes of chemoinformaticians. Every scientist in the field can find the method of choice for a particular task. However, there is no universal reference representation of the chemical space currently available and expert knowledge is required.

  13. Representations of centrally extended Lie superalgebra psl(2|2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Takuya, E-mail: t.matsumoto@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3854 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Molev, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.molev@sydney.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    The symmetries provided by representations of the centrally extended Lie superalgebra psl(2|2) are known to play an important role in the spin chain models originated in the planar anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence and one-dimensional Hubbard model. We give a complete description of finite-dimensional irreducible representations of this superalgebra thus extending the work of Beisert which deals with a generic family of representations. Our description includes a new class of modules with degenerate eigenvalues of the central elements. Moreover, we construct explicit bases in all irreducible representations by applying the techniques of Mickelsson–Zhelobenko algebras.

  14. Hand posture recognition via joint feature sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuqing; Sun, Ying; Li, Ruifeng; Chen, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we cast hand posture recognition as a sparse representation problem, and propose a novel approach called joint feature sparse representation classifier for efficient and accurate sparse representation based on multiple features. By integrating different features for sparse representation, including gray-level, texture, and shape feature, the proposed method can fuse benefits of each feature and hence is robust to partial occlusion and varying illumination. Additionally, a new database optimization method is introduced to improve computational speed. Experimental results, based on public and self-build databases, show that our method performs well compared to the state-of-the-art methods for hand posture recognition.

  15. Knowledge-based computer security advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunteman, W.J.; Squire, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The rapid expansion of computer security information and technology has included little support to help the security officer identify the safeguards needed to comply with a policy and to secure a computing system. This paper reports that Los Alamos is developing a knowledge-based computer security system to provide expert knowledge to the security officer. This system includes a model for expressing the complex requirements in computer security policy statements. The model is part of an expert system that allows a security officer to describe a computer system and then determine compliance with the policy. The model contains a generic representation that contains network relationships among the policy concepts to support inferencing based on information represented in the generic policy description

  16. Representations from the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sammut, Gordon; Tsirogianni, Stavroula; Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    a deconstructive effort that maps the evolutionary trajectory of a representational project in terms of its adaptation over time. We go on to illustrate our proposal visiting data that emerged in an inquiry investigating Maltese immigrants’ perspectives towards their countries of settlement and origin. This data...... explain how Maltese immigrants to Britain opt for certain forms of intercultural relations than others that are normally Integr preferable. We demonstrate that these preferences rely on an evolved justification of the Maltese getting by with foreign rulers that other scholars have traced back...

  17. An introduction to group representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Keown, R D M

    1975-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  18. Ensuring N-representability: Coleman's algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, A.; Runge, K.; Bartlett, R.

    2002-04-01

    The energy of a system which is described by a Hamiltonian which includes at most two-particle interactions can be expressed in terms of the second order reduced density matrix. However, for the 2-matrix to have proper symmetry is a weaker condition than requiring that the wavefunction be antisymmetric, which is called the N-representability problem, a problem of long term interest. Coleman [Reduced Density Matrices: Coulson's Challenge, Springer, New York, 2000] however, proposed an algorithm which ensures N-representability. In this Letter we examine the algorithm and show its connection to the full configuration interaction method and the contracted Schroedinger equation.

  19. Remarks on unitary representations of Poincare group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the elementary review of methods and notions using in the theory of unitary representations of Poincare group is included. The Poincare group is a basic group for relativistic quantum mechanics. Our aim is to introduce the reader into some problems of quantum physics, which are difficult approachable for beginners. (author)

  20. Intrinsic resonance representation of quantum mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carioli, M.; Heller, E.J.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    1997-01-01

    an optimal representation, based purely on classical mechanics. ''Hidden'' constants of the motion and good actions already known to the classical mechanics are thus incorporated into the basis, leaving the quantum effects to be isolated and included by small matrix diagonalizations. This simplifies...

  1. El conocimiento histórico del libro y la biblioteca novohispanos: representación de las fuentes originales The historic knowledge of new spain book and library: representation of original sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia García

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento del libro y las bibliotecas en la Nueva España es escaso, en comparación con el abundante recurso bibliográfico y documental del pasado colonial que se conserva en México. Las perspectivas historiográficas contemporáneas muestran la riqueza de información que puede obtenerse de las fuentes originales para interpretar un momento cultural en la historia. Sin embargo ese conocimiento también debería impactar en la valoración patrimonial del legado documental, para favorecer su adecuada salvaguarda, en especial si el trabajo se realiza relacionando toda la información obtenida con investigaciones precedentes para integrar una idea más completa de la realidad histórica analizada. Este trabajo esboza brevemente los enfoques utilizados en la historiografía del libro y la biblioteca en México, así como sus características y tendencias.The knowledge of book and libraries in New Spain is scarce in comparision with the bibliographical and documental sources preserved in Mexico of the colonial past. Contemporary historiographic perspectivesshow the information wealth that can be obtained of original sources for reconstructing one cultural moment in History. Nevertheless, this approach should also impact in hereditary appraisal of documental legacy for proper safeguards. Specially if the work relates all information with previous researches for integrating a complete idea of historical reality analyzed. This work is a short critical exercise about the approaches employed in the historiography of book and library in Mexico, as well as its characteristics and tendencies.

  2. Semantics vs. World Knowledge in Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkkanen, Liina; Oliveri, Bridget; Smart, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Humans have knowledge about the properties of their native language at various levels of representation; sound, structure, and meaning computation constitute the core components of any linguistic theory. Although the brain sciences have engaged with representational theories of sound and syntactic structure, the study of the neural bases of…

  3. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Kelle Batista Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating injuries caused by repetitive motion. For students, the ergonomic risk is related to the attitude in the dental office. Conclusion: Prevention of ergonomic risk for dental students has not been incorporated as a set of necessary measures for their health and the patients, to prevent ergonomic hazards that can result in harm to the patient caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorder, which is reflected in a lower quality practice.

  4. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  5. Deep learning of orthographic representations in baboons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hannagan

    Full Text Available What is the origin of our ability to learn orthographic knowledge? We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences. The present work shows the merits of deep learning networks that can simulate the whole processing chain all the way from the visual input to the response while allowing researchers to analyze the complex representations that emerge during the learning process.

  6. Materials Driven Architectural Design and Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    the material domain in which the construction eventually will happen. In many cases, it can seem that materials play the role of a selection of building blocks from which a determined architectural vision or representation are tried to be build. Research in materials, materials behaviour and new materials......This paper aims to outline a framework for a deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design. While materials and architecture in the process of realisation are tightly connected, architectural design and representation are often distanced from...... are often quite technical and oriented towards the field of engineering. Often cost, efficiency, optimisation and specific functional properties are the driving forces in material research. While this is extremely relevant in relation to new building strategies, material research can potentially also play...

  7. Whiteboard Confessionals: Investigating a New Model Using Student Representations in Teaching Astro 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy education researchers in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona have been investigating a new framework for getting students to engage in discussions about fundamental astronomy topics. This framework is intended to also provide students with explicit feedback on the correctness and coherency of their mental models on these topics. This framework builds upon our prior efforts to create productive Pedagogical Discipline Representations (PDR). Students are asked to work collaboratively to generate their own representations (drawings, graphs, data tables, etc.) that reflect important characteristics of astrophysical scenarios presented in class. We have found these representation tasks offer tremendous insight into the broad range of ideas and knowledge students possess after instruction that includes both traditional lecture and actively learning strategies. In particular, we find that some of our students are able to correctly answer challenging multiple-choice questions on topics, however, they struggle to accurately create representations of these same topics themselves. Our work illustrates that some of our students are not developing a robust level of discipline fluency with many core ideas in astronomy, even after engaging with active learning strategies.

