WorldWideScience

Sample records for included increased levels

  1. Proposed NOAA Budget Includes Hefty Increase for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2011 budget for the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) would provide the agency with $5.55 billion, which represents a total increase of $806.1 million, or 17% above the FY 2010 budget enacted by Congress. At a February briefing about the budget, NOAA administrator Jane Lubchenco said the budget is a very good package for the agency and that it reflects the administration's commitment to the environment, science, public safety, and job creation. Noting that the agency's budget remained essentially flat between FY 2005 and FY 2008 during the George W. Bush administration, Lubchenco said, “the increasing demand for NOAA's services, coupled with a static budget, created a major challenge for NOAA in delivering on expectations.” She said the funding picture for the agency improved with the FY 2009 and FY 2010 enacted budgets. Lubchenco noted that the proposed budget would include $949 million for research and development, an $82 million increase, adding, “Our 2011 request for each line office [within NOAA] is higher than it was in 2010, and we are better aligned with congressional funding levels than in previous budgets.”

  2. Seabrook Station Level 2 PRA Update to Include Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Robert; Lucci, Melissa; Kiper, Kenneth; Henry, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A ground-breaking study was recently completed as part of the Seabrook Level 2 PRA update. This study updates the post-core damage phenomena to be consistent with the most recent information and includes accident management activities that should be modeled in the Level 2 PRA. Overall, the result is a Level 2 PRA that fully meets the requirements of the ASME PRA Standard with respect to modeling accident management in the LERF assessment and NRC requirements in Regulatory Guide 1.174 for considering late containment failures. This technical paper deals only with the incorporation of operator actions into the Level 2 PRA based on a comprehensive study of the Seabrook Station accident response procedures and guidance. The paper describes the process used to identify the key operator actions that can influence the Level 2 PRA results and the development of success criteria for these key operator actions. This addresses a key requirement of the ASME PRA Standard for considering SAMG. An important benefit of this assessment was the identification of Seabrook specific accident management insights that can be fed back into the Seabrook Station accident management procedures and guidance or the training provided to plant personnel for these procedures and guidance. (authors)

  3. Regional level approach for increasing energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viholainen, Juha; Luoranen, Mika; Väisänen, Sanni; Niskanen, Antti; Horttanainen, Mika; Soukka, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive snapshot of regional energy system for decision makers. • Connecting regional sustainability targets and energy planning. • Involving local players in energy planning. - Abstract: Actions for increasing the renewable share in the energy supply and improving both production and end-use energy efficiency are often built into the regional level sustainability targets. Because of this, many local stakeholders such as local governments, energy producers and distributors, industry, and public and private sector operators require information on the current state and development aspects of the regional energy efficiency. The drawback is that an overall view on the focal energy system operators, their energy interests, and future energy service needs in the region is often not available for the stakeholders. To support the local energy planning and management of the regional energy services, an approach for increasing the regional energy efficiency is being introduced. The presented approach can be seen as a solid framework for gathering the required data for energy efficiency analysis and also evaluating the energy system development, planned improvement actions, and the required energy services at the region. This study defines the theoretical structure of the energy efficiency approach and the required steps for revealing such energy system improvement actions that support the regional energy plan. To demonstrate the use of the approach, a case study of a Finnish small-town of Lohja is presented. In the case example, possible actions linked to the regional energy targets were evaluated with energy efficiency analysis. The results of the case example are system specific, but the conducted study can be seen as a justified example of generating easily attainable and transparent information on the impacts of different improvement actions on the regional energy system.

  4. The economic benefits of malaria elimination: do they include increases in tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Liu, Jenny; Gosling, Roland; Feachem, Richard G A

    2012-07-28

    Policy makers have speculated that one of the economic benefits of malaria elimination includes increases in foreign direct investment, particularly tourism. This study examines the empirical relationship between the demand for travel and malaria cases in two countries with large tourism industries around the time in which they carried out malaria-elimination campaigns. In Mauritius, this analysis examines historical, yearly tourist arrivals and malaria cases from 1978-1999, accounting for the background secular trend of increasing international travel. In Dominican Republic, a country embarking upon malaria elimination, it employs a time-series analysis of the monthly, international tourist arrivals from 1998-2010 to determine whether the timing of significant deviations in tourist arrivals coincides with malaria outbreaks. While naïve relationships exist in both cases, the results show that the relationships between tourist arrivals and malaria cases are relatively weak and statistically insignificant once secular confounders are accounted for. This suggests that any economic benefits from tourism that may be derived from actively pursuing elimination in countries that have high tourism potential are likely to be small when measured at a national level. Rather, tourism benefits are likely to be experienced with greater impact in more concentrated tourist areas within countries, and future studies should seek to assess these relationships at a regional or local level.

  5. Do building wakes increase ground level concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.J.; Melbourne, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the EPRI Plume Rise and Downwash Project to develop and evaluate new mathematical algorithms representing plume rise and downwash, physical model studies were performed on the plume dispersion from Combustion Turbine Unit 4, (CT 4), at the Jersey Central Power and Light Sayreville Generating Station, Sayreville, New Jersey. Studies were performed both in neutral and stably stratified model atmospheric boundary layer conditions with the primary objective being to determine the behavior of the combustion turbine plume under high and low ambient wind speed conditions within the wake region produced by the combustion turbine itself. Field measurements were also performed at the site and to this end a base case wind direction of β = 335 degree was chosen for both the field and model studies in an attempt to minimize the effects of other building wakes on the plume. This paper looks at the flow and dispersion characteristics with and without these large structures in the model in an attempt to explain why the differences in concentration levels occurred

  6. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  7. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure....... In order to evaluate whether a certain design is good daylight design or not building designers must perform detailed evaluation of daylight levels, including the daylight performance of dynamic solar shadings, and include these in the energy performance evaluation. However, the mandatory national...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  8. Endozepine-4 levels are increased in hepatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano; Motta, Massimo; Giordano, Maria; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2015-08-14

    To evaluate the serum levels of endozepine-4, their relation with ammonia serum levels, the grading of coma and the severity of cirrhosis, in patients with hepatic coma. In this study we included 20 subjects with Hepatic coma, 20 subjects with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and 20 subjects control. All subjects underwent blood analysis, Child Pugh and Model for End - stage liver disease (MELD) assessment, endozepine-4 analysis. Subjects with hepatic coma showed significant difference in endozepine-4 (P blood ammonia concentration was noted to be raised in patients with hepatic coma, with the highest ammonia levels being found in those who were comatose. We also found a high correlation between endozepine-4 and ammonia (P < 0.001). In patients with grade IV hepatic coma, endozepine levels were significantly higher compared to other groups. This study suggests that an increased level of endozepine in subjects with higher levels of MELD was observed. In conclusion, data concerning involvement of the GABA-ergic system in HE coma could be explained by stage-specific alterations.

  9. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  10. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production

  11. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Myong-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagues found that increasing model complexity did not always increase accuracy. Specifically, the most detailed contact network and a simplified version of this network generated very similar results. These results are extremely interesting and require further exploration to determine their generalizability. Please see related article BMC Medicine, 2011, 9:87

  12. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Sally; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-07-19

    Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagues found that increasing model complexity did not always increase accuracy. Specifically, the most detailed contact network and a simplified version of this network generated very similar results. These results are extremely interesting and require further exploration to determine their generalizability.

  13. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  14. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid increases brain creatine levels in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental dietary additive that might act as a creatine source in tissues with high-energy requirements. In this case study, we evaluated brain levels of creatine in white matter, gray matter, cerebellum, and thalamus during 8 wk oral GAA......, and 8 wk, the participants underwent brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical chemistry studies, and open-ended questionnaire for side-effect prevalence and severity. RESULTS: Brain creatine levels increased in similar fashion in cerebellum, and white and gray matter after GAA supplementation......, with an initial increase of 10.7% reported after 4 wk, and additional upsurge (7.7%) from the weeks 4 to 8 follow-up (P creatine levels decreased after 4 wk for 6.5% (P = 0.02), and increased nonsignificantly after 8 wk for 8% (P = 0.09). GAA induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate levels at 8...

  15. Increasing the technical and economic performance of wind diesel systems by including fresh water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many remote regions of the world there is a lack of both electricity and potable water. In order to increase the standard of living and thus maintain the population both power and water have to be supplied at reasonable prices. A good option at many of these places are wind diesel systems...

  16. Aberrant lymphatic development in euploid fetuses with increased nuchal translucency including Noonan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Y.M. de; Akker, N.M. van den; Bekker, M.N.; Bartelings, M.M.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Gittenberger-de Groot, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased nuchal translucency in the human fetus is associated with aneuploidy, structural malformations and several syndromes such as Noonan syndrome. In 60-70% of the Noonan syndrome cases, a gene mutation can be demonstrated. Previous research showed that aneuploid fetuses with

  17. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Malinow, M; Pettinger, M; Upson, B; Hunninghake, D

    1999-12-01

    Studies have reported high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine as an independent risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study reported an increase in plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients receiving both colestipol and niacin compared with placebo. Thus the objective of this study was to examine the effect of niacin treatment on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. The Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial, a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examined the effect of niacin compared with placebo on homocyst(e)ine in a subset of 52 participants with peripheral arterial disease. During the screening phase, titration of niacin dose from 100 mg to 1000 mg daily resulted in a 17% increase in mean plasma homocyst(e)ine level from 13.1 +/- 4.4 micromol/L to 15.3 +/- 5.6 micromol/L (P ine levels in the niacin group and a 7% decrease in the placebo group (P =.0001). This difference remained statistically significant at the end of follow-up at 48 weeks. Niacin substantially increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, which could potentially reduce the expected benefits of niacin associated with lipoprotein modification. However, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels can be decreased by folic acid supplementation. Thus further studies are needed to determine whether B vitamin supplementation to patients undergoing long-term niacin treatment would be beneficial.

  18. Including the biogeochemical impacts of deforestation increases projected warming of climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine; Monks, Sarah; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru; Carslaw, Kenneth; Chipperfield, Martyn; Reddington, Carly; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Forests cover almost one third of the Earth's land area and their distribution is changing as a result of human activities. The presence, and removal, of forests affects the climate in many ways, with the net climate impact of deforestation dependent upon the relative strength of these effects (Betts, 2000; Bala et al., 2007; Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré, 2010). In addition to controlling the surface albedo and exchanging carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture with the atmosphere, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which lead to the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and alter the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, affecting ozone (O3) and methane (CH4) concentrations. In this work, we combine a land-surface model with a chemical transport model, a global aerosol model, and a radiative transfer model to compare several radiative impacts of idealised deforestation scenarios in the present day. We find that the simulated reduction in biogenic SOA production, due to complete global deforestation, exerts a positive combined aerosol radiative forcing (RF) of between +308.0 and +362.7 mW m-2; comprised of a direct radiative effect of between +116.5 and +165.0 mW m-2, and a first aerosol indirect effect of between +191.5 and +197.7 mW m-2. We find that the reduction in O3 exerts a negative RF of -150.7 mW m-2 and the reduction in CH4 results in a negative RF of -76.2 mWm-2. When the impacts on biogenic SOA, O3 and CH4 are combined, global deforestation exerts an overall positive RF of between +81.1 and +135.9 mW m-2 through changes to short-lived climate forcers (SLCF). Taking these additional biogeochemical impacts into account increases the net positive RF of complete global deforestation, due to changes in CO2 and surface albedo, by 7-11%. Overall, our work suggests that deforestation has a stronger warming impact on climate than previously thought. References: Bala, G. et al., 2007. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects

  19. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Increased carboxyhemoglobin level during liver resection with inflow occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godai, Kohei; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Kuniyoshi, Tamotsu; Matsunaga, Akira; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Controlling stress responses associated with ischemic changes due to bleeding and ischemia/reperfusion injury is essential for anesthetic management. Endogenous carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is produced in the oxidative degradation of heme proteins by the stress-response enzyme heme oxygenase. Although the COHb level is elevated in critically ill patients, changes in endogenous COHb during anesthesia have not been well investigated. Therefore, we evaluated changes in endogenous COHb levels in patients undergoing liver resections with inflow occlusion. Levels of COHb were significantly increased after the Pringle maneuver. The inflow occlusion time in patients with increased COHb after the Pringle maneuver (∆COHb > 0.3 %) was significantly longer than in patients without increased COHb (∆COHb < 0.3 %) (P = 0.01). In addition, COHb changes were correlated with inflow occlusion time (P = 0.005, R(2) = 0.21). Neither total blood loss, transfusion volume of packed red blood cells, operation time, nor anesthetic time differed between patients with and without increased COHb. The results indicated that endogenous COHb levels were increased by inflow occlusion in patients undergoing liver resections, which suggests that changes in COHb may correlate with hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by inflow occlusion.

  1. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  3. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Filiz; Akdemir, Nermin; Ozden, Selcuk; Cevrioglu, A Serhan; Bilir, Cemil

    2013-09-05

    Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p 0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can predict the further urinary tract infection risk. Finally, serum procalcitonin levels were normal in healthy pregnant women while other inflammatory markers such as WBC, ESR and CRP levels were higher.

  4. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  5. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p  0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficiency of fisheries is increasing at the ecosystem level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Burgess, Matthew G; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2017-01-01

    examine the efficiency of North Sea and Baltic Sea fisheries with respect to economic rent and ecosystem impact, finding both to be inefficient but steadily improving. Our results suggest the following: (i) a broad and encouraging trend towards ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries; (ii) that ecosystem......Managing fisheries presents trade-offs between objectives, for example yields, profits, minimizing ecosystem impact, that have to be weighed against one another. These trade-offs are compounded by interacting species and fisheries at the ecosystem level. Weighing objectives becomes increasingly...... regressing at least one other. We investigate the ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries in five large marine ecosystems (LMEs) with respect to yield and an aggregate measure of ecosystem impact using a novel calibration of size-based ecosystem models. We estimate that fishing patterns in three LMEs (North...

  8. Charge separation at nanoscale interfaces: energy-level alignment including two-quasiparticle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huashan; Lin, Zhibin; Lusk, Mark T; Wu, Zhigang

    2014-10-21

    The universal and fundamental criteria for charge separation at interfaces involving nanoscale materials are investigated. In addition to the single-quasiparticle excitation, all the two-quasiparticle effects including exciton binding, Coulomb stabilization, and exciton transfer are considered, which play critical roles on nanoscale interfaces for optoelectronic applications. We propose a scheme allowing adding these two-quasiparticle interactions on top of the single-quasiparticle energy level alignment for determining and illuminating charge separation at nanoscale interfaces. Employing the many-body perturbation theory based on Green's functions, we quantitatively demonstrate that neglecting or simplifying these crucial two-quasiparticle interactions using less accurate methods is likely to predict qualitatively incorrect charge separation behaviors at nanoscale interfaces where quantum confinement dominates.

  9. Evolution of a Greenland Ice sheet Including Shelves and Regional Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Sarah; Reerink, Thomas; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Helsen, Michiel; Goelzer, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and marine sediment cores infer that at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) grounded out across the Davis Strait into Baffin Bay, with fast flowing ice streams extending out to the continental shelf break along the NW margin. These observations lead to a number of questions as to weather the GIS and Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) coalesced during glacial maximums, and if so, did a significant ice shelf develop across Baffin Bay and how would such a configuration impact on the relative contribution of these ice sheets to eustatic sea level (ESL). Most previous paleo ice sheet modelling simulations of the GIS recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilised a simplified marine ice parameterisation to recreate an extended GIS, and therefore did not fully include ice shelf dynamics. In this study we simulate the evolution of the GIS from 220 kyr BP to present day using IMAU-ice; a 3D thermodynamical ice sheet model which fully accounts for grounded and floating ice, calculates grounding line migration and ice shelf dynamics. As there are few observational estimates of the long-term (yrs) sub marine basal melting rates (mbm) for the GIS, we developed a mbm parameterization within IMAU-ice controlled primarily by changes in paleo water depth. We also investigate the influence of the LIS on the GIS evolution by including relative sea level forcing's derived from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model. We will present results of how changes in the mbm directly impacts on the ice sheet dynamics, timing and spatial extent of the GIS at the glacial maximums, but also on the rate of retreat and spatial extent at the Last interglacial (LIG) minimum. Results indicate that with the inclusion of ice shelf dynamics, a larger GIS is generated which is grounded out into Davis strait, up to a water depth of -750 m, but significantly reduces the GIS contribution to Last

  10. Extending an evidence hierarchy to include topics other than treatment: revising the Australian 'levels of evidence'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin Tracy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999 a four-level hierarchy of evidence was promoted by the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia. The primary purpose of this hierarchy was to assist with clinical practice guideline development, although it was co-opted for use in systematic literature reviews and health technology assessments. In this hierarchy interventional study designs were ranked according to the likelihood that bias had been eliminated and thus it was not ideal to assess studies that addressed other types of clinical questions. This paper reports on the revision and extension of this evidence hierarchy to enable broader use within existing evidence assessment systems. Methods A working party identified and assessed empirical evidence, and used a commissioned review of existing evidence assessment schema, to support decision-making regarding revision of the hierarchy. The aim was to retain the existing evidence levels I-IV but increase their relevance for assessing the quality of individual diagnostic accuracy, prognostic, aetiologic and screening studies. Comprehensive public consultation was undertaken and the revised hierarchy was piloted by individual health technology assessment agencies and clinical practice guideline developers. After two and a half years, the hierarchy was again revised and commenced a further 18 month pilot period. Results A suitable framework was identified upon which to model the revision. Consistency was maintained in the hierarchy of "levels of evidence" across all types of clinical questions; empirical evidence was used to support the relationship between study design and ranking in the hierarchy wherever possible; and systematic reviews of lower level studies were themselves ascribed a ranking. The impact of ethics on the hierarchy of study designs was acknowledged in the framework, along with a consideration of how harms should be assessed. Conclusion The revised evidence hierarchy is now widely

  11. Extending an evidence hierarchy to include topics other than treatment: revising the Australian 'levels of evidence'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1999 a four-level hierarchy of evidence was promoted by the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia. The primary purpose of this hierarchy was to assist with clinical practice guideline development, although it was co-opted for use in systematic literature reviews and health technology assessments. In this hierarchy interventional study designs were ranked according to the likelihood that bias had been eliminated and thus it was not ideal to assess studies that addressed other types of clinical questions. This paper reports on the revision and extension of this evidence hierarchy to enable broader use within existing evidence assessment systems. Methods A working party identified and assessed empirical evidence, and used a commissioned review of existing evidence assessment schema, to support decision-making regarding revision of the hierarchy. The aim was to retain the existing evidence levels I-IV but increase their relevance for assessing the quality of individual diagnostic accuracy, prognostic, aetiologic and screening studies. Comprehensive public consultation was undertaken and the revised hierarchy was piloted by individual health technology assessment agencies and clinical practice guideline developers. After two and a half years, the hierarchy was again revised and commenced a further 18 month pilot period. Results A suitable framework was identified upon which to model the revision. Consistency was maintained in the hierarchy of "levels of evidence" across all types of clinical questions; empirical evidence was used to support the relationship between study design and ranking in the hierarchy wherever possible; and systematic reviews of lower level studies were themselves ascribed a ranking. The impact of ethics on the hierarchy of study designs was acknowledged in the framework, along with a consideration of how harms should be assessed. Conclusion The revised evidence hierarchy is now widely used and provides a common

  12. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

  13. Transgenic cells with increased plastoquinone levels and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Richard T.; Subramanian, Sowmya; Cahoon, Edgar

    2016-12-27

    Disclosed herein are transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase (DXS) protein, or a combination of two or more thereof. In particular examples, the disclosed transgenic cells have increased plastoquinone levels. Also disclosed are methods of increasing cell growth rates or production of biomass by cultivating transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a PDH protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding an HST protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a DXS protein, or a combination of two or more thereof under conditions sufficient to produce cell growth or biomass.

  14. Global agenda, local health: including concepts of health security in preparedness programs at the jurisdictional level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Chas

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda's objectives contain components that could help health departments address emerging public health challenges that threaten the population. As part of the agenda, partner countries with advanced public health systems will support the development of infrastructure in stakeholder health departments. To facilitate this process and augment local programs, state and local health departments may want to include concepts of health security in their public health preparedness offices in order to simultaneously build capacity. Health security programs developed by public health departments should complete projects that are closely aligned with the objectives outlined in the global agenda and that facilitate the completion of current preparedness grant requirements. This article identifies objectives and proposes tactical local projects that run parallel to the 9 primary objectives of the Global Health Security Agenda. Executing concurrent projects at the international and local levels in preparedness offices will accelerate the completion of these objectives and help prevent disease epidemics, detect health threats, and respond to public health emergencies. Additionally, future funding tied or related to health security may become more accessible to state and local health departments that have achieved these objectives.

  15. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  16. Effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration provided warmer atmospheric temperature and higher atmospheric water vapor content, but not necessarily more precipitation. A set of experiments performed with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (2, 4 and 16 times the present-day mean value) were analyzed and compared with a control experiment to evaluate the effect of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons. Generally, the monsoon precipitation responses to CO{sub 2} forcing are largest if extreme concentrations of carbon dioxide are used, but they are not necessarily proportional to the forcing applied. In fact, despite a common response in terms of an atmospheric water vapor increase to the atmospheric warming, two out of the six monsoons studied simulate less or equal summer mean precipitation in the 16 x CO{sub 2} experiment compared to the intermediate sensitivity experiments. The precipitation differences between CO{sub 2} sensitivity experiments and CTRL have been investigated specifying the contribution of thermodynamic and purely dynamic processes. As a general rule, the differences depending on the atmospheric moisture content changes (thermodynamic component) are large and positive, and they tend to be damped by the dynamic component associated with the changes in the vertical velocity. However, differences are observed among monsoons in terms of the role played by other terms (like moisture advection and evaporation) in shaping the precipitation changes in warmer climates. The precipitation increase, even if weak, occurs despite a weakening of the mean circulation in the monsoon regions (''precipitation-wind paradox''). In particular, the tropical east-west Walker circulation is reduced, as found from velocity potential analysis. The meridional component of the monsoon circulation is changed as well, with larger (smaller) meridional (vertical) scales. (orig.)

  17. Tolerance of soil flagellates to increased NaCl levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    The ability of heterotrophic flagellates to survive and adapt to increasing salinities was investigated in this study. Whole soil samples were subjected to salinities corresponding to marine conditions and clonal cultures were used to perform growth and adaptation experiments at a wide range...... of different salinities (0-50 ppm). More morphotypes tolerant to elevated NaCl levels were found in road verge soil that was heavily exposed to de-icing salt than in less exposed soils, though there were fewer tolerant than intolerant morphotypes in all soils examined. Heterotrophic flagellates isolated...... on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1-5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long...

  18. Increased concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 levels in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Çatlı, Gönül; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic molecule, seems to play a role in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation of nesfatin-1 with anthropometric and metabolic (ghrelin, leptin) parameters in children with idiopathic chronic malnutrition. Materials and methods: The study included 37 underweight and 38 healthy children who were similar regarding age, sex, and pubertal status. Anthropometric and biochemical (nesfatin-1, ghrelin, and leptin levels) variables were assessed. Results: A total of 37 underweight subjects (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years) and 38 heathy subjects (mean age 10.3 ± 2.3 years) were recruited. Underweight children had significantly higher nesfatin-1 (2.76 ± 0.4 vs. 1.56 ± 0.7, P malnutrition, who were subsequently found to have significantly higher nesfatin-1 levels. Our study underlines that nesfatin-1 may play a role in the development of malnutrition by inhibiting food intake in children.

  19. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  20. [Severely increased serum lipid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta

    2017-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, hrafnkell.stefans@gmail.com.

  1. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  2. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  3. Does natural gas increase the indoor radon levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, H.A.; Shabaan, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas is naturally occurring hydrocarbon consists mainly of methane and includes varying amounts of other hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and other impurities such as: nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. It is used domestically and industrially as a preferable energy source compared to coal and oil. Because natural gas is found in deep underground natural formations or associated with other underground hydrocarbon reservoirs, there is a potential to contain radon as a contaminant. This work was designated to measure indoor radon concentrations in dwellings supplied with natural gas compared with those not supplied with it, where radon level was estimated using solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39). The results showed that radon concentration was significantly higher in dwellings supplied with natural gas, where it was 252.30 versus 136.19 Bqm -3 in dwelling not supplied with natural gas (P < 0.001). The mean values of radon exhalation rate was 0.02 ± 6.34 · 10 -4 Bq · m -2 · h -1 in dwellings supplied with natural gas and 0.01 +- 0.008 Bq · m -2 · h -1 in dwellings lacking it. In addition, a significant difference was observed in the mean annual effective doses (4.33 and 2.34 mSv · y -1 , respectively) between both groups. Conclusively, the data indicate that natural gas may represent a potential source of indoor radon

  4. Increased Pathological Worry Levels in Patients with Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Sahin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alopecia Areata (AA is a type of hair loss that has been considered to have associations with various psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to compare pathological worry levels between patients with AA and healthy controls (HC. Material and Method: Sixty-three patients with AA and 90 HCs were included in the present study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The socio-demographic characteristics, some clinical characteristics, and the scores from the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ were compared between groups. Results: The demographic characteristics were found to be similar between groups except for gender. The family history of AA was significantly higher in the AA group. The mean score of PSWQ in the AA group was 44.02 ± 11.59, compared to 39.71 ± 7.77 in the HC group. The mean score of PSWQ was significantly higher in the AA group (t=-3.27, p= 0.001.Discussion: The present study is the first to compare pathological worry between patients with AA and HCs. We suggest that pathological worry should be more thoroughly investigated in patients with AA to improve their quality of life. Also, this can be an effective approach to targeting the patients who may develop anxiety disorder.

  5. Prospects of increasing the engineering level of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to main problems related to development and industrial introduction of NPP components corresponding to the perspective world-wide engineering level. The nearest task in this field is to elevate the engineering level of developed and being produced power equipment up to the level of similar equipment, manufactured by leading foreign companies

  6. Statistical equilibrium in cometary C2. IV. A 10 level model including singlet-triplet transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Swamy, K.S.; O'dell, C.R.; Rice Univ., Houston, TX)

    1987-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence theory was used to calculate the population distribution in the energy states of the C2 molecule in comets. Ten electronic states, each with 14 vibrational states, were used in the calculations. These new calculations differ from earlier work in terms of additional electronic levels and the role of singlet-triplet transitions between the b and X levels. Since transition moments are not known, calculations are made of observable flux ratios for an array of possible values. Comparison with existing observations indicates that the a-X transition is very important, and there is marginal indication that the b-X transition is present. Swan band sequence flux ratios at large heliocentric distance are needed, as are accurate Mulliken/Swan and Phillips/Ballik-Ramsay (1963) observations. 29 references

  7. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  8. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  9. Four levels of hierarchical organization, including noncovalent chainmail, brace the mature tumor herpesvirus capsid against pressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Hong; Hui, Wong Hoi; Shah, Sanket; Jih, Jonathan; O'Connor, Christine M; Sherman, Michael B; Kedes, Dean H; Schein, Stan

    2014-10-07

    Like many double-stranded DNA viruses, tumor gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus withstand high internal pressure. Bacteriophage HK97 uses covalent chainmail for this purpose, but how this is achieved noncovalently in the much larger gammaherpesvirus capsid is unknown. Our cryoelectron microscopy structure of a gammaherpesvirus capsid reveals a hierarchy of four levels of organization: (1) Within a hexon capsomer, each monomer of the major capsid protein (MCP), 1,378 amino acids and six domains, interacts with its neighboring MCPs at four sites. (2) Neighboring capsomers are linked in pairs by MCP dimerization domains and in groups of three by heterotrimeric triplex proteins. (3) Small (∼280 amino acids) HK97-like domains in MCP monomers alternate with triplex heterotrimers to form a belt that encircles each capsomer. (4) One hundred sixty-two belts concatenate to form noncovalent chainmail. The triplex heterotrimer orchestrates all four levels and likely drives maturation to an angular capsid that can withstand pressurization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation sensitivity of organisms of different organization level: an approach including DNA strand breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampf, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mean numbers of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) suggested to be necessary to lead to the loss of reproductive capacity are compared with bacteriophages, bacteria, and cells of the Chinese hamster after the influence of several radiation qualities. The results suggest that the critical target for the inactivating action of radiations may not be the entire DNA of all organisms but a structure unit of it designed as membrane-attached super structure unit. With organisms having only one of these structures (bacteria) the inactivation probability of one DSB will be near unity, with their multiplication in higher cells it will become lower. This means, eukaryotic cells are able to tolerate more DSB before being inactivated than organisms of a lower organization level, and consequently are more ''lesion resistant''. This behavior represents an evolutionary stabilization of higher cells towards the lethal action of severe DNA lesions such as DSB. (author)

  11. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  12. Evaluation of the vitreous matrices to include high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Pasquali, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Programme considers a fuel cycle with Pu recycle. This will generate high-level liquid wastes, that should be safely eliminated. With this purpose, primary glasses utilizing three prototipe compositions were prepared. Simulated wastes oxides in the rate of about 10% were added to the vitreous matrices. The mixture was melted in ceramic melting pots in a muffle furnace at 1 100 deg C during 8 hours. Resistance leaching tests were made following an adaptation of the DIN 12 111 standard. Quantitative analysis of the leaching solutions were made to evaluate the solubility of the different elements. Glasses were observed with optical microscopy scanning before and after leaching. In the first, glasses, bubbles and crystalline-phase appear; in the second ones, puncture and embrittlement were detected. By means of differential thermoanalysis, endo and exothermal peaks were identified in glasses supporting gradual heating. X ray diffraction analysis were made in samples with and without wastes. The degree of crystallization of samples was evaluated by photographic and diffractometric techniques. Leaching studies showed the existance of a direct relation between leaching and glass alkaline content. (M.E.L.) [es

  13. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children?s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 a...

  14. Reduced dietary sodium intake increases heart rate. A meta-analysis of 63 randomized controlled trials including 72 study populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels eGraudal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in the period 1973–2014. 63 of the RCTs including 72 study populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p < 0.00001, corresponding to 2.4% of the baseline heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction increases heart rate by as much (2.4% as it decreases blood pressure (2.5%. This side-effect, which may cause harmful health effects, contributes to the need for a revision of the present dietary guidelines.

  15. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  16. Effects of increasing dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish. (Heterobranchus ... (Legendre, 1991) because of its taste, fast growth rate ..... diet containing 40% protein had high growth with low food intake and feed ... protein rate (45%) combined with a bad utilization of.

  17. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  18. Increasing zinc levels in phytase-supplemented diets improves the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marjina Akter

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... This result indicate that the Zn concentrations used in this study were not ... levels of phytase, the concentrations of Zn in the experimental diets of these studies ... combustion technique, as described by Sweeney (1989) using a LECO® ... Premix A. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. Choline Cl. 0.9. 0.9. 0.9. 1.1. 0.9.

  19. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase plasma irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, Emine; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Menevse, Esma

    2017-11-28

    Background A recently discovered hormone, irisin is accepted to be significantly involved in the regulation of body weight. Thyroid functions may be, directly or indirectly, associated with irisin. Aim The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of experimental thyroid dysfunction on irisin levels in rats. Methods The study registered 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were allocated to groups as follows: 1. Control; 2. Hypothyroidism induced by injection of 10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal propylthiouracil (PTU) for 3 weeks; 3. Hypothyroidism (PTU 2 weeks) + L-thyroxin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 1 week); 4. Hyperthyroidism induced in rats by 3-week thyroxin (0.3 mg/kg/day); 5. Hyperthyroidism + PTU. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected to quantify free triiodothyronine (FT3), free triiodothyronine (FT4) and irisin levels. Results FT3 and FT4 levels were reduced in hypothyroidism and were significantly elevated in hyperthyroidism (p hyperthyroidism groups (p hyperthyroidism, and that when hypothyroidism is corrected by thyroxin administration and hyperthyroidism by PTU injection, plasma irisin values go back to normal.

  20. Acute binge drinking increases serum endotoxin and bacterial DNA levels in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Bala

    Full Text Available Binge drinking, the most common form of alcohol consumption, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity; yet, its biological consequences are poorly defined. Previous studies demonstrated that chronic alcohol use results in increased gut permeability and increased serum endotoxin levels that contribute to many of the biological effects of chronic alcohol, including alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute binge drinking in healthy adults on serum endotoxin levels. We found that acute alcohol binge resulted in a rapid increase in serum endotoxin and 16S rDNA, a marker of bacterial translocation from the gut. Compared to men, women had higher blood alcohol and circulating endotoxin levels. In addition, alcohol binge caused a prolonged increase in acute phase protein levels in the systemic circulation. The biological significance of the in vivo endotoxin elevation was underscored by increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-6, and chemokine, MCP-1, measured in total blood after in vitro lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Our findings indicate that even a single alcohol binge results in increased serum endotoxin levels likely due to translocation of gut bacterial products and disturbs innate immune responses that can contribute to the deleterious effects of binge drinking.

  1. High epitope expression levels increase competition between T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Scherer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell competition is mainly for specific or aspecific stimuli. Under low epitope expression, competition is mainly for the specific epitope stimuli, and, hence, different epitope-specific T cell populations coexist readily. However, if epitope expression levels are high, aspecific competition becomes more important. Such between-specificity competition can lead to competitive exclusion between different epitope-specific T cell populations. Our model allows us to delineate the circumstances that facilitate coexistence of T cells of different epitope specificity. Understanding mechanisms of T cell coexistence has important practical implications for immune therapies that require a broad immune response.

  2. Speaker comfort and increase of voice level in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, G P

    2008-01-01

    Teachers often suffer health problems or tension related to their voice. These problems may be related to there working environment, including room acoustics of the lecture rooms which forces them to stress their voices. The present paper describes a first effort in finding relationships between...... were also measured in the rooms and subjective impressions from about 20 persons who had experience talking in these rooms were collected as well. Analysis of the data revealed significant differences in the sound power produced by the speaker in the different rooms. It was also found...

  3. Major features of immunesenescence, including reduced thymic output, are ameliorated by high levels of physical activity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Niharika Arora; Pollock, Ross D; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen; Lord, Janet M

    2018-04-01

    It is widely accepted that aging is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system including thymic atrophy and increased frequency of senescent T cells, leading to immune compromise. However, physical activity, which influences immunity but declines dramatically with age, is not considered in this literature. We assessed immune profiles in 125 adults (55-79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise. The frequency of naïve T cells and recent thymic emigrants (RTE) were both higher in cyclists compared with inactive elders, and RTE frequency in cyclists was no different to young adults. Compared with their less active counterparts, the cyclists had significantly higher serum levels of the thymoprotective cytokine IL-7 and lower IL-6, which promotes thymic atrophy. Cyclists also showed additional evidence of reduced immunesenescence, namely lower Th17 polarization and higher B regulatory cell frequency than inactive elders. Physical activity did not protect against all aspects of immunesenescence: CD28 -ve CD57 +ve senescent CD8 T-cell frequency did not differ between cyclists and inactive elders. We conclude that many features of immunesenescence may be driven by reduced physical activity with age. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine A. Janssen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A‑weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels.

  5. Including osteoprotegerin and collagen IV in a score-based blood test for liver fibrosis increases diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Nelly; Taibi, Ludmia; Guéchot, Jérôme; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Sturm, Nathalie; Gelineau, Marie-Christine; Poggi, Bernard; Thoret, Sophie; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Baudin, Bruno; Housset, Chantal; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2013-01-16

    Noninvasive methods for liver fibrosis evaluation in chronic liver diseases have been recently developed, i.e. transient elastography (Fibroscan™) and blood tests (Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, and Hepascore®). In this study, we aimed to design a new score in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) by selecting blood markers in a large panel and we compared its diagnostic performance with those of other noninvasive methods. Sixteen blood tests were performed in 306 untreated CHC patients included in a multicenter prospective study (ANRS HC EP 23 Fibrostar) using METAVIR histological fibrosis stage as reference. The new score was constructed by non linear regression using the most accurate biomarkers. Five markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein-A1, AST, collagen IV and osteoprotegerin) were included in the new function called Coopscore©. Using the Obuchowski Index, Coopscore© shows higher diagnostic performances than for Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, Hepascore® and Fibroscan™ in CHC. Association between Fibroscan™ and Coopscore© might avoid 68% of liver biopsies for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis. Coopscore© provides higher accuracy than other noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in CHC. The association of Coopscore© with Fibroscan™ increases its predictive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. INCREASING EMPLOYMENT LEVELS THROUGH THE USE OF CREATIVE JOBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Andreea HORDAU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to raise awareness of how important is for an economy the existence of creative jobs. In the last years the employment rate has grown in the sector of creative jobs. This research came out due the need of creative jobs contribution to the development of an economy, in particular Romanian economy. In this paper we want to stress on the importance of creative industry and also to propose some solutions for increasing employment in this sectors , being well-known that creative industry is attractive to smart and talented people. Nevertheless, it is important to point out the development of IT as part of creative industry. Not at last, we will take in consideration the role that small and medium enterprises have, the impact of fiscal facilities in the economy and the need for appropriate financial instruments to support this kind of business.

  7. Increased levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds underlie the craniofacial disorder, Treacher Collins syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, J; Brakebusch, C; Fässler, R

    2000-01-01

    mice die perinatally as a result of severe craniofacial anomalies that include agenesis of the nasal passages, abnormal development of the maxilla, exencephaly and anophthalmia. These defects arise due to a massive increase in the levels of apoptosis in the prefusion neural folds, which are the site...

  8. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  9. High Level Waste (HLW) Processing Experience with Increased Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Engineering requested characterization of glass samples that were taken after the second melter had been operational for about 5 months. After the new melter had been installed, the waste loading had been increased to about 38 weight percentage after a new quasicrystalline liquidus model had been implemented. The DWPF had also switched from processing with refractory Frit 200 to a more fluid Frit 320. The samples were taken after DWPF observed very rapid buildup of deposits in the upper pour spout bore and on the pour spout insert while processing the high waste loading feedstock. These samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques to determine the cause of the crystallization. The pour stream sample was homogeneous, amorphous, and representative of the feed batch from which it was derived. Chemical analysis of the pour stream sample indicated that a waste loading of 38.5 weight per cent had been achieved. The data analysis indicated that surface crystallization, induced by temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients in the pour spout, caused surface crystallization to occur in the spout and on the insert at the higher waste loadings even though there was no crystallization in the pour stream

  10. Validation on groundwater flow model including sea level change. Modeling on groundwater flow in coastal granite area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma; Miyakawa, Kimio

    2009-01-01

    It is important to verify the groundwater flow model that reproduces pressure head, water chemistry, and groundwater age. However, water chemistry and groundwater age are considered to be influenced by historical events. In this study, sea level change during glacial-interglacial cycle was taken into account for simulating salinity and groundwater age at coastal granite area. As a result of simulation, salinity movement could not catch up with sea level changes, and mixing zone was formed below the fresh-water zone. This mixing zone was observed in the field measurement, and the observed salinities were agreed with simulated results including sea level change. The simulated residence time including sea level change is one-tenth of steady state. The reason is that the saline water was washed out during regression and modern sea-water was infiltrated during transgression. As mentioned before, considering sea level change are important to reproduce salinity and helium age at coastal area. (author)

  11. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  12. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  13. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pobesity increased proportionally to baseline fasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend obesity was highest in the group with the highest fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased abdominal fat levels measured by bioelectrical impedance are associated with histological lesions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, Aikaterini; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Tileli, Nafsika; Georgoulis, Michael; Deutsch, Melanie; Zafeiropoulou, Rodessa; Tiniakos, Dina; Manios, Yannis; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papatheodoridis, George V

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal fat is considered to play an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not adequately studied because abdominal fat levels cannot be estimated easily. In this study, associations between abdominal obesity, as assessed by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the characteristics of patients with NAFLD were explored. Seventy-four consecutive NAFLD patients who underwent measurement of abdominal fat levels by BIA were included. Levels of abdominal fat 12.5 or less and more than 12.5 were considered to be average and increased, respectively. The mean±SD BMI was 30±4 kg/m and the mean abdominal fat levels were 16±5, whereas 26% of patients had average abdominal fat levels. Patients with average compared with those with increased abdominal fat levels were more frequently women (50 vs. 12%, P=0.001), had lower BMI (27±3 vs. 31±4 kg/m, Pabdominal fat levels (78 vs. 38%, P=0.030) and in patients with BMI 30 or more compared with less than 30 kg/m (87 vs. 48%, P=0.033), but similar in patients with increased or normal waist circumference (67 vs. 56%, P=0.693). Average levels of abdominal fat, as assessed by abdominal BIA, are mainly present in female patients with NAFLD and are associated with a lower degree of insulin resistance. Increased abdominal fat as assessed by BIA and obesity seem to represent strong risk factors for histological steatohepatitis.

  15. IGF-1 levels may increase paradoxically with dopamine agonist treatment for prolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akirov, Amit; Greenman, Yona; Glaser, Benjamin; S'chigol, Irena; Mansiterski, Yossi; Eizenberg, Yoav; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Shimon, Ilan

    2018-05-04

    Hyperprolactinemia is common in acromegaly and in these patients, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 level may decrease with dopamine agonist. We report a series of patients with prolactinoma and a paradoxical increase of IGF-1 levels during cabergoline treatment. Clinical characteristics and response to treatment of patients with prolactinomas, in whom normal or slightly elevated baseline IGF-1 levels increased with cabergoline. The cohort consisted of ten prolactinoma patients (nine males, mean age 48 ± 14 years). Mean adenoma size was 23.8 ± 16.2 mm, with cavernous sinus invasion in eight. In five patients baseline IGF-1 levels were normal and in four levels were 1.2-1.5-fold the upper limit of the normal (ULN). One patient had IGF-1 measured shortly after initiating cabergoline and it was 1.4 × ULN. During cabergoline treatment (dose range 0.5-2 mg/week) PRL normalization was achieved in all and tumor shrinkage occurred in seven patients. The mean IGF-1 increase on cabergoline was 1.7 ± 0.4 × ULN. Cabergoline dose reduction or interruption was attempted in five patients and resulted in decreased IGF-1 levels in all, including normalization in two patients. Three patients were eventually diagnosed with acromegaly, one was referred for pituitary surgery followed by complete remission, another patient was switched to somatostatin analogue, and the third was treated by combination of somatostatin analogues with pegvisomant, with reduction of IGF-1 in all these patients. IGF-1 levels may increase to clinically significant levels during cabergoline treatment for PRL-adenoma. We suggest IGF-1 monitoring in all patients treated with dopamine agonists and not only in those presenting symptoms of acromegaly.

  16. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Mark L.; Braune, Birgit M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Conor D.; Forbes, Mark R.; Wells, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health

  17. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  18. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B.; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice. PMID:26017184

  19. Balanced Physical Exercise Increase Physical Fitness, Optimize Endorphin Levels, and Decrease Malondialdehyde Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Adams Pangkahila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness determines the level of human health. A good physical fitness can be achieved if conducted with a balance and active physical fitness. The aims of this study was to elucidate the effect of balanced physical exercise on physical fitness, endorphin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Methods: This study was a true experimental with pretest-posttest control group design using 24 students of IKIP PGRI Denpasar. Selected samples divided into two groups: the control group given conventional physical training (P0 and the treatment group given balanced physical training (P1. Physical fitness tests was performed using Cooper method and blood sampling was done to evaluate the level of endorphins and MDA before (pre test and after (post test treatment of 8 weeks. The data of endorphin and MDA levels were analyzed using independent T test. Whereas, the physical fitness was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Physical fitness of the group given a balanced physical training was significantly higher compare to the group given a conventional physical training (p < 0.05. Balanced physical training was proven to enhance physical fitness as measured by the Cooper method better than conventional physical training. In contrast, the levels of endorphins of the balanced physical training group did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Levels of MDA of balanced physical training group also did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Conclusions: balanced physical training can maintain physical fitness of people and improve the health and quality of life. 

