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Sample records for included items assessing

  1. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Bathrellou, Eirini; Zazpe, Itziar; Ezquer, Leyre; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2012-12-01

    Accuracy of measurement is a cornerstone of research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of consumption responses (the coding used to measure the frequency of consumption) included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, mean age 37 +/- 13 years, 34% males, and 150 from Spain, mean age 39 +/- 17 years, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/ no) responses, a diet index with 11 items and 6-scale responses, and 36-item and 76-item food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) with 6-scale responses. The participants completed these tools twice, with 15 days between the two administrations of the tools. The Spearman-Brown coefficient (r(sb)), Kendall's tau coefficients, and the Bland-Altman method were applied to answer the research hypothesis. The highest repeatability coefficient was observed for the diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/no) responses (r(sb) = 0.948, p tools (p > .23), whereas these three tools had significantly higher repeatability coefficients than the 76-item FFQ (p = .002). Subgroup analyses by sex, education, smoking, and clinical status confirmed these results. Repeatability was found for all food frequency assessment tools used, irrespective of the number of items or the number of responses included.

  2. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included

    OpenAIRE

    Bountziouka, V. (Vassiliki); Bathrellou, E. (Eirini); Zazpe, I. (Itziar); Ezquer, L. (Leyre); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Panagiotakos, D.B. (Demosthenes B.)

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accuracy of a measurement is a cornerstone in research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. Objective: To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of responses of consumption included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. Methods: During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, 37±13 yrs, 34% males and 150 participants from Spain, 39±17 yrs, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11-items a...

  3. 24 CFR 220.822 - Claim computation; items included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim computation; items included. 220.822 Section 220.822 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... computation; items included. (a) Assignment of loan. Upon an acceptable assignment of the note and security...

  4. Comparative energy storage assessment item

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, B.

    1984-11-01

    This analysis, a Space Station application study, rediscovered Integrated Power and Attitude Control (IPAC) and found the approach to have lower initial and resupply weight and lower initial and resupply cost than either battery/CMG or regenerative fuel cell/CMG systems. Preliminary trade studies were performed comparing (IPAC) with equivalent independent electrochemical power and control moment gyro (CMG) control approaches. Technologies considered to have adequate status for an initial Space Station were: (1) nickel cadmium batteries (NiCd batteries), (2) regenerative fuel cells (RFC), (3) Skylab class CMG's, and (4) state of the art IPAC using metal wheels and ball bearing suspension (SOA-IPAC). An advanced IPAC (ADV-IPAC) employing composite rotor material and magnetic suspension was included in the comparisons to illustrate a possible range of performance and cost of inertial systems. The candidates were compared on the basis of initial weight and cost and on the basis of resupply weight and cost for a 15 year mission. Thus, SOA-IPAC would appear to be an attractive approach for the initial Space Station and possible technology improvements would further the appeal for the initial and/or growth Space Station.

  5. Separation index and fit items of creative thinking skills assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Ulfa Tenri Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the evaluation results of the separation index and fit item of creative thinking skills assessment that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers in Aceh. This assessment consists of 37 items of divergent tasks, which is the application of human physiology courses that support the conation aspects. The participants were selected from the Biology Education Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Syiah Kuala University. The data were analyzed using the Quest software including the separation index and fit item. The results indicate that the creative thinking skills assessment instrument that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers has a good separation index and all the items fit PCM-1PL.

  6. Assessing the Item Response Theory with Covariate (IRT-C) Procedure for Ascertaining Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the item response theory with covariates (IRT-C) procedure for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) without preknowledge of anchor items (Tay, Newman, & Vermunt, 2011). This procedure begins with a fully constrained baseline model, and candidate items are tested for uniform and/or nonuniform DIF using the Wald statistic.…

  7. 42 CFR 413.217 - Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment system. 413.217 Section 413.217 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT....217 Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system. The following items and services are included in the ESRD prospective payment system effective January 1, 2011: (a) Renal dialysis...

  8. Assessing the factor structure of a role functioning item bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatchkova, Milena D; Ware, John E; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2011-06-01

    Role functioning (RF) is an important part of health-related quality of life, but is hard to measure due to the wide definition of roles and fluctuations in role participation. This study aims to explore the dimensionality of a newly developed item bank assessing the impact of health on RF. A battery of measures with skip patterns including the new RF bank was completed by 2,500 participants answering only questions on social roles relevant to them. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for the participants answering items from all conceptual domains (N = 1193). Conceptually based dimensionality and method effects reflecting positively and negatively worded items were explored in a series of models. A bi-factor model (CFI = .93, RMSEA = .08) with one general and four conceptual factors (social, family, occupation, generic) was retained. Positively worded items were excluded from the final solution due to misfit. While a single factor model with methods factors had a poor fit (CFI = .88, RMSEA = .13), high loadings on the general factor in the bi-factor model suggest that the RF bank is sufficiently unidimensional for IRT analysis. The bank demonstrated sufficient unidimensionality for IRT-based calibration of all the items on a common metric and development of a computerized adaptive test.

  9. Assessing difference between classical test theory and item ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing difference between classical test theory and item response theory methods in scoring primary four multiple choice objective test items. ... All research participants were ranked on the CTT number correct scores and the corresponding IRT item pattern scores from their performance on the PRISMADAT. Wilcoxon ...

  10. Evaluate the continuity of meeting items requirements when assessing buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Green architecture emerged as a way to address environmental problems related to buildings. Various methods have been developed to assess environmental performance, such as LEED in the United States, BREEAM in the United Kingdom, and GPRS in Egypt. The accuracy of these methods is highly important, especially considering the global trend toward requiring proof of environmental efficiency for construction permits. However, obtaining accurate results requires taking into account the variables that affect the environmental assessment. These variables include the impact of natural and human changes that occur periodically (the repetition of certain events according to day, month, and year, sequentially (changes over time, and suddenly (disasters and other unexpected events. These relationships are not addressed in current assessment methods. Since assessment has several targets, including developing a system to compare buildings according to a specific, unified scale, designers must compete to meet environmental standards based on a fair comparison; thus, the treatment of several variable effects must be obtained to reach those goals. This study, therefore, proposes an approach for considering the effects of variables when assessing item requirements. By measuring the continuity of meeting the item requirements across different time periods, this approach can achieve higher accuracy and justice in evaluation results than afforded by current methods.

  11. 21 CFR 1.233 - What optional items are included in the registration form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... extracts) and 11b (e.g., grain products, amino acids); (i) Type of storage, if the facility is primarily a... registration form? 1.233 Section 1.233 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Registration of Food Facilities § 1.233 What optional items are included in the registration form? FDA...

  12. Weighted Association Rule Mining for Item Groups with Different Properties and Risk Assessment for Networked Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungja; Ceong, Heetaek; Won, Yonggwan

    In market-basket analysis, weighted association rule (WAR) discovery can mine the rules that include more beneficial information by reflecting item importance for special products. In the point-of-sale database, each transaction is composed of items with similar properties, and item weights are pre-defined and fixed by a factor such as the profit. However, when items are divided into more than one group and the item importance must be measured independently for each group, traditional weighted association rule discovery cannot be used. To solve this problem, we propose a new weighted association rule mining methodology. The items should be first divided into subgroups according to their properties, and the item importance, i.e. item weight, is defined or calculated only with the items included in the subgroup. Then, transaction weight is measured by appropriately summing the item weights from each subgroup, and the weighted support is computed as the fraction of the transaction weights that contains the candidate items relative to the weight of all transactions. As an example, our proposed methodology is applied to assess the vulnerability to threats of computer systems that provide networked services. Our algorithm provides both quantitative risk-level values and qualitative risk rules for the security assessment of networked computer systems using WAR discovery. Also, it can be widely used for new applications with many data sets in which the data items are distinctly separated.

  13. Assessment of the Item Selection and Weighting in the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's Granulomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAHR, ALFRED D.; NEOGI, TUHINA; LAVALLEY, MICHAEL P.; DAVIS, JOHN C.; HOFFMAN, GARY S.; MCCUNE, W. JOSEPH; SPECKS, ULRICH; SPIERA, ROBERT F.; ST.CLAIR, E. WILLIAM; STONE, JOHN H.; MERKEL, PETER A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's Granulomatosis (BVAS/WG) with respect to its selection and weighting of items. Methods This study used the BVAS/WG data from the Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial. The scoring frequencies of the 34 predefined items and any “other” items added by clinicians were calculated. Using linear regression with generalized estimating equations in which the physician global assessment (PGA) of disease activity was the dependent variable, we computed weights for all predefined items. We also created variables for clinical manifestations frequently added as other items, and computed weights for these as well. We searched for the model that included the items and their generated weights yielding an activity score with the highest R2 to predict the PGA. Results We analyzed 2,044 BVAS/WG assessments from 180 patients; 734 assessments were scored during active disease. The highest R2 with the PGA was obtained by scoring WG activity based on the following items: the 25 predefined items rated on ≥5 visits, the 2 newly created fatigue and weight loss variables, the remaining minor other and major other items, and a variable that signified whether new or worse items were present at a specific visit. The weights assigned to the items ranged from 1 to 21. Compared with the original BVAS/WG, this modified score correlated significantly more strongly with the PGA. Conclusion This study suggests possibilities to enhance the item selection and weighting of the BVAS/WG. These changes may increase this instrument's ability to capture the continuum of disease activity in WG. PMID:18512722

  14. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II): a nonparametric item response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Juan V; Ayuso-Mateos, José L; Aguado, Jaume; Fernandez, Ana; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Roca, Miquel; Haro, Josep M

    2010-05-20

    Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF) in men and women. The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing) implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves) and their options (option characteristic curves) in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  15. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II: a nonparametric item response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Ana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  16. Assessing Differential Item Functioning on the Test of Relational Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dumas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The test of relational reasoning (TORR is designed to assess the ability to identify complex patterns within visuospatial stimuli. The TORR is designed for use in school and university settings, and therefore, its measurement invariance across diverse groups is critical. In this investigation, a large sample, representative of a major university on key demographic variables, was collected, and the resulting data were analyzed using a multi-group, multidimensional item-response theory model-comparison procedure. No significant differential item functioning was found on any of the TORR items across any of the demographic groups of interest. This finding is interpreted as evidence of the cultural fairness of the TORR, and potential test-development choices that may have contributed to that cultural fairness are discussed.

  17. Item Response Theory with Covariates (IRT-C) : Assessing item recovery and differential item functioning for the three-parameter logistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tay, L.; Huang, Q.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across

  18. Assessing the Validity of Single-item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Three Large Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) - a more psychometrically established measure. Methods Two large samples from Washington (N=13,064) and Oregon (N=2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and a representative German sample (N=1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Results Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62 – 0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78 – 0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001 – 0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS were very small (average absolute difference = 0.015 −0.042). Conclusions Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use. PMID:24890827

  19. Assessing the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures: results from three large samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    The present paper assessed the validity of single-item life satisfaction measures by comparing single-item measures to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)-a more psychometrically established measure. Two large samples from Washington (N = 13,064) and Oregon (N = 2,277) recruited by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and a representative German sample (N = 1,312) recruited by the Germany Socio-Economic Panel were included in the present analyses. Single-item life satisfaction measures and the SWLS were correlated with theoretically relevant variables, such as demographics, subjective health, domain satisfaction, and affect. The correlations between the two life satisfaction measures and these variables were examined to assess the construct validity of single-item life satisfaction measures. Consistent across three samples, single-item life satisfaction measures demonstrated substantial degree of criterion validity with the SWLS (zero-order r = 0.62-0.64; disattenuated r = 0.78-0.80). Patterns of statistical significance for correlations with theoretically relevant variables were the same across single-item measures and the SWLS. Single-item measures did not produce systematically different correlations compared to the SWLS (average difference = 0.001-0.005). The average absolute difference in the magnitudes of the correlations produced by single-item measures and the SWLS was very small (average absolute difference = 0.015-0.042). Single-item life satisfaction measures performed very similarly compared to the multiple-item SWLS. Social scientists would get virtually identical answer to substantive questions regardless of which measure they use.

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18–82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618

  2. Diagnostic Assessment With Ordered Multiple-Choice Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek C.; Alonzo, Alicia C.; Schwab, Cheryl; Wilson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe the development, analysis, and interpretation of a novel item format we call Ordered Multiple-Choice (OMC). A unique feature of OMC items is that they are linked to a model of student cognitive development for the construct being measured. Each of the possible answer choices in an OMC item is linked to developmental…

  3. Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), Spring 2000: Secondary Science, Released Items, Grade 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This assessment sample provides information on the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP) for grade 10 science. The sample consists of six items taken from the test booklet and scoring guides for the six items. The items assess ecosystems, mechanics, and data analysis. (MM)

  4. Method of data mining including determining multidimensional coordinates of each item using a predetermined scalar similarity value for each item pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Charles E.; Davidson, George S.; Johnson, David K.; Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Wylie, Brian N.

    1999-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related items in a multidimensional space. Distance between items in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the items. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the items.

  5. Development of Rasch-based item banks for the assessment of work performance in patients with musculoskeletal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Evelyn A; Bengel, Juergen; Wirtz, Markus A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a self-description assessment instrument to measure work performance in patients with musculoskeletal diseases. In terms of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), work performance is defined as the degree of meeting the work demands (activities) at the actual workplace (environment). To account for the fact that work performance depends on the work demands of the job, we strived to develop item banks that allow a flexible use of item subgroups depending on the specific work demands of the patients' jobs. Item development included the collection of work tasks from literature and content validation through expert surveys and patient interviews. The resulting 122 items were answered by 621 patients with musculoskeletal diseases. Exploratory factor analysis to ascertain dimensionality and Rasch analysis (partial credit model) for each of the resulting dimensions were performed. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in four dimensions, and subsequent Rasch analysis led to the following item banks: 'impaired productivity' (15 items), 'impaired cognitive performance' (18), 'impaired coping with stress' (13) and 'impaired physical performance' (low physical workload 20 items, high physical workload 10 items). The item banks exhibited person separation indices (reliability) between 0.89 and 0.96. The assessment of work performance adds the activities component to the more commonly employed participation component of the ICF-model. The four item banks can be adapted to specific jobs where necessary without losing comparability of person measures, as the item banks are based on Rasch analysis.

  6. 26 CFR 1.61-2 - Compensation for services, including fees, commissions, and similar items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including Christmas bonuses), termination or severance pay, rewards, jury fees, marriage fees and other...). For the special rules relating to the includibility in an employee's gross income of an amount equal...

  7. 23 CFR 636.204 - What items may be included in a phase-one solicitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...? 636.204 Section 636.204 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... relative weights, including: (1) Technical approach (but not detailed design or technical information); (2... price related factors, which are not permitted in phase-one); (c) Phase-two evaluation factors; and (d...

  8. Assessing Acquiescence in Binary Responses: IRT-Related Item-Factor-Analytic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Condon, Lorena

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes procedures for assessing acquiescence in a balanced set of binary personality items. These procedures are based on the bidimensional item-factor analysis model, which is an alternative parameterization of the bidimensional 2-parameter normal-ogive item response theory model. First the rationale and general approach are…

  9. The Use of Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model for Item Dimensionality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretvas, S. Natasha; Williams, Natasha J.

    2004-01-01

    To assess item dimensionality, the following two approaches are described and compared: hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) and multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model. Two generating models are used to simulate dichotomous responses to a 17-item test: the unidimensional and compensatory two-dimensional (C2D) models. For C2D…

  10. Shifting Gears: Consequences of Including Two Negatively Worded Items in the Middle of a Positively Worded Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Michael J.; Soven, Margot

    2010-01-01

    A questionnaire used in student evaluations of interdisciplinary courses during six semesters contained two Likert items stated in a direct negative mode which were embedded in a questionnaire (14-18 items) in which the remaining items were phrased in a direct positive mode. In the seventh semester and thereafter, the two negative items were…

  11. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  12. The DIF-Free-Then-DIF Strategy for the Assessment of Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Sun, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The DIF-free-then-DIF (DFTD) strategy consists of two steps: (a) select a set of items that are the most likely to be DIF-free and (b) assess the other items for DIF (differential item functioning) using the designated items as anchors. The rank-based method together with the computer software IRTLRDIF can select a set of DIF-free polytomous items…

  13. Reading Grade Levels and Mathematics Assessment: An Analysis of Texas Mathematics Assessment Items and Their Reading Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Increased reading difficulty of mathematics assessment items has been shown to negatively affect student performance. The advent of high-stakes testing, which has serious ramifications for students' futures and teachers' careers, necessitates analysis of reading difficulty on state assessment items and student performance on those items. Using…

  14. Comparison of classical test theory and item response theory in individual change assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabrayilov, R.; Emons, W.H.M.; Sijtsma, K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical psychologists are advised to assess clinical and statistical significance when assessing change in individual patients. Individual change assessment can be conducted using either the methodologies of classical test theory (CTT) or item response theory (IRT). Researchers have been optimistic

  15. Comparison of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory in Individual Change Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabrayilov, Ruslan; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Clinical psychologists are advised to assess clinical and statistical significance when assessing change in individual patients. Individual change assessment can be conducted using either the methodologies of classical test theory (CTT) or item response theory (IRT). Researchers have been optimistic

  16. Communicating Quantitative Literacy: An Examination of Open-Ended Assessment Items in TIMSS, NALS, IALS, and PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl W. Kosko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Literacy (QL has been described as the skill set an individual uses when interacting with the world in a quantitative manner. A necessary component of this interaction is communication. To this end, assessments of QL have included open-ended items as a means of including communicative aspects of QL. The present study sought to examine whether such open-ended items typically measured aspects of quantitative communication, as compared to mathematical communication, or mathematical skills. We focused on public-released items and rubrics from four of the most widely referenced assessments: the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS-95: the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS; now the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, NAAL in 1985 and 1992, the International Adult Literacy Skills (IALS beginning in 1994; and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA beginning in 2000. We found that open-ended item rubrics in these QL assessments showed a strong tendency to assess answer-only responses. Therefore, while some open-ended items may have required certain levels of quantitative reasoning to find a solution, it is the solution rather than the reasoning that was often assessed.

  17. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim

    2018-01-01

    body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. METHODS: A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts...... resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify......' paediatric basic life support and foreign body airway obstruction management skills was established. The assessment of these skills may help to determine when laypersons have acquired competencies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not relevant....

  18. An instrument to assess quality of life in relation to nutrition: item generation, item reduction and initial validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl Elie A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is arguable that modification of diet, given its potential for positive health outcomes, should be widely advocated and adopted. However, food intake, as a basic human need, and its modification may be accompanied by sensations of both pleasure and despondency and may consequently affect to quality of life (QoL. Thus, the feasibility and success of dietary changes will depend, at least partly, on whether potential negative influences on QoL can be avoided. This is of particular importance in the context of dietary intervention studies and in the development of new food products to improve health and well being. Instruments to measure the impact of nutrition on quality of life in the general population, however, are few and far between. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop an instrument for measuring QoL related to nutrition in the general population. Methods and results We recruited participants from the general population and followed standard methodology for quality of life instrument development (identification of population, item selection, n = 24; item reduction, n = 81; item presentation, n = 12; pretesting of questionnaire and initial validation, n = 2576; construct validation n = 128; and test-retest reliability n = 20. Of 187 initial items, 29 were selected for final presentation. Factor analysis revealed an instrument with 5 domains. The instrument demonstrated good cross-sectional divergent and convergent construct validity when correlated with scores of the 8 domains of the SF-36 (ranging from -0.078 to 0.562, 19 out of 40 tested correlations were statistically significant and 24 correlations were predicted correctly and good test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients from 0.71 for symptoms to 0.90. Conclusions We developed and validated an instrument with 29 items across 5 domains to assess quality of life related to nutrition and other aspects of food intake. The instrument

  19. An instrument to assess quality of life in relation to nutrition: item generation, item reduction and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schünemann, Holger J; Sperati, Francesca; Barba, Maddalena; Santesso, Nancy; Melegari, Camilla; Akl, Elie A; Guyatt, Gordon; Muti, Paola

    2010-03-11

    It is arguable that modification of diet, given its potential for positive health outcomes, should be widely advocated and adopted. However, food intake, as a basic human need, and its modification may be accompanied by sensations of both pleasure and despondency and may consequently affect to quality of life (QoL). Thus, the feasibility and success of dietary changes will depend, at least partly, on whether potential negative influences on QoL can be avoided. This is of particular importance in the context of dietary intervention studies and in the development of new food products to improve health and well being. Instruments to measure the impact of nutrition on quality of life in the general population, however, are few and far between. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop an instrument for measuring QoL related to nutrition in the general population. We recruited participants from the general population and followed standard methodology for quality of life instrument development (identification of population, item selection, n = 24; item reduction, n = 81; item presentation, n = 12; pretesting of questionnaire and initial validation, n = 2576; construct validation n = 128; and test-retest reliability n = 20). Of 187 initial items, 29 were selected for final presentation. Factor analysis revealed an instrument with 5 domains. The instrument demonstrated good cross-sectional divergent and convergent construct validity when correlated with scores of the 8 domains of the SF-36 (ranging from -0.078 to 0.562, 19 out of 40 tested correlations were statistically significant and 24 correlations were predicted correctly) and good test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients from 0.71 for symptoms to 0.90). We developed and validated an instrument with 29 items across 5 domains to assess quality of life related to nutrition and other aspects of food intake. The instrument demonstrated good face and construct validity as well as good

  20. International Assessment: A Rasch Model and Teachers' Evaluation of TIMSS Science Achievement Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a comparative assessment of the achievement of students in many countries. In the present study, a rigorous independent evaluation was conducted of a representative sample of TIMSS science test items because item quality influences the validity of the scores used to inform…

  1. Applying Unidimensional and Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models in Testlet-Based Reading Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shangchao; He, Lianzhen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative effectiveness of the multidimensional bi-factor model and multidimensional testlet response theory (TRT) model in accommodating local dependence in testlet-based reading assessment with both dichotomously and polytomously scored items. The data used were 14,089 test-takers' item-level responses to the testlet-based…

  2. Assessment of Preference for Edible and Leisure Items in Individuals with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Javier Virues; Iwata, Brian A.; Nogales-Gonzalez, Celia; Frades, Belen

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies on reinforcer preference in patients with dementia. Results of preference assessments yielded differential selections by 14 participants. Unlike prior studies with individuals with intellectual disabilities, all participants showed a noticeable preference for leisure items over edible items. Results of a subsequent analysis…

  3. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning in the Experiences of Discrimination Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Jacobs, David R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of instruments used to measure self-reported experiences of discrimination in epidemiologic studies are rarely assessed, especially regarding construct validity. The authors used 2000–2001 data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study to examine differential item functioning (DIF) in 2 versions of the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) Index, an index measuring self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic and gender discrimination. DIF may confound interpretation of subgroup differences. Large DIF was observed for 2 of 7 racial/ethnic discrimination items: White participants reported more racial/ethnic discrimination for the “at school” item, and black participants reported more racial/ethnic discrimination for the “getting housing” item. The large DIF by race/ethnicity in the index for racial/ethnic discrimination probably reflects item impact and is the result of valid group differences between blacks and whites regarding their respective experiences of discrimination. The authors also observed large DIF by race/ethnicity for 3 of 7 gender discrimination items. This is more likely to have been due to item bias. Users of the EOD Index must consider the advantages and disadvantages of DIF adjustment (omitting items, constructing separate measures, and retaining items). The EOD Index has substantial usefulness as an instrument that can assess self-reported experiences of discrimination. PMID:22038104

  4. Assessing Impact, DIF, and DFF in Accommodated Item Scores: A Comparison of Multilevel Measurement Model Parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretvas, S. Natasha; Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Lockhart, L. Leland; Kaye, Alyssa D.

    2012-01-01

    This pedagogical article is intended to explain the similarities and differences between the parameterizations of two multilevel measurement model (MMM) frameworks. The conventional two-level MMM that includes item indicators and models item scores (Level 1) clustered within examinees (Level 2) and the two-level cross-classified MMM (in which item…

  5. Ability or Access-Ability: Differential Item Functioning of Items on Alternate Performance-Based Assessment Tests for Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated differential item functioning (DIF) of test items on Pennsylvania's Alternate System of Assessment (PASA) for students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities and what the reasons for the differences may be. Methods: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to analyze differences in the scores…

  6. Assessment of differential item functioning for demographic comparisons in the MOS SF-36 health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Anthony J; Stump, Timothy E; Monahan, Patrick O; McHorney, Colleen A

    2006-04-01

    To investigate whether items of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-Item Short-Form Health Status Survey (SF-36) exhibited differential item functioning (DIF) with respect to age, education, race, and gender. The data for this study come from two large national datasets, the MOS and the 1990 National Survey of Functional Health Status (NSFHS). We used logistic regression to identify items exhibiting DIF. We found DIF to be most problematic for age comparisons. Items flagged for age DIF were vigorous activities, bend/kneel/stoop, bathing or dressing, limited in kind of work, health in general, get sick easier than others, expect health to get worse, felt calm and peaceful, and all four vitality items. Items flagged for education DIF include vigorous activities, health in general, health is excellent, felt calm and peaceful, and been a happy person. Vigorous activities, walk more than a mile, health in general, and expect health to get worse were identified as DIF when comparing African-Americans with whites. No items were identified for gender DIF. We found several consistent patterns of DIF using two national datasets with different population characteristics. In the current study, the effect of DIF rarely transferred to the scale level. Further research is needed to corroborate these results and determine qualitatively why DIF may occur for these specific items.

  7. Identifying items to assess methodological quality in physical therapy trials: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Cummings, Greta G; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-09-01

    Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor analysis of these results are needed to validate these items.

  8. Measuring everyday functional competence using the Rasch assessment of everyday activity limitations (REAL) item bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2017-11-01

    Traditional patient-reported physical function instruments often poorly differentiate patients with mild-to-moderate disability. We describe the development and psychometric evaluation of a generic item bank for measuring everyday activity limitations in outpatient populations. Seventy-two items generated from patient interviews and mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domestic life chapter were administered to 1128 adults representative of the Dutch population. The partial credit model was fitted to the item responses and evaluated with respect to its assumptions, model fit, and differential item functioning (DIF). Measurement performance of a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) algorithm was compared with the SF-36 physical functioning scale (PF-10). A final bank of 41 items was developed. All items demonstrated acceptable fit to the partial credit model and measurement invariance across age, sex, and educational level. Five- and ten-item CAT simulations were shown to have high measurement precision, which exceeded that of SF-36 physical functioning scale across the physical function continuum. Floor effects were absent for a 10-item empirical CAT simulation, and ceiling effects were low (13.5%) compared with SF-36 physical functioning (38.1%). CAT also discriminated better than SF-36 physical functioning between age groups, number of chronic conditions, and respondents with or without rheumatic conditions. The Rasch assessment of everyday activity limitations (REAL) item bank will hopefully prove a useful instrument for assessing everyday activity limitations. T-scores obtained using derived measures can be used to benchmark physical function outcomes against the general Dutch adult population.

  9. Normative data for the 12 item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Andrews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0 measures disability due to health conditions including diseases, illnesses, injuries, mental or emotional problems, and problems with alcohol or drugs. METHOD: The 12 Item WHODAS 2.0 was used in the second Australian Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. We report the overall factor structure and the distribution of scores and normative data (means and SDs for people with any physical disorder, any mental disorder and for people with neither. FINDINGS: A single second order factor justifies the use of the scale as a measure of global disability. People with mental disorders had high scores (mean 6.3, SD 7.1, people with physical disorders had lower scores (mean 4.3, SD 6.1. People with no disorder covered by the survey had low scores (mean 1.4, SD 3.6. INTERPRETATION: The provision of normative data from a population sample of adults will facilitate use of the WHODAS 2.0 12 item scale in clinical and epidemiological research.

  10. Normative data for the 12 item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin; Kemp, Alice; Sunderland, Matthew; Von Korff, Michael; Ustun, Tevik Bedirhan

    2009-12-17

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) measures disability due to health conditions including diseases, illnesses, injuries, mental or emotional problems, and problems with alcohol or drugs. The 12 Item WHODAS 2.0 was used in the second Australian Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. We report the overall factor structure and the distribution of scores and normative data (means and SDs) for people with any physical disorder, any mental disorder and for people with neither. A single second order factor justifies the use of the scale as a measure of global disability. People with mental disorders had high scores (mean 6.3, SD 7.1), people with physical disorders had lower scores (mean 4.3, SD 6.1). People with no disorder covered by the survey had low scores (mean 1.4, SD 3.6). The provision of normative data from a population sample of adults will facilitate use of the WHODAS 2.0 12 item scale in clinical and epidemiological research.

  11. Using Item Analysis to Assess Objectively the Quality of the Calgary-Cambridge OSCE Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone Donnon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of item analysis to assess objectively the quality of items on the Calgary-Cambridge Communications OSCE checklist. Methods:  A total of 150 first year medical students were provided with extensive teaching on the use of the Calgary-Cambridge Guidelines for interviewing patients and participated in a final year end 20 minute communication OSCE station.  Grouped into either the upper half (50% or lower half (50% communication skills performance groups, discrimination, difficulty and point biserial values were calculated for each checklist item. Results:  The mean score on the 33 item communication checklist was 24.09 (SD = 4.46 and the internal reliability coefficient was ? = 0.77. Although most of the items were found to have moderate (k = 12, 36% or excellent (k = 10, 30% discrimination values, there were 6 (18% identified as ‘fair’ and 3 (9% as ‘poor’. A post-examination review focused on item analysis findings resulted in an increase in checklist reliability (? = 0.80. Conclusions:  Item analysis has been used with MCQ exams extensively. In this study, it was also found to be an objective and practical approach to use in evaluating the quality of a standardized OSCE checklist.

  12. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Small group learning: effect on item analysis and accuracy of self-assessment of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubho Subrata; Jain, Vaishali; Agrawal, Vandana; Bindra, Maninder

    2015-01-01

    Small group sessions are regarded as a more active and student-centered approach to learning. Item analysis provides objective evidence of whether such sessions improve comprehension and make the topic easier for students, in addition to assessing the relative benefit of the sessions to good versus poor performers. Self-assessment makes students aware of their deficiencies. Small group sessions can also help students develop the ability to self-assess. This study was carried out to assess the effect of small group sessions on item analysis and students' self-assessment. A total of 21 female and 29 male first year medical students participated in a small group session on topics covered by didactic lectures two weeks earlier. It was preceded and followed by two multiple choice question (MCQ) tests, in which students were asked to self-assess their likely score. The MCQs used were item analyzed in a previous group and were chosen of matching difficulty and discriminatory indices for the pre- and post-tests. The small group session improved the marks of both genders equally, but female performance was better. The session made the items easier; increasing the difficulty index significantly but there was no significant alteration in the discriminatory index. There was overestimation in the self-assessment of both genders, but male overestimation was greater. The session improved the self-assessment of students in terms of expected marks and expectation of passing. Small group session improved the ability of students to self-assess their knowledge and increased the difficulty index of items reflecting students' better performance.

  14. Evaluating measurement equivalence using the item response theory log-likelihood ratio (IRTLR) method to assess differential item functioning (DIF): applications (with illustrations) to measures of physical functioning ability and general distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Cook, Karon F; Crane, Paul K; Gibbons, Laura E; Morales, Leo S; Orlando-Edelen, Maria; Cella, David

    2007-01-01

    Methods based on item response theory (IRT) that can be used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) are illustrated. An IRT-based approach to the detection of DIF was applied to physical function and general distress item sets. DIF was examined with respect to gender, age and race. The method used for DIF detection was the item response theory log-likelihood ratio (IRTLR) approach. DIF magnitude was measured using the differences in the expected item scores, expressed as the unsigned probability differences, and calculated using the non-compensatory DIF index (NCDIF). Finally, impact was assessed using expected scale scores, expressed as group differences in the total test (measure) response functions. The example for the illustration of the methods came from a study of 1,714 patients with cancer or HIV/AIDS. The measure contained 23 items measuring physical functioning ability and 15 items addressing general distress, scored in the positive direction. The substantive findings were of relatively small magnitude DIF. In total, six items showed relatively larger magnitude (expected item score differences greater than the cutoff) of DIF with respect to physical function across the three comparisons: "trouble with a long walk" (race), "vigorous activities" (race, age), "bending, kneeling stooping" (age), "lifting or carrying groceries" (race), "limited in hobbies, leisure" (age), "lack of energy" (race). None of the general distress items evidenced high magnitude DIF; although "worrying about dying" showed some DIF with respect to both age and race, after adjustment. The fact that many physical function items showed DIF with respect to age, even after adjustment for multiple comparisons, indicates that the instrument may be performing differently for these groups. While the magnitude and impact of DIF at the item and scale level was minimal, caution should be exercised in the use of subsets of these items, as might occur with selection for clinical decisions or

  15. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  16. The Matching Criterion Purification for Differential Item Functioning Analyses in a Large-Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyeSun; Geisinger, Kurt F.

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of matching criterion purification on the accuracy of differential item functioning (DIF) detection in large-scale assessments. The three matching approaches for DIF analyses (block-level matching, pooled booklet matching, and equated pooled booklet matching) were employed with the Mantel-Haenszel…

  17. The Value of Item Response Theory in Clinical Assessment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) and related latent variable models represent modern psychometric theory, the successor to classical test theory in psychological assessment. Although IRT has become prevalent in the measurement of ability and achievement, its contributions to clinical domains have been less extensive. Applications of IRT to clinical…

  18. Improving the Memory Sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion Using Item Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Danielle; Kang, Minsoo; Starkey, Chad; Ragan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to improve the immediate and delayed memory sections of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) by identifying a list of more psychometrically sound items (words). A total of 200 participants with no history of concussion in the previous six months (aged 19.60 ± 2.20 years; N?=?93 men, N?=?107 women)…

  19. Identifying Promising Items: The Use of Crowdsourcing in the Development of Assessment Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Coyle, Harold P.; Miller, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    The psychometrically sound development of assessment instruments requires pilot testing of candidate items as a first step in gauging their quality, typically a time-consuming and costly effort. Crowdsourcing offers the opportunity for gathering data much more quickly and inexpensively than from most targeted populations. In a simulation of a…

  20. An introduction to Item Response Theory and Rasch Analysis of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Jacob; Brodke, Darrel S; Biber, Joshua; Gross, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Item response theory has its origins in educational measurement and is now commonly applied in health-related measurement of latent traits, such as function and symptoms. This application is due in large part to gains in the precision of measurement attributable to item response theory and corresponding decreases in response burden, study costs, and study duration. The purpose of this paper is twofold: introduce basic concepts of item response theory and demonstrate this analytic approach in a worked example, a Rasch model (1PL) analysis of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), a commonly used measure for oropharyngeal dysphagia. The results of the analysis were largely concordant with previous studies of the EAT-10 and illustrate for brain impairment clinicians and researchers how IRT analysis can yield greater precision of measurement.

  1. Item reduction and psychometric validation of the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and the Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Clark, Marci; Harness, Jane; Bonner, Nicola; Scott, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Rizer, Ronald; Yeh, Yating; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2009-01-01

    Developed using focus groups, the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) are patient-reported outcome measures of oily facial skin. The aim of this study was to finalize the item-scale structure of the instruments and perform psychometric validation in adults with self-reported oily facial skin. The OSSAS and OSIS were administered to 202 adult subjects with oily facial skin in the United States. A subgroup of 152 subjects returned, 4 to 10 days later, for test–retest reliability evaluation. Of the 202 participants, 72.8% were female; 64.4% had self-reported nonsevere acne. Item reduction resulted in a 14-item OSSAS with Sensation (five items), Tactile (four items) and Visual (four items) domains, a single blotting item, and an overall oiliness item. The OSIS was reduced to two three-item domains assessing Annoyance and Self-Image. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the final item-scale structures. The OSSAS and OSIS scales had acceptable item convergent validity (item-scale correlations >0.40) and floor and ceiling effects (skin severity (P skin (P skin), as assessments of self-reported oily facial skin severity and its emotional impact, respectively.

  2. Examining the Psychometric Quality of Multiple-Choice Assessment Items using Mokken Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A

    The concept of invariant measurement is typically associated with Rasch measurement theory (Engelhard, 2013). Concerned with the appropriateness of the parametric transformation upon which the Rasch model is based, Mokken (1971) proposed a nonparametric procedure for evaluating the quality of social science measurement that is theoretically and empirically related to the Rasch model. Mokken's nonparametric procedure can be used to evaluate the quality of dichotomous and polytomous items in terms of the requirements for invariant measurement. Despite these potential benefits, the use of Mokken scaling to examine the properties of multiple-choice (MC) items in education has not yet been fully explored. A nonparametric approach to evaluating MC items is promising in that this approach facilitates the evaluation of assessments in terms of invariant measurement without imposing potentially inappropriate transformations. Using Rasch-based indices of measurement quality as a frame of reference, data from an eighth-grade physical science assessment are used to illustrate and explore Mokken-based techniques for evaluating the quality of MC items. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  3. The future of outcomes measurement: item banking, tailored short-forms, and computerized adaptive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, David; Gershon, Richard; Lai, Jin-Shei; Choi, Seung

    2007-01-01

    The use of item banks and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) begins with clear definitions of important outcomes, and references those definitions to specific questions gathered into large and well-studied pools, or "banks" of items. Items can be selected from the bank to form customized short scales, or can be administered in a sequence and length determined by a computer programmed for precision and clinical relevance. Although far from perfect, such item banks can form a common definition and understanding of human symptoms and functional problems such as fatigue, pain, depression, mobility, social function, sensory function, and many other health concepts that we can only measure by asking people directly. The support of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), as witnessed by its cooperative agreement with measurement experts through the NIH Roadmap Initiative known as PROMIS (www.nihpromis.org), is a big step in that direction. Our approach to item banking and CAT is practical; as focused on application as it is on science or theory. From a practical perspective, we frequently must decide whether to re-write and retest an item, add more items to fill gaps (often at the ceiling of the measure), re-test a bank after some modifications, or split up a bank into units that are more unidimensional, yet less clinically relevant or complete. These decisions are not easy, and yet they are rarely unforgiving. We encourage people to build practical tools that are capable of producing multiple short form measures and CAT administrations from common banks, and to further our understanding of these banks with various clinical populations and ages, so that with time the scores that emerge from these many activities begin to have not only a common metric and range, but a shared meaning and understanding across users. In this paper, we provide an overview of item banking and CAT, discuss our approach to item banking and its byproducts, describe testing options, discuss an

  4. Development of an assessment tool to measure students′ perceptions of respiratory care education programs: Item generation, item reduction, and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Alotaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Students who perceived their learning environment positively are more likely to develop effective learning strategies, and adopt a deep learning approach. Currently, there is no validated instrument for measuring the educational environment of educational programs on respiratory care (RC. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure students′ perception of the RC educational environment. Materials and Methods: Based on the literature review and an assessment of content validity by multiple focus groups of RC educationalists, potential items of the instrument relevant to RC educational environment construct were generated by the research group. The initial 71 item questionnaire was then field-tested on all students from the 3 RC programs in Saudi Arabia and was subjected to multi-trait scaling analysis. Cronbach′s alpha was used to assess internal consistency reliabilities. Results: Two hundred and twelve students (100% completed the survey. The initial instrument of 71 items was reduced to 65 across 5 scales. Convergent and discriminant validity assessment demonstrated that the majority of items correlated more highly with their intended scale than a competing one. Cronbach′s alpha exceeded the standard criterion of >0.70 in all scales except one. There was no floor or ceiling effect for scale or overall score. Conclusions: This instrument is the first assessment tool developed to measure the RC educational environment. There was evidence of its good feasibility, validity, and reliability. This first validation of the instrument supports its use by RC students to evaluate educational environment.

  5. An approach for estimating item sensitivity to within-person change over time: An illustration using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N Maritza; Bolt, Daniel M; Deng, Sien

    2016-12-01

    When assessments are primarily used to measure change over time, it is important to evaluate items according to their sensitivity to change, specifically. Items that demonstrate good sensitivity to between-person differences at baseline may not show good sensitivity to change over time, and vice versa. In this study, we applied a longitudinal factor model of change to a widely used cognitive test designed to assess global cognitive status in dementia, and contrasted the relative sensitivity of items to change. Statistically nested models were estimated introducing distinct latent factors related to initial status differences between test-takers and within-person latent change across successive time points of measurement. Models were estimated using all available longitudinal item-level data from the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, including participants representing the full-spectrum of disease status who were enrolled in the multisite Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Five of the 13 Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive items demonstrated noticeably higher loadings with respect to sensitivity to change. Attending to performance change on only these 5 items yielded a clearer picture of cognitive decline more consistent with theoretical expectations in comparison to the full 13-item scale. Items that show good psychometric properties in cross-sectional studies are not necessarily the best items at measuring change over time, such as cognitive decline. Applications of the methodological approach described and illustrated in this study can advance our understanding regarding the types of items that best detect fine-grained early pathological changes in cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Meijer, Rob R; Denollet, Johan

    2007-07-01

    Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)-referred to as type-D personality-are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the relative contribution of individual items to the measurement precision at the cutoff to distinguish type-D from non-type-D personality and (b) to investigate the comparability of NA, SI, and type-D constructs across the general population and clinical populations. Data from representative samples including 1316 respondents from the general population, 427 respondents diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and 732 persons suffering from hypertension were analyzed using the graded response IRT model. In Study 1, the information functions obtained in the IRT analysis showed that (a) all items had highest measurement precision around the cutoff and (b) items are most informative at the higher end of the scale. In Study 2, the IRT analysis showed that measurements were fairly comparable across the general population and clinical populations. The DS14 adequately measures NA and SI, with highest reliability in the trait range around the cutoff. The DS14 is a valid instrument to assess and compare type-D personality across clinical groups.

  7. Checking Equity: Why Differential Item Functioning Analysis Should Be a Routine Part of Developing Conceptual Assessments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Patrícia; Drabinová, Adéla; Liaw, Y.L.; Sanders, E.A.; McFarland, J.L.; Price, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2017), č. článku rm2. ISSN 1931-7913 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-15856Y Grant - others:NSF(US) DUE-1043443 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : differential item functioning * fairness * conceptual assessments * concept inventory * undergraduate education * bias Subject RIV: AM - Education OBOR OECD: Education, special (to gifted persons, those with learning disabilities) Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  8. Improved utilization of ADAS-cog assessment data through item response theory based pharmacometric modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Sebastian; Plan, Elodie L; Ito, Kaori; Karlsson, Mats O; Corrigan, Brian; Hooker, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    This work investigates improved utilization of ADAS-cog data (the primary outcome in Alzheimer's disease (AD) trials of mild and moderate AD) by combining pharmacometric modeling and item response theory (IRT). A baseline IRT model characterizing the ADAS-cog was built based on data from 2,744 individuals. Pharmacometric methods were used to extend the baseline IRT model to describe longitudinal ADAS-cog scores from an 18-month clinical study with 322 patients. Sensitivity of the ADAS-cog items in different patient populations as well as the power to detect a drug effect in relation to total score based methods were assessed with the IRT based model. IRT analysis was able to describe both total and item level baseline ADAS-cog data. Longitudinal data were also well described. Differences in the information content of the item level components could be quantitatively characterized and ranked for mild cognitively impairment and mild AD populations. Based on clinical trial simulations with a theoretical drug effect, the IRT method demonstrated a significantly higher power to detect drug effect compared to the traditional method of analysis. A combined framework of IRT and pharmacometric modeling permits a more effective and precise analysis than total score based methods and therefore increases the value of ADAS-cog data.

  9. Assessing Testlet Effect, Impact, Differential Testlet, and Item Functioning Using Cross-Classified Multilevel Measurement Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Ravand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the two-level testlet response model (MMMT-2 to assess impact, differential item functioning (DIF, and differential testlet functioning (DTLF in a reading comprehension test. The data came from 21,641 applicants into English Masters’ programs at Iranian state universities. Testlet effects were estimated, and items and testlets that were functioning differentially for test takers of different genders and majors were identified. Also parameter estimates obtained under MMMT-2 and those obtained under the two-level hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM-2 were compared. The results indicated that ability estimates obtained under the two models were significantly different at the lower and upper ends of the ability distribution. In addition, it was found that ignoring local item dependence (LID would result in overestimation of the precision of the ability estimates. As for the difficulty of the items, the estimates obtained under the two models were almost the same, but standard errors were significantly different.