  8. Teaching object concepts for XML-based representations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, R. L. (Robert L.)

    2002-01-01

    Students learned about object-oriented design concepts and knowledge representation through the use of a set of toy blocks. The blocks represented a limited and focused domain of knowledge and one that was physical and tangible. The blocks helped the students to better visualize, communicate, and understand the domain of knowledge as well as how to perform object decomposition. The blocks were further abstracted to an engineering design kit for water park design. This helped the students to work on techniques for abstraction and conceptualization. It also led the project from tangible exercises into software and programming exercises. Students employed XML to create object-based knowledge representations and Java to use the represented knowledge. The students developed and implemented software allowing a lay user to design and create their own water slide and then to take a simulated ride on their slide.

  9. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  10. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  11. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE REPRESENTATION COSTUME IN PICTORIAL ART- BAROQUE STYLE -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the social history of human civilization and art history, the human body was and still is a challenging field to explore in various representations, a material for various manners of cultural interventions. The way of artistically representing the body, the clothed body, has followed the path of various artistic movements that marked art history. In the act of interpersonal perception, the costume establishes itself as a particular field of non-verbal communication, one based on image. The present paper refers to the costume, as a particular vector of non-verbal communication in social space, as it was depicted and perceived in the painting of the 17th century and early 18th century, a time marked by the Baroque style. From this point of view, garment received the value of an intermediary in the communication between bodily space and the social one. In Baroque formal portrait, the garment completes by scale and the rendering technique of the texture and chromatic emphasizes the position of the pictorially represented person. Thus, the garment interferes with the gesture and mimics as forms of interpersonal knowledge. The transmitter – the clothed character represented through the eyes of the painter – is exposed to the perceptions of the others, providing a comprehensive matrix of information integrated in the social context. Pictorial representations are included in the matrix of the means by which the body is exposed by the costume in order to communicate with the social environment

  12. Effective theory of NN interactions in a separable representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krippa, B.; Bakker, B.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effective field theory of the NN system in a separable representation. The pionic part of the effective potential is included nonperturbatively and approximated by a separable potential. The use of a separable representation allows for the explicit solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger

  13. Representational Technologies and Learner Problem-Solving Strategies in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Brett; Sepulveda, Ana; Moreno, Yuritzel

    2016-01-01

    Learning within the sciences is often considered through a quantitative lens, but acquiring proficiency with the symbolic representations in chemistry is arguably more akin to language learning. Representational competencies are central to successful communication of chemical information including molecular composition, structure, and properties.…

  14. Social Representations of Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article stresses the relationship between Explicit and Implicit theories of Intelligence. Following the line of common sense epistemology and the theory of Social Representations, a study was carried out in order to analyze naive’s explanations about Intelligence Definitions. Based on Mugny & Carugati (1989 research, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and filled in by 286 subjects. Results are congruent with the main hyphotesis postulated: A general overlap between explicit and implicit theories showed up. According to the results Intelligence appears as both, a social attribute related to social adaptation and as a concept defined in relation with contextual variables similar to expert’s current discourses. Nevertheless, conceptions based on “gifted ideology” still are present stressing the main axes of Intelligence debate: biological and sociological determinism. In the same sense, unfamiliarity and social identity are reaffirmed as organizing principles of social representation. The distance with the object -measured as the belief in intelligence differences as a solve/non solve problem- and the level of implication with the topic -teachers/no teachers- appear as discriminating elements at the moment of supporting specific dimensions. 

  15. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  16. Sparse Representations of Hyperspectral Images

    KAUST Repository

    Swanson, Robin J.

    2015-11-23

    Hyperspectral image data has long been an important tool for many areas of sci- ence. The addition of spectral data yields significant improvements in areas such as object and image classification, chemical and mineral composition detection, and astronomy. Traditional capture methods for hyperspectral data often require each wavelength to be captured individually, or by sacrificing spatial resolution. Recently there have been significant improvements in snapshot hyperspectral captures using, in particular, compressed sensing methods. As we move to a compressed sensing image formation model the need for strong image priors to shape our reconstruction, as well as sparse basis become more important. Here we compare several several methods for representing hyperspectral images including learned three dimensional dictionaries, sparse convolutional coding, and decomposable nonlocal tensor dictionaries. Addi- tionally, we further explore their parameter space to identify which parameters provide the most faithful and sparse representations.

  17. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...

  18. Exploring Middle School Students' Representational Competence in Science: Development and Verification of a Framework for Learning with Visual Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Christine Diane

    Scientific knowledge is constructed and communicated through a range of forms in addition to verbal language. Maps, graphs, charts, diagrams, formulae, models, and drawings are just some of the ways in which science concepts can be represented. Representational competence---an aspect of visual literacy that focuses on the ability to interpret, transform, and produce visual representations---is a key component of science literacy and an essential part of science reading and writing. To date, however, most research has examined learning from representations rather than learning with representations. This dissertation consisted of three distinct projects that were related by a common focus on learning from visual representations as an important aspect of scientific literacy. The first project was the development of an exploratory framework that is proposed for use in investigations of students constructing and interpreting multimedia texts. The exploratory framework, which integrates cognition, metacognition, semiotics, and systemic functional linguistics, could eventually result in a model that might be used to guide classroom practice, leading to improved visual literacy, better comprehension of science concepts, and enhanced science literacy because it emphasizes distinct aspects of learning with representations that can be addressed though explicit instruction. The second project was a metasynthesis of the research that was previously conducted as part of the Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science project (Pacific CRYSTAL, http://www.educ.uvic.ca/pacificcrystal). Five overarching themes emerged from this case-to-case synthesis: the engaging and effective nature of multimedia genres, opportunities for differentiated instruction using multimodal strategies, opportunities for assessment, an emphasis on visual representations, and the robustness of some multimodal literacy strategies across content areas. The third project was a mixed

  19. Linear representation of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Montenegro

    2019-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the linear representation of a graph is defined. A linear representation of a graph is a subgroup of $GL(p,\\mathbb{R}$, the group of invertible matrices of order $ p $ and real coefficients. It will be demonstrated that every graph admits a linear representation. In this paper, simple and finite graphs will be used, framed in the graphs theory's area

  20. Effective representations of the space of linear bounded operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Brattka

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Representations of topological spaces by infinite sequences of symbols are used in computable analysis to describe computations in topological spaces with the help of Turing machines. From the computer science point of view such representations can be considered as data structures of topological spaces. Formally, a representation of a topological space is a surjective mapping from Cantor space onto the corresponding space. Typically, one is interested in admissible, i.e. topologically well-behaved representations which are continuous and characterized by a certain maximality condition. We discuss a number of representations of the space of linear bounded operators on a Banach space. Since the operator norm topology of the operator space is nonseparable in typical cases, the operator space cannot be represented admissibly with respect to this topology. However, other topologies, like the compact open topology and the Fell topology (on the operator graph give rise to a number of promising representations of operator spaces which can partially replace the operator norm topology. These representations reflect the information which is included in certain data structures for operators, such as programs or enumerations of graphs. We investigate the sublattice of these representations with respect to continuous and computable reducibility. Certain additional conditions, such as finite dimensionality, let some classes of representations collapse, and thus, change the corresponding graph. Altogether, a precise picture of possible data structures for operator spaces and their mutual relation can be drawn.