  20. INCREASED TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY IN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Celiac disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals precipitated by gluten ingestion. Objective - In this study, we aimed to determine asymptomatic spike-and-wave findings on electroencephalography in children with celiac disease. Methods - A total of 175 children with the diagnosis of celiac disease (study group and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy children as controls (control group were included in the study. In order to determine the effects of gluten free diet on laboratory and electroencephalography findings, the celiac group is further subdivided into two as newly-diagnosed and formerly-diagnosed patients. Medical histories of all children and laboratory findings were all recorded and neurologic statuses were evaluated. All patients underwent a sleep and awake electroencephalography. Results - Among 175 celiac disease patients included in the study, 43 were newly diagnosed while 132 were formerly-diagnosed patients. In electroencephalography evaluation of patients the epileptiform activity was determined in 4 (9.3% of newly diagnosed and in 2 (1.5% of formerly diagnosed patients; on the other hand the epileptiform activity was present in only 1 (1.0% of control cases. There was a statistically significant difference between groups in regards to the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that epileptiform activity in both sleep and awake electroencephalography were positively correlated with tissue transglutaminase levels (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively. Conclusion - We have determined an increased epileptiform activity frequency among newly-diagnosed celiac disease patients compared with formerly-diagnosed celiac disease patients and control cases. Moreover the tissue transglutaminase levels were also correlated with the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Among newly diagnosed celiac disease patients

  1. Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs Is Associated with Increased Density of Intestinal Mucosa-Associated Bacteria Including Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Mølbak, Lars; Delègue, Camilla Lindholm

    2015-01-01

    correlates with NEC severity in preterm pigs and that in vitro infection with increasing densities of Clostridium perfringens, which has been associated with NEC in preterm infants, would lead to a transcriptional response related to the inflammatory conditions of NEC. Methods: First, we determined...... the density of total bacteria and C. perfringens in the distal small intestinal mucosa of 58 NEC and healthy preterm pigs using quantitative PCR. Next, we analyzed in IPEC-J2 cells the effect of different infection densities of C. perfringens type A on the expression of genes related to intestinal function...

  2. Trans fatty acids increase nitric oxide levels and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis in rats

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    Kusmiyati Tjahjono DK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of diabetes in Indonesia is increasing due to various factors, including life style changes such as trans fatty acid (TFA intake. High TFA intake is known to be related to blood lipid profile changes resulting in cardiovascular disorders. This study was to identify the effect of TFA on nitric oxide (NO production and on necrosis of pancreatic beta cells. Methods A study of randomized pre-test post–test design with control group. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e. group K (control, group P1 receiving a diet with 5% TFA, and P2 receiving 10% TFA. The intervention was performed for 8 weeks. NO level and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis were analyzed using Pearson’s chi square test. Results After 4 weeks of treatment there was no change in NO levels in group K, but increased NO in P2 (2.6-3.8 ìM. At 8 weeks after treatment, NO levels in groups P1 and P2 increased to 2.6-3.4 ìM and 4.2-14.3 ìM, respectively, while in group K only 2 rats had increased NO levels of 2.8-2.9 ìM. With Pearson’s chi-square test, there was a signifant difference in the proportions of necrotic pancreatic beta cells after 4 weeks and 8 weeks (p=0.000. No necrosis of beta cells was found in group K, mild necrosis in group P1 (1-25% and moderate necrosis in group P2 (26-50%. Conclusion TFA consumption significantly increases NO levels in Sprague Dawley rats and also results in moderate grades of necrosis of pancreatic beta cells.

  3. Trans fatty acids increase nitric oxide levels and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Tjahjono DK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The prevalence of diabetes in Indonesia is increasing due to various factors, including life style changes such as trans fatty acid (TFA intake. High TFA intake is known to be related to blood lipid profile changes resulting in cardiovascular disorders. This study was to identify the effect of TFA on nitric oxide (NO production and on necrosis of pancreatic beta cells. METHODS A study of randomized pre-test post–test design with control group. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, i.e. group K (control, group P1 receiving a diet with 5% TFA, and P2 receiving 10% TFA. The intervention was performed for 8 weeks. NO level and pancreatic beta-cell necrosis were analyzed using Pearson’s chi square test. RESULTS After 4 weeks of treatment there was no change in NO levels in group K, but increased NO in P2 (2.6-3.8 ìM. At 8 weeks after treatment, NO levels in groups P1 and P2 increased to 2.6-3.4 ìM and 4.2-14.3 ìM, respectively, while in group K only 2 rats had increased NO levels of 2.8-2.9 ìM. With Pearson’s chi-square test, there was a signifant difference in the proportions of necrotic pancreatic beta cells after 4 weeks and 8 weeks (p= 0.000. No necrosis of beta cells was found in group K, mild necrosis in group P1 (1-25% and moderate necrosis in group P2 (26-50%. CONCLUSION TFA consumption significantly increases NO levels in Sprague Dawley rats and also results in moderate grades of necrosis of pancreatic beta cells

  4. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

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    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  5. Increased Cord Blood Betatrophin Levels in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes

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    Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Du, Caiqi; Yuan, Guandou; Ning, Qin; McCormick, Kenneth; Luo, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Aim Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined at 24–48 weeks gestation after a 75-g OGTT. Cord blood and placental tissue was collected immediately post delivery. Metabolic parameters were determined in the Clinical Laboratory. Cord blood betatrophin levels were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Placental mitochondrial content was determined by real-time PCR. Results Cord blood betatrophin levels were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group compared with the normoglycemic group. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with maternal gestational 2h post-OGTT glucose, cord blood insulin, HOMA-IR, and inversely correlated with placental mitochondrial content. Conclusions Cord blood betatrophin may function as a potential biomarker of maternal intrauterine hyperglycemia and fetal insulin resistance, which may presage for long-term metabolic impact of GDM on offspring. PMID:27196053

  6. Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers without increased lactate levels.

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    Kimura, Shigemi; Ozasa, Shiro; Nakamura, Kyoko; Nomura, Keiko; Kosuge, Hirofumi

    2009-07-01

    Myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers is one of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations have been identified in the mitochondrial transfer RNA (tRNA)(Lys) at positions 8344 and 8356. Characteristics of myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers include myoclonic epilepsy, generalized epilepsy, hearing loss, exercise intolerance, lactic acidosis, and ragged-red fibers. The elevated lactate level is one of the most important symptoms needed to make a diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. In the present case, however, myoclonic epilepsy was associated with ragged-red fibers but without increased lactate levels. Therefore, myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers should be suspected in a patient who has myoclonic epilepsy that is difficult to control with antiepileptic medications and who has other symptoms of mitochondrial disease, such as mental retardation, even if the patient's lactate level is normal.

  7. Increasing Resilience Through Engagement In Sea Level Rise Community Science Initiatives.

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    Chilton, L. A.; Rindge, H.

    2017-12-01

    Science literate and engaged members of the public, including students, are critical to building climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant facilitates programs that work to build and strengthen these connections. The Urban Tides Community Science Initiative (Urban Tides) and the Youth Exploring Sea Level Rise Science Program (YESS) engage communities across the boundaries of public engagement, K-12 education, and informal education. YESS is an experiential sea level rise education program that combines classroom learning, field investigations and public presentations. Students explore sea level rise using a new curricula, collect their own data on sea level rise, develop communication products, and present their findings to city governments, researchers, and others. Urban Tides engages community members, informal education centers, K-12 students, and local government leaders in a citizen science program photo- documenting extreme high tides, erosion and coastal flooding in Southern California. Images provide critical information to help calibrate scientific models used to identify locations vulnerable to damage from future sea level rise. These tools and information enable community leaders and local governments to set priorities, guidelines, and update policies as they plan strategies that will help the region adapt. The program includes a mobile app for data collection, an open database to view photos, a lesson plan, and community beach walks. Urban Tides has led to an increase in data and data-gathering capacity for regional scientists, an increase in public participation in science, and an increase in ocean and climate literacy among initiative participants. Both of these programs bring informed and diverse voices into the discussion of how to adapt and build climate resilient communities. USC Sea Grant will share impacts and lessons learned from these two unique programs.

  8. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  9. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

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    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  10. Increased Sclerostin Levels after Further Ablation of Remnant Estrogen by Aromatase Inhibitors

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    Wonjin Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSclerostin is a secreted Wnt inhibitor produced almost exclusively by osteocytes, which inhibits bone formation. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs, which reduce the conversion of steroids to estrogen, are used to treat endocrine-responsive breast cancer. As AIs lower estrogen levels, they increase bone turnover and lower bone mass. We analyzed changes in serum sclerostin levels in Korean women with breast cancer who were treated with an AI.MethodsWe included postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer (n=90; mean age, 57.7 years treated with an AI, and compared them to healthy premenopausal women (n=36; mean age, 28.0 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to take either 5 mg alendronate with 0.5 µg calcitriol (n=46, or placebo (n=44 for 6 months.ResultsPostmenopausal women with breast cancer had significantly higher sclerostin levels compared to those in premenopausal women (27.8±13.6 pmol/L vs. 23.1±4.8 pmol/L, P0.05.ConclusionSerum sclerostin levels increased with absolute deficiency of residual estrogens in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer who underwent AI therapy with concurrent bone loss.

  11. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  12. The increasing of beta-defensin-2 level in saliva after probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri administration

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    Tuti Kusumaningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commesal bacteria is an excellent inducer for beta defensin-2 (BD-2. Probiotics bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri as commensal bacteria may play the same role as an excellent inducer for BD-2. Beta defensin is natural antimicrobial peptides widely expressed in oral cavity, including in epithelium salivary gland. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans as the main of bacteria causing caries are sensitive to BD-2. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine whether administration of probiotic L. reuteri can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats. Methods: This research can be considered as a laboratory experimental research with a randomized control group post test only design. Twenty-four male Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats aged 3 months were used. They were randomly divided into four groups, namely two control groups (negative control group that was not induced and positive control group induced with S. mutans, and two treatment groups (K1: induced with L. reuteri for 14 days and S. mutans for 7 days, and K2: induced with L. reuteri and S. mutans simultaneously for 14 days. L. reuteri culture at a concentration of 108 CFU/ml and S. mutans culture at a concentration of 1010CFU/ml were induced into the oral cavity of Wistar rats. An examination of BD-2 level was then conducted by using Elisa techniques. results: There was significant difference of salivary BD-2 level among those treatment groups (p=0.001. BD-2 level in saliva was increased after the administration of L. reuteri. Conclusion: L. reuteri probiotic can increase salivary BD-2 level in Wistar rats.

  13. Increased levels of circulating arginase I in overweight compared to normal weight adolescents.

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    Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John

    2014-02-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Total circulating microparticle levels are increased in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munrós, J; Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Coloma, J L; Torrente, M A; Reverter, J C; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2017-02-01

    Are the levels of total circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) and circulating tissue factor-containing microparticles (cMP-TF) increased in patients with endometriosis? The levels of total cMP, but not cMP-TF, were higher in patients with endometriosis, and these were attributed to higher levels in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Previous studies have reported elevated levels of total cMP in inflammatory conditions as well as higher levels of other inflammatory biomarkers in endometriosis. Increased expression of tissue factor (a transmembrane receptor for Factor VII/VIIa) in eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients with endometriosis has been described. There is no previous data regarding total cMP and cMP-TF levels in patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study including two groups of patients was carried out. The E group included 65 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis (37 with DIE lesions) and the C group comprises 33 women without surgical findings of any form of endometriosis. Patients and controls were recruited during the same 10-month period. Controls were the next patient without endometriosis undergoing surgery, after including two patients with endometriosis. Venous blood samples for total cMP and cMP-TF determinations were obtained at the time of surgery, before anesthesia at a tertiary care center. To assess total cMP, an ELISA functional assay was used and cMP-TF activity in plasma was measured using an ELISA kit. Total cMP levels in plasma were higher in the E group compared with the C group (P < 0.0001). The subanalysis of endometriosis patients with DIE or with ovarian endometriomas without DIE showed that total cMP levels were higher in the DIE group (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in cMP-TF levels among the groups analyzed. This is a preliminary study in which the sample size was arbitrarily decided, albeit in keeping with previous studies analyzing

  15. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

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    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P facial pores (R = 0.43, P pore area (R = 0.32, P facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  17. Prevalence of Congenital Hypothyroidism and Transient Increased Levels of TSH in Yazd Province

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    H Shojaeifar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most preventable causes of mental retardation. Worldwide, incidences vary from 1:3000 to 1:4000 and mean incidence in Iran is estimated to be 1:1000. Neonatal screening and early treatment within first 2 weeks of neonatal period can prevent neurocognitive deficits. We aimed to study the incidence of CH and increased levels of TSH in Yazd province and collect data describing the disease status and designing first and second levels of preventive interventions. Methods: This descriptive analytic study was performed by census cross sectional method on 13022 neonates in Yazd province in 2006-2007(March 2006- March 2007 including 6495 females and 6527 males. Sampling was done (within the first 3-5 days of life by lancet sticking of neonatal heel. After transfer of 3 blood drops over filter papers, the TSH level was measured. If the TSH level was equal or higher than 5 mu/l, additional confirmation tests were done. Neonates were diagnosed according to serum confirmation test (TSH10 mu/l or T4<6.5g/dl and underwent treatment according to national guidelines. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Total number of patients was 45, including 25 males (55.5% and 20 females (44.5%. Prevalence in males, females and overall was consecutively, 1:261, 1:325 and 1:289, but this difference was not statistically significant. Prevalence in urban and rural areas was 1:315 and 1:216, but the difference was statistically not significant. The prevalence during spring, summer, autumn& winter was 1:95, 1:250, 1:1934 and 1:369, respectively, that was statistically significant. Mean age at sampling was 7.2 days, mean TSH level 2.3 mu/l and mean age of mothers was 25.8 years. Conclusions: Incidence of CH and transient increased levels of TSH in Yazd province is significantly higher than national and worldwide levels that necessitate the constancy and reinforcement of neonatal screening program. On the other

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

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    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. The results need to be confirmed by a study that will be conducted in a larger patient group also including a healthy control group to demonstrate the

  19. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  20. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D-3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56 degrees N for 24 d...... exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D-3 or 25OHD(3) level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease......The number of dairy cows without access to pasture or sunlight is increasing; therefore, the content of vitamin D in dairy products is decreasing. Ultimately, declining vitamin D levels in dairy products will mean that dairy products are a negligible source of natural vitamin D for humans. We...

  1. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Lilford, Richard; Girling, Alan J

    2015-01-30

    Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRTs) are being used with increasing frequency in health service evaluation. Conventionally, these studies are cross-sectional in design with equally spaced steps, with an equal number of clusters randomised at each step and data collected at each and every step. Here we introduce several variations on this design and consider implications for power. One modification we consider is the incomplete cross-sectional SW-CRT, where the number of clusters varies at each step or where at some steps, for example, implementation or transition periods, data are not collected. We show that the parallel CRT with staggered but balanced randomisation can be considered a special case of the incomplete SW-CRT. As too can the parallel CRT with baseline measures. And we extend these designs to allow for multiple layers of clustering, for example, wards within a hospital. Building on results for complete designs, power and detectable difference are derived using a Wald test and obtaining the variance-covariance matrix of the treatment effect assuming a generalised linear mixed model. These variations are illustrated by several real examples. We recommend that whilst the impact of transition periods on power is likely to be small, where they are a feature of the design they should be incorporated. We also show examples in which the power of a SW-CRT increases as the intra-cluster correlation (ICC) increases and demonstrate that the impact of the ICC is likely to be smaller in a SW-CRT compared with a parallel CRT, especially where there are multiple levels of clustering. Finally, through this unified framework, the efficiency of the SW-CRT and the parallel CRT can be compared. © 2014 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Erythropoetin treatment can increase 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgegård, G; Sandhagen, B

    2001-01-01

    Some patients experience an improved well-being during treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin even with an unchanged Hb level. We have hypothesized that this may not be only a placebo effect. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in red blood cells increases in response to anaemia/hypoxia and causes a shift of the oxygen dissociation curve, allowing a more effective oxygen delivery. We have investigated red cell 2,3-DPG concentrations during erythropoietin treatment in healthy volunteers as a mediator of a possible physiological explanation. Thirteen healthy subjects with no iron deficiency were recruited and randomly assigned to a treatment group comprising five males and three females and a control group including three males and two females. The treatment group was treated with erythropoietin (Recormon), 20 IE/kg subcutaneously three times/week for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at each injection day and 10 days after the last injection and at corresponding times in the control group. B-Hb, red cell 2,3-DPG and P50 were measured by standard techniques and oxygen-releasing capacity was calculated. due to the sampling (26 ml each time, three times/week) the mean Hb level was lowered from 140.5 +/- 5.9 to 128.6 +/- 10.4 g/L in the control group whereas the erythropoietin treatment group maintained a mean Hb level of about 142 g/L (plevel curve as well as that for oxygen releasing capacity also differed significantly between the two groups (p levels. treatment with erythropoietin causes an increase in red cell 2,3-DPG levels.

  3. Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.; Janssen, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a

  4. Estimated Cost of the Administration's Proposal to Increase the Army's and the Marine Corps's Personnel Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmit, Matt; Wheelock, Jason; Newman, David

    2007-01-01

    .... The Administration also plans to increase the size of the Army Reserve and National Guard. The cost of the Administration's proposal to increase the size of the armed forces depends on the personnel levels it is being measured against...

  5. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of roasting conditions on color and volatile profile including HMF level in sweet almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl

    2012-04-01

    Microwave, oven, and oil roasting of almonds were used to promote almond flavor and color formation. Raw pasteurized almonds were roasted in a microwave for 1 to 3 min, in an oven at 177 °C for 5, 10, 15, and 20 min; and at 135 and 163 °C for 20 min, and in oil at 135, 163, and 177 °C for 5 min and 177 °C for 10 min. Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of ground almonds, both raw and roasted, by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Strong correlations were found between L value, chroma, and 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural; and were independent of roasting method. Raw almonds had lower concentrations of most volatiles than roasted almonds. Conditions that produced color equivalent to commercial samples were 2 min in the microwave, 5 min at 177 °C in the oven, and 5 min at 135 °C in oil. Microwave heating produced higher levels of most volatiles than oven and oil roasting at commercial color. Sensory evaluation indicated that microwave-roasted almonds had the strongest aroma and were the most preferred. Oil-roasted almonds showed significantly lower levels of volatiles than other methods, likely due to loss of these volatiles into the oil. Alcohols such as benzyl alcohols and strecker aldehydes including benzaldehyde and methional were at higher concentrations than other volatiles in roasted almonds. The oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as nonanal and degradation of sugars to form furan type compounds was also observed. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of more of the total volatiles in almonds than the lipid oxidation reaction. The level of 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural (HMF), color, volatile profile, and sensory perception can be used to develop the best roasting method, time, and temperature for almonds. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ under different roasting conditions. Based on the color, volatile, and sensory assessments of the 3 almonds, the use of microwave technology

  7. Increased vaspin levels are associated with beneficial metabolic outcome pre- and post-bariatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HuiLing Lu

    Full Text Available Vaspin (visceral-adipose-tissue-derived-serine-protease-inhibitor is a recently identified adipokine with putative insulin-sensitizing properties. Plasma vaspin responses to surgery-induced weight loss are sparse and contradictory.We evaluated changes in vaspin levels and relationship to post-operative outcomes in men (n = 22 and women (n = 55 undergoing biliopancreatic-diversion/duodenal-switch bariatric surgery. Body composition and plasma parameters were measured at baseline, acutely (1 and 5 days and medium-term (6 and 12 months post-surgery.Fasting preoperative vaspin concentrations were comparable in men vs women. The distribution was biphasic (both men and women with a nadir of 2.5 ng/ml. Subjects were divided into high (≥2.5 ng/mL, HI-group and low (<2.5 ng/mL, LO-group vaspin level. Both groups had comparable sex distribution, age and BMI, but the HI-vaspin group had lower insulin, HOMA, and triglyceride and higher HDL-cholesterol, acylation stimulating protein (ASP and IL-6 levels (all p<0.05. Post-operatively, both groups decreased BMI comparably over 12 months; the HI-vaspin group maintained high vaspin levels, while the LO-vaspin group gradually increased their levels with weight loss over 12 months. The HI-vaspin group maintained a better glucose, insulin, HOMA, fructosamine, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride profile throughout. The HI-vaspin group also had higher gamma-glutamyltransferase and ASP profiles. Finally, baseline vaspin level inversely correlated significantly with baseline and 12-month insulin, HOMA, triglyceride and positively correlated with HDL and ASP. Twelve-month vaspin also correlated similarly, including an inverse correlation with BMI.Globally, this study supports the concept of vaspin as a beneficial adipokine in obesity, which may potentially lead to possible therapeutic targets.

  8. Effects of Water Level Increase on Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangdong Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water level fluctuation may affect physico-chemical characteristics, and consequently ecosystem function, in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, we assessed the changes of phytoplankton assemblages in response to water level increase in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia. The water level increased from a low of 137 m to 161 m in 2014 as a part of the South–North Water Diversion Project. Phytoplankton assemblages were sampled four times per year before, during and after the water level increase, at 10 sites. Environmental variables such as total nitrogen as well as phytoplankton biomass decreased after the water level increase. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis indicated that before the water level increase, phytoplankton assemblages showed distinct seasonal variation with diatom dominance in both early and late seasons while such seasonal variation was much less evident after the water level increase. Month and year (before and after explained 13% and 6% of variance in phytoplankton assemblages (PERMANOVA, p < 0.001 respectively, and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly different before and after the water level increase. Both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria became more abundant in 2015. Phytoplankton compositional change may largely reflect the environmental changes, such as hydrodynamics mediated by the water level increase.

  9. Lake-level increasing under the climate cryoaridization conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosov, Mikhail; Strelkov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    A lake genesis and lake-level increasing during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are the paramount issues in paleoclimatology. Investigating these problems reveals the regularities of lake development and figures out an arid territory conditions at the LGM stage. Pluvial theory is the most prevalent conception of lake formation during the LGM. This theory is based on a fact that the water bodies emerged and their level increased due to torrential rainfalls. In this study, it is paid attention to an alternative assumption of lake genesis at the LGM stage, which is called climate cryoaridization. In accordance with this hypothesis, the endorheic water basins had their level enlarged because of a simultaneous climate aridity and temperature decrease. In this research, a lake-level increasing in endorheic regions of Central Asia and South American Altiplano of the Andes is described. The lake investigation is related to its conditions during the LGM. The study also includes a lake catalogue clearly presenting the basin conditions at the LGM stage and nowadays. The data compilation partly consists of information from an earlier work of Mikhail Amosov, Lake-levels, Vegetation And Climate In Central Asia During The Last Glacial Maximum (EGU2014-3015). According to the investigation, a lake catalogue on 27 lakes showed that most of the water bodies had higher level. This feature could be mentioned for the biggest lakes of the Aral Sea, Lake Balkhash, Issyk-Kul etc. and for the small ones located in the mountains, such as Pamir, Tian-Shan and Tibet. Yet some lakes that are situated in Central Asian periphery (Lake Qinghai and lakes in Inner Mongolia) used to be lower than nowadays. Also, the lake-level increasing of Altiplano turned to be a significant feature during the LGM in accordance with the data of 5 lakes, such as Titicaca, Coipasa-Uyuni, Lejia, Miscanti and Santa-Maria. Most of the current endorheic basins at the LGM stage were filled with water due to abundant

  10. Technological study about a disposal measures of low-level radioactive waste including uranium and long-half-life radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Toshihisa; Nakamura, Yasuo

    2017-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) performed the technical studies contributed for the disposal measures of uranium-bearing waste with low concentration and intermediate depth disposal-based waste occurring from the process of the nuclear fuel cycle. (1) Study of the trench disposal of uranium-bearing waste. As a part of the study of disposal measures of the uranium-bearing waste, we carried out the safety assessment (exposure dose assessment) and derived the upper limit of radioactivity concentration of uranium which was allowed to be included in radioactive waste for trench disposal. (2) Preliminary study for the expansion of material applied to clearance in uranium-bearing waste. Currently, the clearance level of uranium handling facilities was derived from the radioactivity concentration of uranium corresponding to dose criterion about the exposure pathways of the reuse and recycle of metal. Therefore, we preliminarily evaluated whether metal and concrete were able to be applied to clearance by the method of the undergrounding disposal. (3) Study of the concentration limitation scenarios for the intermediate depth disposal-based waste. We carried out dose assessment of intermediate depth disposal of radioactive waste generated from JAEA about radioactive concentration limitation scenarios of which the concept was shown by the study team in Nuclear Regulation Authority. Based on the results, we discussed whether the waste was applied to radioactive waste conforming to concept of intermediate depth disposal. (author)

  11. Predicting species distribution and abundance responses to climate change: why it is essential to include biotic interactions across trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka; Visser, Marcel E

    2010-07-12

    Current predictions on species responses to climate change strongly rely on projecting altered environmental conditions on species distributions. However, it is increasingly acknowledged that climate change also influences species interactions. We review and synthesize literature information on biotic interactions and use it to argue that the abundance of species and the direction of selection during climate change vary depending on how their trophic interactions become disrupted. Plant abundance can be controlled by aboveground and belowground multitrophic level interactions with herbivores, pathogens, symbionts and their enemies. We discuss how these interactions may alter during climate change and the resulting species range shifts. We suggest conceptual analogies between species responses to climate warming and exotic species introduced in new ranges. There are also important differences: the herbivores, pathogens and mutualistic symbionts of range-expanding species and their enemies may co-migrate, and the continuous gene flow under climate warming can make adaptation in the expansion zone of range expanders different from that of cross-continental exotic species. We conclude that under climate change, results of altered species interactions may vary, ranging from species becoming rare to disproportionately abundant. Taking these possibilities into account will provide a new perspective on predicting species distribution under climate change.

  12. Increased reactive oxygen species levels cause ER stress and cytotoxicity in andrographolide treated colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Banerjee, Vivekjyoti; Czinn, Steven; Blanchard, Thomas

    2017-04-18

    Chemotherapy continues to play an essential role in the management of many cancers including colon cancer, the third leading cause of death due to cancer in the United States. Many naturally occurring plant compounds have been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer cell activity and have the potential to supplement existing chemotherapy strategies. The plant metabolite andrographolide induces cell death in cancer cells and apoptosis is dependent upon the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) leading to the unfolded protein response (UPR). The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which andrographolide induces ER stress and to further evaluate its role in promoting cell death pathways. The T84 and COLO 205 cancer cell lines were used to demonstrate that andrographolide induces increased ROS levels, corresponding anti-oxidant response molecules, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. No increases in ROS levels were detected in control colon fibroblast cells. Andrographolide-induced cell death, UPR signaling, and CHOP, Bax, and caspase 3 apoptosis elements were all inhibited in the presence of the ROS scavenger NAC. Additionally, andrographolide-induced suppression of cyclins B1 and D1 were also reversed in the presence of NAC. Finally, Akt phosphorylation and phospho-mTOR levels that are normally suppressed by andrographolide were also expressed at normal levels in the absence of ROS. These data demonstrate that andrographolide induces ER stress leading to apoptosis through the induction of ROS and that elevated ROS also play an important role in down-regulating cell cycle progression and cell survival pathways as well.

  13. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    . Each particle class undergoes distinct transformations of mineral matter at fluidized bed operating temperatures, as determined by using high temperature X-ray diffraction, thermo-mechanical analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For the incorporation of a particle size distribution, bottom ash from an operating plant was divided into four size intervals and the system granular temperatures and dynamic bed height were computed using MFIX, a CFD simulation software. The kinetic theory of granular flow was used to obtain a distribution of binary collision frequencies for the entire particle size distribution. With this distribution of collision frequencies, which is computed based on hydrodynamics and granular physics of the poly-disperse system, as the particles grow, defluidize and decrease in number, the collision frequency also decreases. Under the conditions studied, the growth rate in the latter half of the run decreased to almost 1/5th the initial rate, with this decrease in collision frequency. This interdependent effect of chemistry and physics-based parameters, at the particle-level, was used to predict the agglomerate growth probabilities of Pittsburgh No. 8, Illinois No. 6 and Skidmore anthracite coals in this study, to illustrate the utility of the modeling methodology. The study also showed that agglomerate growth probability significantly increased above 15 to 20 wt. % slag. It was limited by ash chemistry at levels below this amount. Ash agglomerates were generated in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor at Penn State to support the proposed agglomerate growth mechanism. This study also attempted to gain a mechanistic understanding of agglomerate growth with particle-level initiation occurring at the relatively low operating temperatures of about 950 °C, found in some fluidized beds. The results of this study indicated that, for the materials examined, agglomerate growth in fluidized bed

  14. Glycine facilitates gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester-mediated increase in liver glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1997-08-27

    gamma-Glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE) increases reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in GSH-depleted rat hepatocytes. Because glycine, a constituent of GSH, exists at 0.3 to 0.4 mM in rat plasma, we examined the influence of glycine added to the medium on the action of gamma-GCE to increase GSH levels in the rat hepatocytes. Glycine (0.2-0.8 mM) dose-dependently enhanced gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels with an increase in intracellular gamma-GCE levels. These results indicate that exogenous glycine facilitates gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels in rat hepatocytes possibly by enhancing the uptake of gamma-GCE into the cells.

  15. Irisin levels increase after treatment in patients with newly diagnosed Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uc, Z A; Gorar, S; Mizrak, S; Gullu, S

    2018-05-18

    Irisin is a newly identified myokine secreted by skeletal muscle and has significant effects on body metabolism. Thyroidal functional state has a profound influence on the metabolism of human body. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible changes in serum irisin concentrations before and after treatment in hypothyroid subjects. The study included 26 patients with overt hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto thyroiditis and 19 healthy subjects. Baseline serum thyroid function tests and presence of thyroid autoantibodies and levels of creatine kinase (CK) and irisin were measured in both groups. All measurements in the hypothyroid group were repeated after euthyroidism was achieved. Serum irisin levels were significantly lower in the hypothyroid groups than the control group (p treatment (p hypothyroid patients were treated to achieve euthyroidism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study providing insight that low serum irisin levels significantly increased following treatment to euthyroid state in overt hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Larger scale studies are needed to confirm these results and to ensure irisin as a possible biomarker of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  16. Increased CSF levels of phosphorylated neurofilament heavy protein following bout in amateur boxers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Neselius

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of mild TBI is hampered by the lack of imaging or biochemical measurements for identifying or quantifying mild TBI in a clinical setting. We have previously shown increased biomarker levels of protein reflecting axonal (neurofilament light protein and tau and glial (GFAP and S-100B damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after a boxing bout. The aims of this study were to find other biomarkers of mild TBI, which may help clinicians diagnose and monitor mild TBI, and to calculate the role of APOE ε4 allele genotype which has been associated with poor outcome after TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty amateur boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in a prospective cohort study. CSF and blood were collected at one occasion between 1 and 6 days after a bout, and after a rest period for at least 14 days (follow up. The controls were tested once. CSF levels of neurofilament heavy (pNFH, amyloid precursor proteins (sAPPα and sAPPβ, ApoE and ApoA1 were analyzed. In blood, plasma levels of Aβ42 and ApoE genotype were analyzed. RESULTS: CSF levels of pNFH were significantly increased between 1 and 6 days after boxing as compared with controls (p<0.001. The concentrations decreased at follow up but were still significantly increased compared to controls (p = 0.018. CSF pNFH concentrations correlated with NFL (r =  0.57 after bout and 0.64 at follow up, p<0.001. No significant change was found in the other biomarkers, as compared to controls. Boxers carrying the APOE ε4 allele had similar biomarker concentrations as non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Subconcussive repetitive trauma in amateur boxing causes a mild TBI that may be diagnosed by CSF analysis of pNFH, even without unconsciousness or concussion symptoms. Possession of the APOE ε4 allele was not found to influence biomarker levels after acute TBI.

  17. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Furuhashi

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level.Canagliflozin (100 mg/day was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39 for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment.At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008, though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7% out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044, HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044 and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041 but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables.Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2.UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151.

  18. Conventional hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass increases the serum lactate level in adult cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass on lactate level in adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Design: An observational study. Setting: Prince Sultan cardiac center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants: The study included 283 patients classified into two groups: Hemofiltration group (n=138, hemofiltration was done during CPB. Control group (n = 145, patients without hemofiltration. Interventions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements and Main Results: Monitors included hematocrit, lactate levels, mixed venous oxygen saturation, amount of fluid removal during hemofiltration and urine output. The lactate elevated in group H than group C (P < 0.05, and the PH showed metabolic acidosis in group H (P < 0.05. The mixed venous oxygen saturation decreased in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The number of transfused packed red blood cells was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The hematocrit was higher in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The urine output was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to hemoconcentration, elevated lactate level and increased inotropic support. There are some recommendations for hemofiltration: First; Hemofiltration should be limited for patients with impaired renal function, positive fluid balance, reduced response to diuretics or prolonged bypass time more than 2 hours. Second; Minimal amount of fluids should be administered to maintain adequate cardiac output and reduction of priming volumes is preferable to maintain controlled hemodilution. Third; it should be done before weaning of or after cardiopulmonary bypass and not during the whole time of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  19. Protection against UVA-induced photooxidative damage in mammalian cell lines expressing increased levels of metallothionein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, E.J.; Roth, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an endogenous low molecular weight protein that is inducible in a variety of eukaryotic cells and has the ability to selectivity bind heavy metal ions such as zinc and the cadmium. Although the exact physiological role of MT is still not understood, there is strong evidence that MT is involved in providing cellular resistance against the damaging effects of heavy metals and in the regulation of intracellular zinc and copper. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MT can scavenge radiation-induced reactive oxygen intermediates in vitro, specifically hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and because of these observations it has been suggested that MT may provide protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Cell lines expressing increased levels of MT have demonstrated resistance to ionizing radiation, to ultraviolet radiation, and also to various DNA damaging agents including melphalan and cis-diaminedichloroplatinum. It is therefore important to gain some insight into the relationship between cellular MT content and cellular resistance to radiation and other DNA damaging agents. In this study we investigated the role of MT in providing protection against monochromatic 365-nm UVA radiation, which is known to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species that are involved in both DNA damage and cell killing. For this purpose, we used zinc acetate, a potent inducer of MT, to elevate MT levels in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts prior to UVA exposure and determined cell survival for uninduced and induced cultures. In order to eliminate any zinc effects other than MT induction, we also isolated and characterized cadmium chloride-resistant clones of V79 cells that have increased steady-state levels of both MT mRNA and protein, and we examined their survival characteristics against 365-nm radiation in the absence of zinc acetate. 14 refs., 3 figs

  20. Can Increased CO2 Levels Trigger a Runaway Greenhouse on the Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R.

    2014-04-01

    Recent one-dimensional (globally averaged) climate model calculations suggest that increased atmospheric CO2 could conceivably trigger a runaway greenhouse if CO2 concentrations were approximately 100 times higher than today. The new prediction runs contrary to previous calculations, which indicated that CO2 increases could not trigger a runaway, even at Venus-like CO2 concentrations. Goldblatt et al. argue that this different behavior is a consequence of updated absorption coefficients for H2O that make a runaway more likely. Here, we use a 1-D cloud-free climate model with similar, up-to-date absorption coefficients, but with a self-consistent methodology, to demonstrate that CO2 increases cannot induce a runaway greenhouse on the modern Earth. However, these initial calculations do not include cloud feedback, which may be positive at higher temperatures, destabilizing Earth's climate. We then show new calculations demonstrating that cirrus clouds cannot trigger a runaway, even in the complete absence of low clouds. Thus, the habitability of an Earth-like planet at Earth's distance appears to be ensured, irrespective of the sign of cloud feedback. Our results are of importance to Earth-like planets that receive similar insolation levels as does the Earth and to the ongoing question about cloud response at higher temperatures.

  1. Increased circulating miR-21 levels are associated with kidney fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Glowacki

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNA acting at a post-transcriptional level to control the expression of large sets of target mRNAs. While there is evidence that miRNAs deregulation plays a causative role in various complex disorders, their role in fibrotic kidney diseases is largely unexplored. Here, we found a strong up-regulation of miR-21 in the kidneys of mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and also in the kidneys of patients with severe kidney fibrosis. In addition, mouse primary fibroblasts derived from fibrotic kidneys exhibited higher miR-21 expression level compared to those derived from normal kidneys. Expression of miR-21 in normal primary kidney fibroblasts was induced upon TGFβ exposure, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis. Finally, ectopic expression of miR-21 in primary kidney fibroblasts was sufficient to promote myofibroblast differentiation. As circulating miRNAs have been suggested as promising non-invasive biomarkers, we further assess whether circulating miR-21 levels are associated with renal fibrosis using sera from 42 renal transplant recipients, categorized according to their renal fibrosis severity, evaluated on allograft biopsies (Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy (IF/TA. Circulating miR-21 levels are significantly increased in patients with severe IF/TA grade (IF/TA grade 3: 3.0±1.0 vs lower grade of fibrosis: 1.5±1.2; p = 0.001. By contrast, circulating miR-21 levels were not correlated with other renal histological lesions. In a multivariate linear regression model including IF/TA grade and estimated GFR, independent associations were found between circulating miR-21 levels and IF/TA score (ß = 0.307, p = 0.03, and between miR-21 levels and aMDRD (ß = -0.398, p = 0.006. Altogether, these data suggest miR-21 has a key pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis and may represent a novel, predictive and reliable blood marker of kidney fibrosis.

  2. Is TB Testing Associated With Increased Blood Interferon-Gamma Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aideen E. Kennedy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Ireland reports a relatively low prevalence of Johne’s disease (JD compared to international counterparts. Postulated reasons for this include a lower average herd size and a grass-based production system. Ireland also engages in high levels of bovine tuberculosis (bTB testing. As interferon-gamma (IFN-γ is believed to play a key role in protecting against JD, it is our hypothesis that administration of purified protein derivative (PPD, as part of the bTB test, is associated with a systemic increase in IFN-γ production, which may potentially limit clinical progression of the disease. We studied 265 cows (202 Friesian and 63 “Non-Friesian,” e.g., JerseyX, Norwegian Red to assess IFN-γ levels and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP antibody response before and after the bTB test. As part of the compulsory annual bTB test, avian and bovine PPD were administered at two separate cervical sites. To assess IFN-γ production, blood samples were taken before and 72 h after PPD administration. MAP antibody response was assessed before and 10 days post-PPD administration. A significant increase in MAP antibody response was identified post-bTB compared to pre-bTB response (p < 0.001. Additionally, IFN-γ production significantly increased at the post-bTB time point (p < 0.001 compared to the pre-bTB test readings. This may indicate a beneficial effect of bTB testing in controlling JD.

  3. Influence of fatigue time and level on increases in postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Kevin M; Madigan, Michael L; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatigue time and fatigue level on the increases in postural sway during quiet standing. Centre of pressure-based measures of postural sway were collected both before and after fatiguing participants using three different fatigue levels and two different fatigue times. Results showed increasing fatigue time increased sway velocity and sway area, and increasing fatigue level increased sway velocity. Fatigue time effects are important to consider when applying laboratory-based findings to the field given that the fatigue time can differ substantially between the two. Fatigue level effects imply a dose - response relationship between localized muscle fatigue and risk of falling that can have important implications in work/rest cycle scheduling for occupations at risk of injurious falls.

  4. Carotenoid crystal formation in Arabidopsis and carrot roots caused by increased phytoene synthase protein levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Maass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As the first pathway-specific enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase (PSY is a prime regulatory target. This includes a number of biotechnological approaches that have successfully increased the carotenoid content in agronomically relevant non-green plant tissues through tissue-specific PSY overexpression. We investigated the differential effects of constitutive AtPSY overexpression in green and non-green cells of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. This revealed striking similarities to the situation found in orange carrot roots with respect to carotenoid amounts and sequestration mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Arabidopsis seedlings, carotenoid content remained unaffected by increased AtPSY levels although the protein was almost quantitatively imported into plastids, as shown by western blot analyses. In contrast, non-photosynthetic calli and roots overexpressing AtPSY accumulated carotenoids 10 and 100-fold above the corresponding wild-type tissues and contained 1800 and 500 microg carotenoids per g dry weight, respectively. This increase coincided with a change of the pattern of accumulated carotenoids, as xanthophylls decreased relative to beta-carotene and carotene intermediates accumulated. As shown by polarization microscopy, carotenoids were found deposited in crystals, similar to crystalline-type chromoplasts of non-green tissues present in several other taxa. In fact, orange-colored carrots showed a similar situation with increased PSY protein as well as carotenoid levels and accumulation patterns whereas wild white-rooted carrots were similar to Arabidopsis wild type roots in this respect. Initiation of carotenoid crystal formation by increased PSY protein amounts was further confirmed by overexpressing crtB, a bacterial PSY gene, in white carrots, resulting in increased carotenoid amounts deposited in crystals. CONCLUSIONS: The sequestration of carotenoids into crystals can be driven by the

  5. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  7. Predictors for increasing eligibility level among home help service users in the Japanese long-term care insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kuniyasu; Sasou, Kenji; Fujita, Makoto; Yamada, Sumio

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study described the prevalence of possible risk factors for increasing eligibility level of long-term care insurance in home help service users who were certified as support level 1-2 or care level 1-2 in Japan. Data were collected from October 2011 to November 2011. Variables included eligibility level, grip strength, calf circumference (CC), functional limitations, body mass index, memory impairment, depression, social support, and nutrition status. A total of 417 subjects (109 males and 308 females, mean age 83 years) were examined. There were 109 subjects with memory impairment. When divided by cut-off values, care level 2 was found to have higher prevalence of low grip strength, low CC, and depression. Some potentially modifiable factors such as muscle strength could be the risk factors for increasing eligibility level.

  8. Cofilin/Twinstar phosphorylation levels increase in response to impaired coenzyme a metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Siudeja

    Full Text Available Coenzyme A (CoA is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK, which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neurodegenerative disorder PKAN. However, the consequences of impaired PANK activity are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila and human neuronal cell cultures to show how PANK deficiency leads to abnormalities in F-actin organization. Cells with reduced PANK activity are characterized by abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin, a conserved actin filament severing protein. The increased levels of phospho-cofilin coincide with morphological changes of PANK-deficient Drosophila S2 cells and human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. The latter exhibit also markedly reduced ability to form neurites in culture--a process that is strongly dependent on actin remodeling. Our results reveal a novel and conserved link between a metabolic biosynthesis pathway, and regulation of cellular actin dynamics.

  9. Both experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase cardiac irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, E; Menevse, E; Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R

    2018-01-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered myokine and adipokine that increases total body energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the levels of irisin in heart tissue in rats. The study was performed on the 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental groups were designed as; Control, Hypothyroidism, Hypothyroidism+L-Thyroxine, Hyperthyroidism and Hyperthyroidism + PTU. Following 3 weeks experimental period, irisin levels were determined in heart tissues. Hypothyroidism group values of irisin were higher than in the control group, but lower than in the hyperthyroidism group. The hyperthyroidism group had the highest levels of cardiac irisin. The results of the study showed that the experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increased the heart irisin levels, but the increase in the hyperthyroidism group was much higher than in the hypothyroidism group. However, treatment of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism corrected cardiac irisin levels (Fig. 1, Ref. 28).

  10. Increasing seat belt use through state-level demonstration projects : a compendium of initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts and results from four of six State-level demonstration projects supported with cooperative agreements from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The projects were intended to increase seat belt use sta...

  11. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  12. Serum apolipoprotein e level is not increased in Alzheimer's disease : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, A.J.C.; Knijff, P. de; Hofman, A.; Cruts, M.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Broeckhoven, C. van; Havekes, L.M.; Duijn, C.M. van

    1998-01-01

    The APOE*4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in plasma are increased in Alzheimer's disease. In this population-based study, we found that serum apoE levels were lower in

  13. High LDL levels lead to increased synovial inflammation and accelerated ectopic bone formation during experimental osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munter, W. de; Bosch, M.H. van den; Sloetjes, A.W.; Croce, K.J.; Vogl, T.; Roth, J.; Koenders, M.I.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Berg, W.B. van den; Kraan, P.M. van der; Lent, P.L.E.M. van

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A relation between osteoarthritis (OA) and increased cholesterol levels is apparent. In the present study we investigate OA pathology in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-)(/-) mice with and without a cholesterol-rich diet, a model for high systemic low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.105 - What information must be included in an equivalent level of safety analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level.... Each analysis should describe potential reasonable worst case fire scenarios and their impact on the... and location of fuel items, space layout, building construction, openings and ventilation, suppression...