  10. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim; Bohnstedt, Cathrine; Sønderskov, Claus; Østergaard, Doris; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2018-01-18

    Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts completed a re-rating. Items with a score above 3 by more than 80% of the experts in the third round were included in an assessment instrument. In the first round, 19 and 15 items were identified to assess PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The ratings and comments from the last two rounds resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction", "Identify consciousness", "Call for help", "Back blows", "Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age", "Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR", "Assessment of breathing" and "Ventilation". For assessment of laypersons some PBLS and FBAOM skills described in guidelines are more important than others. Four out of nine of PBLS skills focus on airway and breathing skills, supporting the major importance of these skills for

  11. A Third-Order Item Response Theory Model for Modeling the Effects of Domains and Subdomains in Large-Scale Educational Assessment Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijmen, Frank; Jeon, Minjeong; von Davier, Matthias; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Second-order item response theory models have been used for assessments consisting of several domains, such as content areas. We extend the second-order model to a third-order model for assessments that include subdomains nested in domains. Using a graphical model framework, it is shown how the model does not suffer from the curse of…

  12. Development of a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with allergen-specific immunotherapy in adults: item generation, item reduction, and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justícia JL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jose Luis Justícia1, Eva Baró2, Victoria Cardona3, Pedro Guardia4, Pedro Ojeda5, José Maria Olaguíbel6, José Maria Vega7, Carmen Vidal81Medical Department, Stallergenes Ibérica, Barcelona, Spain; 2Health Outcomes Research Department, 3D Health Research, Barcelona, Spain; 3Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 4Hospital Virgen Macarena, Sevilla, Spain; 5Clínica de Asma y Alergia Dres. Ojeda, Madrid, Spain; 6Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; 7Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos Haya Málaga, Spain; 8Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, SpainBackground: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT is a treatment capable of modifying the natural course of allergy, so ensuring good adherence to SIT is fundamental. Up until now there has not existed an instrument specifically developed to measure patient satisfaction with SIT, although its assessment could help us to comprehend better and improve treatment adherence and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adult patient satisfaction with SIT.Methods: Items were generated from a literature review, focus groups with allergic adult patients undergoing SIT, and a meeting with experts. Potential items were administered to allergic patients undergoing SIT in an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Item reduction was based on quantitative and qualitative criteria. A preliminary assessment of feasibility, reliability, and validity of the retained items was performed.Results: An initial pool of 70 items was administered to 257 patients undergoing SIT. Fifty-four items were eliminated resulting in a provisional instrument with 16 items. Factor analysis yielded four factors that were identified as perceived efficacy, activities and environment, cost-benefit balance, and overall satisfaction, explaining 74.8% of variance. Ceiling and floor effects were negligible for overall score. Overall score was

  13. The influence of item order on intentional response distortion in the assessment of high potentials: assessing pilot applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramdel, Lale; Kubinger, Klaus D; Uitz, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of item order and questionnaire content on faking good or intentional response distortion. It was hypothesized that intentional response distortion would either increase towards the end of a long questionnaire, as learning effects might make it easier to adjust responses to a faking good schema, or decrease because applicants' will to distort responses is reduced if the questionnaire lasts long enough. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that certain types of questionnaire content are especially vulnerable to response distortion. Eighty-four pre-selected pilot applicants filled out a questionnaire consisting of 516 items including items from the NEO five factor inventory (NEO FFI), NEO personality inventory revised (NEO PI-R) and business-focused inventory of personality (BIP). The positions of the items were varied within the applicant sample to test if responses are affected by item order, and applicants' response behaviour was additionally compared to that of volunteers. Applicants reported significantly higher mean scores than volunteers, and results provide some evidence of decreased faking tendencies towards the end of the questionnaire. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that lower variances or standard deviations in combination with appropriate (often higher) mean scores can serve as an indicator for faking tendencies in group comparisons, even if effects are not significant. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  15. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  16. Assessing bias in osteoarthritis trials included in Cochrane reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Bolvig; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Boutron, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    the first appearing forest plot for overall pain in the Cochrane review. Treatment effect sizes will be expressed as standardised mean differences (SMDs), where the difference in mean values available from the forest plots is divided by the pooled SD. To empirically assess the risk of bias in treatment......INTRODUCTION: The validity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis depends on methodological quality and unbiased dissemination of trials. Our objective is to evaluate the association of estimates of treatment effects with different bias-related study characteristics in meta...... benefits, we will perform stratified analyses of the trials from the included meta-analyses and assess the interaction between trial characteristics and treatment effect. A relevant study-level covariate is defined as one that decreases the between-study variance (τ(2), estimated as Tau...

  17. Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are useful for assessing burnout in medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2009-12-01

    Burnout has negative effects on work performance and patient care. The current standard for burnout assessment is the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), a well-validated instrument consisting of 22 items answered on a 7-point Likert scale. However, the length of the MBI can limit its utility in physician surveys. To evaluate the performance of two questions relative to the full MBI for measuring burnout. Cross-sectional data from 2,248 medical students, 333 internal medicine residents, 465 internal medicine faculty, and 7,905 practicing surgeons. The single questions with the highest factor loading on the emotional exhaustion (EE) ("I feel burned out from my work") and depersonalization (DP) ("I have become more callous toward people since I took this job") domains of burnout were evaluated in four large samples of medical students, internal medicine residents, internal medicine faculty, and practicing surgeons. Spearman correlations between the single EE question and the full EE domain score minus that question ranged from 0.76-0.83. Spearman correlations between the single DP question and the full DP domain score minus that question ranged from 0.61-0.72. Responses to the single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization stratified risk of high burnout in the relevant domain on the full MBI, with consistent patterns across the four sampled groups. Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization provide meaningful information on burnout in medical professionals.

  18. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  19. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  20. Concurrent validity of single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in burnout assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Satele, Daniel V; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2012-11-01

    Burnout is a common problem among physicians and physicians-in-training. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is the gold standard for burnout assessment, but the length of this well-validated 22-item instrument can limit its feasibility for survey research. To evaluate the concurrent validity of two questions relative to the full MBI for measuring the association of burnout with published outcomes. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND MAIN MEASURES: The single questions "I feel burned out from my work" and "I have become more callous toward people since I took this job," representing the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout, respectively, were evaluated in published studies of medical students, internal medicine residents, and practicing surgeons. We compared predictive models for the association of each question, versus the full MBI, using longitudinal data on burnout and suicidality from 2006 and 2007 for 858 medical students at five United States medical schools, cross-sectional data on burnout and serious thoughts of dropping out of medical school from 2007 for 2222 medical students at seven United States medical schools, and cross-sectional data on burnout and unprofessional attitudes and behaviors from 2009 for 2566 medical students at seven United States medical schools. We also assessed results for longitudinal data on burnout and perceived major medical errors from 2003 to 2009 for 321 Mayo Clinic Rochester internal medicine residents and cross-sectional data on burnout and both perceived major medical errors and suicidality from 2008 for 7,905 respondents to a national survey of members of the American College of Surgeons. Point estimates of effect for models based on the single-item measures were uniformly consistent with those reported for models based on the full MBI. The single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization exhibited strong associations with each published outcome (all p ≤ 0.008). No conclusion regarding

  1. Dependability of Two Scaling Approaches to Direct Behavior Rating Multi-Item Scales Assessing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the dependability of two scaling approaches for using a five-item Direct Behavior Rating multi-item scale to assess student disruptive behavior. A series of generalizability theory studies were used to compare a traditional frequency-based scaling approach with an approach wherein the informant compares a target student's…

  2. The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domyancich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

  3. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  4. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  5. Assessing psychopathy among justice involved adolescents with the PCL:YV: an item response theory examination across gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Schmidt, Karen M; Vincent, Gina M; Salekin, Randall T; Moretti, Marlene M; Odgers, Candice L

    2015-01-01

    This study used an item response theory (IRT) model and a large adolescent sample of justice involved youth (N = 1,007, 38% female) to examine the item functioning of the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL: YV). Items that were most discriminating (or most sensitive to changes) of the latent trait (thought to be psychopathy) among adolescents included "glibness/superficial charm," "lack of remorse," and "need for stimulation," whereas items that were least discriminating included "pathological lying," "failure to accept responsibility," and "lacks goals." The items "impulsivity" and "irresponsibility" were the most likely to be rated high among adolescents, whereas "parasitic lifestyle," and "glibness/superficial charm" were the most likely to be rated low. Evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) on 4 of the 13 items was found between boys and girls. "Failure to accept responsibility" and "impulsivity" were endorsed more frequently to describe adolescent girls than boys at similar levels of the latent trait, and vice versa for "grandiose sense of self-worth" and "lacks goals." The DIF findings suggest that 4 PCL: YV items function differently between boys and girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael Lee; Hsu, John

    2016-01-01

    for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates...

  7. Assessment of the psychometrics of a PROMIS item bank: self-efficacy for managing daily activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Shulman, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometrics of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System self-efficacy for managing daily activities item bank. Methods The item pool was field tested on a sample of 1087 participants via internet (n = 250) and in-clinic (n = 837) surveys. All participants reported having at least one chronic health condition. The 35 item pool was investigated for dimensionality (confirmatory factor analyses, CFA and exploratory factor analysis, EFA), item-total correlations, local independence, precision, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender, race, ethnicity, age groups, data collection modes, and neurological chronic conditions (McFadden Pseudo R2 less than 10 %). Results The item pool met two of the four CFA fit criteria (CFI = 0.952 and SRMR = 0.07). EFA analysis found a dominant first factor (eigenvalue = 24.34) and the ratio of first to second eigenvalue was 12.4. The item pool demonstrated good item-total correlations (0.59–0.85) and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.97). The item pool maintained its precision (reliability over 0.90) across a wide range of theta (3.70), and there was no significant DIF. Conclusion The findings indicated the item pool has sound psychometric properties and the test items are eligible for development of computerized adaptive testing and short forms. PMID:27048495

  8. Assessment of the psychometrics of a PROMIS item bank: self-efficacy for managing daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A; Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Shulman, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometrics of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System self-efficacy for managing daily activities item bank. The item pool was field tested on a sample of 1087 participants via internet (n = 250) and in-clinic (n = 837) surveys. All participants reported having at least one chronic health condition. The 35 item pool was investigated for dimensionality (confirmatory factor analyses, CFA and exploratory factor analysis, EFA), item-total correlations, local independence, precision, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender, race, ethnicity, age groups, data collection modes, and neurological chronic conditions (McFadden Pseudo R (2) less than 10 %). The item pool met two of the four CFA fit criteria (CFI = 0.952 and SRMR = 0.07). EFA analysis found a dominant first factor (eigenvalue = 24.34) and the ratio of first to second eigenvalue was 12.4. The item pool demonstrated good item-total correlations (0.59-0.85) and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97). The item pool maintained its precision (reliability over 0.90) across a wide range of theta (3.70), and there was no significant DIF. The findings indicated the item pool has sound psychometric properties and the test items are eligible for development of computerized adaptive testing and short forms.

  9. Reducing the item number to obtain the same-length self-assessment scales: a systematic approach using result of graphical loglinear rasch models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend

    2011-01-01

    . For self-assessment, self-scoring and self-interpretational purposes it is deemed prudent that subscales measuring comparable constructs are of the same item length. Consequently, in order to obtain a self-assessment version of the R-D-LSI with an equal number of items in each subscale, a systematic...... approach to item reduction based on results of graphical loglinear Rasch modeling (GLLRM) was designed. This approach was then used to reduce the number of items in the subscales of the R-D-LSI which had an item-length of more than seven items, thereby obtaining the Danish Self-Assessment Learning Styles...

  10. Single-item measure for assessing quality of life in children with drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Widjaja, Elysa; Smith, Mary Lou

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated the psychometric properties of a single-item quality of life (QOL) measure, the Global Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy question (G-QOLCE), in children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Data came from the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery on Health-Related Quality of Life Study (PESQOL), a multicenter prospective cohort study (n = 118) with observations collected at baseline and at 6 months of follow-up on children aged 4-18 years. QOL was measured with the QOLCE-76 and KIDSCREEN-27. The G-QOLCE was an overall QOL question derived from the QOLCE-76. Construct validity and reliability were assessed with Spearman's correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Responsiveness was examined through distribution-based and anchor-based methods. The G-QOLCE showed moderate (r ≥ 0.30) to strong (r ≥ 0.50) correlations with composite scores, and most subscales of the QOLCE-76 and KIDSCREEN-27 at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The G-QOLCE had moderate test-retest reliability (ICC range: 0.49-0.72) and was able to detect clinically important change in patients' QOL (standardized response mean: 0.38; probability of change: 0.65; Guyatt's responsiveness statistics: 0.62 and 0.78). Caregiver anxiety and family functioning contributed most strongly to G-QOLCE scores over time. Results offer promising preliminary evidence regarding the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the proposed single-item QOL measure. The G-QOLCE is a potentially useful tool that can be feasibly administered in a busy clinical setting to evaluate clinical status and impact of treatment outcomes in pediatric epilepsy.

  11. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... there are more than 100000 chemicals which are potential for human exposure, so the development of alternative testing and assessment strategies has taken place in the recent years. The toxicological evaluation should enable the society to cope with the simultaneous requirement of many chemicals for different...... uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces...

  12. Item and Test Analysis to Identify Quality Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) from an Assessment of Medical Students of Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Sanju; Sharma, Rashmi; Kumar, Pradeep; Rana, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are frequently used to assess students in different educational streams for their objectivity and wide reach of coverage in less time. However, the MCQs to be used must be of quality which depends upon its difficulty index (DIF I), discrimination index (DI) and distracter efficiency (DE). To evaluate MCQs or items and develop a pool of valid items by assessing with DIF I, DI and DE and also to revise/ store or discard items based on obtained results. Study was conducted in a medical school of Ahmedabad. An internal examination in Community Medicine was conducted after 40 hours teaching during 1(st) MBBS which was attended by 148 out of 150 students. Total 50 MCQs or items and 150 distractors were analyzed. Data was entered and analyzed in MS Excel 2007 and simple proportions, mean, standard deviations, coefficient of variation were calculated and unpaired t test was applied. Out of 50 items, 24 had "good to excellent" DIF I (31 - 60%) and 15 had "good to excellent" DI (> 0.25). Mean DE was 88.6% considered as ideal/ acceptable and non functional distractors (NFD) were only 11.4%. Mean DI was 0.14. Poor DI (students and some issues with framing of at least some of the MCQs. Increased proportion of NFDs (incorrect alternatives selected by students) in an item decrease DE and makes it easier. There were 15 items with 17 NFDs, while rest items did not have any NFD with mean DE of 100%. Study emphasizes the selection of quality MCQs which truly assess the knowledge and are able to differentiate the students of different abilities in correct manner.

  13. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Application of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment on TIMMS-2007 8th Grade Mathematics Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Turker; Green, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The least squares distance method (LSDM) was used in a cognitive diagnostic analysis of TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) items administered to 4,498 8th-grade students from seven geographical regions of Turkey, extending analysis of attributes from content to process and skill attributes. Logit item positions were…

  15. Item and order memory for novel visual patterns assessed by two-choice recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avons, S E; Ward, Geoff; Melling, Lindsay

    2004-07-01

    Five experiments examined item and order memory for short lists of novel visual patterns. Memory was tested either by an item recognition test, choosing between a target and a similar foil (Experiments 1, 3a, and 4), or by a relative recency decision between two patterns that occupied adjacent list positions (Experiments 2, 3b, and 5). For both item recognition and relative recency tasks, accuracy was in most cases constant across serial positions, except for a recency advantage that was usually restricted to the most recent item or recency decision. Only a small and marginally significant effect of list length was observed for item recognition. Relative recency was more sensitive to list length and fell to near-chance levels with lists of eight items. We conclude that for these materials, prerecency item recognition depends on stable, context-free descriptions of items. Relative recency judgements are sensitive to list properties, but fail to show evidence of primacy or extended recency that are observed when other techniques are used to study serial order memory. We discuss the results in relation to four current models of serial order memory that embody different assumptions in the way that serial order is represented. Copyright 2004 The Experimental Psychology Society

  16. Assessing the Performance of Classical Test Theory Item Discrimination Estimators in Monte Carlo Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaldua, Diego A. Luna; Lee, Young-Sun; Keller, Bryan; Fellers, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    The performance of various classical test theory (CTT) item discrimination estimators has been compared in the literature using both empirical and simulated data, resulting in mixed results regarding the preference of some discrimination estimators over others. This study analyzes the performance of various item discrimination estimators in CTT:…

  17. Reliability assessment of distribution power systems including distributed generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdiche, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nowadays, power systems have reached a good level of reliability. Nevertheless, considering the modifications induced by the connections of small independent producers to distribution networks, there's a need to assess the reliability of these new systems. Distribution networks present several functional characteristics, highlighted by the qualitative study of the failures, as dispersed loads at several places, variable topology and some electrotechnical phenomena which must be taken into account to model the events that can occur. The adopted reliability calculations method is Monte Carlo simulations, the probabilistic method most powerful and most flexible to model complex operating of the distribution system. We devoted a first part on the case of a 20 kV feeder to which a cogeneration unit is connected. The method was applied to a software of stochastic Petri nets simulations. Then a second part related to the study of a low voltage power system supplied by dispersed generations. Here, the complexity of the events required to code the method in an environment of programming allowing the use of power system calculations (load flow, short-circuit, load shedding, management of units powers) in order to analyse the system state for each new event. (author)

  18. Varying the item format improved the range of measurement in patient-reported outcome measures assessing physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegl, Gregor; Gandek, Barbara; Fischer, H Felix; Bjorner, Jakob B; Ware, John E; Rose, Matthias; Fries, James F; Nolte, Sandra

    2017-03-21

    Physical function (PF) is a core patient-reported outcome domain in clinical trials in rheumatic diseases. Frequently used PF measures have ceiling effects, leading to large sample size requirements and low sensitivity to change. In most of these instruments, the response category that indicates the highest PF level is the statement that one is able to perform a given physical activity without any limitations or difficulty. This study investigates whether using an item format with an extended response scale, allowing respondents to state that the performance of an activity is easy or very easy, increases the range of precise measurement of self-reported PF. Three five-item PF short forms were constructed from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) wave 1 data. All forms included the same physical activities but varied in item stem and response scale: format A ("Are you able to …"; "without any difficulty"/"unable to do"); format B ("Does your health now limit you …"; "not at all"/"cannot do"); format C ("How difficult is it for you to …"; "very easy"/"impossible"). Each short-form item was answered by 2217-2835 subjects. We evaluated unidimensionality and estimated a graded response model for the 15 short-form items and remaining 119 items of the PROMIS PF bank to compare item and test information for the short forms along the PF continuum. We then used simulated data for five groups with different PF levels to illustrate differences in scoring precision between the short forms using different item formats. Sufficient unidimensionality of all short-form items and the original PF item bank was supported. Compared to formats A and B, format C increased the range of reliable measurement by about 0.5 standard deviations on the positive side of the PF continuum of the sample, provided more item information, and was more useful in distinguishing known groups with above-average functioning. Using an item format with an extended

  19. [Examination of calibrated item banks for the assessment of work capacity in an outpatient sample of cardiological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, A; Abberger, B; Schröder, K; Wirtz, M; Bengel, J; Baumeister, H

    2013-12-01

    Work capacity is a major outcome variable in cardiological rehabilitation. However, there is a lacks of capacious and economic assessment instruments for work capacity. By developing item response theory based item banks a first step to close this gap is done. The present study aims to validate the work capacity item banks for cardiovascular rehabilitation inpatients (WCIB-Cardio) in a sample of cardiovascular rehabilitation outpatients. Additionally, we examined differences between in- and outpatients with regard to their work capacity. Data of 283 cardiovascular rehabilitation inpatients and 77 cardiovascular rehabilitation outpatients were collected in 15 rehabilitation centres. The WCIB-Cardio contains the 2 domains of "cognitive work capacity"(20 items) and "physical work capacity"(18 items). Validation of the item bank for cardiological outpatients was conducted with separate Rasch analysis for each domain. For the domain of cognitive work capacity 10 items showed satisfying quality criteria (Rasch reliability=0.71; overall model fit=0.07). For the domain of physical work capacity good values for Rasch-reliability (0.83) and overall -model fit (0.65) could be proven after exclusion of 3 items. Unidimensionality and a broad ability spectrum could be covered for both domains. With regard to content, outpatients evaluate themselves less burdened than inpatients for the domain of cognitive work capacity (‾X outpatient =-2.06 vs. ‾X inpatient =-2.49; pphysical work capacity (‾X outpatient =-3.68 vs. ‾X inpatient =-2.88; pcardiological in- and outpatients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Routine use of an abbreviated 4-item scale to assess dependence in essential activities of daily living amongst elderly hemodialysis patients: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Farhat; Jassal, Sarbjit V

    2013-02-01

    Poor functional status is associated with reduced survival and poor outcomes in older dialysis patients. The Geriatric Nephrology Advisory Group recommends routine evaluation of functional status on all older patients; however, assessments can be time consuming and burdensome to clinical care providers. The objective of this study was to validate an abbreviated 4-item self-report screening tool for use in elderly hemodialysis patients. The functional dependence of community-dwelling hemodialysis patients, aged ≥65 years, was measured by trained evaluators. The accuracy of a 4-item self-report activities of daily living (ADL) score was compared against formal evaluation by the Barthel Index and the outcomes using agreement statistics and Cox regression analysis. The cohort included 167 patients with a mean age of 74.8 ± 5.9 years (57 % males). The 4-item scale correctly identified 83 % of the patients dependent in ≥1 ADL. Those incorrectly identified as independent on the abbreviated scale were uniformly unable to climb stairs without assistance. The sensitivity and specificity, and coefficient for agreement between the 4-item scale and the Barthel Index were 83.2, 100 and 0.78 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the 4-item scale were 100 and 76.9 %, respectively. Using the 4-item scale, the presence of severe disability was predictive of increased mortality (HR 12.5; 95 % CI 2.5-65.0; P = 0.03). The 4-item scale is a simple, valid screening test for disability which can be used in the elderly population on dialysis as a screening tool. Difficulties with stair climbing may be overlooked using this score.

  1. Assessing the Straightforwardly-Worded Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale for Differential Item Functioning Across Gender and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpole, Jared K; Levinson, Cheri A; Woods, Carol M; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Weeks, Justin W; Brown, Patrick J; Heimberg, Richard G; Menatti, Andrew R; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin; Liebowitz, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; Leary Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 9, 371-375, 1983) assesses fear and worry about receiving negative evaluation from others. Rodebaugh et al. Psychological Assessment, 16 , 169-181, (2004) found that the BFNE is composed of a reverse-worded factor (BFNE-R) and straightforwardly-worded factor (BFNE-S). Further, they found the BFNE-S to have better psychometric properties and provide more information than the BFNE-R. Currently there is a lack of research regarding the measurement invariance of the BFNE-S across gender and ethnicity with respect to item thresholds. The present study uses item response theory (IRT) to test the BFNE-S for differential item functioning (DIF) related to gender and ethnicity (White, Asian, and Black). Six data sets consisting of clinical, community, and undergraduate participants were utilized ( N =2,109). The factor structure of the BFNE-S was confirmed using categorical confirmatory factor analysis, IRT model assumptions were tested, and the BFNE-S was evaluated for DIF. Item nine demonstrated significant non-uniform DIF between White and Black participants. No other items showed significant uniform or non-uniform DIF across gender or ethnicity. Results suggest the BFNE-S can be used reliably with men and women and Asian and White participants. More research is needed to understand the implications of using the BFNE-S with Black participants.

  2. Assessment of English-French differential item functioning of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) in systemic sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jewett, L.R.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2017-01-01

    The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) has been used to assess body image distress among people with the rare and disfiguring disease systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, it has not been validated across different languages groups. The objective was to examine differential item functioning of

  3. Development of an Item Bank for Assessing Generic Competences in a Higher-Education Institute: A Rasch Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qin; Zhong, Xiaoling; Wang, Wen-Chung; Lim, Cher Ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of an item bank designed for students to assess their own achievements across an undergraduate-degree programme in seven generic competences (i.e., problem-solving skills, critical-thinking skills, creative-thinking skills, ethical decision-making skills, effective communication skills, social…

  4. Psychometrical Assessment and Item Analysis of the General Health Questionnaire in Victims of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Cabanas-Arrate, Maria Luisa; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Antonio; Aguado, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to assess the psychiatric morbidity that appears as a consequence of terrorist attacks. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used to this end, but its psychometric properties have never been evaluated in a population affected by terrorism. A sample of 891 participants included 162 direct victims of terrorist attacks and…

  5. Using Distractor-Driven Standards-Based Multiple-Choice Assessments and Rasch Modeling to Investigate Hierarchies of Chemistry Misconceptions and Detect Structural Problems with Individual Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; DeBoer, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Distractor-driven multiple-choice assessment items and Rasch modeling were used as diagnostic tools to investigate students' understanding of middle school chemistry ideas. Ninety-one items were developed according to a procedure that ensured content alignment to the targeted standards and construct validity. The items were administered to 13360…

  6. Creating a brief rating scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items based on the Rasch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.

  7. The Impact of Model Misspecification on Parameter Estimation and Item-Fit Assessment in Log-Linear Diagnostic Classification Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunina-Habenicht, Olga; Rupp, Andre A.; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Using a complex simulation study we investigated parameter recovery, classification accuracy, and performance of two item-fit statistics for correct and misspecified diagnostic classification models within a log-linear modeling framework. The basic manipulated test design factors included the number of respondents (1,000 vs. 10,000), attributes (3…

  8. Re-Examining Test Item Issues in the TIMSS Mathematics and Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    As the largest international study ever taken in history, the Trend in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) has been held as a benchmark to measure U.S. student performance in the global context. In-depth analyses of the TIMSS project are conducted in this study to examine key issues of the comparative investigation: (1) item flaws in mathematics…

  9. Differential Item Functioning and educational risk factors in Guatemalan reading assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortin Morales, A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined Differential Item Functioning (DIF) indicators for four variables that repeatedly have been demonstrated to constitute risk factors in primary school achievement in Guatemala. These factors are over-age of enrollment, urban/rural area of residence, ethnicity, and gender. We used scores

  10. Calibration of context-specific survey items to assess youth physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Bartee, R Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2017-05-01

    This study tests calibration models to re-scale context-specific physical activity (PA) items to accelerometer-derived PA. A total of 195 4th-12th grades children wore an Actigraph monitor and completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ) one week later. The relative time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA % ) obtained from the Actigraph at recess, PE, lunch, after-school, evening and weekend was matched with a respective item score obtained from the PAQ's. Item scores from 145 participants were calibrated against objective MVPA % using multiple linear regression with age, and sex as additional predictors. Predicted minutes of MVPA for school, out-of-school and total week were tested in the remaining sample (n = 50) using equivalence testing. The results showed that PAQ β-weights ranged from 0.06 (lunch) to 4.94 (PE) MVPA % (P PAQ and accelerometer MVPA at school and out-of-school ranged from -15.6 to +3.8 min and the PAQ was within 10-15% of accelerometer measured activity. This study demonstrated that context-specific items can be calibrated to predict minutes of MVPA in groups of youth during in- and out-of-school periods.

  11. Negative affectivity in cardiovascular disease: Evaluating Type D personality assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, R.R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The

  12. Assessment of English-French differential item functioning of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Lisa R; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D

    2017-09-01

    The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) has been used to assess body image distress among people with the rare and disfiguring disease systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, it has not been validated across different languages groups. The objective was to examine differential item functioning of the SWAP among 856 Canadian English- or French-speaking SSc patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the SWAP two-factor structure (Dissatisfaction with Appearance and Social Discomfort). The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause model was utilized to assess differential item functioning. Results revealed that the established two-factor model of the SWAP demonstrated relatively good fit. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude differential item functioning was found for three SWAP items based on language; however, the cumulative effect on SWAP scores was negligible. Findings provided empirical evidence that SWAP scores from Canadian English- and French-speaking patients can be compared and pooled without concern that measurement differences may substantially influence results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-González

    Full Text Available Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR as outcomes.Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED trial.7,447 participants (55-80 years, 57% women free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥ 3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference.Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were -0.0066 (95% confidence interval, -0.0088 to -0.0049 for women and -0.0059 (-0.0079 to -0.0038 for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥ 10 points versus ≤ 7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80 for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80 for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity.A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between adherence to a good quality dietary pattern

  14. A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED) trial. 7,447 participants (55-80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥ 3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were -0.0066 (95% confidence interval, -0.0088 to -0.0049) for women and -0.0059 (-0.0079 to -0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥ 10 points versus ≤ 7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between adherence to a good quality dietary pattern (Mediterranean diet

  15. A 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Assessment Tool and Obesity Indexes among High-Risk Subjects: The PREDIMED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Design Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED) trial. Subjects 7,447 participants (55–80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Results Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were −0.0066 (95% confidence interval, –0.0088 to −0.0049) for women and –0.0059 (–0.0079 to –0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥10 points versus ≤7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. Conclusions A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  16. Disability in bipolar I disorder: the 36-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilera, Georgina; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Pino, Óscar; Rojo, Emilio; Vieta, Eduard; Cuesta, Manuel J; Purdon, Scot E; Bernardo, Miguel; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Franco, Manuel; Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Safont, Gemma; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Rejas, Javier

    2015-03-15

    The WHODAS 2.0 is an ICF-based multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. The present study analyzes the utility of the 36-item interviewer-administered version in a sample of patients with bipolar disorder. There is no study to date that analyses how the scale works in a sample that only comprises such patients. A total of 291 patients with bipolar disorder (42.6% males) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria from a cross-sectional study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics were enrolled. In addition to the WHODAS 2.0, patients completed a comprehensive assessment battery including measures on psychopathology, functionality and quality of life. Analyses were centered on providing evidence on the validity and utility of the Spanish version of the WHODAS 2.0 in bipolar patients. Participation domain had the highest percentage of missing data (2.7%). Confirmatory factorial analysis was used to test three models formulated in the literature: six primary correlated factors, six primary factors with a single second-order factor, and six primary factors with two second-order factors. The three models were plausible, although the one formed by six correlated factors produced the best fit. Cronbach's alpha values ranged between .73 for the Self-care domain and .92 for Life activities, and the internal consistency of the total score was .96. Relationships between the WHODAS 2.0 and measures of psychopathology, functionality and quality of life were in the expected direction, and the scale was found to be able to differentiate among patients with different intensity of clinical symptoms and work situation. The percentage of euthymic patients was considerable. However, the assessment of euthymic patients is less influenced by mood. Some psychometric properties have not been studied, such as score stability and sensitivity to change. The Spanish version of the 36-item WHODAS 2.0 has suitable psychometric properties in terms of reliability and validity when

  17. Assessing the specificity of posttraumatic stress disorder's dysphoric items within the dysphoria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    2013-10-01

    The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) currently used by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), has received limited support. A four-factor dysphoria model is widely supported. However, the dysphoria factor of this model has been hailed as a nonspecific factor of PTSD. The present study investigated the specificity of the dysphoria factor within the dysphoria model by conducting a confirmatory factor analysis while statistically controlling for the variance attributable to depression. The sample consisted of 429 individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD in the National Comorbidity Survey. The results concluded that there was no significant attenuation in any of the PTSD items. This finding is pertinent given several proposals for the removal of dysphoric items from the diagnostic criteria set of PTSD in the upcoming DSM-5.

  18. Are scores on English and French versions of the PHQ-9 comparable? An assessment of differential item functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Arthurs

    Full Text Available Medical research increasingly utilizes patient-reported outcome measures administered and scored in different languages. In order to pool or compare outcomes from different language versions, instruments should be measurement equivalent across linguistic groups. The objective of this study was to examine the cross-language measurement equivalence of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 between English- and French-speaking Canadian patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc.The sample consisted of 739 English- and 221 French-speaking SSc patients. Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC modeling was used to identify items displaying possible differential item functioning (DIF.A one-factor model for the PHQ-9 fit the data well in both English- and French-speaking samples. Statistically significant DIF was found for 3 of 9 items on the PHQ-9. However, the overall estimate in depression latent scores between English- and French-speaking respondents was not influenced substantively by DIF.Although there were several PHQ-9 items with evidence of minor DIF, there was no evidence that these differences influenced overall scores meaningfully. The PHQ-9 can reasonably be used without adjustment in Canadian English- and French-speaking samples. Analyses assessing measurement equivalence should be routinely conducted prior to pooling data from English and French versions of patient-reported outcome measures.

  19. Confirmatory factor analysis of 12-Item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule in patients with musculoskeletal pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Mattie, Ryan; McCormick, Zachary; Laimi, Katri

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the factor structure of the 12 item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0. Cross-sectional cohort survey study. Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine outpatient university clinic. The 408 consecutive patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. A two-factor model most accurately fit the observed data of musculoskeletal pain patients (root mean square error of approximation 0.049, relative Chi square value 1.99). Twelve WHODAS 2.0 items were distributed between two factors with covariance between them of 0.8. The first factor contained domains related mostly to physical functioning, while another was associated mostly with social and cognitive functioning. There were a few differences between single items in their importance in defining the variance within these two factors. Of the six International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains belonging to the first construct, the ability to carry out household responsibilities explained most, 84% of the total variance in this construct. For the second factor, the ability to participate in community activities seemed to be the most important, explaining 85% of the total variance in this construct. In this study, the two-factor structure model of the 12-item WODAS 2.0 demonstrated the most accurate fit within patients with musculoskeletal pain conditions.

  20. Performance of the biological rhythms interview for assessment in neuropsychiatry: An item response theory and actigraphy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allega, Olivia R; Leng, Xiamin; Vaccarino, Anthony; Skelly, Matthew; Lanzini, Mariana; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Soares, Claudio N; Kennedy, Sidney H; Frey, Benicio N

    2018-01-01

    Biological rhythm disturbances are widely associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders. The Biological Rhythms Interview for Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN) is a self-report that indexes rhythm disturbance in sleep, activity, social and eating patterns. The aim of this study was to perform an Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis of the BRIAN and investigate its associations with objective sleep and rhythm disturbance measures. 103 subjects (31 bipolar, 32 major depression and 40 healthy volunteers) wore an actiwatch for fifteen days, and completed a first morning urine sample and the BRIAN on day 15. IRT analysis assessed individual BRIAN items and their relationship to total score. Individual actiwatch records were processed to produce a sequence of transitions between rest/activity, and a likelihood of transitioning between states was calculated to investigate sleep-wake dynamics. Cosinor analysis produced daily activity rhythms (DARs). Spearman correlations were used to assess the association between sleep/DAR variables and the BRIAN. IRT analyses showed that 11 of 18 BRIAN items displayed a high level of discrimination between item options across a range of BRIAN total scores. Total BRIAN score correlated with wake after sleep onset, total activity count during sleep, and urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin. BRIAN Activity domain correlated with the daytime transition probability from rest to activity. The sample size may have been underpowered for the graded-response model employed in IRT. The study lacked an objective comparison for BRIAN eating and social domain. The present study reveals the BRIAN displays promising external validity compared to objective parameters of circadian rhythmicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Structural Assessment of the 30-Item Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children and Its Relations to Anxiety Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Holm, Jon Måløv

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical models of anxiety have been developed in adult populations. The applicability of these models in child samples has been assessed using downward extensions of the questionnaires developed to assess the proposed theoretical mechanisms. This poses a challenge, as children are still...... in the process of developing the skills that are being assessed. Psychometrically sound assessment tools are therefore needed for this developing population, in order to ensure the early detection of mechanisms leading to anxiety disorders in children. This study examined if metacognitions, which play a key role...... in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in adults, can also be reliably assessed in childhood. The study investigated the psychometric properties of the 30-item Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children (MCQ-C₃₀; Gerlach, Adam, Marschke, & Melfsen, 2008) in a national sample of 974 children and adolescents (538...

  2. Assessing the discriminating power of item and test scores in the linear factor-analysis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere J. Ferrando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las propuestas rigurosas y basadas en un modelo psicométrico para estudiar el impreciso concepto de "capacidad discriminativa" son escasas y generalmente limitadas a los modelos no-lineales para items binarios. En este artículo se propone un marco general para evaluar la capacidad discriminativa de las puntuaciones en ítems y tests que son calibrados mediante el modelo de un factor común. La propuesta se organiza en torno a tres criterios: (a tipo de puntuación, (b rango de discriminación y (c aspecto específico que se evalúa. Dentro del marco propuesto: (a se discuten las relaciones entre 16 medidas, de las cuales 6 parecen ser nuevas, y (b se estudian las relaciones entre ellas. La utilidad de la propuesta en las aplicaciones psicométricas que usan el modelo factorial se ilustra mediante un ejemplo empírico.

  3. Development of a simple 12-item theory-based instrument to assess the impact of continuing professional development on clinical behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, France; Borduas, Francine; Freitas, Adriana; Jacques, André; Godin, Gaston; Luconi, Francesca; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Decision-makers in organizations providing continuing professional development (CPD) have identified the need for routine assessment of its impact on practice. We sought to develop a theory-based instrument for evaluating the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions. Our multipronged study had four phases. 1) We systematically reviewed the literature for instruments that used socio-cognitive theories to assess healthcare professionals' clinically-oriented behavioral intentions and/or behaviors; we extracted items relating to the theoretical constructs of an integrated model of healthcare professionals' behaviors and removed duplicates. 2) A committee of researchers and CPD decision-makers selected a pool of items relevant to CPD. 3) An international group of experts (n = 70) reached consensus on the most relevant items using electronic Delphi surveys. 4) We created a preliminary instrument with the items found most relevant and assessed its factorial validity, internal consistency and reliability (weighted kappa) over a two-week period among 138 physicians attending a CPD activity. Out of 72 potentially relevant instruments, 47 were analyzed. Of the 1218 items extracted from these, 16% were discarded as improperly phrased and 70% discarded as duplicates. Mapping the remaining items onto the constructs of the integrated model of healthcare professionals' behaviors yielded a minimum of 18 and a maximum of 275 items per construct. The partnership committee retained 61 items covering all seven constructs. Two iterations of the Delphi process produced consensus on a provisional 40-item questionnaire. Exploratory factorial analysis following test-retest resulted in a 12-item questionnaire. Cronbach's coefficients for the constructs varied from 0.77 to 0.85. A 12-item theory-based instrument for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions showed adequate validity and reliability

  4. Development of a simple 12-item theory-based instrument to assess the impact of continuing professional development on clinical behavioral intentions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Légaré

    Full Text Available Decision-makers in organizations providing continuing professional development (CPD have identified the need for routine assessment of its impact on practice. We sought to develop a theory-based instrument for evaluating the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions.Our multipronged study had four phases. 1 We systematically reviewed the literature for instruments that used socio-cognitive theories to assess healthcare professionals' clinically-oriented behavioral intentions and/or behaviors; we extracted items relating to the theoretical constructs of an integrated model of healthcare professionals' behaviors and removed duplicates. 2 A committee of researchers and CPD decision-makers selected a pool of items relevant to CPD. 3 An international group of experts (n = 70 reached consensus on the most relevant items using electronic Delphi surveys. 4 We created a preliminary instrument with the items found most relevant and assessed its factorial validity, internal consistency and reliability (weighted kappa over a two-week period among 138 physicians attending a CPD activity. Out of 72 potentially relevant instruments, 47 were analyzed. Of the 1218 items extracted from these, 16% were discarded as improperly phrased and 70% discarded as duplicates. Mapping the remaining items onto the constructs of the integrated model of healthcare professionals' behaviors yielded a minimum of 18 and a maximum of 275 items per construct. The partnership committee retained 61 items covering all seven constructs. Two iterations of the Delphi process produced consensus on a provisional 40-item questionnaire. Exploratory factorial analysis following test-retest resulted in a 12-item questionnaire. Cronbach's coefficients for the constructs varied from 0.77 to 0.85.A 12-item theory-based instrument for assessing the impact of CPD activities on health professionals' clinical behavioral intentions showed adequate validity and

  5. A study on the establishment of safety assessment guidelines of commercial grade item dedication in digitalized safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H. S.; Kim, B. R.; Oh, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Because of obsolescing the components used in safety related systems of nuclear power plants, decreasing the number of suppliers qualified for the nuclear QA program and increasing maintenance costs of them, utilities have been considering to use commercial grade digital computers as an alternative for resolving such issues. However, commercial digital computers use the embedded pre-existing software, including operating system software, which are not developed by using nuclear grade QA program. Thus, it is necessary for utilities to establish processes for dedicating digital commercial grade items. A regulatory body also needs guidance to evaluate the digital commercial products properly. This paper surveyed the regulations and their regulatory guides, which establish the requirements for commercial grade items dedication, industry standards and guidances applicable to safety related systems. This paper provides some guidelines to be applied in evaluating the safety of digital upgrades and new digital plant protection systems in Korea

  6. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute...... that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited......Abstract A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends...

  7. Item response modeling: a psychometric assessment of the children's fruit, vegetable, water, and physical activity self-efficacy scales among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C

    2017-09-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy scales (i.e., self-efficacy for fruit (FSE), vegetable (VSE), and water (WSE) intakes, and physical activity (PASE)) and to investigate their differences in item functioning across sex, age, and body weight status groups using item response modeling (IRM) and differential item functioning (DIF). Four self-efficacy scales were administrated to 763 Hong Kong Chinese children (55.2% boys) aged 8-13 years. Classical test theory (CTT) was used to examine the reliability and factorial validity of scales. IRM was conducted and DIF analyses were performed to assess the characteristics of item parameter estimates on the basis of children's sex, age and body weight status. All self-efficacy scales demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.79-0.91). One FSE misfit item and one PASE misfit item were detected. Small DIF were found for all the scale items across children's age groups. Items with medium to large DIF were detected in different sex and body weight status groups, which will require modification. A Wright map revealed that items covered the range of the distribution of participants' self-efficacy for each scale except VSE. Several self-efficacy scales' items functioned differently by children's sex and body weight status. Additional research is required to modify the four self-efficacy scales to minimize these moderating influences for application.

  8. [Assessment of criminal responsibility in paraphilic disorder. Can the severity of the disorder be assessed with items of standardized prognostic instruments?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briken, P; Müller, J L

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of the severity of paraphilic disorders is an important aspect of psychiatric court reports for assessing criminal responsibility and placement in a forensic psychiatric hospital according to the German penal code (§§ 20, 21, 63 StGB). The minimum requirements for appraisal of criminal responsibility published by an interdisciplinary working group under the guidance of the German Federal Court of Justice define the standards for this procedure. This paper presents a research concept that aims to assess the severity of paraphilic disorders by using items of standardized prognostic instruments. In addition to a formal diagnosis according to the international classification of diseases (ICD) and the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental diseases (DSM) criteria, the items "deviant sexual interests" and "sexual preoccupations" from the prognosis instrument Stable 2007 are used to assess the severity of paraphilic disorders. Other criteria, such as "relationship deficits" are used to support the appraisal of the severity of the disorder. The items "sexual preoccupation", "emotional collapse" and "collapse of social support" from the prognosis instrument Acute 2007 are used to assess the capacity for self-control. In a next step the validity and reliability of this concept will be tested.

  9. Multilevel Item Response Modeling: Applications to Large-Scale Assessment of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    The call for standards-based reform and educational accountability has led to increased attention to large-scale assessments. Over the past two decades, large-scale assessments have been providing policymakers and educators with timely information about student learning and achievement to facilitate their decisions regarding schools, teachers and…

  10. Neonatal Facial Coding System for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Infants: Item Reduction is Valid and Feasible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.W.B.; Koot, H.M.; Grunau, R.E.; Boer, J. de; Druenen, M.J. van; Tibboel, D.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the validity of the Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) for assessment of postoperative pain and (2) explore whether the number of NFCS facial actions could be reduced for assessing postoperative pain. Design: Prospective, observational

  11. Why sample selection matters in exploratory factor analysis: implications for the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Lambert, Sylvie D; Bowe, Steven J; Orellana, Liliana

    2017-03-11

    Sample selection can substantially affect the solutions generated using exploratory factor analysis. Validation studies of the 12-item World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) have generally involved samples in which substantial proportions of people had no, or minimal, disability. With the WHODAS 2.0 oriented towards measuring disability across six life domains (cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, life activities, and participation in society), performing factor analysis with samples of people with disability may be more appropriate. We determined the influence of the sampling strategy on (a) the number of factors extracted and (b) the factor structure of the WHODAS 2.0. Using data from adults aged 50+ from the six countries in Wave 1 of the WHO's longitudinal Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), we repeatedly selected samples (n = 750) using two strategies: (1) simple random sampling that reproduced nationally representative distributions of WHODAS 2.0 summary scores for each country (i.e., positively skewed distributions with many zero scores indicating the absence of disability), and (2) stratified random sampling with weights designed to obtain approximately symmetric distributions of summary scores for each country (i.e. predominantly including people with varying degrees of disability). Samples with skewed distributions typically produced one-factor solutions, except for the two countries with the lowest percentages of zero scores, in which the majority of samples produced two factors. Samples with approximately symmetric distributions, generally produced two- or three-factor solutions. In the two-factor solutions, the getting along domain items loaded on one factor (commonly with a cognition domain item), with remaining items loading on a second factor. In the three-factor solutions, the getting along and self-care domain items loaded separately on two factors and three other domains

  12. Why sample selection matters in exploratory factor analysis: implications for the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadeyrn J. Gaskin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sample selection can substantially affect the solutions generated using exploratory factor analysis. Validation studies of the 12-item World Health Organization (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0 have generally involved samples in which substantial proportions of people had no, or minimal, disability. With the WHODAS 2.0 oriented towards measuring disability across six life domains (cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, life activities, and participation in society, performing factor analysis with samples of people with disability may be more appropriate. We determined the influence of the sampling strategy on (a the number of factors extracted and (b the factor structure of the WHODAS 2.0. Methods Using data from adults aged 50+ from the six countries in Wave 1 of the WHO’s longitudinal Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE, we repeatedly selected samples (n = 750 using two strategies: (1 simple random sampling that reproduced nationally representative distributions of WHODAS 2.0 summary scores for each country (i.e., positively skewed distributions with many zero scores indicating the absence of disability, and (2 stratified random sampling with weights designed to obtain approximately symmetric distributions of summary scores for each country (i.e. predominantly including people with varying degrees of disability. Results Samples with skewed distributions typically produced one-factor solutions, except for the two countries with the lowest percentages of zero scores, in which the majority of samples produced two factors. Samples with approximately symmetric distributions, generally produced two- or three-factor solutions. In the two-factor solutions, the getting along domain items loaded on one factor (commonly with a cognition domain item, with remaining items loading on a second factor. In the three-factor solutions, the getting along and self-care domain items loaded separately

  13. The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Psychopathology Basic Questionnaire: shortened versions item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Àngel; Blanco, Eduardo; Martí-Guiu, Maite; Balada, Ferran

    2015-01-13

    This study has been designed to evaluate and replicate the psychometric properties of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Psychopathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) and the DAPP-BQ short form (DAPP-SF) in a large Spanish general population sample. Additionally, we have generated a reduced form called DAPP-90, using a strategy based on a structural equation modeling (SEM) methodology in two independent samples, a calibration and a validation sample. The DAPP-90 scales obtained a more satisfactory fit on SEM adjustment values (average: TLI > .97 and RMSEA assessment of patients in hospital consultation or in brief psychological assessments.