  1. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  2. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  3. Preschool Children's Participation in Representational and Non-Representational Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined representational and non-representational activities in which children in a Head Start classroom participated. This was an investigation from the perspective of cultural-historical activity theory of how components (e.g. artifacts and division of labour) of classroom activities vary across and within types of activities.…

  4. Patterns and predictors of atypical language representation in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Krijn Kristian; Ferrier, Cyrille Henri

    2013-04-01

    In the majority of the normal population, the left hemisphere is dominant for language. In epilepsy, a higher proportion of 'atypical' language representation is encountered. This can follow one of three patterns: (1) altered interhemispheric representation, where the spectrum of lateralisation is shifted to the right; (2) interhemispheric dissociation of linguistic subfunctions; or (3) intrahemispheric changes in representation. Knowledge of these patterns is essential for avoiding postoperative language deficits in epilepsy patients undergoing surgery. Several predictors of atypical language representation exist. It is more prevalent in left-handed individuals. Lesions in rough proximity to classical language areas are more associated with atypical language, although in some cases, remote lesions, such as in the hippocampus, can also lead to altered language representation. The more disruptive the lesion, the more likely atypical language is to be found. Widespread and frequent interictal epileptiform discharges are also associated with atypical language. Atypical language representation is more likely to be present when injury or epilepsy onset occurred at a young age. Thus, a subgroup of patients can be defined in whom atypical language representation is more likely to be found.

  5. Evidence for multiple, distinct representations of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoebel, John; Coslett, H Branch

    2005-04-01

    Previous data from single-case and small group studies have suggested distinctions among structural, conceptual, and online sensorimotor representations of the human body. We developed a battery of tasks to further examine the prevalence and anatomic substrates of these body representations. The battery was administered to 70 stroke patients. Fifty-one percent of the patients were impaired relative to controls on at least one body representation measure. Further, principal components analysis of the patient data as well as direct comparisons of patient and control performance suggested a triple dissociation between measures of the 3 putative body representations. Consistent with previous distinctions between the "what" and "how" pathways, lesions of the left temporal lobe were most consistently associated with impaired performance on tasks assessing knowledge of the shape or lexical-semantic information about the body, whereas lesions of the dorsolateral frontal and parietal regions resulted in impaired performance on tasks requiring on-line coding of body posture.

  6. Implement and Research on the Expression Methods of Knowledge for the Expert System of Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied on the expression methods of knowledge and using standard , according to the knowledge of rotary kiln’s characteristic, such as complexity and connection , it selected the commingling modal of the knowledge representation which composes production rule and object- oriented. It applied in rotary kiln expert system successfully. The method can be used in other complex knowledge representation system.

  7. NetWeaver for EMDS user guide (version 1.1): a knowledge base development system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes use of the NetWeaver knowledge base development system. Knowledge representation in NetWeaver is based on object-oriented fuzzy-logic networks that offer several significant advantages over the more traditional rulebased representation. Compared to rule-based knowledge bases, NetWeaver knowledge bases are easier to build, test, and maintain because...

  8. Sharing Representations Through Cognitive Niche Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Bardone

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available As a matter of fact, humans continuously delegate and distribute cognitive functions to the environment to lessen their limits. They build models, representations, and other various mediating structures that are thought to be good constructions. In doing this, humans are engaged in a process of cognitive niche construction. More precisely, we argue that a cognitive niche emerges from a network of continuous interplay between individuals and environment, in which people alter and modify the environment by mimetically externalizing fleeting thoughts, private ideas, etc., into external supports. This can turn out to be useful, especially for all those situations that require information transmission, shared knowledge, and more generally, cognitive resources.

  9. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  10. Neural representations of novel objects associated with olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Marta; Schulze, Patrick; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Object conceptual knowledge comprises information related to several motor and sensory modalities (e.g. for tools, how they look like, how to manipulate them). Whether and to which extent conceptual object knowledge is represented in the same sensory and motor systems recruited during object-specific learning experience is still a controversial question. A direct approach to assess the experience-dependence of conceptual object representations is based on training with novel objects. The present study extended previous research, which focused mainly on the role of manipulation experience for tool-like stimuli, by considering sensory experience only. Specifically, we examined the impact of experience in the non-dominant olfactory modality on the neural representation of novel objects. Sixteen healthy participants visually explored a set of novel objects during the training phase while for each object an odor (e.g., peppermint) was presented (olfactory-visual training). As control conditions, a second set of objects was only visually explored (visual-only training), and a third set was not part of the training. In a post-training fMRI session, participants performed an old/new task with pictures of objects associated with olfactory-visual and visual-only training (old) and no training objects (new). Although we did not find any evidence of activations in primary olfactory areas, the processing of olfactory-visual versus visual-only training objects elicited greater activation in the right anterior hippocampus, a region included in the extended olfactory network. This finding is discussed in terms of different functional roles of the hippocampus in olfactory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge...... within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of both approaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit and knowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for the knowledge management practices in a given organization....

  12. A Methodology for Multiple Rule System Integration and Resolution Within a Singular Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzmann, Frank N., III

    1988-01-01

    Expert Systems which support knowledge representation by qualitative modeling techniques experience problems, when called upon to support integrated views embodying description and explanation, especially when other factors such as multiple causality, competing rule model resolution, and multiple uses of knowledge representation are included. A series of prototypes are being developed to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the process of systems engineering, design and configuration, and diagnosis and fault management. A study involves not only a generic knowledge representation; it must also support multiple views at varying levels of description and interaction between physical elements, systems, and subsystems. Moreover, it will involve models of description and explanation for each level. This multiple model feature requires the development of control methods between rule systems and heuristics on a meta-level for each expert system involved in an integrated and larger class of expert system. The broadest possible category of interacting expert systems is described along with a general methodology for the knowledge representation and control of mutually exclusive rule systems.

  13. Explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model: an application to simultaneous investigation of word and person contributions to multidimensional lexical representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model and its application to reading data with multilevel item structure. The model includes multilevel random item parameters that allow consideration of variability in item parameters at both item and item group levels. Item-level random item parameters were included to model unexplained variance remaining when item related covariates were used to explain variation in item difficulties. Item group-level random item parameters were included to model dependency in item responses among items having the same item stem. Using the model, this study examined the dimensionality of a person's word knowledge, termed lexical representation, and how aspects of morphological knowledge contributed to lexical representations for different persons, items, and item groups.

  14. Meaningful Representations Prevent Catastrophic Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieger, J.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Calders, T.; Tuyls, K.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) attempt to mimic human neural networks in order to perform tasks. In order to do this, tasks need to be represented in ways that the network understands. In ANNs these representations are often arbitrary, whereas in humans it seems that these representations are

  15. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Richard Hong

    1998-01-01

    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  16. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  17. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship…

  18. Combinatorial representations of token sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new representations of token sequences, with and without associated quantities, in Euclidean space. The representations are free of assumptions about the nature of the sequences or the processes that generate them. Algorithms and applications from the domains of structured

  19. Aligning Mental Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a framework that implements asymmetric communication theory proposed by Sperber and Wilson [1]. The framework applies a generalization model known as the Bayesian model of generalization (BMG) [2] for aligning knowledge possessed by two communicating parties. The work focuses...