  15. Increased interleukin-11 levels in thoracic aorta and plasma from patients with acute thoracic aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Ye, Jing; Wang, Menglong; Wang, Yuan; Ji, Qingwei; Huang, Ying; Zeng, Tao; Wang, Zhen; Ye, Di; Jiang, Huimin; Liu, Jianfang; Lin, Yingzhong; Wan, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Interleukin (IL) 11 is closely related to tumor and hematological system diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that IL-11 also participates in cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion mediated heart injury and acute myocardial infarction. This study aimed to investigate whether IL-11 is involved in acute thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). Aortic tissue samples from normal donors and acute TAD patients were collected, and the expression of IL-11 in all aortic tissue was analyzed. In addition, blood samples from patients with chest pain were collected and divided into a non-AD (NAD) group and a TAD group according to the results of computed tomography angiography of the thoracic aorta. The plasma IL-11, IL-17 and interferon (IFN) γ in all blood samples were measured. Compared with aortic tissue of normal controls, IL-11 was significantly increased in aortic tissue of acute TAD patients, especially in the torn section. The IL-11 was derived from aorta macrophages in TAD. In addition, the plasma IL-11, IL-17 and IFN-γ were significantly higher in acute TAD patients than in NAD patients, and the correlation analysis showed that IL-11 levels were positively correlated with levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, glucose, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, white blood cells, C-reactive proteins and D-dimers. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that elevated IL11 in patients who may have diagnostic value of TAD, but less that D-dimer. IL-11 was increased in thoracic aorta and plasma of TAD patients and may be a promising biomarker for diagnosis in patients with TAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Ingestive behavior of grazing steers fed increasing levels of concentrate supplementation with different crude protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D Almeida; da Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento; Macedo, Venício; Abreu Filho, George; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Guimarães, Joanderson Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.

  17. Increased glucose levels are associated with episodic memory in nondiabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolandsson, Olov; Backeström, Anna; Eriksson, Sture; Hallmans, Göran; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of a reduction in cognitive function. We investigated the hypothesis that plasma glucose is associated with a reduction in episodic and/or semantic memory already in nondiabetic subjects. We linked two large population-based datasets in Sweden: the Betula study, in which a random sample from the population aged 35-85 years was investigated for cognitive function, including episodic and semantic memory; and the Västerbotten Intervention Program, a health survey with subjects aged 40, 50, and 60 years, that includes measuring of fasting and 2-h plasma glucose, along with other risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We identified 411 (179 men and 232 women, mean age 50.6 +/- 8.0 years) nondiabetic subjects, free from dementia, who had participated in the two surveys within 6 months. Women had better episodic (score 7.37 +/- 1.42) and semantic memory (score 16.05 +/- 2.76) than men (score 6.59 +/- 1.29 and 15.15 +/- 2.92, respectively, P glucose (fPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory (fPG: B -0.198, SE 0.068, beta -0.209, P = 0.004; and 2hPG: B -0.061, SE 0.031, beta -0.148, P = 0.048, respectively) in women but not in men. The association was not found in relation to semantic memory. We conclude that an increase in plasma glucose is associated with impairment in episodic memory in women. This could be explained by a negative effect on the hippocampus caused by raised plasma glucose levels.

  18. Increased serum levels of sortilin are associated with depression and correlated with BDNF and VEGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Demontis, Ditte; Ollendorff, Mathias Kaas

    2015-01-01

    measured by immunoassay, and potential determinants of the serum sortilin level were assessed by generalized linear models. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in previous studies. We identified a significant increase of serum...... sortilin levels in depressed individuals compared with controls (P = 0.0002) and significant positive correlation between serum sortilin levels and the corresponding levels of BDNF and VEGF. None of the genotyped SNPs were associated with depression. Additional analyses showed that the serum sortilin level...... was influenced by several other factors. Alcohol intake and body mass index, as well as depression, serum BDNF and serum VEGF were identified as predictors of serum sortilin levels in our final multivariate model. In conclusion, the results suggest a role of circulating sortilin in depression which may relate...

  19. Serum levels of polyamine synthesis enzymes increase in diabetic patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kenan Çelik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between diabetes and breast cancer and the detection of enzymes and ornithine levels in polyamine synthesis pathway in diabetes, breast cancer and diabetic breast cancer patients. Methods: Ornithine, arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase and agmatinase levels have been measured in serum of all groups. Ornithine levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase and agmatinase levels were determined by ELISA kits. Results: Except for the diabetic group, the levels of enzymes in the polyamine synthesis pathway were increased in all and statistically significant (P < 0.05. The increase in the levels of agmatinase was very important among the enzymes (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Decreased levels of polyamine synthase enzymes in diabetes mellitus were found to be increased patients with breast cancer. Whether and how diabetes-based breast cancer development relates to increase activity of enzymes responsible for polyamine synthesis requires further mechanistic and prospective monitoring studies in larger patient cohorts.

  20. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  1. Dynamics of entanglement of a three-level atom in motion interacting with two coupled modes including parametric down conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M. J.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Hatami, M.

    In this paper, a model by which we study the interaction between a motional three-level atom and two-mode field injected simultaneously in a bichromatic cavity is considered; the three-level atom is assumed to be in a Λ-type configuration. As a result, the atom-field and the field-field interaction (parametric down conversion) will be appeared. It is shown that, by applying a canonical transformation, the introduced model can be reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Under particular initial conditions, which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the time evolution of state vector of the entire system is analytically evaluated. Then, the dynamics of atom by considering ‘atomic population inversion’ and two different measures of entanglement, i.e., ‘von Neumann entropy’ and ‘idempotency defect’ is discussed, in detail. It is deduced from the numerical results that, the duration and the maximum amount of the considered physical quantities can be suitably tuned by selecting the proper field-mode structure parameter p and the detuning parameters.

  2. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danaë M A Rozendaal

    Full Text Available In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012. Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in

  3. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  4. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines) recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  5. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  6. Increased Heme Levels in the Heart Lead to Exacerbated Ischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Konrad Teodor; Shang, Meng; Wu, Rongxue; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Khechaduri, Arineh; Sato, Tatsuya; Kamide, Christine; Liu, Ting; Naga Prasad, Sathyamangla V; Ardehali, Hossein

    2015-07-31

    Heme is an essential iron-containing molecule for cardiovascular physiology, but in excess it may increase oxidative stress. Failing human hearts have increased heme levels, with upregulation of the rate-limiting enzyme in heme synthesis, δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2), which is normally not expressed in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that increased heme accumulation (through cardiac overexpression of ALAS2) leads to increased oxidative stress and cell death in the heart. We first showed that ALAS2 and heme levels are increased in the hearts of mice subjected to coronary ligation. To determine the causative role of increased heme in the development of heart failure, we generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ALAS2. While ALAS2 transgenic mice have normal cardiac function at baseline, their hearts display increased heme content, higher oxidative stress, exacerbated cell death, and worsened cardiac function after coronary ligation compared to nontransgenic littermates. We confirmed in cultured cardiomyoblasts that the increased oxidative stress and cell death observed with ALAS2 overexpression is mediated by increased heme accumulation. Furthermore, knockdown of ALAS2 in cultured cardiomyoblasts exposed to hypoxia reversed the increases in heme content and cell death. Administration of the mitochondrial antioxidant MitoTempo to ALAS2-overexpressing cardiomyoblasts normalized the elevated oxidative stress and cell death levels to baseline, indicating that the effects of increased ALAS2 and heme are through elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of these findings was supported by the finding of increased ALAS2 induction and heme accumulation in failing human hearts from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy compared to nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Heme accumulation is detrimental to cardiac function under ischemic conditions, and reducing heme in the heart may be a novel approach for protection against the

  7. Group-Level EEG-Processing Pipeline for Flexible Single Trial-Based Analyses Including Linear Mixed Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömer, Romy; Maier, Martin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2018-01-01

    Here we present an application of an EEG processing pipeline customizing EEGLAB and FieldTrip functions, specifically optimized to flexibly analyze EEG data based on single trial information. The key component of our approach is to create a comprehensive 3-D EEG data structure including all trials and all participants maintaining the original order of recording. This allows straightforward access to subsets of the data based on any information available in a behavioral data structure matched with the EEG data (experimental conditions, but also performance indicators, such accuracy or RTs of single trials). In the present study we exploit this structure to compute linear mixed models (LMMs, using lmer in R) including random intercepts and slopes for items. This information can easily be read out from the matched behavioral data, whereas it might not be accessible in traditional ERP approaches without substantial effort. We further provide easily adaptable scripts for performing cluster-based permutation tests (as implemented in FieldTrip), as a more robust alternative to traditional omnibus ANOVAs. Our approach is particularly advantageous for data with parametric within-subject covariates (e.g., performance) and/or multiple complex stimuli (such as words, faces or objects) that vary in features affecting cognitive processes and ERPs (such as word frequency, salience or familiarity), which are sometimes hard to control experimentally or might themselves constitute variables of interest. The present dataset was recorded from 40 participants who performed a visual search task on previously unfamiliar objects, presented either visually intact or blurred. MATLAB as well as R scripts are provided that can be adapted to different datasets.

  8. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Progranulin Cleavage Products, Granulins, Exacerbate TDP-43 Toxicity and Increase TDP-43 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Dominique A; Butler, Victoria J; Argouarch, Andrea R; Hsu, Tsung-Yuan; Mason, Amanda; Nakamura, Ayumi; McCurdy, Helen; Cox, David; Ng, Rachel; Pan, Gloria; Seeley, William W; Miller, Bruce L; Kao, Aimee W

    2015-06-24

    Mutations in the human progranulin gene resulting in protein haploinsufficiency cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions. Although progress has been made in understanding the normal functions of progranulin and TDP-43, the molecular interactions between these proteins remain unclear. Progranulin is proteolytically processed into granulins, but the role of granulins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease is unknown. We used a Caenorhabditis elegans model of neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy to specifically interrogate the contribution of granulins to the neurodegenerative process. Complete loss of the progranulin gene did not worsen TDP-43 toxicity, whereas progranulin heterozygosity did. Interestingly, expression of individual granulins alone had little effect on behavior. In contrast, when granulins were coexpressed with TDP-43, they exacerbated its toxicity in a variety of behaviors including motor coordination. These same granulins increased TDP-43 levels via a post-translational mechanism. We further found that in human neurodegenerative disease subjects, granulin fragments accumulated specifically in diseased regions of brain. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a toxic role for granulin fragments in a neurodegenerative disease model. These studies suggest that presence of cleaved granulins, rather than or in addition to loss of full-length progranulin, may contribute to disease in TDP-43 proteinopathies. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359315-14$15.00/0.

  10. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by endothelial cell damage, resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and various degrees of neurological and renal impairment caused by microvascular thrombi. It is rare in children and frequently follows a fatal course. TTP is divided into 2 types: one is inherited and associated with ADAMTS-13 gene mutations and the other is acquired and associated with anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies. The measurement of ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma, identification of ADAMTS-13 circulating inhibitor, anti-ADAMTS-13 IgG, and ADAMTS-13 gene sequencing are crucial to the diagnosis of TTP. Plasma exchanges are the first-line treatment for acquired TTP, combined with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Here, we describe the case of an adolescent patient with TTP, confirmed by decreased level of ADAMTS-13 activity and an increased level of ADAMTS-13 inhibitor, who was successfully treated by plasma exchanges.

  11. Effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy on laying hens in barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Ku; Park, Seong Bok; Jeon, Jin Joo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Ki Tae; Kim, Sang Ho; Hong, Eui Chul; Kim, Chan Ho

    2018-04-12

    This experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing levels of apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) on the laying performance, egg quality, blood parameter, blood biochemistry, intestinal morphology, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to laying hens. A total of three-hundred twenty 33-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were evenly assigned to four experimental diets of 2,750, 2,850, 2,950, and 3,050 kcal AMEn/kg in floor with deep litter of rice hulls. There were four replicates of each treatment, each consisting of 20 birds in a pen. AMEn intake was increased (linear, p Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved (linear, p hen-day egg production tended to be increased as increasing level of AMEn in diets increased. During the experiment, leukocyte concentration and blood biochemistry (total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, total protein, calcium, asparate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were not influenced by increasing level of AMEn in diets. Gross energy and ether extract were increased (linear, p hens fed high AMEn diet (i.e., 3,050 kcal/kg in the current experiment) tended to overconsume energy with a positive effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology but not in egg production and egg mass.

  12. Bioaugmentation of soil contaminated with high-level crude oil through inoculation with mixed cultures including Acremonium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ding, Ning; Peterson, Eric Charles

    2015-06-01

    Heavy contamination of soil with crude oil has caused significant negative environmental impacts and presents substantial hazards to human health. To explore a highly efficient bioaugmentation strategy for these contaminations, experiments were conducted over 180 days in soil heavily contaminated with crude oil (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with four treatments comprised of Bacillus subtilis inoculation with no further inoculation (I), or reinoculation after 100 days with either B. subtilis (II), Acremonium sp.(III), or a mixture of both organisms (IV). The removal values of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 60.1 ± 2.0, 60.05 ± 3.0, 71.3 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 2.7 % for treatment (I-IV), respectively. Treatments (III-IV) significantly enhanced the soil bioremediation compared with treatments (I-II) (p oil heavy fractions. Dehydrogenase activity in treatment (III-IV) containing Acremonium sp. showed a constant increase until the end of experiments. Therefore reinoculation with pure fungus or fungal-bacterial consortium should be considered as an effective strategy in bioaugmentation for soil heavily contaminated with crude oil.

  13. Low-molecular weight heparin increases circulating sFlt-1 levels and enhances urinary elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Hagmann

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Preeclampsia is a devastating medical complication of pregnancy which leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. While the etiology of preeclampsia is unclear, human and animal studies suggest that excessive circulating levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine-kinase-1 (sFlt-1, an alternatively spliced variant of VEGF-receptor1, contribute to the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. Since sFlt-1 binds to heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, we hypothesized that the anticoagulant heparin, which is often used in pregnancy, may interfere with the levels, distribution and elimination of sFlt-1 in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We systematically determined serum and urine levels of angiogenic factors in preeclamptic women before and after administration of low molecular weight heparin and further characterized the interaction with heparin in biochemical studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum and urine samples were used to measure sFlt-1 levels before and after heparin administration. Serum levels of sFlt-1 increased by 25% after heparin administration in pregnant women. The magnitude of the increase in circulating sFlt-1 correlated with initial sFlt-1 serum levels. Urinary sFlt-1 levels were also elevated following heparin administration and levels of elimination were dependent on the underlying integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Biochemical binding studies employing cation exchange chromatography revealed that heparin bound sFlt-1 had decreased affinity to negatively charged surfaces when compared to sFlt-1 alone. CONCLUSION: Low molecular weight heparin administration increased circulating sFlt1 levels and enhanced renal elimination. We provide evidence that both effects may be due to heparin binding to sFlt1 and masking the positive charges on sFlt1 protein.

  14. Enteral nutrition increases interstitial brain glucose levels in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois J; Beer, Ronny; Gaasch, Maxime; Rhomberg, Paul; Stover, John; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2018-03-01

    Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition. Sixty-three interventions were analyzed. The mean amount of EN per intervention was 472.4 ± 10.7 kcal. CMD-glucose levels significantly increased from 1.59 ± 0.13 mmol/l at baseline to a maximum of 2.03 ± 0.2 mmol/l after 5 h (p  40) and the microdialysis probe location. The increase in CMD-glucose was directly dependent on the magnitude of increase of serum glucose levels (p = 0.007). No change in CMD-lactate, CMD-pyruvate, CMD-LPR, or CMD-glutamate (p > 0.4) was observed. Routine EN also increased CMD-glucose even if baseline concentrations were critically low ( < 0.7 mmol/l, neuroglucopenia; p < 0.001). These results may have treatment implications regarding glucose management of poor-grade aneurysmal SAH patients.

  15. Core design experience of WWER-440 reactors when they working on increased power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeev, V.; Panov, A.; Melenchuk, I.

    2015-01-01

    The Kola NPP continues commercial operation of 2nd generation fuel (FA-2) and trial operation of 3rd generation fuel (FA-3), which has a number of design features providing the best operational characteristics. This report gives the results of VVER-440 core operation with FA-2 and FA-3 with enrichment increased up to 4.87%, and at the power level uprated to 107% of nominal power level. Brief analysis of obtained data is carried out. Peculiarities and techniques of developing loading patterns with new types of nuclear fuel for operation at the uprated power level are reviewed. (authors)

  16. Respiratory Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) levels increase during lung maturation and infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H; End, C; Weiss, C

    2007-01-01

    .0179). An increase of respiratory DMBT1 levels was detected in neonatal infections (P ...Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds and aggregates various bacteria and viruses in vitro. Studies in adults have shown that DMBT1 is expressed mainly by mucosal epithelia and glands, in particular within the respiratory...... tract, and plays a role in innate immune defence. We hypothesized that respiratory DMBT1 levels may be influenced by various developmental and clinical factors such as maturity, age and bacterial infection. DMBT1 levels were studied in 205 tracheal aspirate samples of 82 ventilated preterm and full...

  17. Modelling the increased frequency of extreme sea levels in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta due to sea level rise and other effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, S; Caesar, J; Wolf, J; Bricheno, L; Nicholls, R J; Saiful Islam, A K M; Haque, A; Pardaens, A; Lowe, J A

    2015-07-01

    Coastal flooding due to storm surge and high tides is a serious risk for inhabitants of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta, as much of the land is close to sea level. Climate change could lead to large areas of land being subject to increased flooding, salinization and ultimate abandonment in West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh. IPCC 5th assessment modelling of sea level rise and estimates of subsidence rates from the EU IMPACT2C project suggest that sea level in the GBM delta region may rise by 0.63 to 0.88 m by 2090, with some studies suggesting this could be up to 0.5 m higher if potential substantial melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet is included. These sea level rise scenarios lead to increased frequency of high water coastal events. Any effect of climate change on the frequency and severity of storms can also have an effect on extreme sea levels. A shelf-sea model of the Bay of Bengal has been used to investigate how the combined effect of sea level rise and changes in other environmental conditions under climate change may alter the frequency of extreme sea level events for the period 1971 to 2099. The model was forced using atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions derived from climate model projections and the future scenario increase in sea level was applied at its ocean boundary. The model results show an increased likelihood of extreme sea level events through the 21st century, with the frequency of events increasing greatly in the second half of the century: water levels that occurred at decadal time intervals under present-day model conditions occurred in most years by the middle of the 21st century and 3-15 times per year by 2100. The heights of the most extreme events tend to increase more in the first half of the century than the second. The modelled scenarios provide a case study of how sea level rise and other effects of climate change may combine to produce a greatly increased threat to life and property in the GBM delta by the end

  18. Relationship between increased serum tumor necrosis factor levels and insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weimin; Li Jinliang; Huang Yongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with essential by pertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α and free insulin (fINS)levels were measured with RIA in 41 patients with essential hypertension and 38 controls. Insulin resistance was calculated with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: The serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with essential hypertension than those in the controls (P<0.001). The HOMA-IR was also significantly higher in hypertension group than that in controls (P<0.001). Serum TNF-α levels was positively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and SBP both in hypertension group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α level was increased in hypertensive patients and positively correlated with obesity and IR. (authors)

  19. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW......, especially plant protein, on insulin sensitivity and kidney function. In paper II, the aim of the study was to assess the effect after one year of a higher protein intake on kidney function, measured by in creatinine clearance. This was investigated in pre-diabetic older adults based on a sub-group of 310...... pre-diabetic individuals included in the PREVIEW RCT. We found that a higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in urea to creatinine ratio and serum urea after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular...

  20. Apelin-13 increased food intake with serum ghrelin and leptin levels in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saral, S; Alkanat, M; Sumer, A; Canpolat, S

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explain the role of apelin-13 on body weight, food and water intake with serum leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptid Y (NPY) and peptid YY (PYY) levels in male rat. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were used for the study. The rats were injected SP (0.9 %) intraperitoneally (i.p) in the control group and 30 (AP30), 100 (AP100) and 300 (AP300) µg/kg apelin-13 in the study groups, respectively, 10 min before the transition to dark period, for 10 days. During the experimental period, with light and dark periods of food and water intake, body weights were recorded in rats. Rats were euthanized and serum samples were obtained. In serum samples leptin, ghrelin, NPY and PYY levels were measured with specific ELISA kit. Apelin-13 was increased body weights in all three (AP30, AP100 and AP300) groups compared with the control group. AP100 and AP300 groups had increased food intake in the dark and the cumulative period, but in the light period food intake values were not significantly increased (p > 0.05). As for the value of water intake, compared with the control group, all dose of apelin-13 increased water intake during the dark and the cumulative period. There was no significant change in water intake in the light period. On the other hand, compared with the control group, serum leptin levels were found to increase in the groups administered 100 and 300 µg/kg of apelin-13 (p Ghrelin levels were found high in all groups treated with apelin-13. Serum levels of NPY decreased only in the 300 µg/kg apelin-13 treated group (p 0.05). Apelin-13 increases body weight in rats as well as food and water intake (dark and cumulative period). Additionally, ghrelin can mediate the orexigenic effect of apelin-13 in the regulation of food intake (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  1. Respirometry increases cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: implications for measurements of metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, L.; Rennie, M. D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the extent to which chasing, handling and confining Oncorhynchus mykiss to a small respirometer chamber during respirometric experiments is stressful and affects metabolic measurements. The study observed increased cortisol levels in animals tested using a chase protocol...

  2. Increased osteopontin plasma levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with bone-specific markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, M.H.J.; ten Kate, J.; Drent, R.J.M.; Polman, C.H.; Hupperts, R.

    2010-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine osteopontin has been found to be highly expressed in multiple sclerosis lesions and plasma levels are increased during relapses in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis patients. The objective was to determine the relationship between osteopontin plasma and cerebrospinal

  3. Pioglitazone treatment increases spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion and stimulated GH levels in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Støving, René Klinkby; Hagen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low GH levels, probably due to insulin resistance and increased abdominal fat mass, are well described in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). GH acts as an important ovarian cogonadotropin, and GH disturbances may be an additional pathogenic factor in PCOS. Decreased abdominal fat mass...

  4. Acceptability and storage stability of pork products with increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Krol, B.

    1980-01-01

    Several batches of back bacon, belly bacon, Dutch-style cervelat sausage, pork loin roll, shoulder with fat, Bologna, Guelders ring sausage, Saxon liver sausage and luncheon meat were produced with increasing PUFA-levels using raw materials containing up to 30% linoleic acid in their fats. Only

  5. Epalrestat increases intracellular glutathione levels in Schwann cells through transcription regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epalrestat (EPS, approved in Japan, is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Here we report that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH, which is important for protection against oxidative injury, through transcription regulation. Treatment of Schwann cells with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. EPS increased the mRNA levels of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, the enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in regulating the expression of γ-GCS. ELISA revealed that EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels. Knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, pretreatment with EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2, tert-butylhydroperoxide, 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride, and menadione, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting against oxidative stress. This is the first study to show that EPS induces GSH biosynthesis via the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has new beneficial properties that may prevent the development and progression of disorders caused by oxidative stress.

  6. Elevated levels of homocysteine increase IL-6 production in monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, B. E.; Jansen, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if exposure of monocytic cells to increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) induces the accumulation of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin (IL)-6 production by monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6

  7. Modeling Effectiveness of Gradual Increases in Source Level to Mitigate Effects of Sonar on Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Wensveen, P.J.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.; Tyack, P.L.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Ramp-up or soft-start procedures (i.e., gradual increase in the source level) are used to mitigate the effect of sonar sound on marine mammals, although no one to date has tested whether ramp-up procedures are effective at reducing the effect of sound on marine mammals. We investigated the

  8. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  9. Increased DHT levels in androgenic alopecia have been selected for to protect men from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Shiva

    2014-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia, a condition characterized by increased levels of DHT could have been selected for due to the benefits that prostaglandin D2 (PGD(2)) has on the prostate. A DHT metabolite can increase the transcription of prostaglandin D2 synthase through estrogen receptor beta. The increase of PGD(2) can decrease the risk of prostate cancer and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Therefore, the mechanisms behind male pattern baldness may also curtail the advancement of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased 5-hydroxymethylation levels in the sub ventricular zone of the Alzheimer's brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mastroeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subventricular zone (SVZ is a site of neurogenesis in the aging brain, and epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in regulating the “normal” distribution of new nerve cells into the existing cellular milieu. In a case-control study of human primary SVZ cultures and fixed tissue from the same individuals, we have found significant increases in DNA hydroxymethylation levels in the SVZ of Alzheimer's disease patients compared with nondiseased control subjects. We show that this increase in hydroxymethylation directly correlates to an increase in cellular proliferation in Alzheimer's disease precursor cells, which implicates the hydroxymethylation tag to a higher degree of cellular proliferation.

  11. Increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women correlates to hygiene level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cendrowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis, particularly among women in Europe and North America, has a multifactorial aetiology. Method: The aim of the current study was to ascertain the relation between the hygiene level and occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in Poland. The study was based on a large cohort of 14,200 multiple sclerosis individuals (male – 6,106, female – 8,094 who died in the years 1981–2010 in Poland. The female to male ratio (the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group was calculated using the number of deaths per year. The rate of late mortality in infants (LMI per 1,000 live births yearly was used as a marker of the hygiene level. A correlation analysis was carried out between the rate of LMI and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis cohort in the years 1981–2010. Demographic data were obtained from the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw. Results: The F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group evidently increased (range 1.08–1.79 in the years 1981–2010, showing increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women (p < 0.0001. A significant, strong and inverse correlation was found between the marker of the hygiene level (LMI rate and the F:M ratio in the multiple sclerosis group over three decades: linear correlation coefficient by Pearson: r = –0.693, p < 0.0001. By contrast with this result, no correlation was established between the hygiene level marker and proportion of women to men in the general population on account of extremely low variance of the F:M ratio (0.000025. Conclusion: The improvement of the hygiene level showed association with the increasing occurrence of multiple sclerosis in women in the years 1981–2010. The higher the hygiene level was, the greater the occurrence of female multiple sclerosis in Poland.

  12. Increased levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts pretreated with sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.I.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Pretreatment of growing normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) human fibroblasts with sodium butyrate at concentrations of 5-20 mM results in increased levels of DNA repair synthesis measured by autoradiography after exposure of the cells to 254 nm UV radiation in the fluence range 0-25 J/m 2 . The phenomenon manifests as an increased extent and an increased initial rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). This experimental result is not due to an artifact of autoradiography related to cell size. Xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, D and E and XP variant cells all exhibit increases in the levels of UV-induced UDS in response to sodium butyrate proportional to those observed with normal cells. These UDS increases associated with butyrate pretreatment correlate with demonstrable changes in intracellular thymidine pool size and suggest that sodium butyrate enhances uptake of exogenous radiolabeled thymidine during UV-induced repair synthesis by reducing endogenous levels of thymidine. (author)

  13. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Montalvo

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  14. Increased serological cancer-associated biomarker levels at large bowel endoscopy and risk of subsequent primary cancer (†)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolris, Martin H; Piper, Thomas B; Hammer, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frequently, subjects offered colonoscopy due to symptoms of colorectal neoplasia are diagnosed with diverticula. The symptoms may, however, also be related to extra-colonic neoplasia. The present retrospective study evaluated a possible association between increased levels of predefined...... biomarkers in subjects diagnosed with diverticula and risk of developing a primary malignant disease. Methods: During 2004/2005, about 4509 subjects were included in a multicenter study with collection of blood samples before bowel endoscopy. The aim was to evaluate a relation between the protein biomarkers...... was calculated. The relation with the four biomarkers was divided into three groups: 0 = none increased; 1 = one increased and 2 = two or more increased. Results: In the observation period, 148 subjects developed a primary malignant disease. Univariable analyzes of the biomarker levels showed that CEA, TIMP-1...

  15. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  16. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-09-08

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0-10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Which Exercise Is Better for Increasing Serum Testosterone Levels in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kyun Yeo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the correlations of serum total testosterone (TT levels with body composition and physical fitness parameters in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED to know the best exercise for testosterone deficiency. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven ED patients underwent serum TT assessment as well as body composition and basic exercise testing. The bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess body composition. Seven types of basic exercise tests were used to determine physical fitness. Correlations between serum TT levels and body composition/physical function parameters were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. A serum TT cut-off value was obtained for the parameters significantly correlated with serum TT levels. Results: The subjects had a mean serum TT level of 342.1 ng/dL. Among the body composition parameters, body and abdominal fat percentages showed statistically significant negative correlations with serum TT levels. Among the basic exercise test parameters, only the cycle ergometer test for cardiorespiratory fitness showed a statistically significant positive correlation with serum TT levels. Conclusions: Serum TT levels in patients with ED, may be increased by reducing fat percentage and improving cardiorespiratory fitness via aerobic exercise.

  18. Low oxygen level increases proliferation and metabolic changes in bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuki, Shogo; Hara, Tomotaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-05

    The present study addresses molecular backgrounds underlying low oxygen induced metabolic changes and 1.2-fold change in bovine granulosa cell (GCs) proliferation. RNA-seq revealed that low oxygen (5%) upregulated genes associated with HIF-1 and glycolysis and downregulated genes associated with mitochondrial respiration than that in high oxygen level (21%). Low oxygen level induced high glycolytic activity and low mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Low oxygen level enhanced GC proliferation with high expression levels of HIF-1, VEGF, AKT, mTOR, and S6RP, whereas addition of anti-VEGF antibody decreased cellular proliferation with low phosphorylated AKT and mTOR expression levels. Low oxygen level reduced SIRT1, whereas activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol increased mitochondrial replication and decreased cellular proliferation with reduction of phosphorylated mTOR. These results suggest that low oxygen level stimulates the HIF1-VEGF-AKT-mTOR pathway and up-regulates glycolysis, which contributes to GC proliferation, and downregulation of SIRT1 contributes to hypoxia-associated reduction of mitochondria and cellular proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased serum level of prolactin is related to autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Li, Q; Yang, X; Li, M

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is known to aid effector B cells and augment autoimmunity, but the role of PRL in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of PRL and autoantibody production in SLE. Blood levels of PRL, anti-double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) antibody, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in samples from 30 adult patients with SLE and 25 healthy controls. The relationships between the serum level of PRL and SLE disease activity, as well as the titres of the ds-DNA antibody, IgM and IgG were determined. The serum level of PRL was higher in the SLE patients than in the healthy controls. PRL concentration increased during SLE flares-ups and decreased following disease remission. There was a positive correlation between the PRL concentration and serum levels of IgM, IgG and ds-DNA antibody titre. These data suggest that the serum level of PRL was closely related to the antibody production and disease activity of SLE patients. PRL concentration was dramatically reduced upon the remission of disease activity, indicating that PRL levels might be a promising predictor of SLE disease severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. [Increased oxidized LDL cholesterol levels in peritoneal fluid of women with advanced-stage endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Mazurek, Diana; Rogala, Ewelina; Nowicka, Aldona; Derewianka-Polak, Magdalena; Kotarski, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Proinflammatory and prooxidative environment in the peritoneal cavity may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Imbalance between reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant capacity leads to oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). The importance of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) in the development of atherosclerosis is well recognized. The aim of our study was to evaluate for the presence of ox-LDL in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with and without endometriosis. A total of 60 women who underwent laparoscopy were divided into groups: endometriosis sufferers with minimal to mild (n 20) and moderate to severe (n 20) stages, and the reference group (n 20) with functional follicle ovarian cysts. Oxidized LDL levels were determined in the PF using enzyme immunoassay Oxidized LDL levels were detectable in all peritoneal fluid samples. Significantly increased levels of ox-LDL were observed in PF of women with stage III/IV endometriosis compared to the reference group (p = 0.03). However peritoneal fluid ox-LDL concentrations did not differ significantly between patients with minimal/mild and women with moderate/severe stage of the disease (p = 0.2). No significant difference in the PF ox-LDL concentrations was also found between women with stage I/II endometriosis and patients with follicle cysts (p = 0.3). Increased peritoneal fluid ox-LDL levels observed in women with advanced-stage endometriosis suggest the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  1. Cigarette smoking increases radon working level exposures to all occupants of the smoker's home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H. Jr.; Rosario, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the 1988 National Academy of Sciences report on radon health risks evaluated the combined effects of radon exposures and cigarettes on the lung cancer risk to smokers. This report showed that the risk of lung cancer is about 10 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers at the same Working Level exposures. In 1986, the Surgeon General reported that 106,000 lung cancer deaths occurred among smokers. Therefore, the health risks of cigarettes alone or in combination with radon exposures are well recognized. What has not been studied is the effect of cigarette smoke on the Working Levels in homes that increases the exposure to radon decay products to all occupants, both smokers and nonsmokers. Preliminary studies in a radon chamber at Radon QC showed that the smoke from a single cigarette increased the Working Levels by a factor of five within four hours. Furthermore, the Working Levels remained at an elevated level for more than 24 hours. The equilibrium ratio of radon decay products to radon gas also went from about 14% up to 71%, with a slow decrease over 24 hours. Similar studies in the homes of a smoker and nonsmoker confirmed the laboratory observations. The studies in homes also showed the effects of thoron decay products

  2. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  3. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  4. Increased sorbitol levels in the hypertrophic ligamentum flavum of diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaquan; Huang, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Zeng, Zhaoxun; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Zhongzu; Pan, Zhimin; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hikata, Tomohiro; Iwanami, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Cao, Kai

    2017-05-01

    The pathomechanism of the ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy in diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) remains unclear. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of LF hypertrophy in these patients. Twenty-four diabetic and 20 normoglycemic patients with LSCS were enrolled in the study. The structure of the LF in the study subjects was evaluated using histological and immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the fibrogenic factor, TGF-β1, in the LF were analyzed. In vitro experiments were performed using NIH3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate the effect of high-glucose conditions and an aldose reductase inhibitor on the cellular production of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1. We found that the LF of diabetic patients exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-β1 and of CD68-positive staining than that of the normoglycemic subjects. The diabetic LF was significantly thicker than that of the controls, and showed evidence of degeneration. The high glucose-cultured fibroblasts exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1 compared to the low glucose-cultured cells, and these levels were dose-dependently reduced by treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggests that increased sorbitol levels in the LF of diabetic patients results in increased production of pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic factor, which contribute to LF hypertrophy, and could increase the susceptibility of diabetic patients to LSCS. Furthermore, aldose reductase inhibition effectively reduced the levels of sorbitol and sorbitol-induced pro-inflammatory factor expression in high glucose-cultured fibroblasts. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1058-1066, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM or vehicle for 1day (acute or 7 days (chronic. RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05. Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  6. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  7. Suramin Inhibits Osteoarthritic Cartilage Degradation by Increasing Extracellular Levels of Chondroprotective Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanalaris, Anastasios; Doherty, Christine; Marsden, Brian D; Bambridge, Gabriel; Wren, Stephen P; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease for which no disease-modifying drugs are currently available. Attempts to treat the disease with small molecule inhibitors of the metalloproteinases that degrade the cartilage matrix have been hampered by a lack of specificity. We aimed to inhibit cartilage degradation by augmenting levels of the endogenous metalloproteinase inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3, through blocking its interaction with the endocytic scavenger receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We discovered that suramin (C 51 H 40 N 6 O 23 S 6 ) bound to TIMP-3 with a K D value of 1.9 ± 0.2 nM and inhibited its endocytosis via LRP1, thus increasing extracellular levels of TIMP-3 and inhibiting cartilage degradation by the TIMP-3 target enzyme, adamalysin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5. NF279 (8,8'-[carbonyl bis (imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis -1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid hexasodium salt), a structural analog of suramin, has an increased affinity for TIMP-3 and increased ability to inhibit TIMP-3 endocytosis and protect cartilage. Suramin is thus a promising scaffold for the development of novel therapeutics to increase TIMP-3 levels and inhibit cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  8. Interventions to increase tuberculosis case detection at primary healthcare or community-level services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhimbira, Francis A; Cuevas, Luis E; Dacombe, Russell; Mkopi, Abdallah; Sinclair, David

    2017-11-28

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is usually diagnosed when symptomatic individuals seek care at healthcare facilities, and healthcare workers have a minimal role in promoting the health-seeking behaviour. However, some policy specialists believe the healthcare system could be more active in tuberculosis diagnosis to increase tuberculosis case detection. To evaluate the effectiveness of different strategies to increase tuberculosis case detection through improving access (geographical, financial, educational) to tuberculosis diagnosis at primary healthcare or community-level services. We searched the following databases for relevant studies up to 19 December 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library, Issue 12, 2016; MEDLINE; Embase; Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index; BIOSIS Previews; and Scopus. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. Randomized and non-randomized controlled studies comparing any intervention that aims to improve access to a tuberculosis diagnosis, with no intervention or an alternative intervention. Two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We compared interventions using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included nine cluster-randomized trials, one individual randomized trial, and seven non-randomized controlled studies. Nine studies were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe), six in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Nepal, and Pakistan), and two in South America (Brazil and Colombia); which are all high tuberculosis prevalence areas.Tuberculosis outreach

  9. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0–10) was reduced to zer...

  10. Smoking is associated with increased levels of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in the lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Friberg Bruun Nielsen, Michael; Quisgaard Gaunsbaek, Maria

    2015-01-01

    lavage (BAL) fluid from smokers, but intracellularly located PAD cannot be responsible for citrullination of extracellular self-antigens. We aimed to establish a link between smoking and extracellular PAD2 in the lungs. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were obtained from 13 smokers and 11 nonsmoking controls...... fluids from smokers as compared to non-smokers (p=0.018). The PAD2 content correlated with the overall CRP levels (p=0.009) and cell count (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This first demonstration of increased levels of extracellular PAD2 in the lungs of smokers supports the hypothesis that smoking promotes...

  11. Clusterin levels are increased in Alzheimer's disease and influence the regional distribution of Aβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, J Scott; Clarke, Polly; Love, Seth

    2017-05-01

    Clusterin, also known as apoJ, is a lipoprotein abundantly expressed within the CNS. It regulates Aβ fibril formation and toxicity and facilitates amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier. Genome-wide association studies have shown variations in the clusterin gene (CLU) to influence the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore whether clusterin modulates the regional deposition of Aβ, we measured levels of soluble (NP40-extracted) and insoluble (guanidine-HCl-extracted) clusterin, Aβ40 and Aβ42 by sandwich ELISA in brain regions with a predilection for amyloid pathology-mid-frontal cortex (MF), cingulate cortex (CC), parahippocampal cortex (PH), and regions with little or no pathology-thalamus (TH) and white matter (WM). Clusterin level was highest in regions with plaque pathology (MF, CC, PH and PC), approximately mirroring the regional distribution of Aβ. It was significantly higher in AD than controls, and correlated positively with Aβ42 and insoluble Aβ40. Soluble clusterin level rose significantly with severity of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and in MF and PC regions was highest in APOE ɛ4 homozygotes. In the TH and WM (areas with little amyloid pathology) clusterin was unaltered in AD and did not correlate with Aβ level. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of clusterin and the regional levels of insoluble Aβ42; however, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 declined with insoluble Aβ42 level in a region-dependent manner, being lowest in regions with predilection for Aβ plaque pathology. Under physiological conditions, clusterin reduces aggregation and promotes clearance of Aβ. Our findings indicate that in AD, clusterin increases, particularly in regions with most abundant Aβ, but because the increase does not match the rising level of Aβ42, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 in those regions falls, probably contributing to Aβ deposition within the tissue. © 2016

  12. Datasets will not be made accessible to the public due to the fact that they include household level data with PII.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Datasets will not be made accessible to the public due to the fact that they include household level data with PII. This dataset is not publicly accessible because:...

  13. The Common Inhalational Anesthetic Sevoflurane Induces Apoptosis and Increases β-Amyloid Protein Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Guohua; Zhang, Bin; Moir, Robert D.; Xia, Weiming; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Culley, Deborah J.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of sevoflurane, the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic, on apoptosis and β-amyloid protein (Aβ) levels in vitro and in vivo. Subjects: Naive mice, H4 human neuroglioma cells, and H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein. Interventions: Human H4 neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length amyloid precursor protein were exposed to 4.1% sevoflurane for 6 hours. Mice received 2.5% sevoflurane for 2 hours. Caspase-3 activation, apoptosis, and Aβ levels were assessed. Results: Sevoflurane induced apoptosis and elevated levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme and Aβ in vitro and in vivo. The caspase inhibitor Z-VAD decreased the effects of sevoflurane on apoptosis and Aβ. Sevoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation was attenuated by the γ-secretase inhibitor L-685,458 and was potentiated by Aβ. These results suggest that sevoflurane induces caspase activation which, in turn, enhances β-site amyloid precursor protein–cleaving enzyme and Aβ levels. Increasedlevels then induce further rounds of apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane may promote Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. If confirmed in human subjects, it may be prudent to caution against the use of sevoflurane as an anesthetic, especially in those suspected of possessing excessive levels of cerebral Aβ. PMID:19433662

  14. Benefits and costs of increased levels of corticosterone in seabird chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Kitaiskaia, E.V.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seabird chicks respond to food shortages by increasing corticosterone (cort) secretion, which is probably associated with fitness benefits and costs. To examine this, we experimentally increased levels of circulating cort in captive black-legged kittiwake chicks fed ad libitum. We found that cort-implanted chicks begged more frequently and were more aggressive compared to controls. These behavioral modifications must be beneficial to chicks as they facilitate acquisition of food from the parents and might trigger brood reduction and reduced competition for food. Cort-implanted chicks also increased food intake; however, their growth rates were similar to controls. To examine the costs of chronically increased circulating levels of cort, we removed cort implants and, after a 10-day recovery period, tested cognitive abilities of young kittiwakes. We found that the ability of kittiwakes to associate a visual cue with the presence of food in a choice situation was compromised by the experimental elevation of cort during development. To examine the long-term costs of increased levels of cort, 8 months later we tested the performance of the same individuals in a spatial task requiring them to make a detour around a barrier in order to escape from an enclosure. Individuals treated with cort during development took significantly more time to solve this task compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that the adrenocortical response of a developing bird to environmental stressors is associated with both benefits (increased food intake, foraging behavior, and aggression) and costs (low growth efficiency and compromised cognitive abilities later in life). This provides an evolutionary framework for relating juvenile physiological traits to fitness of birds in subsequent life-history stages. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  15. Widespread recent increases in county-level heart disease mortality across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam S; Ritchey, Matthew D; Hannan, Judy; Kramer, Michael R; Casper, Michele

    2017-12-01

    Recent national trends show decelerating declines in heart disease mortality, especially among younger adults. National trends may mask variation by geography and age. We examined recent county-level trends in heart disease mortality by age group. Using a Bayesian statistical model and National Vital Statistics Systems data, we estimated overall rates and percent change in heart disease mortality from 2010 through 2015 for four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years) in 3098 US counties. Nationally, heart disease mortality declined in every age group except ages 55-64 years. County-level trends by age group showed geographically widespread increases, with 52.3%, 58.5%, 69.1%, and 42.0% of counties experiencing increases with median percent changes of 0.6%, 2.2%, 4.6%, and -1.5% for ages 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years, respectively. Increases were more likely in counties with initially high heart disease mortality and outside large metropolitan areas. Recent national trends have masked local increases in heart disease mortality. These increases, especially among adults younger than age 65 years, represent challenges to communities across the country. Reversing these trends may require intensification of primary and secondary prevention-focusing policies, strategies, and interventions on younger populations, especially those living in less urban counties. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  17. Loss of laforin or malin results in increased Drp1 level and concomitant mitochondrial fragmentation in Lafora disease mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Agarwal, Saloni; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2017-04-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive form of a fatal disorder characterized by the myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, psychosis, dementia, and dysarthria. A hallmark of LD is the presence of abnormal glycogen inclusions called Lafora bodies in the affected tissues including the neurons. LD can be caused by defects either in the laforin phosphatase coded by the EPM2A gene or in the malin E3 ubiquitin ligase coded by the NHLRC1 gene. The mouse models of LD, created by the targeted disruption of the LD genes, display several neurodegenerative changes. Prominent among them are the autophagic defects, abnormally large lysosomes, neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid beta deposits, and abnormal mitochondria. However, whether or not such neurodegenerative changes are a direct effect of the loss of laforin/malin was not unequivocally established. Here, we show that laforin- or malin-deficient neurons and fibroblasts display a significantly higher number of fragmented mitochondria. Loss of laforin or malin resulted in increased levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase Drp1, its enhanced mitochondrial targeting, and increased intracellular calcium levels. Intriguingly, laforin and malin display opposite effects on the cellular level of parkin, an ubiquitin ligase of Drp1; loss of laforin led to reduced levels of parkin while the loss of malin resulted in increased parkin levels. Laforin and malin, however, interact with and positively regulate the activity of parkin, thus explaining the molecular basis of increased Drp1 levels in LD tissues. Our results suggest that laforin and malin are novel regulators of mitochondrial quality control pathway and that the mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the increased Drp1 levels could underlie neuropathology in LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling caspian sea water level oscilLations Under Diffrent Scenarioes of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GholamReza Roshan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in thecoastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was stimulated. Variations in environmentalparameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, tmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for bothpast (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software(version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17ºC per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increasedby ca. +36 mm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64ºC and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin,temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78ºC and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels projectfuture water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  19. Protein synthesis levels are increased in a subset of individuals with Fragile X syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Pacini, Laura; Jønch, Aia E

    2018-01-01

    architecture and plasticity. Preclinical studies revealed that pharmacological interventions restore those deficits, which are thought to mediate the FXS cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Here we characterized the de novo rate of protein synthesis in patients with FXS and their relationship with clinical...... severity. We measured the rate of protein synthesis in fibroblasts derived from 32 individuals with FXS and from 17 controls as well as in fibroblasts and primary neurons of 27 Fmr1 KO mice and 20 controls. Here we show that levels of protein synthesis are increased in fibroblasts of individuals with FXS...... and Fmr1 KO mice. However, this cellular phenotype displays a broad distribution and a proportion of fragile X individuals and Fmr1 KO mice do not show increased levels of protein synthesis, having measures in the normal range. Because the same Fmr1 KO animal measures in fibroblasts predict those...