  14. Psychometric Properties and Responsiveness to Change of 15- and 28-Item Versions of the SCORE: A Family Assessment Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Elena; Carr, Alan; Cahill, Paul; Cassells, Ciara; Hartnett, Dan

    2015-09-01

    The SCORE (Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation) is a 40-item questionnaire for completion by family members 12 years and older to assess outcome in systemic therapy. This study aimed to investigate psychometric properties of two short versions of the SCORE and their responsiveness to therapeutic change. Data were collected at 19 centers from 701 families at baseline and from 433 of these 3-5 months later. Results confirmed the three-factor structure (strengths, difficulties, and communication) of the 15- and 28-item versions of the SCORE. Both instruments had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. They also showed construct and criterion validity, correlating with measures of parent, child, and family adjustment, and discriminating between clinical and nonclinical cases. Total and factor scales of the SCORE-15 and -28 were responsive to change over 3-5 months of therapy. The SCORE-15 and SCORE-28 are brief psychometrically robust family assessment instruments which may be used to evaluate systemic therapy. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  15. Examination of validity of fall risk assessment items for screening high fall risk elderly among the healthy community-dwelling Japanese population

    OpenAIRE

    DEMURA, Shinichi; SATO, Susumu; YAMAJI, Shunsuke; KASUGA, Kosho; NAGASAWA, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine the validity of fall risk assessment items for the healthy community-dwelling elderly Japanese population. Participants were 1122 healthy elderly individuals aged 60 years and over (380 males and 742 females). The percentage who had experienced a fall was 15.8%. This study used fall experience and 50 fall risk assessment items representing the five risk factors (symptoms of falling, physical function, disease and physical symptom, environment, and behavior and character), ...

  16. e-GovQual: A Multiple-Item Scale for Assessing e-Government Service Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadomichelaki, Xenia; Mentzas, Gregoris

    2012-01-01

    A critical element in the evolution of governmental services through the internet is the development of sites that better serve the citizens' needs. To deliver superior service quality, we must first understand how citizens perceive and evaluate online. Citizen assessment is built on defining quality, identifying underlying dimensions, and…

  17. Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey (BHNAS): Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    consistent across the history of the project. Since the first BHNAS administration, the primary target population for the survey has been Navy...to select any of the following: • Over-the-counter drugs (including Aspirin , Tylenol, Motrin, Ibuprofen, Aleve) • Prescription painkillers that...O 2. Have chronic pain, but taking no medications. O 3. Over-the-counter drugs (including Aspirin , Tylenol, Motrin, Ibuprofen, Aleve). O 4

  18. Students generate items for an online formative assessment : Is it motivating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Rianne; de Kleijn, Renske A M; van Rijen, Harold V M; van Tartwijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background: A reported problem with e-learning is sustaining students’ motivation. We propose a framework explaining to what extent an e-learning task is motivating. This framework includes students’ perceived Value of the task, Competence in executing the task, Autonomy over how to carry out the

  19. Assessing cross-cultural item bias in questionnaires : Acculturation and the Measurement of Social Support and Family Cohesion for Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, Dianne A. van; Baerveldt, Chris; Vermande, Marjolijn

    2001-01-01

    Amethod is presented for evaluating the presence and size of cross-cultural item biases. The examined items concern parental support and family cohesion in a Likert-type questionnaire for adolescents in The Netherlands. Each evaluated item has two versions, a collectivist and an individualistic one,

  20. OPTIONS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AT NATIONAL, EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA SAMARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of evaluation is to determine the financial position and the outcome of the entity’s activity. With the intensification of the phenomena of globalization of economies and financial markets and the emergence of phenomena such as inflation, it began to be more often used the assessment based on the current value and, in particular, on the fair value. The users of the financial statements must always be taken into when selecting a basis of evaluation. Internationally, we can observe the tendency that, by the use of a certain bases of evaluation, to respond favourably to the needs of a various range of users; a balance must be assured between the relevance of the information (their usefulness in decision-making and their reliability (their objectivity.

  1. Complement or Contamination: A Study of the Validity of Multiple-Choice Items when Assessing Reasoning Skills in Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Jönsson; David Rosenlund; Fredrik Alvén

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity of using multiple-choice (MC) items as a complement to constructed-response (CR) items when making decisions about student performance on reasoning tasks. CR items from a national test in physics have been reformulated into MC items and students’ reasoning skills have been analyzed in two substudies. In the first study, 12 students answered the MC items and were asked to explain their answers orally. In the second study, 102 students fr...

  2. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for a carrier's day-to-day interstate operations. Class A carriers may calculate a cash working capital... study or using the formula in paragraph (e) of this section, may calculate the cash working capital...

  3. Differential item functioning by language on the PROMIS®physical functioning items for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron D; Calderón, José Luis; Spritzer, Karen L; Reise, Steve P; Paz, Sylvia H

    2018-01-01

    To assess the equivalence of self-reports of physical functioning between pediatric respondents to the English- and Spanish-language patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS ® ) physical functioning item banks. The PROMIS pediatric physical functioning item banks include 29 upper extremity items and 23 mobility items. A sample of 5091 children and adolescents (mean age = 12 years, range 8-17; 49% male) completed the English-language version of the items. A sample of 605 children and adolescents (mean age = 12 years, range 8-17; 55% male; 96% Hispanic) completed the Spanish-language version of the items. We found language (English versus Spanish) differential item functioning (DIF) for 4 upper extremity items and 7 mobility items. Product-moment correlations between estimated upper extremity and mobility scores using the English versus the equated Spanish item parameters for Spanish-language respondents were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. After excluding cases with significant person misfit, we found DIF for the same 4 upper extremity items that had DIF in the full sample and for 12 mobility items (including the same 7 mobility items that had DIF in the full sample). The identification of DIF items between English- and Spanish-language respondents was affected slightly by excluding respondents displaying person misfit. The results of this study provide support for measurement equivalence of self-reports of physical functioning by children and adolescents who completed the English- and Spanish-language surveys. Future analyses are needed to replicate the results of this study in other samples.

  4. Proposta de um instrumento de medida para avaliar a satisfação de clientes de bancos utilizando a Teoria da Resposta ao Item Proposal of tool to assess the satisfaction of bank customers using the Item Response Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Balbim Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um instrumento de medida para avaliação da satisfação de clientes de bancos utilizando a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI. Satisfazer os clientes tem sido uma busca constante das organizações que procuram manterem-se competitivas no mercado. Estudos constatam a relação entre a qualidade percebida pelos clientes, a satisfação e fidelidade. A avaliação da satisfação pode ser realizada por meio da qualidade percebida pelos clientes e a construção de ferramentas de avaliação deve contemplar características específicas da atividade em questão. Embasando-se em artigos que avaliam a satisfação de clientes de bancos, propõe-se um instrumento formado por 29 itens. Os itens foram aplicados a 240 clientes a fim de avaliar a satisfação com o banco de maior relacionamento. Utilizando a Teoria da Resposta ao Item, foram identificados os parâmetros dos itens e a curva de informação. A análise do grau de discriminação dos itens indicou que todos são apropriados. A curva de informação obtida evidenciou o intervalo no qual o instrumento apresenta melhores estimativas para níveis de satisfação. O trabalho apresentou o nível médio de satisfação da amostra e a concentração de clientes nos diferentes níveis de satisfação da escala.This paper presents a model for assessing the satisfaction of bank customers using the Item Response Theory (IRT. Organizations are constantly making effort to satisfy customers seeking to remain competitive. Several studies have reported on the relationship between perceived quality, satisfaction, and loyalty. The assessment of satisfaction can be accomplished through the perceived quality, and the development of assessment tools should address specific features of the activity in question. Based on articles that assess the satisfaction of bank customers, this study proposes an assessment tool consisting of 29 items. The items were applied to 240 clients to assess their

  5. Bipolar Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiguchi Sumiyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article asserts that the Japanese wide-scope mo ‘even’ in simple sentences are bipolar items (BPIs antilicensed or forbidden by negation and licensed in a non-monotonic (NM environment. BPIs share the features of negative polarity items (NPIs as well as positive polarity items (PPIs. The Dutch ooit ‘ever’, the Serbo-Croatian i-series ‘and/even’, and the Hungarian is-series ‘and/even’ are antilicensed by clausemate negation and licensed by extraclausal negation (van der Wouden, 1997; Progovac, 1994; Szabolcsi, 2002 or non-monotonic negative (and positive, for Serbo-Croatian emotive predicates. Adding an NPI rescues BPIs in uncomfortable clausemate negation.

  6. Using Procedure Based on Item Response Theory to Evaluate Classification Consistency Indices in the Practice of Large-Scale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the growing interest in the methods of evaluating the classification consistency (CC indices, only few researches are available in the field of applying these methods in the practice of large-scale educational assessment. In addition, only few studies considered the influence of practical factors, for example, the examinee ability distribution, the cut score location and the score scale, on the performance of CC indices. Using the newly developed Lee's procedure based on the item response theory (IRT, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of CC indices when practical factors are taken into consideration. A simulation study and an empirical study were conducted under comprehensive conditions. Results suggested that with negatively skewed distribution, the CC indices were larger than with other distributions. Interactions occurred among ability distribution, cut score location, and score scale. Consequently, Lee's IRT procedure is reliable to be used in the field of large-scale educational assessment, and when reporting the indices, it should be treated with caution as testing conditions may vary a lot.

  7. Short Scales for the Assessment of Personality Traits: Development and Validation of the Portuguese Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Nunes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI, a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39–0.72, very good 4-week test–retest reliability (n = 81, rs > 0.71, expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory (rs > 0.60, and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited.

  8. Assessment of Fatigue in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Psychometric Comparison of Single-item, Multiitem, and Multidimensional Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, M.A.H.; Klooster, P.M. ten; Bode, C.; Vonkeman, H.E.; Glas, C.A.; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Albada-Kuipers, I. van; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Laar, M.A. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychometric functioning of multidimensional disease-specific, multiitem generic, and single-item measures of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and longitudinal item response theory (IRT) modeling were used to

  9. Assessment of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis: a psychometric comparison of single-item, multiitem, and multidimensional measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Antonius H.; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Bode, Christina; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Jansen, Tim; van Albeda-Kuijpers, Iet; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychometric functioning of multidimensional disease-specific, multiitem generic, and single-item measures of fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and longitudinal item response theory (IRT) modeling were used to

  10. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting.Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers.Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined.Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  11. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting. Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers. Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined. Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  12. A study of the psychometric properties of 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 in a large population of people with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Bärlund, Esa; Mattie, Ryan; McCormick, Zachary; Paltamaa, Jaana; Laimi, Katri

    2017-02-01

    To assess the validity of the Finnish translation of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0). Cross-sectional cohort survey study. Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine outpatient university clinic. The 501 consecutive patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Exploratory factor analysis and a graded response model using item response theory analysis were used to assess the constructs and discrimination ability of WHODAS 2.0. The exploratory factor analysis revealed two retained factors with eigenvalues 5.15 and 1.04. Discrimination ability of all items was high or perfect, varying from 1.2 to 2.5. The difficulty levels of seven out of 12 items were shifted towards the elevated disability level. As a result, the entire test characteristic curve showed a shift towards higher levels of disability, placing it at the point of disability level of +1 (where 0 indicates the average level of disability within the sample). The present data indicate that the Finnish translation of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 is a valid instrument for measuring restrictions of activity and participation among patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

  13. Identification of Key Items Regarding Personality, Environment, and Life Events to Assess Risk and Resilience Factors for Harmful Alcohol Drinking in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol misuse often develops during adolescence involving interacting factors deriving from personality, environment and life events that can be assessed with well-established instruments. However, for specific research purposes, involving the assessment of large data sets, it may be beneficial having a short tool of key items representing the most important risk factors. We identified a set of key items from standard questionnaires assessed in about 2000 adolescents. In our longitudinal study we identified important items on personality, environment, and life events explaining alcohol drinking behaviour at the age of 14 years and the increase of alcohol consumption 2 years later. The key items explained 33.4% of variance in alcohol drinking behaviour (vs. 34.8% for original battery) and can be completed in six minutes. Our item list represents a powerful easy-to-use tool for the examination of alcohol drinking behaviour in adolescents. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Item level diagnostics and model - data fit in item response theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response data. Item-level modeling gives IRT advantages over classical test theory. The fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) models is a necessary condition that must be assessed for further use of item and models that best fit ...

  15. Dysphagia Assessed by the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool Is Associated with Nutritional Status and Activities of Daily Living in Elderly Individuals Requiring Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, H; Matsushima, M

    2016-01-01

    The 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) is a self-administered questionnaire for dysphagia screening, with each item scored from 0 to 4. We assessed the associations among the EAT-10 score, nutritional status and activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly individuals requiring long-term care. Cross-sectional study. Geriatric health services facilities, acute hospitals, and the community. Elderly individuals ≥65 years of age with dysphagia or possible dysphagia (N=237). The EAT-10, the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and the Barthel Index. There were 90 males and 147 females. Mean age was 82 ± 8 years. Eighty-nine were in geriatric health services facilities, 28 were in acute hospitals, and 120 were community-dwelling. The median Barthel Index score was 55 (interquartile range: 25, 80). The median EAT-10 score was 1 (interquartile range: 0, 9), and 101 respondents a score > 3, indicating the presence of dysphagia. The MNA-SF revealed that 81 were malnourished, 117 were at risk of malnutrition, and 39 had a normal nutritional status. The Barthel Index score and MNA-SF score were significantly lower in those with an EAT-10 score between 3 and 40, compared to those with an EAT-10 score between 0 and 2. The EAT-10 has an independent effect on the Barthel Index and the MNA-SF by adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, and setting in multiple regression analysis. Dysphagia assessed by the EAT-10 is associated with nutritional status and ADL in elderly individuals requiring long-term care.

  16. Dimensionality and item-difficulty hierarchy of the lower-extremity Fugl-Meyer assessment in individuals with sub-acute and chronic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K.; Li, Chih-Ying; Bowden, Mark G.; Duncan, Pamela W.; Kautz, Steven A.; Velozo, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dimensionality and item-difficulty hierarchy of the lower extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA-LE). Design Secondary analyses of data pooled from four existing datasets: a Phase III randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of body weight support and a treadmill for rehabilitation of walking post-stroke and three cross-sectional studies investigating the link between impaired motor performance post-stroke and walking. Setting University research centers and rehabilitation centers. Participants A pooled sample of 535 individuals with a stroke (age = 61.91 ± 12.42 years; male = 313). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and Rasch residual Principal component analysis (PCA) investigated the dimensionality of the FMA-LE. The Rasch analysis rating scale model (RSM) investigated item-difficulty hierarchy of the FMA-LE. Results The CFA showed adequate fit of a three-factor model with 2/3 indices (CFA = 0.95; TLI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.124) showing good model fit. Rasch PCA showed that removal of the reflex and coordination items explained 90.8% of variance in the data, suggesting that the abnormal synergy items contributed to the measurement of a unidimensional construct. However, RSM results revealed deviations in the item-difficulty hierarchy of the unidimensional abnormal synergy items from the originally proposed stepwise sequence of motor recovery. Conclusion(s) Our findings suggest that the FMA-LE might represent a multidimensional construct challenging the use of a total score of the FMA-LE to predict lower extremity motor recovery. Removal of the misfit items resulted in creation of a unidimensional scale comprised of the abnormal synergy items. However, this unidimensional scale deviates from the originally proposed hierarchical ordering. PMID:26740065

  17. Dimensionality and Item-Difficulty Hierarchy of the Lower Extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment in Individuals With Subacute and Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K; Li, Chih-Ying; Bowden, Mark G; Duncan, Pamela W; Kautz, Steven A; Velozo, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the dimensionality and item-difficulty hierarchy of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the lower extremity (FMA-LE). Secondary analyses of data pooled from 4 existing datasets: a phase III randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of body weight support and a treadmill for rehabilitation of walking poststroke, and 3 cross-sectional studies investigating the link between impaired motor performance poststroke and walking. University research centers and rehabilitation centers. A pooled sample of individuals with a stroke (N=535, men=313; mean age ± SD, 61.91±12.42y). Not applicable. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and Rasch residual principal component analysis (PCA) investigated the dimensionality of the FMA-LE. The Rasch analysis rating scale model investigated item-difficulty hierarchy of the FMA-LE. The CFA showed adequate fit of a 3-factor model, with 2 out of 3 indices (CFA=.95; Tucker-Lewis Index=.94; root mean square error of approximation=.124) showing good model fit. Rasch PCA showed that removal of the reflex and coordination items explained 90.8% of variance in the data, suggesting that the abnormal synergy items contributed to the measurement of a unidimensional construct. However, rating scale model results revealed deviations in the item-difficulty hierarchy of the unidimensional abnormal synergy items from the originally proposed stepwise sequence of motor recovery. Our findings suggest that the FMA-LE might represent a multidimensional construct, challenging the use of a total score of the FMA-LE to predict lower extremity motor recovery. Removal of the misfit items resulted in creation of a unidimensional scale composed of the abnormal synergy items. However, this unidimensional scale deviates from the originally proposed hierarchical ordering. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The use of an item response theory-based disability item bank across diseases: accounting for differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A; Vermeulen, Marinus; De Haan, Rob J

    2010-05-01

    There is not a single universally accepted activity of daily living (ADL) instrument available to compare disability assessments across different patient groups. We developed a generic item bank of ADL items using item response theory, the Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Scale (ALDS). When comparing outcomes of the ALDS between patients groups, item characteristics of the ALDS should be comparable across groups. The aim of the study was to assess the differential item functioning (DIF) in a group of patients with various disorders to investigate the comparability across these groups. Cross-sectional, multicenter study including 1,283 in- and outpatients with a variety of disorders and disability levels. The sample was divided in two groups: (1) mainly neurological patients (n=497; vascular medicine, Parkinson's disease and neuromuscular disorders) and (2) patients from internal medicine (n=786; pulmonary diseases, chronic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and geriatric patients). Eighteen of 72 ALDS items showed statistically significant DIF (P<0.01). However, the DIF could effectively be modeled by the introduction of disease-specific parameters. In the subgroups studied, DIF could be modeled in such a way that the ensemble of the items comprised a scale applicable in both groups.

  19. Assessing the Equivalence of Paper, Mobile Phone, and Tablet Survey Responses at a Community Mental Health Center Using Equivalent Halves of a 'Gold-Standard' Depression Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodey, Benjamin B; Gonzalez, Nicole L; Elkin, Kathryn Ann; Sasiela, W Jordan; Brodey, Inger S

    2017-09-06

    The computerized administration of self-report psychiatric diagnostic and outcomes assessments has risen in popularity. If results are similar enough across different administration modalities, then new administration technologies can be used interchangeably and the choice of technology can be based on other factors, such as convenience in the study design. An assessment based on item response theory (IRT), such as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) depression item bank, offers new possibilities for assessing the effect of technology choice upon results. To create equivalent halves of the PROMIS depression item bank and to use these halves to compare survey responses and user satisfaction among administration modalities-paper, mobile phone, or tablet-with a community mental health care population. The 28 PROMIS depression items were divided into 2 halves based on content and simulations with an established PROMIS response data set. A total of 129 participants were recruited from an outpatient public sector mental health clinic based in Memphis. All participants took both nonoverlapping halves of the PROMIS IRT-based depression items (Part A and Part B): once using paper and pencil, and once using either a mobile phone or tablet. An 8-cell randomization was done on technology used, order of technologies used, and order of PROMIS Parts A and B. Both Parts A and B were administered as fixed-length assessments and both were scored using published PROMIS IRT parameters and algorithms. All 129 participants received either Part A or B via paper assessment. Participants were also administered the opposite assessment, 63 using a mobile phone and 66 using a tablet. There was no significant difference in item response scores for Part A versus B. All 3 of the technologies yielded essentially identical assessment results and equivalent satisfaction levels. Our findings show that the PROMIS depression assessment can be divided into 2 equivalent

  20. Improving the Reliability of Student Scores from Speeded Assessments: An Illustration of Conditional Item Response Theory Using a Computer-Administered Measure of Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison M.; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that response latency, the amount of time it takes an individual to respond to an item, may be an important factor to consider when using assessment data to estimate the ability of an individual. Considering that tests of passage and list fluency are being adapted to a computer administration format, it is…

  1. Psychometric Validation of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0-Twelve-Item Version in Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Ruiz, Derek; Mohr, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the factorial and concurrent validity and internal consistency reliability of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) 12-item version in persons with spinal cord injuries. Method: Two hundred forty-seven adults with spinal cord injuries completed an online survey consisting of the WHODAS…

  2. Differential Item Functioning Comparisons on a Performance-Based Alternate Assessment for Students with Severe Cognitive Impairments, Autism and Orthopedic Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitusis, Cara Cahalan; Maneckshana, Behroz; Monfils, Lora; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by disability groups on an on-demand performance assessment for students with severe cognitive impairments. Researchers examined the presence of DIF for two comparisons. One comparison involved students with severe cognitive impairments who served as the reference group…

  3. An approach to include soil carbon changes in life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjorn Molt; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Globally, soil carbon sequestration is expected to hold a major potential to mitigate agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. However, the majority of life cycle assessments (LCA) of agricultural products have not included possible changes in soil carbon sequestration. In the present study, a method...... production in China. The suggested approach considers the time of the soil CO2 emissions for the LCA by including the Bern Carbon Cycle Model. Time perspectives of 20,100 and 200 years are used and a soil depth of 0-100 cm is considered. The application of the suggested method showed that the results were...... to estimate carbon sequestration to be included in LCA is suggested and applied to two examples where the inclusion of carbon sequestration is especially relevant: 1) Bioenergy: removal of straw from a Danish soil for energy purposes and 2) Organic versus conventional farming: comparative study of soybean...

  4. Weighting of items in a tutorial performance evaluation instrument ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weighting of items in an evaluation instrument contributes to more meaningful and valid interpretations of student performance in respect of each learning outcome or item being assessed. It follows that the validity of instruments is important for meaningful inferences about students' learning performance, including their ...

  5. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  6. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Riley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. Methods We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. Results We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA. We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Conclusion Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health

  7. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  8. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  9. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  10. The challenges of including impacts on biodiversity in agricultural life cycle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Vanessa M; Meier, Matthias S; Köpke, Ulrich; Stolze, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture is considered to be one of the main drivers for worldwide biodiversity loss but the impacts of agricultural production on biodiversity have not been extensively considered in Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs). Recent realisation that biodiversity impact should be included in comprehensive LCAs has led to attempts to develop and implement methods for biodiversity impact assessment. In this review, twenty-two different biodiversity impact assessment methods have been analysed to identify their strengths and weaknesses in terms of their comprehensiveness in the evaluation of agricultural products. Different criteria, which had to meet the specific requirements of biodiversity research, life cycle assessment methodology, and the evaluation of agricultural products, were selected to investigate the identified methods. Very few of the methods were developed with the specific intention of being used for agricultural LCAs. Furthermore, none of the methods can be applied globally while at the same time being able to differentiate between various agricultural intensities. Global value chains and the increasing awareness of different biodiversity impacts of agricultural production systems demand the development of evaluation methods that are able to overcome these shortcomings. Despite the progress that has already been achieved, there are still unresolved difficulties which need further research and improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  12. Assessment of chromium(VI) release from 848 jewellery items by use of a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Hamann, Dathan

    2016-01-01

    We recently evaluated and validated a diphenylcarbazide(DPC)-based screening spot test that can detect the release of chromium(VI) ions (≥0.5 ppm) from various metallic items and leather goods (1). We then screened a selection of metal screws, leather shoes, and gloves, as well as 50 earrings...

  13. Differential Item Functioning Assessment in Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling: Application of the Wald Test to Investigate DIF in the DINA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Likun; de la Torre, Jimmy; Nandakumar, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing examinees' responses using cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) has the advantage of providing diagnostic information. To ensure the validity of the results from these models, differential item functioning (DIF) in CDMs needs to be investigated. In this article, the Wald test is proposed to examine DIF in the context of CDMs. This study…

  14. Interventions for rosacea: abridged updated Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic facial dermatosis. This update of our Cochrane review on interventions for rosacea summarizes the evidence, including Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group assessments, of the effects of the currently available treatments. Searches included the following: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Science Citation Index, and ongoing trials registries (July 2014). We included 106 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 13 631 participants, a more than 80% increase since the last update in 2011. Pooling of data was feasible for a few outcomes, for topical metronidazole and azelaic acid and both appeared to be more effective than placebo (moderate and high-quality evidence, respectively). Topical ivermectin was more effective than placebo based on two studies (high-quality evidence), and slightly more effective than metronidazole in one study. Brimonidine was more effective than vehicle in reducing erythema in rosacea (high-quality evidence). Ciclosporin ophthalmic emulsion was effective for ocular rosacea (low-quality evidence). For oral treatments there was moderate-quality evidence for the effectiveness of tetracycline based on two old studies, and high-quality evidence for doxycycline 40 mg compared with placebo according to physician assessments. One study at high risk of bias demonstrated equivalent effectiveness for azithromycin and doxycycline 100 mg. Minocycline 45 mg may be effective for papulopustular rosacea (low-quality evidence). Low-dose isotretinoin appeared to be slightly more effective than doxycycline 50-100 mg (high-quality evidence). Laser and light-based therapies for erythema in rosacea were effective (low-quality evidence). Further RCTs are required for ocular rosacea. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Use of UV-C radiation to disinfect non-critical patient care items: a laboratory assessment of the Nanoclave Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The near-patient environment is often heavily contaminated, yet the decontamination of near-patient surfaces and equipment is often poor. The Nanoclave Cabinet produces large amounts of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation (53 W/m2) and is designed to rapidly disinfect individual items of clinical equipment. Controlled laboratory studies were conducted to assess its ability to eradicate a range of potential pathogens including Clostridium difficile spores and Adenovirus from different types of surface. Methods Each test surface was inoculated with known levels of vegetative bacteria (106 cfu/cm2), C. difficile spores (102-106 cfu/cm2) or Adenovirus (109 viral genomes), placed in the Nanoclave Cabinet and exposed for up to 6 minutes to the UV-C light source. Survival of bacterial contaminants was determined via conventional cultivation techniques. Degradation of viral DNA was determined via PCR. Results were compared to the number of colonies or level of DNA recovered from non-exposed control surfaces. Experiments were repeated to incorporate organic soils and to compare the efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet to that of antimicrobial wipes. Results After exposing 8 common non-critical patient care items to two 30-second UV-C irradiation cycles, bacterial numbers on 40 of 51 target sites were consistently reduced to below detectable levels (≥ 4.7 log10 reduction). Bacterial load was reduced but still persisted on other sites. Objects that proved difficult to disinfect using the Nanoclave Cabinet (e.g. blood pressure cuff) were also difficult to disinfect using antimicrobial wipes. The efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet was not affected by the presence of organic soils. Clostridium difficile spores were more resistant to UV-C irradiation than vegetative bacteria. However, two 60-second irradiation cycles were sufficient to reduce the number of surface-associated spores from 103 cfu/cm2 to below detectable levels. A 3 log10 reduction in detectable Adenovirus DNA

  16. Use of UV-C radiation to disinfect non-critical patient care items: a laboratory assessment of the Nanoclave Cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Ginny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The near-patient environment is often heavily contaminated, yet the decontamination of near-patient surfaces and equipment is often poor. The Nanoclave Cabinet produces large amounts of ultraviolet-C (UV-C radiation (53 W/m2 and is designed to rapidly disinfect individual items of clinical equipment. Controlled laboratory studies were conducted to assess its ability to eradicate a range of potential pathogens including Clostridium difficile spores and Adenovirus from different types of surface. Methods Each test surface was inoculated with known levels of vegetative bacteria (106 cfu/cm2, C. difficile spores (102-106 cfu/cm2 or Adenovirus (109 viral genomes, placed in the Nanoclave Cabinet and exposed for up to 6 minutes to the UV-C light source. Survival of bacterial contaminants was determined via conventional cultivation techniques. Degradation of viral DNA was determined via PCR. Results were compared to the number of colonies or level of DNA recovered from non-exposed control surfaces. Experiments were repeated to incorporate organic soils and to compare the efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet to that of antimicrobial wipes. Results After exposing 8 common non-critical patient care items to two 30-second UV-C irradiation cycles, bacterial numbers on 40 of 51 target sites were consistently reduced to below detectable levels (≥ 4.7 log10 reduction. Bacterial load was reduced but still persisted on other sites. Objects that proved difficult to disinfect using the Nanoclave Cabinet (e.g. blood pressure cuff were also difficult to disinfect using antimicrobial wipes. The efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet was not affected by the presence of organic soils. Clostridium difficile spores were more resistant to UV-C irradiation than vegetative bacteria. However, two 60-second irradiation cycles were sufficient to reduce the number of surface-associated spores from 103 cfu/cm2 to below detectable levels. A 3 log10 reduction in

  17. Abuse liability assessment of tobacco products including potential reduced exposure products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P; Stitzer, Maxine L; Henningfield, Jack E; O'Connor, Rich J; Cummings, K Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2009-12-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREP). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the pre-market assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This article describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based.

  18. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  19. A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Adam, Paula; Grant, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Graham, Kathryn E; Valentine, Pamela A; Sued, Omar; Boukhris, Omar F; Al Olaqi, Nada M; Al Rahbi, Idrees S; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Bice, Sara; Heiden, Tamika L; Fischer, Michael D; Dopson, Sue; Norton, Robyn; Pollitt, Alexandra; Wooding, Steven; Balling, Gert V; Jakobsen, Ulla; Kuhlmann, Ellen; Klinge, Ineke; Pololi, Linda H; Jagsi, Reshma; Smith, Helen Lawton; Etzkowitz, Henry; Nielsen, Mathias W; Carrion, Carme; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Vizcaino, Esther; Naing, Lin; Cheok, Quentin H N; Eckelmann, Baerbel; Simuyemba, Moses C; Msiska, Temwa; Declich, Giovanna; Edmunds, Laurel D; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Buchan, Alison M J; Williamson, Catherine; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Surender, Rebecca; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-07-19

    Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action.

  20. Reliability of the qualitative behavior assessment as included in the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czycholl, I; Beilage, E Grosse; Henning, C; Krieter, J

    2017-08-01

    Positive emotions constitute a very important part of animal welfare. They are, however, also the most challenging elements to be objectively measured. Due to its feasibility, the qualitative behavior assessment (QBA) is included in the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for growing pigs as the animal-based measurement tool for positive emotions. Reliability testing on the QBA in the form as included in the protocols is, however, rare. Therefore, the present study aimed at the evaluation of the inter- and intraobserver as well as test-retest reliability of the QBA in growing pigs. This was done by trained observers based on 19 joint on-farm assessments, the repeated assessments of 24 farms during 2 growing periods, and 107 video sequences. The results were compared between the observers and the repeated farm visits. Therefore, millimeter values were directly compared by calculation of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (RS), and furthermore, the results were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA). The results identified 2 main principal components (PC; PC1 and PC2) together explaining from 42 to 75% of the variation in the recorded variables of the different PCA. The factor loadings that the adjectives reached on PC1 and PC2 were compared by calculation of RS between observers and farm visits, respectively. Reliability was interpreted as acceptable if at least a moderate correlation was detected; that is, RS was greater than or equal to 0.4. Regarding the on-farm assessments, and, therefore, under practical conditions, no sufficient interobserver reliability (RS = -0.16 for PC1 and RS = 0.13 for PC2) was found. In terms of the test-retest reliability, only 1 comparison of 2 farm visits showed a positive correlation for PC1 (RS = 0.79) as well as for PC2 (RS = 0.64). The other 5 comparisons presented negative to weak positive correlations. However, based on video sequences, good interobserver (RS = 0.67 for PC1 and RS = 0.60 for PC2) and

  1. Comparing the Effects of Different Smoothing Algorithms on the Assessment of Dimensionality of Ordered Categorical Items with Parallel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelak, Rudolf; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of polychoric correlations via principal component analysis and exploratory factor analysis are well-known approaches to determine the dimensionality of ordered categorical items. However, the application of these approaches has been considered as critical due to the possible indefiniteness of the polychoric correlation matrix. A possible solution to this problem is the application of smoothing algorithms. This study compared the effects of three smoothing algorithms, based on the Frobenius norm, the adaption of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and on minimum-trace factor analysis, on the accuracy of various variations of parallel analysis by the means of a simulation study. We simulated different datasets which varied with respect to the size of the respondent sample, the size of the item set, the underlying factor model, the skewness of the response distributions and the number of response categories in each item. We found that a parallel analysis and principal component analysis of smoothed polychoric and Pearson correlations led to the most accurate results in detecting the number of major factors in simulated datasets when compared to the other methods we investigated. Of the methods used for smoothing polychoric correlation matrices, we recommend the algorithm based on minimum trace factor analysis.

  2. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition including comparison with other nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. Other objectives of the paper are to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact plutonium disposition cost and schedule. Also to compare the economics of a once-through weapons-derived MOX nuclear fuel cycle to other fuel cycles, such as those utilizing spent fuel reprocessing. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs

  3. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  4. Item Response Data Analysis Using Stata Item Response Theory Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…

  5. Assessing normative cut points through differential item functioning analysis: An example from the adaptation of the Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS for use as a cognitive screening test in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlay Sehim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS was developed as a screening test to detect cognitive impairment in the elderly. It includes 12 subtests, each having a 'pass score'. A series of tasks were undertaken to adapt the measure for use in the adult population in Turkey and to determine the validity of existing cut points for passing subtests, given the wide range of educational level in the Turkish population. This study focuses on identifying and validating the scoring system of the MEAMS for Turkish adult population. Methods After the translation procedure, 350 normal subjects and 158 acquired brain injury patients were assessed by the Turkish version of MEAMS. Initially, appropriate pass scores for the normal population were determined through ANOVA post-hoc tests according to age, gender and education. Rasch analysis was then used to test the internal construct validity of the scale and the validity of the cut points for pass scores on the pooled data by using Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis within the framework of the Rasch model. Results Data with the initially modified pass scores were analyzed. DIF was found for certain subtests by age and education, but not for gender. Following this, pass scores were further adjusted and data re-fitted to the model. All subtests were found to fit the Rasch model (mean item fit 0.184, SD 0.319; person fit -0.224, SD 0.557 and DIF was then found to be absent. Thus the final pass scores for all subtests were determined. Conclusion The MEAMS offers a valid assessment of cognitive state for the adult Turkish population, and the revised cut points accommodate for age and education. Further studies are required to ascertain the validity in different diagnostic groups.

  6. 77 FR 61012 - Expansion of Importer Self-Assessment Program To Include Qualified Importers of Focused...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... announces changes to the Importer Self- Assessment (ISA) program and describes the requirements for... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Importer Self-Assessment Program and the Focused Assessment The Importer Self-Assessment (ISA) program is a joint government- business initiative designed to build cooperative...

  7. An Arrangement of the Items Influencing Assessment of the Electrotechnical Technology Course / PROEJA, campuses Campos Centro and Itaperuna: The Learners’ View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luíz Clemente Gomes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to organize pre-defined items that affect the students’ answers when assessing the Electrotechnical Technology Course / PROEJA. The research was carried out from October / 2011 to December / 2012 with questionnaires applied with 1st to 6th period students. At campus Campos Centro, “Technical Visits” and “Internship” presented high levels of importance and low satisfaction, while “Personal Realization” and “Professional Achievement” presented high levels of relevance and satisfaction. At campus Itaperuna, “Job opportunities” and “Professional Achievement” presented high levels of relevance and satisfaction. Items “Faculty” and “New Technologies”, presented high importance but low satisfaction. The research aims at improving the quality of the course.

  8. An Integrated Approach to Bias in a Longitudinal Survey in the United Kingdom: Assessing Construct, Method, and Item Bias in the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Isabel; Adams, Byron G; He, Jia

    2017-11-01

    Construct, method, and item bias are three levels of measurement bias (i.e., internal bias) essential for valid group comparisons. While many studies often focus on only one level of bias, an integrated perspective on bias is still missing, especially in longitudinal designs. The aim of this study is to address bias in an integrated manner, using four waves of data in the U.K. Longitudinal Household Panel Survey. Responses to the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) from natives and two generations of immigrants were used to analyze the three levels of bias. While the basic structure of the GHQ-12 was stable across groups and time, item and method bias decreased with repeated administrations. Results were confirmed with a sensitivity test. The integrated results allowed for a distinction between temporal sources of bias that became smaller over time and sources affecting valid comparisons persistently. We discuss the implications for mental health assessment.

  9. Colorado Student Assessment Program: 2001 Released Passages, Items, and Prompts. Grade 4 Reading and Writing, Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura, Grade 5 Mathematics and Reading, Grade 6 Reading, Grade 7 Reading and Writing, Grade 8 Mathematics, Reading and Science, Grade 9 Reading, and Grade 10 Mathematics and Reading and Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This document contains released reading comprehension passages, test items, and writing prompts from the Colorado Student Assessment Program for 2001. The sample questions and prompts are included without answers or examples of student responses. Test materials are included for: (1) Grade 4 Reading and Writing; (2) Grade 4 Lectura y Escritura…

  10. Including climate change in pest risk assessment: the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W L; Li, Z H; Chen, H J; Wan, F H; Qu, W W; Zhang, Z; Kriticos, D J

    2012-04-01

    Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is one of the most harmful species of Tephritidae. It causes extensive damage in Asia and threatens many countries located along or near the Mediterranean Sea. The climate mapping program, CLIMEX 3.0, and the GIS software, ArcGIS 9.3, were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of B. zonata. The model predicts that, under current climatic conditions, B. zonata will be able to establish itself throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including some parts of the USA, southern China, southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand. Climate change scenarios for the 2070s indicate that the potential distribution of B. zonata will expand poleward into areas which are currently too cold. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion are cold, hot and dry stress. The model's predictions of the numbers of generations produced annually by B. zonata were consistent with values previously recorded for the pest's occurrence in Egypt. The ROC curve and the AUC (an AUC of 0.912) were obtained to evaluate the performance of the CLIMEX model in this study. The analysis of this information indicated a high degree of accuracy for the CLIMEX model. The significant increases in the potential distribution of B. zonata projected under the climate change scenarios considered in this study suggest that biosecurity authorities should consider the effects of climate change when undertaking pest risk assessments. To prevent the introduction and spread of B. zonata, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  11. The Ability of the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) to Predict Aspiration Risk in Persons With Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Diane M; Siddiqui, M Tausif; Litts, Juliana K; Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Dysphagia is common and costly. The ability of patient symptoms to predict objective swallowing dysfunction is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) to screen for aspiration risk in patients with dysphagia. Data from individuals with dysphagia undergoing a videofluoroscopic swallow study between January 2012 and July 2013 were abstracted from a clinical database. Data included the EAT-10, Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS), total pharyngeal transit (TPT) time, and underlying diagnoses. Bivariate linear correlation analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated. The mean age of the entire cohort (N=360) was 64.40 (±14.75) years. Forty-six percent were female. The mean EAT-10 was 16.08 (±10.25) for nonaspirators and 23.16 (±10.88) for aspirators (PEAT-10 score and the PAS (r=0.273, PEAT-10>15 in predicting aspiration were 71% and 53%, respectively. Subjective dysphagia symptoms as documented with the EAT-10 can predict aspiration risk. A linear correlation exists between the EAT-10 and aspiration events (PAS) and aspiration risk (TPT time). Persons with an EAT-10>15 are 2.2 times more likely to aspirate (95% confidence interval, 1.3907-3.6245). The sensitivity of an EAT-10>15 is 71%. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Rosann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

  13. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  14. Important clinical descriptors to include in the examination and assessment of patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, M P; Thorborg, K; Covington, K

    2017-01-01

    for diagnosis and assessment of FAIS. Diagnostic imaging was the domain with the highest level of agreement. Domains such as patient-reported outcome measures (PRO's) and physical examination were identified as non-diagnostic measures (rather as assessments of disease impact). CONCLUSION: Although it also had...... the greatest level of variability in description of examination domains, diagnostic imaging continues to be the preeminent diagnostic measure for FAIS. No single domain should be utilized as the sole diagnostic or assessment parameter for FAIS. While not all investigated domains provide diagnostic capability...... for FAIS, those that do not are able to serve purpose as a measure of disease impact (e.g., impairments and activity limitations). The clinical relevance of this Delphi survey is the understanding that a comprehensive assessment measuring both diagnostic capability and disease impact most accurately...

  15. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  16. Development of the PROMIS positive emotional and sensory expectancies of smoking item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stucky, Brian D; Li, Zhen; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-09-01

    The positive emotional and sensory expectancies of cigarette smoking include improved cognitive abilities, positive affective states, and pleasurable sensorimotor sensations. This paper describes development of Positive Emotional and Sensory Expectancies of Smoking item banks that will serve to standardize the assessment of this construct among daily and nondaily cigarette smokers. Data came from daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N =1,183) smokers who completed an online survey. To identify a unidimensional set of items, we conducted item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of fixed-item short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) to efficiently assess the construct. Eighteen items were included in the item banks (15 common across daily and nondaily smokers, 1 unique to daily, 2 unique to nondaily). The item banks are strongly unidimensional, highly reliable (reliability = 0.95 for both), and perform similarly across gender, age, and race/ethnicity groups. A SF common to daily and nondaily smokers consists of 6 items (reliability = 0.86). Results from simulated CATs indicated that, on average, less than 8 items are needed to assess the construct with adequate precision using the item banks. These analyses identified a new set of items that can assess the positive emotional and sensory expectancies of smoking in a reliable and standardized manner. Considerable efficiency in assessing this construct can be achieved by using the item bank SF, employing computer adaptive tests, or selecting subsets of items tailored to specific research or clinical purposes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Neonatal Facial Coding System for assessing postoperative pain in infants: Item reduction is valid and feasible. [IF 1.9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.W.B.; Koot, H.M.; Grunau, R.; de Boer, J.B.; van Druenen, M.J.; Tibboel, D.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the validity of the Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) for assessment of postoperative pain and (2) explore whether the number of NFCS facial actions could be reduced for assessing postoperative pain. Design: Prospective, observational

  18. Connecting Lines of Research on Task Model Variables, Automatic Item Generation, and Learning Progressions in Game-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Edith Aurora

    2014-01-01

    In "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games," Almond, Kim, Velasquez, and Shute have prepared a thought-provoking piece contrasting the roles of task model variables in a traditional assessment of mathematics word problems to their roles in "Newton's Playground," a game designed…

  19. Development of traditional Chinese version of World Health Organization disability assessment schedule 2.0 36--item (WHODAS 2.0) in Taiwan: validity and reliability analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lin, Jin-Ding; Hwang, Ai-Wen; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chi, Wen-Chou

    2014-11-01

    World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) provided a standardized method for measuring the health and disability and the traditional Chinese version has not been developed. To describe the process of developing the traditional Chinese version of the WHODAS 2.0 36-item version and to evaluate the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of this instrument. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was the process of translation of WHODAS 2.0 36-item version. Phase II was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 307 adults who were tested the validity and reliability of draft traditional Chinese version. The reliability of Cronbach's α and ICC in the WHODAS 2.0 traditional Chinese version were 0.73-0.99 and 0.8-089, respectively. The content validity was good (r=0.7-0.76), and the concurrent validity was excellent in comparison with the WHOQOL-BREF (pdisability. There was a valid and reliable measurement scales for evaluating functioning and disability status. For disability eligibility system of Taiwan government to measure the disability, the traditional Chinese version of the WHODAS 2.0 provided valuable evidence to design the assessment instrument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  1. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Flores-Alsina, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P......This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating....../or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting...