  20. A generalized wavelet extrema representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Lades, M.

    1995-10-01

    The wavelet extrema representation originated by Stephane Mallat is a unique framework for low-level and intermediate-level (feature) processing. In this paper, we present a new form of wavelet extrema representation generalizing Mallat`s original work. The generalized wavelet extrema representation is a feature-based multiscale representation. For a particular choice of wavelet, our scheme can be interpreted as representing a signal or image by its edges, and peaks and valleys at multiple scales. Such a representation is shown to be stable -- the original signal or image can be reconstructed with very good quality. It is further shown that a signal or image can be modeled as piecewise monotonic, with all turning points between monotonic segments given by the wavelet extrema. A new projection operator is introduced to enforce piecewise inonotonicity of a signal in its reconstruction. This leads to an enhancement to previously developed algorithms in preventing artifacts in reconstructed signal.

  1. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  2. Multiple representations in physics education

    CERN Document Server

    Duit, Reinders; Fischer, Hans E

    2017-01-01

    This volume is important because despite various external representations, such as analogies, metaphors, and visualizations being commonly used by physics teachers, educators and researchers, the notion of using the pedagogical functions of multiple representations to support teaching and learning is still a gap in physics education. The research presented in the three sections of the book is introduced by descriptions of various psychological theories that are applied in different ways for designing physics teaching and learning in classroom settings. The following chapters of the book illustrate teaching and learning with respect to applying specific physics multiple representations in different levels of the education system and in different physics topics using analogies and models, different modes, and in reasoning and representational competence. When multiple representations are used in physics for teaching, the expectation is that they should be successful. To ensure this is the case, the implementati...

  3. An XML Representation for Crew Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    NASA ensures safe operation of complex systems through the use of formally-documented procedures, which encode the operational knowledge of the system as derived from system experts. Crew members use procedure documentation on the ground for training purposes and on-board space shuttle and space station to guide their activities. Investigators at JSC are developing a new representation for procedures that is content-based (as opposed to display-based). Instead of specifying how a procedure should look on the printed page, the content-based representation will identify the components of a procedure and (more importantly) how the components are related (e.g., how the activities within a procedure are sequenced; what resources need to be available for each activity). This approach will allow different sets of rules to be created for displaying procedures on a computer screen, on a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA), verbally, or on a printed page, and will also allow intelligent reasoning processes to automatically interpret and use procedure definitions. During his NASA fellowship, Dr. Simpson examined how various industries represent procedures (also called business processes or workflows), in areas such as manufacturing, accounting, shipping, or customer service. A useful method for designing and evaluating workflow representation languages is by determining their ability to encode various workflow patterns, which depict abstract relationships between the components of a procedure removed from the context of a specific procedure or industry. Investigators have used this type of analysis to evaluate how well-suited existing workflow representation languages are for various industries based on the workflow patterns that commonly arise across industry-specific procedures. Based on this type of analysis, it is already clear that existing workflow representations capture discrete flow of control (i.e., when one activity should start and stop based on when other

  4. Parent and child asthma illness representations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonney, Jennifer T; Gerald, Lynn B; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize the current literature on parent and child asthma illness representations and their consequent impact on parent-child asthma shared management. This systematic review was conducted in concordance with the PRISMA statement. An electronic search of five computerized databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE) was conducted using the following key words: asthma, illness representation, and child. Due to the limited number of articles identified, the search was broadened to include illness perceptions as well. Studies were included if they were specific to asthma and included parent and/or child asthma illness representations or perception, were published after 2000, and available in English. Fifteen articles were selected for inclusion. All of the articles are descriptive studies that used cross-sectional designs. Seven of the studies used parent and child participants, eight used parents only, and none used only child participants. None of the selected studies describe child asthma illness representations, and only three describe parental asthma illness representations. Domains of illness representations, including symptoms, timeline, consequences, cause, and controllability were described in the remaining articles. Symptoms and controllability appear to have the most influence on parental asthma management practices. Parents prefer symptomatic or intermittent asthma management and frequently cite concerns regarding daily controller medication use. Parents also primarily rely on their own objective symptom observations rather than the child's report of symptoms. Asthma illness representations are an important area of future study to better understand parent-child shared asthma management.

  5. Expertise Reversal for Iconic Representations in Science Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Bruce D.; Plass, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive development on the effectiveness of iconic representations in science visualizations was examined. Middle and high school students (N = 186) were given narrated visualizations of two chemistry topics: Kinetic Molecular Theory (Day 1) and Ideal Gas Laws (Day 2). For half of the visualizations, iconic…

  6. Content Analysis of the Diagrammatic Representations of Primary Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Khine, Myint Swe

    2016-01-01

    Science education research emphasizes the irreplaceable value of textbooks in students' acquisition of scientific knowledge. Illustrations such as diagrams contained in science books are crucial modes of visual representations that facilitate learners' conceptual learning. Through classifying, coding, and analysing diagrams from twenty science…

  7. COALA-System for Visual Representation of Cryptography Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Zarko; Stanisavljevic, Jelena; Vuletic, Pavle; Jovanovic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Educational software systems have an increasingly significant presence in engineering sciences. They aim to improve students' attitudes and knowledge acquisition typically through visual representation and simulation of complex algorithms and mechanisms or hardware systems that are often not available to the educational institutions. This paper…

  8. In conclusion: Political representation ans legitimacy in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Hermann; Schmitt, Hermann; Thomassen, Jacques J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to expand knowledge of political representation in the EU and of the legitimacy of its political order. In this concluding chapter, a summary is given of what has been learned on these two subjects and what this says about the EU as a developing democratic political

  9. Body Representation in the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieber, Nicole; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Hayden, Angela; Kangas, Ashley; Collins, Rebecca; Bada, Henrietta

    2010-01-01

    Like faces, bodies are significant sources of social information. However, research suggests that infants do not develop body representation (i.e., knowledge about typical human bodies) until the second year of life, although they are sensitive to facial information much earlier. Yet, previous research only examined whether infants are sensitive…

  10. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  11. Multiscale wavelet representations for mammographic feature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Andrew F.; Song, Shuwu

    1992-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis through multiresolution representations. We show that efficient (nonredundant) representations may be identified from digital mammography and used to enhance specific mammographic features within a continuum of scale space. The multiresolution decomposition of wavelet transforms provides a natural hierarchy in which to embed an interactive paradigm for accomplishing scale space feature analysis. Choosing wavelets (or analyzing functions) that are simultaneously localized in both space and frequency, results in a powerful methodology for image analysis. Multiresolution and orientation selectivity, known biological mechanisms in primate vision, are ingrained in wavelet representations and inspire the techniques presented in this paper. Our approach includes local analysis of complete multiscale representations. Mammograms are reconstructed from wavelet coefficients, enhanced by linear, exponential and constant weight functions localized in scale space. By improving the visualization of breast pathology we can improve the changes of early detection of breast cancers (improve quality) while requiring less time to evaluate mammograms for most patients (lower costs).