  20. High Circulating Adrenaline Levels at Admission Predict Increased Mortality After Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär Ingemar; Stensballe, Jakob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, hematology, biochemistry, circulating adrenaline and noradrenaline, 11 biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage, glycocalyx degradation, natural anticoagulation and fibrinolysis (histone-complexed DNA fragments, high-mobility group box 1......:: The adrenaline level was increased in nonsurvivors (p = 0.026), it was independently associated with increased activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.034) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.007), a marker of glycocalyx degradation, and it correlated with biomarkers of tissue and endothelial damage (histone......-complexed DNA, high-mobility group box 1, soluble thrombomodulin) and hyperfibrinolysis (tissue-type plasminogen activator, d-dimer). Furthermore, nonsurvivors had higher syndecan-1, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and d-dimer levels (all p adrenaline was independently associated with 30...

  1. Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis induces decreased prolificacy and increased progesterone levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Orihuela-Trujillo, Agustín; Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Murcia-Mejía, Clara; Bielli, Alejandro; Hoffman, Kurt L; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván

    2016-10-15

    Reproductive alterations in hosts infected by parasites have been recognized in several phyla, especially in arthropods and mollusks, but it has been less studied in higher vertebrates, particularly in mammals. In the present study, ten eight week-old female New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were either infected with Taenia pisiformis eggs or uninfected, and 7 weeks later they were mated. We found that serum progesterone levels were increased during pregnancy in infected does. At birth, litter size of infected does was reduced by half as compared to the control group, and, at weaning, the number of kits and the weight of litters was lower. Since serum progesterone levels have a key role in the maintenance of pregnancy and implantation, we propose that the observed prolificacy alterations in does infected with T. pisiformis infection were due to changes in the levels of circulating progesterone during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased Prolactin Levels Are Associated with Impaired Processing Speed in Subjects with Early Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects w...

  3. Increasing children's physical activity levels during recess periods in elementary schools: the effects of providing game equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Stefanie J M; Cardon, Greet M; De Clercq, Dirk L R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M M

    2006-08-01

    During recess, children can be active on a daily basis, making it an important school environmental factor for the promotion of health-related physical activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of providing game equipment on children's physical activity levels during morning recess and lunch break in elementary schools. Seven elementary schools were randomly assigned to the intervention group (four schools), including 122 children (75 boys, 47 girls, mean age: 10.8 +/- 0.6 years), and to the control group (three schools), including 113 children (46 boys, 67 girls, mean age: 10.9 +/- 0.7 years). Children's activity levels were measured before and three months after providing game equipment, using MTI accelerometers. During lunch break, children's moderate and vigorous physical activity significantly increased in the intervention group (moderate: from 38 to 50%, vigorous: from 10 to 11%), while it decreased in the control group (moderate: from 44 to 39%, vigorous: from 11 to 5%). At morning recess, providing game equipment was effective in increasing children's moderate physical activity (from 41 to 45%), while it decreased in the control group (from 41 to 34%). Providing game equipment during recess periods was found to be effective in increasing children's physical activity levels. This finding suggests that promoting physical activity through game equipment provision during recess periods can contribute to reach the daily activity levels recommended for good health.

  4. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity.

  5. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  6. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina eSorwell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  7. Specific Increase of Protein Levels by Enhancing Translation Using Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Upstream Open Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Shen, Wen; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-01-01

    A number of diseases are caused by low levels of key proteins; therefore, increasing the amount of specific proteins in human bodies is of therapeutic interest. Protein expression is downregulated by some structural or sequence elements present in the 5' UTR of mRNAs, such as upstream open reading frames (uORF). Translation initiation from uORF(s) reduces translation from the downstream primary ORF encoding the main protein product in the same mRNA, leading to a less efficient protein expression. Therefore, it is possible to use antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to specifically inhibit translation of the uORF by base-pairing with the uAUG region of the mRNA, redirecting translation machinery to initiate from the primary AUG site. Here we review the recent findings that translation of specific mRNAs can be enhanced using ASOs targeting uORF regions. Appropriately designed and optimized ASOs are highly specific, and they act in a sequence- and position-dependent manner, with very minor off-target effects. Protein levels can be increased using this approach in different types of human and mouse cells, and, importantly, also in mice. Since uORFs are present in around half of human mRNAs, the uORF-targeting ASOs may thus have valuable potential as research tools and as therapeutics to increase the levels of proteins for a variety of genes.

  8. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Niskanen, Leo; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Viinamäki, Heimo; Hintikka, Jukka; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Harvima, Ilkka T; Lehto, Soili M

    2012-01-09

    Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS) are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th)-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in MDD. We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN)-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58). In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use). The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22) or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23). Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK) pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS), could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  9. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca [Biology Department, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6 (Canada); Braune, Birgit M. [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Robertson, Gregory J. [Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Division, 6 Bruce Street, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador A1N 4T3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H. Grant [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Conor D. [Chemistry Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Forbes, Mark R. [Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, Regina [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 512 Lahr Boulevard, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador A0P 1C0 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health.

  10. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Elli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4±2.3/1.0±1.4, 10.2±6.7/2.2±3.0 and 3.7±2.7/1.3±1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism.

  11. Antisense oligonucleotides targeting translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs can selectively increase protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hong; Shen, Wen; Wang, Shiyu; Yao, Joyee; Migawa, Michael T; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Damle, Sagar S; Riney, Stan; Graham, Mark J; Crooke, Rosanne M; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-09-19

    A variety of diseases are caused by deficiencies in amounts or activity of key proteins. An approach that increases the amount of a specific protein might be of therapeutic benefit. We reasoned that translation could be specifically enhanced using trans-acting agents that counter the function of negative regulatory elements present in the 5' UTRs of some mRNAs. We recently showed that translation can be enhanced by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that target upstream open reading frames. Here we report the amount of a protein can also be selectively increased using ASOs designed to hybridize to other translation inhibitory elements in 5' UTRs. Levels of human RNASEH1, LDLR, and ACP1 and of mouse ACP1 and ARF1 were increased up to 2.7-fold in different cell types and species upon treatment with chemically modified ASOs targeting 5' UTR inhibitory regions in the mRNAs encoding these proteins. The activities of ASOs in enhancing translation were sequence and position dependent and required helicase activity. The ASOs appear to improve the recruitment of translation initiation factors to the target mRNA. Importantly, ASOs targeting ACP1 mRNA significantly increased the level of ACP1 protein in mice, suggesting that this approach has therapeutic and research potentials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamish Elliott, Kyle; Cesh, Lillian S.; Dooley, Jessica A.; Letcher, Robert J.; Elliott, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent contaminants often vary widely among individuals within a population. We hypothesized that such variation was caused mainly by differences in diet (biomagnification) and in coastal systems by the tendency of marine systems to act as contaminant sinks. We examined the relationship between contaminant concentrations and stable isotope ratios in nestling plasma from an apex predator with a particularly broad diet. Our study included freshwater, estuarine, inshore and pelagic breeding sites. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the pelagic marine sites showed high trophic level and marine input, eagles at the freshwater sites showed low trophic level and marine input, and eagles at the estuarine and inshore marine sites had intermediate values. The relationship between trophic level and marine input may reflect longer food chains in pelagic compared to terrestrial ecosystems. ΣPCBs and DDE concentrations generally increased with trophic level and marine input, with the exception of the freshwater sites, while ΣPBDEs, hydroxylated-PBDEs and hydroxylated-PCBs increased with marine input, but were independent of trophic level. The relationships for ΣPCBs and DDE were often slightly stronger with marine input than trophic level, suggesting that oceanographic processes may be more important than trophic level. At freshwater locations, spatial variation may be more important than trophic level due to the heterogeneity of contaminant profiles between feeding locations (lakes, rivers, agricultural fields). Adults had similar isotopic composition to their chicks but higher contamination. Based on nests where prey composition was determined independently, isotopic enrichment values for nestling plasma were 1.6 ± 0.1 (δ 15 N) and - 0.4 ±0.2 (δ 13 C). We conclude that trophic level and marine influence are significant factors influencing PCB and DDE concentrations in eagles. However, trophic level in particular did not influence PBDEs

  13. Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jenny C; Chen, Xuqi; Prien, Christopher; Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Oda, Michael N; Arnold, Arthur P; Reue, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying sex differences in dyslipidemia are poorly understood. We aimed to distinguish genetic and hormonal regulators of sex differences in plasma lipid levels. We assessed the role of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on lipid levels using the four core genotypes mouse model (XX females, XX males, XY females, and XY males). In gonadally intact mice fed a chow diet, lipid levels were influenced by both male-female gonadal sex and XX-XY chromosome complement. Gonadectomy of adult mice revealed that the male-female differences are dependent on acute effects of gonadal hormones. In both intact and gonadectomized animals, XX mice had higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than XY mice, regardless of male-female sex. Feeding a cholesterol-enriched diet produced distinct patterns of sex differences in lipid levels compared with a chow diet, revealing the interaction of gonadal and chromosomal sex with diet. Notably, under all dietary and gonadal conditions, HDL-C levels were higher in mice with 2 X chromosomes compared with mice with an X and Y chromosome. By generating mice with XX, XY, and XXY chromosome complements, we determined that the presence of 2 X chromosomes, and not the absence of the Y chromosome, influences HDL-C concentration. We demonstrate that having 2 X chromosomes versus an X and Y chromosome complement drives sex differences in HDL-C. It is conceivable that increased expression of genes escaping X-inactivation in XX mice regulates downstream processes to establish sexual dimorphism in plasma lipid levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Experimental increase in baseline corticosterone level reduces oxidative damage and enhances innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC hormones are significant regulators of homeostasis. The physiological effects of GCs critically depend on the time of exposure (short vs. long as well as on their circulating levels (baseline vs. stress-induced. Previous experiments, in which chronic and high elevation of GC levels was induced, indicate that GCs impair both the activity of the immune system and the oxidative balance. Nonetheless, our knowledge on how mildly elevated GC levels, a situation much more common in nature, might influence homeostasis is limited. Therefore, we studied whether an increase in GC level within the baseline range suppresses or enhances condition (body mass, hematocrit and coccidian infestation and physiological state (humoral innate immune system activity and oxidative balance. We implanted captive house sparrows Passer domesticus with either 60 days release corticosterone (CORT or control pellets. CORT-treated birds had elevated baseline CORT levels one week after the implantation, but following this CORT returned to its pre-treatment level and the experimental groups had similar CORT levels one and two months following the implantation. The mass of tail feathers grown during the initial phase of treatment was smaller in treated than in control birds. CORT implantation had a transient negative effect on body mass and hematocrit, but both of these traits resumed the pre-treatment values by one month post-treatment. CORT treatment lowered oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde and enhanced constitutive innate immunity at one week and one month post-implantation. Our findings suggest that a relatively short-term (i.e. few days elevation of baseline CORT might have a positive and stimulatory effect on animal physiology.

  15. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  16. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  17. Low Adiponectin Levels and Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Pedersen, Sune H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake...... 5.3-6.1]) 6% (n = 38) developed T2DM. Risk of T2DM was analyzed using a competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Low adiponectin levels were associated with increased risk of T2DM (P age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, current smoking.......001). Importantly, plasma adiponectin added to the predictive value of blood glucose, with the combination of high blood glucose and low plasma adiponectin, vastly increasing the risk of developing T2DM (HR 9.6 [3.7-25.3]; P

  18. Increasing energy efficiency level of building production based on applying modern mechanization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Building industry in a present day going through the hard times. Machine and mechanism exploitation cost, on a field of construction and installation works, takes a substantial part in total building construction expenses. There is a necessity to elaborate high efficient method, which allows not only to increase production, but also to reduce direct costs during machine fleet exploitation, and to increase its energy efficiency. In order to achieve the goal we plan to use modern methods of work production, hi-tech and energy saving machine tools and technologies, and use of optimal mechanization sets. As the optimization criteria there are exploitation prime cost and set efficiency. During actual task-solving process we made a conclusion, which shows that mechanization works, energy audit with production juxtaposition, prime prices and costs for energy resources allow to make complex machine fleet supply, improve ecological level and increase construction and installation work quality.

  19. Zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, is increased in association with liver enzymes in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Heo, Ju Sun; Baek, Kyung Suk; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Jung Hyun; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Ki Eun; Sheen, Youn Ho

    2018-06-01

    Zonulin is acknowledged as the only physiological mediator established to reversibly regulate intestinal permeability through modulation of intercellular tight junctions. We aimed to determine whether there are differences in zonulin levels between 74 subjects with overweight or obesity and 76 with normal-weight and to assess correlations of circulating zonulin levels with anthropometric measures and obesity-related biomarkers. We assessed anthropometric and laboratory measures, including body mass index (BMI) z-score, blood pressure, liver enzymes, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance. Serum zonulin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of the participants was 12.8 ± 1.5 years. Circulating serum zonulin levels were significantly increased in subjects with overweight/obesity compared with those of normal-weight (P = 0.03). Zonulin levels were significantly and positively associated with BMI z-score, alanine aminotransferase levels, triglyceride, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (all P zonulin levels in adolescents with overweight or obesity (P zonulin levels in this subgroup analysis (P = 0.06). Serum zonulin is a biomarker associated with hepatic metabolic disturbances in young adolescents with overweight or obesity. The positive relationship suggests a potentially relevant pathophysiological mechanism linking zonulin to hepatic metabolism in this age group of young adolescents with overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  1. Correlation between increasing tissue ischemia and circulating levels of angiogenic growth factors in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Juho; Hautero, Olli; Maksimow, Mikael; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2018-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to assess the circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other suggested therapeutic growth factors with the degree of ischemia in patients with different clinical manifestations of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) according to the Rutherford grades. The study cohort consists of 226 consecutive patients admitted to a Department of Vascular Surgery for elective invasive procedures. PAD patients were grouped according to the Rutherford grades after a clinical assessment. Ankle-brachial pressure indices (ABI) and absolute toe pressure (TP) values were measured. Serum levels of circulating VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured from serum and analysed against Rutherford grades and peripheral hemodynamic measurements. The levels of VEGF (P = 0.009) and HGF (P correlations between Rutherford grades was detected as follows; VEGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.183, P = 0.004), HGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.253, P Pearson's correlation = 0.169, P = 0.008) and PDGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.296, P correlation with ABI (Pearson's correlation -0.19, P = 0.009) and TP (Pearson's correlation -0.20, P = 0.005) measurements. Our present observations show that the circulating levels of VEGF and other suggested therapeutic growth factors are significantly increased along with increasing ischemia. These findings present a new perspective to anticipated positive effects of gene therapies utilizing VEGF, HGF, and bFGF, because the levels of these growth factors are endogenously high in end-stage PAD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing phylogenetic resolution at low taxonomic levels using massively parallel sequencing of chloroplast genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronn Richard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular evolutionary studies share the common goal of elucidating historical relationships, and the common challenge of adequately sampling taxa and characters. Particularly at low taxonomic levels, recent divergence, rapid radiations, and conservative genome evolution yield limited sequence variation, and dense taxon sampling is often desirable. Recent advances in massively parallel sequencing make it possible to rapidly obtain large amounts of sequence data, and multiplexing makes extensive sampling of megabase sequences feasible. Is it possible to efficiently apply massively parallel sequencing to increase phylogenetic resolution at low taxonomic levels? Results We reconstruct the infrageneric phylogeny of Pinus from 37 nearly-complete chloroplast genomes (average 109 kilobases each of an approximately 120 kilobase genome generated using multiplexed massively parallel sequencing. 30/33 ingroup nodes resolved with ≥ 95% bootstrap support; this is a substantial improvement relative to prior studies, and shows massively parallel sequencing-based strategies can produce sufficient high quality sequence to reach support levels originally proposed for the phylogenetic bootstrap. Resampling simulations show that at least the entire plastome is necessary to fully resolve Pinus, particularly in rapidly radiating clades. Meta-analysis of 99 published infrageneric phylogenies shows that whole plastome analysis should provide similar gains across a range of plant genera. A disproportionate amount of phylogenetic information resides in two loci (ycf1, ycf2, highlighting their unusual evolutionary properties. Conclusion Plastome sequencing is now an efficient option for increasing phylogenetic resolution at lower taxonomic levels in plant phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. With continuing improvements in sequencing capacity, the strategies herein should revolutionize efforts requiring dense taxon and character sampling

  3. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  4. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  5. Increasing levels of crude protein in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplements with differents levels of crude protein (CP or mineral supplements on the nutritional parameters and performance of beef heifers grazing Uruchloa decumbens in the rainy season. A complete random design was employed. The treatments were made up of increasing levels of CP in the multiple supplements and a control treatment (MM in which animals were offered only mineral mixture. Multiple supplements contained 17; 30; 43 and 56% of CP, for treatments CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG (g was 447.7; 554.6; 638.4; 587.9; 590.4, for treatments MM, CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. A quadratic effect of the levels of crude protein was found (p< 0.10 on ADG. A greater intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, ether extract (EE, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN, and digested dry matter (p< 0.10 was found in animals supplemented with multiple supplements. Multiple supplements increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, EE and NFC. Supply of multiple multiple supplements for heifers grazing in medium to high quality pastures in the rainy season improves the performance of the animals.

  6. Unemployment levels after the global financial crisis linked to increase in suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    The 2008 global economic crisis appears to have triggered an increase in suicides, particularly among men in Europe and America. To investigate the impact of the economic crisis on international trends in suicide, researchers conducted an analysis comparing the number of suicides in 2009 with the number that would have been expected based on trends before the crisis (2000-2007). The analysis included data from 54 countries.

  7. On the increase of predictive performance with high-level data fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Smilde, A.K.; Hageman, J.A.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Eeuwijk, F.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The combination of the different data sources for classification purposes, also called data fusion, can be done at different levels: low-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices, medium-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices after feature selection and high-level, i.e. combining model outputs. In this paper the predictive performance of high-level data fusion is investigated. Partial least squares is used on each of the data sets and dummy variables representing the classes are used as response variables. Based on the estimated responses y-hat j for data set j and class k, a Gaussian distribution p(g k |y-hat j ) is fitted. A simulation study is performed that shows the theoretical performance of high-level data fusion for two classes and two data sets. Within group correlations of the predicted responses of the two models and differences between the predictive ability of each of the separate models and the fused models are studied. Results show that the error rate is always less than or equal to the best performing subset and can theoretically approach zero. Negative within group correlations always improve the predictive performance. However, if the data sets have a joint basis, as with metabolomics data, this is not likely to happen. For equally performing individual classifiers the best results are expected for small within group correlations. Fusion of a non-predictive classifier with a classifier that exhibits discriminative ability lead to increased predictive performance if the within group correlations are strong. An example with real life data shows the applicability of the simulation results.

  8. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  9. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  10. Can treatment of nocturia increase testosterone level in men with late onset hypogonadism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-04-01

    To assess the effect of desmopressin on serum testosterone level in men with nocturia and late onset hypogonadism. We prospectively enrolled men with nocturia and symptoms of late onset hypogonadism. Desmopressin (0.1 mg) was administered once daily to patients for 12 weeks, and we then compared serum testosterone levels, electrolytes, frequency volume chart indices, and changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function, and Aging Male's Symptom scales before and after treatment. Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or hyponatremia, those using hypnotics, and those who had primary hypogonadism or hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were excluded from the study. Sixty-two men (mean age, 68.4 years) completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaires and underwent laboratory testing. At the end of the study, the testosterone levels in men with low testosterone levels (treatment (2.85 ± 0.58 to 3.97 ± 1.44 ng/mL; P = .001). Mean scores had decreased from 17.7 to 13.9 (IPSS), 3.8 to 3.2 (IPSS-Quality of Life), and 33.7 to 31.1 (Aging Male's Symptom). On the frequency volume chart, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, actual number of nocturia events, nocturia index, and nocturnal bladder capacity index were significantly decreased. Desmopressin improved nocturia and other urinary symptoms. Moreover, serum testosterone levels increased significantly in men with low testosterone levels after 12-week desmopressin treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spondylolisthesis adjacent to a cervical disc arthroplasty does not increase the risk of adjacent level degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, David Christopher; Cawley, Derek Thomas; Roscop, Cecile; Mazas, Simon; Coudert, Pierre; Boissiere, Louis; Obeid, Ibrahim; Vital, Jean-Marc; Pointillart, Vincent; Gille, Olivier

    2018-03-31

    To understand whether a spondylolisthesis in the sub-axial spine cranial to a cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) construes a risk of adjacent level disease (ALD). A retrospective review of 164 patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up of a cervical disc arthroplasty was performed. Multi-level surgeries, including hybrid procedures, were included. Multiple implant types were included. The two inter-vertebral discs (IVD) cranial of the CDA were monitored for evidence of radiologic degeneration using the Kettler criteria. The rate of ALD in CDA found in this series was 17.8%, with most affecting the immediately adjacent IVD (27.4 and 7.6%, respectively p = 0.000). Pre-operative mild spondylolisthesis adjacent to a planned CDA was not found to be a risk factor for ALD within 5 years. Those with a degenerative spondylolisthesis are at higher risk of ALD (33%) than those with a non-degenerative cause for their spondylolisthesis (11%). Post-operative CDA alignment, ROM or induced spondylolisthesis do not affect the rate of ALD in those with an adjacent spondylolisthesis. Patients with ALD experience significantly worse 5-year pain and functional outcomes than those unaffected by ALD. A pre-operatively identified mild spondylolisthesis in the sub-axial spine cranially adjacent to a planned CDA is not a risk factor for ALD within 5 years. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  12. Using a Music Video Parody to Promote Breastfeeding and Increase Comfort Levels Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Erin L; Beadle, Julie; Lukeman, Sionnach; Lukeman, Ellen; Aquino, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    North Americans are not meeting the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations. Young adults understand that breastfeeding is healthy but are uncomfortable seeing breastfeeding. Research aim: The aim of the current project was to determine if a music video parody promoting breastfeeding is perceived by young adults to be an effective means of promotion and if exposure to such a video could increase comfort levels. Young adults rated how comfortable they felt looking at breastfeeding and bottle-feeding images (pretest). Two months later, a subset of participants watched the music video parody "Breastfeeding My Baby." In Phase 1, participants completed the picture-rating task again (posttest) after a 2-month delay, plus a survey to assess memory and perception of the video. In Phase 2, participants were reminded of the video before completing the comfort ratings, and in the final phase, posttest measures were administered only 1 week after exposure to the video. Across all phases, the video was perceived to be effective and was memorable. Breastfeeding comfort ratings were comparable at pretest across participant groups; comfort ratings improved at posttest for participants who saw the video but only if they were reminded of seeing it before providing their ratings. At shorter intervals between seeing the video and completing the posttests, comfort ratings for breastfeeding images increased for all participants, highlighting the general importance of exposure to breastfeeding. Young adults are receptive to using a music video parody to promote breastfeeding, which can help to increase comfort levels with breastfeeding.

  13. Adaptive Capacity Mapping of Semarang Offshore Territory by the Increasing of Water Level and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifan Ridlo Suhelm

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tidal inundation, flood and land subsidence are the problems faced by Semarang city related to climate change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC predicted the increase of sea level rise 18-59 cm during 1990-2100 while the temperature increase 0,6°C to 4°C during the same period. The Semarang coastal city was highly vulnerable to sea level rise and it increased with two factors, topography and land subsidence. The purpose of this study was to map the adaptive capacity of coastal areas in the face of the threat of disasters caused by climate change. The parameters used are Network Number, Employee based educational background, Source Main Livelihoods, Health Facilities, and Infrastructure Road. Adaptive capacity of regions classified into 3 (three classes, namely low, medium and high. The results of the study showed that most of the coastal area of Semarang have adaptive capacities ranging from low to moderate, while the village with low capacity totaling 58 villages (58.62% of the total coastal district in the city of Semarang.

  14. Kaempferol increases levels of coenzyme Q in kidney cells and serves as a biosynthetic ring precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Del-Río, Lucía; Nag, Anish; Gutiérrez Casado, Elena; Ariza, Julia; Awad, Agape M; Joseph, Akil I; Kwon, Ohyun; Verdin, Eric; de Cabo, Rafael; Schneider, Claus; Torres, Jorge Z; Burón, María I; Clarke, Catherine F; Villalba, José M

    2017-09-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant essential in cellular physiology. Patients with Q deficiencies, with few exceptions, seldom respond to treatment. Current therapies rely on dietary supplementation with Q 10 , but due to its highly lipophilic nature, Q 10 is difficult to absorb by tissues and cells. Plant polyphenols, present in the human diet, are redox active and modulate numerous cellular pathways. In the present study, we tested whether treatment with polyphenols affected the content or biosynthesis of Q. Mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial (Tkpts) cells and human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK 293) were treated with several types of polyphenols, and kaempferol produced the largest increase in Q levels. Experiments with stable isotope 13 C-labeled kaempferol demonstrated a previously unrecognized role of kaempferol as an aromatic ring precursor in Q biosynthesis. Investigations of the structure-function relationship of related flavonols showed the importance of two hydroxyl groups, located at C3 of the C ring and C4' of the B ring, both present in kaempferol, as important determinants of kaempferol as a Q biosynthetic precursor. Concurrently, through a mechanism not related to the enhancement of Q biosynthesis, kaempferol also augmented mitochondrial localization of Sirt3. The role of kaempferol as a precursor that increases Q levels, combined with its ability to upregulate Sirt3, identify kaempferol as a potential candidate in the design of interventions aimed on increasing endogenous Q biosynthesis, particularly in kidney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heparin-induced increase in serum levels of aminotranferases. A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H K; Husted, S E; Koopmann, H D; Fasting, H; Simonsen, O; Andersen, K; Husegaard, H C; Petersen, T K

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-four patients over the age of 40 years, undergoing elective surgery of at least one hour's duration, were randomized to treatment with either a thromboembolic deterrent ( TED ) stocking (Kendall Co.) or subcutaneous low-dose heparin 5 000 IU every 12 hours. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (S-ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (S-ASAT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (S-gamma-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (S-ALP) were measured. S-ALAT increased significantly on the 5th and 10th postoperative day, from 27 +/- 2 (x +/- SE) to 40 +/- 4 (p less than 0.01) and 55 +/- 7 U/l (p less than 0.001), respectively, in the heparin group and was significantly higher in the heparin than in the TED group both on the 5th (p less than 0.01) and 10th (p less than 0.05) postoperative day. S-ASAT and S-gamma-GT increased significantly during heparin treatment, but did not differ significantly from the values of the TED group. No change in S-ALP was registered in either group. It is concluded that prophylactic treatment with low-dose heparin induces a significant increase in S-aminotransferase levels, especially in S-ALAT. The phenomenon has profound differential diagnostic implications in conditions such as pulmonary embolism and acute myocardial infarction.

  16. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; de Oliveira, Camila Andrea; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Background The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. Results LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. Conclusion GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. PMID:28678925

  17. Music stimuli lead to increased levels of nitrite in unstimulated mixed saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Luyuan; Zhang, Mengbi; Xu, Junji; Xia, Dengsheng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jingsong; Wang, Songlin

    2018-06-15

    Concentration of salivary nitrate is approximately 10-fold to that of serum. Many circumstances such as acute stress could promote salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. However, whether other conditions can also be used as regulators of salivary nitrate/nitrite has not yet been explored. The present study was designed to determine the influence of exposure to different music on the salivary flow rate and nitrate secretion and nitrite formation. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females and 12 males) were exposed to silence, rock music, classical music or white noise respectively on four consecutive mornings. The unstimulated salivary flow rate and stimulated salivary flow rate were measured. Salivary ionic (Na + , Ca 2+ Cl - , and PO 4 3- ) content and nitrate/nitrite levels were detected. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly increased after classical music exposure compared to that after silence. Salivary nitrite levels were significantly higher upon classical music and white noise stimulation than those under silence in females. However, males were more sensitive only to white noise with regard to the nitrite increase. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that classical music stimulation promotes salivary nitrite formation and an increase in saliva volume was observed. These observations may play an important role in regulating oral function.

  18. Increase of {sup 210}Po levels in human semen fluid after mussel ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.co [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Programs in Environmental Science and Marine Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gouvea, Rita de Cassia dos Santos [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Radiometry-LARARA-PLS, Universidade Federal Fluminense, P.O.Box 100.436, 24001-970 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) radioactive concentrations were determined in human semen fluid of vasectomized non-smoker volunteers. The {sup 210}Po levels ranged from 0.10 to 0.39 mBq g{sup -1} (mean: 0.23 {+-} 0.08 mBq g{sup -1}). This value decreased to 0.10 {+-} 0.02 mBq g{sup -1} (range from 0.07 to 0.13 mBq g{sup -1}) after two weeks of a controlled diet, excluding fish and seafood. Then, volunteers ate during a single meal 200 g of the cooked mussel Perna perna L., and {sup 210}Po levels were determined again, during ten days, in semen fluid samples collected every morning. Volunteers continued with the controlled diet and maintained sexual abstinence through the period of the experiment. A 300% increase of {sup 210}Po level was observed the day following mussel consumption, with a later reduction, such that the level returned to near baseline by day 4.

  19. IL-33 circulating serum levels are increased in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Mario; Cicero, Francesca; Mannucci, Carmen; Calapai, Gioacchino; Spatari, Giovanna; Barbuzza, Olga; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-09-01

    IL-33 is a recently identified cytokine, encoded by the IL-33 gene, which is a member of the IL-1 family that drives the production of T-helper-2 (Th-2)-associated cytokines. Serum levels of IL-33 have been reported to be up-regulated in various T-helper (Th)-1/Th-17-mediated diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel. To investigate whether cytokine imbalance plays a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, we performed a case-control association study by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of IL-33 in our patients. IL-33 serum levels were measured by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay technique in patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo and compared with those of healthy controls. IL-33 serum levels in patients with vitiligo were significantly increased than those in healthy controls. There was a positive correlation of IL-33 serum levels with extension of vitiligo and disease activity. This study suggests a possible systemic role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Inhibiting IL-33 activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory disease, like vitiligo.

  20. Levels of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy despite increased insulin resistance, beta-cell function and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, A; Maciulewski, R; Siewko, K; Popławska-Kita, A; Lipińska, D; Kozłowska, G; Górska, M; Szelachowska, M

    2016-12-01

    Evidence in support of an association between betatrophin and insulin resistance (IR) is mounting, with studies demonstrating that betatrophin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of betatrophin in IR and physiological proliferation of beta cells during pregnancy in healthy women. Eighty healthy pregnant women were examined at each trimester [T1 (first), T2 (second), T3 (third)], with a subgroup (n=45) that was also examined at 3 months postpartum (3MPP). The controls comprised 30 non-pregnant healthy women (HW) of reproductive age. Also measured were levels of betatrophin (ELISA), glucose (enzymatic method with hexokinase), insulin (IRMA), C-peptide (EASIA) and HbA 1c (HPLC), while HOMA-IR and HOMA-β scores were calculated. Betatrophin concentration was highest at T1, and differed significantly from T2 and T3 (1.84 [Q 1 =1.16, Q 3 =2.67]ng/mL vs 1.46 [Q 1 =0.96, Q 3 =2.21]ng/mL; Pindex scores increased during gestation, peaking at T3 (2.3 [Q 1 =1.66, Q 3 =2.72] and 227.7 [Q 1 =185.49, Q 3 =326.31], respectively) and returning to levels similar to those of HW at 3MPP (1.53 [Q 1 =1.12, Q 3 =2.41] and 88.86 [Q 1 =62.73, Q 3 =130.45] vs 1.35 [Q 1 =1.02, Q 3 =1.62] and 92.5 [Q 1 =74.20, Q 3 =111.47], respectively). Concentrations of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy, suggesting that the hormone does not play a significant role in the expansion of beta-cell mass and IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased plasma levels of microparticles expressing CD39 and CD133 in acute liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmelzle, Moritz; Splith, Katrin; Wiuff Andersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that CD133 and CD39 are expressed by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are mobilized after liver injury and target sites of injury, limit vascular inflammation, and boost hepatic regeneration. Plasma microparticles (MP) expressing CD39 can block...... sacrificed and plasma MP were isolated by ultracentrifugation. HSC and CD133 MP levels were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Patients were enrolled with acute (n=5) and acute on chronic (n=5) liver injury with matched controls (n=7). Blood was collected at admission and plasma CD133 and CD39...... MP subsets were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RESULTS: HSC and CD133 MP levels were significantly increased only in the plasma of wild-type mice with acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (P

  2. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  3. Increased complement C1q level marks active disease in human tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement functions as an important host defense system and complement C5 and C7 have been implicated in immunopathology of tuberculosis. However, little is known about the role of other complement components in tuberculosis. METHODS: Complement gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of tuberculosis patients and controls were determined using whole genome transcriptional microarray assays. The mRNA and protein levels of three C1q components, C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC, were further validated by qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The percentages of C1q expression in CD14 positive cells were determined by flow cytometry. Finally, C1qC protein level was quantified in the pleural fluid of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis pleurisy. RESULTS: C1q expression increases significantly in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls and individuals with latent TB infection. The percentage of C1q-expressing CD14 positive cells is significantly increased in active TB patients. C1q expression in the peripheral blood correlates with sputum smear positivity in tuberculosis patients and is reduced after anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Notably, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that C1qC mRNA levels in peripheral blood efficiently discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection and healthy controls. Additionally, C1qC protein level in pleural effusion shows improved power in discriminating tuberculosis from non-tuberculosis pleurisy when compared to other inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: C1q expression correlates with active disease in human tuberculosis. C1q could be a potential diagnostic marker to discriminate active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection as well as tuberculosis pleurisy from non-tuberculosis pleurisy.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection specifically increases the levels of key host microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti M Zeiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in virtually any nucleated cell in many species of warm-blooded animals; thus, it has evolved the ability to exploit well-conserved biological processes common to its diverse hosts. Here we have investigated whether Toxoplasma modulates the levels of host microRNAs (miRNAs during infection.Using microarray profiling and a combination of conventional molecular approaches we report that Toxoplasma specifically modulates the expression of important host microRNAs during infection. We show that both the primary transcripts for miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 and the pivotal miRNAs that are derived from miR-17 approximately 92 display increased abundance in Toxoplasma-infected primary human cells; a Toxoplasma-dependent up-regulation of the miR-17 approximately 92 promoter is at least partly responsible for this increase. The abundance of mature miR-17 family members, which are derived from these two miRNA clusters, remains unchanged in host cells infected with the closely related apicomplexan Neospora caninum; thus, the Toxoplasma-induced increase in their abundance is a highly directed process rather than a general host response to infection.Altered levels of miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 are known to play crucial roles in mammalian cell regulation and have been implicated in numerous hyperproliferative diseases although the mechanisms driving their altered expression are unknown. Hence, in addition to the implications of these findings on the host-pathogen interaction, Toxoplasma may represent a powerful probe for understanding the normal mechanisms that regulate the levels of key host miRNAs.

  5. Elevated levels of serum IL-5 are associated with an increased likelihood of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elomaa Antti-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory mediators in both the peripheral circulation and central nervous system (CNS are dysregulated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the role of the T-helper (Th-2 effector cytokines interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 in MDD. Methods We examined the serum levels of these cytokines and a Th-1 comparison cytokine, interferon (IFN-γ, in 116 individuals (MDD, n = 58; controls, n = 58. Results In our basic multivariate model controlling for the effects of potential confounders on the associations between MDD and the examined cytokines, each 1-unit increase in the serum IL-5 level increased the likelihood of belonging to the MDD group by 76% (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-2.99, p = 0.04; model covariates: age, gender, marital status, daily smoking and alcohol use. The likelihood further increased in models additionally controlling for the effects of the use of antidepressants and NSAIDS, and a diagnosis of asthma. No such associations were detected with regard to IL-13 (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22, p = 0.22 or IFN-γ (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.05, p = 0.23. Conclusions Elevated levels of IL-5, which uses the neural plasticity-related RAS GTPase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras-ERK pathway to mediate its actions in the central nervous system (CNS, could be one of the factors underlying the depression-related changes in CNS plasticity.

  6. The importance and role of the corporate governance mechanism in increasing the level of management efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Slaviša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is inherent conflict of interests between owners and managers. They try to solve it in different ways. In this paper we have tried to briefly introduce the most important internal mechanisms of corporate governance (monitoring by the board of directors, incentive system for managers, internal audit and the importance of institutional investors. The financial scandals that included the world-famous corporations as well as current world economic crisis suggests that the protection of owners should continue to work to improve existing or new solutions that will improve the level of corporate governance.

  7. Effects of glycerol on the metabolism of broilers fed increasing glycerine levels

    OpenAIRE

    Romano,GG; Menten,JFM; Freitas,LW; Lima,MB; Pereira,R; Zavarize,KC; Dias,CTS

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the metabolic response of broilers fed diets containing increasing crude glycerine levels in two bioassays. Birds were house in metabolic cages, and were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments of 4 replicates each (1st assay: 5 birds/ cage; 2nd assay: 1-20 days = 8 birds/ cage, and 21-42 days = 4 birds/cage). Treatments consisted of a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, and four other diets containing 2.5%, 5.0%,...

  8. Insulin Resistance and Increased Muscle Cytokine Levels in Patients With Mitochondrial Myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rue, Nana; Vissing, John; Galbo, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to cause insulin resistance and that might stimulate cytokine production. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to elucidate the association between mitochondrial myopathy, insulin sensitivity, and cytokine levels in muscle. DESIGN......: The intervention included a 120-minute hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Another morning, microdialysis of both vastus lateralis muscles for 4 hours, including one-legged, knee extension exercise for 30 minutes, was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Glucose infusion rate during 90-120 minutes of insulin infusion...... was measured. Cytokine concentrations in dialysate were also measured. RESULTS: Muscle strength, percentage fat mass, and creatine kinase in plasma did not differ between groups. The maximal oxygen uptake was 21 ± 3 (SE) (P) and 36 ± 3(C) mL/kg·min (2P insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were higher...

  9. High Levels of Methylarginines Were Associated With Increased Mortality in Patients With Severe Sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Karoline Myglegard; Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard; Haase, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nitric oxide (NO) likely plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Arginine is a substrate for NO, whereas the methylated arginines—asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)—are endogenous by-products of proteolysis that inhibit NO production....... We investigated if high-plasma levels of ADMA, SDMA, and arginine/ADMA ratio were associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods: We included 267 adult patients admitted to intensive care unit with severe sepsis or septic shock. The patients had previously...... been included in the randomized controlled trial “Scandinavian Starch for Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock (6S).” ADMA, SDMA, and arginine/ADMA ratio were measured in plasma. The risk of death within 90 days was estimated in multivariate Cox regression analyses adjusted for gender, age >=65 years, major...

  10. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L; Patterson, Sharla G; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity and overweight/obesity. We have reported previously that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and endostatin and decreased unbound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in men. However, there are no data on women. The present study determines the following: (a) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers and (b) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound VEGF than lean women. A total of 72 African American and White adult women volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 44 years were enrolled in the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (55-59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) was quantified utilizing a metabolic cart. We obtained blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays showed that the plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 min), significantly higher than the basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P<0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase in the sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and White (P=0.533) women or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. The basal plasma levels of unbound VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than the basal levels of unbound VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P<0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise

  11. Increased plasma levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1) in women by moderate exercise and increased plasma levels of VEGF in overweight/obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Kristina L.; Patterson, Sharla G.; Robinson, James; Loftin, Mark; Waddell, Dwight E.; Miele, Lucio; Chinchar, Edmund; Huang, Min; Smith, Andrew D.; Weber, Mark; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide, and this seems to be related to an increase in lifestyle risk factors, including physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity. We previously reported that exercise induced a circulating angiostatic phenotype characterized by increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in men. However, there is no data on women. The present study determines the following: 1) whether moderate exercise increased sFlt-1 and endostatin and decreased unbound-VEGF in the circulation of adult female volunteers; 2) whether overweight/obese women have a higher plasma level of unbound-VEGF than lean women. 72 African American and Caucasian adult women volunteers aged from 18–44 were enrolled into the exercise study. All the participants walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity (55–59% heart rate reserve), and oxygen consumption (VO2) was quantified by utilizing a metabolic cart. We had the blood samples before and immediately after exercise from 63 participants. ELISA assays (R&D Systems) showed that plasma levels of sFlt-1 were 67.8±3.7 pg/ml immediately after exercise (30 minutes), significantly higher than basal levels, 54.5±3.3 pg/ml, before exercise (P < 0.01; n=63). There was no significant difference in the % increase of sFlt-1 levels after exercise between African American and Caucasian (P=0.533) or between lean and overweight/obese women (P=0.892). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of unbound VEGF (35.28±5.47 vs. 35.23±4.96 pg/ml; P=0.99) or endostatin (111.12±5.48 vs. 115.45±7.15 ng/ml; P=0.63) before and after exercise. Basal plasma levels of unbound-VEGF in overweight/obese women were 52.26±9.6 pg/ml, significantly higher than basal levels of unbound-VEGF in lean women, 27.34±4.99 pg/ml (P < 0.05). The results support our hypothesis that exercise-induced plasma levels of sFlt-1 could be an important clinical biomarker to explore the mechanisms of exercise

  12. Increased macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Eriko; Sekiya, Akiko; Hayashi, Tomoe; Kadohira, Yasuko; Maekawa, Mio; Yamazaki, Masahide; Asakura, Hidesaku; Nakao, Shinji; Ohtake, Shigeki

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have found markedly elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with Graves' disease (GD). We investigated the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in GD. We assayed concentrations of M-CSF in sera from 32 patients with GD (25 untreated; 7 receiving thiamazole therapy). We also studied 32 age-matched healthy subjects as controls. Relationships between serum M-CSF and both thyroid state and serum lipids were examined. Moreover, to examine the effect of thyroid hormone alone on serum M-CSF, T3 was administered orally to normal subjects. Serum concentrations of M-CSF in GD patients who were hyperthyroid were significantly increased compared with GD patients who were euthyroid (P oral T3 administered to 15 volunteers for 7 days produced significant increases in serum levels of M-CSF (P production of M-CSF in patients with GD.

  13. Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Ploetz, Joachim

    2004-02-01

    Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient > 5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination.

  14. Increasing levels and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerke, Helmut; Weber, Kurt; Bornemann, Horst; Ramdohr, Sven; Ploetz, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Representatives of the Antarctic food web (krill, cephalopod, fish, penguin, seal) of the area around Elephant Island and from the Weddell Sea were analysed for the most recalcitrant organochlorine compounds. Due to sorption of the compounds to sinking particles and accumulation in sediments, two benthic fish species (Gobionotothen gibberifrons, Chaenocephalus aceratus) feeding on benthos invertebrates and fish reflected significantly increasing concentrations within a decade (1987-1996), while a benthopelagic species (Champsocephalus gunnari) feeding on krill did not. In the pelagic food chain, lipid normalised concentrations of all compounds increased from Antarctic krill to fish proving that biomagnification of highly lipophilic pollutants (log octanol-water partition coefficient > 5) occurs in water-breathing animals. As top predators Weddell and southern elephant seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina) biomagnified the persistent organic pollutants relative to krill 30-160 fold with the exception of hexachlorobenzene, the levels of which were lower than in fish indicating its intense specific elimination

  15. Potential to increase active commuting level in university area (Case study: Universitas Gadjah Mada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    In order to alleviate the negative impacts of motorized vehicle use as well as create sustainable environment within campus area, it is pivotal to encourage mode shifting among university students. Active transport modes such as walking, cycling, and using public transport can be considered as alternative modes. This paper tried to identify the potential to increase active commuting in UGM by understanding student’s travel behavior. ANOVA test was employed to identify the perceptions between students across residential zones toward motivators and barriers to actively commute. The findings were used to propose strategies for increasing active commuting level in UGM, which are: reducing barriers to actively commute, improving public transport services, improving walking and cycling facilities, and introducing programs to discourage motorized vehicle use.