  2. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-01-01

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [ 14 C]-labeled CO 2 in the presence of potentially volatile [ 14 C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [ 14 C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate

  3. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  4. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  5. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-2 in preoperative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Mitsuru; Naito, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Matsunari, Yasunori; Inoue, Satoki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2017-08-01

    The avoidance of postoperative functional disability is one of the most important concerns of patients facing surgery, but methods to evaluate disability have not been definitively established. The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-2 (WHODAS 2.0-J) in preoperative patients. Individuals aged ≥55 years who were scheduled to undergo surgery in a tertiary-care hospital in Japan between April 2016 and September 2016 were eligible for enrolment in the study. All patients were assessed preoperatively using the WHODAS 2.0-J, the 8-Item Short Form (SF-8) questionnaire, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index (TMIG Index). The feasibility, reliability, and validity of WHODAS2.0-J were evaluated using response rate, Cronbach's alpha (a measure of reliability), and the correlation between the WHODAS 2.0-J and the SF-8 questionnaire and TMIG Index, respectively. A total of 934 patients were enrolled in the study during the study period, of whom 930 completed the WHODAS 2.0-J (response rate 99.5%) preoperatively. Reliability and validity were assessed in the 898 patients who completed all three assessment tools (WHODAS 2.0-J, SF-8 questionnaire, and TMIG Index) and for whom all demographic data were available. Cronbach's alpha was 0.92. The total score of the WHODAS 2.0-J showed a mild or moderate correlation with the SF-8 questionnaire and TMIG Index (r = -0.63 to -0.34). The WHODAS 2.0-J is a feasible, reliable, and valid instrument for evaluating preoperative functional disability in surgical patients.

  6. Assessing First- and Second-Order Equity for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design Using Multidimensional IRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Benjamin James

    2011-01-01

    The equity properties can be used to assess the quality of an equating. The degree to which expected scores conditional on ability are similar between test forms is referred to as first-order equity. Second-order equity is the degree to which conditional standard errors of measurement are similar between test forms after equating. The purpose of…

  7. Exploring Different Types of Assessment Items to Measure Linguistically Diverse Students' Understanding of Energy and Matter in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Toutkoushian, Emily; Bedell, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Energy and matter are fundamental, yet challenging concepts in middle school chemistry due to their abstract, unobservable nature. Although it is important for science teachers to elicit a range of students' ideas to design and revise their instruction, capturing such varied ideas using traditional assessments consisting of multiple-choice items…

  8. Including ecosystem dynamics in risk assessment of radioactive waste in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.; Kautsky, U.; Gilek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation protection has mainly focused on assessing and minimising risks of negative effects on human health. Although some efforts have been made to estimate effects on non-human populations, modelling of radiation risks to other components of the ecosystem have often lead to more or less disappointing results. In this paper an ecosystem approach is suggested and exemplified with a preliminary 14 C model of a coastal Baltic ecosystem. Advantages with the proposed ecosystem approach are for example the possibility to detect important but previously neglected pathways to humans since the whole ecosystem is analysed. The results from the model indicate that a rather small share of hypothetical released 14 C would accumulate in biota due to large water exchange in the modelled area. However, modelled future scenarios imply opposite results, i.e. relatively high doses in biota, due to changes of the physical properties in the area that makes a larger accumulation possible. (author)

  9. Probabilistic assessment of fatigue life including statistical uncertainties in the S-N curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudret, B.; Hornet, P.; Stephan, J.-M.; Guede, Z.; Lemaire, M.

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic framework is set up to assess the fatigue life of components of nuclear power plants. It intends to incorporate all kinds of uncertainties such as those appearing in the specimen fatigue life, design sub-factor, mechanical model and applied loading. This paper details the first step, which corresponds to the statistical treatment of the fatigue specimen test data. The specimen fatigue life at stress amplitude S is represented by a lognormal random variable whose mean and standard deviation depend on S. This characterization is then used to compute the random fatigue life of a component submitted to a single kind of cycles. Precisely the mean and coefficient of variation of this quantity are studied, as well as the reliability associated with the (deterministic) design value. (author)

  10. Oral/dental items in the resident assessment instrument - minimum Data Set 2.0 lack validity: results of a retrospective, longitudinal validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoben, Matthias; Poss, Jeffrey W; Norton, Peter G; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2016-01-01

    Oral health in nursing home residents is poor. Robust, mandated assessment tools such as the Resident Assessment Instrument - Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) 2.0 are key to monitoring and improving quality of oral health care in nursing homes. However, psychometric properties of RAI-MDS 2.0 oral/dental items have been challenged and criterion validity of these items has never been assessed. We used 73,829 RAI-MDS 2.0 records (13,118 residents), collected in a stratified random sample of 30 urban nursing homes in Western Canada (2007-2012). We derived a subsample of all residents ( n  = 2,711) with an admission and two or more subsequent annual assessments. Using Generalized Estimating Equations, adjusted for known covariates of nursing home residents' oral health, we assessed the association of oral/dental problems with time, dentate status, dementia, debris, and daily cleaning. Prevalence of oral/dental problems fluctuated (4.8 %-5.6 %) with no significant differences across time. This range of prevalence is substantially smaller than the ones reported by studies using clinical assessments by dental professionals. Denture wearers were less likely than dentate residents to have oral/dental problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.458, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.308, 0.680). Residents lacking teeth and not wearing dentures had higher odds than dentate residents of oral/dental problems (adjusted OR = 2.718, 95 % CI: 1.845, 4.003). Oral/dental problems were more prevalent in persons with debris (OR = 2.187, 95 % CI: 1.565, 3.057). Of the other variables assessed, only age at assessment was significantly associated with oral/dental problems. Robust, reliable RAI-MDS 2.0 oral health indicators are vital to monitoring and improving oral health related quality and safety in nursing homes. However, severe underdetection of oral/dental problems and lack of association of well-known oral health predictors with oral/dental problems suggest validity

  11. Oral/dental items in the resident assessment instrument – minimum Data Set 2.0 lack validity: results of a retrospective, longitudinal validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hoben

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health in nursing home residents is poor. Robust, mandated assessment tools such as the Resident Assessment Instrument – Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS 2.0 are key to monitoring and improving quality of oral health care in nursing homes. However, psychometric properties of RAI-MDS 2.0 oral/dental items have been challenged and criterion validity of these items has never been assessed. Methods We used 73,829 RAI-MDS 2.0 records (13,118 residents, collected in a stratified random sample of 30 urban nursing homes in Western Canada (2007–2012. We derived a subsample of all residents (n = 2,711 with an admission and two or more subsequent annual assessments. Using Generalized Estimating Equations, adjusted for known covariates of nursing home residents’ oral health, we assessed the association of oral/dental problems with time, dentate status, dementia, debris, and daily cleaning. Results Prevalence of oral/dental problems fluctuated (4.8 %–5.6 % with no significant differences across time. This range of prevalence is substantially smaller than the ones reported by studies using clinical assessments by dental professionals. Denture wearers were less likely than dentate residents to have oral/dental problems (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.458, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.308, 0.680. Residents lacking teeth and not wearing dentures had higher odds than dentate residents of oral/dental problems (adjusted OR = 2.718, 95 % CI: 1.845, 4.003. Oral/dental problems were more prevalent in persons with debris (OR = 2.187, 95 % CI: 1.565, 3.057. Of the other variables assessed, only age at assessment was significantly associated with oral/dental problems. Conclusions Robust, reliable RAI-MDS 2.0 oral health indicators are vital to monitoring and improving oral health related quality and safety in nursing homes. However, severe underdetection of oral/dental problems and lack of association of well-known oral

  12. The comparability of English, French and Dutch scores on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F: an assessment of differential item functioning in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kwakkenbos

    Full Text Available The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F is commonly used to assess fatigue in rheumatic diseases, and has shown to discriminate better across levels of the fatigue spectrum than other commonly used measures. The aim of this study was to assess the cross-language measurement equivalence of the English, French, and Dutch versions of the FACIT-F in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients.The FACIT-F was completed by 871 English-speaking Canadian, 238 French-speaking Canadian and 230 Dutch SSc patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure in the three samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC model was utilized to assess differential item functioning (DIF, comparing English versus French and versus Dutch patient responses separately.A unidimensional factor model showed good fit in all samples. Comparing French versus English patients, statistically significant, but small-magnitude DIF was found for 3 of 13 items. French patients had 0.04 of a standard deviation (SD lower latent fatigue scores than English patients and there was an increase of only 0.03 SD after accounting for DIF. For the Dutch versus English comparison, 4 items showed small, but statistically significant, DIF. Dutch patients had 0.20 SD lower latent fatigue scores than English patients. After correcting for DIF, there was a reduction of 0.16 SD in this difference.There was statistically significant DIF in several items, but the overall effect on fatigue scores was minimal. English, French and Dutch versions of the FACIT-F can be reasonably treated as having equivalent scoring metrics.

  13. Validation of the 36-item version of the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) for assessing women's disability and functioning associated with maternal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Carla; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho; Andreucci, Carla Betina; Angelini, Carina Robles; Ferreira, Elton Carlos; Cecatti, José Guilherme

    2017-02-01

    Objective  To validate the translation and adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of 36 items from the World Health Organizaton Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), regarding their content and structure (construct), in a female population after pregnancy. Methods  This is a validation of an instrument for the evaluation of disability and functioning and an assessment of its psychometric properties, performed in a tertiary maternity and a referral center specialized in high-risk pregnancies in Brazil. A sample of 638 women in different postpartum periods who had either a normal or a complicated pregnancy was included. The structure was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), while the content and relationships among the domains were assessed through Pearson's correlation coefficient. The sociodemographic characteristics were identified, and the mean scores with their standard deviations for the 36 questions of the WHODAS 2.0 were calculated. The internal consistency was evaluated byCronbach's α. Results  Cronbach's α was higher than 0.79 for both sets of questons of the questionnaire. The EFA and CFA for the main 32 questions exhibited a total variance of 54.7% (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin [KMO] measure of sampling adequacy =  0.934; p  WHODAS 2.0 instrument adapted to Brazilian Portuguese showed good psychometric properties in this sample, and therefore could be applied to populations of women regarding their reproductive history. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  14. A Multiobjective Optimization Including Results of Life Cycle Assessment in Developing Biorenewables-Based Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmdach, Daniel; Yaseneva, Polina; Heer, Parminder K; Schweidtmann, Artur M; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-09-22

    A decision support tool has been developed that uses global multiobjective optimization based on 1) the environmental impacts, evaluated within the framework of full life cycle assessment; and 2) process costs, evaluated by using rigorous process models. This approach is particularly useful in developing biorenewable-based energy solutions and chemicals manufacturing, for which multiple criteria must be evaluated and optimization-based decision-making processes are particularly attractive. The framework is demonstrated by using a case study of the conversion of terpenes derived from biowaste feedstocks into reactive intermediates. A two-step chemical conversion/separation sequence was implemented as a rigorous process model and combined with a life cycle model. A life cycle inventory for crude sulfate turpentine was developed, as well as a conceptual process of its separation into pure terpene feedstocks. The performed single- and multiobjective optimizations demonstrate the functionality of the optimization-based process development and illustrate the approach. The most significant advance is the ability to perform multiobjective global optimization, resulting in identification of a region of Pareto-optimal solutions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Evaluation of the Treatment of Congenital Penile Curvature Including Psychosexual Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachalski, Wojciech; Krajka, Kazimierz; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    Penile corporoplasty is a well-established treatment method of congenital penile deviation (CPD). Anatomical results are good with only slight differences between surgical procedures used. The disease however has huge influence on young male quality of life. This issue is not well analyzed in the literature. The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of life of the patients affected with CPD before and after the surgical treatment Study population consisted of 107 patients with CPD referred for surgical management. Patients were evaluated with not only clinical assessment, but also by four questionnaires measuring various aspects of quality of life. They were: Short-Form Medical Outcomes, Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire for Man, Beck Depression Inventory, and International Index of Erectile Function. Quality of life measurements showed deep decrease in the general quality of life, sexual performance, depression scale, as well as in physical and mental health in men with CPD. All these parameters were restored to normal after the successful surgical treatment with any method. CPD deeply decreases the quality of life of the affected men in many aspects. Surgical treatment is able to repair the anatomical deformity and as well as significantly restore the patients' psychosocial well-being. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

  17. QMRAcatch: Microbial Quality Simulation of Water Resources including Infection Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Derx, Julia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2015-09-01

    Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of , a human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, , and as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning-Gauckler-Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Correlation between the pain numeric rating scale and the 12-item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Bärlund, Esa; Laimi, Katri

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between pain severity measured on a numeric rating scale and restrictions of functioning measured with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0). This was a cross-sectional study of 1207 patients with musculoskeletal pain conditions. Correlation was assessed using Spearman's and Pearson tests. Although all the Spearman's rank correlations between WHODAS 2.0 items and pain severity were statistically significant, they were mostly weak, with only a few moderate associations for 'S2 household responsibilities', 'S8 washing', 'S9 dressing', and 'S12 day-to-day work'. The correlation between the WHODAS 2.0 total score and pain severity was also moderate: 0.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.45] for average pain and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.37-0.46) for worst pain. The correlation between the WHODAS 2.0 total score and pain level was also assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation, yielding figures that were similar to Spearman's correlation: 0.42 (PWHODAS 2.0 was weak to moderate, with slightly stronger associations in physical domains of functioning.

  19. An NCME Instructional Module on Polytomous Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall David

    2014-01-01

    A polytomous item is one for which the responses are scored according to three or more categories. Given the increasing use of polytomous items in assessment practices, item response theory (IRT) models specialized for polytomous items are becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this ITEMS module is to provide an accessible overview of…

  20. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge

  1. STATE POLICY FUNDAMENTALS IN FORMATION OF A NATIONAL STANDARD OF "GREEN CONSTRUCTION" FOR ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF REAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolchigin Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of implementation of principles of "green construction" in the Russian Federation. Despite the availability of the appropriate legislation in the field of environmental safety of construction, there are no legal, social, or economic incentives that may boost development of "green" technologies. Until recently, fundamentals of the state policy in the field of environmental protection of real estate development have not succeeded in motivating market players to implement advanced green technologies. However, recently, the government has begun motivating the construction industry towards the use of "green" technologies. The first activity is aimed at improving the legislation and updating the international voluntary certification according to BREAM and LEED standards. The result is the acceptance of the National Green Building Standard for real estate valuation that will open up new opportunities and prospects to the participants of the construction market. However, at the initial phase of implementation of "Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation", government authorities should provide their support to proponents of green buildings, including financial inflows.

  2. Respiratory Symptoms Items from the COPD Assessment Test Identify Ever-Smokers with Preserved Lung Function at Higher Risk for Poor Respiratory Outcomes. An Analysis of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Carlos H; Murray, Susan; Barr, R Graham; Bleecker, Eugene; Bowler, Russell P; Christenson, Stephanie A; Comellas, Alejandro P; Cooper, Christopher B; Couper, David; Criner, Gerard J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Dransfield, Mark T; Hansel, Nadia N; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Kleerup, Eric; Krishnan, Jerry A; Lazarus, Stephen C; Leidy, Nancy K; O'Neal, Wanda; Martinez, Fernando J; Paine, Robert; Rennard, Stephen I; Tashkin, Donald P; Woodruff, Prescott G; Han, MeiLan K

    2017-05-01

    Ever-smokers without airflow obstruction scores greater than or equal to 10 on the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) still have frequent acute respiratory disease events (exacerbation-like), impaired exercise capacity, and imaging abnormalities. Identification of these subjects could provide new opportunities for targeted interventions. We hypothesized that the four respiratory-related items of the CAT might be useful for identifying such individuals, with discriminative ability similar to CAT, which is an eight-item questionnaire used to assess chronic obstructive pulmonary disease impact, including nonrespiratory questions, with scores ranging from 0 to 40. We evaluated ever-smoker participants in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study without airflow obstruction (FEV 1 /FVC ≥0.70; FVC above the lower limit of normal). Using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, we compared responses to both CAT and the respiratory symptom-related CAT items (cough, phlegm, chest tightness, and breathlessness) and their associations with longitudinal exacerbations. We tested agreement between the two strategies (κ statistic), and we compared demographics, lung function, and symptoms among subjects identified as having high symptoms by each strategy. Among 880 ever-smokers with normal lung function (mean age, 61 yr; 52% women) and using a CAT cutpoint greater than or equal to 10, we classified 51.8% of individuals as having high symptoms, 15.3% of whom experienced at least one exacerbation during 1-year follow-up. After testing sensitivity and specificity of different scores for the first four questions to predict any 1-year follow-up exacerbation, we selected cutpoints of 0-6 as representing a low burden of symptoms versus scores of 7 or higher as representing a high burden of symptoms for all subsequent comparisons. The four respiratory-related items with cutpoint greater than or equal to 7 selected 45.8% participants, 15.6% of whom

  3. Improving Measurement Efficiency of the Inner EAR Scale with Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Annika; Ho, Andrew D; Corrales, C Eduardo; Yueh, Bevan; Shin, Jennifer J

    2018-02-01

    Objectives (1) To assess the 11-item Inner Effectiveness of Auditory Rehabilitation (Inner EAR) instrument with item response theory (IRT). (2) To determine whether the underlying latent ability could also be accurately represented by a subset of the items for use in high-volume clinical scenarios. (3) To determine whether the Inner EAR instrument correlates with pure tone thresholds and word recognition scores. Design IRT evaluation of prospective cohort data. Setting Tertiary care academic ambulatory otolaryngology clinic. Subjects and Methods Modern psychometric methods, including factor analysis and IRT, were used to assess unidimensionality and item properties. Regression methods were used to assess prediction of word recognition and pure tone audiometry scores. Results The Inner EAR scale is unidimensional, and items varied in their location and information. Information parameter estimates ranged from 1.63 to 4.52, with higher values indicating more useful items. The IRT model provided a basis for identifying 2 sets of items with relatively lower information parameters. Item information functions demonstrated which items added insubstantial value over and above other items and were removed in stages, creating a 8- and 3-item Inner EAR scale for more efficient assessment. The 8-item version accurately reflected the underlying construct. All versions correlated moderately with word recognition scores and pure tone averages. Conclusion The 11-, 8-, and 3-item versions of the Inner EAR scale have strong psychometric properties, and there is correlational validity evidence for the observed scores. Modern psychometric methods can help streamline care delivery by maximizing relevant information per item administered.

  4. On the validity of measuring change over time in routine clinical assessment: a close examination of item-level response shifts in psychosomatic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, S; Mierke, A; Fischer, H F; Rose, M

    2016-06-01

    Significant life events such as severe health status changes or intensive medical treatment often trigger response shifts in individuals that may hamper the comparison of measurements over time. Drawing from the Oort model, this study aims at detecting response shift at the item level in psychosomatic inpatients and evaluating its impact on the validity of comparing repeated measurements. Complete pretest and posttest data were available from 1188 patients who had filled out the ICD-10 Symptom Rating (ISR) scale at admission and discharge, on average 24 days after intake. Reconceptualization, reprioritization, and recalibration response shifts were explored applying tests of measurement invariance. In the item-level approach, all model parameters were constrained to be equal between pretest and posttest. If non-invariance was detected, these were linked to the different types of response shift. When constraining across-occasion model parameters, model fit worsened as indicated by a significant Satorra-Bentler Chi-square difference test suggesting potential presence of response shifts. A close examination revealed presence of two types of response shift, i.e., (non)uniform recalibration and both higher- and lower-level reconceptualization response shifts leading to four model adjustments. Our analyses suggest that psychosomatic inpatients experienced some response shifts during their hospital stay. According to the hierarchy of measurement invariance, however, only one of the detected non-invariances is critical for unbiased mean comparisons over time, which did not have a substantial impact on estimating change. Hence, the use of the ISR can be recommended for outcomes assessment in clinical routine, as change score estimates do not seem hampered by response shift effects.

  5. Differential items functioning to assess aggressiveness in college students / Funcionamento diferencial de itens para avaliar a agressividade de universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermino Fernandes Sisto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research evidences of construct validity were searched analyzing the differential functioning items related to aggressiveness. The participants were 445 college students of both genders, attending the courses of Engineering, Computing and Psychology. The scale of aggressiveness composed by 81 items was collectively applied, in the classroom, to the students who consented to participate in the study. The items of the instrument were studied by means of the Rasch model. Twenty-eight items presented differential functioning item, 15 were characterized as typical for females and 13 for males. The reliability coefficients were 0.99 to the items and 0.86 to the persons. It was concluded that the aggressiveness can be measured separately on the basis of gender.

  6. Psychometric properties and a latent class analysis of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in a pooled dataset of community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Melissa A; Tremblay, Paul F; Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Rehm, Jürgen; Wells, Samantha

    2016-12-01

    The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a brief measurement tool used cross-culturally to capture the multi-dimensional nature of disablement through six domains, including: understanding and interacting with the world; moving and getting around; self-care; getting on with people; life activities; and participation in society. Previous psychometric research supports that the WHODAS 2.0 functions as a general factor of disablement. In a pooled dataset from community samples of adults (N = 447) we used confirmatory factor analysis to confirm a one-factor structure. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of individuals based on their patterns of responses. We identified four distinct classes, or patterns of disablement: (1) pervasive disability; (2) physical disability; (3) emotional, cognitive, or interpersonal disability; (4) no/low disability. Convergent validity of the latent class subgroups was found with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, number of days affected by disabilities, stress, mental health, and substance use. These classes offer a simple and meaningful way to classify people with disabilities based on the 12-item WHODAS 2.0. Focusing on individuals with a high probability of being in the first three classes may help guide interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Psychometric aspects of item mapping for criterion-referenced interpretation and bookmark standard setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Huynh

    2010-01-01

    Locating an item on an achievement continuum (item mapping) is well-established in technical work for educational/psychological assessment. Applications of item mapping may be found in criterion-referenced (CR) testing (or scale anchoring, Beaton and Allen, 1992; Huynh, 1994, 1998a, 2000a, 2000b, 2006), computer-assisted testing, test form assembly, and in standard setting methods based on ordered test booklets. These methods include the bookmark standard setting originally used for the CTB/TerraNova tests (Lewis, Mitzel, Green, and Patz, 1999), the item descriptor process (Ferrara, Perie, and Johnson, 2002) and a similar process described by Wang (2003) for multiple-choice licensure and certification examinations. While item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch and two-parameter logistic (2PL) models traditionally place a binary item at its location, Huynh has argued in the cited papers that such mapping may not be appropriate in selecting items for CR interpretation and scale anchoring.

  8. Development of the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence to Assess Functional Capacity in Older Adults: Conceptual Definitions and Preliminary Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Hajime; Masui, Yukie; Inagaki, Hiroki; Yoshida, Yuko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Rika; Kikuchi, Kazunori; Nonaka, Kumiko; Yoshida, Hiroto; Yoshida, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in the health of older people and changes in their lifestyles necessitate a scale that can better measure their competence at a higher level. This study describes the development process of the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence (JST-IC) by (a) refining conceptual definitions and developing preliminary items and (b) examining the basic properties of the items. Participants were 1,253 septuagenarians (539 men and 714 women) living in communities, who were asked to judge whether they were independent via 88 items. To examine the basic properties of the preliminary items, five different analyses were conducted. Thirty-four items were considered as inappropriate (6 overlapped between the analyses): (a) 9 due to very high or low ratios of responders who answered "yes," (b) 4 due to gender or regional differences, (c) 5 due to their weak association with health status, (d) 9 due to low communalities in factor analysis, and (e) 13 due to redundancy of meaning with other items. Conceptual definitions and preliminary items were developed, and the basic properties of the items were examined to create the JST-IC. The next step would be to screen the remaining 54 items to create the final version of the scale.

  9. Self-reported cognitive distortions in the psychosis continuum: A Polish 18-item version of the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS-18).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawęda, Łukasz; Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Krężołek, Martyna; Kłosowska, Joanna; Staszkiewicz, Maciej; Moritz, Steffen

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a short version of the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale (DACOBS), which is a self-report tool to assess cognitive distortions related to psychosis. A principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on a large non-clinical sample (n=1207) and cross-validated with a confirmatory factor analysis on an independent non-clinical sample (n=653). Discriminative validity was performed by contrasting the high risk for psychosis non-clinical sample (n=63), low risk for psychosis non-clinical sample (n=152), patients with schizophrenia (n=105), and patients with depression (n=56). Correlations between symptoms, cognitive functions, source monitoring deficits, and jumping to conclusions were performed among a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia. An 18-item scale (DACOBS-18) with a four-factor solution was established. Internal consistency (α=0.84) and test-retest reliability (r=0.84, pcognitive measures is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. USGS world petroleum assessment 2000; new estimates of undiscovered oil and natural gas, including reserve growth, outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Oil and natural gas account for approximately 63 percent of the world’s total energy consumption. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically estimates the amount of oil and gas remaining to be found in the world. Since 1981, each of the last four of these assessments has shown a slight increase in the combined volume of identified reserves and undiscovered resources. The latest assessment estimates the volume of technically recoverable conventional oil and gas that may be added to the world's reserves, exclusive of the United States, in the next 30 years. The USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000 reports an increase in global petroleum resources, including a 20-percent increase in undiscovered oil and a 14-percent decrease in undiscovered natural gas compared to the previous assessment (table 1). These results have important implications for energy prices, policy, security, and the global resource balance.

  11. Validity of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in individuals with Huntington disease (HD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Kratz, Anna L; Downing, Nancy R; Goodnight, Siera; Miner, Jennifer A; Migliore, Nicholas; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-08-01

    The reliability and construct validity of the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) were examined in individuals with Huntington disease (HD). We examined factor structure (confirmatory factor analysis), internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha), floor and ceiling effects, convergent validity (Pearson correlations), and known-groups validity (multivariate analysis). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis replicated the six-factor latent model that reflects the six separate scales within the WHODAS 2.0 (understanding and communicating; getting around; self-care; getting along with others; life activities; participation). Cronbach's alpha for the scale was 0.94, suggesting good internal consistency reliability. The WHODAS demonstrated a ceiling effect for 19.5 % of participants; there were no floor effects. There was evidence for convergent validity; the WHODAS demonstrated moderate significant correlations with other general measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL; i.e., RAND-12, EQ5D). Multivariate analyses indicated that late-stage HD participants indicated poorer HRQOL than both early-stage HD and prodromal HD participants for all HRQOL measures. Findings provide support for both the reliability and validity of the WHODAS 2.0 in individuals with HD.

  12. Professor-Student Rapport Scale: Six Items Predict Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Janie H.; Ryan, Rebecca G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapport between students and teachers leads to numerous positive student outcomes, including attitudes toward the teacher and course, student motivation, and perceived learning. The recent development of a Professor-Student Rapport scale offers assessment of this construct. However, a Cronbach's [alpha] of 0.96 indicated item redundancy, and the…

  13. Small-Item Contact Test Method, FY11 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    developmental and operational testing (DT/OT) activities , technology readiness assessments (TRA) to determine technology readiness level (TRL...or gas phase ( fumigants , including aerosols). decontamination process: The process of making any person, object, or area safe by absorbing...item. • For vaporous decontaminants: injection rate, flow rate, fumigant concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. • For liquid

  14. The Effects of Item Format and Cognitive Domain on Students' Science Performance in TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Pey-Yan; Bulut, Okan

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine eighth-grade students' science performance in terms of two test design components, item format, and cognitive domain. The portion of Taiwanese data came from the 2011 administration of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), one of the major international large-scale assessments in science. The item difficulty analysis was initially applied to show the proportion of correct items. A regression-based cumulative link mixed modeling (CLMM) approach was further utilized to estimate the impact of item format, cognitive domain, and their interaction on the students' science scores. The results of the proportion-correct statistics showed that constructed-response items were more difficult than multiple-choice items, and that the reasoning cognitive domain items were more difficult compared to the items in the applying and knowing domains. In terms of the CLMM results, students tended to obtain higher scores when answering constructed-response items as well as items in the applying cognitive domain. When the two predictors and the interaction term were included together, the directions and magnitudes of the predictors on student science performance changed substantially. Plausible explanations for the complex nature of the effects of the two test-design predictors on student science performance are discussed. The results provide practical, empirical-based evidence for test developers, teachers, and stakeholders to be aware of the differential function of item format, cognitive domain, and their interaction in students' science performance.

  15. Análise de Teoria de Resposta ao Item de um instrumento breve de avaliação de comportamentos antissociais = Item Response Theory Analysis of a brief instrument for assessing antisocial behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauck Filho, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comportamentos antissociais são comuns a diversas condições psicopatológicas, incluindo transtornos da personalidade (e. g. , antissocial e narcisista e transtornos do humor (e. g. , transtorno bipolar. Todavia, até o momento, havia uma importante lacuna no contexto brasileiro no que diz respeito à avaliação breve dos comportamentos antissociais em indivíduos adultos de contextos não carcerários. Em virtude disso, o presente estudo teve como objetivo a construção e a análise mediante Teoria de Resposta ao Item de um instrumento breve para uso em pesquisas e rastreio junto à população geral adulta. As análises das respostas de 204 estudantes universitários (média de idades = 23,56 anos; DP = 7,70; 60,6% mulheres a um conjunto de itens permitiram reter 13 itens com excelentes propriedades psicométricas. Esses itens se mostraram avaliativos de um fator geral de antissocialidade, interpretável como uma propensão ao antagonismo, à não cooperação e à agressão em uma diversidade de contextos sociais. Limitações do estudo são discutidas ao final

  16. Characterization of Disability in Canadians with Mental Disorders Using an Abbreviated Version of a DSM-5 Emerging Measure: The 12-Item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjonnesen, Kirsten; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Williams, Jeanne; Lavorato, Dina; B Patten, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a disability scale included in Section 3 of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a possible replacement for the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF). To assist Canadian psychiatrists with interpretation of the scale, we have conducted a descriptive analysis using data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health component (CCHS-MH). The 2012 CCHS-MH was a cross-sectional survey of the Canadian community (n = 23,757). The survey included an abbreviated 12-item version of the WHODAS 2.0. Mental disorder diagnoses were assessed for schizophrenia, other psychosis, major depressive episode (MDE), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), bipolar I disorder, substance abuse/dependence, and alcohol abuse/dependence. Mean scores ranged from 14.2 (95% CI, 14.1 to 14.3) for the overall community population to 23.1 (95% CI, 19.5 to 26.7) for those with schizophrenia, with higher scores indicating greater disability. Furthermore, the difference in scores between those with lifetime and past-month episodes suggests that the scale is sensitive to changes occurring during the course of these disorders; for example, scores varied from 23.6 (95% CI, 22.2 to 25.1) for past-month MDE to 14.4 (95% CI, 14.2 to 14.7) in the lifetime MDE group without a past-year episode. This analysis suggests that the WHODAS 2.0 may be a suitable replacement for the GAF. As a disability measure, even though it is not a mental health-specific instrument, the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 appears to be sensitive to the impact of mental disorders and to changes over the time course of a mental disorder. However, the clinical utility of this measure requires additional assessment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. MR arthrography including abduction and external rotation images in the assessment of atraumatic multidirectional instability of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Chur (Switzerland); Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [Center for Sports Orthopedics and Medicine, Orthosportiv, Munich (Germany); Imhoff, Andreas B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate diagnostic signs and measurements in the assessment of capsular redundancy in atraumatic multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder on MR arthrography (MR-A) including abduction/external rotation (ABER) images. Twenty-one MR-A including ABER position of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed MDI and 17 patients without instability were assessed by three radiologists. On ABER images, presence of a layer of contrast between the humeral head (HH) and the anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) (crescent sign) and a triangular-shaped space between the HH, AIGHL and glenoid (triangle sign) were evaluated; centring of the HH was measured. Anterosuperior herniation of the rotator interval (RI) capsule and glenoid version were determined on standard imaging planes. The crescent sign had a sensitivity of 57 %/62 %/48 % (observers 1/2/3) and specificity of 100 %/100 %/94 % in the diagnosis of MDI. The triangle sign had a sensitivity of 48 %/57 %/48 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/100 %. The combination of both signs had a sensitivity of 86 %/90 %/81 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/94 %. A positive triangle sign was significantly associated with decentring of the HH. Measurements of RI herniation, RI width and glenoid were not significantly different between both groups. Combined assessment of redundancy signs on ABER position MR-A allows for accurate differentiation between patients with atraumatic MDI and patients with clinically stable shoulders; measurements on standard imaging planes appear inappropriate. (orig.)

  18. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 1. Estimating the burden of disease associated with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Robin; Heimersson, Sara; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M

    2014-08-19

    The environmental performance of wastewater and sewage sludge management is commonly assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA), whereas pathogen risk is evaluated with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This study explored the application of QMRA methodology with intent to include pathogen risk in LCA and facilitate a comparison with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA. Pathogen risk was estimated for a model wastewater treatment system (WWTS) located in an industrialized country and consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary wastewater treatment, anaerobic sludge digestion, and land application of sewage sludge. The estimation was based on eight previous QMRA studies as well as parameter values taken from the literature. A total pathogen risk (expressed as burden of disease) on the order of 0.2-9 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year of operation was estimated for the model WWTS serving 28,600 persons and for the pathogens and exposure pathways included in this study. The comparison of pathogen risk with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA is detailed in part 2 of this article series.

  19. Development of an item bank and computer adaptive test for role functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatchkova, Milena D; Rose, Matthias; Ware, John E; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2012-11-01

    Role functioning (RF) is a key component of health and well-being and an important outcome in health research. The aim of this study was to develop an item bank to measure impact of health on role functioning. A set of different instruments including 75 newly developed items asking about the impact of health on role functioning was completed by 2,500 participants. Established item response theory methods were used to develop an item bank based on the generalized partial credit model. Comparison of group mean bank scores of participants with different self-reported general health status and chronic conditions was used to test the external validity of the bank. After excluding items that did not meet established requirements, the final item bank consisted of a total of 64 items covering three areas of role functioning (family, social, and occupational). Slopes in the bank ranged between .93 and 4.37; the mean threshold range was -1.09 to -2.25. Item bank-based scores were significantly different for participants with and without chronic conditions and with different levels of self-reported general health. An item bank assessing health impact on RF across three content areas has been successfully developed. The bank can be used for development of short forms or computerized adaptive tests to be applied in the assessment of role functioning as one of the common denominators across applications of generic health assessment.

  20. Assessing the equivalence of web-based and paper-and-pencil questionnaires using differential item and test functioning (DIF and DTF) analysis : A case of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Marchand, M.A.G.; De Vet, H.C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Many paper-and-pencil (P&P) questionnaires have been migrated to electronic platforms. Differential item and test functioning (DIF and DTF) analysis constitutes a superior research design to assess measurement equivalence across modes of administration. The purpose of this study was to

  1. Robustness assessments are needed to reduce bias in meta-analyses that include zero-event randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keus, F; Wetterslev, J; Gluud, C

    2009-01-01

    of statistical method on inference. RESULTS: In seven meta-analyses of seven outcomes from 15 trials, there were zero-event trials in 0 to 71.4% of the trials. We found inconsistency in significance in one of seven outcomes (14%; 95% confidence limit 0.4%-57.9%). There was also considerable variability...... in the confidence limits, the intervention-effect estimates, and heterogeneity for all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical method may influence the inference drawn from a meta-analysis that includes zero-event trials. Robustness assessments are needed to reduce bias in meta-analyses that include zero......OBJECTIVES: Meta-analysis of randomized trials with binary data can use a variety of statistical methods. Zero-event trials may create analytic problems. We explored how different methods may impact inferences from meta-analyses containing zero-event trials. METHODS: Five levels of statistical...

  2. Full-Information Item Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, R. Darrell; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A method of item factor analysis is described, which is based on Thurstone's multiple-factor model and implemented by marginal maximum likelihood estimation and the EM algorithm. Also assessed are the statistical significance of successive factors added to the model, provisions for guessing and omitted items, and Bayes constraints. (TJH)

  3. Assessing the Equivalence of Paper, Mobile Phone, and Tablet Survey Responses at a Community Mental Health Center Using Equivalent Halves of a ‘Gold-Standard’ Depression Item Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Brodey, Benjamin B; Gonzalez, Nicole L; Elkin, Kathryn Ann; Sasiela, W Jordan; Brodey, Inger S

    2017-01-01

    Background The computerized administration of self-report psychiatric diagnostic and outcomes assessments has risen in popularity. If results are similar enough across different administration modalities, then new administration technologies can be used interchangeably and the choice of technology can be based on other factors, such as convenience in the study design. An assessment based on item response theory (IRT), such as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMI...

  4. Development of a 'ready-to-use' tool that includes preventability, for the assessment of adverse drug events in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Guillaume; Netzer, Florence; Kouakou, Sylvain Landry; Lemare, François; Minvielle, Etienne

    2018-02-14

    Background Adverse drug events (ADEs) occur frequently in oncology and justify continuous assessment and monitoring. There are several methods for detecting them, but the trigger tool method seems the most appropriate. Although a generic tool exists, its use for ADEs in oncology has not been convincing. The development of a focused version is therefore necessary. Objective To provide an oncology-focused trigger tool that evaluates the prevalence, harm, and preventability in a standardised method for pragmatic use in ADE surveillance. Setting Hospitals with cancer care in France. Method The tool has been constructed in two steps: (1) constitution of an oncology-centred list of ADEs; 30 pharmacists/practitioners in cancer care from nine hospitals selected a list of ADEs using a method of agreement adapted from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method; and (2) construction of three standardised dimensions for the characterisation of each ADE (including causality, severity, and preventability). Main outcome measure The main outcome measure was validation of the tool, including preventability criteria. Results The tool is composed of a final list of 15 ADEs. For each ADE, a 'reviewer form' has been designed and validated by the panel. It comprises (1) the trigger(s), (2) flowcharts to guide the reviewer, (3) criteria for grading harm, and (4) a standardised assessment of preventability with 6-14 closed sentences for each ADE in terms of therapeutic management and/or prevention of side-effects. Conclusion A complete 'ready-to-use' tool for ADE monitoring in oncology has been developed that allows the assessment of three standardised dimensions.

  5. MODARIA WG5: Towards a practical guidance for including uncertainties in the results of dose assessment of routine releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Juan C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Telleria, Diego [International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA (Austria); Al Neaimi, Ahmed [Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation - ENEC (United Arab Emirates); Blixt Buhr, Anna Ma [Vattenfall AB (Sweden); Bonchuk, Iurii [Radiation Protection Institute - RPI (Ukraine); Chouhan, Sohan [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited - AECL (Canada); Chyly, Pavol [SE-VYZ (Slovakia); Curti, Adriana R. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN (Argentina); Da Costa, Dejanira [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD (Brazil); Duran, Juraj [VUJE Inc (Slovakia); Galeriu, Dan [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH (Romania); Haegg, Ann- Christin; Lager, Charlotte [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority - SSM (Sweden); Heling, Rudie [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG (Netherlands); Ivanis, Goran; Shen, Jige [Ecometrix Incorporated (Canada); Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Krajewski, Pawel M. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection - CLOR (Poland); Marang, Laura; Vermorel, Fabien [Electricite de France - EdF (France); Mourlon, Christophe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Perez, Fabricio F. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre - SCK (Belgium); Woodruffe, Andrew [Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation - FANR (United Arab Emirates); Zorko, Benjamin [Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

    2014-07-01

    MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments) project was launched in 2012 with the aim of improving the capabilities in radiation dose assessment by means of acquisition of improved data for model testing, model testing and comparison, reaching consensus on modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values, development of improved methods and exchange of information. The project focuses on areas where uncertainties remain in the predictive capability of environmental models, emphasizing in reducing associated uncertainties or developing new approaches to strengthen the evaluation of the radiological impact. Within MODARIA, four main areas were defined, one of them devoted to Uncertainty and Variability. In this area four working groups were included, Working Group 5 dealing with the 'uncertainty and variability analysis for assessments of radiological impacts arising from routine discharges of radionuclides'. Whether doses are estimated by using measurement data, by applying models, or through a combination of measurements and calculations, the variability and uncertainty contribute to a distribution of possible values. The degree of variability and uncertainty is represented by the shape and extent of that distribution. The main objective of WG5 is to explore how to consider uncertainties and variabilities in the results of assessment of doses in planned situations for controlling the impact of routine releases from radioactive and nuclear installations to the environment. The final aim is to produce guidance for the calculation of uncertainties in these exposure situations and for the presentation of such results to the different stakeholders. To achieve that objective the main tasks identified were: to find tools and methods for uncertainty and variability analysis applicable to dose assessments in routine radioactive discharges, to define scenarios where information on uncertainty and variability of parameters is available

  6. EAU Guidelines on the Assessment of Non-neurogenic Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms including Benign Prostatic Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzke, Christian; Bachmann, Alexander; Descazeaud, Aurelien; Drake, Marcus J; Madersbacher, Stephan; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Oelke, Matthias; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Gravas, Stavros

    2015-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) represent one of the most common clinical complaints in adult men and have multifactorial aetiology. To develop European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on the assessment of men with non-neurogenic LUTS. A structured literature search on the assessment of non-neurogenic male LUTS was conducted. Articles with the highest available level of evidence were selected. The Delphi technique consensus approach was used to develop the recommendations. As a routine part of the initial assessment of male LUTS, a medical history must be taken, a validated symptom score questionnaire with quality-of-life question(s) should be completed, a physical examination including digital rectal examination should be performed, urinalysis must be ordered, post-void residual urine (PVR) should be measured, and uroflowmetry may be performed. Micturition frequency-volume charts or bladder diaries should be used to assess male LUTS with a prominent storage component or nocturia. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) should be measured only if a diagnosis of prostate cancer will change the management or if PSA can assist in decision-making for patients at risk of symptom progression and complications. Renal function must be assessed if renal impairment is suspected from the history and clinical examination, if the patient has hydronephrosis, or when considering surgical treatment for male LUTS. Uroflowmetry should be performed before any treatment. Imaging of the upper urinary tract in men with LUTS should be performed in patients with large PVR, haematuria, or a history of urolithiasis. Imaging of the prostate should be performed if this assists in choosing the appropriate drug and when considering surgical treatment. Urethrocystoscopy should only be performed in men with LUTS to exclude suspected bladder or urethral pathology and/or before minimally invasive/surgical therapies if the findings may change treatment. Pressure-flow studies should be performed

  7. Funcionamento diferencial de itens para avaliar a agressividade de universitários Differential items functioning to assess aggressiveness in college students

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    Fermino Fernandes Sisto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa buscou-se evidência de validade de construto relacionada ao funcionamento dos itens para diferenciar sexos em um instrumento de agressividade. Participaram 445 universitários, de ambos os sexos, dos cursos de Engenharia, Computação e Psicologia. A escala de agressividade composta por 81 itens foi aplicada coletivamente, em sala de aula, nos estudantes que consentiram em participar do estudo. Os itens do instrumento foram analisados por meio do modelo Rasch. Vinte e oito itens apresentaram funcionamento diferencial, sendo 15 condutas mais características de pessoas do sexo feminino e outras 13 mais características do masculino. Os índices de precisão foram de 0,99 para os itens e 0,86 para as pessoas. Conclui-se que a agressividade pode ser medida separadamente em razão do sexo.In this research evidences of construct validity were searched analyzing the differential functioning items related to aggressiveness. The participants were 445 college students of both genders, attending the courses of Engineering, Computing and Psychology. The scale of aggressiveness composed by 81 items was collectively applied, in the classroom, to the students who consented to participate in the study. The items of the instrument were studied by means of the Rasch model. Twenty-eight items presented differential functioning item, 15 were characterized as typical for females and 13 for males. The reliability coefficients were 0.99 to the items and 0.86 to the persons. It was concluded that the aggressiveness can be measured separately on the basis of gender.