  12. Action co-representation and social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marcello; Ferri, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    Humans are thought to be able to form shared representations, considered a keystone of social cognition. However, whether and to what extent such representations are social in nature is still open for debate. In the present study, we address the question of whether action co-representation can be modulated by social attitudes, such as judgments about one's own social status. Two groups of participants performed an Interactive Simon task after the experimental induction of a feeling of social inclusion or exclusion (ostracism) by means of a virtual ball tossing game. Results showed a compatibility effect in included, but not in excluded participants. This indicates that judgments about one's own social status modulate action co-representation. We suggest that this modulation may occur by way of a redirection of one's attentional focus away from others when one experiences social exclusion. This is a far-reaching issue given the increasing need for integration in modern society. Indeed, if integration fails, modern society fails also.

  13. Knowledge representation for integrated plant operation and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    extensions of the modeling language. Extending MFM with information of plant structure will make it possible to reason about consequences of component outages and their consequences for plant operation. The extensions provide also a significant general expansion of the expressivity of MFM....

  14. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-28

    been adequately studied in the past. One of these is the need for situation dependent interpretation of linguistic devices such as deixis and... deixis involves such references to things that have not been said, but are present in some way in the non-linguistic context of the conversation (e.g...far fron solved), whereas deixis of the kind that occurs in the display context is considerably less well understood. The resolution of both deictic

  15. Lost in Translation: Western Representations of Maori Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    We recently attended a conference at which a non-Maori presenter, drawing on a particular metaphor already established by Maori writers, related Maori natural world features to a research method. The presentation was useful because it highlighted several issues that call for our concern as Maori philosophers. In this article, we outline these…

  16. Can lexical knowledge modulate prelexical representations over time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McQueen, J.M.; Norris, D.; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Kingston, J.; Nearey, T.M.; Zondervan, R.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a study on perceptual learning are reported. Dutch subjects made lexical decisions on a list of words and nonwords. Embedded in the list were either [f]- or [s]-final words in which the final fricative had been replaced by an ambiguous sound, midway between [f] and [s]. One group of

  17. Speaking absence. Art museums, representation and knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tali, M.

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation I investigate multiple absences that are at work in art museums. My understanding of absence is informed by postcolonial theory, gender studies and memory studies. Museal absence involves material and immaterial sides that are based on excluded objects and certain unwanted social

  18. Research in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    of RUS 157 157 160 161 SECTION 9. THE PRAGMATICS OF NON-ANAPHORIC NOUN PHRASES 9.1 Introduction 163 9.2 Setting the Stage: Previous views on... ANAPHORA , ELLIPSIS, DISCOURSE,... MRL DATA BASE TRANSLATOR DBMS COMMAND GENERATOR DBMS COMMANDS FIG. 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE IRUS SYSTEM 146...understanding system (such as semantics, pragmatics , and a dialogue expert) can be used to improve the performance of the parser. The production of the

  19. Using Structured Knowledge Representation for Context-Sensitive Probabilistic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Morgan Kaufmann, 1988. [24] J. Pearl, Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference, Cambridge University Press, 2000. [25] J. Piaget , Piaget’s theory ...Gopnik, C. Glymour, D. M. Sobel, L. E. Schulz, T. Kushnir, D. Danks, A theory of causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets, Psychological

  20. Knowledge Representations Underlying Covert Metalinguistic Activity: A Working Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Covert metalinguistic activity has received little attention in the field of second language (L2) education, even though the few studies that have examined this type of attention to language note that it plays a role in L2 learning and use. However, little is known about this phenomenon. The study reported in this article focuses on the knowledge…

  1. Visually Motivated Knowledge Representation in Digital Libraries of Scientific Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsman, I. M.

    Verbal and visual communicative components of full-text scientific documents that are an information resource of digital libraries are considered. The basic attention is given visual components of documents and their base elementary units, named by visual signs which are offered to be used for indexing the visual in digital libraries, is similar to how words and set expression are used for indexing and search of verbal components of documents. In the paper, the cognitive framework of the indexing problem is considered. It is offered semiotic approach to its statement and principles of the decision for visual components. Potential opportunities of practical application of the offered approach in digital libraries are illustrated by example of geoimage indexing.

  2. Representation of Knowledge on Some Management Accounting Techniques in Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyagina, Alena; Valuckas, Danielius

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the coverage of management accounting techniques in several popular management accounting texts, assessing each technique's claimed position within practice, its benefits and limitations, and the information sources substantiating these claims. Employing the notion of research genres, the study reveals that textbooks in their…

  3. Multiple Representations of Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviera, Jessica; Weglarz, Meredith; Vesenka, James

    2009-10-01

    For many students the concept of buoyancy falls under a category that can be loosely described as ``knowing it when they see it.'' Unfortunately some of the misconceptions this generates are that ``objects float because they are light'' and ``objects float because they are full of air'' [1]. Those these can some times be true, these descriptions are vague at best, and frequently can be wrong. Part of these misconceptions may stem from incomplete immersion of the object in the fluid and the vector nature of forces. We describe a demonstration/lab activity to help students make sense about relationship between the tension on and weight of an object immersed in water. The activity is in rich in multiple representations, graphical, diagrammatical as well as mathematical. A simple four question multiple choice pre/post test survey has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the lab activity.[4pt] [1] Bruce Harlan ``Diving Science'', www.stmatthewsschool.com/deep/pdfs/Diving%20Science.pdf

  4. Electrophysiology of action representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadiga, Luciano; Craighero, Laila

    2004-01-01

    We continuously act on objects, on other individuals, and on ourselves, and actions represent the only way we have to manifest our own desires and goals. In the last two decades, electrophysiological experiments have demonstrated that actions are stored in the brain according to a goal-related organization. The authors review a series of experimental data showing that this "vocabulary of motor schemata" could also be used for non-strictly motor purposes. In the first section, they present data from monkey experiments describing the functional properties of inferior premotor cortex and, in more detail, the properties of visuomotor neurons responding to objects and others' actions observation (mirror neurons). In the second section, human data are reviewed, with particular regard to electrophysiological experiments aiming to investigate how action representations are stored and addressed. The specific facilitatory effect of motor imagery, action/object observation, and speech listening on motor excitability shown by these experiments provides strong evidence that the motor system is constantly involved whenever the idea of an action is evoked.

  5. Chemical thermodynamic representation of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemer, T.B.; Besmann, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The entire data base for the dependence of the nonstoichiometry, x, on temperature and chemical potential of oxygen (oxygen potential) was retrieved from the literature and represented. This data base was interpreted by least-squares analysis using equations derived from the classical thermodynamic theory for the solid solution of a solute in a solvent. For hyperstoichiometric oxide at oxygen potentials more positive than -266700 + 16.5T kJ/mol, the data were best represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 3 O 7 ] solution. For O/U ratios above 2 and oxygen potentials below this boundary, a [UO 2 ]-[U 2 O 4 . 5 ] solution represented the data. The data were represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 1 / 3 ] solution. The resulting equations represent the experimental ln(PO 2 ) - ln(x) behavior and can be used in thermodynamic calculations to predict phase boundary compositions consistent with the literature. Collectively, the present analysis permits a mathematical representation of the behavior of the total data base

  6. Islam and Media Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bensalah

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For the author of this article, the media’s treatment of Islam has raised numerous polymorphous questions and debates. Reactivated by the great scares of current events, the issue, though an ancient one, calls many things into question. By way of introduction, the author tries to analyse the complex processes of elaboration and perception of the representations that have prevailed during the past century. In referring to the semantic decoding of the abundant colonial literature and iconography, the author strives to translate the extreme xenophobic tensions and the identity crystallisations associated with the current media orchestration of Islam, both in theWest and the East. He then evokes the excesses of the media that are found at the origin of many amalgams wisely maintained between Islam, Islamism and Islamic terrorism, underscoring their duplicity and their willingness to put themselves, consciously, in service to deceivers and directors of awareness, who are very active at the heart of the politico-media sphere. After levelling a severe accusation against the harmful drifts of the media, especially in times of crisis and war, the author concludes by asserting that these tools of communication, once they are freed of their masks and invective apparatuses, can be re-appropriated by new words and bya true communication between peoples and cultures.