  16. Increased circulating full-length betatrophin levels in drug-naïve metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Sheyu; He, He; Yu, Chuan; Li, Xiaodan; Liang, Libo; Chen, Yi; Li, Jianwei; Li, Jianshu; Sun, Xin; Tian, Haoming; An, Zhenmei

    2017-03-14

    Betatrophin is a newly identified circulating adipokine playing a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. But its role in metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to compare the circulating betatrophin concentrations between patients with MetS and healthy controls. We recruited 47 patients with MetS and 47 age and sex matched healthy controls. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed, and serum betatrophin levels were detected by ELISA. Full-length betatrophin levels in patients with MetS were significantly higher than those in controls (694.84 ± 365.51 pg/ml versus 356.64 ± 287.92 pg/ml; P <0.001). While no significant difference of total betatrophin levels was found between the two groups (1.20 ± 0.79 ng/ml versus 1.31 ± 1.08 ng/ml; P = 0.524). Full-length betatrophin level was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (r = 0.357, P = 0.014) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) (r = 0.38, P <0.01). Binary logistic regression models indicated that subjects in the tertile of the highest full-length betatrophin level experienced higher odds of having MetS (OR, 8.6; 95% CI 2.8-26.8; P <0.001). Our study showed that full-length betatrophin concentrations were increased in drug-naïve MetS patients.

  17. Association between iron level, glucose impairment and increased DNA damage during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Salam; Rachidi, Samar; Shami, Nadine; Sharara, Iman; Cheikh-Ali, Khawla; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Salameh, Pascale; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Elevated circulating ferritin has been reported to increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). When high ferritin translates into high iron stores, iron excess is also a condition leading to free radical damage. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress (OS) induced by iron status and GDM risk in non iron-supplemented pregnant women. This was a pilot observational study conducted on 93 non-anemic pregnant women. Iron status was assessed at the first trimester of gestation. Blood sampling was done at 24-28 weeks' gestation for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin and biological markers of oxidative damage tests. A significant increase in DNA damage was found in patients who developed GDM. Women with elevated DNA damage had a six-fold increased risk of developing GDM (Exp (B)=6.851, P=0.038; 95% CI [1.108-42.375]). The serum ferritin levels at first trimester were significantly correlated to lipid peroxidation (rho=0.24, p=0.012). The stratified analysis suggests that ferritin is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative stress (OS) and glucose intolerance. Moderate ferritin levels due to iron intake without iron-supplement, at early pregnancy is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative damage and glucose intolerance in pregnant women. Larger studies to evaluate the risk of food iron intake induced increased oxidative damage in offspring are warranted to propose nutrition advice regarding iron intake in women with a high risk of GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. The Dietary Furocoumarin Imperatorin Increases Plasma GLP-1 Levels in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Imperatorin, a dietary furocoumarin, is found not only in medicinal plants, but also in popular culinary herbs, such as parsley and fennel. Recently, imperatorin has been shown to activate GPR119 in cells. Another GPR, GPR131, also called TGR5 or G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, is known to regulate glucose metabolism. Additionally, TGR5 activation increases glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1 secretion to lower blood sugar levels in animals. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether the effects of imperatorin on GLP-1 secretion are mediated by TGR5. First, we transfected cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells with the TGR5 gene. Glucose uptake was confirmed in the transfected cells using a fluorescent indicator. Moreover, NCI-H716 cells, which secrete GLP-1, were used to investigate the changes in calcium concentrations and GLP-1 levels. In addition, streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1-like diabetic rats were used to identify the effects of imperatorin in vivo. Imperatorin dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in CHO-K1 cells expressing TGR5. In STZ diabetic rats, similar to the results in NCI-H716 cells, imperatorin induced a marked increase of GLP-1 secretion that was reduced, but not totally abolished, by a dose of triamterene that inhibited TGR5. Moreover, increases in GLP-1 secretion induced by imperatorin and GPR119 activation were shown in NCI-H716 cells. We demonstrated that imperatorin induced GLP-1 secretion via activating TGR5 and GPR119. Therefore, imperatorin shall be considered as a TGR5 and GPR119 agonist.

  19. Chronic mild stress increases alcohol intake in mice with low dopamine D2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K; Rombola, Christina; Rosko, Lauren; Grandy, David; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders emerge from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Stress and dopamine D2 receptor levels (DRD2) have been shown to play a central role in alcoholism. To better understand the interactions between DRD2 and stress in ethanol intake behavior, we subjected Drd2 wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), and knockout (-/-) mice to 4 weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) and to an ethanol two-bottle choice during CMS weeks 2-4. Prior to and at the end of the experiment, the animals were tested in the forced swim and open field tests. We measured ethanol intake and preference, immobility in the force swim test, and activity in the open field. We show that under no CMS, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had lower ethanol intake and preference compared with Drd2+/+. Exposure to CMS decreased ethanol intake and preference in Drd2+/+ and increased them in Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice. At baseline, Drd2+/- and Drd2-/- mice had significantly lower activity in the open field than Drd2+/+, whereas no genotype differences were observed in the forced swim test. Exposure to CMS increased immobility during the forced swim test in Drd2+/- mice, but not in Drd2+/+ or Drd2-/- mice, and ethanol intake reversed this behavior. No changes were observed in open field test measures. These findings suggest that in the presence of a stressful environment, low DRD2 levels are associated with increased ethanol intake and preference and that under this condition, increased ethanol consumption could be used as a strategy to alleviate negative mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Lower cervical levels: Increased risk of early dysphonia following anterior cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ji-Huan; Li, Xiao-Dan; Deng, Liang; Xiao, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to re-evaluate the incidence of early dysphonia after anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS) and to determine the related risk factors. Patients underwent ACSS between January 2011 and December 2013 at two sites were identified retrospectively from hospital's patient databases. A total of 233 cases were included in this study. Dysphonia developed 1 month postoperatively was recorded. Follow-up was conducted in all positive-response patients. Those reporting severe or persistent voice symptoms were referred to otolaryngologists for further assessments and (or) treatments. Pre and intraoperative factors were collected to determine their relationships with dysphonia one month postoperatively. 45 patients developed dysphonia at one month, including 23 males and 22 females, yielding to an incidence of 19.3%. 34 cases resolved themselves in 3 months, leaving the remaining 11 patients considered to be severe or persistent cases. However, 10 of them recovered spontaneously in the next 9 months, while the last case received vocal cord medialization and returned to almost normal speech function at 18 months. In univariate analysis, only approaching level involving C6-C7 or (and) C7-T1 was significantly associated with postoperative dysphonia (Pdysphonia following ACSS was relatively high and approaching at lower cervical levels was an independent predictive factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased Arousal Levels and Decreased Sleep by Brain Music in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Zhan Fang; Chun-Peng Zhang; Dan Wu; Yang Xia; Yong-Xiu Lai; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    More and more studies have been reported on whether music and other types of auditory stimulation would improve the quality of sleep.Many of these studies have found significant results,but others argue that music is not significantly better than the tones or control conditions in improving sleep.For further understanding the relationship between music and sleep or music and arousal,the present study therefore examines the effects of brain music on sleep and arousal by means of biofeedback.The music is from the transformation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) of rats using an algorithm in the Chengdu Brain Music (CBM) system.When the brain music was played back to rats,EEG data were recorded to assess the efficacy of music to induce or improve sleep,or increase arousal levels by sleep staging,etc.Our results demonstrate that exposure to the brain music increases arousal levels and decreases sleep in rats,and the underlying mechanism of decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep may be different.

  2. Defining a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level that predicts increased risk of penile implant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habous, Mohamad; Tal, Raanan; Tealab, Alaa; Soliman, Tarek; Nassar, Mohammed; Mekawi, Zenhom; Mahmoud, Saad; Abdelwahab, Osama; Elkhouly, Mohamed; Kamr, Hatem; Remeah, Abdallah; Binsaleh, Saleh; Ralph, David; Mulhall, John

    2018-02-01

    To re-evaluate the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk factor for penile implant infection by exploring the association between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and penile implant infection rates and to define a threshold value that predicts implant infection. We conducted a multicentre prospective study including all patients undergoing penile implant surgery between 2009 and 2015. Preoperative, perioperative and postoperative management were identical for the entire cohort. Univariate analysis was performed to define predictors of implant infection. The HbA1c levels were analysed as continuous variables and sequential analysis was conducted using 0.5% increments to define a threshold level predicting implant infection. Multivariable analysis was performed with the following factors entered in the model: DM, HbA1C level, patient age, implant type, number of vascular risk factors (VRFs), presence of Peyronie's disease (PD), body mass index (BMI), and surgeon volume. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to define the optimal HbA1C threshold for infection prediction. In all, 902 implant procedures were performed over the study period. The mean patient age was 56.6 years. The mean HbA1c level was 8.0%, with 81% of men having a HbA1c level of >6%. In all, 685 (76%) implants were malleable and 217 (24%) were inflatable devices; 302 (33.5%) patients also had a diagnosis of PD. The overall infection rate was 8.9% (80/902). Patients who had implant infection had significantly higher mean HbA1c levels, 9.5% vs 7.8% (P HbA1c level, we found infection rates were: 1.3% with HbA1c level of 9.5% (P HbA1c level, whilst a high-volume surgeon had a protective effect and was associated with a reduced infection risk. Using ROC analysis, we determined that a HbA1c threshold level of 8.5% predicted infection with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 65%. Uncontrolled DM is associated with increased risk of infection after penile implant surgery

  3. Increasing levels of zeolite and Yucca schidigera in diets for adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Charleaux Roque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the additives Yucca schidigera (YSC and zeolite (clinoptilolite on digestibility, fecal texture and odor, blood parameters and urine pH of domesticated felines was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with twenty-one cats, in two periods, distributed in seven treatments: moist commercial feed (control; control + 125, 250 and 375 ppm YSC; and control + 0.5; 0.75 and 1.0 % zeolite. No differences were observed between the diets regarding apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrient, energy, urine pH or blood parameters. However, levels of 0.5 and 0.75% zeolite were effective both in reducing odor (R² = 96.39 and for fecal texture (R² = 99.63, showing a quadratic pattern for these variables. Levels of 125 and 375 ppm YSC were also efficient in reducing fecal odor; however they did not adjust to regression. Levels of 0.5% and 0.75% zeolite significantly reduce odor of feces and increase fecal texture when added to commercial feed for cats.

  4. Increased serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ghaneei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated serum levels of oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (oxLDL have been found in type 2 and in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has common features with type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the serum levels of oxLDL in women with GDM compared to normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ninety-two subjects were randomly allocated to either GDM (n=46 or control (n=46 groups matched for age, body mass index and parity from March 2013 to March 2014. GDM was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria at 24-26 weeks of gestation. OxLDL was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T-test and Pearson correlation coefficients were applied for analyzing the data by using SPSS version 17. Results: Compared to the controls, significantly higher oxLDL levels were found in the GDM group (17.16 ± 3.71 U/L vs. 8.77 ± 1.84 U/L, respectively, p < 0.001. No significant correlations were found between oxLDL and age and BMI of the patients in the groups. Conclusion: Our study found significant increase of oxLDL in GDM emphasizing the role of short-term hyperglycemia in the formation of oxLDL during GDM. The importance of aptly diagnosis of GDM in maternal health may also be concluded.

  5. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  6. Something to talk about: Gossip increases oxytocin levels in a near real-life situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondino, Natascia; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Politi, Pierluigi

    2017-03-01

    Gossip is a pervasive social behavior. Its evolutionary survival seems related to its social functions, such as establishing group rules, punishing trespassers, exercising social influence through reputational systems, and developing and strengthening social bonds. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gossip on hormones (oxytocin and cortisol) and at identifying potential mediators of hormonal response to gossip. Twenty-two female students were randomly assigned to a gossip conversation or to an emotional non-gossip conversation. Additionally, all participants underwent a neutral conversation on the second day of the study. Salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels were measured. Oxytocin increased significantly in the gossip compared to the emotional non-gossip conversation. A decrease in cortisol levels was observed in all three conditions (gossip, emotional non-gossip, neutral). Change in cortisol levels was similar across conditions. Psychological characteristics (e.g. empathy, autistic traits, perceived stress, envy) did not affect oxytocin rise in the gossip condition. Our findings suggest that oxytocin may represent a potential hormonal correlate of gossip behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Strategic Alternatives on the Increasing Level Value of the Term Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Catalina Turkes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the influence of the strategic alternative on the value level increase of the term deposits attracted from the Romanian’s population households, during the period 2012 – Q1/2015, depending on the change of the standards related to deposits granting in RON, EURO and other currencies, but also depending on the aggregate volume of deposits demand at a national level. One-way ANOVA represents the ideal model to emphasize that the average of the term deposits attracted from the population’s households during the last four years is influenced by the strategic alternative used by the credit institutions. The results of this analysis underlined the fact that there is a strong link between the strategic alternative adopted by the banks and the change of the value level of the term deposits intended for the population. The strategies to attract RON deposits proved to be more efficient compared to the strategies adopted by the banks for other currencies.

  8. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  9. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  10. Increased serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Boso, Marianna; Brondino, Natascia; Pietra, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-05-30

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that functions as an activator for inducing the immune response and can be released from neurons after glutamate excitotoxicity. The objective of the present study was to measure serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with autistic disorder and to study their relationship with clinical characteristics. We enrolled 22 adult patients with autistic disorder (mean age: 28.1+/-7.7 years) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 28.7+/-8.1 years). Serum levels of HMGB1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with healthy subjects, serum levels of HMGB1 were significantly higher in patients with autistic disorder (10.8+/-2.6 ng/mL versus 5.6+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, Pautistic disorder. Increased HMGB1 may be a biological correlate of the impaired reciprocal social interactions in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidative profile exhibited by Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients at diagnosis: Increased keratan urinary levels

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    Bruna Donida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morquio A disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA, MPS IVA is one of the 11 mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs, a heterogeneous group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs caused by deficiency in enzymes need to degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Morquio A is characterized by a decrease in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase activity and subsequent accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in cells and body fluids. As the pathophysiology of this LSD is not completely understood and considering the previous results of our group concerning oxidative stress in Morquio A patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT, the aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters in Morquio A patients at diagnosis. It was studied 15 untreated Morquio A patients, compared with healthy individuals. The affected individuals presented higher lipid peroxidation, assessed by urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane levels and no protein damage, determined by sulfhydryl groups in plasma and di-tyrosine levels in urine. Furthermore, Morquio A patients showed DNA oxidative damage in both pyrimidines and purines bases, being the DNA damage positively correlated with lipid peroxidation. In relation to antioxidant defenses, affected patients presented higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, while superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR activities were similar to controls. Our findings indicate that Morquio A patients present at diagnosis redox imbalance and oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, reinforcing the idea about the importance of antioxidant therapy as adjuvant to ERT, in this disorder.

  12. FeNO levels increase with degree of sensitisation in apprentices at risk of occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, P; Mével, H; Penven, E; Zmirou-Navier, D; Barbaud, A; Bohadana, A; Paris, C

    2017-11-01

    Atopy has emerged as a major determinant of airway inflammation. To examine whether early markers of occupational asthma increase with degree of sensitisation. This study was a prospective follow-up study of apprentices in baking, pastry-cooking and hairdressing during their 2-year apprenticeship. Four visits were conducted to administer a standardised questionnaire, a methacholine challenge test to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and to measure fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Degree of sensitisation was estimated based on the number of positive skin prick tests (SPTs) for 12 common allergens. Mixed-effect models were applied to examine the association between the degree of sensitisation and FeNO levels, BHR and eosinophilic status (more than 3% of cells in nasal lavage fluid). Of the 441 apprentices who agreed to take part in the study, 417 had at least one SPT session providing usable results. Degree of sensitization was related to BHR and FeNO levels. Compared to non-sensitised subjects, FeNO levels were 83% higher (P < 0.01) in highly sensitised subjects and 30% higher (P < 0.01) in weakly sensitised subjects. However, the degree of sensitisation was not predictive of the evolution of these markers. Degree of sensitisation is related to early markers of airway inflammation.

  13. Electrophysiological response of chicken's jejunal epithelium to increasing levels of T-2 toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Kröger, Susan; Tichy, Alexander; Zentek, Jürgen; Böhm, Josef

    2013-02-01

    The present investigations were conducted to test the effects of T-2 toxin on electrophysiological variables of jejunal epithelium of chicken. Jejunal segments of broilers were monitored in Ussing chambers in the presence of T-2 toxin at the levels of 0 (negative control), 0 (methanol/vehicle control), 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 μg/ml of buffer. T-2 toxin did not affect basal values of short circuit current (I(sc)), transmural potential difference, or tissue conductivity in the jejunal epithelium. T-2 toxin also did not statistically affect glucose-induced electrophysiological variables during the first 3 min of glucose induction. Compared to the vehicle control, the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) was negatively affected (P = 0.008) only under 5 μg of T-2 toxin/ml. Increasing levels of T-2 toxin negatively affected the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) in a cubic (P = 0.007) fashion. These data indicate that acute exposure to moderate levels of T-2 toxin may progressively impair the cation gradient across the jejunal epithelium.

  14. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    KAUST Repository

    Fanucchi, Francesca

    2012-06-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    KAUST Repository

    Fanucchi, Francesca; Alpi, Emanuele; Olivieri, Stefano; Cannistraci, Carlo; Bachi, Angela; Alpi, Amedeo; Alessio, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; pEcstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

  17. Effects of increased low-level diode laser irradiation time on extraction socket healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Bong; Ahn, Su-Jin; Kang, Yoon-Goo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Heo, Jung Sun; Kang, Kyung Lhi

    2015-02-01

    In our previous studies, we confirmed that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a 980-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser was beneficial for the healing of the alveolar bone in rats with systemic disease. However, many factors can affect the biostimulatory effects of LLLT. Thus, we attempted to investigate the effects of irradiation time on the healing of extraction sockets by evaluating the expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. The left and right first maxillary molars of 24 rats were extracted. Rats were randomly divided into four groups in which extraction sockets were irradiated for 0, 1, 2, or 5 min each day for 3 or 7 days. Specimens containing the sockets were examined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. LLLT increased the expressions of all tested genes, Runx2, collagen type 1, osteocalcin, platelet-derived growth factor-B, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in a time-dependent manner. The highest levels of gene expressions were in the 5-min group after 7 days. Five minutes of irradiation caused prominent increases of the expression of all tested proteins after both 3 and 7 days. The expression level of each protein in group 4 was higher by almost twofold compared with group 1 after 7 days. Laser irradiation for 5 min caused the highest expressions of genes and proteins related to bone healing. In conclusion, LLLT had positive effects on the early stages of bone healing of extraction sockets in rats, which were irradiation time-dependent.

  18. Iron Loading Selectively Increases Hippocampal Levels of Ubiquitinated Proteins and Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luciana Silva; de Freitas, Betânia Souza; Garcia, Vanessa Athaíde; Dargél, Vinícius Ayub; Köbe, Luiza Machado; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Schröder, Nadja

    2016-11-01

    Alterations of brain iron levels have been observed in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously demonstrated that iron overload in the neonatal period results in severe and persistent memory deficits in the adulthood. Protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central regulatory role in several cellular processes. Impairment of the UPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined the effects of iron exposure in the neonatal period (12th-14th day of postnatal life) on the expression of proteasome β-1, β-2, and β-5 subunits, and ubiquitinated proteins in brains of 15-day-old rats, to evaluate the immediate effect of the treatment, and in adulthood to assess long-lasting effects. Two different memory types, emotionally motivated conditioning and object recognition were assessed in adult animals. We found that iron administered in the neonatal period impairs both emotionally motivated and recognition memory. Polyubiquitinated protein levels were increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, of adult animals treated with iron. Gene expression of subunits β1 and β5 was affected by age, being higher in the early stages of development in the hippocampus, accompanied by an age-related increase in polyubiquitinated protein levels in adults. In the cortex, gene expression of the three proteasome subunits was significantly higher in adulthood than in the neonatal period. These findings suggest that expression of proteasome subunits and activity are age-dependently regulated. Iron exposure in the neonatal period produces long-lasting harmful effects on the UPS functioning, which may be related with iron-induced memory impairment.

  19. Increased Circulating and Urinary Levels of Soluble TAM Receptors in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Lattenist, Lionel; Ahdi, Mohamed; Kers, Jesper; Uil, Melissa; Claessen, Nike; Leemans, Jaklien C; Florquin, Sandrine; Meijers, Joost C M; Gerdes, Victor E A; Roelofs, Joris J T H

    2017-09-01

    TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer) have been implicated in innate immunity. Circulating TAM receptor soluble forms (sTyro3, sAxl, sMer) are related to autoimmune disorders. We investigated TAM and their ligand protein S in patients with diabetes. Urinary and plasma levels of protein S, sTyro3, sAxl, and sMer were determined in 126 patients with diabetes assigned to a normoalbuminuric or macroalbuminuric (urinary albumin excretion 300 mg/24 hours, respectively) study group and 18 healthy volunteers. TAM and protein S immunostaining was performed on kidney biopsy specimens from patients with diabetic nephropathy (n = 9) and controls (n = 6). TAM expression and shedding by tubular epithelial cells were investigated by PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in an in vitro diabetes model. Patients with macroalbuminuria diabetes had higher circulating levels of sMer and more urinary sTyro3 and sMer than normoalbuminuric diabetics. Increased clearance of sTyro3 and sMer was associated with loss of tubular Tyro3 and Mer expression in diabetic nephropathy tissue and glomerular depositions of protein S. During in vitro diabetes, human kidney cells had down-regulation of Tyro3 and Mer mRNA and increased shedding of sTyro3 and sMer. Renal injury in diabetes is associated with elevated systemic and urine levels of sMer and sTyro3. This is the first study reporting excretion of sTAM receptors in urine, identifying the kidney as a source of sTAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  1. Exogenous t-PA administration increases hippocampal mature BDNF levels. plasmin- or NMDA-dependent mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Rodier

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (rt-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v. while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p. in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling.

  2. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  3. Xanthophylls increased HDLC level and nuclear factor PPARγ, RXRγ and RARα expression in hens and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y-Y; Jin, L; Peng, H; Xu, L-H; Wang, Q-X; Ji, J; Wang, C-K; Bi, Y-Z

    2018-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of xanthophylls on serum lipid profile (triglyceride, TG; cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDLC; and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC) and nuclear factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; PPAR gamma coactivator 1 alpha, PGC1α; retinoid X receptor gamma, RXRγ; and retinoic acid receptor alpha, RARα) gene expression of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (as control group), 20 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. Blood was sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of trial. Liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 35 days of trial. Results showed that serum HDLC level of hens was increased after dietary 40 mg/kg xanthophyll addition for 21, 28 and 35 days, while serum TG, CHO and LDLC were not affected. Xanthophyll addition also increased PPARγ expression in jejunum, RXRγ expression in duodenum and jejunum, and RARα expression in liver and duodenum. Experiment 2 was a 2 × 2 factorial design. Male chicks hatched from 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophyll diet of hens were fed diet containing either 0 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls. Liver, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were sampled at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after hatching. Blood samples were also collected at 21 days. Results showed that in ovo xanthophylls elevated PPARγ in duodenum and jejunum, and RXRγ and RARα in liver of chicks mainly within 1 week after hatching, while dietary xanthophylls increased serum HDLC level and PPARγ and RXRγ in liver from 2 weeks onwards. In conclusion, our research suggested xanthophylls can regulate serum lipid profile and nuclear factor expression in hens and chicks. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. STRUCTURAL AND METHODICAL MODEL OF INCREASING THE LEVEL OF THEORETICAL TRAINING OF CADETS USING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Bulgakov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Features of training in higher educational institutions of system of EMERCOM of Russia demand introduction of the new educational techniques and the technical means directed on intensification of educational process, providing an opportunity of preparation of cadets at any time in the independent mode and improving quality of their theoretical knowledge. The authors have developed a structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets using information and communication technologies. The proposed structural and methodological model that includes elements to stimulate and enhance cognitive activity, allows you to generate the trajectory of theoretical training of cadets for the entire period of study at the University, to organize a systematic independent work, objective, current and final control of theoretical knowledge. The structural and methodological model for improving the level of theoretical training consists of three main elements: the base of theoretical questions, functional modules "teacher" and "cadet". The basis of the structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is the base of theoretical issues, developed in all disciplines specialty 20.05.01 – fire safety. The functional module "teacher" allows you to create theoretical questions of various kinds, edit questions and delete them from the database if necessary, as well as create tests and monitor their implementation. The functional module "cadet" provides ample opportunities for theoretical training through independent work, testing for current and final control, the implementation of the game form of training in the form of a duel, as well as for the formation of the results of the cadets in the form of statistics and rankings. Structural and methodical model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is implemented in practice in the form of a multi-level automated system

  5. Fertilization stimulates an increase in inositol trisphosphate and inositol lipid levels in Xenopus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, P; Yim, D L; Leibow, J D; Saini, S; Nuccitelli, R

    1996-11-25

    Previous experiments from our lab have suggested that the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is required for sperm-induced egg activation in Xenopus laevis. Here we measure the endogenous production of both Ins(1,4,5)P3 and PIP2 during the sperm-induced and ionomycin-induced calcium wave in the egg and find that both increase following fertilization. Ins(1,4,5)P3 increases 3.2-fold from an unfertilized egg level of 0.13 pmole per egg (0.29 microM) to a peak of 0.42 pmole per egg (0.93 microM) as the calcium wave reaches the antipode in the fertilized egg. This continuous production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 during the time that the Ca2+ wave is propagating across the egg suggests the involvement of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in wave propagation. This increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 is smaller in ionomycin-activated eggs than in sperm-activated eggs, suggesting that the sperm-induced production of Ins(1,4,5)P3 involves a PIP2 hydrolysis pathway that is not simply raising intracellular Ca2+. While one might expect PIP2 levels to fall as a result of hydrolysis, we find that PIP2 actually increases 2-fold. The total lipid fraction in unfertilized egg exhibits 0.8 pmole PIP2 per egg and this increases to 1.5 pmole as the calcium wave reaches the antipode. The PIP2 concentration peaks 2 min after the completion of the calcium wave at 1.8 pmole per egg. The amount of PIP2 in the animal and vegetal hemispheres of the egg was also measured by cutting frozen eggs in half. The vegetal hemisphere contained twice the amount of PIP2 as the animal hemisphere but it also contained twice the amount of lipid. Thus, there was an equivalent amount of PIP2 normalized to lipid in each hemisphere. Isolated animal and vegetal hemisphere cortices exhibit similar PIP2 concentrations, suggesting that the 2-fold higher total PIP2 in the vegetal half is not due to a gradient of PIP2 in the plasma membrane, but rather implies that cytoplasmic organelle membranes also contain PIP2.

  6. The combination of exercise training and Zataria multiflora supplementation increase serum irisin levels in postmenopausal women

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    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined the effect of antioxidant supplementation and exercise on irisin within postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-eight participants (age: 55.7 ± 4.9 years; weight: 68.0 ± 6.3 kg; BMI 27.0 ± 2.7; mean ± SD were randomized into four groups for the eight week intervention: control group (CG; n = 12, resistance training group (RTG; n = 12, supplementation with Zataria multiflora group (ZG; n = 12, or supplementation with Z. multiflora and resistance training group (ZRTG; n = 12. RTG and ZRTG performed circuit resistance training, and both ZG and ZRTG consumed 500 mg of Z. multiflora every day during the intervention. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before and after the intervention. Results: There was a significant difference in irisin at post-training, with greater levels in ZRTG compared to CG. A significant increase was noted for irisin at post-training compared to pre-training for ZG, RTG, and ZRTG. Moreover, we identified a significant decrease in malondialdehyde in the RTG and ZRTG groups and increase in glutathione in the ZG, RTG, and ZRTG groups when compared to CG. Conclusion: These findings showed that exercise, Z. multiflora supplementation or their combination led to an increase in irisin. Keywords: Antioxidants, Circuit resistance training, Myokine, Postmenopausal women, Zataria multiflora

  7. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  8. Combined effect of lung function level and decline increases morbidity and mortality risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, COPD or coronary heart disease mor- tality, and all-cause mortality were estimated from com- bined effects of level and decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Risks were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models for individuals grouped...... by combinations of baseline predicted FEV1 and quartiles of slope. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % con¿dence intervals (CI) were estimated using strati¿ed analysis by gender, smoking status, and baseline age (B45 and [45). For COPD morbidity, quartiles of increasing FEV1 decline increased HRs (95 % CI......) for individuals with FEV1 at or above the lower limit of normal (LLN) but below 100 % predicted, reaching 5.11 (2.58–10.13) for males, 11.63 (4.75–28.46) for females, and 3.09 (0.88–10.86) for never smokers in the quartile of steepest decline. Signi¿cant increasing trends were also observed for mortality...

  9. New technology increases perioperative haemoglobin levels for paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass: what is the benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuys, Clarke; Horton, Stephen; Bennett, Martin; Augustin, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Increasing perioperative haemoglobin level by reducing priming volume and maintaining a safe cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system is the aim of every perfusionist. In this study, we have compared the two membrane oxygenators and pump systems used for paediatric bypass at the Royal Children's Hospital on a regular basis since 1988. We looked at all patients who had the Cobe VPCML (Cobe Laboratories, Denver, CO, USA) and Terumo RX-05 (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) oxygenators used for flows from 800 mL/min up to the maximum rated flow for the respective oxygenator from January 2002 until March 2004. The VPCML refers to using only the 0.4-m2 section of the oxygenator. The pump systems used were the Stöckert CAPS (Stöckert Instrumente GmbH, Munich, Germany) and Jostra HL 30 (Jostra AB, Lund, Sweden). Changing from the VPCML to the RX-05 resulted in a 37% reduction in priming volume. The introduction of the Jostra HL 30 with a custom-designed mast system reduced the priming volume by another 15%. This change in priming volume allowed a significant increase, from 6 to 34%, in the percentage of patients who received bloodless primes, and for those patients who received blood primes, an increase in haemoglobin (Hb) on bypass from 8.2 to 9.6 g/dL, on average.

  10. 3-Methylcholanthrene inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and increases intracellular calcium levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Duchiron, C.; Deschaux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. Many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to PAHs. However, fewer studies have reported decrease in specific immunity in such fish. We investigated the intracellular mechanisms by which the 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) decreased lymphocyte proliferation in carp. T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation induced by Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were inhibited by 3-MC (0.5-50 μM). 3-MC also produced a rapid and a sustained increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) (2 h minimum). However, the cytochrome P450 1A and Ah receptor inhibitor, α-naphtoflavone (a-NF), also inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and did not reverse the effects of 3-MC. Moreover, since a-NF and 3-MC increased [Ca 2+ ] i and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation it was possible that calcium release played a role in 3-MC-inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. The rise in [Ca 2+ ] i induced by 3-MC was potentiated by the inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, thapsigargin. Treating cells with 3-MC decreased calcium mobilization caused by thapsigargin. These results suggest that 3-MC acts on the endoplasmic reticulum, perhaps directly on calcium ATPases, to increase intracellular calcium levels in carp leucocytes

  11. Increased levels of dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Mattioli, L; Parera, J; Abad, E; Coloma, J L; van Babel, B; Galceran, M T; Balasch, J; Carmona, F

    2015-05-01

    Are the levels of biologically active and the most toxic dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) higher than in a control group without endometriosis? DIE patients have higher levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adipose tissue compared with controls without endometriosis. Some studies have investigated the levels of dioxin-like substances, in serum samples, in patients with endometriosis, with inconsistent results. Case-control study including two groups of patients. The study group (DIE group) consisted of 30 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery because of DIE. In all patients, an extensive preoperative work-up was performed including clinical exploration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal sonography. All patients with DIE underwent a confirmatory histological study for DIE after surgery. The non-endometriosis control group (control group), included the next consecutive patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery in our center due to adnexal benign gynecological disease (ovarian or tubal procedures other than endometriosis) after each DIE patient, and who did not present any type of endometriosis. During the surgical procedure 1-2 g of adipose tissue from the omentum were obtained. Dioxin-like substances were analyzed in adipose tissue in DIE patients and controls without endometriosis. The total toxic equivalence and concentrations of both dioxins and PCBs were significantly higher in patients with DIE in comparison with the control group (P dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD]) (P dioxins and PCBs widely vary in different countries. Furthermore, the strict eligibility criteria used may preclude generalization of the results to other populations and the surgery-based sampling frame may induce a selection bias. Finally, adipose tissue was obtained only from the omentum, and not from other

  12. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  13. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Richard Odriscoll, R; David Peeler, D

    2006-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the world's largest operating high level waste (HLW) vitrification plant, began stabilizing about 35 million gallons of SRS liquid radioactive waste by-product in 1996. The DWPF has since filled over 2000 canisters with about 4000 pounds of radioactive glass in each canister. In the past few years there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process and therefore minimized process upsets and thus downtime. These improvements, which include glass former optimization, increased waste loading of the glass, the melter glass pump, the melter heated bellows liner, and glass surge protection software, will be discussed in this paper

  14. The effect of increasing levels of embedded generation on the distribution network. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinson, A; Earp, G K; Howson, D; Owen, R D; Wright, A J

    1999-10-01

    This report was commissioned as part of the EA Technology Strategic Technology Programme under guidance of the Module 5 (Embedded Generation) Steering Group. This report aims to provide information related to the distribution and supply of electricity in the context of increasing levels of embedded generation. There is a brief description of the operating environment within which electricity companies in the UK must operate. Technical issues related to the connection of generation to the existing distribution infrastructure are highlighted and the design philosophy adopted by network designers in accommodating applications for the connection of embedded generation to the network is discussed. The effects embedded generation has on the network and the issues raised are presented as many of them present barriers to the connection of embedded generators. The final chapters cover the forecast of required connection to 2010 and solutions to restrictions preventing the connection of more embedded generation to the network. (author)

  15. Microzooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Carotenuto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Microzooplankton grazing and algae growth responses to increasing pCO2 levels (350, 700 and 1050 μatm were investigated in nitrate and phosphate fertilized mesocosms during the PeECE III experiment 2005. Grazing and growth rates were estimated by the dilution technique combined with taxon specific HPLC pigment analysis. Microzooplankton composition was determined by light microscopy. Despite a range of up to 3 times the present CO2 levels, there were no clear differences in any measured parameter between the different CO2 treatments. During days 3–9 of the experiment the algae community standing stock, measured as chlorophyll a (Chl-a, showed the highest instantaneous grow rates (k=0.37–0.99 d−1 and increased from ca. 2–3 to 6–12 μg l−1, in all mesocosms. Afterwards the phytoplankton standing stock decreased in all mesocosms until the end of the experiment. The microzooplankton standing stock, that was mainly constituted by dinoflagellates and ciliates, varied between 23 and 130 μg C l−1 (corresponding to 1.9 and 10.8 μmol C l−1, peaking on day 13–15, apparently responding to the phytoplankton development. Instantaneous Chl-a growth rates were generally higher than the grazing rates, indicating only a limited overall effect of microzooplankton grazing on the most dominant phytoplankton. Diatoms and prymnesiophytes were significantly grazed (12–43% of the standing stock d−1 only in the pre-bloom phase when they were in low numbers, and in the post-bloom phase when they were already affected by low nutrients and/or viral lysis. The cyanobacteria populations appeared more affected by microzooplankton grazing which generally removed 20–65% of the standing stock per day.

  16. Multiple mechanisms increase levels of resistance in Rapistrum rugosum to ALS herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhara M Hatami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapistrum rugosum (turnip weed is a common weed of wheat fields in Iran, which is most often controlled by tribenuron-methyl (TM, a sulfonylurea (SU belonging to the acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibiting herbicides group. Several cases of unexplained control failure of R. rugosum by TM have been seen, especially in Golestan province-Iran. Hence, there is lack of research in evaluation of the level of resistance of the R. rugosum populations to TM, using whole plant dose–response and enzyme assays, then investigating some potential resistance mechanisms Results revealed that the resistance factor (RF for resistant (R populations was 2.5 to 6.6 fold higher than susceptible (S plant. Neither foliar retention, nor 14C-TM absorption and translocation were the mechanisms responsible for resistance in turnip weed. Metabolism of TM was the second resistant mechanism in two populations (Ag-R5 and G-1, in which three metabolites were found. The concentration of TM for 50% inhibition of ALS enzyme activity in vitro showed a high level of resistance to the herbicide (resistance factors were from 28 to 38 and cross-resistance to sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinone (SCT, pyrimidinyl-thiobenzoate (PTB and triazolopyrimidine (TP, with no cross-resistance to imidazolinone (IMI. Substitution Pro 197 to Ser 197 provided resistance to four of five ALS-inhibiting herbicides including SU, TP, PTB and SCT with no resistance to IMI. These results documented the first case of R. rugosum resistant population worldwide and demonstrated that both RST and NRST mechanisms are involved to the resistance level to TM.

  17. Resistance Training Does Not Protect Against Increases in Plasma Cytokine Levels Among Germ Cell Cancer Patients During and After Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Tolver, Anders; Andersen, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Context: Testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) patients treated with cisplatin-etoposide-bleomycin chemotherapy (BEP) have excellent prognosis but have an increased risk of late-occurring morbidities, which may be associated with changes in the inflammatory profile. Objective: The objective...... of the study was to explore plasma cytokine concentrations in GCC patients randomized to resistance training or usual care during BEP, in comparison with healthy controls. Design/Setting: This was a randomized controlled trial in GCC patients enrolled from an oncology clinic, including a healthy reference......). Changes in TNF-α correlated with pulmonary toxicity (P BEP display consistently elevated levels of systemic inflammatory markers compared with healthy...

  18. Increase the level of preparedness of qualified basketball players in the preparatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Gradusov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the adaptation of basketball players of student teams to training loads during the preparatory period of the annual cycle of training on the parameters of motor qualities and functional readiness. Material & Methods: conducted a survey of 12 basketball players on the team (Sumy, the highest league of the Ukrainian Basketball Championship. The following research methods were used: theoretical analysis of literary sources, methods of mathematical statistics, anthropometry and pedagogical control. Result: dynamics of changes at the stage of preparation for the season is shown. It is established and observed that under the influence of training sessions in the examined basketball players, not only the optimization of the functional systems of their organism, but also the level of the functional state of the organism as a whole. Conclusion: assessment of the functional condition of the athlete's body should play an important role in the overall system of medical and biological control in connection with significant additional information on the state of their body and the possibility of timely correction of physical activity and the provision of preventive measures. It is determined that during the preparatory period the level of motor qualities and functional readiness of the basketball players increased.

  19. High levels of retinal membrane docosahexaenoic acid increase susceptibility to stress-induced degenerations⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanito, Masaki; Brush, Richard S.; Elliott, Michael H.; Wicker, Lea D.; Henry, Kimberly R.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The fat-1 gene cloned from C. elegans encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 PUFA. Mice carrying the fat-1 transgene and wild-type controls were fed an n-3-deficient/n-6-enriched diet [fat-1- safflower oil (SFO) and wt-SFO, respectively]. Fatty acid profiles of rod outer segments (ROS), cerebellum, plasma, and liver demonstrated significantly lower n-6/n-3 ratios and higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in fat-1-SFO compared with wt-SFO. When mice were exposed to light stress: 1) the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was reduced; 2) amplitudes of the electroretinogram (ERG) were lower; 3) the number of apoptotic photoreceptor cells was greater; and 4) modification of retinal proteins by 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE), an end-product of n-3 PUFA oxidation was increased in both fat-1-SFO and wt mice fed a regular lab chow diet compared with wt-SFO. The results indicate a positive correlation between the level of DHA, the degree of n-3 PUFA lipid peroxidation, and the vulnerability of the retina to photooxidative stress. In mice not exposed to intense light, the reduction in DHA resulted in reduced efficacy in phototransduction gain steps, while no differences in the retinal morphology or retinal biochemistry. These results highlight the dual roles of DHA in cellular physiology and pathology. PMID:19023138

  20. Increased Umbilical Cord PAI-1 Levels in Placental Insufficiency Are Associated with Fetal Hypoxia and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim D. Seferovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, a subset of pregnancies undergoes placental vascular dysregulation resulting in restricted blood flow and fetal hypoxemia. Altered transcription of hypoxic regulated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 has been associated with pregnancy complications and angiogenic regulation. Here we assessed circulating PAI-1 as an indicator of placental insufficiency. Venous umbilical PAI-1 of hypoxemic (VpO2 20 versus 35 mmHg, p<0.0001 placental insufficient pregnancies (resistance index 0.9 versus 0.63, p<0.05 (n=18 was compared to controls (n=12. PAI-1 was increased (~10-fold, p<0.001 and had a positive predictive ratio of 6.7. Further, PAI-1 levels correlated to blood oxygen (r=-0.68, p<0.0001. The plasma’s angiogenic potency measured in vitro was associated with umbilical cord blood PAI-1 levels (r=0.65, p<0.01. This association was attenuated by PAI-1 inhibiting antibody (p<0.001. The results demonstrate PAI-1 as a potential marker of placental insufficiency and identify its close association with pathological hypoxia and angiogenesis in a subset of growth restricted pregnancies.

  1. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  2. Increased ferritin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa: impact of weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanby, P; Berglund, J; Brudin, L; Hedberg, D; Carlsson, M

    2016-09-01

    A few recent studies have found elevated ferritin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), indicating ferritin as a potential biomarker of disease severity. The purpose of this study was to study how body mass index (BMI) and changes in BMI affect plasma ferritin concentrations in Swedish patients with eating disorders. In a retrospective computer search from 2009 to 2014, 662 patients with an eating disorder were identified from more than 200,000 individuals with electronic medical records. Three hundred and eighty-nine patients (374 females and 15 males) were found to have at least one p-ferritin value with a corresponding BMI value. Patients with AN were compared to a combined group consisting of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Patients with AN had lower BMI compared to the combined group of patients with other eating disorders (BMI = 16.5 ± 1.5, n = 77 vs. 21.0 ± 4.7, n = 312, p < 0.001). Patients with AN also had higher plasma ferritin levels (median 42 μg/L (range 3.3-310) vs. 31 μg/L (range 2.8-280); p < 0.001). As BMI increased in patients with AN, ferritin levels decreased (from a median of 40 μg/L (7-400) to 26 (4-170), n = 47; p < 0.001). Measuring ferritin in patients with AN could be valuable in monitoring improvements of nutritional status, but the full clinical value of following ferritin in individual patients has yet to be determined. The study also shows how research can benefit from electronically captured clinical data using electronic health records.

  3. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  4. Insulin resistance and increased muscle cytokine levels in patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rue, Nana; Vissing, John; Galbo, Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to cause insulin resistance and that might stimulate cytokine production. The objective of the study was to elucidate the association between mitochondrial myopathy, insulin sensitivity, and cytokine levels in muscle. This was an experimental, controlled study in outpatients. Eight overnight-fasted patients (P) with various inherited mitochondrial myopathies and eight healthy subjects (C) matched for sex, age, weight, height, and physical activity participated in the study. The intervention included a 120-minute hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Another morning, microdialysis of both vastus lateralis muscles for 4 hours, including one-legged, knee extension exercise for 30 minutes, was performed. Glucose infusion rate during 90-120 minutes of insulin infusion was measured. Cytokine concentrations in dialysate were also measured. Muscle strength, percentage fat mass, and creatine kinase in plasma did not differ between groups. The maximal oxygen uptake was 21 ± 3 (SE) (P) and 36 ± 3(C) mL/kg·min (2P fatty acids and glycerol at 120 minutes were higher in P vs C (2P myopathies, insulin sensitivity of muscle, adipose tissue, and pancreatic A cells is reduced, supporting that mitochondrial function influences insulin action. Furthermore, a local, low-grade inflammation of potential clinical importance exists in the muscle of these patients.