  8. Assessing the impact of diabetes on quality of life: validation of the Chinese version of the 19-item Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life for Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huey-Fen; Bradley, Clare; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2017-06-01

    To examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the 19-item Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life for Taiwan (ADDQoL-CnTW). Linguistic validation procedures for patient-reported outcome measures were used to translate the Taiwan version from the original 19-item UK-English ADDQoL. The psychometric properties of the ADDQoL-CnTW were evaluated in a convenience sample, recruited from outpatient facilities, of 260 patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The forced one-factor solution supported one general 19-item factor with all items loading above 0.43, accounting for 51.5% of the variance, although the results of confirmatory factory analysis did not strictly adhere to a one-factor structure. Using Kaiser's Criterion, exploratory factor analysis identified four sub-dimensions but the pattern of loading also confirmed the presence of a large general factor with 11 of 19 items loading ≥0.4 on the first component, accounting for 49.73% of the variance. Internal consistency for the entire scale was 0.94. Convergent and discriminant validity were suggested by a stronger correlation of average weighted impact (AWI) scores with the overview Diabetes-specific QoL item than with the Present QoL item. The Present QoL item correlated better with the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF(TW) dimension scores than the Diabetes-specific QoL scores or the AWI scores. Insulin-treated patients reported significantly more negative AWI scores and Diabetes-specific QoL scores than those treated with tablets and/or diet, demonstrating known-groups validity. The ADDQoL-CnTW revealed excellent internal consistency reliability, and showed evidence of validity for use in Taiwanese people with diabetes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Sharp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions caused by tourism have been studied from several perspectives, but few studies exist that include all direct and indirect emissions, particularly those from aviation. In this study, an input/output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA method is developed to assess the consumption-based carbon footprint of the average tourist including direct and indirect emissions. The total inbound tourism-related GHG emissions are also calculated within a certain region. As a demonstration of the method, the full carbon footprint of an average tourist is assessed as well as the total GHG emissions induced by tourism to Iceland over the period of 2010–2015, with the presented approach applicable in other contexts as well. Iceland provides an interesting case due to three features: (1 the tourism sector in Iceland is the fastest-growing industry in the country with an annual growth rate of over 20% over the past five years; (2 almost all tourists arrive by air; and (3 the country has an almost emissions-free energy industry and an import-dominated economy, which emphasise the role of the indirect emissions. According to the assessment, the carbon footprint for the average tourist is 1.35 tons of CO2-eq, but ranges from 1.1 to 3.2 tons of CO2-eq depending on the distance travelled by air. Furthermore, this footprint is increasing due to the rise in average flight distances travelled to reach the country. The total GHG emissions caused by tourism in Iceland have tripled from approximately 600,000 tons of CO2-eq in 2010 to 1,800,000 tons in 2015. Aviation accounts for 50%–82% of this impact (depending on the flight distance underlining the importance of air travel, especially as tourism-related aviation is forecasted to grow significantly in the near future. From a method perspective, the carbon footprinting application presented in the study would seem to provide an efficient way to study both the direct and indirect

  10. Development of six PROMIS pediatrics proxy-report item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Debra E; Gross, Heather E; Stucky, Brian D; Thissen, David; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Lai, Jin Shei; Amtmann, Dagmar; Khastou, Leyla; Varni, James W; DeWalt, Darren A

    2012-02-22

    Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO) among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pediatric proxy-report item banks. The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact). Caregivers (n = 25) of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads). Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432). In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%), married (70%), Caucasian (64%) and had at least a high school education (94%). Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily asthma, which was diagnosed or treated within 6

  11. Risk assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in human tissues related to major food items based on chemical analyses and micro-EROD assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, H L; Wu, S C; Wong, C K C; Leung, C K M; Tao, S; Wong, M H

    2009-10-01

    Nine groups of food items (freshwater fish, marine fish, pork, chicken, chicken eggs, leafy, non-leafy vegetables, rice and flour) and three types of human samples (human milk, maternal serum and cord serum) were collected for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. Results of chemical analysis revealed PCDD/Fs concentrations (pg g(-1) fat) in the following ascending order: pork (0.289 pg g(-1) fat), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (freshwater fish) (0.407), golden thread (Nemipterus virgatus) (marine fish) (0.511), chicken (0.529), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri) (marine fish) (0.535), chicken egg (0.552), and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) (marine fish) (1.219). The results of micro-EROD assay showed relatively higher PCDD/Fs levels in fish (2.65 pg g(-1) fat) when compared with pork (0.47), eggs (0.33), chicken (0.13), flour (0.07), vegetables (0.05 pg g(-1) wet wt) and rice (0.05). The estimated average daily intake of PCDD/Fs of 3.51 pg EROD-TEQ/kg bw/day was within the range of WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) and was higher than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTL) (70 pg for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) [Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Summary and conclusions of the fifty-seventh meeting, JECFA, 2001.]. Nevertheless, the current findings were significantly lower than the TDI (14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/bw/day) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food of the Europe Commission [European Scientific Committee on Food (EU SCF), Opinions on the SCF on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food, 2000.]. However, it should be noted that micro-EROD assay overestimates the PCDD/Fs levels by 2 to 7 folds which may also amplify the PCDD/Fs levels accordingly. Although the levels of PCDD/Fs obtained from micro-EROD assay were much higher than those obtained by chemical analysis by 2 to 7 folds, it provides a cost-effective and

  12. Differential Item Functioning Assessment in Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling: Applying the Wald Test to Investigate DIF in the Generalized DINA Model Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Likun

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing examinees' responses using cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) have the advantages of providing richer diagnostic information. To ensure the validity of the results from these models, differential item functioning (DIF) in CDMs needs to be investigated. In this dissertation, the model-based DIF detection method, Wald-CDM procedure is…

  13. An item analysis of the Conditional Reasoning Test of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Justin A; James, Lawrence R

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript uses item response theory (IRT) to estimate item characteristics of the Conditional Reasoning Test of Aggression (CRT-A). Using a sample size of 5,511 respondents, the present analysis provides an accurate assessment of the capability of the CRT-A to measure latent aggression. The one-parameter logistic (1PL) model, two-parameter logistic (2PL) model, and three-parameter logistic (3PL) model are compared before the item analysis. Results suggest that the 2PL model is the most appropriate dichotomous IRT model for describing the item characteristics of the CRT-A. Potential multdimensionality in the CRT-A is also examined. Results suggest that CRT-A items work as theoretically intended, with the probability of selecting an aggressive response increasing with latent trait levels. Information curves indicate that the CRT-A is best suited for use with individuals who are high on latent aggression. Exploratory analyses include an examination of polytomous IRT models and DIF comparing student and employee respondents. The results have implications for future research using the CRT-A as well as the identification of populations appropriate for measurement using this assessment tool. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Test Item Development: Validity Evidence from Quality Assurance Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Steven M.; Haladyna, Thomas M.

    1997-01-01

    An ideal process is outlined for test item development and the study of item responses to ensure that tests are sound. Qualitative and quantitative methods are used to assess the item-level validity evidence for high-stakes examinations. A checklist for assessment is provided. (SLD)

  15. A 67-Item Stress Resilience item bank showing high content validity was developed in a psychosomatic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbarius, Nina; Fischer, Felix; Obbarius, Alexander; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Rose, Matthias

    2018-04-10

    To develop the first item bank to measure Stress Resilience (SR) in clinical populations. Qualitative item development resulted in an initial pool of 131 items covering a broad theoretical SR concept. These items were tested in n=521 patients at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), as well as other state-of-the-art item analyses and IRT were used for item evaluation and calibration of the final item bank. Out of the initial item pool of 131 items, we excluded 64 items (54 factor loading .3, 2 non-discriminative Item Response Curves, 4 Differential Item Functioning). The final set of 67 items indicated sufficient model fit in CFA and IRT analyses. Additionally, a 10-item short form with high measurement precision (SE≤.32 in a theta range between -1.8 and +1.5) was derived. Both the SR item bank and the SR short form were highly correlated with an existing static legacy tool (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale). The final SR item bank and 10-item short form showed good psychometric properties. When further validated, they will be ready to be used within a framework of Computer-Adaptive Tests for a comprehensive assessment of the Stress-Construct. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Assessing the equivalence of Web-based and paper-and-pencil questionnaires using differential item and test functioning (DIF and DTF) analysis: a case of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terluin, Berend; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Marchand, Miquelle A G; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2018-05-01

    Many paper-and-pencil (P&P) questionnaires have been migrated to electronic platforms. Differential item and test functioning (DIF and DTF) analysis constitutes a superior research design to assess measurement equivalence across modes of administration. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate an item response theory (IRT)-based DIF and DTF analysis to assess the measurement equivalence of a Web-based version and the original P&P format of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), measuring distress, depression, anxiety, and somatization. The P&P group (n = 2031) and the Web group (n = 958) consisted of primary care psychology clients. Unidimensionality and local independence of the 4DSQ scales were examined using IRT and Yen's Q3. Bifactor modeling was used to assess the scales' essential unidimensionality. Measurement equivalence was assessed using IRT-based DIF analysis using a 3-stage approach: linking on the latent mean and variance, selection of anchor items, and DIF testing using the Wald test. DTF was evaluated by comparing expected scale scores as a function of the latent trait. The 4DSQ scales proved to be essentially unidimensional in both modalities. Five items, belonging to the distress and somatization scales, displayed small amounts of DIF. DTF analysis revealed that the impact of DIF on the scale level was negligible. IRT-based DIF and DTF analysis is demonstrated as a way to assess the equivalence of Web-based and P&P questionnaire modalities. Data obtained with the Web-based 4DSQ are equivalent to data obtained with the P&P version.

  17. The importance of rating scale design in the measurement of patient-reported outcomes using questionnaires or item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Jyoti; McAlinden, Colm; Gothwal, Vijaya K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2012-06-26

    To investigate the effect of rating scale designs (question formats and response categories) on item difficulty calibrations and assess the impact that rating scale differences have on overall vision-related activity limitation (VRAL) scores. Sixteen existing patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) suitable for cataract assessment, with different rating scales, were self-administered by patients on a cataract surgery waiting list. A total of 226 VRAL items from these PROs in their native rating scales were included in an item bank and calibrated using Rasch analysis. Fifteen item/content areas (e.g., reading newspapers) appearing in at least three different PROs were identified. Within each content area, item calibrations were compared and their range calculated. Similarly, five PROs having at least three items in common with the Visual Function (VF-14) were compared in terms of average item measures. A total of 614 patients (mean age ± SD, 74.1 ± 9.4 years) participated. Items with the same content varied in their calibration by as much as two logits; "reading the small print" had the largest range (1.99 logits) followed by "watching TV" (1.60). Compared with the VF-14 (0.00 logits), the rating scale of the Visual Disability Assessment (1.13 logits) produced the most difficult items and the Cataract Symptom Scale (0.24 logits) produced the least difficult items. The VRAL item bank was suboptimally targeted to the ability level of the participants (2.00 logits). Rating scale designs have a significant effect on item calibrations. Therefore, constructing item banks from existing items in their native formats carries risks to face validity and transmission of problems inherent in existing instruments, such as poor targeting.

  18. [The assessment of the dependence between antigen CA 125 and nicotinism in patients with benign ovarian tumors including endometrial cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzka, Ewa; Jach, Robert; Babczyk, Dorota; Knafel, Anna; Pityński, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Cancer antigen CA-125 is a marker that is primarily used to differentiate benign from malignant tumors as well as to monitor response to ovarian cancer treatment. Taken as a separate marker, it displays low sensitivity and specificity in ovarian cancer diagnosis; however, in combination with other markers it may be successfully applied especially in postmenopausal women. Elevated CA-125 levels in blood serum indicate cancerous as well as non-cancerous diseases. Research aiming to determine environmental factors that may have influence on antigen CA-125 level, and thus on the assessment of this marker's application in gynecological and oncological diseases continues. the aim of the present research is an attempt to estimate the influence of nicotinism on antigen CA-125 in blood serum in patients with diagnosed benign ovarian tumors including endometrial cysts. 174 women aged 16-85 years with diagnosed benign ovarian tumor were qualified for the study. In all patients level of antigen CA-125 in blood serum was assessed preoperatively and nicotinism history was taken. Also transvaginal ultrasound was performed to obtain preliminary diagnosis. Smoking and non-smoking patients were classified into two groups, namely of those with histopathologically confirmed cysts of endometrial type and those with non-endometrial benign ovarian tumors. statistical analysis did not prove any dependence between the CS-125 antigen level and nicotinism in any of these groups. Also additional analysis with division into premenopausal and postmenopausal patients did not determine any statistically significant dependence. Nicotinism does not significantly influence the CA-125 antigen level in patients with benign However, the connection between the addiction severity and its influence on antigen CA-125 in blood serum cannot be excluded. ovarian tumors or endometrial cysts.

  19. Self efficacy for fruit, vegetable and water intakes: expanded and abbreviated scales from item response modeling analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to improve an existing measure of fruit and vegetable intake self efficacy, by including items that varied on levels of difficulty, and testing a corresponding measure of water intake self efficacy. A cross sectional assessment was used. Items were modified to have easy, moderate, ...

  20. An approach to including protein quality when assessing the net contribution of livestock to human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Knaus, W; Zollitsch, W

    2016-11-01

    The production of protein from animal sources is often criticized because of the low efficiency of converting plant protein from feeds into protein in the animal products. However, this critique does not consider the fact that large portions of the plant-based proteins fed to animals may be human-inedible and that the quality of animal proteins is usually superior as compared with plant proteins. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess changes in protein quality in the course of the transformation of potentially human-edible plant proteins into animal products via livestock production; data from 30 Austrian dairy farms were used as a case study. A second aim was to develop an approach for combining these changes with quantitative aspects (e.g. with the human-edible feed conversion efficiency (heFCE), defined as kilogram protein in the animal product divided by kilogram potentially human-edible protein in the feeds). Protein quality of potentially human-edible inputs and outputs was assessed using the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score and the digestible indispensable amino acid score, two methods proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to describe the nutritional value of proteins for humans. Depending on the method used, protein scores were between 1.40 and 1.87 times higher for the animal products than for the potentially human-edible plant protein input on a barn-gate level (=protein quality ratio (PQR)). Combining the PQR of 1.87 with the heFCE for the same farms resulted in heFCE×PQR of 2.15. Thus, considering both quantity and quality, the value of the proteins in the animal products for human consumption (in this case in milk and beef) is 2.15 times higher than that of proteins in the potentially human-edible plant protein inputs. The results of this study emphasize the necessity of including protein quality changes resulting from the transformation of plant proteins to animal proteins when

  1. Development of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: constructing an item pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura Kelly, Crispin Jenkinson, Sarah Dummett, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, David Morley Health Services Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Purpose: The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure in development that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF. The study reported here aimed to inform and generate an item pool for the new measure, which is specifically designed for the assessment of participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions. Methods: Items were informed through in-depth interviews conducted with 37 participants spanning a range of conditions. Interviews aimed to identify how their condition impacted their ability to participate in meaningful activities. Conditions included arthritis, cancer, chronic back pain, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method. Statements relating to ICF themes were recast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n=13 were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results: ICF themes relevant to activities and participation in everyday life were explored, and a total of 222 items formed the initial item pool. This item pool was refined by the research team and 28 generic items were mapped onto all nine chapters of the ICF construct, detailing activity and participation. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, items, and response options were acceptable to participants. Conclusion: Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 28 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. A large-scale postal survey will follow in order to refine the instrument further and

  2. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of Natural External Hazards Including Earthquakes. Workshop Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, 17-20 June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident triggered discussions about the significance of external hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In addition, stress tests results have shown vulnerabilities and potential of cliff-edge effects in plant responses to external hazards and have identified possibilities and priorities for improvements and safety measures' implementation at specific sites and designs. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the CSNI Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) directed, in cooperation with the CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE), a workshop hosted by UJV Rez. The key objectives of the workshop were to collect information from the OECD member states on methods and approaches being used, and experience gained in probabilistic safety assessment of natural external hazards, as well as to support the fulfillment of the CSNI task on 'PSA of natural external hazards including earthquakes'. These objectives are described more in detail in the introduction in Chapter 1 of this report. The WGRISK activities preceding the workshop and leading to the decision to organize it are described in Chapter 2 of this report. The focus of the workshop was on external events PSA for nuclear power plants, including all modes of operation. The workshop scope was generally limited to external, natural hazards, including those hazards where the distinction between natural and man-made hazards is not sharp. The detailed information about the presentations, discussions, and results of the workshop is presented in Chapter 3 of this report. Some general conclusions were agreed on during the workshop, which are presented in the following paragraphs. - The lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents and related actions at the national, regional, and global level have emphasized the importance to assess risks associated (authors) with

  3. Does the Order of Item Difficulty of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Add Anything to Subdomain Scores in the Clinical Assessment of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McGrory

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE is used to measure cognition across a range of domains in dementia. Identifying the order in which cognitive decline occurs across items, and whether this varies between dementia aetiologies could add more information to subdomain scores. Method: ACE-Revised data from 350 patients were split into three groups: Alzheimer's type (n = 131, predominantly frontal (n = 119 and other frontotemporal lobe degenerative disorders (n = 100. Results of factor analysis and Mokken scaling analysis were compared. Results: Principal component analysis revealed one factor for each group. Confirmatory factor analysis found that the one-factor model fit two samples poorly. Mokken analyses revealed different item ordering in terms of difficulty for each group. Conclusion: The different patterns for each diagnostic group could aid in the separation of these different types of dementia.

  4. The Role of Arsenic Speciation in Dietary Exposure Assessment and the Need to Include Bioaccessibility and Biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical form specific exposure assessment for arsenic has long been identified as a source of uncertainty in estimating the risk associated with the aggregate exposure for a population. Some speciation based assessments document occurrence within an exposure route; however, the...

  5. Using Explanatory Item Response Models to Evaluate Complex Scientific Tasks Designed for the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tina

    This dissertation includes three studies that analyze a new set of assessment tasks developed by the Learning Progressions in Middle School Science (LPS) Project. These assessment tasks were designed to measure science content knowledge on the structure of matter domain and scientific argumentation, while following the goals from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The three studies focus on the evidence available for the success of this design and its implementation, generally labelled as "validity" evidence. I use explanatory item response models (EIRMs) as the overarching framework to investigate these assessment tasks. These models can be useful when gathering validity evidence for assessments as they can help explain student learning and group differences. In the first study, I explore the dimensionality of the LPS assessment by comparing the fit of unidimensional, between-item multidimensional, and Rasch testlet models to see which is most appropriate for this data. By applying multidimensional item response models, multiple relationships can be investigated, and in turn, allow for a more substantive look into the assessment tasks. The second study focuses on person predictors through latent regression and differential item functioning (DIF) models. Latent regression models show the influence of certain person characteristics on item responses, while DIF models test whether one group is differentially affected by specific assessment items, after conditioning on latent ability. Finally, the last study applies the linear logistic test model (LLTM) to investigate whether item features can help explain differences in item difficulties.

  6. Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey e Health Assessment Questionnaire em mulheres submetidas à abdominoplastia em âncora após cirurgia bariátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Omonte, Ivan René Viana [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    Introdução: A cirurgia bariatrica tem possibilitado perda de peso com consequente excesso de pele e tela subcutanea. A abdominoplastia em ancora auxilia na melhora das deformidades resultantes da perda de peso. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida e a capacidade funcional em mulheres submetidas a abdominoplastia em ancora apos cirurgia bariatrica. METODOS: Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey e Health Assessment Questionnaire foram utilizados para mensuracao prospectiva de...

  7. A comparison of three methods of assessing differential item functioning (DIF) in the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale: ordinal logistic regression, Rasch analysis and the Mantel chi-square procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Isobel M; Scott, Neil W; Adler, Mats; Reid, Ian C

    2014-12-01

    It is important for clinical practice and research that measurement scales of well-being and quality of life exhibit only minimal differential item functioning (DIF). DIF occurs where different groups of people endorse items in a scale to different extents after being matched by the intended scale attribute. We investigate the equivalence or otherwise of common methods of assessing DIF. Three methods of measuring age- and sex-related DIF (ordinal logistic regression, Rasch analysis and Mantel χ(2) procedure) were applied to Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) data pertaining to a sample of 1,068 patients consulting primary care practitioners. Three items were flagged by all three approaches as having either age- or sex-related DIF with a consistent direction of effect; a further three items identified did not meet stricter criteria for important DIF using at least one method. When applying strict criteria for significant DIF, ordinal logistic regression was slightly less sensitive. Ordinal logistic regression, Rasch analysis and contingency table methods yielded consistent results when identifying DIF in the HADS depression and HADS anxiety scales. Regardless of methods applied, investigators should use a combination of statistical significance, magnitude of the DIF effect and investigator judgement when interpreting the results.

  8. How reassuring is a normal breast ultrasound in assessment of a screen-detected mammographic abnormality? A review of interval cancers after assessment that included ultrasound evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.L.; Welman, C.J.; Celliers, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review factors resulting in a false-negative outcome or delayed cancer diagnosis in women recalled for further evaluation, including ultrasound, after an abnormal screening mammogram. Materials and methods: Of 646,692 screening mammograms performed between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2004, 34,533 women were recalled for further assessment. Nine hundred and sixty-four interval cancers were reported in this period. Forty-six of these women had been recalled for further assessment, which specifically included ultrasound evaluation in the preceding 24 months, and therefore, met the inclusion criteria for this study. Screening mammograms, further mammographic views, ultrasound scans, clinical findings, and histopathology results were retrospectively reviewed by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The interval cancer developed in the contralateral breast (n = 9), ipsilateral breast, but different site (n = 6), and ipsilateral breast at the same site (n = 31) as the abnormality for which they had recently been recalled. In the latter group, 10 were retrospectively classified as a false-negative outcome, nine had a delay in obtaining a biopsy, and 12 had a delay due to a non-diagnostic initial biopsy. Various factors relating to these outcomes are discussed. Conclusion: Out of 34,533 women who attended for an assessment visit and the 46 women who subsequently developed an interval breast cancer, 15 were true interval cancers, 10 had a false-negative assessment outcome, and 21 had a delay to cancer diagnosis on the basis of a number of factors. When there is discrepancy between the imaging and histopathology results, a repeat biopsy rather than early follow-up would have avoided a delay in some cases. A normal ultrasound examination should not deter the radiologist from proceeding to stereotactic biopsy, if the index mammographic lesion is suspicious of malignancy.

  9. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  10. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  11. Psychometric evaluation of an item bank for computerized adaptive testing of the EORTC QLQ-C30 cognitive functioning dimension in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, Linda; Groenvold, Mogens; Taphoorn, Martin J B; Conroy, Thierry; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Young, Teresa; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2017-11-01

    The European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing computerized adaptive testing (CAT) versions of all EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) scales with the aim to enhance measurement precision. Here we present the results on the field-testing and psychometric evaluation of the item bank for cognitive functioning (CF). In previous phases (I-III), 44 candidate items were developed measuring CF in cancer patients. In phase IV, these items were psychometrically evaluated in a large sample of international cancer patients. This evaluation included an assessment of dimensionality, fit to the item response theory (IRT) model, differential item functioning (DIF), and measurement properties. A total of 1030 cancer patients completed the 44 candidate items on CF. Of these, 34 items could be included in a unidimensional IRT model, showing an acceptable fit. Although several items showed DIF, these had a negligible impact on CF estimation. Measurement precision of the item bank was much higher than the two original QLQ-C30 CF items alone, across the whole continuum. Moreover, CAT measurement may on average reduce study sample sizes with about 35-40% compared to the original QLQ-C30 CF scale, without loss of power. A CF item bank for CAT measurement consisting of 34 items was established, applicable to various cancer patients across countries. This CAT measurement system will facilitate precise and efficient assessment of HRQOL of cancer patients, without loss of comparability of results.

  12. Exploratory Item Classification Via Spectral Graph Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiao; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Jingchen; Xu, Gongjun; Ying, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale assessments are supported by a large item pool. An important task in test development is to assign items into scales that measure different characteristics of individuals, and a popular approach is cluster analysis of items. Classical methods in cluster analysis, such as the hierarchical clustering, K-means method, and latent-class analysis, often induce a high computational overhead and have difficulty handling missing data, especially in the presence of high-dimensional responses. In this article, the authors propose a spectral clustering algorithm for exploratory item cluster analysis. The method is computationally efficient, effective for data with missing or incomplete responses, easy to implement, and often outperforms traditional clustering algorithms in the context of high dimensionality. The spectral clustering algorithm is based on graph theory, a branch of mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The algorithm first constructs a graph of items, characterizing the similarity structure among items. It then extracts item clusters based on the graphical structure, grouping similar items together. The proposed method is evaluated through simulations and an application to the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

  13. Including cetaceans in multi-species assessment models using strandings data: why, how and what can we do about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Saavedra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-species models have been commonly used to assess fish stocks in the past. Since these models have relatively simple data requirements, they sometimes provide the only tool available to assess the status of a stock when data are not enough to develop more complex models. However, these models have been criticized for several reasons since they provide reference points independently for each species assessed ignoring their interactions. For example, several studies suggest that even more substantial reductions in fishing mortality may be necessary to ensure MSY is reached when taking into consideration multiespecies interactions. Therefore, and as Pauly et al. (1998 stated, single-species analysis may mislead researchers and managers into neglecting the gear and trophic interactions which ultimately determine stocks long-term yields and ecosystem health. Ecosystem or multispecies models offer a number of advantages over single-species models. As stated in the workshop “Incorporating ecosystem considerations into stock assessments and management advice” (Mace, 2000 two general improvements are: a better appreciation of the fishing on ecosystem structure and function, and a better appreciation of the need to consider de value of marine ecosystems for functions other than harvesting fish. As disadvantages, multispecies models are statistically complex and include trophic relationships requiring more information (e.g. good estimations of biological parameters of each species and generally a full quantification of the diet sometimes available though the analysis of stomach contents. To reduce the number of species and therefore the amount of information needed, Minimum Realistic Models (MRMs represent an intermediate level of complexity, where only the subset of the ecosystem, important for the issue under consideration, is modeled. This approach offers the advantage of allowing a refinement of our estimates and can help answer more targeted

  14. National Hospice Item Set (HIS) data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data set includes the national averages (mean) for quality measure scores of Medicare-certified hospice agencies calculated from the Hospice Item Set (HIS) for...

  15. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  16. Small-Item Vapor Test Method, FY11 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    technology (S&T), T&E, and developmental and operational testing (DT/OT) activities , technology readiness assessments (TRA) to determine technology...powders, wipes), or gas-phase ( fumigants , including aerosols). decontamination process: The process of making any person, object, or area safe by...delivered to item. ■ Vaporous decontaminants: injection rate, flow rate, fumigant concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. ■ Liquid

  17. Quality assessment of delineation and dose planning of early breast cancer patients included in the randomized Skagen Trial 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francolini, Giulio; Thomsen, Mette S; Yates, Esben S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To report on a Quality assessment (QA) of Skagen Trial 1, exploring hypofractionation for breast cancer patients with indication for regional nodal radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Deviations from protocol regarding target volume delineations and dose parameters (Dmin...

  18. Item response theory - A first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sandra; Oliveira, Teresa; Oliveira, Amílcar

    2017-07-01

    The Item Response Theory (IRT) has become one of the most popular scoring frameworks for measurement data, frequently used in computerized adaptive testing, cognitively diagnostic assessment and test equating. According to Andrade et al. (2000), IRT can be defined as a set of mathematical models (Item Response Models - IRM) constructed to represent the probability of an individual giving the right answer to an item of a particular test. The number of Item Responsible Models available to measurement analysis has increased considerably in the last fifteen years due to increasing computer power and due to a demand for accuracy and more meaningful inferences grounded in complex data. The developments in modeling with Item Response Theory were related with developments in estimation theory, most remarkably Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms (Patz & Junker, 1999). The popularity of Item Response Theory has also implied numerous overviews in books and journals, and many connections between IRT and other statistical estimation procedures, such as factor analysis and structural equation modeling, have been made repeatedly (Van der Lindem & Hambleton, 1997). As stated before the Item Response Theory covers a variety of measurement models, ranging from basic one-dimensional models for dichotomously and polytomously scored items and their multidimensional analogues to models that incorporate information about cognitive sub-processes which influence the overall item response process. The aim of this work is to introduce the main concepts associated with one-dimensional models of Item Response Theory, to specify the logistic models with one, two and three parameters, to discuss some properties of these models and to present the main estimation procedures.

  19. Vegetable parenting practices scale: Item response modeling analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We al...

  20. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Document Server

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  1. Seismic reliability assessment of RC structures including soil–structure interaction using wavelet weighted least squares support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatibinia, Mohsen; Javad Fadaee, Mohammad; Salajegheh, Javad; Salajegheh, Eysa

    2013-01-01

    An efficient metamodeling framework in conjunction with the Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) is introduced to reduce the computational cost in seismic reliability assessment of existing RC structures. In order to achieve this purpose, the metamodel is designed by combining weighted least squares support vector machine (WLS-SVM) and a wavelet kernel function, called wavelet weighted least squares support vector machine (WWLS-SVM). In this study, the seismic reliability assessment of existing RC structures with consideration of soil–structure interaction (SSI) effects is investigated in accordance with Performance-Based Design (PBD). This study aims to incorporate the acceptable performance levels of PBD into reliability theory for comparing the obtained annual probability of non-performance with the target values for each performance level. The MCS method as the most reliable method is utilized to estimate the annual probability of failure associated with a given performance level in this study. In WWLS-SVM-based MCS, the structural seismic responses are accurately predicted by WWLS-SVM for reducing the computational cost. To show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed metamodel, two RC structures are studied. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and computational advantages of the proposed metamodel for the seismic reliability assessment of structures. Furthermore, the consideration of the SSI effects in the seismic reliability assessment of existing RC structures is compared to the fixed base model. It shows which SSI has the significant influence on the seismic reliability assessment of structures.

  2. Applying the Longitudinal Model from Item Response Theory to Assess Health-Related Quality of Life in the PRODIGE 4/ACCORD 11 Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Antoine; Anota, Amélie; Conroy, Thierry; Gourgou-Bourgade, Sophie; Juzyna, Beata; Bonnetain, Franck; Lavergne, Christian; Bascoul-Mollevi, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    A new longitudinal statistical approach was compared to the classical methods currently used to analyze health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) data. The comparison was made using data in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Three hundred forty-two patients from the PRODIGE4/ACCORD 11 study were randomly assigned to FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine regimens. HRQoL was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. The classical analysis uses a linear mixed model (LMM), considering an HRQoL score as a good representation of the true value of the HRQoL, following EORTC recommendations. In contrast, built on the item response theory (IRT), our approach considered HRQoL as a latent variable directly estimated from the raw data. For polytomous items, we extended the partial credit model to a longitudinal analysis (longitudinal partial credit model [LPCM]), thereby modeling the latent trait as a function of time and other covariates. Both models gave the same conclusions on 11 of 15 HRQoL dimensions. HRQoL evolution was similar between the 2 treatment arms, except for the symptoms of pain. Indeed, regarding the LPCM, pain perception was significantly less important in the FOLFIRINOX arm than in the gemcitabine arm. For most of the scales, HRQoL changes over time, and no difference was found between treatments in terms of HRQoL. The use of LMM to study the HRQoL score does not seem appropriate. It is an easy-to-use model, but the basic statistical assumptions do not check. Our IRT model may be more complex but shows the same qualities and gives similar results. It has the additional advantage of being more precise and suitable because of its direct use of raw data. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing: A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    experiments to assess the toxicity of fenthion following aerial application to control adult salt marsh mosquitoes at an estuarine site in Florida...Genotoxicity testing in sediments: Progress in developing a transgenic polychaete model. ERDC/TN EEDP-01-45. Ireland DS, Burton GA, Jr., and Hess GG, 1996

  4. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  5. Comparison of the neural correlates of encoding item-item and item-context associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny X Wong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available fMRI was employed to investigate the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG in the encoding of item-item and item-context associations. On each of a series of study trials subjects viewed a picture that was presented either to the left or right of fixation, along with a subsequently presented word that appeared at fixation. Memory was tested in a subsequent memory test that took place outside of the scanner. On each test trial one of two forced choice judgments was required. For the associative test, subjects chose between the word paired with the picture at study and a word studied on a different trial. For the source test, the judgment was whether the picture had been presented on the left or right. Successful encoding of associative information was accompanied by subsequent memory effects in several cortical regions, including much of the LIFG. By contrast, successful source encoding was selectively associated with a subsequent memory effect in right fusiform cortex. The finding that the LIFG was enhanced during successful associative, but not source, encoding is interpreted in light of the proposal that subsequent memory effects are localized to cortical regions engaged by the on-line demands of the study task.

  6. Determination of the caffeine contents of various food items within the Austrian market and validation of a caffeine assessment tool (CAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, E; Färbinger, A; König, J

    2012-01-01

    The caffeine content of 124 products, including coffee, coffee-based beverages, energy drinks, tea, colas, yoghurt and chocolate, were determined using RP-HPLC with UV detection after solid-phase extraction. Highest concentrations of caffeine were found for coffee prepared from pads (755 mg l⁻¹) and regular filtered coffee (659 mg l⁻¹). The total caffeine content of coffee and chocolate-based beverages was between 15 mg l⁻¹ in chocolate milk and 448 mg l⁻¹ in canned ice coffee. For energy drinks the caffeine content varied in a range from 266 to 340 mg l⁻¹. Caffeine concentrations in tea and ice teas were between 13 and 183 mg l⁻¹. Coffee-flavoured yoghurts ranged from 33 to 48 mg kg⁻¹. The caffeine concentration in chocolate and chocolate bars was between 17 mg kg⁻¹ in whole milk chocolate and 551 mg kg⁻¹ in a chocolate with coffee filling. A caffeine assessment tool was developed and validated by a 3-day dietary record (r²= 0.817, p caffeine saliva concentrations (r²= 0.427, p < 0.01).

  7. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  8. Including a service learning educational research project in a biology course-I: Assessing community awareness of childhood lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted fırst into yes and no sets based on the responses obtained for the fırst question, which gauged the participants' awareness of lead as an indoor pollutant at 71% (n=273)...

  9. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  10. Analysis of Item Difficulty Parameters on Item Characteristic Curves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Item Difficulty Parameters on Item Characteristic Curves as A Function of Changes in WAEC and NECO Examination Instruments and Students Ability Parameters in Mathematics Objective Test in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  11. Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES): using GIS to include social values information in ecosystem services assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, B.C.; Semmens, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem services can be defined in various ways; simply put, they are the benefits provided by nature, which contribute to human well-being. These benefits can range from tangible products such as food and fresh water to cultural services such as recreation and esthetics. As the use of these benefits continues to increase, additional pressures are placed on the natural ecosystems providing them. This makes it all the more important when assessing possible tradeoffs among ecosystem services to consider the human attitudes and preferences that express underlying social values associated with their benefits. While some of these values can be accounted for through economic markets, other values can be more difficult to quantify, and attaching dollar amounts to them may not be very useful in all cases. Regardless of the processes or units used for quantifying such values, the ability to map them across the landscape and relate them to the ecosystem services to which they are attributed is necessary for effective assessments. To address some of the needs associated with quantifying and mapping social values for inclusion in ecosystem services assessments, scientists at the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), in collaboration with Colorado State University, have developed a public domain tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). SolVES is a geographic information system (GIS) application designed to use data from public attitude and preference surveys to assess, map, and quantify social values for ecosystem services. SolVES calculates and maps a 10-point Value Index representing the relative perceived social values of ecosystem services such as recreation and biodiversity for various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. SolVES output can also be used to identify and model relationships between social values and physical characteristics of the underlying landscape. These relationships can then be used to generate predicted Value Index maps for areas

  12. The Predictive Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory Suicide Item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kelly L; Brown, Gregory K; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cha, Jason; Steer, Robert A; Beck, Aaron T

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines the predictive validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) suicide item for death by suicide and suicide attempts. The study included 2 samples: (1) 5,200 psychiatric outpatients who were evaluated between 1975 and 1995 and followed prospectively for up to 20 years (all psychiatric diagnoses based on DSM-III and DSM-III-R), and (2) 119 patients who, between 2000 and 2004, participated in a randomized controlled trial of outpatient Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention after a suicide attempt and were followed for 18 months (all psychiatric diagnoses based on DSM-IV-TR). All patients completed structured diagnostic interviews, as well as the BDI and Scale for Suicide Ideation. Cox regression models demonstrated that the BDI suicide item significantly predicted both deaths by suicide (Wald χ(2)1 = 35.67; P < .001 [N = 5,200]) and repeat suicide attempts (Wald χ(2)1 = 8.82; P < .01 [N = 119]), with each successive rating on the item conferring greater risk. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, optimal cutoff scores of 1 and above for suicide and 2 and above for suicide attempts were identified as providing the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. The BDI suicide item is associated with both risk of repeat suicide attempts and death by suicide. The use of the item as a brief, efficient screen for suicide risk in routine clinical care is recommended. Clinicians would then conduct a comprehensive suicide risk assessment in response to a positive screen. Future research examining the item's performance in other at-risk groups (ie, older adults, adolescents, inpatients, etc) is encouraged. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) for an item between two groups is present if, for the same person location on a variable, persons from different groups have different expected values for their responses. Applying only to dichotomously scored items in the popular Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method for detecting DIF in which persons are classified by…

  14. Assessment of emerging contaminants including organophosphate esters and pyrethroids during DISCOVER-AQ in Houston, Texas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Sascha; Clark, Addie; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a NASA-funded air quality research program that focused on Houston, Texas, United States in September 2013. In conjunction with DISCOVER-AQ, particulate matter was collected for the month of September from four ground-based sampling sites across the Houston metropolitan area. The Houston metropolitan area is one of the most populous cities in the United States. Sampling sites included an upwind and downwind site as well as an urban (i.e. downtown) and industrial/port areas (i.e. Houston Ship Channel). Particulate matter samples were collected to examine both spatial and temporal trends (including day versus night). Particulate matter was collected on quartz fiber filters, which were analyzed for emerging classes of concern including organophosphate esters (OPEs; including flame retardants) and pyrethroids. OPEs have in recent years increased in both use and production as they replaced polybrominated diphenyl ethers flame retardants. Permethrin is one of the most commonly used mosquito adulticides in the United States.

  15. Vulnerability assessment including tangible and intangible components in the index composition: An Amazon case study of flooding and flash flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena Marília Nogueira de; Szlafsztein, Claudio Fabian

    2018-02-27

    The vulnerability of cities and communities in the Amazon to flooding and flash flooding is increasing. The effects of extreme events on populations vary across landscapes, causing vulnerability to differ spatially. Traditional vulnerability studies in Brazil and across the world have used the vulnerability index for the country and, more recently, municipality scales. The vulnerability dimensions are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. For each of these dimensions, there is a group of indicators that constitutes a vulnerability index using quantitative data. Several vulnerability assessments have used sensitivity and exposure analyses and, recently, adaptive capacity has been considered. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis allows spatial regional modeling using quantitative vulnerability indicators. This paper presents a local-scale vulnerability assessment in an urban Amazonian area, Santarém City, using interdisciplinary methods. Data for exposure and sensitivity were gathered by remote sensing and census data, respectively. However, adaptive capacity refers to local capacities, whether infrastructural or not, and the latter were gathered by qualitative participatory methods. For the mixed data used to study adaptive capacity, we consider tangible components for countable infrastructure that can cope with hazards, and intangible components that reflect social activities based on risk perceptions and collective action. The results indicate that over 80% of the area is highly or moderately vulnerable to flooding and flash flooding. Exposure and adaptive capacity were determinants of the results. Lower values of adaptive capacity play a significant role in vulnerability enhancement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Differential Item Functioning on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Kübra Atalay; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) items on test equating through multilevel item response models (MIRMs) and traditional IRMs. The performances of three different equating models were investigated under 24 different simulation conditions, and the variables whose effects were examined included sample size, test…

  17. How employees perceive organizational learning: construct validation of the 25-item short form of the strategic learning assessment map (SF-SLAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainert, Jakob; Niepel, Christoph; Lans, T.; Greiff, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The Strategic Learning Assessment Map (SLAM) originally assessed organizational learning (OL) at the level of the firm by addressing managers, who rated OL in the SLAM on five dimensions of individual learning, group learning, organizational learning, feed-forward learning, and feedback

  18. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilities – Synthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2017-01-01

    % in the dual porosity filter, stressing the importance of including a conservative tracer for correction of contaminant retention values. The method is considered useful in future treatment performance testing of STFs. The observed performance of the STFs is presented in coming papers.......Stormwater treatment facilities (STFs) are becoming increasingly widespread but knowledge on their performance is limited. This is due to difficulties in obtaining representative samples during storm events and documenting removal of the broad range of contaminants found in stormwater runoff...

  19. Measured Properties of Turbulent Premixed Flames for Model Assessment, Including Burning Velocities, Stretch Rates, and Surface Densities (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent burning velocity of Bunsen flames depends...burning velocity of Bunsen flames are inadequate because they should include two additional parameters: mean velocity Ū and burner width W. These...corru- gated) flame with well-defined boundary conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent

  20. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  1. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornes John E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas.

  2. Metal load assessment in patient pulmonary lavages: towards a comprehensive mineralogical analysis including the nano-sized fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Valérie; Vergnon, Jean-Michel; Guibert, Cyril; Bitounis, Dimitrios; Leclerc, Lara; Sarry, Gwendoline; Pourchez, Jérémie

    Mineralogical analyses of clinical samples have been proved useful to identify causal relationship between exposure to airborne particles and pulmonary diseases. The most striking example is asbestosis where the assessment of asbestos bodies in patient lung samples has allowed defining values specific of pathologies. However, this type of analyses only considers the micro-sized fraction of the particles, neglecting the specific impact of nano-sized particles which have been otherwise shown to be reactive and able to induce biological effects. Similarly, in nanotoxicology, the mineralogical analysis of pulmonary fluids could be used as an indicator of exposure to inhaled nanoparticles and could help investigations on the relationship between exposure to these nanoparticles and lung diseases. We designed this study first to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this approach, then to get a clear picture of the metals present, and in what form, in patient lungs and finally to determine if indeed it is worth investigating separately the micro, sub-micro and nano fractions. Broncho-alveolar lavages were recovered from 100 patients suffering from interstitial lung diseases. A protocol was specifically developed to isolate three fractions containing respectively microparticles, sub-microparticles and nanoparticles with ions. The metal content in each fraction was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Results showed significant differences between the three fractions in terms of metal load confirming that the separate analysis of the fractions is relevant. It also means that the assessment of the micro-sized fraction alone, as commonly done in clinical practice, only gives a partial view of the mineralogical analysis.

  3. [Training of residents in obstetrics and gynecology: Assessment of an educational program including formal lectures and practical sessions using simulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A; El Haloui, O; Breaud, J; Chevalier, D; Antomarchi, J; Bongain, A; Boucoiran, I; Delotte, J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate an educational program in the training of residents in gynecology-obstetrics (GO) with a theory session and a practical session on simulators and analyze their learning curve. Single-center prospective study, at the university hospital (CHU). Two-day sessions were leaded in April and July 2013. An evaluation on obstetric and gynecological surgery simulator was available to all residents. Theoretical knowledge principles of obstetrics were evaluated early in the session and after formal lectures was taught to them. At the end of the first session, a satisfaction questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Twenty residents agreed to participate to the training sessions. Evaluation of theoretical knowledge: at the end of the session, the residents obtained a significant improvement in their score on 20 testing knowledge. Obstetrical simulator: a statistically significant improvement in scores on assessments simulator vaginal delivery between the first and second session. Subjectively, a larger increase feeling was seen after breech delivery simulation than for the cephalic vaginal delivery. However, the confidence level of the resident after breech delivery simulation has not been improved at the end of the second session. Simulation in gynecological surgery: a trend towards improvement in the time realized on the peg-transfer between the two sessions was noted. In the virtual simulation, no statistically significant differences showed, no improvement for in salpingectomy's time. Subjectively, the residents felt an increase in the precision of their gesture. Satisfaction: All residents have tried the whole program. They considered the pursuit of these sessions on simulators was necessary and even mandatory. The approach chosen by this structured educational program allowed a progression for the residents, both objectively and subjectively. This simulation program type for the resident's training would use this tool in assessing their skills and develop

  4. Examination of the PROMIS upper extremity item bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Voss, Maren W; Bounsanga, Jerry; Crum, Anthony B; Tyser, Andrew R

    Clinical measurement. The psychometric properties of the PROMIS v1.2 UE item bank were tested on various samples prior to its release, but have not been fully evaluated among the orthopaedic population. This study assesses the performance of the UE item bank within the UE orthopaedic patient population. The UE item bank was administered to 1197 adult patients presenting to a tertiary orthopaedic clinic specializing in hand and UE conditions and was examined using traditional statistics and Rasch analysis. The UE item bank fits a unidimensional model (outfit MNSQ range from 0.64 to 1.70) and has adequate reliabilities (person = 0.84; item = 0.82) and local independence (item residual correlations range from -0.37 to 0.34). Only one item exhibits gender differential item functioning. Most items target low levels of function. The UE item bank is a useful clinical assessment tool. Additional items covering higher functions are needed to enhance validity. Supplemental testing is recommended for patients at higher levels of function until more high function UE items are developed. 2c. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE SPECIFIC LOCAL HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY INCLUDING CASES ASSOCIATED WITH GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In order to optimize the detection and diagnosis of genital tuberculosis evaluation of the specific local antituberculosis immunity in 39 patients with infertility entered to the Department of Gynecology for the implementation of therapeutic and diagnostic laparoscopy has been carried out. All patients were divided into 3 groups: the 1st one included patients with tubal-peritoneal infertility, the group 2 included patients with infertility not associated with the defeat of the fallopian tubes, the third group was presented by patients with tubal-peritoneal infertility associated with genital tuberculosis who completed the basic course of anti-tuberculosis treatment. It was established that in case of the tubal-peritoneal infertility the local humoral immunity was characterised by increasing of IgM in the whole peritoneal fluid. Among women who recovered from genital tuberculosis increasing of IgA and IgG to M. tuberculosis was revealed in contrast to patients with infertility not associated with damage of fallopian tubes (p < 0.05. In 25% of patients of the 1st group genital tuberculosis was diagnosed. The diagnostic criteria for early detection of genital tuberculosis were determined and the algorithm of genital tuberculosis identification have been proposed.