  7. Building scientific literacy/(ies): A cross-case analysis of how multimodal representations are used to make meaning during scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Christa L.

    This study used a Social Semiotic framework to describe the nature of multimodal textual representations created by fourth grade students in a small rural Texas school district south of Dallas in order to answer the question: What is the nature of the multimodal textual representations created by fourth grade students during the scientific inquiry process? Results of the cross case-analysis of the students' digitally recorded reflections, their multimodal representations, and my field notes and personal reflections as a teacher-researcher were indicative of five major themes. Representations created by the students: (a) were supported by scientific learning communities; (b) demonstrated varying abilities to collect both qualitative and quantitative observations; (c) utilized a variety of graphic organizers to communicate/represent scientific information; (d) were influenced by previous instruction and experience; and (e) showed development over time. These findings suggested the need for changes in the learning environment and pedagogy of science as teachers provide environments that support the development of learning communities; provide multiple opportunities for students to make both qualitative and quantitative observations during scientific inquiry; provide explicit instruction into the semiotic tools used by professional scientists to communicate/represent meaning; and allow students the opportunity to reflect, critique, and discuss their representations so that they can learn to be more competent and fluent representors of scientific knowledge. Recommendations for future research included: learning more about the way learning communities scaffold the learning process during scientific inquiry; understanding the best practices for helping students to learn how to make qualitative and quantitative observations of the world around them; describing the best practices for teaching students to be multimodal designers of scientific knowledge;examining the effect

  8. Comparing the effects of representational tools in collaborative and individual inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolloffel, Bas Jan; Eysink, Tessa H.S.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing a representation in which students express their domain understanding can help them improve their knowledge. Many different representational formats can be used to express one’s domain understanding (e.g., concept maps, textual summaries, mathematical equations). The format can direct

  9.   Representations at Work: A national Standard for Electronic Health Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2006-01-01

      Representations are at work in IT technology. As plans of and for work, they enable cooperation, coordination, accountability and control, which have to be balanced off against each other. The article describes a standard developed for electronic health records (EHR) and the results of a test...... conceptualizations of the relations between representation, work and knowledge production....

  10. Representation in Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-07

    notion of the schema finds its way into modern cognitive psychology from the writings of Bartlett (1932) and from Piaget (1952). Throughout most of its...Anderson. Cognitive algebra: Information integration applied to social attribution. December, 1972. 32. Jean H. Handler and Nancy L. Stein. Recall...knowledge in memory. January, 1976. 56. David E. Rumelhart. Toward an interactive model of reading. March, 1976. 57. Jean M. Handler, Nancy S

  11. Representation Methods in AI. Searching by Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel GARRIDO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical origin of the Artificial Intelligence (A I is usually established in the Darmouth Conference, of 1956. But we can find many more arcane origins [1]. Also, we can consider, in more recent times, very great thinkers, as Janos Neumann (then, John von Neumann, arrived in USA, Norbert Wiener, Alan Mathison Turing, or Lofti Zadehfor instance [6, 7]. Frequently A I requires Logic. But its classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it was necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, as fuzzy logic, modal logic, non-monotonic logic and so on [2]. Among the things that A I needs to represent are: categories, objects, properties, relations between objects, situations, states, time, events, causes and effects, knowledge about knowledge, and so on. The problems in A I can be classified in two general types [3, 4]: search problems and representation problems. In this last “mountain”, there exist different ways to reach their summit. So, we have [3]: logics, rules, frames, associative nets, scripts and so on, many times connectedamong them. We attempt, in this paper, a panoramic vision of the scope of application of such Representation Methods in A I. The two more disputable questions of both modern philosophy of mind and A I will be Turing Test and The Chinese Room Argument. To elucidate these very difficult questions, see both final Appendices.

  12. The transferable penis and the self representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, M H

    A group of female patients is described whose self representation includes significant male as well as female aspects, but who are not perverse or borderline. The unconscious fantasy of a transferable penis found in these patients is linked to specific etiologic factors including only intermittently available, unempathic early mothering and a prolonged incestuous post-oedipal father-daughter sexual relationship. Use is made of the concept of differing and conflicting aspects of the self-representation to elucidate the particular nature of these patients' bisexual fantasies, which allowed appropriate sexual gender and role to develop, and yet which, at times, also permitted drive gratification associated with the fantasy of being male and possessing a penis.

  13. Lexical knowledge without a lexicon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    Although for many years a sharp distinction has been made in language research between rules and words - with primary interest on rules - this distinction is now blurred in many theories. If anything, the focus of attention has shifted in recent years in favor of words. Results from many different areas of language research suggest that the lexicon is representationally rich, that it is the source of much productive behavior, and that lexically specific information plays a critical and early role in the interpretation of grammatical structure. But how much information can or should be placed in the lexicon? This is the question I address here. I review a set of studies whose results indicate that event knowledge plays a significant role in early stages of sentence processing and structural analysis. This poses a conundrum for traditional views of the lexicon. Either the lexicon must be expanded to include factors that do not plausibly seem to belong there; or else virtually all information about word meaning is removed, leaving the lexicon impoverished. I suggest a third alternative, which provides a way to account for lexical knowledge without a mental lexicon.

  14. Probabilistic graphical model representation in phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P

    2014-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis-Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  15. Assessment of representational competence in kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P.; Müller, A.; Kuhn, J.

    2017-06-01

    A two-tier instrument for representational competence in the field of kinematics (KiRC) is presented, designed for a standard (1st year) calculus-based introductory mechanics course. It comprises 11 multiple choice (MC) and 7 multiple true-false (MTF) questions involving multiple representational formats, such as graphs, pictures, and formal (mathematical) expressions (1st tier). Furthermore, students express their answer confidence for selected items, providing additional information (2nd tier). Measurement characteristics of KiRC were assessed in a validation sample (pre- and post-test, N =83 and N =46 , respectively), including usefulness for measuring learning gain. Validity is checked by interviews and by benchmarking KiRC against related measures. Values for item difficulty, discrimination, and consistency are in the desired ranges; in particular, a good reliability was obtained (KR 20 =0.86 ). Confidence intervals were computed and a replication study yielded values within the latter. For practical and research purposes, KiRC as a diagnostic tool goes beyond related extant instruments both for the representational formats (e.g., mathematical expressions) and for the scope of content covered (e.g., choice of coordinate systems). Together with the satisfactory psychometric properties it appears a versatile and reliable tool for assessing students' representational competency in kinematics (and of its potential change). Confidence judgments add further information to the diagnostic potential of the test, in particular for representational misconceptions. Moreover, we present an analytic result for the question—arising from guessing correction or educational considerations—of how the total effect size (Cohen's d ) varies upon combination of two test components with known individual effect sizes, and then discuss the results in the case of KiRC (MC and MTF combination). The introduced method of test combination analysis can be applied to any test comprising

  16. Bayesian learning of sparse multiscale image representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James Michael; Rockmore, Daniel N; Wang, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Multiscale representations of images have become a standard tool in image analysis. Such representations offer a number of advantages over fixed-scale methods, including the potential for improved performance in denoising, compression, and the ability to represent distinct but complementary information that exists at various scales. A variety of multiresolution transforms exist, including both orthogonal decompositions such as wavelets as well as nonorthogonal, overcomplete representations. Recently, techniques for finding adaptive, sparse representations have yielded state-of-the-art results when applied to traditional image processing problems. Attempts at developing multiscale versions of these so-called dictionary learning models have yielded modest but encouraging results. However, none of these techniques has sought to combine a rigorous statistical formulation of the multiscale dictionary learning problem and the ability to share atoms across scales. We present a model for multiscale dictionary learning that overcomes some of the drawbacks of previous approaches by first decomposing an input into a pyramid of distinct frequency bands using a recursive filtering scheme, after which we perform dictionary learning and sparse coding on the individual levels of the resulting pyramid. The associated image model allows us to use a single set of adapted dictionary atoms that is shared--and learned--across all scales in the model. The underlying statistical model of our proposed method is fully Bayesian and allows for efficient inference of parameters, including the level of additive noise for denoising applications. We apply the proposed model to several common image processing problems including non-Gaussian and nonstationary denoising of real-world color images.

  17. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Anja X; Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F; Cuddy, Lola L

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  18. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... making, which I call ‘sound knowledge’. Sound knowledge is an approach to knowledge that takes the reflexive considerations of actors in policymaking processes as well as in research about what knowledge is into account. Seeing knowledge as sound makes connections between different ideas, concepts...... and ideologies explicit. Furthermore, in relation to an anthropology of knowledge, sound knowledge also offers a reconsideration of the way anthropologists study knowledge, as it specifies that studying knowledge for anthropologists means studying what people consider as knowledge, in what circumstances...

  19. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  20. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered

  1. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  2. Knowledge Management: A Skeptic's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation discussing knowledge management is shown. The topics include: 1) What is Knowledge Management? 2) Why Manage Knowledge? The Presenting Problems; 3) What Gets Called Knowledge Management? 4) Attempts to Rethink Assumptions about Knowledgs; 5) What is Knowledge? 6) Knowledge Management and INstitutional Memory; 7) Knowledge Management and Culture; 8) To solve a social problem, it's easier to call for cultural rather than organizational change; 9) Will the Knowledge Management Effort Succeed? and 10) Backup: Metrics for Valuing Intellectural Capital i.e. Knowledge.

  3. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  4. Representability of Hom implies flatness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... A basic result of Grothendieck ([EGA], III 7.7.9) says that if F is flat over then hom ( E , F ) is representable for all E . We prove the converse of the above, in fact, we show that if is a relatively ample line bundle on over such that the functor hom ( L − n , F ) is representable for infinitely many positive integers , then F ...

  5. The Fifth Mode of Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Krogh; Behrendt, Poul Olaf

    2011-01-01

    “The fifth mode of representation: Ambiguous voices in unreliable third person narration”. Sammen med Poul Behrendt. In Per Krogh Hansen, Stefan Iversen, Henrik Skov Nielsen og Rolf Reitan (red.): Strange Voices. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York......“The fifth mode of representation: Ambiguous voices in unreliable third person narration”. Sammen med Poul Behrendt. In Per Krogh Hansen, Stefan Iversen, Henrik Skov Nielsen og Rolf Reitan (red.): Strange Voices. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York...

  6. Representation theory for strange attractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Daniel J; Gilmore, R

    2009-11-01

    Embeddings are diffeomorphisms between some unseen physical attractor and a reconstructed image. Different embeddings may or may not be equivalent under isotopy. We regard embeddings as representations of the attractor, review the labels required to distinguish inequivalent representations for an important class of dynamical systems, and discuss the systematic ways inequivalent embeddings become equivalent as the embedding dimension increases until there is finally only one "universal" embedding in a suitable dimension.

  7. Functional representations of integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2006-01-01

    We consider a general framework for integrable hierarchies in Lax form and derive certain universal equations from which 'functional representations' of particular hierarchies (such as KP, discrete KP, mKP, AKNS), i.e. formulations in terms of functional equations, are systematically and quite easily obtained. The formalism genuinely applies to hierarchies where the dependent variables live in a noncommutative (typically matrix) algebra. The obtained functional representations can be understood as 'noncommutative' analogues of 'Fay identities' for the KP hierarchy

  8. Information technology to support informal knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, R.M.; Ou, C.X.J.; Martinsons, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge management (KM) literature largely focuses on the explicit and formal representation of knowledge in computer-based KM systems. Informal KM practices are widespread, but less is known about them. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by exploring the use of interactive information

  9. POC caster: Broadcasting Agent Using Conversational Representation for Internet Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hidekazu; Yamashita, Kouji; Fukuhara, Tomohiro; Nishida, Toyoaki

    We propose a broadcating agent system called {\\it POC caster} that generates understandable conversational representation from heterogeneous text-based opinions. POC caster introduces an opinion of a community member by a conversational method in Public Opinion Channel(POC) that is an interactive broadcasting system supporting community knowledge creation. The way to generate conversational representation from an opinion is consist of two processes. The first process is an analysis of an intention of the opinion by referring the last word of a sentence. The second process is applying some rules about intentions and positions of the sentences to make an understandable conversation. The psychological experiments about understandability of generated conversations are described.

  10. Conhecimentos, percepções, comportamentos e representações de saúde e doença bucal dos adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre Knowledge, perceptions, behaviors and representations of oral health of teenagers of public schools of two neighborhoods of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Teixeira Leite Flores

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções, os comportamentos e as representações relacionados à saúde bucal de adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre, como também averiguar a possibilidade de participação destes como multiplicadores de saúde. Dois instrumentos de pesquisa foram utilizados: um questionário e a técnica dos grupos focais. Cinqüenta e três adolescentes constituíram uma amostra intencional. Para os adolescentes a doença cárie é representada pela dor de dente, e eles não consideram a cárie como doença, porque é comum, assim como a gengivite, que é percebida como um desequilíbrio. A negligência pessoal é considerada a principal causa da cárie e da gengivite, e a motivação para realizar a higiene bucal está vinculada à sociabilização. O dentista foi indicado como responsável pelo ensinamento do uso do fio dental e pelo reforço e aperfeiçoamento da técnica de escovação. Os adolescentes demonstram disposição em transferir os conhecimentos sobre saúde que receberam para seus colegas mais jovens.The objective of this research was to assess the knowledge, perceptions, behavior and representations related to oral health of teenager students of public schools in two neighborhoods of Porto Alegre to verify the possibility of the participation of these youths as multipliers in the health assistance program. Two research instruments were used: a questionnaire and focal groups. The teenagers who participated in this research were volunteers and constituted a selected and intentional sample. The results showed that to the teenagers the tooth pain represents the illness but decay is not seen as such because it is very common as well as gingivitis, which is unevenly recognized. The personal negligence is the main cause of decay and gingivitis and the motivation to perform hygiene habits is connected to socialization. They are aware of the importance of

  11. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...

  12. Phase space density representations in fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Phase space density representations of inviscid fluid dynamics were recently discussed by Abarbanel and Rouhi. Here it is shown that such representations may be simply derived and interpreted by means of the Liouville equation corresponding to the dynamical system of ordinary differential equations that describes fluid particle trajectories. The Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket for the phase space density then emerge as immediate consequences of the corresponding structure of the dynamics. For barotropic fluids, this approach leads by direct construction to the formulation presented by Abarbanel and Rouhi. Extensions of this formulation to inhomogeneous incompressible fluids and to fluids in which the state equation involves an additional transported scalar variable are constructed by augmenting the single-particle dynamics and phase space to include the relevant additional variable

  13. Representations of the infinite symmetric group

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Representation theory of big groups is an important and quickly developing part of modern mathematics, giving rise to a variety of important applications in probability and mathematical physics. This book provides the first concise and self-contained introduction to the theory on the simplest yet very nontrivial example of the infinite symmetric group, focusing on its deep connections to probability, mathematical physics, and algebraic combinatorics. Following a discussion of the classical Thoma's theorem which describes the characters of the infinite symmetric group, the authors describe explicit constructions of an important class of representations, including both the irreducible and generalized ones. Complete with detailed proofs, as well as numerous examples and exercises which help to summarize recent developments in the field, this book will enable graduates to enhance their understanding of the topic, while also aiding lecturers and researchers in related areas.

  14. Introduction to the representation theory of algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Barot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a general introduction to the theory of representations of algebras. It starts with examples of classification problems of matrices under linear transformations and explains the three common setups: representation of quivers, modules over algebras and additive functors over certain categories. The main part is devoted to (i) module categories, presenting the unicity of the decomposition into indecomposable modules, the Auslander–Reiten theory and the technique of knitting; (ii) the use of combinatorial tools such as dimension vectors and integral quadratic forms; and (iii) deeper theorems such as Gabriel‘s Theorem, the trichotomy and the Theorem of Kac – all accompanied by further examples. Each section includes exercises to facilitate understanding. By keeping the proofs as basic and comprehensible as possible and introducing the three languages at the beginning, this book is suitable for readers from the advanced undergraduate level onwards and enables them to consult related, specifi...

  15. Linguagem, saberes e mediação sobrenatural: magia, clerezia e intervenção sobre a natureza no cotidiano e nas representações do Ocidente Medieval = Language, knowledge, and mystical mediation: magic, clergy and intervention on the nature in the quotidian and representations in Medieval West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mendes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    their actions the knowledge and the achievements of the ‘true’ agents of sacred one, those who were organized in an ordo apart of the rest of society, ordoclericorum, enjoyed the privilege of access to the reading and writing of Latin. The concept of the clergy with which the Christian Church intended to qualify their members brought implicitly a cultural value which unified and distinguished them from the first ones. However, in the eyes of the people, the magical agents, as much as the clergies were endowed with specialized knowledge which granted to them the exercise of strange powers to the common mortals and made it possible for them controlling impersonal forces capable of altering the course of events. It is our intention to discuss the relationship between language, knowledge, and mystical Mediation in the current representations of magical agents and clergies in Middle Ages.

  16. Acquisition and understanding of process knowledge using problem solving methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Pérez, JM

    2010-01-01

    The development of knowledge-based systems is usually approached through the combined skills of knowledge engineers (KEs) and subject matter experts (SMEs). One of the most critical steps in this activity aims at transferring knowledge from SMEs to formal, machine-readable representations, which allow systems to reason with such knowledge. However, this is a costly and error prone task. Alleviating the knowledge acquisition bottleneck requires enabling SMEs with the means to produce the desired knowledge representations without the help of KEs. This is especially difficult in the case of compl

  17. Interactions Between Representation Ttheory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pitsch, Wolfgang; Zarzuela, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This book includes 33 expanded abstracts of selected talks given at the two workshops "Homological Bonds Between Commutative Algebra and Representation Theory" and "Brave New Algebra: Opening Perspectives," and the conference "Opening Perspectives in Algebra, Representations, and Topology," held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona between January and June 2015. These activities were part of the one-semester intensive research program "Interactions Between Representation Theory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra (IRTATCA)." Most of the abstracts present preliminary versions of not-yet published results and cover a large number of topics (including commutative and non commutative algebra, algebraic topology, singularity theory, triangulated categories, representation theory) overlapping with homological methods. This comprehensive book is a valuable resource for the community of researchers interested in homological algebra in a broad sense, and those curious to learn the latest dev...

  18. The role of sleep in forming a memory representation of a two-dimensional space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutanche, Marc N; Gianessi, Carol A; Chanales, Avi J H; Willison, Kate W; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2013-12-01

    There is ample evidence from human and animal models that sleep contributes to the consolidation of newly learned information. The precise role of sleep for integrating information into interconnected memory representations is less well understood. Building on prior findings that following sleep (as compared to wakefulness) people are better able to draw inferences across learned associations in a simple hierarchy, we ask how sleep helps consolidate relationships in a more complex representational space. We taught 60 subjects spatial relationships between pairs of buildings, which (unknown to participants) formed a two-dimensional grid. Critically, participants were only taught a subset of the many possible spatial relations, which allowed them to potentially infer the remainder. After a 12 h period that either did or did not include a normal period of sleep, participants returned to the lab. We examined the quality of each participant's map of the two-dimensional space, and their knowledge of relative distances between buildings. After 12 h with sleep, subjects could more accurately map the full space than subjects who experienced only wakefulness. The incorporation of untaught, but inferable, associations was particularly improved. We further found that participants' distance judgment performance related to self-reported navigational style, but only after sleep. These findings demonstrate that consolidation over a night of sleep begins to integrate relations into an interconnected complex representation, in a way that supports spatial relational inference. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Cognitive Advantages of Counting Specifically: A Representational Analysis of Verbal Numeration Systems in Oceanic Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Schlimm, Dirk; Beller, Sieghard

    2015-10-01

    The domain of numbers provides a paradigmatic case for investigating interactions of culture, language, and cognition: Numerical competencies are considered a core domain of knowledge, and yet the development of specifically human abilities presupposes cultural and linguistic input by way of counting sequences. These sequences constitute systems with distinct structural properties, the cross-linguistic variability of which has implications for number representation and processing. Such representational effects are scrutinized for two types of verbal numeration systems-general and object-specific ones-that were in parallel use in several Oceanic languages (English with its general system is included for comparison). The analysis indicates that the object-specific systems outperform the general systems with respect to counting and mental arithmetic, largely due to their regular and more compact representation. What these findings reveal on cognitive diversity, how the conjectures involved speak to more general issues in cognitive science, and how the approach taken here might help to bridge the gap between anthropology and other cognitive sciences is discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Scientific Theories and Naive Theories as Forms of Mental Representation: Psychologism Revived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William F.

    This paper analyzes recent work in psychology on the nature of the representation of complex forms of knowledge with the goal of understanding how theories are represented. The analysis suggests that, as a psychological form of representation, theories are mental structures that include theoretical entities (usually nonobservable), relationships among the theoretical entities, and relationships of the theoretical entities to the phenomena of some domain. A theory explains the phenomena in its domain by providing a conceptual framework for the phenomena that leads to a feeling of understanding in the reader/hearer. The explanatory conceptual framework goes beyond the original phenomena, integrates diverse aspects of the world, and shows how the original phenomena follow from the framework. This analysis is used to argue that mental models are the subclass of theories that use causal/mechanical explanatory frameworks. In addition, an argument is made for a new psychologism in the philosophy of science, in which the mental representation of scientific theories must be taken into account.