  5. Increased metabolite levels of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries and hypoxic macrophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yamashita

    Full Text Available AIMS: Inflammation and possibly hypoxia largely affect glucose utilization in atherosclerotic arteries, which could alter many metabolic systems. However, metabolic changes in atherosclerotic plaques remain unknown. The present study aims to identify changes in metabolic systems relative to glucose uptake and hypoxia in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries and cultured macrophages. METHODS: Macrophage-rich or smooth muscle cell (SMC-rich neointima was created by balloon injury in the iliac-femoral arteries of rabbits fed with a 0.5% cholesterol diet or a conventional diet. THP-1 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS and interferon-γ (INFγ were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We evaluated comprehensive arterial and macrophage metabolism by performing metabolomic analyses using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry. We evaluated glucose uptake and its relationship to vascular hypoxia using (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18F-FDG and pimonidazole, a marker of hypoxia. RESULTS: The levels of many metabolites increased in the iliac-femoral arteries with macrophage-rich neointima, compared with those that were not injured and those with SMC-rich neointima (glycolysis, 4 of 9; pentose phosphate pathway, 4 of 6; tricarboxylic acid cycle, 4 of 6; nucleotides, 10 of 20. The uptake of (18F-FDG in arterial walls measured by autoradiography positively correlated with macrophage- and pimonidazole-immunopositive areas (r = 0.76, and r = 0.59 respectively; n = 69 for both; p<0.0001. Pimonidazole immunoreactivity was closely localized with the nuclear translocation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and hexokinase II expression in macrophage-rich neointima. The levels of glycolytic (8 of 8 and pentose phosphate pathway (4 of 6 metabolites increased in LPS and INFγ stimulated macrophages under hypoxic but not normoxic condition. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 protein levels in the supernatant were closely

  6. Responses to ozone pollution of alfalfa exposed to increasing salinity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, Albino; Chiaranda, Fabrizio Quaglietta; Cefariello, Roberto [DIAAT, Naples University Federico II, via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Fagnano, Massimo, E-mail: fagnano@unina.i [DIAAT, Naples University Federico II, via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal closure and biosynthesis of antioxidant molecules are two fundamental components of the physiological machinery that lead to stress adaptation during plant's exposure to salinity. Since high stomatal resistance may also contribute in counteracting O{sub 3} damages, we hypothesized that soil salinization may increase O{sub 3} tolerance of crops. An experiment was performed with alfalfa grown in filtered (AOT40 = 0 in both years) and non-filtered (AOT40 = 9.7 in 2005 and 6.9 ppm h in 2006) open-top chambers. Alfalfa yield was reduced by O{sub 3} (-33%) only in plants irrigated with salt-free water, while the increasing levels of soil salinity until 1.06 dS m{sup -1} reduced both stomatal conductance and plant O{sub 3} uptake, thus linearly reducing O{sub 3} effects on yield. Therefore a reliable flux-based model for assessing the effects of O{sub 3} on crop yield should take into account soil salinity. - Moderate saline stress can reduce ozone uptake and yield losses in alfalfa plants.

  7. Responses to ozone pollution of alfalfa exposed to increasing salinity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, Albino; Chiaranda, Fabrizio Quaglietta; Cefariello, Roberto; Fagnano, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Stomatal closure and biosynthesis of antioxidant molecules are two fundamental components of the physiological machinery that lead to stress adaptation during plant's exposure to salinity. Since high stomatal resistance may also contribute in counteracting O 3 damages, we hypothesized that soil salinization may increase O 3 tolerance of crops. An experiment was performed with alfalfa grown in filtered (AOT40 = 0 in both years) and non-filtered (AOT40 = 9.7 in 2005 and 6.9 ppm h in 2006) open-top chambers. Alfalfa yield was reduced by O 3 (-33%) only in plants irrigated with salt-free water, while the increasing levels of soil salinity until 1.06 dS m -1 reduced both stomatal conductance and plant O 3 uptake, thus linearly reducing O 3 effects on yield. Therefore a reliable flux-based model for assessing the effects of O 3 on crop yield should take into account soil salinity. - Moderate saline stress can reduce ozone uptake and yield losses in alfalfa plants.

  8. Association of increased triglyceride levels in metabolic syndrome with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helvaci, M.R.; Kaya, H.; Gundogdu, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We tried to understand significance of increased triglyceride (TG) values in metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease (CAD). Methodology: Check up cases with a TG value lower than 60 mg/dL were collected into the first, between 60 and 99 mg/dL into the second, between 100 and 149 mg/dL into the third, between 150 and 199 into the fourth, and 200 mg/dL and greater into the fifth groups. Results: Study included 478 cases. Values of the mean age, weight, body mass index, TG, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and prevalence of smoking, white coat hypertension (WCH), hypertension (HT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and CAD increased gradually and significantly nearly in all steps from the first towards the fifth groups. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome may be a progression step between complete physical health and irreversible end points, such as obesity, type 2 DM, HT, CAD, and stroke. Hypertriglyceridemia and White Coat Hypertension (WCH) may be the most significant reversible parameters of the syndrome, and it is better to have the lowest TG value as much as possible. The most significant increase was seen after the value of 100 mg/dL. The overweight, smoking, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperbetalipoproteinemia, and WCH may only be one of hundreds of parameters of the syndrome. Therefore, it is advisable that underlying etiologies rather than reversible parameters of the syndrome should be targeted for treatment. For example, increased TG and LDL-C values, and prevalence of WCH by aging may be secondary to decreased physical and mental stresses in elderly. (author)

  9. Increased plasma lipid levels exacerbate muscle pathology in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milad, Nadia; White, Zoe; Tehrani, Arash Y; Sellers, Stephanie; Rossi, Fabio M V; Bernatchez, Pascal

    2017-09-12

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by loss of dystrophin expression and leads to severe ambulatory and cardiac function decline. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx murine model of DMD only develops a very mild form of the disease. Our group and others have shown vascular abnormalities in animal models of MD, a likely consequence of the fact that blood vessels express the same dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins as skeletal muscles. To test the blood vessel contribution to muscle damage in DMD, mdx 4cv mice were given elevated lipid levels via apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene knockout combined with normal chow or lipid-rich Western diets. Ambulatory function and heart function (via echocardiogram) were assessed at 4 and 7 months of age. After sacrifice, muscle histology and aortic staining were used to assess muscle pathology and atherosclerosis development, respectively. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and creatine kinase (CK) were also measured. Although there was an increase in left ventricular heart volume in mdx-ApoE mice compared to that in mdx mice, parameters of heart function were not affected. Compared with wild-type and ApoE-null, only mdx-ApoE KO mice showed significant ambulatory dysfunction. Despite no significant difference in plasma CK, histological analyses revealed that elevated plasma lipids in chow- and Western diet-fed mdx-ApoE mice was associated with severe exacerbation of muscle pathology compared to mdx mice: significant increase in myofiber damage and fibrofatty replacement in the gastrocnemius and triceps brachii muscles, more reminiscent of human DMD pathology. Finally, although both ApoE and mdx-ApoE groups displayed increased plasma lipids, mdx-ApoE exhibited atherosclerotic plaque deposition equal to or less than that of ApoE mice. Since others have shown that lipid abnormalities correlate with DMD severity, our data suggest that plasma lipids could be

  10. Increased Levels of VEGF-A and HIF-1α in Turkish Children with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sefikogullari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a disease characterized by serious course, including acute viral fever, ecchymosis, thrombocytopenia, liver dysfunction and high rate of mortality. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A play an important role both in the inflamma­tory process and plasma leakage. The aim of this study was to define HIF-1α and VEGF-A serum levels obtained from CCHF patients and control group and to investigate whether these factors were correlated with the pathogenesis of this disease.Methods: Thirty cases younger than 17 yr confirmed by RT-PCR and/or ELISA for CCHF were included in this study. Thirty age and sex matched healthy peoples were enrolled as controls. Blood samples collected from the pa­tient and control groups. Serum levels of HIF-1α and VEGF-A were measured with ELISA.Results: Levels of HIF-1α and VEGF-A were statistically significantly increased in CCHF patients compared to the control group (P< 0.05.  A significant positive correlation was found between the levels of HIF-1α and VEGF-A in the patient group (P< 0.01. The levels of ALT, AST, CK, aPTT, WBC and Thrombocyte count were significantly higher in the patients than in the control group (P< 0.001. A positive correlation was found among the levels of AST and CK from biochemical parame­ters and VEGF and HIF-1α in the patient group (P< 0.05Conclusion: HIF-1α and VEGF-A might play an important role in CCHF pathogenesis.

  11. Increased serum ferritin levels in patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: can it be a new severity criterion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Sener; Dincer, Fatma; Sahin, Idris; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Akkus, Mehmet; Erkorkmaz, Unal

    2010-01-01

    Serum ferritin is one of the markers indicating hemophagocytosis that may have a role in the pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). This study was designed to determine any correlation between serum ferritin and routine diagnostic laboratory markers of CCHF, and to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and disease severity. Sixty-six patients with CCHF admitted to the hospital during the spring and summer months of 2006 and 2007 were included in the study. Serum ferritin levels were measured in sera obtained during the initial days of hospitalization. Data from 53 patients showing decreasing platelet counts over the first three days were used for further analysis and these patients were divided into two groups according to disease severity: group A included severe cases with lowest platelet counts 20x10(9)/l. Forty patients (60.6%) were male (mean age 43+/-17 years). Three patients died, thus the fatality rate was 4.5%. Fifty-one patients (77.3%) had abnormal serum ferritin levels, with levels above 500 ng/ml in 62.1%. There was a significant negative correlation between ferritin levels and concordant platelet counts (p or =1862ng/ml had a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 83.8% in differentiating severe cases from mild ones. Increased serum ferritin levels may suggest a significant role of hemophagocytosis in the pathogenesis of CCHF and may be a useful marker for diagnosis, disease activity, and prognosis. Copyright 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing vertical mine shafts under conditions of increasing shaft depth with rock hoisting to the operating mining level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-05-01

    A system for shaft excavation in deep coal mines with mining depth exceeding 1,000 m is discussed. During mine sinking rocks are removed to the ground surface. When depth of a deep mine shaft is increased rocks are removed to the operating mining level, causing lower investment costs than the system with rock hoisting to the ground surface. The Yuzhgiproshakht design firm carries out investigations on the optimum methods for increasing shaft depth in coal mines. Coal mines with the following coal output are included in evaluations: 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 Mt/year. Mine shaft depth of 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m is analyzed. Shaft depth is increased by 100, 200, 300 or 400 m. Shaft sinking rate ranges from 10 to 70 m/month. Effects of rock hoisting from the shaft bottom on the hoisting scheme in a mine shaft are analyzed. Position of hoisting bucket in relation to cages or skips moving in a shaft is investigated. Investigation results are given in 5 schemes. Analyses show that use of a shaft sinking system with rock hoisting to the ground surface during shaft excavation and with rock hoisting to the operating mining level during shaft depth increasing is economical when a shaft with skips is from 7 to 8 m in diameter or when a cage shaft is 6 m, 7 m or 8 m in diameter. Use of standardized shaft excavation systems is recommended. (In Russian)

  13. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Jensen-Otsu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressants have been associated with weight gain, but the causes are unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the association of antidepressant use with energy intake, macronutrient diet composition, and physical activity. We used data on medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity for 3073 eligible adults from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Potential confounding variables, including depression symptoms, were included in the models assessing energy intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Antidepressant users reported consuming an additional (mean ± S.E. 215 ± 73 kcal/day compared to non-users (p = 0.01. There were no differences in percent calories from sugar, fat, or alcohol between the two groups. Antidepressant users had similar frequencies of walking or biking, engaging in muscle-strengthening activities, and engaging in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Antidepressant users were more likely to use a computer for ≥2 h/day (OR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.09–2.90, but TV watching was similar between the two groups. These results suggest increased energy intake and sedentary behavior may contribute to weight gain associated with antidepressant use. Focusing on limiting food intake and sedentary behaviors may be important in mitigating the weight gain associated with antidepressant use.

  14. School-level factors associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption among students in California middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. This cross-sectional study included 5439 seventh- and ninth-grade students from 31 schools in California in 2010. Multilevel regression models estimated whether the odds of consuming fruits or vegetables at school among students eating the school lunch were associated with the length of the lunch period, quality/variety of produce options, or other factors. A longer lunch period was associated with increased odds of a student eating fruits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40) and vegetables (OR = 1.54) at school. Better fruit quality increased the odds of a student consuming fruit (OR = 1.44). Including a salad bar and involving students in food service decisions increased a student's odds of consuming vegetables (OR = 1.48 and OR = 1.34, respectively). This study suggests that institutional factors in schools are positively associated with middle and high school students' consumption of produce items at school. Additional efforts to structure school meal environments to enhance students' consumption of produce items can benefit students' nutrition and health. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  15. Cortisol levels in response to starting school in children at increased risk for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Stephanie J; Herbert, Joe; Cooper, Peter; Gunnar, Megan R; Goodyer, Ian; Croudace, Tim; Murray, Lynne

    2012-04-01

    Research on depression has identified hyperactivity of the HPA axis as a potential contributory factor to the intergenerational transmission of affective symptoms. This has not yet been examined in the context of social phobia. The current study compared HPA axis activity in response to a universal social stressor (starting school) in children of 2 groups of women: one with social phobia and one with no history of anxiety (comparison group). To determine specificity of effects of maternal social phobia, a third group of children were also examined whose mothers had generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Children provided salivary cortisol samples in the morning, afternoon and at bedtime across 3 time-blocks surrounding the school start: a month before starting school (baseline), the first week at school (stress response), and the end of the first school term (stress recovery). Child behavioural inhibition at 14 months was assessed to explore the influence of early temperament on later stress responses. All children displayed an elevation in morning and afternoon cortisol from baseline during the first week at school, which remained elevated until the end of the first term. Children in the social phobia group, however, also displayed an equivalent elevation in bedtime cortisol, which was not observed for comparison children or for children of mothers with GAD. Children in the social phobia group who were classified as 'inhibited' at 14 months displayed significantly higher afternoon cortisol levels overall. A persistent stress response to school in the morning and afternoon is typical for all children, but children of mothers with social phobia also display atypical elevations in evening cortisol levels when at school--signalling longer-term disruption of the circadian rhythm in HPA axis activity. This is the first study to report HPA axis disruption in children at increased risk of developing social phobia. Future research should determine whether this represents a

  16. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage attributable to cooking-oil fumes exposure among cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuebin; Cheng, Jinquan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Shuai, Zhihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking-oil fumes. However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36); all were male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 h prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urine samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG was similar for controls (mean 1.2micromol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen with an exhaust-hood operating (mean 1.5micromol/mol creatinine, n = 45). Cooks exposed to cooking-oil fumes without exhaust-hood operation had significantly increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3micromol/mol creatinine, n = 18), compared with controls. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in cooking-oil fumes may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  17. The increasing of enamel calcium level after casein phosphopeptideamorphous calcium phosphate covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyasri Prananingrum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caries process is characterized by the presence of demineralization. Demineralization is caused by organic acids as a result of carbohydrate substrate fermentation. Remineralization is a natural repair process for non-cavitated lesions. Remineralization occurs if there are Ca2+ and PO43- ions in sufficient quantities. Casein-amorphous calcium phosphate phosphopeptide (CPP-ACP is a paste material containing milk protein (casein, that actually contains minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. The casein ability to stabilize calcium phosphate and enhance mineral solubility and bioavailability confers upon CPP potential to be biological delivery vehicles for calcium and phosphate. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the calcium levels in tooth enamel after being covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day for 3, 14 and 28 days. Methods: Sample were bovine incisors of 3 year old cows divided into 4 groups, namely group I as control group, group II, III and IV as treatment groups covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day. All of those teeth were then immersed in artificial saliva. Group II was immersed for 3 days, while group III was immersed for 14 days, and group IV was immersed for 28 days. One drop of CPP-ACP was used to cover the entire labial surface of teeth. The measurement of the calcium levels was then conducted by using titration method. All data were analyzed by One- Way ANOVA test with 5% degree of confidence. Results: The results showed significant difference of the calcium levels in tooth enamel of those groups after covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day for 3, 14 and 28 days (p = 0.001. There is also significant difference of the calcium levels in tooth enamel of those treatment groups and the control group (p = 0.001. Conclusion: The calcium levels of tooth enamel are increased after covered with CPP-ACP 2 times a day for 3, 14 and 28 days.Latar belakang: Proses terjadinya karies gigi ditandai oleh adanya demineralisasi

  18. Increased levels of anti-glycan antibodies in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirche TO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA have been suggested as a screening tool to detect CD in CF. Recently, several new anti-glycan antibodies have been reported in CD. Materials and methods The sera of 119 CF patients of various age groups were prospectively screened for ASCA type IgG (gASCA, anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (ALCA, anti-chitobioside carbohydrate IgA antibodies (ACCA, and anti-mannobioside carbohydrate IgG antibodies (AMCA. The frequency of these anti-glycan antibodies was then compared in patients with CD, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis and healthy volunteers. Results A significant number of CF patients were positive for gASCA (51.3% [41.6-60.6] and up to three other anti-glycan antibodies concurrently. Serum levels of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and CD were not related to parameters of inflammation. Despite the well-documented difference in clinical course between male and female CF patients no gender difference of anti-glycan antibodies was found. In contrast, there was a significant positive correlation between anti-glycan markers and age in CF patients. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate for the first time the increased frequency of a panel of anti-glycan antibodies in CF and provide a link between the presence of these serological biomarkers and patient's age. Anti-glycan antibody profiling may therefore become a valuable tool in the care of patients with CF.

  19. Expression analysis of CD63 in salivary neutrophils and the increased level of Streptococcus mutans in severe early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Luthfi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and decay exfoliation filling teeth (def-t >6 is a destructive disease that afflicts teeth, including maxillary anterior teeth. In Indonesia, the prevalence of this disease is still high, for instance in Semarang 2007, the rate reached 90.5% in urban areas and 95.9% in rural areas for early childhood caries which is caused by Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Neutrophils are effector cells of innate immunity which become the main component of the very first line of defense against microbes. Purpose: This study analyzed the effect caused by the change of CD63 expression on the surface of salivary neutrophils and the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC. Method: This study employs observational analytic and cross sectional approach by using T test analysis technique for forty cases of early childhood that had been divided into two groups, first group of twenty children positively diagnosed as S-ECC and second group of twenty children negatively diagnosed as the control group. The sample’s result of gargling with 1.5% NaCl was used for neutrophils isolation and analysis function of salivary neutrophils phagocytosis by using flow cytometry test, while the sample of saliva was used to isolate S. mutans and calculate the level of S. mutans. Result: The expression of CD63+ salivary neutrophils in S-ECC was lower (2.32% ± 0.57 than in caries-free (2.67% ± 0.46, while the level of S. mutans showed that the level was not higher than in S-ECC (9.78 ± 2.22x105 CFU/ml compared to in caries-free (5.13 ± 1.86x105 CFU/ml. Conclusion: The low expression of CD63 in salivary neutrophils can lead to the increased level of S. mutans in S-ECC.

  20. Investigation of New Morpholino Oligomers to Increase Survival Motor Neuron Protein Levels in Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Agnese; Crisafulli, Sebastiano G; Rizzuti, Mafalda; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania; Nizzardo, Monica

    2018-01-06

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive childhood motor neuron disease and the main genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 ( SMN1 ) gene, which results in SMN protein deficiency. Only one approved drug has recently become available and allows for the correction of aberrant splicing of the paralogous SMN2 gene by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), leading to production of full-length SMN protein. We have already demonstrated that a sequence of an ASO variant, Morpholino (MO), is particularly suitable because of its safety and efficacy profile and is both able to increase SMN levels and rescue the murine SMA phenotype. Here, we optimized this strategy by testing the efficacy of four new MO sequences targeting SMN2 . Two out of the four new MO sequences showed better efficacy in terms of SMN protein production both in SMA induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and SMAΔ7 mice. Further, the effect was enhanced when different MO sequences were administered in combination. Our data provide an important insight for MO-based treatment for SMA. Optimization of the target sequence and validation of a treatment based on a combination of different MO sequences could support further pre-clinical studies and the progression toward future clinical trials.

  1. Increased red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in haemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horina, J H; Schwaberger, G; Brussee, H; Sauseng-Fellegger, G; Holzer, H; Krejs, G J

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) for the treatment of renal anaemia is well established. To assess the effect of rHuEpo treatment on physical performance we evaluated physical working capacity, oxygen uptake and red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) values at rest and during and after exercise on a bicycle spiroergometer in eight chronically haemodialysed patients. Follow-up examination was carried out after a mean of 14 weeks (range 9-19 weeks), when mean haemoglobin had increased from 7.8 to a stable value of 13.0 g/dl in response to rHuEpo treatment (P level without rHuEpo treatment than after correction of anaemia. Therefore rHuEpo treatment results both in better oxygen transport capacity and reduced intraerythrocytic oxygen affinity, which is followed by improved oxygen delivery to tissues per unit of haemoglobin. These effects may explain the improvement of exercise capacity observed in dialysis patients after rHuEpo treatment.

  2. Assessing the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses to increasing anemia severity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Dey, Ankita; Chen, Tenn F.

    2015-09-01

    Anemia is a prevalent medical condition that seriously affects millions of people all over the world. In many regions, not only its initial detection but also its monitoring are hindered by limited access to laboratory facilities. This situation has motivated the development of a wide range of optical devices and procedures to assist physicians in these tasks. Although noticeable progress has been achieved in this area, the search for reliable, low-cost, and risk-free solutions still continues, and the strengthening of the knowledge base about this disorder and its effects is essential for the success of these initiatives. We contribute to these efforts by closely examining the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses (within and outside the visible region of the light spectrum) to reduced hemoglobin concentrations associated with increasing anemia severity levels. This investigation, which involves skin specimens with distinct biophysical and morphological characteristics, is supported by controlled in silico experiments performed using a predictive light transport model and measured data reported in the biomedical literature. We also propose a noninvasive procedure to be employed in the monitoring of this condition at the point-of-care.

  3. Is metal contamination responsible for increasing aneuploidy levels in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum?

    KAUST Repository

    Piló , D.; Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, P.; Gaspar, M.B.; Leitã o, A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the metal genotoxicity potential at chromosome-level in the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum collected along different areas of the Tagus estuary. Higher levels of aneuploidy on gill cells were detected at the most sediment

  4. Caloric Restriction and Exercise Increase Plasma ANGPTL4 Levels in Humans via Elevated Free Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.; Lichtenstein, L.L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, C.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  5. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Muller, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  6. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However,

  7. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-07-01

    The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. A limitação dietética durante a gravidez influencia o crescimento e desenvolvimento do feto e da prole e sua saúde na vida adulta. Os mecanismos subjacentes dos efeitos adversos da restrição proteica gestacional (RPG) no desenvolvimento dos corações da prole não são bem compreendidos. Avaliar os efeitos da RPG sobre a estrutura cardíaca em filhotes machos de ratas aos 60 dias após o nascimento (d60). Ratos fêmeas Wistar grávidas foram alimentadas com uma dieta de proteína normal (PN, 17% caseína) ou de baixa proteína (BP, caseína 6%). Os valores de pressão arterial (PA) de descendentes do sexo masculino de

  8. Systemic and cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor levels increase in murine cerebral malaria along with increased Calpain and caspase activity and can be reduced by erythropoietin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) includes compromised microvascular perfusion, increased inflammation, cytoadhesion, and endothelial activation. These events cause blood-brain barrier disruption and neuropathology and associations with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signal...

  9. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Götz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 days after fertilization. Metabolite and transcript profiling in anti-ABA grains expose triggered and enhanced ABA-functions such as transcriptional up-regulation of sucrose-to-starch metabolism, storage protein synthesis and ABA-related signal transduction. Thus, enhanced ABA during transition phases induces precocious maturation but negatively interferes with growth and development. Anti-ABA grains display broad constitutive gene induction related to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of these genes are ABA- and/or stress-inducible, including alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, chaperones, glutathione-S-transferase, drought- and salt-inducible proteins. Conclusively, ABA immunomodulation results in precocious ABA accumulation that generates an integrated response of stress and maturation. Repression of ABA signalling, occurring in anti-ABA grains, potentially antagonizes effects caused by overshooting production. Finally, mature grain weight and composition are unchanged in anti-ABA plants, although germination is somewhat delayed. This indicates that anti-ABA caryopses induce specific mechanisms to desensitize ABA signalling efficiently, which finally yields mature grains with nearly unchanged dry weight and composition. Such compensation implicates the enormous physiological and metabolic flexibilities of barley grains to adjust effects of unnaturally high ABA amounts in order to ensure and maintain proper grain development. © The Author 2016. Published by

  10. Advanced gestational age increases serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels in abstinent pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F; Savich, Renate D; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F; Savage, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as 'positive' for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further.

  11. The levels of perceptual processing and the neural correlates of increasing subjective visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Marek; Gociewicz, Krzysztof; Windey, Bert; Koculak, Marcin; Finc, Karolina; Nikadon, Jan; Derda, Monika; Cleeremans, Axel

    2017-10-01

    According to the levels-of-processing hypothesis, transitions from unconscious to conscious perception may depend on stimulus processing level, with more gradual changes for low-level stimuli and more dichotomous changes for high-level stimuli. In an event-related fMRI study we explored this hypothesis using a visual backward masking procedure. Task requirements manipulated level of processing. Participants reported the magnitude of the target digit in the high-level task, its color in the low-level task, and rated subjective visibility of stimuli using the Perceptual Awareness Scale. Intermediate stimulus visibility was reported more frequently in the low-level task, confirming prior behavioral results. Visible targets recruited insulo-fronto-parietal regions in both tasks. Task effects were observed in visual areas, with higher activity in the low-level task across all visibility levels. Thus, the influence of level of processing on conscious perception may be mediated by attentional modulation of activity in regions representing features of consciously experienced stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carcass and meat traits, and non-carcass components of lambs fed ration containing increasing levels of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rozanski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat traits, and the non-carcass components of crossbred Dorper lambs fed diets with increasing levels of urea (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% of dry matter – DM. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments (urea inclusion levels and six replicates per treatment. Lambs were fed ad libitum for 56 days and slaughtered at 37.9 ± 5.1 kg of body weight (BW. The weight and yield of carcass before and after cooling were not influenced by urea levels, with average values of 16.9 kg and 44.6% for cold carcass weight and yield. Urea levels did not affect the morphometric measurements, the fat deposition on the carcass, the weight of carcass cuts and the weight of non-carcass components. There was a quadratic effect of urea levels on the loin yield, which may achieve maximum value of 11.31% with the inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the feed. The pH and the color coordinates L* (brightness, a* (red intensity and C* (saturation of the meat also showed quadratic response to the urea levels, where in the minimum value of 5.53 for pH, maximum value of 48.67 for L* and minimum values of 14.04 and 16.21 for a* and C* may be obtained by including 0.53 to 0.70% DM urea in the ration. The inclusion of 0.84% DM urea in the ration is recommended to obtain maximum yield of loin and meat with attractive characteristics to the consumer, which is characterized by high red intensity and brightness. If consumers have preference for lamb meat with a more intense red color, the inclusion of 1.5% DM urea should be considered in the ration formulation.

  13. Plasma C16-Cer levels are increased in patients with preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudanski, Piotr; Charkiewicz, Karol; Kisielewski, Rafal; Kuc, Pawel; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Raba, Grzegorz; Kraczkowski, Janusz; Dymicka-Piekarska, Violetta; Chabowski, Adrian; Kacerovsky, Marian; Jacobsson, Bo; Zabielski, Piotr; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    The pathogenesis of preterm labor is fragmentarily explained. The most widely accepted theory points out to infection and inflammation as possible causes, which can be mediated by potentially different factors, including sphingolipid mediators. Sphingolipids are a class of lipids that have been shown as important mediators in various cell processes such as: proliferation, growth, apoptosis, stress response, necrosis and inflammation. The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentrations of selected sphingolipids in patients with preterm labor. We used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with triple mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) to assess plasma concentrations of the 11 sphingolipids in patients presenting with symptoms of preterm labor (n=61) and threatened preterm labor (n=40). We observed a statistically significant increase (p-valueCer in patients with preterm labor as compared to the control group. We also found C16-Cer to be the best predictor of preterm labor in the group of patients with symptoms occurring after 32 weeks of gestation. Our findings show a possible involvement of selected sphingolipids, especially C16-Cer, in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. Their role as predictors of preterm delivery needs to be validated in the future on larger group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-02-28

    To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers.

  15. Saturation in Phosphene Size with Increasing Current Levels Delivered to Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosking, William H; Sun, Ping; Ozker, Muge; Pei, Xiaomei; Foster, Brett L; Beauchamp, Michael S; Yoshor, Daniel

    2017-07-26

    Electrically stimulating early visual cortex results in a visual percept known as a phosphene. Although phosphenes can be evoked by a wide range of electrode sizes and current amplitudes, they are invariably described as small. To better understand this observation, we electrically stimulated 93 electrodes implanted in the visual cortex of 13 human subjects who reported phosphene size while stimulation current was varied. Phosphene size increased as the stimulation current was initially raised above threshold, but then rapidly reached saturation. Phosphene size also depended on the location of the stimulated site, with size increasing with distance from the foveal representation. We developed a model relating phosphene size to the amount of activated cortex and its location within the retinotopic map. First, a sigmoidal curve was used to predict the amount of activated cortex at a given current. Second, the amount of active cortex was converted to degrees of visual angle by multiplying by the inverse cortical magnification factor for that retinotopic location. This simple model accurately predicted phosphene size for a broad range of stimulation currents and cortical locations. The unexpected saturation in phosphene sizes suggests that the functional architecture of cerebral cortex may impose fundamental restrictions on the spread of artificially evoked activity and this may be an important consideration in the design of cortical prosthetic devices. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neural basis for phosphenes, the visual percepts created by electrical stimulation of visual cortex, is fundamental to the development of a visual cortical prosthetic. Our experiments in human subjects implanted with electrodes over visual cortex show that it is the activity of a large population of cells spread out across several millimeters of tissue that supports the perception of a phosphene. In addition, we describe an important feature of the production of phosphenes by

  16. Increasing advance personal planning: the need for action at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Amy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Ries, Nola; Bryant, Jamie

    2018-05-09

    Advance personal planning is the process by which people consider, document and communicate their preferences for personal, financial and health matters in case they lose the ability to make decisions or express their wishes in the future. Advance personal planning is most often undertaken by individuals who are seriously ill, often in the context of a medical crisis and/or at the time of admission to hospital. However, the clinical utility and legal validity of the planning process may be compromised in these circumstances. Patients may lack sufficient capacity to meaningfully engage in advance personal planning; there may be insufficient time to adequately reflect on and discuss wishes with key others; and there may also be limited opportunity for inter-professional input and collaboration in the process. Here, we propose an agenda for research to advance the science of advance personal planning by promoting a 'whole community' approach. Adoption of advance personal planning at a community level may be achieved using a variety of strategies including public media campaigns, intervening with professionals across a range of health care and legal settings, and mobilising support from influential groups and local government. One potentially promising method for encouraging earlier adoption of advance personal planning among a broader population involves a community action approach, whereby multiple evidence-based strategies are integrated across multiple access points. Community action involves calling on community members, professionals, community and/or government organisations to work collaboratively to design and systematically implement intervention strategies with the aim of bringing about desired behaviour change. An example of a community action trial to improving uptake and quality of advance personal planning is described. While promising, there is a need for rigorous evidence to demonstrate whether a community action approach is effective in

  17. Bioaugmentation of Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidizing Culture in Biogas Reactors Exposed to Increasing Levels of Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerholm, Maria; Levén, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    The importance of syntrophic acetate oxidation for process stability in methanogenic systems operating at high ammonia concentrations has previously been emphasized. In this study we investigated bioaugmentation of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing (SAO) cultures as a possible method for decreasing the adaptation period of biogas reactors operating at gradually increased ammonia concentrations (1.5 to 11 g NH4+-N/liter). Whole stillage and cattle manure were codigested semicontinuously for about 460 days in four mesophilic anaerobic laboratory-scale reactors, and a fixed volume of SAO culture was added daily to two of the reactors. Reactor performance was evaluated in terms of biogas productivity, methane content, pH, alkalinity, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The decomposition pathway of acetate was analyzed by isotopic tracer experiments, and population dynamics were monitored by quantitative PCR analyses. A shift in dominance from aceticlastic methanogenesis to SAO occurred simultaneously in all reactors, indicating no influence by bioaugmentation on the prevailing pathway. Higher abundances of Clostridium ultunense and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans were associated with bioaugmentation, but no influence on Syntrophaceticus schinkii or the methanogenic population was distinguished. Overloading or accumulation of VFA did not cause notable dynamic effects on the population. Instead, the ammonia concentration had a substantial impact on the abundance level of the microorganisms surveyed. The addition of SAO culture did not affect process performance or stability against ammonia inhibition, and all four reactors deteriorated at high ammonia concentrations. Consequently, these findings further demonstrate the strong influence of ammonia on the methane-producing consortia and on the representative methanization pathway in mesophilic biogas reactors. PMID:22923397

  18. Increase in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cytosol affects sugar partitioning and increases the lateral shoots in tobacco plants at elevated CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshie; Nedachi, Shigeki; Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    We generated transgenic tobacco plants with high levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressing cyanobacterialfructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol. At ambient CO(2) levels (360 ppm), growth, photosynthetic activity, and fresh weight were unchanged but the sucrose/hexose/starch ratio was slightly altered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. At elevated CO(2) levels (1200 ppm), lateral shoot, leaf number, and fresh weight were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activity was also increased. Hexose accumulated in the upper leaves in the wild-type plants, while sucrose and starch accumulated in the lower leaves and lateral shoots in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contributes to the efficient conversion of hexose into sucrose, and that the change in carbon partitioning affects photosynthetic capacity and morphogenesis at elevated CO(2) levels.

  19. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in centenarians are not associated with increased production in T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, Marie; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Kemp, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by increased inflammatory activity reflected by increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, concomitant with an altered cytokine profile of T lymphocytes. High plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are strongly associated with morbidity...... and mortality in elderly humans. However, the cellular source and mechanisms for the increased circulating TNF-alpha levels are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate if high plasma levels of TNF-alpha are associated with increased production of TNF-alpha by T lymphocytes in elderly...... humans. METHODS: TNF-alpha production by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin in 28 young controls, 14, 81-year-olds and 25 centenarians. RESULTS: Plasma levels of TNF-alpha increased with increasing age...

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is increased in serum and skin levels of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössing, K; Novak, N; Mommert, S; Pfab, F; Gehring, M; Wedi, B; Kapp, A; Raap, U

    2011-10-01

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria is triggered by many direct and indirect aggravating factors including autoreactive/autoimmune mechanisms, infections, non-allergic and pseudoallergic intolerance reactions. However, the role of neuroimmune mechanisms in chronic spontaneous urticaria so far is unclear. Thus, we wanted to address the regulation of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum and inflammatory skin of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria in comparison to subjects with healthy skin. Fifty adult patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and 23 skin-healthy subjects were studied. Chronic spontaneous urticaria was defined as recurrent weals for more than 6 weeks. Autologous serum skin test was performed in all patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and BDNF serum levels were analysed by enzyme immunoassay in all subjects. Furthermore, skin biopsies were taken from weals of eight patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria as well as from healthy skin of eight controls to evaluate the expression of BDNF and its receptors including tyrosine kinase (trk) B and pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR) by immunohistochemistry. BDNF serum levels were detectable in all subjects studied. However, BDNF levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria compared to non-atopic skin-healthy controls (Pchronic spontaneous urticaria compared with controls (Pchronic spontaneous urticaria and controls and no difference in BDNF serum levels between autologous serum skin test-positive (n=23) and -negative (n=27) patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. This study shows that BDNF is increased in serum and diseased skin of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, suggesting a role for neurotrophins in the pathophysiology of this chronic inflammatory skin disease. Further studies are needed to address the functional role of BDNF on key target effector cells in chronic spontaneous urticaria to establish new

  1. Increased testosterone levels and cortisol awakening responses in patients with borderline personality disorder: gender and trait aggressiveness matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Juliane; Gäbel, Andrea; Nagy, Krisztina; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    2015-05-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by antagonism, negative affectivity, disinhibition, and impairments in interpersonal functioning, including enhanced impulsive aggression. Interpersonal dysfunctions may be related to alterations in endocrine systems. The current study investigated alterations in basal activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress system in BPD patients and their association to anger-related aggression with a particular focus on effects of gender and comorbid conditions of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Saliva testosterone levels as well as cortisol awakening responses were assessed in 55 medication-free female and male patients with BPD and compared to 47 gender-, age-, and intelligence-matched healthy volunteers. In addition, analyses controlling for current depression and PSTD and bivariate correlations between testosterone and cortisol levels on the one hand and anger and aggressiveness on the other hand were performed. The results revealed increased saliva testosterone levels in female and male patients with BPD as well as elevated cortisol awakening responses in female, but not male patients with BPD compared to healthy volunteers. Cortisol awakening responses were positively related to anger and aggressiveness in female patients with BPD, but no associations were found with testosterone levels. In line with previous reports, the present results suggest endocrine alterations in BPD which may be associated with interpersonal impairments, such as increased anger-related aggressive behavior and could have implications for the development of new (psychopharmaco-) therapeutic interventions that may help to restore the alterations in the HPA and HPG systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High Insulin Levels in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice Cause Increased Cortical Bone Mass and Impaired Trabecular Micro-Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Fu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and complications, including obesity and osteoporosis. Rodents have been widely used to model human T2DM and investigate its effect on the skeleton. We aimed to investigate skeletal alterations in Yellow Kuo Kondo (KK-Ay diabetic mice displaying high insulin and glucose levels. Bone mineral density (BMD, micro-architecture and bone metabolism-related genes were analyzed. The total femoral areal BMD (aBMD, cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD and thickness were significantly increased in KK-Ay mice, while the trabecular vBMD and mineralized bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV, trabecular thickness and number were decreased compared to C57BL mice. The expression of both osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin (OC, bone sialoprotein, Type I Collagen, osteonectin, RUNX2 and OSX, and osteoclast-related genes, such as TRAP and TCIRG, were up-regulated in KK-Ay mice. Correlation analyses showed that serum insulin levels were positively associated with aBMD, cortical vBMD and thickness and negatively associated with trabecular vBMD and micro-architecture. In addition, serum insulin levels were positively related to osteoblast-related and osteoclast-related gene expression. Our data suggest that high insulin levels in KK-Ay diabetic mice may increase cortical bone mass and impair trabecular micro-structure by up-regulating osteoblast-and osteoclast-related gene expression.

  3. Impact of increasing alanine aminotransferase levels within normal range on incident diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Shan Wang; Ting-Tsung Chang; Wei-Jen Yao; Shan-Tair Wang; Pesus Chou

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal alanine aminotransferase level (ALT) levels might be associated with type 2 diabetes, but whether higher ALT levels within the normal range predict the risk is unknown. Methods: We followed a community-based cohort of 3446 individuals who were ≥35 years old without diabetes and hepatitis B or C in southern Taiwan for 8 years (1997–2004) to study the risk for type 2 diabetes with different normal ALT levels. Results: Among the 337 incident diabetes cases, 16.0% were from those w...

  4. Is use of fall risk-increasing drugs in an elderly population associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorell, Kristine; Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for hip fracture are well studied because of the negative impact on patients and the community, with mortality in the first year being almost 30% in the elderly. Age, gender and fall risk-increasing drugs, identified by the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden......, are well known risk factors for hip fracture, but how multimorbidity level affects the risk of hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs is to our knowledge not as well studied. This study explored the relationship between use of fall risk-increasing drugs in combination with multimorbidity...... level and risk of hip fracture in an elderly population. METHODS: Data were from Östergötland County, Sweden, and comprised the total population in the county aged 75 years and older during 2006. The odds ratio (OR) for hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs was calculated by multivariate...

  5. Increased Levels of YKL-40 and Interleukin 6 in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis and Secondary Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Nielsen, Anders Rinnov; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Circulating levels of YKL-40 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to evaluate YKL-40 levels in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) with and without secondary diabetes mellitus (DM) to investigate whether elevated plasma YKL-40 could play a primary...

  6. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  7. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  8. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  9. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  10. Increased levels of proteins of the acute inflammatory phase in the peritoneal fluid of women with advanced stages of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Barczyński, Bartłomiej; Bednarek, Wiesława; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Wertell, Iwona; Derewianka-Polak, Magdalena; Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Kotarski, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Most investigators agree that endometriosis is associated with a state of subclinical, non-infectious peritoneal inflammation. The objective of the study was to assess concentrations of two markers of the acute inflammatory phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin, in peritoneal fluid of endometriotic women. 229 women who underwent diagnostic or therapeutic laparoscopy were included in the study Minimal, mild, moderate and severe endometriosis according to ASRM was confirmed in 119 women (study groups), whereas 110 patients suffered from simple serous or dermoid ovarian cysts (reference groups). Haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin concentrations in the peritoneal fluid samples aspirated during laparoscopy were measured using commercially available radial immunodiffusion kits. The concentration of haptoglobin in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis was significantly higher as compared to patients with serous and dermoid ovarian cysts. Significantly higher haptoglobin level was observed in patients with severe and moderate endometriosis as compared to women from both reference groups. No significant difference in the peritoneal fluid ceruloplasmin levels was found between patients with endometriosis and women from reference groups. However, it was noted that ceruloplasmin levels are higher in the subgroup of patients with severe endometriosis as compared to both reference groups and women with mild disease. Our results support the hypothesis that endometriosis is associated with subclinical inflammation within the peritoneal cavity It may be speculated that pro-inflammatory stimuli strong enough to cause an increase in acute inflammatory phase proteins peritoneal fluid concentrations are observed only in the advanced stages of the disease.

  11. Report of Increasing Overdose Deaths that include Acetyl Fentanyl in Multiple Counties of the Southwestern Region of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jessica B; Janssen, Jennifer; Luckasevic, Todd M; Williams, Karl E

    2018-01-01

    Acetyl fentanyl is a Schedule I controlled synthetic opioid that is becoming an increasingly detected "designer drug." Routine drug screening procedures in local forensic toxicology laboratories identified a total of 41 overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl within multiple counties of the southwestern region of the state of Pennsylvania. The range, median, mean, and standard deviation of blood acetyl fentanyl concentrations for these 41 cases were 0.13-2100 ng/mL, 11 ng/mL, 169.3 ng/mL, and 405.3 ng/mL, respectively. Thirty-six individuals (88%) had a confirmed history of substance abuse, and all but one case (96%) were ruled multiple drug toxicities. This report characterizes this localized trend of overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl and provides further evidence supporting an alarmingly concentrated opiate and opioid epidemic of both traditional and novel drugs within this region of the United States. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    in hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesised......Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction...... that serum levels of these factors are altered in patients with narcolepsy compared to healthy controls without sleep disturbances. Polysomnography data was obtained and serum BDNF and NGF levels measured using ELISA, while hypocretin was measured using RIA. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher...

  13. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors increases 5-HT2A receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Kirkegaard, Lisbeth; Krey, Gesa

    2009-01-01

    an effect of GR activation on 5-HT2A levels, mature organotypic hippocampal cultures were exposed to corticosterone with or without GR antagonist mifepristone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone. In GR under-expressing mice, hippocampal 5-HT2A receptor protein levels were decreased......Major depression is associated with both dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and serotonergic deficiency, not the least of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, how these phenomena are linked to each other, and whether a low 5-HT2A receptor level is a state or a trait marker...... of depression is unknown. In mice with altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression we investigated 5-HT2A receptor levels by Western blot and 3H-MDL100907 receptor binding. Serotonin fibre density was analyzed by stereological quantification of serotonin transporter immunopositive fibers. To establish...