  7. Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenzin, Elena [Consorzio Venezia Ricerche, c/o VEGApark, Via della Liberta 5-12, 30175 Marghera-Venice (Italy)]. E-mail: semenzin.cvr@vegapark.ve.it; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M. [Wageningen University, Department of Environmental Science, Subdepartment of Soil Quality, PO Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: erwin.temminghoff@wur.nl; Marcomini, Antonio [Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Santa Marta - Dorsoduro 2137, 30121 Venice (Italy)]. E-mail: marcom@unive.it

    2007-07-15

    The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

  8. Including exposure variability in the life cycle impact assessment of indoor chemical emissions: the case of metal degreasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsteijn, Laura; Huizer, Daan; Hauck, Mara; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-10-01

    The present paper describes a method that accounts for variation in indoor chemical exposure settings and accompanying human toxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA). Metal degreasing with dichloromethane was used as a case study to show method in practice. We compared the human toxicity related to the degreasing of 1m(2) of metal surface in different exposure scenarios for industrial workers, professional users outside industrial settings, and home consumers. The fraction of the chemical emission that is taken in by exposed individuals (i.e. the intake fraction) was estimated on the basis of operational conditions (e.g. exposure duration), and protective measures (e.g. local exhaust ventilation). The introduction of a time-dependency and a correction for protective measures resulted in reductions in the intake fraction of up to 1.5 orders of magnitude, compared to application of existing, less advanced models. In every exposure scenario, the life cycle impacts for human toxicity were mainly caused by indoor exposure to metal degreaser (>60%). Emissions released outdoors contributed up to 22% of the life cycle impacts for human toxicity, and the production of metal degreaser contributed up to 19%. These findings illustrate that human toxicity from indoor chemical exposure should not be disregarded in LCA case studies. Particularly when protective measures are taken or in the case of a short duration (1h or less), we recommend the use of our exposure scenario-specific approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Location Indices for Ordinal Polytomous Items Based on Item Response Theory. Research Report. ETS RR-15-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usama S.; Chang, Hua-Hua; Anderson, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Polytomous items are typically described by multiple category-related parameters; situations, however, arise in which a single index is needed to describe an item's location along a latent trait continuum. Situations in which a single index would be needed include item selection in computerized adaptive testing or test assembly. Therefore single…

  10. 45 CFR 284.30 - What information must the State include in its assessment of the impact of the TANF program(s) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment of the impact of the TANF program(s) in the State on the increase in child poverty? 284.30 Section... TANF PROGRAM § 284.30 What information must the State include in its assessment of the impact of the... PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES METHODOLOGY...

  11. Incidental renal stones in potential live kidney donors: prevalence, assessment and donation, including role of ex vivo ureteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsburgh, Jonathon; Thomas, Kay; Wong, Kathie; Bultitude, Matthew; Glass, Jonathan; Rottenberg, Giles; Silas, Lisa; Hilton, Rachel; Koffman, Geoff

    2013-05-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Previously, donors with asymptomatic stones found incidentally on CT were not considered ideal donor candidates because of the presumed risk of morbidity to both the donor and recipient. Increasingly, studies show that these risks are low. This study aims to evaluate the long-term safety of using ex vivo ureteroscopy to remove the stones from the donor kidney on the bench before donation. Outcomes so far suggest that this technique can safely render a kidney stone-free before transplantation. This has led to 20 more transplants in our institution than would otherwise be possible. To evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic renal stones in our potential donor population. To assess the safety and success of ex vivo ureteroscopy (ExURS) to remove stones from explanted donor kidneys before transplantation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 377 computed tomography (CT) angiograms of potential kidney donors between October 2004 and May 2007 to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic renal stones in our donor population. Between October 2005 and October 2011, kidneys from suitable donors underwent ExURS. Stones were removed using basket extraction or were fragmented with holmium laser on bench before transplantation. Immediate and long-term complications of the transplanted recipients were recorded. Donors were followed with yearly ultrasonography of the remaining kidney in addition to standard follow-up protocol. Review of 377 CT angiograms between October 2004 to May 2007 showed a 5% prevalence of asymptomatic renal stones. Out of 55 potential donors (19 identified between October 2004 to May 2007 and a further 36 identified since May 2007), 20 donors with stones proceeded to donation, with stone size ranging from 2 to 12 mm. Of the patients, 17 proceeded to ExURS. Stones were removed in 10 patients; five with basket retrieval, four with laser fragmentation and one with both laser fragmentation and basket

  12. Language-related differential item functioning between English and German PROMIS Depression items is negligible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Wahl, Inka; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd; Rose, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    To investigate differential item functioning (DIF) of PROMIS Depression items between US and German samples we compared data from the US PROMIS calibration sample (n = 780), a German general population survey (n = 2,500) and a German clinical sample (n = 621). DIF was assessed in an ordinal logistic regression framework, with 0.02 as criterion for R 2 -change and 0.096 for Raju's non-compensatory DIF. Item parameters were initially fixed to the PROMIS Depression metric; we used plausible values to account for uncertainty in depression estimates. Only four items showed DIF. Accounting for DIF led to negligible effects for the full item bank as well as a post hoc simulated computer-adaptive test (German general population sample was considerably lower compared to the US reference value of 50. Overall, we found little evidence for language DIF between US and German samples, which could be addressed by either replacing the DIF items by items not showing DIF or by scoring the short form in German samples with the corrected item parameters reported. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Correlates of a Single-Item Indicator Versus a Multi-Item Scale of Outness About Same-Sex Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Noor, Syed W; Galos, Dylan L; Rosser, B R Simon

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated if a single-item indicator measured the degree to which people were open about their same-sex attraction ("out") as accurately as a multi-item scale. For the multi-item scale, we used the Outness Inventory, which includes three subscales: family, world, and religion. We examined correlations between the single- and multi-item measures; between the single-item indicator and the subscales of the multi-item scale; and between the measures and internalized homonegativity, social attitudes towards homosexuality, and depressive symptoms. In addition, we calculated Tjur's R (2) as a measure of predictive power of the single-item indicator, multi-item scale, and subscales of the multi-item scale in predicting two health-related outcomes: depressive symptoms and condomless anal sex with multiple partners. There was a strong correlation between the single- and multi-item measures (r = 0.73). Furthermore, there were strong correlations between the single-item indicator and each subscale of the multi-item scale: family (r = 0.70), world (r = 0.77), and religion (r = 0.50). In addition, the correlations between the single-item indicator and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.63), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.38), and depression (r = -0.14) were higher than those between the multi-item scale and internalized homonegativity (r = -0.55), social attitudes towards homosexuality (r = -0.21), and depression (r = -0.13). Contrary to the premise that multi-item measures are superior to single-item measures, our collective findings indicate that the single-item indicator of outness performs better than the multi-item scale of outness.

  14. The 12-item Self-Report World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 Administered Via the Internet to Individuals With Anxiety and Stress Disorders: A Psychometric Investigation Based on Data From Two Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Erland; Lindsäter, Elin; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Andersson, Erik; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik

    2017-12-08

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a widespread measure of disability and functional impairment, which is bundled with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) for use in psychiatry. Administering psychometric scales via the Internet is an effective way to reach respondents and allow for convenient handling of data. The aim was to study the psychometric properties of the 12-item self-report WHODAS 2.0 when administered online to individuals with anxiety and stress disorders. The WHODAS 2.0 was hypothesized to exhibit high internal consistency and be unidimensional. We also expected the WHODAS 2.0 to show high 2-week test-retest reliability, convergent validity (correlations approximately .50 to .90 with other self-report measures of functional impairment), that it would differentiate between patients with and without exhaustion disorder, and that it would respond to change in primary symptom domain. We administered the 12-item self-report WHODAS 2.0 online to patients with anxiety and stress disorders (N=160) enrolled in clinical trials of cognitive behavior therapy, and analyzed psychometric properties within a classical test theory framework. Scores were compared with well-established symptom and disability measures, and sensitivity to change was studied from pretreatment to posttreatment assessment. The 12-item self-report WHODAS 2.0 showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha=.83-.92), high 2-week test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=.83), adequate construct validity, and was sensitive to change. We found preliminary evidence for a three-factorial structure, but one strong factor accounted for a clear majority of the variance. We conclude that the 12-item self-report WHODAS 2.0 is a psychometrically sound instrument when administered online to individuals with anxiety and stress disorders, but that it is probably fruitful to also report the three

  15. Assessment of commercially available energy-efficient room air conditioners including models with low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, N. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, W. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    , the highest-efficiency RAC models employ the low-GWP refrigerants R-32 or R-290. • RACs are available in most regions and worldwide that surpass the highest efficiency levels recognized by labeling programs. • Fixed-speed RACs using high-GWP and ozone-depleting R-22 refrigerant still dominate the market in many emerging economies. There is significant scope to improve RAC efficiency and transition to low-GWP refrigerants using commercially available technology and to design market-transformation programs for high-efficiency, low-GWP equipment including standards, labeling, procurement, and incentive programs.

  16. What We Don't Test: What an Analysis of Unreleased ACS Exam Items Reveals about Content Coverage in General Chemistry Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jessica J.; Villafan~e, Sachel M.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.; Murphy, Kristen L.

    2017-01-01

    General chemistry courses are often the foundation for the study of other science disciplines and upper-level chemistry concepts. Students who take introductory chemistry courses are more often from health and science-related fields than chemistry. As such, the content taught and assessed in general chemistry courses is envisioned as building…

  17. Guide to good practices for the development of test items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    While the methodology used in developing test items can vary significantly, to ensure quality examinations, test items should be developed systematically. Test design and development is discussed in the DOE Guide to Good Practices for Design, Development, and Implementation of Examinations. This guide is intended to be a supplement by providing more detailed guidance on the development of specific test items. This guide addresses the development of written examination test items primarily. However, many of the concepts also apply to oral examinations, both in the classroom and on the job. This guide is intended to be used as guidance for the classroom and laboratory instructor or curriculum developer responsible for the construction of individual test items. This document focuses on written test items, but includes information relative to open-reference (open book) examination test items, as well. These test items have been categorized as short-answer, multiple-choice, or essay. Each test item format is described, examples are provided, and a procedure for development is included. The appendices provide examples for writing test items, a test item development form, and examples of various test item formats.

  18. Dutch-Flemish translation of nine pediatric item banks from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, Lotte; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Raat, Hein; van Rossum, Marion A J; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Correia, Helena; Cella, David; Roorda, Leo D; Terwee, Caroline B

    2016-03-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(®)) is a new, state-of-the-art assessment system for measuring patient-reported health and well-being of adults and children. It has the potential to be more valid, reliable, and responsive than existing PROMs. The items banks are designed to be self-reported and completed by children aged 8-18 years. The PROMIS items can be administered in short forms or through computerized adaptive testing. This paper describes the translation and cultural adaption of nine PROMIS item banks (151 items) for children in Dutch-Flemish. The translation was performed by FACITtrans using standardized PROMIS methodology and approved by the PROMIS Statistical Center. The translation included four forward translations, two back-translations, three independent reviews (at least two Dutch, one Flemish), and pretesting in 24 children from the Netherlands and Flanders. For some items, it was necessary to have separate translations for Dutch and Flemish: physical function-mobility (three items), anger (one item), pain interference (two items), and asthma impact (one item). Challenges faced in the translation process included scarcity or overabundance of possible translations, unclear item descriptions, constructs broader/smaller in the target language, difficulties in rank ordering items, differences in unit of measurement, irrelevant items, or differences in performance of activities. By addressing these challenges, acceptable translations were obtained for all items. The Dutch-Flemish PROMIS items are linguistically equivalent to the original USA version. Short forms are now available for use, and entire item banks are ready for cross-cultural validation in the Netherlands and Flanders.

  19. Reduced-Item Food Audits Based on the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Susan N; Menzies, Tim J; Colburn, Trina A; Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The community food environment may contribute to obesity by influencing food choice. Store and restaurant audits are increasingly common methods for assessing food environments, but are time consuming and costly. A valid, reliable brief measurement tool is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate reduced-item food environment audit tools for stores and restaurants. Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys for stores (NEMS-S) and restaurants (NEMS-R) were completed in 820 stores and 1,795 restaurants in West Virginia, San Diego, and Seattle. Data mining techniques (correlation-based feature selection and linear regression) were used to identify survey items highly correlated to total survey scores and produce reduced-item audit tools that were subsequently validated against full NEMS surveys. Regression coefficients were used as weights that were applied to reduced-item tool items to generate comparable scores to full NEMS surveys. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008-2013. The reduced-item tools included eight items for grocery, ten for convenience, seven for variety, and five for other stores; and 16 items for sit-down, 14 for fast casual, 19 for fast food, and 13 for specialty restaurants-10% of the full NEMS-S and 25% of the full NEMS-R. There were no significant differences in median scores for varying types of retail food outlets when compared to the full survey scores. Median in-store audit time was reduced 25%-50%. Reduced-item audit tools can reduce the burden and complexity of large-scale or repeated assessments of the retail food environment without compromising measurement quality. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Item response theory at subject- and group-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California

  1. Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students. PMID:24639820

  2. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  3. The Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire: conceptual framework and item development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michele; Potter, Caroline M; Kelly, Laura; Hunter, Cheryl; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Coulter, Angela; Forder, Julien; Towers, Ann-Marie; A'Court, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2016-01-01

    To identify the main issues of importance when living with long-term conditions to refine a conceptual framework for informing the item development of a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n=48) were conducted with people living with at least one long-term condition. Participants were recruited through primary care. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. The analysis served to refine the conceptual framework, based on reviews of the literature and stakeholder consultations, for developing candidate items for a new measure for long-term conditions. Three main organizing concepts were identified: impact of long-term conditions, experience of services and support, and self-care. The findings helped to refine a conceptual framework, leading to the development of 23 items that represent issues of importance in long-term conditions. The 23 candidate items formed the first draft of the measure, currently named the Long-Term Conditions Questionnaire. The aim of this study was to refine the conceptual framework and develop items for a patient-reported outcome measure for long-term conditions, including single and multiple morbidities and physical and mental health conditions. Qualitative interviews identified the key themes for assessing outcomes in long-term conditions, and these underpinned the development of the initial draft of the measure. These initial items will undergo cognitive testing to refine the items prior to further validation in a survey.

  4. PROMIS Pediatric Peer Relationships Scale: development of a peer relationships item bank as part of social health measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewalt, Darren A; Thissen, David; Stucky, Brian D; Langer, Michelle M; Morgan Dewitt, Esi; Irwin, Debra E; Lai, Jin-Shei; Yeatts, Karin B; Gross, Heather E; Taylor, Olivia; Varni, James W

    2013-10-01

    This study's objective was to develop a measure of social health using item response theory as part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). After candidate items were generated from review of prior literature, focus groups, expert input, and cognitive interviews, items were administered to youth aged 8-17 as part of the PROMIS pediatric large scale testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess dimensionality and to identify instances of local dependence. Items that met the unidimensionality criteria were subsequently calibrated using Samejima's Graded Response Model. Differential item functioning was examined by gender and age. The sample included 3,048 youth who completed the questionnaire (51.8% female, 60% white, and 22.7% with chronic illness). The initial conceptualization of social function and sociability did not yield unidimensional item banks. Rather, factor analysis revealed dimensions contrasting peer relationships and adult relationships. The analysis also identified dimensions formed by responses to positively versus negatively worded items. The resulting 15-item bank measures quality of peer relationships and has strong psychometric characteristics as a full bank or an 8-item short form. The PROMIS pediatric peer relationships scale demonstrates good psychometric characteristics and addresses an important aspect of child health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Linking Item Response Model Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J; Barrett, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    With a few exceptions, the problem of linking item response model parameters from different item calibrations has been conceptualized as an instance of the problem of test equating scores on different test forms. This paper argues, however, that the use of item response models does not require any test score equating. Instead, it involves the necessity of parameter linking due to a fundamental problem inherent in the formal nature of these models-their general lack of identifiability. More specifically, item response model parameters need to be linked to adjust for the different effects of the identifiability restrictions used in separate item calibrations. Our main theorems characterize the formal nature of these linking functions for monotone, continuous response models, derive their specific shapes for different parameterizations of the 3PL model, and show how to identify them from the parameter values of the common items or persons in different linking designs.

  6. Quality of Responses of Selected Items on NAEP Special Study Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratz-Snowden, Joan; And Others

    Relationships among a series of variables were examined for demographic items included in the 1985-86 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) special survey of Hispanic and Asian students (N=2,289) and also in the Department of Education special survey of the educational preference of language minority parents. Variables studied were:…

  7. Further Evaluation of Leisure Items in the Attention Condition of Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Carreau, Abbey; MacDonald, Jackie; Pence, Sacha T.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that including leisure items in the attention condition of a functional analysis may produce engagement that masks sensitivity to attention. In this study, 4 individuals. initial functional analyses indicated that behavior was maintained by nonsocial variables (n = 3) or by attention (n = 1). A preference assessment was used to…

  8. Comparison of CAT Item Selection Criteria for Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung W.; Swartz, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Item selection is a core component in computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Several studies have evaluated new and classical selection methods; however, the few that have applied such methods to the use of polytomous items have reported conflicting results. To clarify these discrepancies and further investigate selection method properties, six…

  9. Sex differences in guessing and item omission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Świst

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Guessing and item omission may be regarded as risk-taking or risk-avoidance strategies – sex specific adaptations to testing situations. In this article, these phenomena were analysed by (a percentage of omissions by sex, (b negative binomial regression to asses sex differences in the number of omissions, (c c-DIF analysis using IRT-LR test and (d linear regression using item attributes, to assess whether the c-parameter is sex differentiated by the percentage of omits (controlling item difficulty. The data set analysed were from the 2012–2014 Polish lower-secondary schools final exams, comprising tests in maths, language, science and humanities. Contrary to the vast body of literature, boys omitted items slightly more frequently than girls. Possible explanations of this finding – specific to the Polish examination system – were provided. The hypothesis of a higher c-parameter for boys did not find strong support from this study. It was shown that the c-parameter should not only be interpreted as resulting from item non-omission. This supports the modern concept of the c-parameter as a consequence not only of random guessing, but also problem solving, creative guessing or cheating.

  10. Development of an item bank for the EORTC Role Functioning Computer Adaptive Test (EORTC RF-CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Petersen, Morten Aa.; Aaronson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Role functioning (RF) as a core construct of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) comprises aspects of occupational and social roles relevant for patients in all treatment phases as well as for survivors. The objective of the current study was to improve its assessment by developing......, and evaluation of the psychometric performance of the RF-CAT. RESULTS: Phases I-III yielded a list of 12 items eligible for phase IV field-testing. The field-testing sample included 1,023 patients from Austria, Denmark, Italy, and the UK. Psychometric evaluation and item response theory analyses yielded 10 items...... with good psychometric properties. The resulting item bank exhibits excellent reliability (mean reliability = 0.85, median = 0.95). Using the RF-CAT may allow sample size savings from 11 % up to 50 % compared to using the QLQ-C30 RF scale. CONCLUSIONS: The RF-CAT item bank improves the precision...

  11. Demonstrating an Approach for Including Pesticide Use in Life Cycle Assessment: Estimating Human and Ecosystem Toxicity of Pesticide Use in Midwest Corn Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose This study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Meth...

  12. Demonstrating an approach for including pesticide use in life-cycle assessment: Estimating human and ecosystem toxicity of pesticide use in Midwest corn farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    PurposeThis study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Metho...

  13. Testing Three-Item Versions for Seven of Young's Maladaptive Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; Sheridan, Natalie; Pred, Robert S.; Beverly, Clyde; Chessler, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) in either long-form (205- item) or short-form (75-item or 90-item) versions has demonstrated its clinical usefulness for assessing early maladaptive schemas. However, even a 75 or 90-item "short form", particularly when combined with other measures, can represent a lengthy…

  14. AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF ITEMS IN WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Modrák; Peter Knuth

    2010-01-01

    Automatic identification of items saves time and is beneficial in various areas, including warehouse management. Identification can be done by many technologies, but RFID technology seems to be one of the smartest solutions. This article deals with testing and possible use of RFID technology in warehouse management. All results and measurement outcomes are documented in form of graphs followed by comprehensive analysis.

  15. Sources of interference in item and associative recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Adam F; Dennis, Simon

    2015-04-01

    A powerful theoretical framework for exploring recognition memory is the global matching framework, in which a cue's memory strength reflects the similarity of the retrieval cues being matched against the contents of memory simultaneously. Contributions at retrieval can be categorized as matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, including the self match (match on item and context), item noise (match on context, mismatch on item), context noise (match on item, mismatch on context), and background noise (mismatch on item and context). We present a model that directly parameterizes the matches and mismatches to the item and context cues, which enables estimation of the magnitude of each interference contribution (item noise, context noise, and background noise). The model was fit within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 10 recognition memory datasets that use manipulations of strength, list length, list strength, word frequency, study-test delay, and stimulus class in item and associative recognition. Estimates of the model parameters revealed at most a small contribution of item noise that varies by stimulus class, with virtually no item noise for single words and scenes. Despite the unpopularity of background noise in recognition memory models, background noise estimates dominated at retrieval across nearly all stimulus classes with the exception of high frequency words, which exhibited equivalent levels of context noise and background noise. These parameter estimates suggest that the majority of interference in recognition memory stems from experiences acquired before the learning episode. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Extension of an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory approach to detect and account for differential item functioning in longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Gibbons, Laura E; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Crane, Paul K

    2013-04-01

    Many constructs are measured using multi-item data collection instruments. Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when construct-irrelevant covariates interfere with the relationship between construct levels and item responses. DIF assessment is an active area of research, and several techniques are available to identify and account for DIF in cross-sectional settings. Many studies include data collected from individuals over time; yet appropriate methods for identifying and accounting for items with DIF in these settings are not widely available. We present an approach to this problem and apply it to longitudinal Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) data from English speakers in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. We analyzed 3MS items for DIF with respect to sex, birth cohort and education. First, we focused on cross-sectional data from a subset of Canadian Study of Health and Aging participants who had complete data at all three data collection periods. We performed cross-sectional DIF analyses at each time point using an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory (OLR/IRT) framework. We found that item-level findings differed at the three time points. We then developed and applied an approach to detecting and accounting for DIF using longitudinal data in which covariation within individuals over time is accounted for by clustering on person. We applied this approach to data for the "entire" dataset of English speaking participants including people who later dropped out or died. Accounting for longitudinal DIF modestly attenuated differences between groups defined by educational attainment. We conclude with a discussion of further directions for this line of research.

  17. Computerized adaptive testing with item clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the cost of item writing and to enhance the flexibility of item presentation, items can be generated by item-cloning techniques. An important consequence of cloning is that it may cause variability on the item parameters. Therefore, a multilevel item response model is presented in which it

  18. Computerized adaptive testing with item cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2003-01-01

    To increase the number of items available for adaptive testing and reduce the cost of item writing, the use of techniques of item cloning has been proposed. An important consequence of item cloning is possible variability between the item parameters. To deal with this variability, a multilevel item

  19. Development and Validation of the PROMIS Pediatric Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment Item Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Meltzer, Lisa J; Marcus, Carole L; de la Motte, Anna; Kratchman, Amy; Buysse, Daniel J; Pilkonis, Paul A; Becker, Brandon D; Bevans, Katherine B

    2018-03-13

    To develop and evaluate the measurement properties of child-report and parent-proxy versions of the PROMIS ® Pediatric Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment item banks. A national sample of 1,104 children (8-17 years-old) and 1,477 parents of children 5-17 years-old was recruited from an internet panel to evaluate the psychometric properties of 43 sleep health items. A convenience sample of children and parents recruited from a pediatric sleep clinic was obtained to provide evidence of the measures' validity; polysomnography data were collected from a subgroup of these children. Factor analyses suggested two dimensions: sleep disturbance and daytime sleep-related impairment. The final item banks included 15 items for Sleep Disturbance and 13 for Sleep-Related Impairment. Items were calibrated using the graded response model from item response theory. Of the 28 items, 16 are included in the parallel PROMIS adult sleep health measures. Reliability of the measures exceeded 0.90. Validity was supported by correlations with existing measures of pediatric sleep health and higher sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment scores for children with sleep problems and those with chronic and neurodevelopmental disorders. The sleep health measures were not correlated with results from polysomnography. The PROMIS Pediatric Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment item banks provide subjective assessments of a child's difficulties falling and staying asleep as well as daytime sleepiness and its impact on functioning. They may prove useful in the future for clinical research and practice. Future research should evaluate their responsiveness to clinical change in diverse patient populations.

  20. Explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model: an application to simultaneous investigation of word and person contributions to multidimensional lexical representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an explanatory multidimensional multilevel random item response model and its application to reading data with multilevel item structure. The model includes multilevel random item parameters that allow consideration of variability in item parameters at both item and item group levels. Item-level random item parameters were included to model unexplained variance remaining when item related covariates were used to explain variation in item difficulties. Item group-level random item parameters were included to model dependency in item responses among items having the same item stem. Using the model, this study examined the dimensionality of a person's word knowledge, termed lexical representation, and how aspects of morphological knowledge contributed to lexical representations for different persons, items, and item groups.

  1. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2014-06-24

    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  2. Modifying measures based on differential item functioning (DIF) impact analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ramirez, Mildred; Jones, Richard N; Choi, Seung; Crane, Paul K

    2012-09-01

    Measure modification can impact comparability of scores across groups and settings. Changes in items can affect the percent admitting to a symptom. Using item response theory (IRT) methods, well-calibrated items can be used interchangeably, and the exact same item does not have to be administered to each respondent, theoretically permitting wider latitude in terms of modification. Recommendations regarding modifications vary, depending on the use of the measure. In the context of research, adjustments can be made at the analytic level by freeing and fixing parameters based on findings of differential item functioning (DIF). The consequences of DIF for clinical decision making depend on whether or not the patient's performance level approaches the scale decision cutpoint. High-stakes testing may require item removal or separate calibrations to ensure accurate assessment. Guidelines for modification based on DIF analyses and illustrations of the impact of adjustments are presented.

  3. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition...... to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass......, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess...

  4. The Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana Scale: Further examination using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Huang, Wenjing; Dvorak, Robert D; Prince, Mark A; Hummer, Justin F

    2017-08-01

    Given recent state legislation legalizing marijuana for recreational purposes and majority popular opinion favoring these laws, we developed the Protective Behavioral Strategies for Marijuana scale (PBSM) to identify strategies that may mitigate the harms related to marijuana use among those young people who choose to use the drug. In the current study, we expand on the initial exploratory study of the PBSM to further validate the measure with a large and geographically diverse sample (N = 2,117; 60% women, 30% non-White) of college students from 11 different universities across the United States. We sought to develop a psychometrically sound item bank for the PBSM and to create a short assessment form that minimizes respondent burden and time. Quantitative item analyses, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with item response theory (IRT) and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), revealed an item bank of 36 items that was examined for unidimensionality and good content coverage, as well as a short form of 17 items that is free of bias in terms of gender (men vs. women), race (White vs. non-White), ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), and recreational marijuana use legal status (state recreational marijuana was legal for 25.5% of participants). We also provide a scoring table for easy transformation from sum scores to IRT scale scores. The PBSM item bank and short form associated strongly and negatively with past month marijuana use and consequences. The measure may be useful to researchers and clinicians conducting intervention and prevention programs with young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Item response theory analysis of cognitive tests in people with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrory, Sarah; Doherty, Jason M; Austin, Elizabeth J; Starr, John M; Shenkin, Susan D

    2014-02-19

    Performance on psychometric tests is key to diagnosis and monitoring treatment of dementia. Results are often reported as a total score, but there is additional information in individual items of tests which vary in their difficulty and discriminatory value. Item difficulty refers to an ability level at which the probability of responding correctly is 50%. Discrimination is an index of how well an item can differentiate between patients of varying levels of severity. Item response theory (IRT) analysis can use this information to examine and refine measures of cognitive functioning. This systematic review aimed to identify all published literature which had applied IRT to instruments assessing global cognitive function in people with dementia. A systematic review was carried out across Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINHAL articles. Search terms relating to IRT and dementia were combined to find all IRT analyses of global functioning scales of dementia. Of 384 articles identified four studies met inclusion criteria including a total of 2,920 people with dementia from six centers in two countries. These studies used three cognitive tests (MMSE, ADAS-Cog, BIMCT) and three IRT methods (Item Characteristic Curve analysis, Samejima's graded response model, the 2-Parameter Model). Memory items were most difficult. Naming the date in the MMSE and memory items, specifically word recall, of the ADAS-cog were most discriminatory. Four published studies were identified which used IRT on global cognitive tests in people with dementia. This technique increased the interpretative power of the cognitive scales, and could be used to provide clinicians with key items from a larger test battery which would have high predictive value. There is need for further studies using IRT in a wider range of tests involving people with dementia of different etiology and severity.

  6. Test equating in the presence of DIF items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kwang-lee; Kamata, Akihito

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a multilevel measurement model that controls for DIF effects in test equating. The accuracy and stability of item and ability parameter estimates under the proposed multilevel measurement model were examined using randomly simulated data. Estimates from the proposed model were compared with those resulting from two multiple-group concurrent equating designs, including 1) a design that replaced DIF-items with items with no DIF; and 2) a design that retained DIF items with no attempt to control for DIF. In most of the investigated conditions, the results indicated that the proposed multilevel measurement model performed better than the two comparison models.

  7. Education outcomes related to including genomics activities in nursing practice in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Lim, Swee Hia; Png, Hong Hock

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of a genomic educational intervention by measuring the extent participants could apply the class content to practice. A sample of 76 nurses employed by Singapore Health Services, Singapore, participated in a nursing genomics seminar in 2008 and completed a survey form with a response rate of 89%. Every respondent was able to identify use of a genomic assessment or intervention item with a patient from their clinical practice. The mean use of genomic assessment and intervention items was 5.8 out of a possible 10. The most frequently used items were assessment of family history information, environmental factors and genomic physical findings. Findings provide evidence that nurses are able to include genomic assessments and interventions in their practice following targeted education. This study highlights how informed nurses are able to apply genomic assessments and interventions to individualize patient care.

  8. Eco-efficient production of spring barley in a changed climate: A Life Cycle Assessment including primary data from future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    and including earlier sowing and cultivar selection as measures of adaptation to a changed climate. A baseline scenario describing the current spring barley cultivation in Denmark was defined, and the expected main deviations were identified (differences in pesticide treatment index, modifications in nitrate...... leaching and change in crop yield). The main input data originate from experiments, where spring barley cultivars were cultivated in a climate phytotron under controlled and manipulated treatments. Effects of changed climate on both crop productivity and crop quality were represented, as well as impacts......The paper has two main objectives: (i) to assess the eco-efficiency of spring barley cultivation for malting in Denmark in a future changed climate (700 ppm [CO2] and +5 °C) through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and (ii) to compare alternative future cultivation scenarios, both excluding...

  9. Guideline Implementation: Prevention of Retained Surgical Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    A surgical item unintentionally retained in a patient after an operative or other invasive procedure is a serious, preventable medical error with the potential to cause the patient great harm. Perioperative RNs play a key role in preventing retained surgical items (RSIs). The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of retained surgical items" provides guidance for implementing a consistent, multidisciplinary approach to RSI prevention; accounting for surgical items; preventing retention of device fragments; reconciling count discrepancies; and using adjunct technologies to supplement manual count procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel provide optimal care during a procedure. Key points addressed include taking responsibility for RSI prevention as a team; minimizing distractions, noise, and interruptions during counts; using consistent counting methods; reconciling discrepancies; and participating in performance-improvement activities. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance in writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the quality of medical multiple-choice items created with automated processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Lai, Hollis

    2013-07-01

    Computerised assessment raises formidable challenges because it requires large numbers of test items. Automatic item generation (AIG) can help address this test development problem because it yields large numbers of new items both quickly and efficiently. To date, however, the quality of the items produced using a generative approach has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether automatic processes yield items that meet standards of quality that are appropriate for medical testing. Quality was evaluated firstly by subjecting items created using both AIG and traditional processes to rating by a four-member expert medical panel using indicators of multiple-choice item quality, and secondly by asking the panellists to identify which items were developed using AIG in a blind review. Fifteen items from the domain of therapeutics were created in three different experimental test development conditions. The first 15 items were created by content specialists using traditional test development methods (Group 1 Traditional). The second 15 items were created by the same content specialists using AIG methods (Group 1 AIG). The third 15 items were created by a new group of content specialists using traditional methods (Group 2 Traditional). These 45 items were then evaluated for quality by a four-member panel of medical experts and were subsequently categorised as either Traditional or AIG items. Three outcomes were reported: (i) the items produced using traditional and AIG processes were comparable on seven of eight indicators of multiple-choice item quality; (ii) AIG items can be differentiated from Traditional items by the quality of their distractors, and (iii) the overall predictive accuracy of the four expert medical panellists was 42%. Items generated by AIG methods are, for the most part, equivalent to traditionally developed items from the perspective of expert medical reviewers. While the AIG method produced comparatively fewer plausible

  11. Using a Process Dissociation Approach to Assess Verbal Short-Term Memory for Item and Order Information in a Sample of Individuals with a Self-Reported Diagnosis of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Yifu; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined whether difficulties in short-term memory for verbal information, that might be associated with dyslexia, are driven by problems in retaining either information about to-be-remembered items or the order in which these items were presented. However, such studies have not used process-pure measures of short-term memory for item or order information. In this work we adapt a process dissociation procedure to properly distinguish the contributions of item and order processes to verbal short-term memory in a group of 28 adults with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia and a comparison sample of 29 adults without a dyslexia diagnosis. In contrast to previous work that has suggested that individuals with dyslexia experience item deficits resulting from inefficient phonological representation and language-independent order memory deficits, the results showed no evidence of specific problems in short-term retention of either item or order information among the individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia, despite this group showing expected difficulties on separate measures of word and non-word reading. However, there was some suggestive evidence of a link between order memory for verbal material and individual differences in non-word reading, consistent with other claims for a role of order memory in phonologically mediated reading. The data from the current study therefore provide empirical evidence to question the extent to which item and order short-term memory are necessarily impaired in dyslexia.

  12. Effects of Reducing the Cognitive Load of Mathematics Test Items on Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Gillmor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty: signalling important information, aesthetic item organization, and removing extraneous content. Load reduction was not shown to impact student anxiety. Implications for classroom assessment and future research are discussed.

  13. Effects of age on negative subsequent memory effects associated with the encoding of item and item-context information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; de Chastelaine, Marianne; Rugg, Michael D

    2014-12-01

    It has consistently been reported that "negative" subsequent memory effects--lower study activity for later remembered than later forgotten items--are attenuated in older individuals. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether these findings extend to subsequent memory effects associated with successful encoding of item-context information. Older (n = 25) and young (n = 17) subjects were scanned while making 1 of 2 encoding judgments on a series of pictures. Memory was assessed for the study item and, for items judged old, the item's encoding task. Both memory judgments were made using confidence ratings, permitting item and source memory strength to be unconfounded and source confidence to be equated across age groups. Replicating prior findings, negative item effects in regions of the default mode network in young subjects were reversed in older subjects. Negative source effects, however, were invariant with respect to age and, in both age groups, the magnitude of the effects correlated with source memory performance. It is concluded that negative item effects do not reflect processes necessary for the successful encoding of item-context associations in older subjects. Negative source effects, in contrast, appear to reflect the engagement of processes that are equally important for successful episodic encoding in older and younger individuals. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Should nutritional status evaluation be included in the initial needs assessment of leprosy patients with disability prior to socio-economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Diffey, B; Jacob, A J; Vaz, M

    2001-06-01

    Because of the large numbers of leprosy patients with disability and the limited resources available, it is important that socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) is targeted towards those who are most in need. Towards this purpose, current assessments of leprosy patients prior to initiating SER include the evaluation of income, assets and household possessions. Conspicuously absent is the nutritional assessment of the patient. In the absence of weight loss associated with illness, population studies indicate that undernutrition reflects poor socio-economic conditions. In this study of 151 cured leprosy patients with disability, 57% of the patients were found to be undernourished using body mass index (kg/m2) derived from body weight and height, and 10% of the patients were severely undernourished (grade III). Undernutrition in the patients was poorly though significantly correlated with personal income (r = 0.18, P nutritional status evaluation by anthropometry as part of the initial screening of leprosy patients prior to instituting SER. We believe that this simple and objective evaluation can add to the assessment of 'threat' of economic deprivation or actual economic 'dislocation', and thus help in the prioritization of leprosy patients for SER.

  15. VALIDATION OF A MODIFIED-MULTIDIMENSIONAL PROGNOSTIC INDEX (m-MPI) INCLUDING THE MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT SHORT-FORM (MNA-SF) FOR THE PREDICTION OF ONE-YEAR MORTALITY IN HOSPITALIZED ELDERLY PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANCARLO, D.; D’ONOFRIO, G.; FRANCESCHI, M.; SCARCELLI, C.; NIRO, V.; ADDANTE, F.; COPETTI, M.; FERRUCCI, L.; FONTANA, L.; PILOTTO, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The mortality prediction represents a key factor in the managing of elderly hospitalized patients. Since in older subjects mortality results from a combination of biological, functional, nutritional, psychological and environmental factors, a Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) that predict short- and long-term mortality based on a standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) has recently been developed and validated. Objective This study compares the accuracy in predicting the mortality of the MPI with a modified version of the MPI (m-MPI) that included the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) instead of the standard MNA. Design This prospective study with a one-year follow-up included 4088 hospitalized patients aged 65 years and older. A standardized CGA that included information on functional (Activities of Daily Living, ADL and Instrumental-ADL), cognitive (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire), risk of pressure sore (Exton-Smith Scale), comorbidities (CIRS Index), medications, living status and nutritional status (MNA and MNA-SF) was used to calculate the MPI using a previously validated algorithm. Results Higher MPI values were significantly associated with higher mortality rates with a close agreement between the estimated and the observed mortality both after 1-month (MPI1=2.8% versus m-MPI1=2.8%, p=0.946; MPI2=8.9% versus m-MPI2=9%, p=0.904; MPI3=21.9% versus m-MPI3=21.9, p=0.978) and 1-year of follow-up (MPI1=10.8% versus m-MPI1=10.5%, p=0.686; MPI2=27.3% versus m-MPI2=28%, p=0.495; MPI3=52.8% versus m-MPI3=52.7%, p=0.945). The estimated areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves suggested a clinically negligible difference between the two indices. Conclusion The m-MPI is as sensitive as the MPI in stratifying hospitalized elderly patients into groups at varying risk of short- and long-term mortality, but with fewer items. PMID:21369662

  16. 48 CFR 852.214-72 - Alternate item(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.214-72... 2008) Bids on []* will be given equal consideration along with bids on []** and any such bids received... [].** * Contracting officer will insert an alternate item that is considered acceptable. ** Contracting officer will...

  17. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  18. An emotional functioning item bank of 24 items for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) was established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa.; Gamper, Eva-Maria; Costantini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    that 24 items could be included in a unidimensional IRT model. DIF did not seem to have any significant impact on the estimation of EF. Evaluations indicated that the CAT measure may reduce sample size requirements by up to 50% compared to the QLQ-C30 EF scale without reducing power. CONCLUSION...

  19. Combined curative radiotherapy including HDR brachytherapy and androgen deprivation in localized prostate cancer: A prospective assessment of acute and late treatment toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Thomas; Nilsson, Sten; Ryberg, Marianne; Brandberg, Yvonne; Lennernaes, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Self-reported symptoms including urinary, bowel and sexual side effects were investigated prospectively at multiple assessment points before and after combined radiotherapy of prostate cancer including HDR brachytherapy and neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Between April 2000 and June 2003, patients with predominantly advanced localized prostate tumours subjected to this treatment were asked before treatment and on follow-up visits to complete a questionnaire covering urinary, bowel and sexual problems. The mainly descriptive analyses included 525 patients, responding to at least one questionnaire before or during the period 2-34 months after radiotherapy. Adding androgen deprivation before radiotherapy significantly worsened sexual function. During radiotherapy, urinary, bowel and sexual problems increased and were reported at higher levels up to 34 months, although there seemed to be a general tendency to less pronounced irritative bowel and urinary tract symptoms over time. No side effects requiring surgery were reported. Classic late irradiation effects such as mucosal bleeding were demonstrated mainly during the second year after therapy, but appear less pronounced in comparison with dose escalated EBRT series. In conclusion, despite the high radiation dose given, the toxicity seemed comparable with that of other series but long term (5-10 years) symptom outcome has to be determined

  20. Creating New Items in Zotero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Morton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Intro to the Zotero API, you learned a little bit about Zotero; now you can access some of its functions using Python scripts. In this lesson, you will create a new item in a Zotero library and add some basic metadata such as title and date.

  1. The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index: comparative psychometric properties to its parent WHOQOL-BREF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Neusa Sica; Power, Mick J; Bushnell, Donald M; Fleck, Marcelo P

    2012-05-01

    To test the psychometric properties of the EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index, a shortened version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF). The sample consisted of 2359 subjects identified from primary care settings, with 1193 having a confirmed diagnosis of depression. Data came from six countries (Australia, Brazil, Israel, Russia, Spain, and the United States) involved in a large international study, the Longitudinal Investigation of Depression Outcomes. The structure of the EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index follows that of the WHOQOL-BREF assessment. Internal consistency was measured by using Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was assessed by using correlations with different measures for mental health (Symptom Checklist 90), physical health (self-evaluation), and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF and short form 36 health survey). Discriminant group validity was assessed between diagnosed depressed and nondepressed patients. Differential item functioning and unidimensionality were analyzed by using Rasch analysis. Factor structure was assessed with structural equation modeling analyses. Internal consistency was acceptable (ranged between 0.72 and 0.81 across countries), and the index discriminated well between depression (t = 6.31-20.33; P relationships, and home items for age. A common one-factor structure with acceptable fit was identified in three out of six countries (comparative fit index = 0.85, root mean square error of approximation = 0.11). The EUROHIS-QOL 8-item index showed acceptable cross-cultural performance and a satisfactory discriminant validity and would be a useful measure to include in studies to assess treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential item functioning (DIF) of SF-12 and Q-LES-Q-SF items among french substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourion-Bédès, Stéphanie; Schwan, Raymund; Laprevote, Vincent; Bédès, Alex; Bonnet, Jean-Louis; Baumann, Cédric

    2015-10-24

    Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is investigated to ensure that each item displays a consistent pattern of responses irrespective of the characteristics of the respondents. Assessing DIF helps to understand the nature of instruments, to assess the quality of a measure and to interpret results. This study aimed to examine whether the items of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) and Short-Form 12 (SF-12) exhibit DIF. A total of 124 outpatients diagnosed with substance dependence participated in a cross-sectional, multicenter study. In addition to the Q-LES-Q-SF and SF-12 results, demographic data such as age, sex, type of substance dependence and education level were collected. Rasch analysis was conducted (using RUMM2020 software) to assess DIF of the Q-LES-Q-SF and SF-12 items. For SF-12, significant age-related uniform DIF was found in two of the 12 items, and sex-related DIF was found in one of the 12 items. All of the observed DIF effects in SF-12 were found among the mental health items. Three items showed DIF on the Q-LES-Q-SF; however, the impact of DIF item on the delta score calculation for the comparisons of self-reported health status between the groups was minimal in the SF-12 and small in the Q-LES-Q-SF. These results indicated that no major measurement bias affects the validity of the self-reported health status assessed using the Q-LES-Q-SF or SF-12. Thus, these questionnaires are largely robust measures of self-reported health status among substance users.

  3. Alternative approaches to updating item parameter estimates in tests with item cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Item cloning techniques can greatly reduce the cost of item writing and enhance the flexibility of item presentation. To deal with the possible variability of the item parameters caused by item cloning, Glas and van der Linden (in press, 2006) proposed a multilevel item response model where it is

  4. Methodology in the Assessment of Construction and Development Investment Projects, Including the Graphic Multi-Criteria Analysis – a Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranko, Elżbieta

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of variant solutions developed for a building investment project needs to be made at the stage of planning. While considering alternative solutions, the investor defines various criteria, but a direct evaluation of the degree of their fulfilment by developed variant solutions can be very difficult. In practice, there are different methods which enable the user to include a large number of parameters into an analysis, but their implementation can be challenging. Some methods require advanced mathematical computations, preceded by complicating input data processing, and the generated results may not lend themselves easily to interpretation. Hence, during her research, the author has developed a systemic approach, which involves several methods and whose goal is to compare their outcome. The final stage of the proposed method consists of graphic interpretation of results. The method has been tested on a variety of building and development projects.

  5. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  8. The Australian Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale (RACES): item response theory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Kaine; Manderson, Lenore

    2016-03-17

    Racism and associated discrimination are pervasive and persistent challenges with multiple cumulative deleterious effects contributing to inequities in various health outcomes. Globally, research over the past decade has shown consistent associations between racism and negative health concerns. Such research confirms that race endures as one of the strongest predictors of poor health. Due to the lack of validated Australian measures of racist attitudes, RACES (Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale) was developed. Here, we examine RACES' psychometric properties, including the latent structure, utilising Item Response Theory (IRT). Unidimensional and Multidimensional Rating Scale Model (RSM) Rasch analyses were utilised with 296 Victorian primary school students and 182 adolescents and 220 adults from the Australian community. RACES was demonstrated to be a robust 24-item three-dimensional scale of Accepting Attitudes (12 items), Racist Attitudes (8 items), and Ethnocentric Attitudes (4 items). RSM Rasch analyses provide strong support for the instrument as a robust measure of racist attitudes in the Australian context, and for the overall factorial and construct validity of RACES across primary school children, adolescents, and adults. RACES provides a reliable and valid measure that can be utilised across the lifespan to evaluate attitudes towards all racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups. A core function of RACES is to assess the effectiveness of interventions to reduce community levels of racism and in turn inequities in health outcomes within Australia.

  9. What do self-efficacy items measure? Examining the discriminant content validity of self-efficacy items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Alison M G; Allan, Julia L; Williams, David M; Johnston, Marie

    2018-03-08

    Self-efficacy - an individual's judgement of their ability to successfully perform a behaviour - is commonly used to explain and predict behaviour. It is measured through self-report questionnaires. These scales require good content validity, that is must measure the full scope and content of the construct without contamination from similar constructs. This study uses a systematic, transparent quantitative method (discriminant content validation, DCV) to assess the content validity of a variety of self-efficacy items and qualitatively explores participant interpretations of these items. A quantitative DCV and qualitative think-aloud study of self-efficacy item interpretation. Participants (n = 21) were presented with items designed to measure self-efficacy and related constructs following standard DCV methodology. Items were rated against construct definitions to determine whether they measured a particular construct (yes/no). Judges' confidence in each assessment was also assessed (%) and used to establish quantitative estimates of content validity for each item. A qualitative think-aloud study explored the judgements made in a subset of participants. 8/8 self-efficacy items were found to measure self-efficacy; however, 2/8 of these also measured motivation. 6/8 items displayed discriminant content validity and thus can be considered 'pure' measures of self-efficacy. The think-aloud study indicated that item wording is a likely cause of item misinterpretation. Self-efficacy items vary in terms of their content validity with only some of the items assessed providing 'pure' measures of the self-efficacy construct. Item wording should be considered during study design to avoid misinterpretation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? For decades, questions have been raised relating to the content validity of self-efficacy scales, with suggestions of possible construct contamination. Previous studies have shown that manipulation of the

  10. Including pork in the Mediterranean diet for an Australian population: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial assessing cardiovascular risk and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-12-22

    The Mediterranean diet is characterised by the high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and nuts; moderate consumption of fish, poultry, eggs and dairy; and low consumption of red meat and sweets. Cross sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies indicate that a Mediterranean diet may be effective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, previous research suggests that an Australian population may find red meat restrictions difficult, which could affect long term sustainability of the diet. This paper outlines the protocol for a randomised controlled trial that will assess the cardiovascular and cognitive benefits of a Mediterranean diet modified to include 2-3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork. A 24-week cross-over design trial will compare a modified Mediterranean diet with a low-fat control diet in at-risk men and women. Participants will follow each of the two diets for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. Home measured systolic blood pressure will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes will include body mass index, body composition, fasting blood lipids, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, erythrocyte fatty acids, cognitive function, psychological health and well-being, and dementia risk. To our knowledge this research is the first to investigate whether an alternate source of protein can be included in the Mediterranean diet to increase sustainability and feasibility for a non-Mediterranean population. Findings will be significant for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and age-related decline, and may inform individuals, clinicians and public health policy. ACTRN12616001046493 . Registered 5 August 2016.

  11. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  12. Sharing the cost of redundant items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...

  13. Validation of a 28-item version of the Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation in an Irish context: The SCORE-28

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Paul; O'Reilly, Ken; Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara A.; Stratton, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development, in an Irish context, of a 3-factor, 28-item version the Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation (SCORE) questionnaire for assessing progress in family therapy. The 40-item version of the SCORE was administered to over 700 Irish participants including non-clinical adolescents and young adults, families attending family therapy, and parents of young people with physical and intellectual disabilities and cystic fibrosis. For validation purposes, dat...

  14. Dissociation between source and item memory in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Panpan; Li, Youhai; Ma, Huijuan; Xi, Chunhua; Chen, Xianwen; Wang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory includes information about item memory and source memory. Many researches support the hypothesis that these two memory systems are implemented by different brain structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of item memory and source memory processing in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to further verify the hypothesis of dual-process model of source and item memory. We established a neuropsychological battery to measure the performance of item memory and source memory. Totally 35 PD individuals and 35 matched healthy controls (HC) were administrated with the battery. Item memory task consists of the learning and recognition of high-frequency national Chinese characters; source memory task consists of the learning and recognition of three modes (character, picture, and image) of objects. Compared with the controls, the idiopathic PD patients have been impaired source memory (PD vs. HC: 0.65 ± 0.06 vs. 0.72 ± 0.09, P = 0.001), but not impaired in item memory (PD vs. HC: 0.65 ± 0.07 vs. 0.67 ± 0.08, P = 0.240). The present experiment provides evidence for dissociation between item and source memory in PD patients, thereby strengthening the claim that the item or source memory rely on different brain structures. PD patients show poor source memory, in which dopamine plays a critical role.

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  16. A Methodology for Zumbo's Third Generation DIF Analyses and the Ecology of Item Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbo, Bruno D.; Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Shear, Benjamin R.; Olvera Astivia, Oscar L.; Ark, Tavinder K.

    2015-01-01

    Methods for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) and item bias are typically used in the process of item analysis when developing new measures; adapting existing measures for different populations, languages, or cultures; or more generally validating test score inferences. In 2007 in "Language Assessment Quarterly," Zumbo…

  17. 76 FR 58138 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS); Alternative Line Item Structure (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... problems in the receipt and acceptance phase for contract deliverables and payments. This group determined..., inspection, acceptance and payment. Line items are organized into contract line items, subline items, and... that assessed destination-acceptance procedures. The process reviews performed by DoD cross-service...

  18. Gender-, age- and race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis of MDS-UPDRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Wang, Lu; Tilley, Barbara C.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Merkitch, Douglas; Luo, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assess MDS-UPDRS items for gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning. Background Assessing Differential Item Functioning is a core rating scale validation step. For the MDS-UPDRS, Differential Item Functioning occurs if item-score probability among people with similar levels of parkinsonism differ according to selected covariates (gender, age, race/ethnicity). If the magnitude of Differential Item Functioning is clinically relevant, item-score interpretation must consider influences by these covariates. Differential Item Functioning can be Non-uniform (covariate variably influences an item-score across different levels of parkinsonism) or Uniform (covariate influences an item-score consistently over all levels of parkinsonism. Methods Using the MDS-UPDRS translation database of over 5,000 PD patients from fourteen languages, we tested gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning. To designate an item as having clinically relevant Differential Item Functioning, we required statistical confirmation by two independent methods, along with a McFadden pseudo-R2 magnitude statistic greater than “negligible.” Results Most items showed no gender-, age- or race/ethnicity-based Differential Item Functioning. When Differential Item Functioning was identified, the magnitude statistic was always in the “negligible” range, and the scale level impact was minimal. Conclusions The absence of clinically relevant Differential Item Functioning across all items and all Parts of MDS-UPDRS is strong evidence that the scale can be used confidently. As studies of Parkinson's disease increasingly involve multinational efforts and the MDS-UPDRS has several validated non-English translations, the findings support the scale's broad applicability in populations with varying gender, age, and race/ethnicity distributions. PMID:27943473

  19. Psychometric properties of the PROMIS Physical Function item bank in patients receiving physical therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine H P Crins

    Full Text Available The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS is a universally applicable set of instruments, including item banks, short forms and computer adaptive tests (CATs, measuring patient-reported health across different patient populations. PROMIS CATs are highly efficient and the use in practice is considered feasible with little administration time, offering standardized and routine patient monitoring. Before an item bank can be used as CAT, the psychometric properties of the item bank have to be examined. Therefore, the objective was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank (DF-PROMIS-PF in Dutch patients receiving physical therapy.Cross-sectional study.805 patients >18 years, who received any kind of physical therapy in primary care in the past year, completed the full DF-PROMIS-PF (121 items.Unidimensionality was examined by Confirmatory Factor Analysis and local dependence and monotonicity were evaluated. A Graded Response Model was fitted. Construct validity was examined with correlations between DF-PROMIS-PF T-scores and scores on two legacy instruments (SF-36 Health Survey Physical Functioning scale [SF36-PF10] and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability-Index [HAQ-DI]. Reliability (standard errors of theta was assessed.The results for unidimensionality were mixed (scaled CFI = 0.924, TLI = 0.923, RMSEA = 0.045, 1th factor explained 61.5% of variance. Some local dependence was found (8.2% of item pairs. The item bank showed a broad coverage of the physical function construct (threshold-parameters range: -4.28-2.33 and good construct validity (correlation with SF36-PF10 = 0.84 and HAQ-DI = -0.85. Furthermore, the DF-PROMIS-PF showed greater reliability over a broader score-range than the SF36-PF10 and HAQ-DI.The psychometric properties of the DF-PROMIS-PF item bank are sufficient. The DF-PROMIS-PF can now be used as short forms or CAT to measure the level of

  20. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  1. Teoria da Resposta ao Item Teoria de la respuesta al item Item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutalia Aparecida Candido de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; portanto, as conclusões não dependem apenas do teste ou questionário, mas de cada item que o compõe. Este artigo propõe-se a apresentar esta Teoria que revolucionou a teoria de medidas.La preocupación con las medidas de los rasgos psicológicos es antigua y muchos estudios y propuestas de métodos fueron desarrollados para lograr este objetivo. Entre estas propuestas de trabajo se incluye la Teoría de la Respuesta al Ítem (TRI que, en principio, vino a completar las limitaciones de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests, ampliamente utilizada hasta hoy en la medida de los rasgos psicológicos. El punto principal de la TRI es que se tiene en cuenta el punto concreto, sin relevar las puntuaciones totales; por lo tanto, los resultados no sólo dependen de la prueba o cuestionario, sino que de cada ítem que lo compone. En este artículo se propone presentar la Teoría que revolucionó la teoría de medidas.The concern with measures of psychological traits is old and many studies and proposals of methods were developed to achieve this goal. Among these proposed methods highlights the Item Response Theory (IRT that, in principle, came to complete limitations of the Classical Test Theory, which is widely used until nowadays in the measurement of psychological traits. The main point of IRT is that it takes into account the item in particular, not relieving the total scores; therefore, the findings do not only depend on the test or questionnaire

  2. Colombia Mi Pronostico Flood Application: Updating and Improving the Mi Pronostico Flood Web Application to Include an Assessment of Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushley, Stephanie; Carter, Matthew; Chiou, Charles; Farmer, Richard; Haywood, Kevin; Pototzky, Anthony, Jr.; White, Adam; Winker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is a country with highly variable terrain, from the Andes Mountains to plains and coastal areas, many of these areas are prone to flooding disasters. To identify these risk areas NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) for the study region. The preliminary risk assessment was applied to a pilot study area, the La Mosca River basin. Precipitation data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s near-real-time rainfall products as well as precipitation data from the Instituto de Hidrologia, Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales (the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, IDEAM) and stations in the La Mosca River Basin were used to create rainfall distribution maps for the region. Using the precipitation data and the ASTER DEM, the web application, Mi Pronóstico, run by IDEAM, was updated to include an interactive map which currently allows users to search for a location and view the vulnerability and current weather and flooding conditions. The geospatial information was linked to an early warning system in Mi Pronóstico that can alert the public of flood warnings and identify locations of nearby shelters.

  3. Implementation Plan for Tank Farm Transition Projects Suspect and Counterfeit Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRUE, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This plan is designed to provide an appropriate level of confidence that Tank Farm Transition Projects (TFTP) facilities will be evaluated to assess the presence of suspect/counterfeit items. It is intended to identify suspect/counterfeit items that are presently in inventory and provide for the reporting and disposition of those items. Items which have been installed will also receive appropriate evaluation using a graded approach to achieve optimum results balanced against safety considerations and cost effectiveness

  4. On the Complexity of Item Response Theory Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifay, Wes; Cai, Li

    2017-01-01

    Complexity in item response theory (IRT) has traditionally been quantified by simply counting the number of freely estimated parameters in the model. However, complexity is also contingent upon the functional form of the model. We examined four popular IRT models-exploratory factor analytic, bifactor, DINA, and DINO-with different functional forms but the same number of free parameters. In comparison, a simpler (unidimensional 3PL) model was specified such that it had 1 more parameter than the previous models. All models were then evaluated according to the minimum description length principle. Specifically, each model was fit to 1,000 data sets that were randomly and uniformly sampled from the complete data space and then assessed using global and item-level fit and diagnostic measures. The findings revealed that the factor analytic and bifactor models possess a strong tendency to fit any possible data. The unidimensional 3PL model displayed minimal fitting propensity, despite the fact that it included an additional free parameter. The DINA and DINO models did not demonstrate a proclivity to fit any possible data, but they did fit well to distinct data patterns. Applied researchers and psychometricians should therefore consider functional form-and not goodness-of-fit alone-when selecting an IRT model.

  5. Description and assessment of a registration-based approach to include bones for attenuation correction of whole-body PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Harry R; Patrick, John; Laidley, David; Prato, Frank S; Butler, John; Théberge, Jean; Thompson, R Terry; Stodilka, Robert Z

    2013-08-01

    Attenuation correction for whole-body PET/MRI is challenging. Most commercial systems compute the attenuation map from MRI using a four-tissue segmentation approach. Bones, the most electron-dense tissue, are neglected because they are difficult to segment. In this work, the authors build on this segmentation approach by adding bones using a registration technique and assessing its performance on human PET images. Twelve oncology patients were imaged with FDG PET/CT and MRI using a Turbo-FLASH pulse sequence. A database of 121 attenuation correction quality CT scans was also collected. Each patient MRI was compared to the CT database via weighted heuristic measures to find the "most similar" CT in terms of body geometry. The similar CT was aligned to the MRI with a deformable registration method. Two MRI-based attenuation maps were computed. One was a standard four-tissue segmentation (air, lung, fat, and lean tissue) using basic image processing techniques. The other was identical, except the bones from the aligned CT were added. The PET data were reconstructed with the patient's CT-based attenuation map (the silver standard) and both MRI-based attenuation maps. The relative errors of the MRI-based attenuation corrections were computed in 14 standardized volumes of interest, in lesions, and over whole tissues. The squared Pearson correlation coefficient was also calculated over whole tissues. Statistical testing was done with ANOVAs and paired t-tests. The MRI-based attenuation correction ignoring bone had relative errors ranging from -37% to -8% in volumes of interest containing bone. By including bone, the magnitude of the relative error was reduced in all cases (pbone was improved from a mean of -7.5% to 2% (pbone reduced the magnitude of relative error in three cases (pbone slightly increased relative error in lung from 7.7% to 8.0% (p=0.002), in fat from 8.5% to 9.2% (pbone from -14.6% to 1.3% (pbone was included or not. The approach to include bones in MRI

  6. Evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in screening stroke patients for symptoms: Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayis, Salma A; Ayerbe, Luis; Ashworth, Mark; DA Wolfe, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Variations have been reported in the number of underlying constructs and choice of thresholds that determine caseness of anxiety and /or depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). This study examined the properties of each item of HADS as perceived by stroke patients, and assessed the information these items convey about anxiety and depression between 3 months to 5 years after stroke. The study included 1443 stroke patients from the South London Stroke Register (SLSR). The dimensionality of HADS was examined using factor analysis methods, and items' properties up to 5 years after stroke were tested using Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, including graded response models (GRMs). The presence of two dimensions of HADS (anxiety and depression) for stroke patients was confirmed. Items that accurately inferred about the severity of anxiety and depression, and offered good discrimination of caseness were identified as "I can laugh and see the funny side of things" (Q4) and "I get sudden feelings of panic" (Q13), discrimination 2.44 (se = 0.26), and 3.34 (se = 0.35), respectively. Items that shared properties, hence replicate inference were: "I get a sort of frightened feeling as if something awful is about to happen" (Q3), "I get a sort of frightened feeling like butterflies in my stomach" (Q6), and "Worrying thoughts go through my mind" (Q9). Item properties were maintained over time. Approximately 20% of patients were lost to follow up. A more concise selection of items based on their properties, would provide a precise approach for screening patients and for an optimal allocation of patients into clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mini-Mental Status Examination: mixed Rasch model item analysis derived two different cognitive dimensions of the MMSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Kreiner, Svend; Lomholt, Rikke Kirstine

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study published in two companion papers assesses properties of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with the purpose of improving the efficiencies of the methods of screening for cognitive impairment and dementia. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: An item analysis by conventional...... and mixed Rasch models was used to explore empirically derived cognitive dimensions of the MMSE, to assess item bias, and to construct diagnostic cut-points. The scores of 1,189 elderly residents were analyzed. RESULTS: Two dimensions of cognitive function, which are statistically and conceptually different......, registration, recall, reading, and copying). The "writing" item was not included due to differential effects of age and sex. The analysis also showed that the study sample consisted of two cognitively different groups of elderly. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that a two-scale solution is a stable...

  8. Geriatric Anxiety Scale: item response theory analysis, differential item functioning, and creation of a ten-item short form (GAS-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anne E; Segal, Daniel L; Gavett, Brandon; Marty, Meghan A; Yochim, Brian; June, Andrea; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2015-07-01

    The Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS; Segal et al. (Segal, D. L., June, A., Payne, M., Coolidge, F. L. and Yochim, B. (2010). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 709-714. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.05.002) is a self-report measure of anxiety that was designed to address unique issues associated with anxiety assessment in older adults. This study is the first to use item response theory (IRT) to examine the psychometric properties of a measure of anxiety in older adults. A large sample of older adults (n = 581; mean age = 72.32 years, SD = 7.64 years, range = 60 to 96 years; 64% women; 88% European American) completed the GAS. IRT properties were examined. The presence of differential item functioning (DIF) or measurement bias by age and sex was assessed, and a ten-item short form of the GAS (called the GAS-10) was created. All GAS items had discrimination parameters of 1.07 or greater. Items from the somatic subscale tended to have lower discrimination parameters than items on the cognitive or affective subscales. Two items were flagged for DIF, but the impact of the DIF was negligible. Women scored significantly higher than men on the GAS and its subscales. Participants in the young-old group (60 to 79 years old) scored significantly higher on the cognitive subscale than participants in the old-old group (80 years old and older). Results from the IRT analyses indicated that the GAS and GAS-10 have strong psychometric properties among older adults. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions.

  9. Components of item selection algorithm in computerized adaptive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung T

    2018-03-24

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) greatly improves measurement efficiency in high-stakes testing operations through the selection and administration of test items whose difficulty level is most relevant to each individual test taker. This paper explains the three components of a conventional CAT item selection algorithm-test content balancing, item selection criterion, and item exposure control. There were several noteworthy methodologies underlying each component. Test script method and constrained CAT method were for test content balancing. As for item selection criteria, there wereThe maximized Fisher information criterion, b-matching method, a-stratification method, weighted likelihood information criterion, efficiency balanced information criterion, and Kullback-Leibler information criterion.The randomesque method, Sympson-Hetter method, the unconditional and conditional multinomial methods, and the fade-away method were for item exposure control. Threre were several holistic approaches to CAT using the automated test assembly methods such as the shadow test approach and the weighted deviation model. Item usage and exposure count were variable according to the different item selection criteria and exposure control methods.. Finally, another important factors to consider when determining an appropriate CAT design are computer resources requirement, size of items, and the test length. . Logic of CAT is now being adopted in "adaptive learning," which integrates the learning aspect and the (formative) assessment aspect of education into a continuous, individualized learning experience. Therefore, the algorithms and technologies in this review may be able to help medical health educators and high stakes test takers to adopt CAT more actively and efficiently.

  10. The Design and Assessment of Chemistry Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchik, Charles F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a model for student portfolios that contain goal record sheet, grade record form, test self-evaluation form, chapter summary, and work samples. Includes samples of these items and portfolio conference/assessment guide, and analytic rubrics. (MKR)

  11. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  12. Emergency Power For Critical Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.

  13. Self-Paced Physics, Documentation Report, Test Item Bank 5.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As a supplement to the principal reports, a compilation of criterion check items and diagnostic test items identified by terminal objectives is presented in this document relating to the U. S. Naval Academy Self-Paced Physics Course. Included are a progress check item bank, student terminal objective key sheets, quarterly diagnostic tests and…

  14. 26 CFR 301.7001-1 - License to collect foreign items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “foreign item” as used in this section, means any item of interest upon the bonds of a foreign country or... (including Puerto Rico as if a part of the United States), or any item of dividends upon the stock of such... section. (f) Returns of information as to foreign items. For provisions relating to the filing of returns...

  15. Examination of Different Item Response Theory Models on Tests Composed of Testlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogar, Esin Yilmaz; Kelecioglu, Hülya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to first estimate the item and ability parameters and the standard error values related to those parameters obtained from Unidimensional Item Response Theory (UIRT), bifactor (BIF) and Testlet Response Theory models (TRT) in the tests including testlets, when the number of testlets, number of independent items, and…

  16. Developing a Strategy for Using Technology-Enhanced Items in Large-Scale Standardized Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, William

    2017-01-01

    As large-scale standardized tests move from paper-based to computer-based delivery, opportunities arise for test developers to make use of items beyond traditional selected and constructed response types. Technology-enhanced items (TEIs) have the potential to provide advantages over conventional items, including broadening construct measurement,…

  17. Memory for Items and Relationships among Items Embedded in Realistic Scenes: Disproportionate Relational Memory Impairments in Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Tranel, Daniel; Allen, John S.; Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Nickel, Allison E.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of item memory and relational memory on medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures. Patients with amnesia, who either had extensive MTL damage or damage that was relatively restricted to the hippocampus, were tested, as was a matched comparison group. Disproportionate relational memory impairments were predicted for both patient groups, and those with extensive MTL damage were also expected to have impaired item memory. Method Participants studied scenes, and were tested with interleaved two-alternative forced-choice probe trials. Probe trials were either presented immediately after the corresponding study trial (lag 1), five trials later (lag 5), or nine trials later (lag 9) and consisted of the studied scene along with a manipulated version of that scene in which one item was replaced with a different exemplar (item memory test) or was moved to a new location (relational memory test). Participants were to identify the exact match of the studied scene. Results As predicted, patients were disproportionately impaired on the test of relational memory. Item memory performance was marginally poorer among patients with extensive MTL damage, but both groups were impaired relative to matched comparison participants. Impaired performance was evident at all lags, including the shortest possible lag (lag 1). Conclusions The results are consistent with the proposed role of the hippocampus in relational memory binding and representation, even at short delays, and suggest that the hippocampus may also contribute to successful item memory when items are embedded in complex scenes. PMID:25068665

  18. Passive imputation and parcel summaries are both valid to handle missing items in studies with many multi-item scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhout, Iris; de Vet, Henrica Cw; de Boer, Michiel R; Twisk, Jos Wr; Heymans, Martijn W

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies showed that missing data in multi-item scales can best be handled by multiple imputation of item scores. However, when many scales are used, the number of items will become too large for the imputation model to reliably estimate imputations. A solution is to use passive imputation or a parcel summary score that combine and consequently reduce the number of variables in the imputation model. The performance of these methods was evaluated in a simulation study and illustrated in an example. Passive imputation, which updated scale scores from imputed items, and parcel summary scores that use the average over available item scores were compared to using all items simultaneously, imputing total scores of scales and complete-case analysis. Scale scores and coefficient estimates from linear regression were compared to "true" parameters on bias and precision. Passive imputation and using parcel summaries showed smaller bias and more precision than imputing total scores and complete-case analyses. Passive imputation or using parcel summary scores are valid missing data solutions in studies that include many multi-item scales.

  19. Record of the first meeting of the working group, London, 6-7 December 1977 (includes terms of reference)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The items discussed include the presentation and adoption of the Group Working Paper on: terms of reference, prime objectives, topics and assessments, criteria for proliferation resistance, the organization of the Group, including the establishment of two sub-groups, schedule of work, assignment of work to be done, and the contributions to be made by international organizations

  20. Differential item functioning of the UWES-17 in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Goliath-Yarde

    2011-11-01

    Research purpose: This study assesses the Differential Item Functioning (DIF of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17 for different South African cultural groups in a South African company. Motivation for the study: Organisations are using the UWES-17 more and more in South Africa to assess work engagement. Therefore, research evidence from psychologists or assessment practitioners on its DIF across different cultural groups is necessary. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted a Secondary Data Analysis (SDA on the UWES-17 sample (n = 2429 that they obtained from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in a South African Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector company (n = 24 134. Quantitative item data on the UWES-17 scale enabled the authors to address the research question. Main findings: The researchers found uniform and/or non-uniform DIF on five of the vigour items, four of the dedication items and two of the absorption items. This also showed possible Differential Test Functioning (DTF on the vigour and dedication dimensions. Practical/managerial implications: Based on the DIF, the researchers suggested that organisations should not use the UWES-17 comparatively for different cultural groups or employment decisions in South Africa. Contribution/value add: The study provides evidence on DIF and possible DTF for the UWES-17. However, it also raises questions about possible interaction effects that need further investigation.

  1. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  2. A Balance Sheet for Educational Item Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Michael D.

    Educational item banking presents observers with a considerable paradox. The development of test items from scratch is viewed as wasteful, a luxury in times of declining resources. On the other hand, item banking has failed to become a mature technology despite large amounts of money and the efforts of talented professionals. The question of which…

  3. Measuring participation in patients with chronic back pain-the 5-Item Pain Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Ashley B; Carroll, Linda J; Dick, Bruce D; Battié, Michele C

    2018-02-01

    Of the three broad outcome domains of body functions and structures, activities, and participation (eg, engaging in valued social roles) outlined in the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), it has been argued that participation is the most important to individuals, particularly those with chronic health problems. Yet, participation is not commonly measured in back pain research. The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of a modified 5-Item Pain Disability Index (PDI) score as a measure of participation in people with chronic back pain. A validation study was conducted using cross-sectional data. Participants with chronic back pain were recruited from a multidisciplinary pain center in Alberta, Canada. The outcome measure of interest is the 5-Item PDI. Each study participant was given a questionnaire package containing measures of participation, resilience, anxiety and depression, pain intensity, and pain-related disability, in addition to the PDI. The first five items of the PDI deal with social roles involving family responsibilities, recreation, social activities with friends, work, and sexual behavior, and comprised the 5-Item PDI seeking to measure participation. The last two items of the PDI deal with self-care and life support functions and were excluded. Construct validity of the 5-Item PDI as a measure of participation was examined using Pearson correlations or point-biserial correlations to test each hypothesized association. Participants were 70 people with chronic back pain and a mean age of 48.1 years. Forty-four (62.9%) were women. As hypothesized, the 5-Item PDI was associated with all measures of participation, including the Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective (r=-0.61), Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument: Disability Component (frequency: r=-0.66; limitation: r=-0.65), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (r=0.85), a global

  4. Re-evaluating a vision-related quality of life questionnaire with item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nispen, Ruth M A; Knol, Dirk L; Langelaan, Maaike; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2011-09-02

    For the Low Vision Quality Of Life questionnaire (LVQOL) it is unknown whether the psychometric properties are satisfactory when an item response theory (IRT) perspective is considered. This study evaluates some essential psychometric properties of the LVQOL questionnaire in an IRT model, and investigates differential item functioning (DIF). Cross-sectional data were used from an observational study among visually-impaired patients (n = 296). Calibration was performed for every dimension of the LVQOL in the graded response model. Item goodness-of-fit was assessed with the S-X(2)-test. DIF was assessed on relevant background variables (i.e. age, gender, visual acuity, eye condition, rehabilitation type and administration type) with likelihood-ratio tests for DIF. The magnitude of DIF was interpreted by assessing the largest difference in expected scores between subgroups. Measurement precision was assessed by presenting test information curves; reliability with the index of subject separation. All items of the LVQOL dimensions fitted the model. There was significant DIF on several items. For two items the maximum difference between expected scores exceeded one point, and DIF was found on multiple relevant background variables. Item 1 'Vision in general' from the "Adjustment" dimension and item 24 'Using tools' from the "Reading and fine work" dimension were removed. Test information was highest for the "Reading and fine work" dimension. Indices for subject separation ranged from 0.83 to 0.94. The items of the LVQOL showed satisfactory item fit to the graded response model; however, two items were removed because of DIF. The adapted LVQOL with 21 items is DIF-free and therefore seems highly appropriate for use in heterogeneous populations of visually impaired patients.

  5. New technologies for item monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy's request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence ampersand Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet)

  6. Eating Well While Dining Out: Collaborating with Local Restaurants to Promote Heart Healthy Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Linden M.; Pimentel, Daniela C.; Smith, Janice C.; Garcia, Beverly A.; Lee Sylvester, Laura; Kelly, Tammy; Johnston, Larry F.; Ammerman, Alice S.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Background As Americans commonly consume restaurant foods with poor dietary quality, effective interventions are needed to improve food choices at restaurants. Purpose To design and evaluate a restaurant-based intervention to help customers select and restaurants promote heart healthy menu items with healthful fats and high quality carbohydrates. Methods The intervention included table tents outlining 10 heart healthy eating tips, coupons promoting healthy menu items, an information brochure, and link to study website. Pre and post intervention surveys were completed by restaurant managers and customers completed a brief “intercept” survey. Results Managers (n = 10) reported the table tents and coupons were well received, and several noted improved personal nutrition knowledge. Overall, 4214 coupons were distributed with 1244 (30%) redeemed. Of 300 customers surveyed, 126 (42%) noticed the table tents and of these, 115 (91%) considered the nutrition information helpful, 42 (33%) indicated the information influenced menu items purchased, and 91 (72%) reported the information will influence what they order in the future. Discussion The intervention was well-received by restaurant managers and positively influenced menu item selection by many customers. Translation to Health Education Practice Further research is needed to assess effective strategies for scaling up and sustaining this intervention approach. PMID:28947925

  7. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A comprehensive assessment protocol including patient reported outcomes, physical tests, and biological sampling in newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer: is it feasible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, A.J.; Buffart, L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Braakhuis, B.J.; de Bree, R.; Leemans, C.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Large cohort studies are needed taking into account cancer-related, personal, biological, psychobehavioral, and lifestyle-related factors, to guide future research to improve treatment and supportive care. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a comprehensive baseline assessment of a

  9. Including the temporal change in PM{sub 2.5} concentration in the assessment of human health impact: Illustration with renewable energy scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwind, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gschwind@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Lefevre, Mireille, E-mail: mireille.lefevre@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Blanc, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.blanc@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Ranchin, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.ranchin@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Wyrwa, Artur, E-mail: awyrwa@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Drebszok, Kamila [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Cofala, Janusz, E-mail: cofala@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Fuss, Sabine, E-mail: fuss@mcc-berlin.net [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Torgauer Str. 12-15, 10829 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    This article proposes a new method to assess the health impact of populations exposed to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during their whole lifetime, which is suitable for comparative analysis of energy scenarios. The method takes into account the variation of particle concentrations over time as well as the evolution of population cohorts. Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050: the Baseline (BL) and the Low Carbon, Maximum Renewable Power (LC-MRP). These pathways were combined with three sets of assumptions about emission control measures: Current Legislation (CLE), Fixed Emission Factors (FEFs), and the Maximum Technically Feasible Reductions (MTFRs). Analysis was carried out for 45 European countries. Average PM{sub 2.5} concentration over Europe in the LC-MRP/CLE scenario is reduced by 58% compared with the BL/FEF case. Health impacts (expressed in days of loss of life expectancy) decrease by 21%. For the LC-MRP/MTFR scenario the average PM{sub 2.5} concentration is reduced by 85% and the health impact by 34%. The methodology was developed within the framework of the EU's FP7 EnerGEO project and was implemented in the Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA). The Platform enables performing health impact assessments for various energy scenarios. - Highlights: • A new method to assess health impact of PM{sub 2.5} for energy scenarios is proposed. • An algorithm to compute Loss of Life Expectancy attributable to exposure to PM{sub 2.5} is depicted. • Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050. • Integrating the temporal evolution of PM{sub 2.5} is of great interest for assessing the potential impacts of energy scenarios.

  10. Including the temporal change in PM2.5 concentration in the assessment of human health impact: Illustration with renewable energy scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle; Ranchin, Thierry; Wyrwa, Artur; Drebszok, Kamila; Cofala, Janusz; Fuss, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a new method to assess the health impact of populations exposed to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) during their whole lifetime, which is suitable for comparative analysis of energy scenarios. The method takes into account the variation of particle concentrations over time as well as the evolution of population cohorts. Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050: the Baseline (BL) and the Low Carbon, Maximum Renewable Power (LC-MRP). These pathways were combined with three sets of assumptions about emission control measures: Current Legislation (CLE), Fixed Emission Factors (FEFs), and the Maximum Technically Feasible Reductions (MTFRs). Analysis was carried out for 45 European countries. Average PM 2.5 concentration over Europe in the LC-MRP/CLE scenario is reduced by 58% compared with the BL/FEF case. Health impacts (expressed in days of loss of life expectancy) decrease by 21%. For the LC-MRP/MTFR scenario the average PM 2.5 concentration is reduced by 85% and the health impact by 34%. The methodology was developed within the framework of the EU's FP7 EnerGEO project and was implemented in the Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA). The Platform enables performing health impact assessments for various energy scenarios. - Highlights: • A new method to assess health impact of PM 2.5 for energy scenarios is proposed. • An algorithm to compute Loss of Life Expectancy attributable to exposure to PM 2.5 is depicted. • Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050. • Integrating the temporal evolution of PM 2.5 is of great interest for assessing the potential impacts of energy scenarios

  11. Losing Items in the Psychogeriatric Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Hoof PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Losing items is a time-consuming occurrence in nursing homes that is ill described. An explorative study was conducted to investigate which items got lost by nursing home residents, and how this affects the residents and family caregivers. Method: Semi-structured interviews and card sorting tasks were conducted with 12 residents with early-stage dementia and 12 family caregivers. Thematic analysis was applied to the outcomes of the sessions. Results: The participants stated that numerous personal items and assistive devices get lost in the nursing home environment, which had various emotional, practical, and financial implications. Significant amounts of time are spent on trying to find items, varying from 1 hr up to a couple of weeks. Numerous potential solutions were identified by the interviewees. Discussion: Losing items often goes together with limitations to the participation of residents. Many family caregivers are reluctant to replace lost items, as these items may get lost again.

  12. Rats Remember Items in Context Using Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Corbin, Hannah E; Dalecki, Stefan J; Gentry, Meredith; Brotheridge, Sydney; Sluka, Christina M; Wu, Jie-En; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-10-24

    Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of unique events in sequential order [1-3]. Animal models of episodic memory have successfully documented episodic memory of a single event (e.g., [4-8]). However, a fundamental feature of episodic memory in people is that it involves multiple events, and notably, episodic memory impairments in human diseases are not limited to a single event. Critically, it is not known whether animals remember many unique events using episodic memory. Here, we show that rats remember many unique events and the contexts in which the events occurred using episodic memory. We used an olfactory memory assessment in which new (but not old) odors were rewarded using 32 items. Rats were presented with 16 odors in one context and the same odors in a second context. To attain high accuracy, the rats needed to remember item in context because each odor was rewarded as a new item in each context. The demands on item-in-context memory were varied by assessing memory with 2, 3, 5, or 15 unpredictable transitions between contexts, and item-in-context memory survived a 45 min retention interval challenge. When the memory of item in context was put in conflict with non-episodic familiarity cues, rats relied on item in context using episodic memory. Our findings suggest that rats remember multiple unique events and the contexts in which these events occurred using episodic memory and support the view that rats may be used to model fundamental aspects of human cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Results of chemical analysis from the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey, including persistent organic pollutants and pharmaceuticals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 2008-2009, fish are were collected from approximately 560 national streams, which included a representative subset of 154 urban river sites, which were in close...

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Items in Science Technology and Society: Item Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarce attention to assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for Science-Technology-Society (STS education, due to the dialectic, tentative, value-laden, and controversial nature of most STS topics. To overcome the methodological pitfalls of the STS assessment instruments used in the past, an empirically developed instrument (VOSTS, Views on Science-Technology-Society have been suggested. Some methodological proposals, namely the multiple response models and the computing of a global attitudinal index, were suggested to improve the item implementation. The final step of these methodological proposals requires the categorization of STS statements. This paper describes the process of categorization through a scaling procedure ruled by a panel of experts, acting as judges, according to the body of knowledge from history, epistemology, and sociology of science. The statement categorization allows for the sound foundation of STS items, which is useful in educational assessment and science education research, and may also increase teachers’ self-confidence in the development of the STS curriculum for science classrooms.

  15. Investigating factors affecting students’ performance to PISA Science items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hatzinikita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the extent to which PISA Science items validly assess the knowledge and skills of 15 year-old Greek students, while, on the other hand, to examine the effect of the following factors: student’s gender, scientific processes and contexts (situations on the students’ performance in these PISA items. The research used paper-and-pencil test with published PISA Science items, conducted individual semi-structured interviews with 15 year-old students and finally marked the students’ responses, according to the PISA marking guide. Τhe basic finding resulting from the data analysis is that the paper-and-pencil test with the PISA Science items does not tend, unlike the interview, to effectively record the Greek students’ Science knowledge and skills. Moreover, the analysis revealed that the performance of students in the PISA Science items (paper-and-pencil test and interview tend to be independent of the student’s gender and depend on the context in which the knowledge and processes are assessed. Additionally, the possible correlation between the students’ performance and the factor of scientific processes seems to depend on the setting in which the students provide their responses (paper-and-pencil test or interview.

  16. Danish translation of a physical function item bank from the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W.; Rasmussen, Charlotte L.; Langberg, Henning

    2017-01-01

    of the Physical Function item bank into Danish. METHODS: We followed the PROMIS standard procedure, including: 1) two independent translations, 2) back translation, 3) independent reviews of translation quality, and 4) cognitive interviews with a representative sample of the adult population from the municipality......BACKGROUND: The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is an assessment system that aims to provide more valid, reliable, responsive, and precise patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures than has been previously available. This paper documents the translation...... of Copenhagen. After each phase, the new information was reviewed and the Danish version of the PROMIS Physical Function items was revised, if warranted. RESULTS: Relatively few problems were related to translation in itself and such problems could be fixed by changes in item wordings to fit the Danish context...

  17. RIM: A Random Item Mixture Model to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Sofie; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul; Magis, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is assumed for the item difficulties such that the…

  18. Detecting Differential Item Discrimination (DID) and the Consequences of Ignoring DID in Multilevel Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Cross-level invariance in a multilevel item response model can be investigated by testing whether the within-level item discriminations are equal to the between-level item discriminations. Testing the cross-level invariance assumption is important to understand constructs in multilevel data. However, in most multilevel item response model…

  19. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Information Guide for Subcontractors/Suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmar, Nancy D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-18

    Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator

  20. Development and analytical validation of a 25-gene next generation sequencing panel that includes the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to assess hereditary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Thaddeus; Leclair, Benoît; Bowles, Karla; Gutin, Natalia; Trost, Jeff; McCulloch, James; Bhatnagar, Satish; Murray, Adam; Craft, Jonathan; Wardell, Bryan; Bastian, Mark; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Chen, Jian; Tran, Thanh; Williams, Deborah; Potter, Jennifer; Jammulapati, Srikanth; Perry, Michael; Morris, Brian; Roa, Benjamin; Timms, Kirsten

    2015-04-02

    Germline DNA mutations that increase the susceptibility of a patient to certain cancers have been identified in various genes, and patients can be screened for mutations in these genes to assess their level of risk for developing cancer. Traditional methods using Sanger sequencing focus on small groups of genes and therefore are unable to screen for numerous genes from several patients simultaneously. The goal of the present study was to validate a 25-gene panel to assess genetic risk for cancer in 8 different tissues using next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. Twenty-five genes associated with hereditary cancer syndromes were selected for development of a panel to screen for risk of these cancers using NGS. In an initial technical assessment, NGS results for BRCA1 and BRCA2 were compared with Sanger sequencing in 1864 anonymized DNA samples from patients who had undergone previous clinical testing. Next, the entire gene panel was validated using parallel NGS and Sanger sequencing in 100 anonymized DNA samples. Large rearrangement analysis was validated using NGS, microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses (MLPA). NGS identified 15,877 sequence variants, while Sanger sequencing identified 15,878 in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 comparison study of the same regions. Based on these results, the NGS process was refined prior to the validation of the full gene panel. In the validation study, NGS and Sanger sequencing were 100% concordant for the 3,923 collective variants across all genes for an analytical sensitivity of the NGS assay of >99.92% (lower limit of 95% confidence interval). NGS, microarray CGH and MLPA correctly identified all expected positive and negative large rearrangement results for the 25-gene panel. This study provides a thorough validation of the 25-gene NGS panel and indicates that this analysis tool can be used to collect clinically significant information related to risk of

  1. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP10) scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C

    2007-01-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis...... on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression....

  2. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out...... environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic...

  3. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  4. Item-level informant discrepancies across obese-overweight children and their parents on the PedsQL™ 4.0 instrument: an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Peyman; Allahyari, Elahe; Salarzadeh, Mina; Bagheri, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Child obesity has become a major health concern worldwide. In order to provide successful intervention strategies, it is necessary to understand how obese-overweight children and their parents perceive obesity and its consequences on child's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to assess measurement equivalence of the PedsQL™ 4.0 across obese-overweight children and their parents. The items in the PedsQL™ 4.0 were analysed for differential item functioning (DIF) across obese-overweight children and their parents using an iterative hybrid ordinal logistic regression/item response theory approach. The sample included 647 overweight-obese children and their parents, who completed child and parent reports of the PedsQL™ 4.0, respectively. Overall, 17 out of 23 (74%) items were flagged with DIF across two groups: eight items exhibited uniform DIF and nine items non-uniform DIF. In addition, parents of obese children rated the child's HRQoL significantly lower than their children in all domains of the PedsQL™ 4.0, and this finding did not change whether or not items with uniform DIF were included. Although obese-overweight children and their parents interpret items of the PedsQL™ 4.0 in a conceptually different manner, removing or retaining DIF items in the subscales had no significant effects on group differences. Accordingly, it appears that observed differences in HRQoL scores across child and parent reports are a true difference and not a reflection of measurement artefact.

  5. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  6. Tissue reactions to the separate implantation of individual constituent phases of dental amalgam, including assessment by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, B M; Garrett, J R

    1983-04-01

    Soft tissue degradation of the 3 principal amalgam phases have been investigated in relation to their role in the formation of the amalgam tattoo. Each phase, finely powdered, was implanted subcutaneously into the submandibular region of guinea-pigs for periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. The rates of breakdown were assessed radiographically and the final lesions were examined by light and electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. gamma 2 (Sn7Hg) phase degraded rapidly, mainly extracellularly, and did not produce a tattoo. Both mercury and tin disappeared from the lesion. gamma 1 (Ag2Hg3) phase degraded less rapidly, both extra and intracellularly, and produced a small tattoo. Mercury was lost from the lesion. gamma (Ag3Sn) phase degraded slowly, intracellularly, and produced a large tattoo. Tattoos always resulted from persistence of minute particles of silver and sulphur associated with basal lamina and connective tissue.

  7. Effects of MK-801 treatment across several pre-clinical analyses including a novel assessment of brain metabolic function utilizing PET and CT fused imaging in live rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya, R P; Bhandari, J K; Hui, P A; Tian, Y; Farncombe, T; Mishra, R K

    2014-02-01

    Functional imaging studies in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated metabolic brain abnormalities during cognitive tasks. This study aimed to 1) introduce a novel analysis of brain metabolic function in live animals to characterize the hypo- and hyperfrontality phenomena observed in schizophrenia and following NMDA antagonist exposure, and 2) identify a robust and representative MK-801 treatment regimen that effectively models brain metabolic abnormalities as well as a range of established behavioural abnormalities representative of schizophrenia. The validity of the MK-801 animal model was examined across several established pre-clinical tests, and a novel assessment of brain metabolic function using PET/CT fused imaging. In the present study, MK-801 was administered acutely at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, and sub-chronically at 0.5 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Acute treatment at 0.5 mg/kg-disrupted facets of memory measured through performance in the 8-arm radial maze task and generated abnormalities in sensorimotor gating, social interaction and locomotor activity. Furthermore, this treatment regimen induced hyperfrontality (increased brain metabolic function in the prefrontal area) observed via PET/CT fused imaging in the live rat. While PET and CT fused imaging in the live rat offers a functional representation of metabolic function, more advanced PET/CT integration is required to analyze more discrete brain regions. These findings provide insight on the effectiveness of the MK-801 pre-clinical model of schizophrenia and provide an optimal regimen to model schizophrenia. PET/CT fused imaging offers a highly translatable tool to assess hypo- and hyperfrontality in live animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of the Performance of Multidimensional Equating Procedures for Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu ATAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of the multidimensional extentions of Stocking-Lord, mean/mean, and mean/sigma equating procedures under common-item nonequivalent groups design was investigated. The performance of those three equating procedures was examined under the combination of various conditions including sample size, ability distribution, correlation between two dimensions, and percentage of anchor items in the test. Item parameter recovery was evaluated calculating RMSE (root man squared error and BIAS values. It was found that Stocking-Lord procedure provided the smaller RMSE and BIAS values for both item discrimination and item difficulty parameter estimates across most conditions.

  9. International Semiotics: Item Difficulty and the Complexity of Science Item Illustrations in the PISA-2009 International Test Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Shade, Chelsey

    2016-01-01

    We examined multimodality (the representation of information in multiple semiotic modes) in the context of international test comparisons. Using Program of International Student Assessment (PISA)-2009 data, we examined the correlation of the difficulty of science items and the complexity of their illustrations. We observed statistically…

  10. Net and Global Differential Item Functioning in PISA Polytomously Scored Science Items: Application of the Differential Step Functioning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akour, Mutasem; Sabah, Saed; Hammouri, Hind

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply two types of Differential Item Functioning (DIF), net and global DIF, as well as the framework of Differential Step Functioning (DSF) to real testing data to investigate measurement invariance related to test language. Data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)-2006 polytomously scored…

  11. Understanding and quantifying cognitive complexity level in mathematical problem solving items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN E. EMBRETSON

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.

  12. Differences in consumption of food items between obese and normal-weight people in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, A; Taylor, F C; Khurana, S; Tripathy, V; Khandpur, N; Bowen, L; Prabhakaran, D; Kinra, S; Reddy, K Srinath; Ebrahim, S

    2012-01-01

    There is a rising prevalence of obesity in India, and diet may be a major determinant of this. We aimed to assess differences in types and quantities of food items consumed by obese and normal-weight people in India. Cross-sectional data of 7067 factory workers and their families were used from the Indian Migration Study, conducted in four cities across northern, central and southern India. Food frequency questionnaire data were used to compare the quantities of consumption of 184 food items between 287 obese (body mass index>30 kg/m2) and 1871 normalweight (body mass index 18.50-22.99 kg/m2) individuals, using t tests and ANCOVAs. Individuals with diabetes,hypertension and cardio-vascular disease were excluded. SPSS 16.0 was used for analysis. After adjusting for age, sex, location and socioeconomic status, obese individuals were found to eat significantly larger quantities of 11 food items compared with normalweight individuals. These included phulkas, chapatis/parathas/naan, plain dosa, mutton/chicken pulao/biryani, chicken fried/grilled, rasam, mixed vegetable sagu, vegetable raitha, honey,beetroot and bottlegourd (p< 0.01). Consumption of plain milk was higher among normal-weight than among obese individuals (p< 0.05). Consumption of some of these food items was also found to increase by socioeconomic status, decrease by age, and be higher among men relative to women. Obese individuals were found to consume larger quantities of certain food items compared with normal weight individuals. Interventions should aim at limiting overall food consumption among obese individuals. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  13. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  14. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared with the

  15. The use of ‘ecological risk‘ for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nunneri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the move from the uncertainty surrounding ecosystem thresholds and addresses the issue of ecosystem-state assessment by means of ecological integrity indicators and ‘ecological risk‘. The concept of ‘ecological risk‘ gives a measure of the likelihood of ecosystem failure to provide the level of natural ecological goods and services expected/desired by human societies. As a consequence of human pressures (use of resources and discharge into the environment, ecosystem thresholds can be breached thus resulting in major threats to human health, safety and well-being. In this study we apply the concept of ‘ecological risk‘ to two case-studies in the German exclusive economic zone: eutrophication and construction of offshore wind farms. The effects of different future scenarios for single-uses upon ecosystem integrity are analysed as well as the effects of one combined scenario. We conclude that in the short term construction of offshore wind farms can influence some processes to a much larger degree than eutrophication, however, combined impacts deriving from eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction need a more detailed analysis. Due to non-linear ecosystem processes, effects of combined or multiple uses of marine resources in terms of ‘ecological risk‘, cannot be extrapolated from single-use scenarios.

  16. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  17. Development and Assessment of CFD Models Including a Supplemental Program Code for Analyzing Buoyancy-Driven Flows Through BWR Fuel Assemblies in SFP Complete LOCA Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnak, Edward Joseph, III

    This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life (CDC HRQOL items in adults with arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeVellis Robert

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL is important in arthritis and the SF-36v2 is the current state-of-the-art. It is only emerging how well the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC HRQOL measures HRQOL for people with arthritis. This study's purpose is to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item CDC HRQOL (4-item Healthy Days Core Module and 5-item Healthy Days Symptoms Module in an arthritis sample using the SF-36v2 as a comparison. Methods In Fall 2002, a cross-sectional study acquired survey data including the CDC HRQOL and SF-36v2 from 2 North Carolina populations of adult patients reporting osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia; 2182 (52% responded. The first item of both the CDC HRQOL and the SF-36v2 was general health (GEN. All 8 other CDC HRQOL items ask for the number of days in the past 30 days that respondents experienced various aspects of HRQOL. Exploratory principal components analyses (PCA were conducted on each sample and the combined samples of the CDC HRQOL. The multitrait-multimethod matrix (MTMM was used to compute correlations between each trait (physical health and mental health and between each method of measurement (CDC HRQOL and SF36v2. The relative contribution of the CDC HRQOL in predicting the physical component summary (PCS and the mental component summary (MCS was determined by regressing the CDC HRQOL items on the PCS and MCS scales. Results All 9 CDC HRQOL items loaded primarily onto 1 factor (explaining 57% of the item variance representing a reasonable solution for capturing overall HRQOL. After rotation a 2 factor interpretation for the 9 items was clear, with 4 items capturing physical health (physical, activity, pain, and energy days and 3 items capturing mental health (mental, depression, and anxiety days. All of the loadings for these two factors were greater than 0.70. The CDC HRQOL physical health factor correlated with PCS (r = -.78, p 2

  19. Deep tissue biopsy vs. superficial swab culture, including microbial loading determination, in the microbiological assessment of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (SSTIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Silvano; De Simone, Giuseppe; Gioia, Renato; Noviello, Silvana; Pagliara, Domenico; Campitiello, Nicola; Rubino, Corrado; Lo Pardo, Dante; Boccia, Giovanni; De Caro, Francesco; Ascione, Tiziana

    2017-06-01

    Thirty-two patients affected by SSTIs including DFIs were enrolled between 2013 and 2014. Superficial swab was obtained before and after cleansing with sterile saline, and after ultrasonic debridement; deep tissue biopsy was obtained from ulcer base. Samples were diluted with 1 mL of saline, serial 10-fold dilutions to 10 -6 were made and 50 μL of each dilution was plated onto appropriate media. Bacteria were identified by Vitek II system. Microbial load was expressed as CFU/mL. Statistical analysis was performed by χ2. Incidence of Gram positives was higher than Gram negatives (S. aureus and P. aeruginosa being the most frequent); concordance (same bacteria isolated before and after debridement) never exceeded 60%. Ultrasonic debridement significantly reduced bacterial load or even suppressed bacterial growth. While reliability of superficial swab is poor for microbiological diagnosis of SSTIs, swabbing after ultrasonic debridement and biopsy of the ulcer base may be equally reliable.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Assessment and Evaluation Exercises Included in Geography Textbooks Written According to the 2005 Secondary Education Geography Curriculum and Textbooks of the Former Curriculum in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Okan

    2009-01-01

    This study conducts comparative analysis of the assessment and evaluation exercises in the geography textbooks written according to the Secondary Education Geography Curriculum for 2005 in Turkey with those in the former geography textbooks. In this respect, firstly, the assessment and evaluation studies included in geography textbooks written…

  1. Method of locating related items in a geometric space for data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for locating related items in a geometric space transforms relationships among items to geometric locations. The method locates items in the geometric space so that the distance between items corresponds to the degree of relatedness. The method facilitates communication of the structure of the relationships among the items. The method is especially beneficial for communicating databases with many items, and with non-regular relationship patterns. Examples of such databases include databases containing items such as scientific papers or patents, related by citations or keywords. A computer system adapted for practice of the present invention can include a processor, a storage subsystem, a display device, and computer software to direct the location and display of the entities. The method comprises assigning numeric values as a measure of similarity between each pairing of items. A matrix is constructed, based on the numeric values. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the matrix are determined. Each item is located in the geometric space at coordinates determined from the eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Proper construction of the matrix and proper determination of coordinates from eigenvectors can ensure that distance between items in the geometric space is representative of the numeric value measure of the items' similarity.

  2. 24 CFR 203.402 - Items included in payment-conveyed and non-conveyed properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... before November 19, 1992, or under direct endorsement processing where the credit worksheet was signed by... after November 19, 1992, or under direct endorsement processing where the credit worksheet was signed by... § 203.370; (m) Costs of additional advertising under 203.368(h); (n) Costs of foreclosure as computed in...

  3. The REFANI-S study protocol: a non-randomised cluster controlled trial to assess the role of an unconditional cash transfer, a non-food item kit, and free piped water in reducing the risk of acute malnutrition among children aged 6–59 months living in camps for internally displaced persons in the Afgooye corridor, Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jelle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of acute malnutrition is often high in emergency-affected populations and is associated with elevated mortality risk and long-term health consequences. Increasingly, cash transfer programmes (CTP are used instead of direct food aid as a nutritional intervention, but there is sparse evidence on their nutritional impact. We aim to understand whether CTP reduces acute malnutrition and its known risk factors. Methods/design A non-randomised, cluster-controlled trial will assess the impact of an unconditional cash transfer of US$84 per month for 5 months, a single non-food items kit, and free piped water on the risk of acute malnutrition in children, aged 6–59 months. The study will take place in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP in peri-urban Mogadishu, Somalia. A cluster will consist of one IDP camp and 10 camps will be allocated to receive the intervention based on vulnerability targeting criteria. The control camps will then be selected from the same geographical area. Needs assessment data indicates small differences in vulnerability between camps. In each trial arm, 120 households will be randomly sampled and two detailed household surveys will be implemented at baseline and 3 months after the initiation of the cash transfer. The survey questionnaire will cover risk factors for malnutrition including household expenditure, assets, food security, diet diversity, coping strategies, morbidity, WASH, and access to health care. A community surveillance system will collect monthly mid-upper arm circumference measurements from all children aged 6–59 months in the study clusters to assess the incidence of acute malnutrition over the duration of the intervention. Process evaluation data will be compiled from routine quantitative programme data and primary qualitative data collected using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The UK Department for International Development will provide

  4. The REFANI-S study protocol: a non-randomised cluster controlled trial to assess the role of an unconditional cash transfer, a non-food item kit, and free piped water in reducing the risk of acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months living in camps for internally displaced persons in the Afgooye corridor, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelle, Mohamed; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; King, Sarah; Cox, Cassy L; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Morrison, Joanna; Colbourn, Timothy; Fottrell, Edward; Seal, Andrew J

    2017-07-06

    The prevalence of acute malnutrition is often high in emergency-affected populations and is associated with elevated mortality risk and long-term health consequences. Increasingly, cash transfer programmes (CTP) are used instead of direct food aid as a nutritional intervention, but there is sparse evidence on their nutritional impact. We aim to understand whether CTP reduces acute malnutrition and its known risk factors. A non-randomised, cluster-controlled trial will assess the impact of an unconditional cash transfer of US$84 per month for 5 months, a single non-food items kit, and free piped water on the risk of acute malnutrition in children, aged 6-59 months. The study will take place in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP) in peri-urban Mogadishu, Somalia. A cluster will consist of one IDP camp and 10 camps will be allocated to receive the intervention based on vulnerability targeting criteria. The control camps will then be selected from the same geographical area. Needs assessment data indicates small differences in vulnerability between camps. In each trial arm, 120 households will be randomly sampled and two detailed household surveys will be implemented at baseline and 3 months after the initiation of the cash transfer. The survey questionnaire will cover risk factors for malnutrition including household expenditure, assets, food security, diet diversity, coping strategies, morbidity, WASH, and access to health care. A community surveillance system will collect monthly mid-upper arm circumference measurements from all children aged 6-59 months in the study clusters to assess the incidence of acute malnutrition over the duration of the intervention. Process evaluation data will be compiled from routine quantitative programme data and primary qualitative data collected using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The UK Department for International Development will provide funding for this study. The European Civil Protection and

  5. Trends in Sodium Content of Menu Items in Large Chain Restaurants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Moran, Alyssa J; Jarlenski, Marian P; Bleich, Sara N

    2018-01-01

    Consuming too much sodium is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, and restaurant foods are a primary source of sodium. This study assessed recent trends in sodium content of menu items in U.S. chain restaurants. Data from 21,557 menu items in 66 top-earning chain restaurants available from 2012 to 2016 were obtained from the MenuStat project and analyzed in 2017. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in calorie-adjusted, per-item sodium content of menu items offered in all years (2012-2016) and items offered in 2012 only compared with items newly introduced in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Overall, calorie-adjusted sodium content in newly introduced menu items declined by 104 mg from 2012 to 2016 (prestaurant type; sodium content, particularly for main course items, was high. Sodium declined by 83 mg in fast food restaurants, 19 mg in fast casual restaurants, and 163 mg in full service restaurants. Sodium in appetizer and side items newly introduced in 2016 increased by 266 mg compared with items on the menu in 2012 only (prestaurants. However, sodium content of core and new menu items remain high, and reductions are inconsistent across menu categories and restaurant types. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items And Their Associated Solutions and Rationales to Support Formative Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Gierl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic item generation is the process of using item models to produce assessment tasks using computer technology. An item model is similar to a template that highlights the elements in the task that must be manipulated to produce new items. The purpose of our study is to describe an innovative method for generating large numbers of diverse and heterogeneous items along with their solutions and associated rationales to support formative feedback. We demonstrate the method by generating items in two diverse content areas, mathematics and nonverbal reasoning

  7. Assessment of disease activity in large-vessel vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Sibel Z.; Direskeneli, Haner; Merkel, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To arrive at consensus for candidate outcomes for disease activity assessment in largevessel vasculitis (LVV) in clinical trials. Methods.A Delphi survey including 99 items was circulated among international experts for 3 rounds. Results. Fifty-seven items were accepted for both giant...

  8. The PROMIS Physical Function item bank was calibrated to a standardized metric and shown to improve measurement efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Matthias; Bjørner, Jakob; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the development and psychometric evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank and static instruments. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The items were evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. A total...... of 16,065 adults answered item subsets (n>2,200/item) on the Internet, with oversampling of the chronically ill. Classical test and item response theory methods were used to evaluate 149 PROMIS PF items plus 10 Short Form-36 and 20 Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index items. A graded...... response model was used to estimate item parameters, which were normed to a mean of 50 (standard deviation [SD]=10) in a US general population sample. RESULTS: The final bank consists of 124 PROMIS items covering upper, central, and lower extremity functions and instrumental activities of daily living...

  9. Longitudinal investigation of source memory reveals different developmental trajectories for item memory and binding

    OpenAIRE

    Riggins, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a cohort-sequential design to examine developmental changes in children's ability to bind items in memory during early and middle childhood. Three cohorts of children (aged 4, 6, or 8 years) were followed longitudinally for three years. Each year, children completed a source memory paradigm assessing memory for items and binding. Results suggest linear increases in memory for individual items (facts or sources) between 4 and 10 years of age, but that memory for correct ...

  10. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R

    2014-10-30

    Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.

  11. Fertility in Namibia. Changes in fertility levels in North-Central Namibia 1960-2001, including an assessment of the impact of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Shemeikka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the development of fertility in North-Central Namibia, former Ovamboland, from 1960 to 2001. Special attention was given to the onset of fertility decline and to the impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility. An additional aim was to introduce parish registers as a source of data for fertility research in Africa.  Data used consisted of parish registers from Evangelical Lutheran congregations, the 1991 and 2001 Population and Housing Censuses, the 1992 and 2000 Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys, and the HIV sentinel surveillances of 1992-2004. Both period and cohort fertility were analysed. The P/F ratio method was used when analysing census data. The impact of HIV infection on fertility was estimated indirectly by comparing the fertility histories of women who died at an age of less than 50 years with the fertility of other women. The impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility was assessed both among infected women and in the general population.  Fertility in the study population began to decline in 1980. The decline was rapid during the 1980s, levelled off in the early 1990s at the end of war of independence and then continued to decline until the end of the study period. According to parish registers, total fertility was 6.4 in the 1960s and 6.5 in the 1970s, and declined to 5.1 in the 1980s and 4.2 in the 1990s. Adjustment of these total fertility rates to correspond to levels of fertility based on data from the 1991 and 2001 censuses resulted in total fertility declining from 7.6 in 1960-79 to 6.0 in 1980-89, and to 4.9 in 1990-99. The decline was associated with increased age at first marriage, declining marital fertility and increasing premarital fertility. Fertility among adolescents increased, whereas the fertility of women in all other age groups declined.  During the 1980s, the war of independence contributed to declining fertility through spousal separation and delayed marriages. Contraception

  12. Cortical pattern separation and item-specific memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Laura M; Morcom, Alexa M

    2016-05-01

    Pattern separation and pattern completion are fundamental brain processes thought to be critical for episodic memory encoding and retrieval, and for discrimination between similar memories. These processes are best understood in the hippocampus, but are proposed to occur throughout the brain, in particular in sensory regions. Cortical, as well as hippocampal, pattern separation may therefore support formation of event-unique memory traces. Using fMRI, we investigated cortical pattern separation and pattern completion and their relationship to encoding activity predicting subsequent item-specific compared to gist memory. During scanning, participants viewed images of novel objects, repeated objects, and objects which were both perceptually and conceptually similar to previously presented images, while performing a size judgement task. In a later surprise recognition test, they judged whether test items were 'same' 'similar' or 'new' relative to studied items. Activity consistent with pattern separation - responses to similar items as if novel - was observed in bilateral occipito-temporal cortex. Activity consistent with pattern completion - responses to similar items as if repeated - was observed in left prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Curve fitting analysis further revealed that graded responses to change in image conceptual and perceptual similarity in bilateral prefrontal and right parietal regions met specific computational predictions for pattern separation for one or both of these similarity dimensions. Functional overlap between encoding activity predicting subsequent item-specific recognition and pattern separation activity was also observed in left occipital cortex and bilateral inferior frontal cortex. The findings suggest that extrahippocampal regions including sensory and prefrontal cortex contribute to pattern separation and pattern completion of visual input, consistent with the proposal that cortical pattern separation contributes to formation of

  13. The SIETTE Automatic Assessment Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Guzmán, Eduardo; Trella, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the evolution and current state of the domain-independent Siette assessment environment. Siette supports different assessment methods--including classical test theory, item response theory, and computer adaptive testing--and integrates them with multidimensional student models used by intelligent educational systems.…

  14. Modeling rule-based item generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Hanneke; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2011-01-01

    An application of a hierarchical IRT model for items in families generated through the application of different combinations of design rules is discussed. Within the families, the items are assumed to differ only in surface features. The parameters of the model are estimated in a Bayesian framework,

  15. Bayesian Estimation of Item Response Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutakawa, Robert K.; Lin, Hsin Ying

    1986-01-01

    Item response curves for a set of binary responses are studied from a Bayesian viewpoint of estimating the item parameters. For the two-parameter logistic model with normally distributed ability, restricted bivariate beta priors are used to illustrate the computation of the posterior mode via the EM algorithm. (Author/LMO)

  16. Binomial test models and item difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1979-01-01

    In choosing a binomial test model, it is important to know exactly what conditions are imposed on item difficulty. In this paper these conditions are examined for both a deterministic and a stochastic conception of item responses. It appears that they are more restrictive than is generally

  17. Item Information in the Rasch Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Ron J.H.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.

    1988-01-01

    Fisher's information measure for the item difficulty parameter in the Rasch model and its marginal and conditional formulations are investigated. It is shown that expected item information in the unconditional model equals information in the marginal model, provided the assumption of sampling

  18. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Validating the 28-tender joint count using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth; ten Klooster, Peter M.; Taal, Erik; Kuper, I.H.; van Riel, Piet L.C.M.; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the construct validity of the 28-tender joint count (TJC-28) using item response theory (IRT)-based methods. Methods: A total of 457 patients with early stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were included. Internal construct validity of the TJC-28 was evaluated by determining whether

  20. 48 CFR 46.709 - Warranties of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warranties of commercial... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.709 Warranties of commercial items. The contracting officer should take advantage of commercial warranties, including extended warranties, where appropriate...

  1. 17 CFR 229.902 - (Item 902) Individual partnership supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... represent a return of capital. (7) An appropriate cross reference to selected financial information... the roll-up transaction, provide the information specified in this Item (§ 229.902) in a separate... with the prospectus to investors in the partnership covered thereby, and shall include: (1) A statement...

  2. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jim A C

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism) and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS) is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  3. The 12 item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim A C Everett

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a surge in psychological research on the relationship between political ideology (particularly conservatism and cognition, affect, behaviour, and even biology. Despite this flurry of investigation, however, there is as yet no accepted, validated, and widely used multi-item scale of conservatism that is concise, that is modern in its conceptualisation, and that includes both social and economic conservatism subscales. In this paper the 12-Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS is proposed and validated to help fill this gap. The SECS is suggested to be an important and useful tool for researchers working in political psychology.

  4. Development of a lack of appetite item bank for computer-adaptive testing (CAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K; Chie, Wei-Chu; Costantini, Anna; Holzner, Bernhard; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Young, Teresa; Groenvold, Mogens

    2015-06-01

    A significant proportion of oncological patients experiences lack of appetite. Precise measurement is relevant to improve the management of lack of appetite. The so-called computer-adaptive test (CAT) allows for adaptation of the questionnaire to the individual patient, thereby optimizing measurement precision. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Here, we report on the development of the lack of appetite CAT. The EORTC approach to CAT development comprises four phases: literature search, operationalization, pre-testing, and field testing. Phases 1-3 are described in this paper. First, a list of items was retrieved from the literature. This was refined, deleting redundant and irrelevant items. Next, new items fitting the "QLQ-C30 item style" were created. These were evaluated by international samples of experts and cancer patients. The literature search generated a list of 146 items. After a comprehensive item selection procedure, the list was reduced to 24 items. These formed the basis for 21 new items fitting the QLQ-C30 item style. Expert evaluations (n = 10) and patient interviews (n = 49) reduced the list to 12 lack of appetite items. Phases 1-3 resulted in 12 lack of appetite candidate items. Based on a field testing (phase 4), the psychometric characteristics of the items will be assessed and the final item bank will be generated. This CAT item bank is expected to provide precise and efficient measurement of lack of appetite while still being backward compatible to the original QLQ-C30 scale.

  5. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  6. Assessing the Test Information Function and Differential Item Functioning for the "TOEFL Junior"® Standard Test. Research Report. ETS RR-13-17. "TOEFL Junior"® Research Report. TOEFL JR-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John W.; Morgan, Rick; Rybinski, Paul; Steinberg, Jonathan; Wang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The "TOEFL Junior"® Standard Test is an assessment that measures the degree to which middle school-aged students learning English as a second language have attained proficiency in the academic and social English skills representative of English-medium instructional environments. The assessment measures skills in three areas: listening…

  7. Measuring social health in the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS): item bank development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Elizabeth A; Devellis, Robert F; Bode, Rita K; Garcia, Sofia F; Castel, Liana D; Eisen, Susan V; Bosworth, Hayden B; Heinemann, Allen W; Rothrock, Nan; Cella, David

    2010-09-01

    To develop a social health measurement framework, to test items in diverse populations and to develop item response theory (IRT) item banks. A literature review guided framework development of Social Function and Social Relationships sub-domains. Items were revised based on patient feedback, and Social Function items were field-tested. Analyses included exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), two-parameter IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). The analytic sample included 956 general population respondents who answered 56 Ability to Participate and 56 Satisfaction with Participation items. EFA and CFA identified three Ability to Participate sub-domains. However, because of positive and negative wording, and content redundancy, many items did not fit the IRT model, so item banks do not yet exist. EFA, CFA and IRT identified two preliminary Satisfaction item banks. One item exhibited trivial age DIF. After extensive item preparation and review, EFA-, CFA- and IRT-guided item banks help provide increased measurement precision and flexibility. Two Satisfaction short forms are available for use in research and clinical practice. This initial validation study resulted in revised item pools that are currently undergoing testing in new clinical samples and populations.

  8. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  9. Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) Applications and Item Response Theory Models for Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Eren Can; Demirtasli, R. Nukhet

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretical framework for computerized adaptive tests (CAT) and item response theory models for polytomous items. Besides that, it aims to introduce the simulation and live CAT software to the related researchers. Computerized adaptive test algorithm, assumptions of item response theory models, nominal response…

  10. A Regional and Local Item Response Theory Based Test Item Bank System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Walter; And Others

    This report describes the development, operation, maintenance, and future prospects of the item banks pioneered by the Portland (Oregon) School District. At the time of this report, there were 3,500 mathematics, 2,200 reading, and 2,300 language usage items calibrated under the fixed parameter model of item response theory (IRT) for Grades 3-8.…

  11. The randomly renewed general item and the randomly inspected item with exponential life distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeweiss, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    For a randomly renewed item the probability distributions of the time to failure and of the duration of down time and the expectations of these random variables are determined. Moreover, it is shown that the same theory applies to randomly checked items with exponential probability distribution of life such as electronic items. The case of periodic renewals is treated as an example. (orig.) [de

  12. RIM: A random item mixture model to detect Differential Item Functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederickx, S.; Tuerlinckx, T.; de Boeck, P.; Magis, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new methodology for detecting differential item functioning (DIF). We introduce a DIF model, called the random item mixture (RIM), that is based on a Rasch model with random item difficulties (besides the common random person abilities). In addition, a mixture model is

  13. The Generalized Logit-Linear Item Response Model for Binary-Designed Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM), which represents the item-solving process as a series of dichotomous operations or steps. The GLLIRM assumes that the probability function of the item response is a logistic function of a linear composite of basic parameters which describe the operations, and the…

  14. Item Purification in Differential Item Functioning Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian

    2011-01-01

    For this dissertation, four item purification procedures were implemented onto the generalized linear mixed model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, and the performance of these item purification procedures was investigated through a series of simulations. Among the four procedures, forward and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)…

  15. Investigating Separate and Concurrent Approaches for Item Parameter Drift in 3PL Item Response Theory Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Bulut, Okan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines separate and concurrent approaches to combine the detection of item parameter drift (IPD) and the estimation of scale transformation coefficients in the context of the common item nonequivalent groups design with the three-parameter item response theory equating. The study uses real and synthetic data sets to compare the two…

  16. Meta-analytic guidelines for evaluating single-item reliabilities of personality instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Bekk, Magdalena

    2014-06-01

    Personality is an important predictor of various outcomes in many social science disciplines. However, when personality traits are not the principal focus of research, for example, in global comparative surveys, it is often not possible to assess them extensively. In this article, we first provide an overview of the advantages and challenges of single-item measures of personality, a rationale for their construction, and a summary of alternative ways of assessing their reliability. Second, using seven diverse samples (Ntotal = 4,263) we develop the SIMP-G, the German adaptation of the Single-Item Measures of Personality, an instrument assessing the Big Five with one item per trait, and evaluate its validity and reliability. Third, we integrate previous research and our data into a first meta-analysis of single-item reliabilities of personality measures, and provide researchers with guidelines and recommendations for the evaluation of single-item reliabilities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Dependability and Treatment Sensitivity of Multi-Item Direct Behavior Rating Scales for Interpersonal Peer Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brian; Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) represents a feasible method for monitoring student behavior in the classroom; however, limited work to date has focused on the use of multi-item scales. The purposes of the study were to examine the (a) dependability of data obtained from a multi-item DBR designed to assess peer conflict and (b) treatment sensitivity…

  18. Linguistic Simplification of Mathematics Items: Effects for Language Minority Students in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Nicole; Heppt, Birgit; Roppelt, Alexander; Stanat, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In large-scale assessment studies, language minority students typically obtain lower test scores in mathematics than native speakers. Although this performance difference was related to the linguistic complexity of test items in some studies, other studies did not find linguistically demanding math items to be disproportionally more difficult for…

  19. Longitudinal Investigation of Source Memory Reveals Different Developmental Trajectories for Item Memory and Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a cohort-sequential design to examine developmental changes in children's ability to bind items in memory during early and middle childhood. Three cohorts of children (aged 4, 6, or 8 years) were followed longitudinally for 3 years. Each year, children completed a source memory paradigm assessing memory for items and…

  20. Item-level psychometrics of the ADL instrument of the Korean National Survey on persons with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Moon Young; Park, Hae Yean

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometrics of the 12 items of an instrument assessing activities of daily living (ADL) using an item response theory model. A total of 648 adults with physical disabilities and having difficulties in ADLs were retrieved from the 2014 Korean National Survey on People with Disabilities. The psychometric testing included factor analysis, internal consistency, precision, and differential item functioning (DIF) across categories including sex, older age, marital status, and physical impairment area. The sample had a mean age of 69.7 years old (SD = 13.7). The majority of the sample had lower extremity impairments (62.0%) and had at least 2.1 chronic conditions. The instrument demonstrated unidimensional construct and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.95). The instrument precisely estimated person measures within a wide range of theta values (-2.22 logits  5.0%). Our findings indicate that the dressing item would need to be modified to improve its psychometrics. Overall, the ADL instrument demonstrates good psychometrics, and thus, it may be used as a standardized instrument for measuring disability in rehabilitation contexts. However, the findings are limited to adults with physical disabilities. Future studies should replicate psychometric testing for survey respondents with other disorders and for children.

  1. A survey of anatomical items relevant to the practice of rheumatology: upper extremity, head, neck, spine, and general concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Biundo, Joseph J; Kalish, Robert A; de Toro Santos, Francisco Javier; McGonagle, Dennis; Carette, Simon; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the anatomical items of the upper extremity and spine that are potentially relevant to the practice of rheumatology. Ten rheumatologists interested in clinical anatomy who published, taught, and/or participated as active members of Clinical Anatomy Interest groups (six seniors, four juniors), participated in a one-round relevance Delphi exercise. An initial, 560-item list that included 45 (8.0 %) general concepts items; 138 (24.8 %) hand items; 100 (17.8 %) forearm and elbow items; 147 (26.2 %) shoulder items; and 130 (23.2 %) head, neck, and spine items was compiled by 5 of the participants. Each item was graded for importance with a Likert scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). Thus, scores could range from 10 (1 × 10) to 50 (5 × 10). An item score of ≥40 was considered most relevant to competent practice as a rheumatologist. Mean item Likert scores ranged from 2.2 ± 0.5 to 4.6 ± 0.7. A total of 115 (20.5 %) of the 560 initial items reached relevance. Broken down by categories, this final relevant item list was composed by 7 (6.1 %) general concepts items; 32 (27.8 %) hand items; 20 (17.4 %) forearm and elbow items; 33 (28.7 %) shoulder items; and 23 (17.6 %) head, neck, and spine items. In this Delphi exercise, a group of practicing academic rheumatologists with an interest in clinical anatomy compiled a list of anatomical items that were deemed important to the practice of rheumatology. We suggest these items be considered curricular priorities when training rheumatology fellows in clinical anatomy skills and in programs of continuing rheumatology education.

  2. Development of a cross-cultural item bank for measuring quality of life related to mental health in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Pierre; Auquier, Pascal; Baumstarck, Karine; Pelletier, Jean; Loundou, Anderson; Ghattas, Badih; Boyer, Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) measurements are considered important outcome measures both for research on multiple sclerosis (MS) and in clinical practice. Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) can improve the precision of measurements made using QoL instruments while reducing the burden of testing on patients. Moreover, a cross-cultural approach is also necessary to guarantee the wide applicability of CAT. The aim of this preliminary study was to develop a calibrated item bank that is available in multiple languages and measures QoL related to mental health by combining one generic (SF-36) and one disease-specific questionnaire (MusiQoL). Patients with MS were enrolled in this international, multicenter, cross-sectional study. The psychometric properties of the item bank were based on classical test and item response theories and approaches, including the evaluation of unidimensionality, item response theory model fitting, and analyses of differential item functioning (DIF). Convergent and discriminant validities of the item bank were examined according to socio-demographic, clinical, and QoL features. A total of 1992 patients with MS and from 15 countries were enrolled in this study to calibrate the 22-item bank developed in this study. The strict monotonicity of the Cronbach's alpha curve, the high eigenvalue ratio estimator (5.50), and the adequate CFA model fit (RMSEA = 0.07 and CFI = 0.95) indicated that a strong assumption of unidimensionality was warranted. The infit mean square statistic ranged from 0.76 to 1.27, indicating a satisfactory item fit. DIF analyses revealed no item biases across geographical areas, confirming the cross-cultural equivalence of the item bank. External validity testing revealed that the item bank scores correlated significantly with QoL scores but also showed discriminant validity for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. This work demonstrated satisfactory psychometric characteristics for a QoL item bank for MS in multiple

  3. Validation of 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in Chinese version of Dizziness Handicap Inventory for screening objective benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Liang; Wang, Qian; Pan, Hui; Wu, Jing; Fang, Jie; Sun, Xu-Hong; Zhai, Yu; Dong, You-Rong; Liu, Jian-Ren

    2016-08-01

    As possible candidate screening instruments for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), studies to validate the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) sub-scale (5-item and 2-item) and total scores are rare in China. From May 2014 to December 2014, 108(55 with and 53 without BPPV) patients complaining of episodic vertigo in the past week from a vertigo outpatient clinic were enrolled for DHI evaluation, as well as demographic and other clinical data. Objective BPPV was subsequently determined by positional evoking maneuvers under the record of optical Frenzel glasses. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of DHI total, 5-item and 2-item questionnaires to screen for BPPV was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. It revealed that the DHI 5-item questionnaire had good internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0.72). Area under the curve of total DHI, 5-item and 2-item scores for discriminating BPPV from those without was 0.678 (95 % CI 0.578-0.778), 0.873(95 % CI 0.807-0.940) and 0.895(95 % CI 0.836-0.953), respectively. It revealed 74.5 % sensitivity and 88.7 % specificity in separating BPPV and those without, with a cutoff value of 12 in the 5-item questionnaire. The corresponding rate of sensitivity and specificity was 78.2 and 88.7 %, respectively, with a cutoff value of 6 in 2-item questionnaire. The present study indicated that both 5-item and 2-item questionnaires in the Chinese version of DHI may be more valid than DHI total score for screening objective BPPV and merit further application in clinical practice in China.

  4. Development of an instrument to assess the quality of acupuncture: results from a Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Zaslawski, Christopher J; Zheng, Zhen; Cobbin, Deidre; Cochrane, Suzanne; Lenon, George B; Loyeung, Bertrand; Meier, Peter C; Walsh, Sean; Xue, Charlie Changli; Zhang, Anthony L; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Bensoussan, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Quality acupuncture influences the outcomes of clinical research, and issues associated with effective administration of acupuncture in randomized controlled trials need to be addressed when appraising studies. The study objective was to achieve consensus on domains and items for inclusion in a rating scale to assess quality acupuncture administered in clinical research. An active group of Australian acupuncture researchers initially identified a pool of items assessing quality. The Delphi consensus process was then used to select and reduce the number of items, and an additional expert panel of 42 researchers were invited to participate. Participants initially ranked items along a five-point scale for the first Delphi round, and indicated an agree or disagree response during the second round. For an item to be retained into the second round, an item had to attain greater than 80% agreement that the item described a dimension of quality acupuncture and related study design. Thirty-two (32) experts agreed to participate in the study. After two rounds of the Delphi process, consensus was reached on 14 domains and 26 items relating to quality acupuncture. Domains, items, and minimum standards related to study design; rationale of the intervention; criteria relating to needling stimulation either manual or electrostimulation; duration and frequency of treatment; and practitioner training. Items for inclusion in an instrument to assess quality acupuncture in clinical research were identified. Further development of the instrument including relative weighting of items and reliability testing is under way.

  5. Calorie Changes in Large Chain Restaurants: Declines in New Menu Items but Room for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P

    2016-01-01

    Large chain restaurants reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items in 2013 by about 60 calories (or 12%) relative to 2012. This paper describes trends in calories available in large U.S. chain restaurants to understand whether previously documented patterns persist. Data (a census of items for included restaurants) were obtained from the MenuStat project. This analysis included 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurants that are available in all three of the data years (2012-2014; N=23,066 items). Generalized linear models were used to examine: (1) per-item calorie changes from 2012 to 2014 among items on the menu in all years; and (2) mean calories in new items in 2013 and 2014 compared with items on the menu in 2012 only. Data were analyzed in 2014. Overall, calories in newly introduced menu items declined by 71 (or 15%) from 2012 to 2013 (p=0.001) and by 69 (or 14%) from 2012 to 2014 (p=0.03). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (85 fewer calories in 2013 and 55 fewer calories in 2014; p=0.01). Although average calories in newly introduced menu items are declining, they are higher than items common to the menu in all 3 years. No differences in mean calories among items on menus in 2012, 2013, or 2014 were found. The previously observed declines in newly introduced menu items among large restaurant chains have been maintained, which suggests the beginning of a trend toward reducing calories. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PedsQL gastrointestinal symptoms module item development: qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Kay, Marie T; Limbers, Christine A; Franciosi, James P; Pohl, John F

    2012-05-01

    The objective of the present qualitative study was to develop the items and support the content validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Module for pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and organic GI diseases, hereafter referred to as GI disorders. The iterative process included multiphase qualitative methods. A literature review of GI disorders was conducted to generate domains for the focus interviews. Six pediatric gastroenterologists with extensive clinical experience in GI disorders provided expert opinion regarding the conceptual framework. A total of 98 participants, 46 pediatric patients ages 5 to 18, and 52 parents of patients ages 2 to 18 with physician-diagnosed GI disorders (chronic constipation, functional abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease [Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis], gastroesophageal reflux disease), participated in the focus interviews and cognitive interviewing phases, including think-aloud and cognitive debriefing protocols. Eleven domains were derived from the qualitative methods involving patient and parent interviews and expert opinion, with content saturation achieved, resulting in 76 items. The 11 domains consisted of items measuring stomach pain, stomach upset, food and drink limits, trouble swallowing, heartburn and reflux, gas and bloating, constipation, diarrhea, worry, medicines, and communication. Qualitative methods involving pediatric patients and their parents in the item generation process support the content validity for the new PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptoms Module. The PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptoms Module is undergoing national multisite field testing as the next iterative phase.

  7. Human resource management in the delivery of postal items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Momčilo D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of postal items is the last phase in the postal conveyance process. This phase involved up to 57% in total costs of postal items conveyance. In order to reduce the costs of delivery phase, postal organizations apply different methods and techniques. Legal and technological regulations, various restrictions regarding the selection and deployment of employees influence the choice of appropriate methods. Also, the principle of availability of the universal postal service is an essential factor in defining the optimal model. In this paper, the model for assessing and planning of the number of employees in the delivery service observed postal operator has been proposed, with respect to the principles of productivity and accessibility constraints of the universal postal service. This paper will analyze the impact of daily fluctuations in the number of full-time employees and the possibility of hiring a part-time workers in the days with increased traffic volume in the delivery of items, when usually the items from large customers are delivered.

  8. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  9. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  10. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... personnel develop sound business strategies for procuring commercial items. DoD is seeking industry input on... the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) in November 2001...

  11. Extending item response theory to online homework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Kortemeyer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory (IRT becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing “big data” gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large-enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is robust over a wide range with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise. Item difficulty is also robust, but over a narrower range.

  12. Scoring based on item response theory did not alter the measurement ability of EORTC QLQ-C30 scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Groenvold, Mogens; Aaronson, Neil; Brenne, Elisabeth; Fayers, Peter; Nielsen, Julie Damgaard; Sprangers, Mirjam; Bjorner, Jakob B.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Most health-related quality-of-life questionnaires include multi-item scales. Scale scores are usually estimated as simple sums of the item scores. However, scoring procedures utilizing more information from the items might improve measurement abilities, and thereby reduce

  13. Effect of personality item writing on psychometric properties of ideal-point and likert scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialin; Mead, Alan D

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate personality item-writing practices and their effect on the psychometric properties of personality items and scales. Personality items were developed based on ideal-point and dominance models, analyzed using the generalized graded unfolding model, and empirically classified as having an ideal-point or dominance form. Results suggested that writing dominance items were slightly easier (more successful) than writing ideal-point items, but this varied slightly by personality dimensions. Of 3 ideal-point item writing tactics, the "neutral" tactic was least successful; success writing "double-barreled" and "average" ideal-point items was comparable to that of dominance items. Three personality scales were then constructed using successful ideal-point and dominance items. Scales constructed using ideal-point items had substantially inferior psychometric properties, including lower score reliability, lower correlations with important criteria, and mixed test information results. However, lower predictive validity of ideal-point scale scores may be due to lower reliability of the scores. Practical and methodological implications were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Postexamination analysis of objective tests using the three-parameter item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Dennick, Reg

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of item response theory (IRT) has been emphasized in health and medical education, in practice, few psychometricians in nurse education have used these methods to create tests that discriminate well at any level of student ability. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a real objective test using three-parameter IRT. Three-parameter IRT was used to monitor and improve the quality of the test items. Item parameter indices, item characteristic curves (ICCs), test information functions, and test characteristic curves reveal aberrant items which do not assess the construct being measured. The results of this study provide useful information for educators to improve the quality of assessment, teaching strategies, and curricula.

  15. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo ePark

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effect on item parameters and examinee ability.

  16. Investigating the Impact of Item Parameter Drift for Item Response Theory Models with Mixture Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lee, Young-Sun; Xing, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of item parameter drift (IPD) on parameter and ability estimation when the underlying measurement model fits a mixture distribution, thereby violating the item invariance property of unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models. An empirical study was conducted to demonstrate the occurrence of both IPD and an underlying mixture distribution using real-world data. Twenty-one trended anchor items from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 administrations of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were analyzed using unidimensional and mixture IRT models. TIMSS treats trended anchor items as invariant over testing administrations and uses pre-calibrated item parameters based on unidimensional IRT. However, empirical results showed evidence of two latent subgroups with IPD. Results also showed changes in the distribution of examinee ability between latent classes over the three administrations. A simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of IPD on the estimation of ability and item parameters, when data have underlying mixture distributions. Simulations used data generated from a mixture IRT model and estimated using unidimensional IRT. Results showed that data reflecting IPD using mixture IRT model led to IPD in the unidimensional IRT model. Changes in the distribution of examinee ability also affected item parameters. Moreover, drift with respect to item discrimination and distribution of examinee ability affected estimates of examinee ability. These findings demonstrate the need to caution and evaluate IPD using a mixture IRT framework to understand its effects on item parameters and examinee ability.

  17. Validation of the italian version of the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality-of-Life questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde; Ayadi, Roberta; Antozzi, Carlo; Maggi, Lorenzo; Baggi, Fulvio; Mantegazza, Renato

    2017-10-01

    In this study we assess the Italian version of the 15-item Myasthenia Gravis Quality-of-Life questionnaire (MG-QOL15). The validation protocol included the MG-QOL15, the 36-item Short Form (SF-36), the Besta Neurological Institute Rating Scale for Myasthenia Gravis, and the MG-Composite. We used the Cronbach α to test reliability, the Spearman correlation to test short-term test-retest, the Kruskal-Wallis test to assess differences in MG-QOL15 between patients with different disease severity, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to assess sensitivity to change. Seventy-two patients were enrolled in the study. The mean MG-QOL15 score was 15.2 ± 12.2, with α = 0.93 and test-retest correlation = 0.93. Compared with the SF-36, the MG-QOL15 was superior in differentiating patients with different MG types (P = 0.041) and severity (P = 0.004), showed higher sensitivity to change (P = 0.003 for improved and P = 0.024 for worsened patients), and had higher correlations with the MG-Composite (rho = 0.367 vs. -0.213 and -0.154). The Italian version of the MG-QOL15 is valid, reliable, stable, and sensitive to changes. Muscle Nerve 56: 716-720, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Converging evidence for control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Julie M; Hutchison, Keith A

    2013-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that cognitive control is implemented at the list and context levels in the color-word Stroop task. At first blush, the finding that Stroop interference is reduced for mostly incongruent items as compared with mostly congruent items (i.e., the item-specific proportion congruence [ISPC] effect) appears to provide evidence for yet a third level of control, which modulates word reading at the item level. However, evidence to date favors the view that ISPC effects reflect the rapid prediction of high-contingency responses and not item-specific control. In Experiment 1, we first show that an ISPC effect is obtained when the relevant dimension (i.e., color) signals proportion congruency, a problematic pattern for theories based on differential response contingencies. In Experiment 2, we replicate and extend this pattern by showing that item-specific control settings transfer to new stimuli, ruling out alternative frequency-based accounts. In Experiment 3, we revert to the traditional design in which the irrelevant dimension (i.e., word) signals proportion congruency. Evidence for item-specific control, including transfer of the ISPC effect to new stimuli, is apparent when 4-item sets are employed but not when 2-item sets are employed. We attribute this pattern to the absence of high-contingency responses on incongruent trials in the 4-item set. These novel findings provide converging evidence for reactive control of color-word Stroop interference at the item level, reveal theoretically important factors that modulate reliance on item-specific control versus contingency learning, and suggest an update to the item-specific control account (Bugg, Jacoby, & Chanani, 2011).

  19. Quantitative Penetration Testing with Item Response Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including

  20. Quantitative penetration testing with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Florian; Pieters, Wolter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    Existing penetration testing approaches assess the vulnerability of a system by determining whether certain attack paths are possible in practice. Thus, penetration testing has so far been used as a qualitative research method. To enable quantitative approaches to security risk management, including