  15. Increased Serum Zonulin Levels as an Intestinal Permeability Marker in Autistic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnafoglu, Erman; Cırrık, Selma; Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Erdil, Abdullah; Ertürk, Emine Yurdakul; Daglı, Abdullah; Noyan, Tevfik

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the serum levels of zonulin, which regulates tight junctions between enterocytes and is a physiological modulator controlling intestinal permeability, in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Serum zonulin levels were determined in 32 patients with ASD and 33 healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The severity of ASD symptoms was assessed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Serum zonulin levels were significantly higher in the patients with ASD (122.3 ± 98.46 ng/mL) compared with the healthy controls (41.89 ± 45.83 ng/mL). There was a positive correlation between zonulin levels and Childhood Autism Rating Scale score when all subjects were assessed (r = 0.523; P zonulin, which regulates intestinal permeability, plays a role in the development of symptoms of ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PAI-1 gain-of-function genotype, factors increasing PAI-1 levels, and airway obstruction: The GALA II Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherenian, M G; Cho, S H; Levin, A; Min, J-Y; Oh, S S; Hu, D; Galanter, J; Sen, S; Huntsman, S; Eng, C; Rodriguez-Santana, J R; Serebrisky, D; Avila, P C; Kalhan, R; Smith, L J; Borrell, L N; Seibold, M A; Keoki Williams, L; Burchard, E G; Kumar, R

    2017-09-01

    PAI-1 gain-of-function variants promote airway fibrosis and are associated with asthma and with worse lung function in subjects with asthma. We sought to determine whether the association of a gain-of-function polymorphism in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with airway obstruction is modified by asthma status, and whether any genotype effect persists after accounting for common exposures that increase PAI-1 level. We studied 2070 Latino children (8-21y) with genotypic and pulmonary function data from the GALA II cohort. We estimated the relationship of the PAI-1 risk allele with FEV1/FVC by multivariate linear regression, stratified by asthma status. We examined the association of the polymorphism with asthma and airway obstruction within asthmatics via multivariate logistic regression. We replicated associations in the SAPPHIRE cohort of African Americans (n=1056). Secondary analysis included the effect of the at-risk polymorphism on postbronchodilator lung function. There was an interaction between asthma status and the PAI-1 polymorphism on FEV 1 /FVC (P=.03). The gain-of-function variants, genotypes (AA/AG), were associated with lower FEV 1 /FVC in subjects with asthma (β=-1.25, CI: -2.14,-0.35, P=.006), but not in controls. Subjects with asthma and the AA/AG genotypes had a 5% decrease in FEV 1 /FVC (P<.001). In asthmatics, the risk genotype (AA/AG) was associated with a 39% increase in risk of clinically relevant airway obstruction (OR=1.39, CI: 1.01, 1.92, P=.04). These associations persisted after exclusion of factors that increase PAI-1 including tobacco exposure and obesity. The decrease in the FEV 1 /FVC ratio associated with the risk genotype was modified by asthma status. The genotype increased the odds of airway obstruction by 75% within asthmatics only. As exposures known to increase PAI-1 levels did not mitigate this association, PAI-1 may contribute to airway obstruction in the context of chronic asthmatic airway inflammation. © 2017

  17. A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Jablonka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correlates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

  18. Is metal contamination responsible for increasing aneuploidy levels in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum?

    KAUST Repository

    Piló, D.

    2016-11-03

    The present study assessed the metal genotoxicity potential at chromosome-level in the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum collected along different areas of the Tagus estuary. Higher levels of aneuploidy on gill cells were detected at the most sediment contaminated area both in May (31.7%) and October (36.0%) when compared to a less contaminated area over the same periods (20.3% and 29.0% respectively). Interestingly, metal bioaccumulation in gills was higher in the specimens collected at the least contaminated area with the exception of Pb. Indeed, the multivariate analysis revealed a stronger relation between aneuploidy and sediment contamination than between aneuploidy and the bioaccumulation of the metals. The temporal and spatial inconsistency found for the bioaccumulation of metals in R. philippinarum and the positive correlation between sediment contamination and aneuploidy at the most contaminated area suggest that these chromosome-level effects might be due to chronic metal contamination occurring in the Tagus estuary, rather than a direct result of the temporal variation of bioavailable contaminants. The vertical transmission phenomenon of bivalve aneuploidy levels may then be perpetuating those levels on clams from the most contaminated area. The present results shed light about the effect of metal toxicity at the chromosome-level in species inhabiting chronic contaminated areas and highlight the use of aneuploidy as an effective tool to identify persistent contamination in worldwide transitional waters.

  19. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  20. A tripeptide Diapin effectively lowers blood glucose levels in male type 2 diabetes mice by increasing blood levels of insulin and GLP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is rapidly increasing worldwide. Effective therapies, such as insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, require injections, which are costly and result in less patient compliance. Here, we report the identification of a tripeptide with significant potential to treat T2D. The peptide, referred to as Diapin, is comprised of three natural L-amino acids, GlyGlyLeu. Glucose tolerance tests showed that oral administration of Diapin effectively lowered blood glucose after oral glucose loading in both normal C57BL/6J mice and T2D mouse models, including KKay, db/db, ob/ob mice, and high fat diet-induced obesity/T2D mice. In addition, Diapin treatment significantly reduced casual blood glucose in KKay diabetic mice in a time-dependent manner without causing hypoglycemia. Furthermore, we found that plasma GLP-1 and insulin levels in diabetic models were significantly increased with Diapin treatment compared to that in the controls. In summary, our findings establish that a peptide with minimum of three amino acids can improve glucose homeostasis and Diapin shows promise as a novel pharmaceutical agent to treat patients with T2D through its dual effects on GLP-1 and insulin secretion.

  1. Increased blood 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels in methamphetamine users during early abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Chyi; Lai, Ying-Ching; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chen, Chun-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a role in the adverse physical and mental consequences of methamphetamine usage. The oxidative DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a well-known biomarker of ROS-induced DNA damage. Currently, there is insufficient clinical information about methamphetamine-induced oxidative DNA damage. This study examined differences in blood levels of 8-OHdG between methamphetamine users and non-users as well as alterations in 8-OHdG levels after 2 weeks of methamphetamine abstinence. We recruited 182 methamphetamine users (78.6% of male) and 71 healthy controls (95.8% of male). Baseline serum 8-OHdG levels were measured in both groups using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In methamphetamine users, 8-OHdG levels were measured again 2 weeks after baseline measurement. The results showed that methamphetamine users had significantly higher 8-OHdG levels (0.34 ± 0.13 ng/mL) than healthy controls (0.30 ± 0.08 ng/mL) (p users and post-abstinence interval, age of the first methamphetamine use, duration of methamphetamine use, or history of frequent methamphetamine use. Our findings suggest that methamphetamine users had an enhanced level of oxidative damage, which did not normalize during early abstinence. Future studies are required to determine the effects of long-term methamphetamine abstinence and potential confounders on 8-OHdG levels in methamphetamine users.

  2. Association of increased levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondkar AA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Altaf A Kondkar, Tahira Sultan, Faisal A Almobarak, Hatem Kalantan, Saleh A Al-Obeidan, Khaled K Abu-Amero Glaucoma Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC death is a key feature of glaucoma. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, can induce RGC apoptosis and play a critical role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Based on the possible role of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, we investigated the association between plasma levels of TNF-α and POAG or its clinical indices in comparison to non-glaucomatous controls. Patients and methods: In a case–control retrospective cohort of 51 POAG cases and 88 controls, plasma TNF-α levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The assay was performed in duplicates on an automated ELISA analyzer. Results: Mean TNF-α level was significantly elevated in POAG cases (1.88 ± 2.17 pg/mL than the controls (0.93 ± 1.49 pg/mL; p = 0.003. The overall dose–response trend was significant (Χ2 = 6.12, df = 2; p = 0.047. No statistical difference was seen in age, gender and systemic disease distribution. A modest negative and significant correlation was seen between TNF-α level and number of antiglaucoma medications, an important clinical index of POAG severity. Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of POAG was most significantly affected by TNF-α level and not by age and sex. Conclusion: High systemic level of an inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, is associated with POAG; however, its possible use as a biomarker for early glaucoma diagnosis and/or disease severity needs further investigation. Keywords: apoptosis, biomarker, cytokines, ELISA, inflammation, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress

  3. Micro-level social and structural factors act synergistically to increase HIV risk among Nepalese female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuba, Keshab; Anderson, Sarah; Ekström, Anna Mia; Pandey, Satish Raj; Shrestha, Rachana; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    Sex workers face stigma, discrimination, and violence across the globe and are almost 14 times more likely to be HIV-infected than other women in low- and middle-income countries. In Asia, condom campaigns at brothels have been effective in some settings, but for preventive interventions to be sustainable, it is important to understand micro-level social and structural factors that influence sexual behaviours of sex workers. This study assessed the syndemic effects of micro-level social and structural factors of unprotected sex and the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nepal. This quantitative study included 610 FSWs who were recruited using two-stage cluster sampling from September to November 2012 in 22 Terai Highway districts of Nepal. Rapid HIV tests and face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect biological and behavioural information. A count of physical (sexual violence and other undesirable events), social (poor social support and condom negotiation skills), and economic (unprotected sex to make more money) factors that operate at the micro-level was calculated to test the additive relationship to unprotected sex. The HIV prevalence was 1%; this is presumably representative, with a large sample of FSWs in Nepal. The prevalence of unprotected sex with clients was high (24%). For each additional adverse physical, social, and economic condition, the probability of non-use of condoms with clients increased substantially: one problem = 12% (psocial, and economic environments increased the risk of unprotected sex among Nepalese FSWs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. How to Do More with Less: Handling an Increased Workload While Maintaining Human Capital Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doerr, Jr., James C; Glazman, Emily

    2008-01-01

    ...) and local situation with regard to "human capital." The DoD is particularly concerned with the issue of maintaining its knowledge base in the face of large numbers of workers retiring and with an ever-increasing and increasingly complex workload...

  5. Genetic implications for forest trees of increasing levels of greenhouse gases and UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. Karnosky; Kevin E. Percy; Blanka Mankovska

    2000-01-01

    Globally, the environment is changing and deteriorating as greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (03) continue to increase at a rate of about 1% per year (Keeling et al. 1995, Chameides et al. 1995). The increase in these gases is directly related to anthropogenic activities (Chameides et al...

  6. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroula Proitsi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD.We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n=10,578. We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013. Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10-8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5 × 10-8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]=1.005, 95% CI 0.82-1.24, p = 0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR=0.901, 95% CI 0.65-1.25, p=0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR=1.104, 95% CI 0.89-1.37, p=0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR=0.954, 95% CI 0.76-1.21, p=0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol. Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance.Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and

  7. Increased level of interleukin-13, but not interleukin-4 and interferon-γ in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, M; Arshi, S; Bahrami, A; Aryan, Z; Bemanian, M H; Esmaeilzadeh, H; Jalali, F; Pousti, S B; Rezaei, N

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the serum level of interleukin (IL)-13, IL-4, and interferon (IFN)-γ in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and subsequent inflammation pattern and comorbidities including asthma and aspirin intolerance. A case-control study was conducted on 60 adult patients with CRSwNP with mean age of 37.7±12.7 (ranging from 18 to 70) years, and on 20 healthy controls. Serum levels of IL-13, IL-4, and IFN-γ were assessed, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to be compared between case and control groups. Serum level of total immunoglobulin (Ig) E was also assessed in the patients with CRSwNP. Serum level of IL-13 in the patients with CRSwNP was significantly higher than the controls (0.98±1.56 vs. 0.34±0.16 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.002). IL-4 and IFN-γ did not differ significantly between the two groups. Total IgE level was significantly increased in the patients with CRSwNP, compared to the normal values (301.43±516.54 IU/ml, p=0.033). Among the patients with CRSwNP, 12/60 (20%) had aspirin intolerance and 44/60 (73.3%) had asthma. IgE was also higher in asthmatics than non-asthmatics patients (364.9±586.6 vs. 126.7±135.7, respectively, p=0.015). Patients with aspirin intolerance had higher levels of IFN-γ (4.7±1.4 vs. 4.1±0.6, respectively, p=0.022). IL-13 with high level of total IgE was observed in the patients with CRSwNP, which predisposes them to have concomitant asthma. IFN-γ seems to be down-regulated in the patients with CRSwNP, but could be over-expressed in the presence of aspirin intolerance. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Perinatal nicotine treatment induces transient increases in NACHO protein levels in the rat frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichern, Franziska; Jensen, Majbrit M; Christensen, Ditte Z

    2017-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) regulator chaperone (NACHO) was recently identified as an important regulator of nAChR maturation and surface expression. Here we show that NACHO levels decrease during early postnatal development in rats. This decrease occurs earlier and to a greater...... degree in the frontal cortex (FC) compared with the hippocampus (HIP). We further show that rats exposed to nicotine during pre- and postnatal development exhibit significantly higher NACHO levels in the FC at postnatal day (PND) 21, but not at PND60. Repeated exposure to nicotine selectively during...... a single exposure to a combination of nicotine and the type II α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulator (PAM) PNU-120596, but not the type I PAM AVL-3288. These findings suggest that exposure to nAChR agonism affects NACHO protein levels, and that this effect is more pronounced during pre- or early postnatal...

  9. Increased deoxythymidine triphosphate levels is a feature of relative cognitive decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Frederiksen, Jane H; Olsen, Maria Nathalie Angleys

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular levels of nucleotides have been hypothesized as early indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Utilizing relative decline of cognitive ability as a predictor of AD risk, we evaluated the correlation between change...... of cognitive ability and mitochondrial bioenergetics, ROS and cellular levels of deoxyribonucleotides. Change of cognitive abilities, scored at ages of approximately 20 and 57 was determined for a cohort of 1985 male participants. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial ROS and whole-cell levels...... of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a total of 103 selected participants displaying the most pronounced relative cognitive decline and relative cognitive improvement. We show that relative cognitive decline is associated with higher PBMC content...

  10. Increased circulating D-lactate levels predict risk of mortality after hemorrhage and surgical trauma in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhian, Babak; Kröpfl, Albert; Hölzenbein, Thomas; Khadem, Anna; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl

    2012-05-01

    Patients with hemorrhagic shock and/or trauma are at risk of developing colonic ischemia associated with bacterial translocation that may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose noninvasively. The present retrospective study was designed to determine whether circulating plasma D-lactate is associated with mortality in a clinically relevant two-hit model in baboons. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in anesthetized baboons (n = 24) by controlled bleeding (mean arterial pressure, 40 mmHg), base excess (maximum -5 mmol/L), and time (maximum 3 h). To mimic clinical setting more closely, all animals underwent a surgical trauma after resuscitation including midshaft osteotomy stabilized with reamed femoral interlocking nailing and were followed for 7 days. Hemorrhagic shock/surgical trauma resulted in 66% mortality by day 7. In nonsurvivor (n = 16) hemorrhagic shock/surgical trauma baboons, circulating D-lactate levels were significantly increased (2-fold) at 24 h compared with survivors (n = 8), whereas the early increase during hemorrhage and resuscitation declined during the early postresuscitation phase with no difference between survivors and nonsurvivors. Moreover, D-lactate levels remained elevated in the nonsurvival group until death, whereas it decreased to baseline in survivors. Prediction of death (receiver operating characteristic test) by D-lactate was accurate with an area under the curve (days 1-3 after trauma) of 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.93). The optimal D-lactate cutoff value of 25.34 μg/mL produced sensitivity of 73% to 99% and specificity of 50% to 83%. Our data suggest that elevation of plasma D-lactate after 24 h predicts an increased risk of mortality after hemorrhage and trauma.

  11. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of prediabetes in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, G; Yang, H; Bao, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, L; Wu, H; Du, H; Xia, Y; Shi, H; Guo, X; Liu, X; Li, C; Su, Q; Gu, Y; Fang, L; Yu, F; Sun, S; Wang, X; Zhou, M; Jia, Q; Guo, Q; Song, K; Huang, G; Wang, G; Wu, Y; Niu, K

    2017-04-01

    To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. This prospective cohort study (n=7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1-7, 95% CI: 3.03-3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90-1.40), 1.20 (0.97-1.48), 1.41 (1.14-1.73) and 1.73 (1.41-2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74-1.38), 0.68 (0.48-0.96), 0.84 (0.61-1.15) and 1.07 (0.80-1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Decreased serum vitamin D levels in children with asthma are associated with increased corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Daniel A; Zhang, Yong; Murphy, James R; Hauk, Pia J; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-05-01

    There is little knowledge about clinical variables associated with vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in asthmatic children. We sought to investigate disease variables associated with VitD insufficiency in patients with childhood asthma and interaction of VitD with corticosteroid-mediated anti-inflammatory responses. We analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in 100 asthmatic children to investigate relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and patients' characteristics. We determined VitD's effects on dexamethasone (DEX) induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and IL-10 in PBMCs. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level was 31 ng/mL. Forty-seven percent of subjects had VitD levels in the insufficient range (<30 ng/mL), whereas 17% were VitD deficient (<20 ng/mL). Log(10) IgE (P = .01, rho = -0.25) and the number of positive aeroallergen skin prick test responses (P = .02, rho = -0.23) showed a significant inverse correlation with VitD levels, whereas FEV(1) percent predicted (P = .004, rho = 0.34) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity ratio (P = .01, rho = 0.30) showed a significant positive correlation with VitD levels. The use of inhaled steroids (P = .0475), use of oral steroids (P = .02), and total steroid dose (P = .001) all showed significant inverse correlations with VitD levels. The amount of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 and IL10 mRNA induced by VitD plus DEX was significantly greater than that induced by DEX alone (P < .01). In an experimental model of steroid resistance in which DEX alone did not inhibit T-cell proliferation, addition of VitD to DEX resulted in significant dose-dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Corticosteroid use and worsening airflow limitation are associated with lower VitD serum levels in asthmatic patients. VitD enhances glucocorticoid action in PBMCs from asthmatic patients and enhances the immunosuppressive function of DEX in vitro. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy

  13. Fertility in Namibia. Changes in fertility levels in North-Central Namibia 1960-2001, including an assessment of the impact of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Shemeikka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the development of fertility in North-Central Namibia, former Ovamboland, from 1960 to 2001. Special attention was given to the onset of fertility decline and to the impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility. An additional aim was to introduce parish registers as a source of data for fertility research in Africa.  Data used consisted of parish registers from Evangelical Lutheran congregations, the 1991 and 2001 Population and Housing Censuses, the 1992 and 2000 Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys, and the HIV sentinel surveillances of 1992-2004. Both period and cohort fertility were analysed. The P/F ratio method was used when analysing census data. The impact of HIV infection on fertility was estimated indirectly by comparing the fertility histories of women who died at an age of less than 50 years with the fertility of other women. The impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility was assessed both among infected women and in the general population.  Fertility in the study population began to decline in 1980. The decline was rapid during the 1980s, levelled off in the early 1990s at the end of war of independence and then continued to decline until the end of the study period. According to parish registers, total fertility was 6.4 in the 1960s and 6.5 in the 1970s, and declined to 5.1 in the 1980s and 4.2 in the 1990s. Adjustment of these total fertility rates to correspond to levels of fertility based on data from the 1991 and 2001 censuses resulted in total fertility declining from 7.6 in 1960-79 to 6.0 in 1980-89, and to 4.9 in 1990-99. The decline was associated with increased age at first marriage, declining marital fertility and increasing premarital fertility. Fertility among adolescents increased, whereas the fertility of women in all other age groups declined.  During the 1980s, the war of independence contributed to declining fertility through spousal separation and delayed marriages. Contraception

  14. Temperature rise, sea level rise and increased radiative forcing - an application of cointegration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmith, Torben; Thejll, Peter; Johansen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the statistical relationship between changes in global temperature, global steric sea level and radiative forcing in order to reveal causal relationships. There are in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We therefore apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis, originating from the field of econometrics, which is able to correctly handle the analysis of series with trends and other long-range dependencies. Further, we find a relationship between steric sea level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the steric sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. This result is obtained both when analyzing observed data and data from a CMIP5 historical model run. Finally, we find that in the data from the historical run, the steric sea level, in turn, is driven by the external forcing. Finally, we demonstrate that combining these two results can lead to a novel estimate of radiative forcing back in time based on observations.

  15. School-Based Budgeting: Increasing Influence and Information at the School Level in Rochester, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    Using survey and interview responses, examines school members' perceptions of school autonomy over budget decisions, availability of budget information at the school level, and members' willingness to engage in shared decision making in Rochester, New York. Results suggest there are implementation barriers in Rochester pilot schools. Participants…

  16. Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Zylicz, S.A.; Pieters, S.; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone modulates mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age, which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. These effects of testosterone are potentially mediated by the amygdala. In the

  17. Increased levels of circulating platelet-derived microparticles are associated with metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Joséphine; Pelletier, Fabien; Biichle, Sabeha; Mourey, Guillaume; Puyraveau, Marc; Badet, Nicolas; Caubet, Matthieu; Laresche, Claire; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Saas, Philippe; Seilles, Estelle; Aubin, François

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the plasma levels of PMPs in patients with 45 stage III and 45 stage IV melanoma. PMPs were characterised by flow cytometry and their thrombogenic activity. We also investigated the link between PMPs circulating levels and tumor burden. The circulating levels of PMPs were significantly higher in stage IV (8500 μL -1 ) than in patients with stage III (2041 μL -1 ) melanoma (P=.0001). We calculated a highly specific (93.3%) and predictive (91.7%) cut-off value (5311 μL -1 ) allowing the distinction between high-risk stage III and metastatic stage IV melanoma. The thrombogenic activity of PMPs was significantly higher in patients with stage IV melanoma (clotting time: 40.7 second vs 65 second, P=.0001). There was no significant association between the radiological tumoral syndrome and the plasma level of PMPs. Our data suggest the role of PMPs in metastatic progression of melanoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Increased sex hormone-binding globulin levels in children and adolescents with thyrotoxicosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Jensen, Rikke Bodin Beck; Juul, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a rare condition in pediatric patients, and optimal treatment can be difficult to achieve in some children. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in hyperthyroid children and adolescents in relation to age- and gender...

  19. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  20. Low serum mannose-binding lectin level increases the risk of death due to pneumococcal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisen, Damon P; Dean, Melinda M; Boermeester, Marja A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown associations between low mannose-binding lectin (MBL) level or variant MBL2 genotype and sepsis susceptibility. However, MBL deficiency has not been rigorously defined, and associations with sepsis outcomes have not been subjected to multivariable analysis....

  1. Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido A.; Zylicz, Staś A.; Pieters, Sara; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Fernández, Guillén

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone modulates mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age, which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. These effects of testosterone are potentially mediated by the amygdala. In the

  2. Early increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neonates recovering from respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Willem A.; van Kaam, Anton H. L. C.; Dekker, Tamara; Naber, Brigitta A. E.; Janssen, Daphne J.; Kroon, A. A.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.; Versnel, Marjan A.; Lutter, René

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an eminent role in airway injury and remodelling. We explored the hypothesis that pulmonary MMP levels would differ early after birth (2-4 days) between infants with resolving respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and infants developing chronic lung disease

  3. Increased Circulating and Urinary Levels of Soluble TAM Receptors in Diabetic Nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Lattenist, Lionel; Ahdi, Mohamed; Kers, Jesper; Uil, Melissa; Claessen, Nike; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Florquin, Sandrine; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.

    2017-01-01

    TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer) have been implicated in innate immunity. Circulating TAM receptor soluble forms (sTyro3, sAxl, sMer) are related to autoimmune disorders. We investigated TAM and their ligand protein S in patients with diabetes. Urinary and plasma levels of protein S, sTyro3,

  4. 77 FR 20059 - License Amendment To Increase the Maximum Reactor Power Level, Florida Power & Light Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... reduce and mitigate salinity levels in groundwater; operational changes to the PTN cooling canal system... approving the proposed expansion of PTN Units 3 and 4 based on compliance with conditions required by the... restrooms would be used during plant modifications. Therefore, land use conditions would not change at the...

  5. Serum IL-18 levels are not increased in patients with untreated Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakelkamp, I. M. M. J.; Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cytokines play an important role in autoimmune thyroid diseases, and serum levels may reflect the activity of the immune process. This is particularly interesting in Graves' ophthalmopathy, where a reliable serum activity marker is warranted. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a potent Th1

  6. Vectors for Increasing the Effectiveness of Profit Management at Company Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect management of processes involved in accumulation and disposal of profit at Ukrainian companies affects their performance, with the consequent losses of public budget revenues. This raises the need for new and more effective mechanisms for accumulation and disposal of corporate profit, which would be focused on maximal utilization of production, marketing and fiscal capacities of business entities and enhancement of their competitiveness at domestic and global market. The article’s objective is to conduct theoretical study of profit as an economic category and an essential component of company’s performance, sum up the principles of profit management, and analyze the profit management system at company level. A brief review of theoretical definitions of profit is made, economic origin of profit and its role in business operation in the Ukrainian context is highlighted. The components of profit management system at company level, essential principles of strategic management of company profit, organizational and economic mechanism for company profit management, a strategy for profit management at company level is discussed and summed up. The organizational and economic mechanism for profit quality management at company level is proposed.

  7. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Milk production and nutrient digestibility responses to increasing levels of stearic acid supplementation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; de Souza, J; Lock, A L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of a stearic acid (C18:0)-enriched supplement on nutrient digestibility, production responses, and the maximum amount of C18:0 that can be incorporated into the milk fat of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32; 145 ± 66 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (30 to 70 kg/d) were blocked by milk yield and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Treatments were diets supplemented with a C18:0-enriched supplement (SA; 93% C18:0) at 0, 0.80, 1.50, or 2.30% of diet dry matter (DM). Periods were 21 d with the final 5 d used for data and sample collection. Dry matter intake increased linearly as SA supplementation increased. Supplementation of SA had no effect on the yield of milk or milk components. Due to the increase in DM intake, SA linearly reduced the ratio of energy-corrected milk to DM intake. Supplementation of SA did not affect body weight. Increasing SA reduced digestibility of 16-carbon, 18-carbon, and total fatty acids (FA), with the reduction in digestibility of 18-carbon FA being approximately 30 percentage units from the 0.0 to 2.30% SA supplemented diets. Supplementation of SA linearly increased concentrations of preformed milk fatty acids (FA) but did not affect the yield of preformed milk FA. Yields of C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1 were increased by SA supplementation; however, the increase from 0 to 2.3% SA was only 16 g/d. The concentration and yield of de novo and 16-carbon milk FA were unaffected by SA supplementation. In conclusion, increasing doses of SA decreased FA digestibility and had little effect on production parameters. Although SA increased the yield of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat, it had no overall effect on milk fat yield. The lack of production responses to a C18:0-enriched fat supplement was most likely associated with the marked decrease in FA digestibility. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Trapezius muscle activity increases during near work activity regardless of accommodation/vergence demand level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H O; Zetterberg, C; Forsman, M

    2015-07-01

    To investigate if trapezius muscle activity increases over time during visually demanding near work. The vision task consisted of sustained focusing on a contrast-varying black and white Gabor grating. Sixty-six participants with a median age of 38 (range 19-47) fixated the grating from a distance of 65 cm (1.5 D) during four counterbalanced 7-min periods: binocularly through -3.5 D lenses, and monocularly through -3.5 D, 0 D and +3.5 D. Accommodation, heart rate variability and trapezius muscle activity were recorded in parallel. General estimating equation analyses showed that trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time in all four lens conditions. A concurrent effect of accommodation response on trapezius muscle activity was observed with the minus lenses irrespective of whether incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present or not. Trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time during the near work task. The increase in muscle activity over time may be caused by an increased need of mental effort and visual attention to maintain performance during the visual tasks to counteract mental fatigue.

  10. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) suppresses ghrelin levels in humans via increased insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Dirk; Holst, Jens Juul; Gethmann, Arnica

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide predominantly secreted by the stomach. Ghrelin plasma levels rise before meal ingestion and sharply decline afterwards, but the mechanisms controlling ghrelin secretion are largely unknown. Since meal ingestion also elicits the secretion...... of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), we examined whether exogenous GLP-1 administration reduces ghrelin secretion in humans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 14 healthy male volunteers were given intravenous infusions of GLP-1(1.2 pmol x kg(-1) min(-1)) or placebo over 390 min. After 30 min, a solid test...... meal was served. Venous blood was drawn frequently for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1 and ghrelin. RESULTS: During the infusion of exogenous GLP-1 and placebo, GLP-1 plasma concentrations reached steady-state levels of 139+/-15 pmol/l and 12+/-2 pmol/l, respectively (p

  11. Mutual Payments in Increase of the Level of Economic Security of Energy Generating Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzhytskyi Andrіy V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main approaches to the essence of the economic security of an enterprise notion, namely, approach of counter-action to threats, approach of successful market activity and approach of achievement of certain development goals; it identifies the role of economic security of energy generating enterprises in economic security of other subjects and the country in general; it offers definition of the economic security of an enterprise notion as a complex characteristic of the state of the enterprise that reflects the level of the enterprise possibility to ensure functioning and development; it marks out functional components of economic security, which are connected with mutual payments, namely, financial, personnel, technical and technological, political and legal, informational and interface ones; it presents connection of mutual payments with the level of financial component of economic security of enterprises, which envisages financial flow from or to the enterprise for changing the obligation status or its quantitative characteristics.

  12. Increasing alpine transit traffic through Switzerland will considerably enhance high altitude alpine pollutant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, A S.H.; Dommen, J; Furger, M; Graber, W K [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Within the EU-Project VOTALP (Vertical Ozone Transports in the Alps), we have shown that deep alpine valleys like the Mesolcina Valley very efficiently transport air out of the polluted valley up to altitudes between 2000 and near 4000 m asl (above sea level). Pollutants emitted in these valleys are very efficiently transported up to high altitudes. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  13. Pancreas Oxygen Persufflation Increases ATP Levels as Shown by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W.E.; Weegman, B.P.; Ferrer-Fabrega, J.; Stein, S.A.; Anazawa, T.; Kirchner, V.A.; Rizzari, M.D.; Stone, J.; Matsumoto, S.; Hammer, B.E.; Balamurugan, A.N.; Kidder, L.S.; Suszynski, T.M.; Avgoustiniatos, E.S.; Stone, S.G.; Tempelman, L.A.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Hering, B.J.; Papas, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. Due to a shortage of suitable human pancreata, high cost, and the large dose of islets presently required for long-term diabetes reversal; it is important to maximize viable islet yield. Traditional methods of pancreas preservation have been identified as suboptimal due to insufficient oxygenation. Enhanced oxygen delivery is a key area of improvement. In this paper, we explored improved oxygen delivery by persufflation (PSF), ie, vascular gas perfusion. Methods Human pancreata were obtained from brain-dead donors. Porcine pancreata were procured by en bloc viscerectomy from heparinized donation after cardiac death donors and were either preserved by either two-layer method (TLM) or PSF. Following procurement, organs were transported to a 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) system for 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate their bioenergetic status by measuring the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to inorganic phosphate (ATP:Pi) and for assessing PSF homogeneity by MRI. Results Human and porcine pancreata can be effectively preserved by PSF. MRI showed that pancreatic tissue was homogeneously filled with gas. TLM can effectively raise ATP:Pi levels in rat pancreata but not in larger porcine pancreata. ATP:Pi levels were almost undetectable in porcine organs preserved with TLM. When human or porcine organs were preserved by PSF, ATP:Pi was elevated to levels similar to those observed in rat pancreata. Conclusion The methods developed for human and porcine pancreas PSF homogeneously deliver oxygen throughout the organ. This elevates ATP levels during preservation and may improve islet isolation outcomes while enabling the use of marginal donors, thus expanding the usable donor pool. PMID:20692395

  14. High Normal Uric Acid Levels Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Diabetes in Lean, Normoglycemic Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Vinker, Shlomo; Dinour, Dganit; Leiba, Merav; Twig, Gilad; Holtzman, Eliezer J; Leiba, Adi

    2016-10-01

    The risk associated with serum uric acid (SUA) levels within the normal range is unknown, especially among lean and apparently healthy adults. Evaluating whether high-normal SUA levels, 6.8 mg/dL and below, are associated with an increased diabetes risk, compared with low-normal SUA. This was a cohort study with 10 years of followup involving all clinics of the largest nationally distributed Health Maintenance Organization in Israel. Participants included 469,947 examinees, 40-70 years old at baseline, who had their SUA measured during 2002. We excluded examinees who had hyperuricemia (SUA > 6.8 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose, overweight or obesity and chronic cardiovascular or renal disorders. The final cohort was composed of 30 302 participants. Participants were followed up to a new diagnosis of diabetes during the study period. Odds ratio of developing diabetes among participants with high-normal baseline SUA were compared with low-normal (2 ≤ uric acid lean women when compared with those with low-normal values.

  15. Iodine stimulates estrogen receptor singling and its systemic level is increased in surgical patients due to topical absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaohua; Wang, Bingchan; Lu, Xiyi; Miao, Suyu; Yang, Fengming; Zava, Theodore; Ding, Qiang; Zhang, Shijiang; Liu, Jiayin; Zava, David; Shi, Yuenian Eric

    2018-01-02

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone production. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer patients have an elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer and vice versa. A notable finding in this study is that iodine stimulated the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) in breast cancer cells. Iodine stimulated expression of several ER-α regulated gene including PS2 , Cathepsin D , CyclinD1 , and PR both in vitro and in nude mice, which is consistent with its stimulation of both anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of ER-α positive breast cancer cells and the effect to dampen tumor shrinkage of MCF-7 xenograft in ovariectomized nude mice. Analyses of clinical urine samples from breast cancer patients undergoing surgery demonstrated that urinary iodine levels were significantly higher than that in controls; and this increased level is due to the antiseptic use of iodine during breast surgery. The present study indicates that excess iodine intake may be an unfavorable factor in breast cancer by stimulation of ER-α transcriptional activity.

  16. Increased levels of oxidative stress markers in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Grzegorz; Wertel, Iwona; Barczyński, Bartłomiej; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Bednarek, Wiesława; Kotarski, Jan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-isoprostane levels in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of women with endometriosis. One hundred and ten women with laparoscopically and histopathologically confirmed endometriosis and, as reference groups, 119 patients with simple serous (n=78) and dermoid (n=41) ovarian cysts were studied. Peritoneal fluid 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane concentrations were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane levels in peritoneal fluid were significantly higher in patients with endometriosis compared with the reference groups. Higher PF 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane concentrations were observed in patients with advanced stages of endometriosis. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane levels in peritoneal fluid. Endometriosis induces greater oxidative stress and frequent DNA mutations in peritoneal fluid than nonendometriotic ovarian cysts. The most severe oxidative stress occurs in the peritoneal cavity of women with more advanced stages of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased IL-25 levels in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungum, Helle Folge; Nygaard, Uffe; Vestergaard, Christian; Martensen, Pia M; Knudsen, Ulla Breth

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated a higher prevalence of allergic disease among women with endometriosis. It is already well established that type 1 allergies develop in a Th2 cytokine environment. Recent studies have shown, however, that IL-25 induces a Th2 development of naive T lymphocytes and is central in the Th2 response. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the presence of IL-25 in the peritoneal fluid of women suffering from endometriosis. PF was obtained both from women undergoing laparoscopic surgery due to endometriosis (25 cases) and from women wanting sterilisation (19 controls). IL-25 levels were then investigated by ELISA. Women with endometriosis showed significantly higher levels of IL-25 in their PF (p=0.019) compared to controls. IL-25 levels did not correlate with the stage of endometriosis. Both Th2-cells and mast cells express IL-25, which could favor the development of allergies by perpetuating a hypersensitivity reaction. Further, IL-25 may also hold a role as a diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  19. Using a High-Performance Planning Model to Increase Levels of Functional Effectiveness Within Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Peggi

    2016-01-01

    Nursing professional practice models continue to shape how we practice nursing by putting families and members at the heart of everything we do. Faced with enormous challenges around healthcare reform, models create frameworks for practice by unifying, uniting, and guiding our nurses. The Kaiser Permanente Practice model was developed to ensure consistency for nursing practice across the continuum. Four key pillars support this practice model and the work of nursing: quality and safety, leadership, professional development, and research/evidence-based practice. These four pillars form the foundation that makes transformational practice possible and aligns nursing with Kaiser Permanente's mission. The purpose of this article is to discuss the pillar of professional development and the components of the Nursing Professional Development: Scope and Standards of Practice model (American Nurses Association & National Nursing Staff Development Organization, 2010) and place them in a five-level development framework. This process allowed us to identify the current organizational level of practice, prioritize each nursing professional development component, and design an operational strategy to move nursing professional development toward a level of high performance. This process is suggested for nursing professional development specialists.

  20. Decreased Serum Vitamin D Levels in Children with Asthma are Associated with Increased Corticosteroid Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Daniel A.; Zhang, Yong; Murphy, James R.; Hauk, Pia J.; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little knowledge about clinical variables associated with vitamin D (vitD) insufficiency in asthmatic children. Objective To investigate disease variables associated with vitD insufficiency in childhood asthma and interaction of vitD with corticosteroid-mediated anti-inflammatory responses. Methods We analyzed 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in 100 asthmatic children to investigate relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and patient characteristics. We determined vitD effects on dexamethasone (DEX) induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum level was 31 ng/mL. 47% of subjects had vitD levels in the insufficient range (<30 ng/mL), while 17% were vitD deficient (<20 ng/mL). Log10 IgE (p=0.01, ρ=−0.25) and the number of positive aeroallergen skin prick tests (p=0.02, ρ=−0.23) showed a significant inverse correlation with vitD, whereas FEV1% predicted (p =0.004, ρ=0.34) and FEV1/FVC ratio (p=0.01, ρ=0.30) showed a significant positive correlation with vitD. The use of inhaled steroids (p=0.0475), oral steroids (p=0.02), and total steroid dose (p=0.001), all showed significant inverse correlations with vitD. The amount of MKP-1 and IL-10 mRNA induced by vitD plus DEX was significantly greater than that induced by DEX alone (p<0.01). In an experimental model of steroid resistance where DEX alone did not inhibit T cell proliferation, addition of vitD to DEX resulted in significant dose dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Conclusions Corticosteroid use and worsening airflow limitation is associated with lower vitD serum levels in asthmatics. VitD enhances glucocorticoid action in asthmatic PBMC and enhances the immunosuppressive function of DEX in vitro. Clinical Implications Our study suggests that vitD supplementation may potentiate anti-inflammatory function of corticosteroids in asthmatics and

  1. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls....

  2. Serum HER2 levels are increased in patients with chronic heart failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perik, P.J.; Vries, E.G.F. de; Gietema, J.A.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Smilde, T.D.; Sleijfer, D.Th.; Veldhuisen, D.J. van

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of trastuzumab, an antibody against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), in patients with HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer, is related to cardiotoxicity. AIMS: To investigate whether serum HER2 is increased in heart failure patients and related to disease

  3. Increase of hepatic nitric oxide levels in a nutritional model of fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of laying hens characterized by the accumulation of excess fat in the liver and liver hemorrhage. It suggested that oxidative damage to the cellular and organelle membranes of the liver increases the susceptibility of the liver to hemorrhage. However, a local ...

  4. MTS coordination in practice : Micro-level insights to increase MTS performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Rietjens, Bas

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to generate insight into the processes that lie at the heart of multiteam system (MTS) coordination and how MTS coordination develops. The four propositions developed can set a future MTS research agenda and enable MTS leaders to increase MTS performance.

  5. Increased MMP-2 activity during intervertebral disc degeneration is correlated to MMP-14 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutges, J. P. H. J.; Kummer, J. A.; Oner, F. C.; Verbout, A. J.; Roestenburg, H. J. A.; Dhert, W. J. A.; Creemers, L. B.

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with the increased expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-2. However, little is known about the actual activity of MMP-2 in healthy and degenerated discs, or what mechanisms are involved in its activation. A

  6. Increases in extracellular serotonin and dopamine metabolite levels in the basal forebrain during sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, J.C.; Leenaars, C.H.; Kostin, A.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Porrka-Heiskanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) is an important mediator of cortical arousal, which is innervated by all ascending arousal systems. During sleep deprivation (SD) a site-specific accumulation of sleep factors in the BF results in increased sleep pressure (Kalinchuk et al., 2006; Porkka-Heiskanen et al.,

  7. All Kidding Aside: Humor Increases Learning at Knowledge and Comprehension Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackathorn, Jana; Garczynski, Amy M.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn; Tennial, Rachel D.; Solomon, Erin D.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that humor is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between instructor and student, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study sought to add to the literature by empirically testing some assumptions about humor as a pedagogical tool. Specifically, we predicted that…

  8. Childhood maltreatment is associated with increased body mass index and increased C-reactive protein levels in first-episode psychosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepgul, N; Pariante, C M; Dipasquale, S; DiForti, M; Taylor, H; Marques, T R; Morgan, C; Dazzan, P; Murray, R M; Mondelli, V

    2012-09-01

    The high incidence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with psychosis is mainly attributed to antipsychotic treatment. However, it is also possible that psychological stress plays a role, inducing a chronic inflammatory process that may predispose to the development of metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the association between childhood maltreatment and inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in subjects with first-episode psychosis and healthy controls. Body mass index (BMI), weight and waist circumference were measured in 95 first-episode psychosis patients and 97 healthy controls. Inflammatory and metabolic markers were measured in a subsample of 28 patients and 45 controls. In all the subjects we collected information on childhood maltreatment and recent stressors. Patients with childhood maltreatment had higher BMI [25.0 (S.E.=0.6) kg/m2] and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels [1.1 (S.E.=0.6) mg/dl] when compared with healthy controls [23.4 (S.E.=0.4) kg/m2, p=0.030 and 0.2 (S.E.=0.1) mg/dl, p=0.009, respectively]. In contrast, patients without childhood maltreatment were not significantly different from healthy controls for either BMI [24.7 (S.E.=0.6) kg/m2, p=0.07] or CRP levels [0.5 (S.E.=0.2) mg/dl, p=0.25]. After controlling for the effect of BMI, the difference in CRP levels across the three groups remained significant (F 2,58=3.6, p=0.035), suggesting that the increase in inflammation was not driven by an increase in adipose tissue. Childhood maltreatment is associated with higher BMI, and increased CRP levels, in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Further studies need to confirm the mechanisms underlying the putative causal relationship between childhood maltreatment and higher BMI, and whether this is indeed mediated by increased inflammation.

  9. Increase in oxidative stress levels following welding fume inhalation: a controlled human exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Halshka; Lewinski, Nastassja; Zhao, Jiayuan; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Suarez, Guillaume; Wild, Pascal; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2016-06-10

    Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding represents one of the most widely used metal joining processes in industry. It has been shown to generate a large majority of particles at the nanoscale and to have low mass emission rates when compared to other types of welding. Despite evidence that TIG fume particles may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), limited data is available for the time course changes of particle-associated oxidative stress in exposed TIG welders. Twenty non-smoking male welding apprentices were exposed to TIG welding fumes for 60 min under controlled, well-ventilated settings. Exhaled breathe condensate (EBC), blood and urine were collected before exposure, immediately after exposure, 1 h and 3 h post exposure. Volunteers participated in a control day to account for oxidative stress fluctuations due to circadian rhythm. Biological liquids were assessed for total reducing capacity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations at each time point. A linear mixed model was used to assess within day and between day differences. Significant increases in the measured biomarkers were found at 3 h post exposure. At 3 h post exposure, we found a 24 % increase in plasma-H2O2 concentrations ([95%CI: 4 % to 46 %], p = 0.01); a 91 % increase in urinary-H2O2 ([2 % to 258 %], p = 0.04); a 14 % increase in plasma-8-OHdG ([0 % to 31 %], p = 0.049); and a 45 % increase in urinary-8-OHdG ([3 % to 105 %], p = 0.03). Doubling particle number concentration (PNC) exposure was associated with a 22 % increase of plasma-8-OHdG at 3 h post exposure (p = 0.01). A 60-min exposure to TIG welding fume in a controlled, well-ventilated setting induced acute oxidative stress at 3 h post exposure in healthy, non-smoking apprentice welders not chronically exposed to welding fumes. As mass concentration of TIG welding fume particles is very low when compared to other types of welding, it is

  10. Increasing extracellular matrix collagen level and MMP activity induces cyst development in polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Chenghai; Liu, Zijuan; Dai, Zonghan; Tao, Yunxia

    2012-09-11

    Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) kidneys exhibit increased extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen expression and metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. We investigated the role of these increases on cystic disease progression in PKD kidneys. We examined the role of type I collagen (collagen I) and membrane bound type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) on cyst development using both in vitro 3 dimensional (3D) collagen gel culture and in vivo PCK rat model of PKD. We found that collagen concentration is critical in controlling the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in 3D gels. MDCK cells did not form 3D structures at collagen I concentrations lower than 1 mg/ml but began forming tubules when the concentration reaches 1 mg/ml. Significantly, these cells began to form cyst when collagen I concentration reached to 1.2 mg/ml, and the ratios of cyst to tubule structures increased as the collagen I concentration increased. These cells exclusively formed cyst structures at a collagen I concentration of 1.8 mg/ml or higher. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in MDCK cells significantly induced cyst growth in 3D collagen gel culture. Conversely, inhibition of MMPs activity with doxycycline, a FDA approved pan-MMPs inhibitor, dramatically slowed cyst growth. More importantly, the treatment of PCK rats with doxycycline significantly decreased renal tubule cell proliferation and markedly inhibited the cystic disease progression. Our data suggest that increased collagen expression and MMP activity in PKD kidneys may induce cyst formation and expansion. Our findings also suggest that MMPs may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human PKD.

  11. Increasing extracellular matrix collagen level and MMP activity induces cyst development in polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD kidneys exhibit increased extracellular matrix (ECM collagen expression and metalloproteinases (MMPs activity. We investigated the role of these increases on cystic disease progression in PKD kidneys. Methods We examined the role of type I collagen (collagen I and membrane bound type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP on cyst development using both in vitro 3 dimensional (3D collagen gel culture and in vivo PCK rat model of PKD. Results We found that collagen concentration is critical in controlling the morphogenesis of MDCK cells cultured in 3D gels. MDCK cells did not form 3D structures at collagen I concentrations lower than 1 mg/ml but began forming tubules when the concentration reaches 1 mg/ml. Significantly, these cells began to form cyst when collagen I concentration reached to 1.2 mg/ml, and the ratios of cyst to tubule structures increased as the collagen I concentration increased. These cells exclusively formed cyst structures at a collagen I concentration of 1.8 mg/ml or higher. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in MDCK cells significantly induced cyst growth in 3D collagen gel culture. Conversely, inhibition of MMPs activity with doxycycline, a FDA approved pan-MMPs inhibitor, dramatically slowed cyst growth. More importantly, the treatment of PCK rats with doxycycline significantly decreased renal tubule cell proliferation and markedly inhibited the cystic disease progression. Conclusions Our data suggest that increased collagen expression and MMP activity in PKD kidneys may induce cyst formation and expansion. Our findings also suggest that MMPs may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of human PKD.

  12. Increased level of miRNA 30b-3p in patients with prostatic hyperplasia and testosterone with high-level of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasnaa Jumaa Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common causing cancer-related in death in men and lack of reliable diagnostic tool. MicroRNAs are small molecules single-stranded RNA that affecting protein expression at the level of translation and dysregulation can dramatically affect cell metabolism. However, the using of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for diagnosis of PCa is still unknown. Methods: Ten patients with prostatic hyperplasia with high-level of PSA and 10 healthy controls were conducted in this study. The reverse transcription of miRNA based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were used for evaluating the dysregulation of miRNA 30b-3p and using of ELISA to evaluate the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA and testosterone hormone. Results: Circulating miRNA 30b-3p level was increased in patients with prostatic hyperplasia with higher level of PSA as compared with healthy controls. Also, the testosterone hormone was increased in those patients as compared with normal level of testosterone in healthy individuals. Conclusion: The serum miRNA 30b-3p level increased in patients with hyperplasia in prostate and may be one of potential biomarker for diagnosis of PCa.

  13. Thicker carotid intima-media thickness and increased plasma VEGF levels suffered by post-acute thrombotic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueniwati Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuyun Yueniwati,1 Ni Komang Darmiastini,1 Eko Arisetijono2 1Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia; 2Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia Background and objectives: Atherosclerosis causes reduction of the oxygen supply to structures in the far arterial wall, provoking the release of factors that drive angiogenesis of vasa vasorum, including VEGF. Other studies have revealed the inflammatory response in atherosclerosis and the role of platelet factor 4 (PF4 as an anti-angiogenic chemokine through the inhibition of VEGF. This cross-sectional study aims at measuring the effect of atherosclerosis assessed through carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT against plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. Materials and methods: CIMT was assessed sonographically using GE Logiq S6 with 13 MHz frequency linear probe. VEGF-A plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Differences among variables were compared statistically. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results: A total of 25 patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke were identified in days 7 to 90. CIMT thickening was indicated in 88% of patients (1.202 ± 0.312 mm, while an increase in plasma VEGF was identified in all patients (178.28 ± 93.96 ng/mL. There was no significant correlation between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke (p=0.741. A significant correlation was recognized between CIMT and total cholesterol (p=0.029 and low-density lipoprotein (p=0.018. Conclusion: There were no significant correlations between CIMT and plasma VEGF levels in patients with post-acute thrombotic stroke. However, plasma VEGF increased in patients with thrombotic stroke. CIMT measurement is a promising noninvasive modality to assess the vascular condition of patients with stroke and diabetes, while plasma VEGF

  14. [Does an association between increased homocystein levels and cognitive dysfunction also exist in multimorbid geriatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstermann, S; Hanemann, A; Nieczaj, R; Abdollahnia, N; Schweter, A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Lun, A; Lämmler, G; Schulz, R-J

    2009-04-01

    Total blood homocysteine (Hcys) and folate have been investigated in association with cognitive dysfunction (CD) in healthy but not in multimorbid elderly patients. We hypothesized that total Hcys and folate are adequate markers to identify multimorbid elderly patients with CD. According to the Short Performance Cognitive Test (SKT) CD was determined in a cross-sectional study with 189 (131 f/58 m) multimorbid elderly patients with a mean age of 78.6 +/- 7.3 yrs. Besides the analyses of biochemical parameters (Hcys, folate, vitamin B(12), hemogram) nutritional status (BMI, Mini Nutritional Assessment) as well as activities of daily living were assessed. Daily nutritional intake was measured with a 3-day nutrition diary. For analysis, we used the nutritional software program DGE-PC professional. According to SKT 25.4% showed no cerebral cognitive dysfunction, 21.2% had a suspicion about incipient cognitive dysfunction, 12.7% showed mild, 9.0% moderate, 31.7% of patients severe cognitive deficits. Median plasma Hcys was about 20% elevated in multimorbid elderly patients independent of CD. Serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels were within range, though dietary folate intake (97 [80-128] microg/d) was reduced about 75% (recommendation 400 microg/d). Significant correlations between vitamin intake and plasma/serum levels of Hcys, folate and vitamin B(12) were not present. We did not find significant differences between SKT groups of nutritional status, activities of daily living, index of diseases, medications, or selected biochemical parameters. We analysed elevated serum Hcys levels in multimorbid elderly patients with normal plasma folate and vitamin B(12) concentration and CD. Plasma Hcys or serum folate did not appear as an important biological risk factor on CD in multimorbid elderly patients.

  15. An increase of efficiency of projects of partnership is at the level of city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zaporozhec

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of scientific sources certainly necessity of the use of mechanisms of partnership for a management a city, the problems of introduction of mechanisms of partnership are analysed at the level of city. Certainly basic factors which influence on efficiency of the use of mechanisms of partnership at the level of city, namely: absence of effective possibilities for valuable and system control from the side of society after activity of local advice, shortage of information on maintenance of decisions which are accepted city advices, complication of control process after implementation of policy in town, imperfect accounting about activity of organs of local government, opaque budgetary processes, absence of the co-ordinated and corrected policy of partnership, imperfection of legislative base of partner relations; unclear determination of role and status of participants of partnership; underestimation by the organs of local government at the level of city of human capital; absence of the proper propaganda of positive examples of partner co-operation; absence of the adjusted connections which would be instrumental in the exchange of realization of social and business projects experience; absence of financial base. It predetermines the necessity of scientific research of essence and maintenance of partnership as forms of balance of interests of organs of local government and public and business space, modern mechanisms of their cooperation, as to the instrument of the investment-innovative providing of development of cities. By an important purpose any of forms of partnership there is bringing in of investments for the decision of set social-economic tasks, important for a grant public services and upgrading life, in town. Keywords: local government, management, partnership, in public private partnership, control the system by partnership, adaptive case, problem frame, a city, by partnership, society.

  16. The Use of Refundable Tax Credits to Increase Low-Income Children's After-School Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; Ebin, Vicki J; Efrat, Merav W; Efrat, Rafael; Lane, Christianne J; Plunkett, Scott

    2015-06-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which a refundable tax credit could be used to increase low-income children's after-school physical activity levels. An experimental study was conducted evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention offering a simulated refundable tax credit to parents of elementary-school-age children (n = 130) for enrollment in after-school physical activity programs. A randomized controlled design was used, with data collected at baseline, immediately following the 4-month intervention (postintervention), and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Evaluation measures included (1) enrollment rate, time spent, weekly participation frequency, duration of enrollment, and long-term enrollment patterns in after-school physical activity programs and (2) moderate to vigorous physical activity. The simulated tax credits did not significantly influence low-income children's rates of enrollment in after-school physical activity programs, frequency of participation, time spent in after-school physical activity programs, and overall moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at postintervention or follow-up. The use of refundable tax credits as incentives to increase participation in after-school physical activity programs in low-income families may have limited effectiveness. Lawmakers might consider other methods of fiscal policy to promote physical activity such as direct payment to after-school physical activity program providers for enrolling and serving a low-income child in a qualified program, or improvements to programming and infrastructure.

  17. Increased plasma levels of IL-6 in bacteremic periodontis patients after scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Bacteremia frequently occurs after dental treatment. Periodontal inflammation may influence the incidence, magnitude and duration of bacteremia. The presence of circulating oral bacteria or bacterial components may induce cytokine synthesis in blood cells, which may contribute to the development...... or exacerbation of atherosclerosis. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacteremia occurring after scaling in periodontitis patients results in altered plasma levels of cytokines. Twenty periodontitis patients were subjected to scaling. Blood samples at baseline and at 0.5, 10 and 30 minutes postscaling...

  18. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  19. Consumption of synbiotic bread decreases triacylglycerol and VLDL levels while increasing HDL levels in serum from patients with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Hossein; Hadaegh, Haleh; Abedi, Fatemeh; Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Maryam; Mazroii, Navid; Ghandi, Yaser; Asemi, Zatollah

    2014-07-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the favorable effects of synbiotic bread consumption on blood lipid profiles among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the daily consumption of synbiotic bread on blood lipid profiles of patients with T2DM. This randomized double-blinded controlled clinical trial was performed with 78 diabetic patients, aged 35-70 years. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either synbiotic (n = 26), probiotic (n = 26) or control bread (n = 26) for 8 weeks. The synbiotic bread contained viable and heat-resistant probiotic Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10(8) CFU) and 0.07 g inulin (HPX) as prebiotic per 1 g. The probiotic bread contained L. sporogenes (1 × 10(8) CFU) per 1 g. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic, probiotic and control breads three times a day in a 40 g package for a total of 120 g/day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles were conducted before and after 8 weeks of intervention. Consumption of the synbiotic bread, compared to the probiotic and control breads, led to a significant decrease in serum TAG (P = 0.005), VLDL-C (P = 0.005), TC/HDL-C (P = 0.002) and a significant increase in serum HDL-C levels (P = 0.01). No significant effect of synbiotic bread consumption on FPG, TC, LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels was seen compared to the probiotic and control breads (P > 0.05). Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir IRCT201311215623N13.

  20. The grey areas in soil pollution risk mapping : The distinction between cases of soil pollution and increased background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaast, N. van der; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of soil clean up in the Netherlands is severely hindered by the lack of common agreement on how to describe the grey areas of increased background levels of pollutants. In this study practical methods are proposed in which background levels are described as distribution functions within

  1. Increasing Use of Research Findings in Improving Evidence-Based Health Policy at the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwita Budiharsana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2016, the Minister of Health decided to increase the use of research findings in improving the quality of the national health policy and planning. The Ministry of Health has instructed the National Institute of Health Research and Development or NIHRD to play a stronger role of monitoring and evaluating all health programs, because “their opinion and research findings should be the basis for changes in national health policies and planning”. Compared to the past, the Ministry of Health has increased the research budget for evidence-based research tremendously. However, there is a gap between the information needs of program and policy-makers and the information offered by researchers. A close dialogue is needed between the users (program managers, policy makers and planners and the suppliers (researchers and evaluators to ensure that the evidence-based supplied by research is useful for programs, planning and health policy.

  2. Cisplatin-resistant cells express increased levels of a factor that recognizes damaged DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, G.; Chang, E.

    1990-01-01

    Cancer treatment with the drug cisplatin is often thwarted by the emergence of drug-resistant cells. To study this phenomenon, the authors identified two independent cellular factors that recognize cisplatin-damaged DNA. One of the two factors, designated XPE binding factor, is deficient in complementation group E of xeroderma pigmentosum, an inherited disease characterized by defective repair of DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation, cisplatin, and other agents. Human tumor cell lines selected for resistance to cisplatin showed more efficient DNA repair and increased expression of XPE binding factor. These results suggest that XPE binding factor may be responsible, at least in part, for the development of cisplatin resistance in human tumors and that the mechanism may be increased DNA repair

  3. Mechanisms of an increased level of serum iron in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Li-hua; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Min, Xuan-yu; Zhou, Qi-fu; Zhang, Hai-qian

    2016-01-01

    The potential mechanisms underlying the increase in serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice were studied. The gamma irradiation dose used was 4 Gy, and cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) source was used for the irradiation. The dose rate was 0.25 Gy/min. In the serum of irradiated mice, the concentration of ferrous ions decreased, whereas the serum iron concentration increased. The concentration of ferrous ions in irradiated mice returned to normal at 21 day post-exposure. The concentration of reactive oxygen species in irradiated mice increased immediately following irradiation but returned to normal at 7 day post-exposure. Serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice that were pretreated with reduced glutathione was significant lower (p < 0.01) than that in mice exposed to gamma radiation only. However, the serum iron concentration was still higher than that in normal mice (p < 0.01). This change was biphasic, characterized by a maximal decrease phase occurring immediately after gamma irradiation (relative to the irradiated mice) and a recovery plateau observed during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation, but serum iron recovery was still less than that in the gamma-irradiated mice (4 Gy). In gamma-irradiated mice, ceruloplasmin activity increased and serum copper concentration decreased immediately after irradiation, and both of them were constant during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation. It was concluded that ferrous ions in irradiated mice were oxidized to ferric ions by ionizing radiation. Free radicals induced by gamma radiation and ceruloplasmin mutually participated in this oxidation process. The ferroxidase effect of ceruloplasmin was achieved by transfer of electrons from ferrous ions to cupric ions. (orig.)

  4. Three hours of intermittent hypoxia increases circulating glucose levels in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Lauren P; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B; Laurenti, Marcello C; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Vella, Adrian; Limberg, Jacqueline K

    2017-01-01

    An independent association exists between sleep apnea and diabetes. Animal models suggest exposure to intermittent hypoxia, a consequence of sleep apnea, results in altered glucose metabolism and fasting hyperglycemia. However, it is unknown if acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia increases glucose concentrations in nondiabetic humans. We hypothesized plasma glucose would be increased from baseline following 3 h of intermittent hypoxia in healthy humans independent of any effect on insulin sensitivity. Eight (7M/1F, 21-34 years) healthy subjects completed two study visits randomized to 3 h of intermittent hypoxia or continuous normoxia, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Intermittent hypoxia consisted of 25 hypoxic events per hour where oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) was significantly reduced (Normoxia: 97 ± 1%, Hypoxia: 90 ± 2%, P  0.05). In contrast, circulating glucose concentrations were increased after 3 h of intermittent hypoxia when compared to baseline (5.0 ± 0.2 vs. 5.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L, P = 0.01). There were no detectable changes in insulin sensitivity following intermittent hypoxia when compared to continuous normoxia, as assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test (P > 0.05). Circulating glucose is increased after 3 h of intermittent hypoxia in healthy humans, independent of any lasting changes in insulin sensitivity. These novel findings could explain, in part, the high prevalence of diabetes in patients with sleep apnea and warrant future studies to identify underlying mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Rats with decreased brain cholecystokinin levels show increased responsiveness to peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L X; Li, X L; Wang, L; Han, J S

    1997-01-16

    Using the P77PMC strain of rat, which is genetically prone to audiogenic seizures, and also has decreased levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), we examined the analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, which is, in part, opiate-mediated. A number of studies have suggested that CCK may function as an antagonist to endogenous opiate effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that the P77PMC animals would show an enhanced analgesic response based on their decreased CCK levels producing a diminished endogenous opiate antagonism. We found that the analgesic effect on tail flick latency produced by 100 Hz peripheral electrical stimulation was more potent and longer lasting in P77PMC rats than in control rats. Moreover, the potency of the stimulation-produced analgesia correlated with the vulnerability to audiogenic seizures in these rats. We were able to block the peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia (PSIA) using a cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administered parenterally. Radioimmunoassay showed that the content of CCK-8 in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and periaqueductal gray was much lower in P77PMC rat than in controls. These results suggest that low CCK-8 content in the central nervous system of the P77PMC rats may be related to the high analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, and further support the notion that CCK may be endogenous opiate antagonist.

  6. Reduced genetic distance and high replication levels increase the RNA recombination rate of hepatitis delta virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chi; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Iang, Shan-Bei; Chao, Mei

    2015-01-02

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication is carried out by host RNA polymerases. Since homologous inter-genotypic RNA recombination is known to occur in HDV, possibly via a replication-dependent process, we hypothesized that the degree of sequence homology and the replication level should be related to the recombination frequency in cells co-expressing two HDV sequences. To confirm this, we separately co-transfected cells with three different pairs of HDV genomic RNAs and analyzed the obtained recombinants by RT-PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing analyses. The sequence divergence between the clones ranged from 24% to less than 0.1%, and the difference in replication levels was as high as 100-fold. As expected, significant differences were observed in the recombination frequencies, which ranged from 0.5% to 47.5%. Furthermore, varying the relative amounts of parental RNA altered the dominant recombinant species produced, suggesting that template switching occurs frequently during the synthesis of genomic HDV RNA. Taken together, these data suggest that during the host RNA polymerase-driven RNA recombination of HDV, both inter- and intra-genotypic recombination events are important in shaping the genetic diversity of HDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Aizawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9–10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC–MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain.

  8. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi; Hirasawa, Akira; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miyata, Atsuro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-12-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO) mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9-10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Making cities resilient: Increasing resilience to disasters at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrito, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Half of humanity is now living in cities, according to the United Nations Population Division. The urban population exceeded the rural for the first time in 2008, and by 2050 urbanisation will rise to 70 per cent with increased urban risk. 'Today, 100 cities are in control of 30 per cent of the world's economy.' The need for maintenance and upkeep of these cities makes safety measures for their citizens crucial. In this context, urban risk, city planning and the role of local governments in dealing with risk reduction have been recognised as key factors to build communities resilient to disasters. While many local governments have taken action to reduce vulnerability, especially when it comes to government organising capacity to deal with disasters, much remains to be done. Disaster risk has become an acute and increasingly urban issue. Poorly-planned urban environments, weak urban governance, an old and fragile infrastructure, and rapid population growth have increased pressure on the urban environment and triggered exposure to disaster risk. More and more people are settling in potential danger zones such as flood plains, volcanic flanks or earthquake faults and coastal areas. They do so because planners and local governments fail to provide alternatives, or because they cannot afford safer land. Local government officials are confronted with the threat of disasters daily, and need improved access to policies and tools to cope with them effectively.

  10. Increased Pre- and Post-Meal Free Fatty Acid Levels in Black, Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazeau, Rachel-Marie; Rauch, Lindsey; Huang, Hong; Bauer, John A; Hoffman, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    Black adolescents are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease but have lower fasting triglyceride, which is usually associated with decreased risk. No one has studied racial differences in triglycerides or free fatty acids (FFAs) after a high-fat meal. Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to assess insulin secretion, sensitivity, and disposition index (DI). Endothelial function, triglycerides, FFA, c-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL6), and adiponectin were measured both pre- and 3 hr postprandially (McDonald's Big Breakfast(®) and 12 ounce Sprite(®)) in obese adolescents (10-13 years, 9 black and 7 white). Endothelial function was assessed using reactive hyperemic changes in forearm vascular resistance (FVR). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed no difference in insulin sensitivity, but blacks tended to have (P = 0.08) higher insulin secretion and had increased DI (P = 0.003). After a high-fat meal, triglycerides increased in both groups (P < 0.001), tended to be lower in blacks compared with whites preprandially (64 ± 33 mg/dL vs 110 ± 80, P = 0.064), and was lower postprandially (112 ± 63 vs 188 ± 112, P = 0.039). Pre- and postprandial FFA (Black: 0.58 ± 0.15 and 0.39 ± 0.18 vs. white: 0.44 ± 0.14 and 0.26 ± 0.06, P = 0.020) and adiponectin (P = 0.002) were increased in blacks. FFA decreased in both groups postprandially (P = 0.002). IL6 increased after the meal (P = 0.022). Endothelial function decreased postprandially (P < 0.02), but this was due to a decrease in preocclusion FVR. These results indicate that differences in fat metabolism are present in both black and white obese adolescents. How these differences explain higher rates of cardiometabolic disease in blacks is unclear.

  11. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes......AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...

  12. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, M; Mortensen, S P; Hellsten, Y

    2013-03-01

    Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study 2, young (23 ± 1 years, n = 8), older lifelong sedentary (66 ± 2 years, n = 8) and older lifelong endurance-trained (62 ± 2 years, n = 8) subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. Skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels were increased with age and plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  13. Operating the Irish power system with increased levels of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuohy, A.; Denny, E.; Meibom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the main impacts of large amounts of wind power installed in the island of Ireland. Using results from various studies performed on this system, it is shown that wind power will impact on all time frames, from seconds to daily planning of the system operation. Results...... from studies examining operation of the system with up to approximately 40% of electricity provided by wind show that some of the most important aspects to be considered include the type of wind turbine technology, the provision of reserve to accommodate wind forecasting error and the method used...

  14. Increased level of extracellular ATP at tumor sites: in vivo imaging with plasma membrane luciferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Pellegatti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing awareness that tumour cells build up a "self-advantageous" microenvironment that reduces effectiveness of anti-tumour immune response. While many different immunosuppressive mechanisms are likely to come into play, recent evidence suggests that extracellular adenosine acting at A2A receptors may have a major role in down-modulating the immune response as cancerous tissues contain elevated levels of adenosine and adenosine break-down products. While there is no doubt that all cells possess plasma membrane adenosine transporters that mediate adenosine uptake and may also allow its release, it is now clear that most of extracellularly-generated adenosine originates from the catabolism of extracellular ATP.Measurement of extracellular ATP is generally performed in cell supernatants by HPLC or soluble luciferin-luciferase assay, thus it generally turns out to be laborious and inaccurate. We have engineered a chimeric plasma membrane-targeted luciferase that allows in vivo real-time imaging of extracellular ATP. With this novel probe we have measured the ATP concentration within the tumour microenvironment of several experimentally-induced tumours.Our results show that ATP in the tumour interstitium is in the hundreds micromolar range, while it is basically undetectable in healthy tissues. Here we show that a chimeric plasma membrane-targeted luciferase allows in vivo detection of high extracellular ATP concentration at tumour sites. On the contrary, tumour-free tissues show undetectable extracellular ATP levels. Extracellular ATP may be crucial for the tumour not only as a stimulus for growth but also as a source of an immunosuppressive agent such as adenosine. Our approach offers a new tool for the investigation of the biochemical composition of tumour milieu and for development of novel therapies based on the modulation of extracellular purine-based signalling.

  15. High level of work stressors increase the risk of mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Civilian airline pilots have one of the most stressful occupations. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of work stressors and other factors on mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots. A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing selected pilots of an airline using appropriate questionnaires, during their routine medical examination from May to July 1999 in Jakarta. Five aspects of work stressor were assessed: working conditions, physical conditions of working environment, career development, organization and interpersonal relationship. Mental-emotional disturbances were determined by using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using relative risk by Cox regression with constant time. From 128 subjects interviewed, 109 could be analyzed. Most of the subjects were married (73.4% and college graduates (91.7%. The number of captains and first officers were almost equal. The prevalence of mental-emotional disturbances was 39.4%. Mental-emotional disturbances were significantly related to work stressors and moderately related to household tension (P = 0.184. Compared to pilots with low levels of work stressors, those with high or very high levels of work stressors had a risk of 4.6 times of mental-emotional disturbances [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 4.64; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01 – 19.65]. Adequate guides to cope work stressors and household tension which related to mental-emotional disturbance is recommended. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:117-21Keywords: mental-emotional disturbance, work stressors, household tension, airline pilots

  16. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  17. Increased plasma apolipoprotein (a) levels in IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Rossing, P; Nielsen, F S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relative mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased 40-fold in IDDM patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy as compared with nondiabetic subjects on average. We assessed the potential contribution of dyslipidemia in general and elevated serum apolipoprotein (a.......0001. Multiple logistic regression analysis of cardiovascular risk factors revealed that plasma apo(a) concentration > 300 U/l is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, odds ratio 1.86 (1.03-3.36) (P Dyslipidemia and raised plasma concentrations of apo(a), particularly > 300...

  18. Evolutionary Modeling Predicts a Decrease in Postcopulatory Sperm Viability as a Response to Increasing Levels of Sperm Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engqvist, Leif

    Sperm competition has been found to have a strong influence on the evolution of many male and female reproductive traits. Theoretical models have shown that, with increasing levels of sperm competition, males are predicted to increase ejaculate investment, and there is ample empirical evidence

  19. Food consumption and activity levels increase in rats following intranasal Hypocretin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Shyeilla V; Fine, Jared M; Bingham, Deborah; Svitak, Aleta L; Burns, Rachel B; Baillargeon, Amanda M; Panter, Scott S; Kazi, Abdul N; Frey, William H; Hanson, Leah R

    2016-08-03

    Hypocretin-1 (HC, orexin-A) is a neuropeptide involved in regulating physiological functions of sleep, appetite and arousal, and it has been shown that intranasal (IN) administration can target HC to the brain. Recent clinical studies have shown that IN HC has functional effects in human clinical trials. In this study, we use rats to determine whether IN HC has an immediate effect on food consumption and locomotor activity, whether distribution in the brain after IN delivery is dose-dependent, and whether MAPK and PDK1 are affected after IN delivery. Food intake and wheel-running activity were quantified for 24h after IN delivery. Biodistribution was determined 30min after IN delivery of both a high and low dose of 125I-radiolabelled HC throughout the brain and other bodily tissues, while Western blots were used to quantify changes in cell signaling pathways (MAPK and PDK1) in the brain. Intranasal HC significantly increased food intake and wheel activity within 4h after delivery, but balanced out over the course of 24h. The distribution studies showed dose-dependent delivery in the CNS and peripheral tissues, while PDK1 was significantly increased in the brain 30min after IN delivery of HC. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that IN administration of HC is a promising strategy for treatment of HC related behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Increasing Yolk Testosterone Levels on Early Behaviour in Japanese Quail Hatchlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okuliarová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate effects of increased testosterone content in egg yolk on early behaviour of 1- and 2-day-old Japanese quail. Three different doses of testosterone (0.25; 2.5 and 25 ng, not exceeding a physiological range, were examined in three separate experiments. Testosterone propionate dissolved in 20 μl olive oil was injected into the yolk before the onset of incubation. Behaviour of newly hatched chicks was recorded in response to both a novel environment in the open-field test and manual restraining in the test of tonic immobility (TI. Behavioural consequences of embryonic exposure to elevated testosterone were observed in the open-field test in all three experiments which indicated inhibition of behavioural responses in hatchlings. Birds treated with testosterone in ovo displayed longer latency to leave the start square, decreased locomotor activity, enhanced defecation and lower number of distress calls as compared to control birds. In TI test, the influence of treatment was manifested at the highest concentration only. Hatchlings from testosterone treated eggs expressed longer duration of TI and required less attempts to induce TI in comparison with the control group. Our results demonstrated increased fearfulness of Japanese quail chicks hatched from eggs with experimentally elevated testosterone content. The effect is specific for a short period after hatching since previous studies reported stimulatory effect of yolk testosterone on behaviour of Japanese quail later in ontogeny.

  1. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Eri; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Ohira, Tatsuro; Sugiyama, Masaki

    2017-01-21

    Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s). Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees' mental health.

  2. Methyl Salicylate Level Increase in Flax after Fusarium oxysporum Infection Is Associated with Phenylpropanoid Pathway Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boba, Aleksandra; Kostyn, Kamil; Kostyn, Anna; Wojtasik, Wioleta; Dziadas, Mariusz; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan; Kulma, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flax ( Linum usitatissimum ) is a crop plant valued for its oil and fiber. Unfortunately, large losses in cultivation of this plant are caused by fungal infections, with Fusarium oxysporum being one of its most dangerous pathogens. Among the plant's defense strategies, changes in the expression of genes of the shikimate/phenylpropanoid/benzoate pathway and thus in phenolic contents occur. Among the benzoates, salicylic acid, and its methylated form methyl salicylate play an important role in regulating plants' response to stress conditions. Upon treatment of flax plants with the fungus we found that methyl salicylate content increased (4.8-fold of the control) and the expression profiles of the analyzed genes suggest that it is produced most likely from cinnamic acid, through the β-oxidative route. At the same time activation of some genes involved in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis was observed. We suggest that increased methyl salicylate biosynthesis during flax response to F. oxysporum infection may be associated with phenylpropanoid pathway activation.

  3. [High-level expression of heterologous protein based on increased copy number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjie; He, Peng; Tao, Yong; Yang, Yi

    2013-11-04

    High-level expression system of heterologous protein mediated by internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed, which could be used for other applications of S. cerevisiae in metabolic engineering. We constructed co-expression cassette (promoter-mCherry-TIF4631 IRES-URA3) containing promoters Pilv5, Padh2 and Ptdh3 and recombined the co-expression cassette into the genome of W303-1B-A. The URA3+ transformants were selected. By comparing the difference in the mean florescence value of mCherry in transformants, the effect of three promoters was detected in the co-expression cassette. The copy numbers of the interested genes in the genome were determined by Real-Time PCR. We analyzed genetic stability by continuous subculturing transformants in the absence of selection pressure. To verify the application of co-expression cassette, the ORF of mCherry was replaced by beta-galactosidase (LACZ) and xylose reductase (XYL1). The enzyme activities and production of beta-galactosidase and xylose reductase were detected. mCherry has been expressed in the highest-level in transformants with co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter. The highest copy number of DNA fragment integrating in the genome was 47 in transformants containing Pilv5. The engineering strains showed good genetic stability. Xylose reductase was successfully expressed in the co-expression cassette containing Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES. The highest enzyme activity was 0. 209 U/mg crude protein in the transformants WIX-10. Beta-galactosidase was also expressed successfully. The transformants that had the highest enzyme activity was WIL-1 and the enzyme activity was 12.58 U/mg crude protein. The system mediated by Pilv5 promoter and TIF4631 IRES could express heterologous protein efficiently in S. cerevisiae. This study offered a new strategy for expression of heterologous protein in S. cerevisiae and provided sufficient experimental evidence for metabolic engineering

  4. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  5. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of glucocorticoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-10-01

    The possible involvement of glucocorticoid system in interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. In the first experiment, mice were treated intrathecally (i.t.) with IL-1β (100 pg). Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA (hypothalamus) and c-Fos mRNA (pituitary gland, spinal cord, and the adrenal gland) levels were measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after IL-1β administration. We found that i.t. injection with IL-1β increased CRH mRNA level in the hypothalamus. The IL-1β administered i.t. elevated c-Fos mRNA levels in the spinal cord, pituitary and adrenal glands. Furthermore, i.t. administration of IL-1β significantly increased the plasma corticosterone level up to 60 min. In addition, the adrenalectomy caused the reductions of the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β injected i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with RU486 (100mg/kg) attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. in normal and D-glucose-fed groups. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level and pain behavior via an activation of the glucocorticoid system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced heart failure is associated with increased levels of interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jure; Šebeštjen, Miran; Vrtovec, Bojan; Koželj, Mirta; Haddad, François

    2014-08-01

    Inflammatory, endothelial and neurohormonal biomarkers are involved in heart failure (HF) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) pathogenesis. To study these biomarkers in PH due to advanced HF. Thirty adults with HF were included. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), endothelin-1 and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured in peripheral vein and pulmonary artery during right heart catheterisation. IL-6, TNF-α, hsCRP and NT-proBNP correlated with pulmonary pressures independent of ventricular function, HF etiology and vascular bed. IL-6 was independent predictor of systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP). Inflammatory biomarkers correlate to PH severity. IL-6 predicts sPAP in advanced HF.

  7. Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Thomas; MacLean, D A; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    To study the relationship between exercise-related muscle proteolysis and the cytokine response, a prolonged eccentric exercise model of one leg was used. Subjects performed two trials [a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and a control trial]. The release of amino acids from muscle...... during and after the eccentric exercise was decreased in the BCAA trial, suggesting a suppression of net muscle protein degradation. The plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 increased from 0.75 +/- 0.19 (preexercise) to 5.02 +/- 0.96 pg/ml (2 h postexercise) in the control trial and in the BCAA...... supplementation trial from 1.07 +/- 0.41 to 4.15 +/- 1.21 pg/ml. Eccentric exercise had no effect on the concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD16+/CD56+, CD4+, CD8+, CD14+/CD38+, lymphocyte proliferative response, or cytotoxic activities. BCAA supplementation reduced the concentration of CD14+/CD38+ cells...

  8. Effects of increased shielding on gamma-radiation levels within spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, P. S.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Ely, D. W.; Ballard, T. A.; Dyer, C. S.; Truscott, P. R.; Piercey, R. B.; Ramayya, A. V.; Camp, D. C.

    The Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM) experiment was flown on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-28) from 8 - 13 August, 1989 in a 57°, 300 km orbit. One objective of the SAM experiment was to determine the relative effect of different amounts of shielding on the gamma-ray backgrounds measured with similarly configured sodium iodide (NaI) and bismuth germante (BGO) detectors. To achieve this objective twenty-four hours of data were taken with each detector in the middeck of the Shuttle on the ceiling of the airlock (a high-shielding location) as well as on the sleep station wall (a low-shielding location). For the cosmic-ray induced background the results indicate an increased overall count rate in the 0.2 to 10 MeV energy range at the more highly shielded location, while in regions of trapped radiation the low shielding configuration gives higher rates at the low energy end of the spectrum.

  9. Association between increased antibody level and protection in Yersinia ruckeri bacterin immersion vaccinated rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Nylén, Jørgen; Holten-Andersen, Lars

    significant increase in plasma antibody titers following immersion vaccination and significantly reduced mortality during Y. ruckeri challenge. Rainbow trout were immersion-vaccinated, using either a commercial ERM vaccine (AquaVacTM ERM vet) or an experimental Y. ruckeri bacterin. Half of the trout...... vaccinated with AquaVacTM ERM vet received an oral booster (AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet). Sub-groups of the fish from each group were subsequently exposed to 1x109 CFU Y. ruckeri/ml either eight or twenty-six weeks post vaccination (wpv). All vaccinated groups showed 0% mortality when challenged, which was highly...... significant compared to the non-vaccinated controls (40 and 28 % mortality eight and twenty-six weeks post vaccination (wpv), respectively) (Plevels were measured with ELISA...

  10. Increase in first morning voided urinary luteinizing hormone levels precedes the physical onset of puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demir, Ahmet; Voutilainen, R; Juul, A

    1996-01-01

    Determinations of serum gonadotropin concentrations by ultra-sensitive methods have improved the diagnosis of pubertal disorders. The onset of puberty can be estimated by measuring serum gonadotropin pulsation, but as this requires serial nocturnal blood sampling, it is not a routine investigation...... before clinical signs of puberty can be detected. The correlation between FMV urine and S-LH values was good (r = 0.64; P ... for S-LH. A significant increase in FMV U-LH concentration occurs before the first clinical signs of puberty in a sex-independent fashion. Our data indicate that FMV U-LH measurement is a clinically relevant, noninvasive method for the evaluation of pubertal development, and it may be helpful...

  11. Increased levels of mitochondrial DNA copy number in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, H; Houshmand, M; Jadali, Z

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo. Evidence suggests that the human mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) is vulnerable to damage mediated by oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare peripheral blood mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage byproducts (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG) in patients with vitiligo and healthy controls (HCs). The relative mtDNAcn and the oxidative damage (formation of 8-OHdG in mtDNA) of each sample were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Blood samples were obtained from 56 patients with vitiligo and 46 HCs. The mean mtDNAcn and the degree of mtDNA damage were higher in patients with vitiligo than in HCs. These data suggest that increase in mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong-Bo [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Shen, E-mail: syu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Li, Gui-Lin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Hong [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wu, Sheng-Chun [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Biology and Chemistry Department, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming-Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 {mu}m) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obvious

  13. Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yi; Yu, Guang-Bin; Deng, Hong; Wu, Sheng-Chun; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Lake surface sediment is mainly derived from topsoil in its catchment. We hypothesized that distribution of anthropogenic metals would be homogenous in lake surface sediment and the lake's catchment topsoil. Anthropogenic metal distributions (cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) in fourteen waterscape parks were investigated in surface sediments and catchment topsoils and possible source homogeneity was tested using stable Pb isotopic ratio analysis. The parks were located along an urbanization gradient consisting of suburban (SU), developing urban (DIU), developed urban (DDU), and central urban core (CUC) areas in Shanghai, China. Results indicated that surface lake sediments and catchment topsoils in the CUC parks were highly contaminated by the investigated anthropogenic metals. Total metal contents in surface sediment and topsoil gradually increased along the urbanization gradient from the SU to CUC areas. Generally, the surface sediments had greater total metal contents than their catchment topsoils. These results suggest that urbanization drives the anthropogenic metal enrichment in both surface sediment and its catchment topsoil in the waterscape parks. Soil fine particles (< 63 μm) and surface sediments had similar enrichment ratios of metals, suggesting that surface runoff might act as a carrier for metals transporting from catchment to lake. Stable Pb isotope ratio analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic Pb source in surface sediment was coal combustion as in the catchment topsoil. Urbanization also correlated with chemical fractionation of metals in both surface sediment and catchment topsoil. From the SU to the CUC parks, amounts of labile metal fractions increased while the residual fraction of those metals remained rather constant. In short, urbanization in Shanghai drives anthropogenic metal distribution in environmental matrices and the sources were homogenous. -- Highlights: ► Obvious urbanization effect on metal

  14. Increased Urinary Phthalate Levels in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ah; Kho, Younglim; Chun, Kyoung Chul; Koh, Jae Whoan; Park, Jeong Woo; Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-12-15

    We assessed the urinary concentration of 16 phthalate metabolites in 57 women with and without uterine leiomyoma ( n = 30 and 27; respectively) to determine the association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. To evaluate exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); we calculated the molar sum of DEHP metabolites; ∑3-DEHP (combining mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP); mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP); and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate); ∑4-DEHP (∑3-DEHP plus mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate); and ∑5-DEHP (∑4-DEHP plus mono (2-(carboxylmethyl)hexyl) phthalate (2cx-MMHP)). The log transformed urinary levels of MEHP; MEHHP; 2cx-MMHP; ∑3-DEHP; ∑4-DEHP; and ∑5-DEHP in the leiomyoma group were significantly higher than those of controls. When we adjusted for age; waist circumference; and parity using multiple logistic regression analyses; we found log ∑3-DEHP (OR = 10.82; 95% CI = 1.25; 93.46) and ∑4-DEHP (OR = 8.78; 95% CI = 1.03; 75.29) were significantly associated with uterine leiomyoma. Our findings suggest an association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. However; larger studies are needed to investigate potential interactions between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma.

  15. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  16. Probability of burn-through of defective 13 kA splices at increased energy levels

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A

    2011-01-01

    In many 13 kA splices in the machine there is a lack of bonding between the superconducting cable and the stabilising copper along with a bad contact between the bus stabiliser and the splice stabiliser. In case of a quench of such a defective splice, the current cannot bypass the cable through the copper, hence leading to excessive local heating of the cable. This may result in a thermal runaway and burn-through of the cable in a time smaller than the time constant of the circuit. Since it is not possible to protect against this fast thermal run-away, one has to limit the current to a level that is small enough so that a burn-through cannot occur. Prompt quenching of the joint, and quenching due to heat propagation through the bus and through the helium are considered. Probabilities for joint burn-through are given for the RB circuit for beam energies of 3.5, 4 and 4.5 TeV, and a decay time constant of the RB circuit of 50 and 68 s.

  17. Diversity of Sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) on Sandy Beaches Exposed to Increasing Levels of Urbanization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Taciano Moura; Carmo, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues; Silva, Leonardo Pereira; Sales, Raissa Guerra; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2017-06-01

    Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Breed

    Full Text Available Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  19. Increased Level of Interleukin 6 Associates With Increased 90-Day and 1-Year Mortality in Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmler, Johannes; Schneider, Christoph; Treuner-Kaueroff, Theresa; Bartels, Michael; Seehofer, Daniel; Scholz, Markus; Berg, Thomas; Kaiser, Thorsten

    2018-05-01

    Organ allocation for liver transplantation is based on prognosis, using the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) or MELD including serum sodium (MELD-Na) score. These scores do not consider systemic inflammation and septic complications. Blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to the MELD score, associates with mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease, whereas levels of interleukin 6 (IL6) have not been systematically studied. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of 474 patients with end-stage liver disease (63.5% male; median age, 56.9 years), evaluated for liver transplantation in Germany, with at least 1 year of follow up. Data were collected on blood levels of CRP, IL6, and white blood cell count (WBC). Findings were analyzed in relation to mortality and compared with patients' MELD scores and MELD-Na scores. For survival analysis, the cohort was divided into quartiles of IL6, CRP, and WBC levels, as well as MELD scores. Log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to compare the groups, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) values were calculated. Blood levels of IL6 and MELD scores associated with mortality: none of the patients with levels of IL6 below the first quartile (below 5.3 pg/mL) died within 1 year. In contrast, 67.7% of the patients in the highest quartile of IL6 level (37.0 pg/mL or more) died within 1 year. MELD score also correlated with mortality: among patients with MELD scores below 8.7, 0.9% died within 1 year, whereas in patients with MELD scores of 18.0 or more, 67.4% died within 1 year. The predictive value of level of IL6 (AUROC, 0.940) was higher than level of CRP (AUROC, 0.866) (P = .009) or WBC (AUROC, 0.773) (P Level of IL6 associated with 1-year mortality (AUROC, 0.916) to a greater extent than liver synthesis or detoxification markers international normalized ratio (AUROC, 0.839) (P = .007) or bilirubin (AUROC 0.846) (P = .007

  20. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lindh, Christian [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia); Kabir, Iqbal [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  1. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11–17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 μg/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 μg/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  2. Increased Levels of NF-kB-Dependent Markers in Cancer-Associated Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaponte, Grazia; Signorelli, Salvatore S; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Polesel, Jerry; Taborelli, Martina; Guarneri, Claudio; Fenga, Concettina; Umezawa, Kazou; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight the role of inflammatory markers in thrombosis as well as in cancer. However, their combined role in cancer-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the molecular mechanisms, involved in its pathophysiology, needs further investigations. In the present study, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteases-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue factor (TF), fibrinogen and soluble P-selectin, were analyzed in plasma and in monocyte samples from 385 cancer patients, of whom 64 were concomitantly affected by DVT (+). All these markers were higher in cancer patients DVT+ than in those DVT-. Accordingly, significantly higher NF-kB activity was observed in cancer patients DVT+ than DVT-. Significant correlation between data obtained in plasma and monocyte samples was observed. NF-kB inhibition was associated with decreased levels of all molecules in both cancer DVT+ and DVT-. To further demonstrate the involvement of NF-kB activation by the above mentioned molecules, we treated monocyte derived from healthy donors with a pool of sera from cancer patients with and without DVT. These set of experiments further suggest the significant role played by some molecules, regulated by NF-kB, and detected in cancer patients with DVT. Our data support the notion that NF-kB may be considered as a therapeutic target for cancer patients, especially those complicated by DVT. Treatment with NF-kB inhibitors may represent a possible strategy to prevent or reduce the risk of DVT in cancer patients.

  3. Increased circulating heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A) levels in gestational diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamvölgyi, Zoltán; Prohászka, Zoltán; Rigó, János; Kecskeméti, András; Molvarec, Attila

    2015-07-01

    Recent data indicate that serum Hsp70 (HSPA1A) levels are increased in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is no report in the literature on circulating Hsp70 levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. In this pilot study, we measured serum Hsp70 levels in 11 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes, 38 women with gestational diabetes, and 40 healthy pregnant women with ELISA. Plasma glucose levels, serum insulin concentrations, HbA1c values, and the Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index were also determined. According to our results, serum Hsp70 concentrations were significantly higher in women with pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus than in healthy pregnant women. In addition, pregestational diabetic women had significantly higher Hsp70 levels than those with gestational diabetes. Furthermore, in the group of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, serum Hsp70 levels showed a significant positive correlation with HbA1c values. However, there was no other relationship between clinical features and metabolic parameters of the study subjects and their serum Hsp70 levels in either study group. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time in the literature that serum Hsp70 levels are increased and correlate with HbA1c values in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to determine whether circulating Hsp70 plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes or elevated serum Hsp70 levels are only consequences of the disease.

  4. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse co