WorldWideScience

Sample records for included increased knowledge

  1. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practices of STIs including HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings of the study show that adolescents in the sample have a wide gap between knowledge, attitude and practice with regards to STIs and HIV/AIDS though they become sexually active at an early age. There is also a lack of behavioural change which is reinforced by perceptions and misconception regarding STIs and ...

  3. Early Course in Obstetrics Increases Likelihood of Practice Including Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Westra, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice. Cross-tabulations with Fisher's exact test were applied and odds ratios calculated for factors affecting likelihood of eventual practice including obstetrics. Participation in the OBLC was successful in increasing exposure, awareness, and comfort in caring for obstetrical patients and feeling more prepared for the OB-GYN Clerkship. A total of 50.5% of course participants felt the OBLC influenced their choice of specialty. For participants who are currently physicians, 51% are practicing family medicine with obstetrics or OB-GYN. Of the cohort of family physicians, 65.2% made the decision whether to include obstetrics in practice during medical school. Odds ratios show the likelihood of practicing obstetrics is higher when participants have completed the OBLC and also are practicing in a rural community. Early exposure to obstetrics, as provided by the OBLC, appears to increase the likelihood of including obstetrics in practice, especially if eventual practice is in a rural community. This course may be a tool to help create a pipeline for future rural family physicians providing obstetrical care.

  4. Increasing Knowledge -- How to Read a Research Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LBD! Donate Increasing Knowledge - How to Read a Research Paper Click here to download a pdf of this ... the human system is the subject of many research papers. Basic research in the biomedical sciences investigates the ...

  5. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Sheakley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods: This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (n l=515 and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066. Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4 that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%. USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results: Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003. Discussion: Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum.

  6. Multidisciplinary patient education in groups increases knowledge on Osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Ryg, Jesper; Nissen, Nis

    2008-01-01

    of osteoporosis may be increased by a group-based multidisciplinary education programme. Methods: Three hundred patients, aged 45-81 years, recently diagnosed with osteoporosis and started on specific treatment, were randomized to either the ‘‘school'' or ‘‘control'' group. Teaching was performed by nurses......, physiotherapists, dieticians, and doctors, and designed to increase the patient's empowerment. The patient's knowledge of osteoporosis was tested at study entry and at 3 months using a validated questionnaire. Results: At study entry, no differences in age or score (22 (18-24) (median (25-75 percentiles)) vs. 22...... (18-24)) were seen between the school and control groups. The change in knowledge during the study, however, differed significantly between the two groups (pv0.001). In the school group, the increase in knowledge score correlated inversely with the level of education; that is, the lower the education...

  7. Drive Cost Reduction, Increase Innovation and Mitigate Risk with Advanced Knowledge Discovery Tools Designed to Unlock and Leverage Prior Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear industry is knowledge-intensive and includes a diverse number of stakeholders. Much of this knowledge is at risk as engineers, technicians and project professionals retire, leaving a widening skills and information gap. This knowledge is critical in an increasingly complex environment with information from past projects often buried in decades-old, non-integrated systems enterprise. Engineers can spend 40% or more of their time searching for answers across the enterprise instead of solving problems. The inability to access trusted industry knowledge results in increased risk and expense. Advanced knowledge discovery technologies slash research times by as much as 75% and accelerate innovation and problem solving by giving technical professionals access to the information they need, in the context of the problems they are trying to solve. Unlike traditional knowledge management approaches, knowledge discovery tools powered by semantic search technologies are adept at uncovering answers in unstructured data and require no tagging, organization or moving of data, meaning a smaller IT footprint and faster time-to-knowledge. This session will highlight best-in-class knowledge discovery technologies, content, and strategies to give nuclear industry organizations the ability to leverage the corpus of enterprise knowledge into the future. (author

  8. Managing nuclear knowledge: IAEA activities and international coordination. Including resource material full text CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The present CD-ROM summarizes some activities carried out by the Departments of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Safety and Security in the area of nuclear knowledge management in the period 2003-2005. It comprises, as open resource, most of the relevant documents in full text, including policy level documents, reports, presentation material by Member States and meeting summaries. The collection starts with a reprint of the report to the IAEA General Conference 2004 on Nuclear Knowledge [GOV/2004/56-GC(48)/12] summarizing the developments in nuclear knowledge management since the 47th session of the General Conference in 2003 and covers Managing Nuclear Knowledge including safety issues and Information and Strengthening Education and Training for Capacity Building. It contains an excerpt on Nuclear Knowledge from the General Conference Resolution [GC(48)/RES/13] on Strengthening the Agency's Activities Related to Nuclear Science, Technology and Applications. On the CD-ROM itself, all documents can easily be accessed by clicking on their titles on the subject pages (also printed at the end of this Working Material). Part 1 of the CD-ROM covers the activities in the period 2003-2005 and part 2 presents a resource material full text CD-ROM on Managing Nuclear Knowledge issued in October 2003

  9. HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions in sexual risk behaviours among men in Cape Town, South Africa. Lori AJ Scott-Sheldon, Michael P Carey, Kate B Carey, Demetria Cain, Leickness C Simbayi, Vuyelwa Mehlomakhulu, Seth C Kalichman ...

  10. Playful strategies that increase the knowledge of students on gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Katherine Sánchez-Peña

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to formulate and implement playful strategies to increase the level of knowledge in a group of students about gingivitis associated with bacterial plaque and its prevention, this project was developed in Pereira city at Alfonso Jaramillo Gutiérrez high school. The studio started from assuming that traditional teaching methodologies have proved to be highly ineffective and considering that playful strategies strengthen the active participation of the subject community of intervention. A qualitative approach was adopted, this methodology is characterized by its dialogic nature where beliefs, myths, prejudices and feelings are accepted as elements of analysis to produce knowledge. The research method chosen was the Action Research and teaching workshops and focus groups were used as investigation techniques. It was proved that the initial level of knowledge of these teenagers was low. Most of them were totally unfamiliar with the gingivitis associated with dental plaque and through the playful strategies they increased their knowledge, obtained meaningful learning and achieved an active participation.

  11. Playful strategies that increase the knowledge of students on gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Katherine Sánchez-Peña; Kelly Johana Sánchez-Delgado; Alexandra Agudelo-Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to formulate and implement playful strategies to increase the level of knowledge in a group of students about gingivitis associated with bacterial plaque and its prevention, this project was developed in Pereira city at Alfonso Jaramillo Gutiérrez high school. The studio started from assuming that traditional teaching methodologies have proved to be highly ineffective and considering that playful strategies strengthen the active participation of the subject co...

  12. Knowledge in Value Creation Process for Increasing Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika ŠRAMOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare companies by using value creation model and to determine knowledge in these processes. The framework for the value creation process shows problems of case companies in different phases of this process. Knowledge is compared in each of the individual phases of the process and its role in different types of companies. There is identified role of knowledge for increasing competitive advantage. The methodology involves case study from which data are derived and analyzed. The analysis shows that the framework for the value creation process can be used as an analytical tool for value overview in different phases and there is a need for different approaches to improve business and create new value for customers. Based on the analyzed problems, proposed recommendations for improvement are made. These recommendations are based on providing value innovation for customers (end users of software product. Value innovation of software product is considered as crucial for improvement of the companies in machinery industry. Company A has created new value through remote service. This remote service provides several advantages. Customers can prevent problems in machines by implementing software product which is still analyzing and evaluating data from machines. Company B and C were not able to create major value innovation for several years.

  13. Knowledge in Value Creation Process for Increasing Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ZÁVODSKÁ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare companies by using value creation model and to determine knowledge in these processes. The framework for the value creation process shows problems of case companies in different phases of this process. Knowledge is compared in each of the individual phases of the process and its role in different types of companies. There is identified role of knowledge for increasing competitive advantage. The methodology involves case study from which data are derived and analyzed. The analysis shows that the framework for the value creation process can be used as an analytical tool for value overview in different phases and there is a need for different approaches to improve business and create new value for customers. Based on the analyzed problems, proposed recommendations for improvement are made. These recommendations are based on providing value innovation for customers (end users of software product. Value innovation of software product is considered as crucial for improvement of the companies in machinery industry. Company A has created new value through remote service. This remote service provides several advantages. Customers can prevent problems in machines by implementing software product which is still analyzing and evaluating data from machines. Company B and C were not able to create major value innovation for several years.

  14. Increasing the Knowledge of Stratification in Shallow Coastal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, T.; Bonner, J.; Hodges, B.; Maidment, D.; Montagna, P.; Minsker, B.

    2006-12-01

    conserved through a strong vortex spawning from the ~ 20 m deep ship channel that runs east-west along the northernmost portion of the bay. HF radar "observations" however does not indicate this vortical structure suggesting that water conservation is maintained through vertical eddies, captured by 3D current measurements using Acoustic Doppler profilers. This is an example of where advanced sensors indicate needs for more advanced modeling, leading us toward the development of 3D hydrodynamic model for the bay. The geomorphology of the bay (shallow with respect to the deep ship channel) poses a challenge in this model development. Knowledge of stratification in this system of bays has been increased through this study. Measurements taken using the instrument suite deployed by our research facility was coupled with (observed and predicted) hydrodynamic and meteorological data, providing new insight into stratification in Corpus Christi Bay. The bay was observed as cycling through quiescent and well-mixed periods under strong wind influence with the onset of hypoxia during the summer months (June through August). Quiescent periods, when combined with tidal cycling and inland horizontal gradient propagation (from adjoining water bodies as described) lead to conditions favorable to stratification.

  15. Increasing verbal knowledge mediates development of multidimensional emotion representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nook, Erik C; Sasse, Stephanie F; Lambert, Hilary K; McLaughlin, Katie A; Somerville, Leah H

    2017-01-01

    How do people represent their own and others' emotional experiences? Contemporary emotion theories and growing evidence suggest that the conceptual representation of emotion plays a central role in how people understand the emotions both they and other people feel. 1-6 Although decades of research indicate that adults typically represent emotion concepts as multidimensional, with valence (positive-negative) and arousal (activating-deactivating) as two primary dimensions, 7-10 little is known about how this bidimensional (or circumplex ) representation arises. 11 Here we show that emotion representations develop from a monodimensional focus on valence to a bidimensional focus on both valence and arousal from age 6 to age 25. We investigated potential mechanisms underlying this effect and found that increasing verbal knowledge mediated emotion representation development over and above three other potential mediators: (i) fluid reasoning, (ii) the general ability to represent non-emotional stimuli bidimensionally, and (iii) task-related behaviors (e.g., using extreme ends of rating scales). These results suggest that verbal development facilitates the expansion of emotion concept representations (and potentially emotional experiences) from a "positive or negative" dichotomy in childhood to a multidimensional organization in adulthood.

  16. The Application of School Watching Method to Increase the Earthquake Disaster Knowledge of Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Adelila Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study entitled "The Application of School Watching to Increase the Earthquake Disaster Knowledge of Primary School Students, MIN Blang Mancung, Aceh" was aimed to describe the students' knowledge of the different dangerous objects in the face of an earthquake. The approach used in this study was qualitative and quantitative. The type of study was descriptive. Subjects used were as many as 30 students MIN Blang Mancung, Aceh. The method used was an experimental, which was divided into two classes, namely the experimental and control classes. Data collection technique was using questionnaires, which included the questions about common dangerous objects, dangerous objects in the class and also in the school yard. The results showed that there was a significant effect on students' knowledge before and after the implementation of the method School Watching. In addition, the knowledge of students toward the dangerous objects was found to be significant different between control and experimental class.

  17. An Overview of Seabed Mining Including the Current State of Development, Environmental Impacts, and Knowledge Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand for minerals and metals, including for use in the technology sector, has led to a resurgence of interest in exploration of mineral resources located on the seabed. Such resources, whether seafloor massive (polymetallic sulfides around hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich crusts (CRCs on the flanks of seamounts or fields of manganese (polymetallic nodules on the abyssal plains, cannot be considered in isolation of the distinctive, in some cases unique, assemblages of marine species associated with the same habitats and structures. In addition to mineral deposits, there is interest in extracting methane from gas hydrates on continental slopes and rises. Many of the regions identified for future seabed mining are already recognized as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs. Since its inception in 1982, the International Seabed Authority (ISA, charged with regulating human activities on the deep-sea floor beyond the continental shelf, has issued 27 contracts for mineral exploration, encompassing a combined area of more than 1.4 million km2, and continues to develop rules for commercial mining. At the same time, some seabed mining operations are already taking place within continental shelf areas of nation states, generally at relatively shallow depths, and with others at advanced stages of planning. The first commercial enterprise, expected to target mineral-rich sulfides in deeper waters, at depths between 1,500 and 2,000 m on the continental shelf of Papua New Guinea, is scheduled to begin early in 2019. In this review, we explore three broad aspects relating to the exploration and exploitation of seabed mineral resources: (1 the current state of development of such activities in areas both within and beyond national jurisdictions, (2 possible environmental impacts both close to and more distant from mining activities and (3 the uncertainties and gaps in scientific knowledge and understanding which render baseline and impact assessments

  18. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  19. Combining prior knowledge with data driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, PF; Betlem, BHL; Roffel, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  20. Active control of environmental noise, VIII: increasing the response to primary source changes including unpredictable noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S. E.; Atmoko, H.; Vuksanovic, B.

    2004-07-01

    Conventional adaptive cancellation systems using traditional transverse finite impulse response (FIR) filters, together with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithms, well known in active noise control, are slow to adapt to primary source changes. This makes them inappropriate for cancelling rapidly changing noise, including unpredictable noise such as speech and music. Secondly, the cancelling structures require considerable computational processing effort to adapt to primary source and plant changes, particularly for multi-channel systems. This paper describes methods to increase the adaptive speed to primary source changes in large enclosed spaces and outdoor environments. A method is described that increases the response to time varying periodic noise using traditional transverse FIR filters. Here a multi-passband filter, with individual variable adaptive step sizes for each passband is automatically adjusted according to the signal level in each band. This creates a similar adaptive response for all frequencies within the total pass-band, irrespective of amplitude, minimizing the signal distortion and increasing the combined adaptive speed. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the adaptive speed using the above method as classical transverse FIR filters have a finite adaptive speed given by the stability band zero bandwidth. For rapidly changing periodic noise and unpredictable non-stationary noise, a rapid to instantaneous response is required. In this case the on-line adaptive FIR filters are dispensed with and replaced by a time domain solution that gives virtually instantaneous cancellation response (infinite adaptive speed) to primary source changes, and is computationally efficient.

  1. The economic benefits of malaria elimination: do they include increases in tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Liu, Jenny; Gosling, Roland; Feachem, Richard G A

    2012-07-28

    Policy makers have speculated that one of the economic benefits of malaria elimination includes increases in foreign direct investment, particularly tourism. This study examines the empirical relationship between the demand for travel and malaria cases in two countries with large tourism industries around the time in which they carried out malaria-elimination campaigns. In Mauritius, this analysis examines historical, yearly tourist arrivals and malaria cases from 1978-1999, accounting for the background secular trend of increasing international travel. In Dominican Republic, a country embarking upon malaria elimination, it employs a time-series analysis of the monthly, international tourist arrivals from 1998-2010 to determine whether the timing of significant deviations in tourist arrivals coincides with malaria outbreaks. While naïve relationships exist in both cases, the results show that the relationships between tourist arrivals and malaria cases are relatively weak and statistically insignificant once secular confounders are accounted for. This suggests that any economic benefits from tourism that may be derived from actively pursuing elimination in countries that have high tourism potential are likely to be small when measured at a national level. Rather, tourism benefits are likely to be experienced with greater impact in more concentrated tourist areas within countries, and future studies should seek to assess these relationships at a regional or local level.

  2. Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  3. Does Including Public Health Students on Interprofessional Teams Increase Attainment of Interprofessional Practice Competencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Pamela Ann; Ronnebaum, Julie A; Stumbo, Teri A; Smith, Kari Nies; Reimer, Rachel A

    2017-04-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) creates dynamic experiential learning that can address social determinants of health that influence health outcomes. To examine the effects of including public health students on IPE teams on the interprofessional practice domain constructs (values/ethics, roles/responsibilities, interprofessional communication, and teams and teamwork). This single-case, mixed-methods study was performed using a grounded theory approach. Students from 8 graduate health sciences programs participated in an asynchronous, 6-week, online IPE learning activity. Three of the 4 interprofessional practice domain constructs were examined as outcome variables: participants' biomedical vs biopsychosocial patient approach (values/ethics); reported change in attitudes, beliefs, or values about other health professions (roles/responsibilities); and anticipated changes in future professional behaviors/interactions/approaches (teams and teamwork). Predictor variables were having an MPH participant on the IPE team, participants' enrollment in a clinical or nonclinical program, and student perception of the online format (interprofessional communication). Three hundred nineteen students were included, 261 from clinical and 58 from nonclinical programs. A significant association was found between having an MPH participant on the IPE teams and participants' awareness of the influence of social determinants of health (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.13-3.66; Pimportance of social determinants of health in the care plan (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.38-9.84; P<.01). Participants were significantly less likely to report future behavior change if they were in clinical programs (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.86; P<.05) or if they disliked the online format (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.14-0.42; P<.01). The model fit the data well (χ23=30.80; P<.001). Inclusion of MPH students on IPE teams has the potential to increase clinical participants' awareness of the influence of social determinants of health and

  4. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( 0.05). Average birth weight was lowest in the INCSOY diet ( = 0.02). This study demonstrates that RSTARCH and SOYHULLS can improve the welfare of sows by reducing aggression and increasing satiety in limit-fed pregnant sows without affecting production.

  5. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  6. Aberrant lymphatic development in euploid fetuses with increased nuchal translucency including Noonan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Y.M. de; Akker, N.M. van den; Bekker, M.N.; Bartelings, M.M.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Gittenberger-de Groot, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased nuchal translucency in the human fetus is associated with aneuploidy, structural malformations and several syndromes such as Noonan syndrome. In 60-70% of the Noonan syndrome cases, a gene mutation can be demonstrated. Previous research showed that aneuploid fetuses with

  7. Increasing the technical and economic performance of wind diesel systems by including fresh water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many remote regions of the world there is a lack of both electricity and potable water. In order to increase the standard of living and thus maintain the population both power and water have to be supplied at reasonable prices. A good option at many of these places are wind diesel systems...

  8. The Game of Knowledge Brokering: A New Method for Increasing Evaluation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Karol

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge brokering is a promising practice for addressing the challenge of using research evidence, including evaluation findings, in policy implementation. For public policy practitioners, it means playing the role of an intermediary who steers the flow of knowledge between producers (researchers) and users (decision makers). It requires a set…

  9. Using Education, Exposure, and Environments to Increase Preschool Children's Knowledge about Fruit and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…

  10. Including the biogeochemical impacts of deforestation increases projected warming of climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine; Monks, Sarah; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru; Carslaw, Kenneth; Chipperfield, Martyn; Reddington, Carly; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Forests cover almost one third of the Earth's land area and their distribution is changing as a result of human activities. The presence, and removal, of forests affects the climate in many ways, with the net climate impact of deforestation dependent upon the relative strength of these effects (Betts, 2000; Bala et al., 2007; Davin and de Noblet-Ducoudré, 2010). In addition to controlling the surface albedo and exchanging carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture with the atmosphere, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which lead to the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and alter the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, affecting ozone (O3) and methane (CH4) concentrations. In this work, we combine a land-surface model with a chemical transport model, a global aerosol model, and a radiative transfer model to compare several radiative impacts of idealised deforestation scenarios in the present day. We find that the simulated reduction in biogenic SOA production, due to complete global deforestation, exerts a positive combined aerosol radiative forcing (RF) of between +308.0 and +362.7 mW m-2; comprised of a direct radiative effect of between +116.5 and +165.0 mW m-2, and a first aerosol indirect effect of between +191.5 and +197.7 mW m-2. We find that the reduction in O3 exerts a negative RF of -150.7 mW m-2 and the reduction in CH4 results in a negative RF of -76.2 mWm-2. When the impacts on biogenic SOA, O3 and CH4 are combined, global deforestation exerts an overall positive RF of between +81.1 and +135.9 mW m-2 through changes to short-lived climate forcers (SLCF). Taking these additional biogeochemical impacts into account increases the net positive RF of complete global deforestation, due to changes in CO2 and surface albedo, by 7-11%. Overall, our work suggests that deforestation has a stronger warming impact on climate than previously thought. References: Bala, G. et al., 2007. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects

  11. In-Service Training for Increasing Teachers' ADHD Knowledge and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latouche, Alexandre Pascal; Gascoigne, Michael

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the efficacy of a brief in-service training workshop at increasing primary school teachers' ADHD knowledge and sense of self-efficacy. Teachers from 10 schools participated in the study ( n = 274) and were allocated into either an intervention or waitlist control group. Teachers' ADHD knowledge and self-efficacy were assessed following the provision of a brief training workshop on ADHD. Knowledge and self-efficacy retention were also assessed at a 1-month follow-up. Within the intervention group, ADHD knowledge and self-efficacy increased following the intervention (both ps training workshop can increase primary school teachers' ADHD knowledge and self-efficacy. Whilst increases in self-efficacy were modest, our findings suggest that a brief professional development intervention can be utilized to greatly increase teachers' ADHD knowledge, providing a cost-effective, practical solution to address this well-evidenced gap in teachers' training and knowledge about the disorder.

  12. Linking an agency strategic review to increase knowledge management: San Francisco County Human Service Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  13. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300 were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00, and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4% and post-test (66.6% (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00. When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly

  14. Discovering Learning Strategy to Increase Metacognitive Knowledge in Biology Learning in Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Herlanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at finding an effective learning strategy that can increase metacognitive knowledge. Metacognitive knowledge is a standard that based on 2016-revised edition of 2013 curriculum needs to be achieved by every graduate in all level of education in Indonesia. The study is conducted in three different schools and engages 207 students, which then divided into six groups. The groups are students who study under mind mapping strategy, concept mapping, reciprocal teaching using summary notes, reciprocal teaching using mind mapping, problem-based learning, and investigation group. The results showed that those studying under problem-based learning strategy spent a significantly higher numbers in metacognitive knowledge in biology learning and followed by students who study under reciprocal teaching using mind mapping. According to the finding, it is expected that teachers of Biology will practice problem-based learning strategy in their classroom in order to increase the Metacognitive knowledge.

  15. A Website Intervention to Increase Knowledge About Living Kidney Donation and Transplantation Among Hispanic/Latino Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elisa J; Feinglass, Joe; Carney, Paula; Vera, Karina; Olivero, Maria; Black, Anne; O'Connor, Kate Grubbs; Baumgart, Jessica MacLean; Caicedo, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Hispanic dialysis patients often encounter barriers to learning about living kidney donation and transplantation. Effective culturally targeted interventions to increase knowledge are lacking. We developed a culturally targeted educational website to enhance informed treatment decision making for end-stage kidney disease. A pretest/posttest intervention study was conducted among adult Hispanic patients undergoing dialysis at 5 dialysis centers in Chicago, Illinois. Surveys included a 31-item, multiple-choice pretest/posttest of knowledge about kidney transplantation and living donation, attitudes about the website, Internet use, and demographics. The intervention entailed viewing 3 of 6 website sections for a total of 30 minutes. The pretest/posttest was administered immediately before and after the intervention. Participants completed a second posttest via telephone 3 weeks thereafter to assess knowledge retention, attitudes, and use of the website. Sixty-three patients participated (96% participation rate). Website exposure was associated with a mean 17.1% same day knowledge score increase between pretest and posttest (P Hispanics. Web-based education for patients undergoing dialysis can effectively increase Hispanics' knowledge about transplantation and living kidney donation. Study limitations include small sample size and single geographic region study. Dialysis facilities could enable website access as a method of satisfying policy requirements to provide education about kidney transplantation. © 2016, NATCO.

  16. Tropical forest responses to increasing [CO2]: current knowledge and opportunities for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernusak, Lucas [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Winter, Klaus [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Dalling, James [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Holtum, Joseph [James Cook University; Jaramillo, Carlos [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Korner, Christian [University of Basel; Leakey, Andrew D.B. [University of Illinois; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Poulter, Benjamin [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environement, France; Turner, Benjamin [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Wright, S. Joseph [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

    2013-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric [CO2] (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. However, canopy leaves in tropical forests could also potentially reach a high temperature threshold under elevated ca that will moderate the rise in photosynthesis. Belowground responses, including fine root production, nutrient foraging, and soil organic matter processing, will be especially important to the integrated ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Water-use efficiency will increase as ca rises, potentially impacting upon soil moisture status and nutrient availability. Recruitment may be differentially altered for some functional groups, potentially decreasing ecosystem carbon storage. Whole-forest CO2 enrichment experiments are urgently needed to test predictions of tropical forest functioning under elevated ca. Smaller scale experiments in the understory and in gaps would also be informative, and could provide stepping stones toward stand-scale manipulations.

  17. Student Content Knowledge Increases after Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…

  18. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their…

  19. Investigating the Efficacy of a Preschool Vocabulary Intervention Designed to Increase Vocabulary Size and Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study investigated the efficacy of a supplementary preschool embedded multimedia curriculum that was designed to increase one type of conceptual knowledge: taxonomic categories. Named the World of Words (WOW), this curriculum focused on teaching the properties and concepts associated with seven taxonomic categories and providing…

  20. Increasing the Process Capacity of a Knowledge Intensive Process Through the Use of Process Reengineering and Knowledge-Value Added Methodologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Errol

    2003-01-01

    In the increasingly dynamic environment of information technology, it has become imperative that organizations continue to seek ways to effectively capture and measure knowledge in order to survive...

  1. Increasing fertility knowledge and awareness by tailored education: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Désirée; Vassena, Rita; Prat, Andrés; Vernaeve, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Women of reproductive age have insufficient fertility knowledge and awareness. Reproductive lifespan and assisted reproduction are the primary areas in which awareness is lacking. Relatively simple interventions can be used to increase knowledge among university students; however, no intervention has been tested to date in a population with more varied education levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate which intervention most improved fertility knowledge in women attending a fertility centre for oocyte donation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with three intervention groups: tailored, untailored and control. A questionnaire was administered on the day of the first consultation, and again at the oocyte retrieval. Two hundred and one women were enrolled and completed the pre-test, 109 started the cycle and 90 completed the post-test. The effect of the intervention was measured as the difference between the groups in their score from the pre-test to the post test. Only the tailored group showed a significant increase (+2.5; 95% CI [1.8, 3.3]; P = 0.001). Information relating to a woman's most fertile age and limits for childbearing were the most useful. Tailored oral education, therefore, increases fertility knowledge in young women, particularly in relation to their fertility lifespan. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Meeting students halfway: Increasing self-efficacy and promoting knowledge change in astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M. Bailey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two motivational factors—self-efficacy and interest—may be especially relevant to deepening students’ understanding of astronomy. We examined the relationship between students’ self-efficacy for, interest in learning about, and changes in their knowledge of stars, as measured by the Star Properties Concept Inventory (SPCI. Approximately 700 undergraduate students taking introductory astronomy responded to surveys at the start and end of their semester-long course. A sequential multiple regression analysis showed that self-efficacy post explains an appreciable percentage of variance in SPCI posttest scores, more than twice the percentage explained by all the pretest variables (SPCI, self-efficacy, and interest combined. Knowledge and self-efficacy improved significantly over instruction; interest did not. Follow-up analyses revealed that instructors whose classes increased in self-efficacy also had the greatest increases in knowledge scores. Interviews with these instructors suggest they provide their students with more opportunities for mastery experiences with elaborated, performance-related feedback, as well as strong positive verbal persuasion and vicarious experiences through peer instruction. Through increased understanding of the relationship between motivational constructs (e.g., self-efficacy, interest and knowledge, we can both improve our models and better inform instruction.

  3. Meeting students halfway: Increasing self-efficacy and promoting knowledge change in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Lombardi, Doug; Cordova, Jacqueline R.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2017-12-01

    Two motivational factors—self-efficacy and interest—may be especially relevant to deepening students' understanding of astronomy. We examined the relationship between students' self-efficacy for, interest in learning about, and changes in their knowledge of stars, as measured by the Star Properties Concept Inventory (SPCI). Approximately 700 undergraduate students taking introductory astronomy responded to surveys at the start and end of their semester-long course. A sequential multiple regression analysis showed that self-efficacy post explains an appreciable percentage of variance in SPCI posttest scores, more than twice the percentage explained by all the pretest variables (SPCI, self-efficacy, and interest) combined. Knowledge and self-efficacy improved significantly over instruction; interest did not. Follow-up analyses revealed that instructors whose classes increased in self-efficacy also had the greatest increases in knowledge scores. Interviews with these instructors suggest they provide their students with more opportunities for mastery experiences with elaborated, performance-related feedback, as well as strong positive verbal persuasion and vicarious experiences through peer instruction. Through increased understanding of the relationship between motivational constructs (e.g., self-efficacy, interest) and knowledge, we can both improve our models and better inform instruction.

  4. Using Gamification to Improve Productivity and Increase Knowledge Retention During Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brull, Stacey; Finlayson, Susan; Kostelec, Teresa; MacDonald, Ryan; Krenzischeck, Dina

    2017-09-01

    Nursing administrators must provide cost-effective and efficient ways of orientation training. Traditional methods including classroom lecture can be costly with low retention of the information. Gamification engages the user, provides a level of enjoyment, and uses critical thinking skills. The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness, during orientation, of 3 different teaching methods: didactic, online modules, and gamification. Specifically, is there a difference in nurses' clinical knowledge postorientation using these learning approaches? A quasi-experimental study design with a 115-person convenience sample split nurses into 3 groups for evaluation of clinical knowledge before and after orientation. The gamification orientation group had the highest mean scores postorientation compared with the didactic and online module groups. Findings demonstrate gamification as an effective way to teach when compared with more traditional methods. Staff enjoy this type of learning and retained more knowledge when using gaming elements.

  5. Stewards of children education: Increasing undergraduate nursing student knowledge of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L Elaine; Harris, Heather S

    2018-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and exploitation are an increasing public health problem. In spite of the fact that nurses are in a unique position to identify and intervene in the lives of children suffering from abuse due to their role in providing health care in a variety of settings, nursing curricula does not routinely include this focus. The goal was to document the effectiveness of the Stewards of Children child sexual abuse training as an effective educational intervention to increase the knowledge level of undergraduate nursing students on how to prevent, recognize, and react responsibly to child sexual abuse and trafficking. Undergraduate nursing students were required to take the Stewards of Children training in their last semester prior to graduation. Students in the study were given a pre-test prior to the class and a post-test following the class. Pre- and post-tests were graded and the results were compared along with an item indicating the participants' perception of the educational intervention in improving their confidence and competence in this area. Data analysis revealed that post-test scores following training were significantly improved: pre-test mean=45.5%; post-test mean score=91.9%. The statistical significance of the improvement was marked, psexual abuse and trafficking following the Stewards of Children training. Students also reported a high level of confidence in how to prevent abuse and react skillfully when child sexual abuse had occurred. The authors concluded that Stewards of Children is an effective option to educate nursing students on this topic. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Technological development and knowledge as a source of increasing competitive advantage in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, in the era of knowledge economy a competitive advantage is based on technological development and innovation, as well as the exploitation of potential opportunities and possibilities for whose implementation knowledge is necessary. Constant investment in human capital increases productivity, employment and receives a direct source of innovation and longterm competitiveness. Human resources and their knowledge are the key to success for the economy and businesses, while incompetent workforce is one of the most important brake in their business. Development of competition in the domestic and international market, it became imperative for the development of a modern economy. In fact, knowledge is the capitalization of innovation through the creation of new products, services, processes, or labels, but that has no value and significance, if is not commercialized in the market. The aim of this paper is to show the level of competitiveness of the Serbian economy, measurable changes that occur in this direction and degree of easiness of doing business in Serbia, which should contribute to an increase in labor productivity.

  7. Limits of Generalizing in Education Research: Why Criteria for Research Generalization Should Include Population Heterogeneity and Uses of Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Generalization is a critical concept in all research designed to generate knowledge that applies to all elements of a unit (population) while studying only a subset of these elements (sample). Commonly applied criteria for generalizing focus on experimental design or representativeness of samples of the population of units. The criteria…

  8. Vivir Con Un Corazón Saludable: a Community-Based Educational Program Aimed at Increasing Cardiovascular Health Knowledge in High-Risk Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Daniela C; Sauris, Aileen; Rodriguez, Fátima; Delgado, Daniela; Reddy, Ankita; Foody, JoAnne M

    2016-03-01

    Hispanic women suffer from high rates of cardiometabolic risk factors and an increasingly disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Particularly, Hispanic women with limited English proficiency suffer from low levels of CVD knowledge associated with adverse CVD health outcomes. Thirty-two predominantly Spanish-speaking Hispanic women completed, Vivir Con un Corazón Saludable (VCUCS), a culturally tailored Spanish language-based 6-week intensive community program targeting CVD health knowledge through weekly interactive health sessions. A 30-question CVD knowledge questionnaire was used to assess mean changes in CVD knowledge at baseline and postintervention across five major knowledge domains including CVD epidemiology, dietary knowledge, medical information, risk factors, and heart attack symptoms. Completion of the program was associated with a statistically significant (p Spanish language-based health program is effective in increasing CVD awareness among high CVD risk Hispanic women with low English proficiency and low baseline CVD knowledge.

  9. Cannabidiol protects liver from binge alcohol-induced steatosis by mechanisms including inhibition of oxidative stress and increase in autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Rozenfeld, Raphael; Wu, Defeng; Devi, Lakshmi A; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    Acute alcohol drinking induces steatosis, and effective prevention of steatosis can protect liver from progressive damage caused by alcohol. Increased oxidative stress has been reported as one mechanism underlying alcohol-induced steatosis. We evaluated whether cannabidiol, which has been reported to function as an antioxidant, can protect the liver from alcohol-generated oxidative stress-induced steatosis. Cannabidiol can prevent acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice, possibly by preventing the increase in oxidative stress and the activation of the JNK MAPK pathway. Cannabidiol per se can increase autophagy both in CYP2E1-expressing HepG2 cells and in mouse liver. Importantly, cannabidiol can prevent the decrease in autophagy induced by alcohol. In conclusion, these results show that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis through multiple mechanisms including attenuation of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress, prevention of JNK MAPK activation, and increasing autophagy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneyoshi Kunitomo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019. On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035. These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  11. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-02-25

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  12. Stepwise intervention including 1-on-1 counseling is highly effective in increasing influenza vaccination among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghee; Kwon, Mihye; Song, Jeongmi

    2017-06-01

    The influenza vaccination rate among health care workers (HCWs) remains suboptimal. We attempted to increase vaccine uptake in HCWs by nonmandatory measures, including 1-on-1 counseling. In 2015 we used a stepwise approach including (1) text messaging on the last day of the vaccination period, (2) extending the vaccination period by 3 days, (3) education for the low uptake group, and (4) 1-on-1 counseling for unvaccinated HCWs after the 3 interventions. There were 1,433 HCWs included. By the end of the initial 3 days, the uptake rate was 80.0% (1,146/1,433). During an extension for a further 3 days, 33 additional HCWs received the vaccine. One month after starting the vaccination, 90.1% (1,291/1,433) of the HCWs were vaccinated, but this included only 76.1% (210/276) of the doctors (lowest among HCWs). After 3 educational presentations targeted at the unvaccinated doctors, no additional individuals were vaccinated in the following 2 weeks. After 1-on-1 counseling for unvaccinated HCWs, the overall vaccination rate increased to 94.7% (1,357/1,433) in 2015, higher than in the previous year (82.5%, P vaccinated, therefore achieving 92.4% (255/276) compliance, higher than the 56.5% in the previous year (152/269, P vaccination rates among HCWs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HBV Outreach Programs Significantly Increase Knowledge and Vaccination Rates Among Asian Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Tresa; Wang, Winnie; Dao, Doan; Wojciechowski, Helena; Lee, William M; Do, Son; Singal, Amit G

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination rates remain low among Asian-American/Pacific Islanders (APIs) despite high rates of HBV infection. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of an outreach campaign to increase HBV knowledge, testing, and vaccination among a cohort of APIs. Vietnamese Americans were invited to participate in a free HBV screening and vaccination outreach program though pubic service announcements. Attendees completed a survey to assess barriers to vaccination and HBV-related knowledge before and after a 30-min education session by a bilingual board-certified gastroenterologist. Among 98 participants, 100% (22/22) of HBV naïve patients were provided a HBV vaccination series at no cost and over 75% (14/18) of HBV-infected patients were connected to further medical care. Notable reported barriers to prior testing and/or vaccination were cost of the vaccine, concern about missing work for evaluation, and lack of provider recommendation. Knowledge levels about HBV risk factors, potential consequences, and treatment options were poor at baseline but significantly increased after the education session (49 vs. 64%, p campaigns linked with education can successfully address several barriers to HBV testing and offer an approach to improve HBV awareness and prevention among difficult-to-reach populations.

  14. Cognitive flexibility and undergraduate physiology students: increasing advanced knowledge acquisition within an ill-structured domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ashley E; Rozell, Timothy G

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive flexibility is defined as the ability to assimilate previously learned information and concepts to generate novel solutions to new problems. This skill is crucial for success within ill-structured domains such as biology, physiology, and medicine, where many concepts are simultaneously required for understanding a complex problem, yet the problem consists of patterns or combinations of concepts that are not consistently used or needed across all examples. To succeed within ill-structured domains, a student must possess a certain level of cognitive flexibility: rigid thought processes and prepackaged informational retrieval schemes relying on rote memorization will not suffice. In this study, we assessed the cognitive flexibility of undergraduate physiology students using a validated instrument entitled Student's Approaches to Learning (SAL). The SAL evaluates how deeply and in what way information is processed, as well as the investment of time and mental energy that a student is willing to expend by measuring constructs such as elaboration and memorization. Our results indicate that students who rely primarily on memorization when learning new information have a smaller knowledge base about physiological concepts, as measured by a prior knowledge assessment and unit exams. However, students who rely primarily on elaboration when learning new information have a more well-developed knowledge base about physiological concepts, which is displayed by higher scores on a prior knowledge assessment and increased performance on unit exams. Thus students with increased elaboration skills possibly possess a higher level of cognitive flexibility and are more likely to succeed within ill-structured domains. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Evaluation of a fotonovela to increase depression knowledge and reduce stigma among Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Molina, Gregory B; Contreras, Sandra; Baron, Melvin

    2013-04-01

    Fotonovelas-small booklets that portray a dramatic story using photographs and captions-represent a powerful health education tool for low-literacy and ethnic minority audiences. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a depression fotonovela in increasing depression knowledge, decreasing stigma, increasing self-efficacy to recognize depression, and increasing intentions to seek treatment, relative to a text pamphlet. Hispanic adults attending a community adult school (N = 157, 47.5 % female, mean age = 35.8 years, 84 % immigrants, 63 % with less than high school education) were randomly assigned to read the fotonovela or a low-literacy text pamphlet about depression. They completed surveys before reading the material, immediately after reading the material, and 1 month later. The fotonovela and text pamphlet both produced significant improvements in depression knowledge and self-efficacy to identify depression, but the fotonovela produced significantly larger reductions in antidepressant stigma and mental health care stigma. The fotonovela also was more likely to be passed on to family or friends after the study, potentially increasing its reach throughout the community. Results indicate that fotonovelas can be useful for improving health literacy among underserved populations, which could reduce health disparities.

  16. Polypharmacy including falls risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kathryn; Bennett, Kathleen; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2015-01-01

    polypharmacy is an important risk factor for falls, but recent studies suggest only when including medications associated with increasing the risk of falls. a prospective, population-based cohort study. 6,666 adults aged ≥50 years from The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing. participants reported regular medication use at baseline. Any subsequent falls, any injurious falls and the number of falls were reported 2 years later. The association between polypharmacy (>4 medications) or fall risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls or injurious falls was assessed using modified Poisson regression. The association with the number of falls was assessed using negative binomial regression. during follow-up, 231 falls per 1,000 person-years were reported. Polypharmacy including antidepressants was associated with a greater risk of any fall (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.54), of injurious falls (aRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07) and a greater number of falls (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.60, 95% CI 1.19-2.15), but antidepressant use without polypharmacy and polypharmacy without antidepressants were not. The use of benzodiazepines was associated with injurious falls when coupled with polypharmacy (aRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.87), but was associated with a greater number of falls (aIRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05-1.65), independent of polypharmacy. Other medications assessed, including antihypertensives, diuretics and antipsychotics, were not associated with outcomes. in middle-aged and older adults, polypharmacy, including antidepressant or benzodiazepine use, was associated with injurious falls and a greater number of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Interprofessional education increases knowledge, promotes team building, and changes practice in the care of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elaine V; Hagestuen, Ruth; González-Ramos, Gladys; Cohen, Hillel W; Bassich, Celia; Book, Elaine; Bradley, Kathy P; Carter, Julie H; Di Minno, Mariann; Gardner, Joan; Giroux, Monique; González, Manny J; Holten, Sandra; Joseph, Ricky; Kornegay, Denise D; Simpson, Patricia A; Tomaino, Concetta M; Vandendolder, Richard P; Walde-Douglas, Maria; Wichmann, Rosemary; Morgan, John C

    2016-01-01

    Examine outcomes for the National Parkinson Foundation (NPF) Allied Team Training for Parkinson (ATTP), an interprofessional education (IPE) program in Parkinson's disease (PD) and team-based care for medicine, nursing, occupational, physical and music therapies, physician assistant, social work and speech-language pathology disciplines. Healthcare professionals need education in evidence-based PD practices and working effectively in teams. Few evidence-based models of IPE in PD exist. Knowledge about PD, team-based care, the role of other disciplines and attitudes towards healthcare teams were measured before and after a protocol-driven training program. Knowledge, attitudes and practice changes were again measured at 6-month post-training. Trainee results were compared to results of controls. Twenty-six NPF-ATTP trainings were held across the U.S. (2003-2013). Compared to control participants (n = 100), trainees (n = 1468) showed statistically significant posttest improvement in all major outcomes, including self-perceived (p < 0.001) and objective knowledge (p < 0.001), Understanding Role of Other Disciplines (p < 0.001), Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale (p < 0.001), and the Attitudes Toward Value of Teams (p < 0.001) subscale. Despite some decline, significant improvements were largely sustained at six-month post-training. Qualitative analyses confirmed post-training practice changes. The NPF-ATTP model IPE program showed sustained positive gains in knowledge of PD, team strategies and role of other disciplines, team attitudes, and important practice improvements. Further research should examine longer-term outcomes, objectively measure practice changes and mediators, and determine impact on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  19. Interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities among lay people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewooruttun, Leila; Scior, Katrina

    2014-12-01

    Despite policies aimed at ensuring equal rights and maximising respect and social inclusion for people with intellectual disabilities, in their daily lives many continue to face negative attitudes and discrimination within society. Misconceptions about what it means to have an intellectual disability and about the capabilities of people with intellectual disabilities appear widespread, and may contribute to prejudice and discrimination. This review provides a summary and evaluation of empirical interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and targeting negative attitudes towards this population among lay people of working age. An electronic search using PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed identified 22 English language studies published between 1990 and early 2014 that reported a specific intervention with a lay population sample. The majority of studies reported promising outcomes, particularly those aimed at increasing knowledge of intellectual disability through education. Support for the positive influence of contact with people with intellectual disabilities was demonstrated across several interventions. Interventions delivered at least partly by individuals with intellectual disabilities, and educational interventions appear to hold the most promise. The evidence is limited though by the weaknesses of measurement tools employed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Online research article discussion board to increase knowledge translation during emergency medicine residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoneking LR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lisa R Stoneking, Kristi H Grall, Alice A Min, Ashish R PanchalDepartment of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USABackground: Many clinicians have difficulties reading current best practice journal articles on a regular basis. Discussion boards are one method of online asynchronous learning that facilitates active learning and participation. We hypothesized that an online repository of best practice articles with a discussion board would increase journal article reading by emergency medicine residents.Methods: Participants answered three questions weekly on a discussion board: What question does this study address? What does this study add to our knowledge? How might this change clinical practice? A survey regarding perceived barriers to participating was then distributed.Results: Most participants completed an article summary once or twice in total (23/32, 71.9%. Only three were involved most weeks (3/32, 9.4% whereas 5/32 (15.6% participated monthly. The most common barriers were lack of time (20/32, 62.5%, difficulty logging on (7/32, 21.9%, and forgetting (6/32, 18.8%.Conclusion: Although subjects were provided weekly with an article link, email, and feedback, journal article reading frequency did not increase.Keywords: online research, discussion board, knowledge translation, emergency medicine residency

  1. Undergraduate curriculum in palliative medicine at Tampere University increases students' knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Juho T; Hakkarainen, Kati; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Saarto, Tiina

    2017-01-25

    Education in palliative medicine (PM) at medical schools reveals wide variation despite the increasing importance of palliative care. Many universities present poor description of the benefits and detailed content of the total curriculum in PM. Using the recommendations of European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) as a reference, we evaluated the content and outcomes of the curriculum in PM at the University of Tampere, Finland. We searched for a PM curriculum by examining the teaching offered by every specialty and compared it to EAPC recommendations. Students' knowledge was evaluated using a progress test over three consecutive years. We found 53.5 teaching hours addressing PM issues, which exceeds the recommendation of the EAPC. Basics, symptom management, ethics, and communication skills were well established, while education in psychosocial/spiritual aspects, teamwork and self-reflection failed to reach the recommendations. Out of the maximum of 4.0, the progress test mean scores in PM among the third, fourth, fifth and sixth year students were 0.1 (SD 0.71), 0.69 (SD 1.28), 1.38 (SD 1.46) and 2.53 (SD 1.26), respectively (p curriculum in PM at the University of Tampere is integrated into the teaching of many disciplines and complied well with the EAPC recommendations. This education led to increasing knowledge in PM among medical students.

  2. Combining prior knowledge with data-driven modeling of a batch distillation column including start-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lith, P.F.; van Lith, Pascal F.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a simple model which describes the product quality and production over time of an experimental batch distillation column, including start-up. The model structure is based on a simple physical framework, which is augmented with fuzzy logic. This provides a way

  3. A systematic review of interventions to increase awareness, knowledge, and folic acid consumption before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivu, Corina Mihaela; Tulchinsky, Theodore H; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Braunstein, Rony; Brezis, Mayer

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies designed to increase awareness of knowledge about, and consumption of folic acid before and during pregnancy. Studies were identified from Cochrane Library, Medline, and the references of primary studies and reviews. Studies included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental interrupted time series studies, follow-up studies, case-control studies, and before-and-after studies, all of which were conducted between 1992 and 2005 on women ages 15 to 49 years and/or health professionals, evaluating awareness and/or knowledge and/or consumption of folic acid both before and after intervention. Studies were excluded if data were not presented both before and after intervention or were other outcomes than those mentioned here. Data were extracted in relation to characteristics of studies, participants, interventions, and outcomes. Because of heterogeneity, we performed a narrative synthesis describing the direction and the size of effects. On average, women's awareness increased from 60% to 72%, knowledge from 21% to 45%, and consumption from 14% to 23%. Interventions had a positive effect on folic acid intakes before and during pregnancy, although the average usage reached less than 25%.

  4. Including osteoprotegerin and collagen IV in a score-based blood test for liver fibrosis increases diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Nelly; Taibi, Ludmia; Guéchot, Jérôme; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Sturm, Nathalie; Gelineau, Marie-Christine; Poggi, Bernard; Thoret, Sophie; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Baudin, Bruno; Housset, Chantal; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2013-01-16

    Noninvasive methods for liver fibrosis evaluation in chronic liver diseases have been recently developed, i.e. transient elastography (Fibroscan™) and blood tests (Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, and Hepascore®). In this study, we aimed to design a new score in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) by selecting blood markers in a large panel and we compared its diagnostic performance with those of other noninvasive methods. Sixteen blood tests were performed in 306 untreated CHC patients included in a multicenter prospective study (ANRS HC EP 23 Fibrostar) using METAVIR histological fibrosis stage as reference. The new score was constructed by non linear regression using the most accurate biomarkers. Five markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein-A1, AST, collagen IV and osteoprotegerin) were included in the new function called Coopscore©. Using the Obuchowski Index, Coopscore© shows higher diagnostic performances than for Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, Hepascore® and Fibroscan™ in CHC. Association between Fibroscan™ and Coopscore© might avoid 68% of liver biopsies for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis. Coopscore© provides higher accuracy than other noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in CHC. The association of Coopscore© with Fibroscan™ increases its predictive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Training and knowledge development for use of software for safety analysis including ANSYS. Simulation of thermal-hydraulic benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of both axial mean and rms velocities of the current analysis with the benchmark submissions and experimental results were consistent, showing that the LES transient model of ANSYS CFX is applicable to the problem of T-junction mixing and to predict the location of thermal fatigue from temperature differences. Study of ICEM CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) should be able to provide more tools for a finer hexahedral mesh of the T-junction leading to better results. A video of the flow in time obtained from CFD Post is included with this report to help with visualizing the results of the temperature variation along the pipe

  6. Maximizing competence through professional development: increasing disability knowledge among One-Stop Career Center staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Allison Cohen; Timmons, Jaimie Ciulla; Boeltzig, Heike; Hamner, Doris; Fesko, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (USA) mandates that partners in the One-Stop Career Center system be prepared to serve a diverse customer base. Effective service delivery depends in part on a focus on human resources and professional development. This article presents innovative strategies for One-Stop Career Center staff training related to serving customers with disabilities. Findings from case study research conducted in several One-Stops across the country revealed that staff struggled with both knowledge and attitudes around disability issues. To address these concerns, local leaders developed practices that provided opportunities to gain practical skills and put acquired knowledge to use. These included a formalized curriculum focused on disability issues; informal support and consultation from a disability specialist; and exposure and learning through internships for students with disabilities. Implications are offered to stimulate thinking and creativity in local One-Stops regarding the most effective ways to facilitate staff learning and, in turn, improve services for customers with disabilities.

  7. Nurse/family caregiver intervention for delirium increases delirium knowledge and improves attitudes toward partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Deborah A; Fick, Donna M

    2014-01-01

    Delirium is highly prevalent, especially in hospitalized older adults and is a costly, significant predictor of poor outcomes, including mortality and institutionalization. Partnership between family caregivers and staff nurses could be a cost-neutral preventive strategy. The Nurse/Family Caregiver Partnership for Delirium Prevention (NFCPM) is an innovative educational program that concurrently teaches family caregivers and nurses about delirium and partnering in prevention. The purpose of this feasibility study was to examine the effect of the NFCPM on knowledge of delirium, attitudes toward partnership, and satisfaction with the NFCPM. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used to enroll 28 patients, 28 family caregivers, and 28 staff nurses. The intervention group significantly improved knowledge of delirium and attitudes toward partnership. Key to satisfaction were participation in decision making, communication, and respect. The NFCPM appears feasible for clinical practice and provides an innovative strategy for family and nurses to improve hospital outcomes for older adults. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  9. Pressure Mapping in Elderly Care: A Tool to Increase Pressure Injury Knowledge and Awareness Among Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Lisa; Olsson, Estrid; Carli, Cheryl; Gunningberg, Lena

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a pressure mapping system with real-time feedback of pressure points in elderly care, with specific focus on pressure injury (PI) knowledge/attitudes (staff), interface pressure, and PI prevention activities (residents). Descriptive, 1-group pretest/posttest study. A convenience sample of 40 assistant nurses and aides participated in the study; staff members were recruited at daytime, and 1 nighttime meeting was held at the facility. A convenience sample of 12 residents with risk for PI were recruited, 4 from each ward. Inclusion criteria were participants older than 65 years, Modified Norton Scale score 20 or less, and in need of help with turning in order to prevent PI. The study setting was a care facility for the elderly in Uppsala, Sweden. A descriptive, comparative pretest/posttest study design was used. The intervention consisted of the use of a pressure mapping system, combined with theoretical and practical teaching. Theoretical and practical information related to PI prevention and the pressure mapping system was presented to the staff. The staff (n = 40) completed the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge and Assessment Tool (PUKAT) and Attitudes towards Pressure Ulcer (APuP) before and following study intervention. Residents' beds were equipped with a pressure mapping system during 7 consecutive days. Peak pressures and preventive interventions were registered 3 times a day by trained study nurses, assistant nurses, and aides. Staff members' PUKAT scores increased significantly (P = .002), while their attitude scores, which were high pretest, remained unchanged. Peak interface pressures were significantly reduced (P = .016), and more preventive interventions (n = 0.012) were implemented when the staff repositioned residents after feedback from the pressure mapping system. A limited educational intervention, combined with the use of a pressure mapping system, was successful as it improved staff members' knowledge

  10. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  11. Facilitating improved road safety based on increased knowledge about driving behaviour and profiling sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne

    The aim of the Ph.D. study presented in this thesis was to facilitate improved road safety through increased understanding of methods used to measure driving behaviour, and through increased knowledge about driving behaviour in sub-groups of drivers. More specifically, the usefulness of the Driver...... Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) within a Danish context was explored, sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic were identified, and the relationship between implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving and self-reported driving behaviour was explored. The methods applied were...... a questionnaire survey on a random sample of 4,849 drivers, and an implicit attitude test on 55 drivers. The findings are reported in four articles that all are included in this thesis. The main contributions of the thesis are the following: 1. It is shown that Danish drivers’ perform aberrant behaviours...

  12. Advertising strategies to increase public knowledge of the warning signs of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Frank L; Rubini, Frank; Black, Diane; Hodgson, Corinne S

    2003-08-01

    Public awareness of the warning signs of stroke is important. As part of an educational campaign using mass media, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario conducted public opinion polling in 4 communities to track the level of awareness of the warning signs of stroke and to determine the impact of different media strategies. Telephone surveys were conducted among members of the general public in 1 control and 3 test communities before and after mass media campaigns. The main outcome measure used to determine effectiveness of the campaigns was the ability to name > or =2 warning signs of stroke. In communities exposed to television advertising, ability to name the warning signs of stroke increased significantly. There was no significant change in the community receiving print (newspaper) advertising, and the control community experienced a decrease. Television increased the knowledge of both men and women and of people with less than a secondary school education but not of those > or =65 years of age. Intermittent, low-level television advertising was as effective as continuous, high-level television advertising. Results of this survey can be used to guide mass media-buying strategies for public health education.

  13. Online research article discussion board to increase knowledge translation during emergency medicine residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Lisa R; Grall, Kristi H; Min, Alice A; Panchal, Ashish R

    2013-01-01

    Many clinicians have difficulties reading current best practice journal articles on a regular basis. Discussion boards are one method of online asynchronous learning that facilitates active learning and participation. We hypothesized that an online repository of best practice articles with a discussion board would increase journal article reading by emergency medicine residents. PARTICIPANTS ANSWERED THREE QUESTIONS WEEKLY ON A DISCUSSION BOARD: What question does this study address? What does this study add to our knowledge? How might this change clinical practice? A survey regarding perceived barriers to participating was then distributed. Most participants completed an article summary once or twice in total (23/32, 71.9%). Only three were involved most weeks (3/32, 9.4%) whereas 5/32 (15.6%) participated monthly. The most common barriers were lack of time (20/32, 62.5%), difficulty logging on (7/32, 21.9%), and forgetting (6/32, 18.8%). Although subjects were provided weekly with an article link, email, and feedback, journal article reading frequency did not increase.

  14. The Importance of Knowledge Management in Terms of Increasing Social Capital in Selected Slovene Technology Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the importance of knowledge management (KM and how it is influencing social capital (SC in selected organisations that are members of Slovene technology parks. The purpose of this article is to point out statistical important characteristics between the dependant variable and several independent variables on the basis of preliminary studied empirical data based on a population of 667 organisations chosen from the subjects of the innovative environment database maintained by the Public Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Entrepreneurship and Foreign Investments (JAPTI. On the basis of a multivariate regression analysis we wanted to present empirical findings, namely, whether communication technologies and the capability (ability of the employed to access information sources influences KM. With this article we want to present the final findings which define the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the influence of KM in small and medium sized companies on the development of social capital. We came to the conclusion that in an organisation the importance of intellectual and social capital, intangible capital assets and their continuous measurement has to be emphasised in order to increase the importance (awareness of KM.

  15. Finding the Sweet Spot: Network Structures and Processes for Increased Knowledge Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Patricia; Pollock, Katina; Campbell, Carol; Carr-Harris, Shasta

    2015-01-01

    The use of networks in public education is one of many knowledge mobilization (KMb) strategies utilized to promote evidence-based research into practice. However, challenges exist in the ability to mobilize knowledge through networks. The purpose of this paper is to explore how networks work. Data were collected from virtual discussions for an…

  16. Knowledge-generating efficiency in innovation systems: the acceleration of technological paradigm changes with increasing complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, I.A.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    Time series of US patents per million inhabitants show cyclic structures which can be attributed to the different knowledge-generating paradigms that drive innovation systems. The changes in the slopes between the waves can be used to indicate efficiencies in the generation of knowledge. When

  17. Increasing Pediatricians' Smoking Cessation Promotion and Knowledge of the Smoking Cessation Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katharine E H; Kisely, Steve; Urrego, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    The link between second hand smoke exposure (SHSe) and health issues in children has been well established. The objective of this study was to determine if a short intervention implemented among pediatricians promotes improvement in the promotion of smoking cessation to caregivers and increase pediatricians' awareness of the Smoking Cessation Trust (SCT). Pediatricians from 6 clinics were randomly assigned to the control or intervention group. All pediatricians received a survey to assess baseline knowledge, confidence and behaviors in smoking cessation promotion and utilization of the SCT. Pediatricians in intervention group received an educational lecture delivered by a physician. Two months post intervention, pediatricians in the control and intervention group received a survey to assess changes from baseline. Out of 36 general pediatricians, 27 completed the surveys for use in the analysis of this study (75%). Intervention group made more referrals to the SCT, compared to controls (p=0.048) and to baseline (p=0.0065). Pediatricians in the intervention group were more confident in recommending the use of NRT (0.040) and schedule a follow up to discuss smoking cessation (p=0.029) after the intervention. The intervention group was more likely to refer caregivers to smoking cessation programs (p=0.027), discuss a child's health risk from SHSe (0.031) and recommending the use of NRT to help quit (p=0.047) post intervention. The results from this study indicate that a short intervention can increase confidence and behavior in various parameters of smoking cessation promotion and significantly improve the rate in which pediatricians refer smoking caregivers to the SCT.

  18. Successful weight loss maintenance includes long-term increased meal responses of GLP-1 and PYY3-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    at week 52. Glucagon levels were unaffected by weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Meal responses of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 remained increased 1 year after weight maintenance, whereas ghrelin and GIP reverted toward before-weight loss values. Thus, an increase in appetite inhibitory mechanisms and a partly decrease...... in appetite-stimulating mechanisms appear to contribute to successful long-term weight loss maintenance.......-week very low-calorie diet (800kcal/day). After weight loss, participants entered a 52-week weight maintenance protocol. Plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY3-36, ghrelin, GIP and glucagon during a 600-kcal meal were measured before weight loss, after weight loss and after 1 year of weight maintenance. Area...

  19. A Knowledge Translation Programme to Increase the Utilization of Thoracic Spine Mobilization and Manipulation for Patients with Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Steve; Westerheide, Angela; Daniel, Laura

    2016-06-01

    There is extensive evidence that mobilization and manipulation of the thoracic spine is associated with improved outcomes in patients with neck pain. However, these evidence-based techniques are not always utilized. Successful knowledge translation programmes are needed to move the best available evidence to clinical practice. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the effects of a structured knowledge translation programme on the frequency of manual therapy techniques performed by physical therapists on patients with neck pain. Prior to our intervention, we assessed physical therapists' use of thoracic spine intervention for the treatment of neck pain and their knowledge of the evidence. We delivered a multimodal knowledge translation programme and then reassessed their use and knowledge of the interventions. The majority of our physical therapists increased the use of thoracic spine techniques for their patients with neck pain. The increase was greater in those who used the techniques infrequently. Overall knowledge of the evidence appeared unchanged. Knowledge translation programmes are essential in ensuring clinical use of evidence-based practice. Our programme results, although on a small scale and not statistically significant, showed a positive trend toward increased thoracic spine manual therapy use for neck pain. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...

  1. Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario Partidario, Maria; Sheate, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: ► Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation ► We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making ► Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange ► Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments ► The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning platforms as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA.

  2. Increasing Absorptive Capacity to Improve Internal and External Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Companies: A Multiple Case Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla-Gergely RÁCZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the absorptive capacity could be increased to improve internal and external knowledge transfer in subsidiaries of multinational companies. We look at the way in which the literature on absorptive capacity has evolved, and how it links the internal and external knowledge transfer. Based on 3 case studies conducted at Romanian subsidiaries of multinational companies, we find some patterns, which could explain how the successful knowledge flows should be managed within the multinational company and outside of it, in the supply chain network.

  3. Patient education in groups increases knowledge of osteoporosis and adherence to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Ryg, Jesper; Nielsen, Winnie

    2010-01-01

    and 268 women aged 63 ± 8 years), recently diagnosed with osteoporosis, were randomised to either an osteoporosis school programme (four classes of 8-12 participants over four weeks) or a control group. Teaching was multidisciplinary, based on patients' experiences and background and designed to encourage...... empowerment. Patients' knowledge about osteoporosis and adherence to treatment was assessed with self-completed questionnaires at baseline and after 3, 12, and 24 months. RESULTS: There were no significant differences at baseline between the two groups with respect to knowledge score or level of adherence...

  4. Evaluation of fotonovela to increase human papillomavirus vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and intentions in a low-income Hispanic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alvin; Brown, Brandon; Sepulveda, Enedina; Teran-Clayton, Lorena

    2015-10-29

    It has nearly been a decade since the introduction of the vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV), yet vaccination rates in the United States have remained suboptimal, particularly among Hispanics. Culturally and linguistically relevant health education tools targeting Hispanics are needed to increase the current rate of HPV vaccination. This article evaluates a theory-informed, evidence-guided fotonovela (photographic short story) intervention to improve HPV vaccination knowledge, attitudes, and intention among young adults. Young adults (N = 41, aged 18-26 years) in a low-income primary care clinic in Southern California were administered pre- and post-intervention surveys to measure changes in perceived susceptibility to HPV, perceived benefit of vaccination in committed relationship, intention to vaccinate, intention to encourage social networks to vaccinate, and attitude towards vaccination. Post-intervention survey also examined attitudes towards fotonovela. Relationships between attitudes towards fotonovela and demographic characteristics were assessed with Fisher's exact test. Self-reported gains in knowledge were categorized and tabulated. Changes in perceptions and intentions were analyzed with the marginal homogeneity test. The majority of participants were female (78.0%), Latino/Hispanic (92.7%), single (70.7%), and had at least a college education (61.0%). The mean age was 21.9 years (SD 0.4). The fotonovela was viewed as entertaining (95.1%), educational (97.6%), and easy to read (100 %). Following the intervention, Hispanic participants improved in all five variables of interest measured in the survey, including perceived susceptibility (+10.5%, p = 0.03), benefit of vaccination (+7.8%, p = 0.25), intent to vaccinate (+18.4%, p = 0.06), intent to encourage others to vaccinate (+10.5%, p = 0.14) and attitude towards vaccination (+13.1%, p = 0.05). Improvements in perceived susceptibility and attitude towards vaccination reached statistical

  5. Increased knowledge of thalassemia promotes early carrier status examination among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Broto Dewanto

    2016-04-01

    A higher thalassemia knowledge score causes medical students to be willing to undergo thalassemia carrier status examination at an earlier point in timing. A well-organized educational program focusing on thalassemia and early screening in young adults may enhance the thalassemia prevention program.

  6. Changing College Students' Conceptions of Autism: An Online Training to Increase Knowledge and Decrease Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J.; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K.; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane

    2015-01-01

    College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma…

  7. Increasing Student Ability To Transfer Knowledge through the Use of Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Erin L.; Price, Kathleen L.; Wilken, Diane M.

    This action research project implemented and evaluated a program for improving student transfer of knowledge to real life experiences. The targeted population consisted of second, sixth, and tenth grade students in a Midwestern community located outside of a major city. Evidence suggested a need for this program as documented by teacher generated…

  8. Home-based Education Increases Knowledge, Communication and Living Donor Kidney Transplantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.Y. Ismail (Sohal)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A focus group approach was used to disclose transplant candidates’ view on patient-tailored interventions that could target modifiable hurdles to LDKT. A majority would appreciate an home-based educational intervention (chapter 2). Solving knowledge insufficiencies

  9. Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…

  10. Selective media exposure and increasing knowledge gaps in Swiss referendum campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmann, D.N.; Wonneberger, A.; Shehata, A.; Höijer, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the discussion on how the growing opportunities for media choice influence gaps in political knowledge among those motivated to consume news versus those who are not. With more television channels available, it becomes easier to choose content matching personal

  11. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  12. Increasing Children's Positive Connection to, Orientation toward, and Knowledge of Nature through Nature Camp Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose, Alyssa L.; Nelson, Keith E.

    2017-01-01

    What do children actually carry away from participating in planned activities in natural areas such as those in outdoor camps and schools? Prior research has seldom been rigorous in establishing participants' connection to, knowledge of, and orientation toward nature before intervention, followed by a clear specification of what range of…

  13. The use of a knowledge translation program to increase use of standardized outcome measures in an outpatient pediatric physical therapy clinic: administrative case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Joseph; Marchetti, Gregory F; Racicot, Brook; Kaminski, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric physical therapists face many challenges related to the application of research evidence to clinical practice. A multicomponent knowledge translation (KT) program may be an effective strategy to support practice change. The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of a KT program to improve the knowledge and frequency of use of standardized outcome measures by pediatric physical therapists practicing in an outpatient clinic. This program occurred at a pediatric outpatient facility with 1 primary clinic and 3 additional satellite clinics, and a total of 17 physical therapists. The initial underlying problem was inconsistency across staff recommendations for frequency and duration of physical therapist services. Formal and informal discussion with the department administrator and staff identified a need for increased use of standardized outcome measures to inform these decisions. The KT program to address this need spanned 6 months and included identification of barriers, the use of a knowledge broker, multiple workshop and practice sessions, online and hard-copy resources, and ongoing evaluation of the KT program with dissemination of results to staff. Outcome measures included pre- and post-knowledge assessment and self-report surveys and chart review data on use of outcome measures. Participants (N=17) gained knowledge and increased the frequency of use of standardized outcome measures based on data from self-report surveys, a knowledge assessment, and chart reviews. Administrators and others interested in supporting practice change in physical therapy may consider implementing a systematic KT program that includes a knowledge broker, ongoing engagement with staff, and a variety of accessible resources. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  14. Creating knowledge structures in the pharmaceutical industry: the increasing significance of virtual organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, A; Howells, J

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the specific trend and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry regarding the exploitation of Internet e-commerce technology and virtual organisation to develop and maintain competitive advantage. There are two important facets of the current trend. One is the rapid development of a complex network of alliances between the established pharmaceutical companies and the specialised biotechnology company start-ups. The other is the rapid growth of internet e-commerce companies dedicated to developing specialised technological platforms for acquiring and selling genetic and biochemical knowledge. The underlying challenge is how big pharmaceutical companies can emulate some of the innovation processes of smaller biotechnology company start-ups, and how they can appropriate and applied new technological knowledge on the development of new drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in order to retain competitive advantage need to continuously monitor all aspects of knowledge management with regard to the R&D and manufacturing process (as well as customer management and marketing). Technological change and organisational restructuring should be aimed at boosting the capacity of large firms to innovate rapidly.

  15. Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD.

  16. The motherhood choices decision aid for women with rheumatoid arthritis increases knowledge and reduces decisional conflict: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, T; Dowswell, E; Manolios, N; Sharpe, L

    2015-09-22

    For many women with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) motherhood decisions are complicated by their condition and complex pharmacological treatments. Decisions about having children or expanding their family require relevant knowledge and consultation with their family and physician as conception and pregnancy has to be managed within the RA context. Relevant information is not readily available to women with RA. Therefore a randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a new motherhood decision aid (DA) developed specifically for women with RA. One hundred and forty-four women were randomly allocated to either an intervention or control group. All women completed a battery of questionnaires at pre-intervention, including, the Pregnancy in Rheumatoid Arthritis Questionnaire (PiRAQ), the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), and provided basic demographic information. Women in the DA group were sent an electronic version of the DA, and completed the battery of questionnaires for a second time post-intervention. Women who received the DA had a 13 % increase in relevant knowledge (PiRAQ) scores and a 15 % decrease in scores on the decisional conflict (DCS), compared to the control group (1 %, 2 % respectively). No adverse psychological effects were detected as evident in unchanged levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. The findings of this study suggest that this DA may be an effective tool in assisting women with RA when contemplating having children or more children. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, http://www.anzctr.org.au/ , ACTRN12615000523505.

  17. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J.C.; Koert, E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these

  18. Increase in teachers' knowledge about ADHD after a week-long training program: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Ehsan Ullah; Hussein, Sajida Abdul

    2010-01-01

    ADHD affects 3% to 5% of school-age children. Clinical and community based epidemiological studies in Pakistan have shown a high prevalence of ADHD among school going children. A thorough review of literature shows that no studies of teachers' training programs regarding ADHD have been published in Pakistani research literature. The aim of the present study is the development and evaluation of an ADHD training program for teachers. A teachers' training program for ADHD was designed and a pilot run in 3 schools of Karachi, Pakistan. Teachers knowledge regarding signs and symptoms of ADHD was tested before and after the workshop and then again after 6 months using an ADHD knowledge questionnaire. Forty-nine teachers, all of them women, completed the questionnaires before and after the training program, and 35 of them filled it out at the 6-month interval. Mean scores of these tests were compared using a paired t test. The authors found the difference of mean score of 1.48 +/- 2.95, and this was statistically significant (p teachers regarding ADHD symptomatology, and it remained significant even after 6 months of training.

  19. Introduction to the "Scoliosis" Journal Brace Technology Thematic Series: increasing existing knowledge and promoting future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  20. Oral contraceptive use in women at increased risk of breast/ovarian cancer: knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Kim Tam; Wakefield, Claire E; Kasparian, Nadine A; Tyler, Janet; Abbott, Jason; Tucker, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Several of the health benefits and risks associated with the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) are particularly relevant to women at risk of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. Eighty-three past female patients of an Australian hereditary cancer clinic aged 18-50 years completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their contraceptive practices, knowledge and information needs (44% response rate). Ninety-two percent of participants had previously used the COCP, with a mean knowledge score of 3.63 out of 8. Nearly 40% reported that their family history of cancer was one reason they discontinued/avoided using the COCP. Women reported receiving insufficient COCP information and preferred a targeted information leaflet to answer their questions. Although recall bias may have affected some women, there is a clear need to improve the consistency of information delivered to women at risk of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer, to ensure informed contraceptive choices are made. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Harnessing Visual Media in Environmental Education: Increasing Knowledge of Orangutan Conservation Issues and Facilitating Sustainable Behaviour through Video Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Elissa; Dorrian, Jillian; Litchfield, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Many animals are currently facing extinction. Conservation education which highlights the impacts of our behaviour on other species survival is crucial. This study provides evidence for the use of visual media to increase knowledge, attitudes and conservation behaviours regarding the highly endangered orangutan. University students (n = 126) were…

  2. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  3. Como poderia a Gerontologia, um campo multidisciplinar do saber, estar presente na Tabela das Áreas do Conhecimento do CNPq? How could Gerontology, a multidisciplinary field of knowledge, be included in CNPq's Table of Knowledge Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Donizete Prado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Discutimos a possibilidade da inserção da Gerontologia na Tabela das Áreas do Conhecimento do CNPq num cenário em essa tabela vem sendo questionada na comunidade científica, particularmente no que se refere à inclusão de áreas multidisciplinares. A partir de Foucault, entendemos a Árvore do Conhecimento como uma taxonomia, um continuum, onde todas as áreas são colocadas lado a lado, mais próximas ou mais afastadas conforme semelhanças e diferenças entre si. Trata-se de um tratamento linear e finito que estabelece que uma determinada área do conhecimento só pode estar situada num ponto da parte da linha que corresponde a uma grande área. A Gerontologia caracteristicamente multidisciplinar não alcançou lugar nessa taxonomia institucionalizada, seja porque haveria problemas em relação a conceitos, interesses e projeto político em sua constituição como área do conhecimento, seja porque a taxonomia seria incompatível com a multidisciplinaridade. Concluímos que é possível conceber uma nova Tabela de Campos de Conhecimentos e de Saberes e proceder visualizações dos estudos sobre o envelhecimento e sobre toda e qualquer região dos conhecimentos e dos saberes na plenitude de sua muldisciplinaridade e de suas transformações ao longo dos tempos.We discuss the possibility of including Gerontology in the CNPq Areas of Knowledge Table, in a scenario where this Table is being questioned by the scientific community, particularly with regard to the inclusion of multidisciplinary areas. Based on Foucault, we view the Tree of Knowledge as taxonomy, a continuum in which all areas are placed side by side, closer together or further apart, depending on their similarities and differences. This finite linear approach establishes that a certain Area of knowledge may be placed only at a point along the line corresponding to a Greater Area. Inherently multidisciplinary, gerontology has not been placed in this institutionalized taxonomy

  4. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these findings. Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of online educational approaches to increase fertility knowledge and support informed family planning decisions. Web

  5. Internet-based learning programme to increase nurses' knowledge level about venous leg ulcer care in home health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylönen, Minna; Viljamaa, Jaakko; Isoaho, Hannu; Junttila, Kristiina; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suhonen, Riitta

    2017-11-01

    To test the effectiveness of an Internet-based education programme about venous leg ulcer nursing care on perceived and theoretical knowledge levels and attitudes among nurses working in home health care. Nurses have been shown to have knowledge gaps in venous leg ulcer nursing care. Internet-based learning could offer a means for flexible continuing education for home healthcare environment. Quasi-experimental study with pre- and postmeasurements and nonequivalent intervention and comparison groups. Nurses (n = 946) in home health care in two Finnish municipalities were invited to participate in the study and divided into intervention and comparison groups. The intervention group received education programme about venous leg ulcer nursing care, while the comparison group did not. Data were collected at baseline, at six weeks and at 10 weeks to test the hypotheses: nurses using education programme about venous leg ulcer nursing care will have higher level of knowledge and more positive attitudes than those not using education programme about venous leg ulcer nursing care. An analysis of variance and mixed models with repeated measures were used to test differences in knowledge and attitudes between and within the groups. There were statistically significant increases in knowledge levels in the intervention group from baseline to the first and second follow-up measurements. In the comparison group, the knowledge levels remained unchanged during the study. Attitude levels remained unchanged in both groups. Nurses' perceived and theoretical knowledge levels of venous leg ulcer nursing care can be increased with Internet-based education. However, this increase in knowledge levels is short-lived, which emphasises the need for continuous education. Internet-based education about venous leg ulcer nursing care is recommended for home healthcare nurses. Education programme about venous leg ulcer nursing care provides flexible method for nurses' learning with feasible

  6. Situated Cognition Principles Increase Students’ Likelihood of Knowledge Transfer in an Online Information Literacy Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peace Ossom Williamson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Catalano, A. (2015. The effect of a situated learning environment in a distance education information literacy course. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(5, 653-659. http://dx.doi:org/10.1016/j.acalib.2015.06.008 Objective – To assess the efficacy of the application of situated cognition principles in education students’ transfer of knowledge to practice in an online information literacy course. “Situation cognition” refers to a theory in which expert behaviour-modeling, authentic activity and apprenticeship, and learning environment are integral in learning. Design – A randomized controlled trial. Setting – A small private university in New York State. Subjects – 85 education college students in 7 sections of a 1-credit online course titled Introduction to Library Research and Technology. Methods – Each course section was randomly assigned via cluster sampling to “situated cognition” treatment (n = 48 or control conditions (n = 37. The treatment sections provided students with expert modeling, scaffolding, authentic activity, and problem-based assessments according to the principles of situated learning and teaching for transfer; while the control sections provided students with traditional instruction of lectures and handouts.

  7. Single Point Incremental Forming to increase material knowledge and production flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habraken, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    listed however the lecture will be more focused on the use of SPIF to identify material parameters of well-chosen constitutive law. Results of FE simulations with damage models will be investigated to better understand the relation between the particular stress and strain states in the material during SPIF and the material degradation leading to localization or fracture. Last but not least, as industrial world does not wait that academic scientists provide a deep and total understanding on how it works, to use interesting processes, the lecture will review some applications. Examples in fields as different as automotive guard, engine heat shield, gas turbine, electronic sensor, shower basin, medical component (patient-fitted organic shapes) and architecture demonstrate that the integration of SPIF within the industry is more and more a reality. Note that this plenary lecture is the result of the research performed by the author in the University of Liege (Belgium) and in Aveiro (Portugal) with the team of R. de Souza during PhD theses of C. Henrard, J. Sena and C. Guzman and different research projects. It is also a synthesis of the knowledge gathered during her interactions with many research teams such as the ones of J.R. Duflou from KU Leuven in Belgium, J. Cao from Northwestern University in USA, M. Bambach in BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg in Germany, J. Jeswiet from Queen's University, Kingston, Canada who are currently working together on a state-of-the-art paper. The micro SPIF knowledge relies on contacts with S. Thibaud from the University of Franche Comte.

  8. INCREASING THE ACCURACY OF MAYFIELD ESTIMATES USING KNOWLEDGE OF NEST AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the error introduced in nest-survival modeling when nest-cycles are assumed to be of constant length. I will present the types of error that may occur, including biases resulting from incorrect estimates of expected values, as well as biases that o...

  9. Classroom Profiling Training: Increasing Preservice Teachers' Confidence and Knowledge of Classroom Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cliff; Simoncini, Kym; Davidson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Classroom management is a serious concern for beginning teachers including preservice teachers. The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) has developed the Essential Skills for Classroom Management (ESCM), a system of positive and pro-active strategies for maintaining supportive learning environments. In addition, the…

  10. All Kidding Aside: Humor Increases Learning at Knowledge and Comprehension Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackathorn, Jana; Garczynski, Amy M.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn; Tennial, Rachel D.; Solomon, Erin D.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that humor is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between instructor and student, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study sought to add to the literature by empirically testing some assumptions about humor as a pedagogical tool. Specifically, we predicted that…

  11. Improvement of Radiological Teaching - Effects of Focusing of Learning Targets and Increased Consideration of Learning Theory Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Stefan; William, York-Alexander; Paolini, Marco; Wirth, Kathrin; Maxien, Daniel; Reiser, Maximilian; Fischer, Martin R

    2018-02-01

     Based on evaluation and examination results of students, a necessity for improvement of so far purely instructor-based radiological teaching at the local institution was determined. Aim of our study was to use one out of eight seminars to exemplify adaptation of the teaching concept according to learning theory knowledge, to determine the resulting effects and to interpret them.  The institutional review board approved the prospective study of the seminar conversion, which was performed after the end of the winter semester 2015/2016. Didactically, this included a course split into online preparation, attendance phase and online follow-up with integration of interactive scaffolding, practice-oriented clinical teaching according to Stanford, Peyton skills transfer and extensive feedback into the attendance phase. At the beginning and at the end of each course, each student filled in identical, standardized questionnaires (n = 256 before and after conversion) using a 5-point Likert scale (1: very good; to 5: deficient) and additionally answered two randomly chosen written examination questions from a content-adapted questionnaire pool of the last five years. For statistical evaluation, the Mann-Whitney U-Test was used for evaluation data and Fisher's Exact test for exam questions.  Before/after conversion, the subjective total evaluation score of students was 3.22 (mean value) ± 1.51 (standard deviation) / 1.66 ± 0.78 (p considerably higher rate of correctly answered examination questions from past state examinations (learning success). This supports transferring the concept to comparable teaching units.   · Radiological teaching allows integration of current learning theory concepts with reasonable effort.. · In a test seminar this improved the evaluation results of the teaching unit by the students.. · In addition, this also led to a higher rate of correctly answered examination questions from past state examinations.. · This supports

  12. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Scott A.; Cunningham, David G.; Marles, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

  13. A day of immersive physiology experiments increases knowledge and excitement towards physiology and scientific careers in Native American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bryan K; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H; Eager, Eric A; Bronner, Liliana P; Godfrey, Maurice

    2017-03-01

    Underserved minority groups are disproportionately absent from the pursuit of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. One such underserved population, Native Americans, are particularly underrepresented in STEM fields. Although recent advocacy and outreach designed toward increasing minority involvement in health care-related occupations have been mostly successful, little is known about the efficacy of outreach programs in increasing minority enthusiasm toward careers in traditional scientific professions. Furthermore, very little is known about outreach among Native American schools toward increasing involvement in STEM. We collaborated with tribal middle and high schools in South Dakota and Nebraska through a National Institutes of Health Science Education Partnership Award to hold a day-long physiology, activity-based event to increase both understanding of physiology and enthusiasm to scientific careers. We recruited volunteer biomedical scientists and trainees from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Wesleyan University, and University of South Dakota. To evaluate the effectiveness of the day of activities, 224 of the ~275-300 participating students completed both a pre- and postevent evaluation assessment. We observed increases in both students self-perceived knowledge of physiology and enthusiasm toward scientific career opportunities after the day of outreach activities. We conclude that activity-based learning opportunities in underserved populations are effective in increasing both knowledge of science and interest in scientific careers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK, A Conceptual Framework for an Increasingly Technology Driven Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Unwin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Higher Education (HE professionals generally work in an ICT rich environment. There are expectations that the existence of ICT benefits them, their students and the overall learning environment. These assumptions are often left unchallenged due to a lack of developed theoretical frameworks. This paper introduces and critiques the TPCK framework by reviewing the origins of the concepts used in its formulation and by experimenting with the model in the context of a HE course. Although the TPCK framework raises and focuses the debate about technologies in education this paper suggests some key issues are potentially missing. The paper suggests that pedagogic design needs a clear focus on the role of the learner in the process and that HE requires collaborative communities of practice that include ICT ‘enthusiasts’ within any course team. The paper suggests these are key factors in enhancing the capacity of the HE staff to engage positively, collaboratively and critically with the growth of learning technologies and in turn design appropriate and successful online components within their courses.

  15. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out...... environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic...

  16. Increasing HIV-related knowledge, communication, and testing intentions among Latinos: Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Espinoza, Lilia; Bird, Mara; Garcia, Melawhy; D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Bellamy, Laura; Scolari, Rosana

    2010-08-01

    Latinos are less likely to be aware of their HIV seropositivity than African Americans and Whites. 'Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba' is a culturally and linguistically-sensitive HIV/AIDS prevention and testing program targeting Latino families. Using community-based participatory research techniques, Spanish-speaking bicultural community health workers helped develop and then used an educational flip chart and materials to conduct outreach and HIV prevention education in diverse settings. The intervention was created to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, to improve communication regarding sexual risk, and to augment intentions to use condoms and test for HIV. A secondary purpose was to decrease HIV-related stigma by improving knowledge about transmission and reducing homophobia. Participants demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge, intention to practice safer sex and communicate sexual risk to partner(s), and intention to test for HIV. Improvements were also found in self-reported comfort levels when interacting with and caring for the HIV positive, thus decreasing HIV/AIDS-related stigma.

  17. A workplace intervention program and the increase in HIV knowledge, perceived accessibility and use of condoms among young factory workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Ford, Kathleen; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Prasartkul, Pramote

    2017-12-01

    Vulnerability to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among factory workers is a global problem. This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to increase AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use among young factory workers in Thailand. The intervention was a workplace program designed to engage the private sector in HIV prevention. A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2008 to measure program outcomes in factories in Thailand was used in this study. The workplace intervention included the development of policies for management of HIV-positive employees, training sessions for managers and workers, and distribution of educational materials and condoms. A multi-level analysis was used to investigate the effect of HIV/AIDS prevention program components at the workplace on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use with regular sexual partners among 699 young factory workers (aged 18-24 years), controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. Interventions related to the management and services component including workplace AIDS policy formulation, condom services programs and behavioral change campaigns were found to be significantly related to increased AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use with regular partners. The effect of the HIV/AIDS training for managers, peer leaders and workers was positive but not statistically significant. With some revision of program components, scaling up of workplace interventions and the engagement of the private sector in HIV prevention should be seriously considered.

  18. Increased Market Integration, Value, and Ecological Knowledge of Tea Agroforests in the Akha Highlands of Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the persistence and change of traditional land use patterns and ecological knowledge in response to expanded commercialization of tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica (L. Kuntze Theaceae in an indigenous Akha (Hani community in the midlevel montane forests of southwest Yunnan, China. Surveys were conducted in 2005 and 2008, over a period corresponding to a regional tea market boom and bust cycle, to compare the valuation smallholders attribute to land use types and to determine the role that value systems play in shaping environmental behavior and knowledge. At the community level, increased market integration of tea agroforests is associated with reconfiguration of land use, intensified management, reorganization of labor structures, and generation of knowledge on tea resources. Akha have tapped into customary resources and forged new social networks with tea industry agents to take advantage of emerging market opportunities. They have resisted state reforms calling for the cultivation of high-intensity plantations and introduced cultivars. Consequently, they have benefited from price premiums through niche market networks for tea sourced from agroforests and proprietary landraces not available to other communities disempowered by market cycles. Subsistence agriculture, home gardening, and foraging persist for food security despite tea wealth. However, as traditional values are reoriented toward market-based ideologies, the community may risk a breakdown of the social institutions that support sustainability.

  19. Use of MP3 players to increase asthma knowledge in inner-city African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosnaim, Giselle S; Cohen, Marc S; Rhoads, Christopher H; Rittner, Sarah Stuart; Powell, Lynda H

    2008-01-01

    Low-income African-American adolescents suffer a disproportionate burden of asthma morbidity. To evaluate the ability of our intervention, the Adolescents' Disease Empowerment and Persistency Technology (ADEPT) for asthma, to increase asthma knowledge in our target population. This was a 14-week (2-week run-in and 12-week treatment) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in which 28 inner-city African-American adolescents with asthma, between 10 and 18 years of age, were randomized to receive (1) celebrity asthma messages (experimental group), or (2) general health messages (control group) between music tracks on an MP3 player. The asthma messages were recorded by famous athletes, musicians, and other celebrities popular among this group of teenagers. Asthma knowledge, assessed by the ZAP Asthma Knowledge instrament, was collected pre- and post-intervention. Mean improvement in ZAP score was significantly higher in the experimental group (8.1%, SD 7.2%) than the control group (0.4%, SD 7.2%) (p = 0.05). These findings suggest that this may be an innovative and promising new approach to improving asthma outcomes in this difficult-to-reach population.

  20. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  1. The effects of an intervention to increase liberal arts mathematics and science majors' knowledge of and attitudinal favorability toward the teaching profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemballa, Carolyn

    In light of the persistent shortage of qualified mathematics and science teachers and the new teacher qualification provisions of the recently passed No Child Left Behind Act, This study tested the impact of an educational intervention designed to enhance interest in public school teaching careers among undergraduate students who were declared/intended majors in mathematics and/or natural science. Besides salary, research reveals content fear as the biggest roadblock to attracting mathematics and science teachers. Because of this, liberal arts majors in mathematics and science are a target pool of individuals to recruit into teaching. The researcher hypothesized that knowledge and attitudinal favorability would both increase after an intervention about teaching careers and that an increase in one variable would be associated with the other. Also, knowledge and attitudinal favorability would have a greater increase after a more intensive intervention than a less intensive intervention or no intervention. The researcher also hypothesized that if undergraduates were less decided in their career, lower classmen, and female, their attitudes toward the teaching profession would increase the most. One hundred eighty-nine college students, 73 males and 116 females, including 85 freshmen, 67 sophomores, 18 juniors and 19 seniors, at University A and University B were randomly assigned to a workshop, reading, or control group. The workshop group attended a workshop about the teaching profession. The reading group read articles with the same information presented in the workshop. The control group read unrelated articles. The findings from this study indicate that an intervention about teaching does significantly increase both knowledge and attitudinal favorability toward teaching (p policy, in particular urging more communication between schools of education and liberal arts.

  2. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, Ariel E.; Mulleady Bishop, Pauline; Dad, Luqman; Singh, Deeptej; Slanetz, Priscilla J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p ≤ 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology

  3. Impact of communication strategies to increase knowledge, acceptability, and uptake of a new Woman's Condom in urban Lusaka, Zambia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchoff, Jessie; Chowdhuri, Rachna Nag; Taruberekera, Noah; Ngo, Thoai D

    2016-12-13

    Globally, 220 million women experience an unmet need for family planning. A newly designed female condom, the Woman's Condom (WC), has been developed featuring an improved design. It is the first dual-protection, female-initiated contraceptive that is a premium, higher price point product. However, market availability alone will not increase uptake. In February 2016 the WC will be distributed with a strong media campaign and interpersonal communication (IPC) outreach intervention. The impact of these on knowledge, acceptability, and use of the WC will be measured. A baseline survey of 2314 randomly selected 18- to 24-year-old sexually active men and women has been conducted. The WC and mass media will be introduced throughout 40 urban wards in and surrounding Lusaka, Zambia. The baseline survey will serve as a quasi-control arm to determine the impact of introducing the WC with mass media. Half of the wards will be randomly allocated to additionally receive the IPC intervention. A single-blind randomized controlled trial will determine the impact of the IPC intervention on knowledge, uptake, and use of the WC. After one year, another 2314 individuals will be randomly selected to participate in the endline survey. We hypothesize that (1) the distribution and media campaign of the WC will increase overall condom use in selected urban wards, and specifically use of the WC; (2) the IPC intervention will significantly impact knowledge, acceptability, and use of the WC. The primary outcome measures are use of the WC, use of any condom, and willingness to use the WC. Secondary outcomes include measures of knowledge, acceptability, and choice of contraception. Odds ratios will be estimated to measure the effect of the intervention on the outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. Increasing uptake of dual prevention measures (such as the WC) may reduce incidence of sexually transmitted infections/HIV and

  4. Microparticles released from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human macrophages contain increased levels of the type I interferon inducible proteins including ISG15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Nathan J; Chan, Brian; Chan, Edwina; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Britton, Warwick J; Saunders, Bernadette M

    2015-09-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small membranous particles (100-1000 nm) released under normal steady-state conditions and are thought to provide a communication network between host cells. Previous studies demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection of macrophages increased the release of MPs, and these MPs induced a proinflammatory response from uninfected macrophages in vitro and in vivo following their transfer into uninfected mice. To determine how M. tb infection modulates the protein composition of the MPs, and if this contributes to their proinflammatory properties, we compared the proteomes of MPs derived from M. tb-infected (TBinf-MP) and uninfected human THP-1 monocytic cells. MP proteins were analyzed by GeLC-MS/MS with spectral counting revealing 68 proteins with statistically significant differential abundances. The 42 proteins increased in abundance in TBinf-MPs included proteins associated with immune function (7), lysosomal/endosomal maturation (4), vesicular formation (12), nucleosome proteins (4), and antigen processing (9). Prominent among these were the type I interferon inducible proteins, ISG15, IFIT1, IFIT2, and IFIT3. Exposure of uninfected THP-1 cells to TBinf-MPs induced increased gene expression of isg15, ifit1, ifit2, and ifit3 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. These proteins may regulate the proinflammatory potential of the MPs and provide candidate biomarkers for M. tb infection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Application complementarity of the knowledge management and internal marketing concepts in the aim of increasing enterprise's intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Bojan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise competitiveness in the era of knowledge economy is most directly connected to human and other intellectual resources. Managers and other employees become vital resource in the 21st century, and their knowledge is the key of creating and delivering superior value to the customers. Nowadays, they are one of the most important segments of assets without which enterprise cannot exist. Crucial question for management is how to enlarge other knowledge resources based on human resources knowledge, that is, their economically- relevant form - intellectual capital. Initial hypothesis of this paper is that, internal marketing, which has enterprise's employees in the focus, can create adequate basis for specializing and enlarging knowledge resources - intellectual resources or intellectual capital as a key factor of competitiveness in the era of knowledge economy. Knowledge management is observed as a segment of intellectual capital management process within an enterprise, with aim to direct the efficient usage of all kinds of knowledge (individual, group-team, organizational in order to create new business opportunities and successful commercialisations of products/services. The aim of this paper is to indicate that complementary application of the concept of internal marketing and the concept of knowledge management may result in synergetic effect of enlargement and specialisation of the knowledge resources - intellectual capital. In the paper we use methods of scientific observation, testing and connecting, as well as methods of analysis and synthesis. The purpose of obtained results application and conclusions from this research is to show to the enterprise management the importance of simultaneous effective application of internal marketing concept and knowledge transfer through processes and practices of knowledge management.

  6. Stakeholder Engagement and Knowledge Co-Creation in Water Planning: Can Public Participation Increase Cost-Effectiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Graversgaard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, a radical shift took place in Danish water planning. Following years of a top-down water planning approach, 23 regional water councils were established to co-create and provide input to Danish authorities on the development of River Basin Management Plans (RBMP. The water councils advised local authorities on the application of measures to improve the physical conditions in Danish streams within a given economic frame. The paper shows the difference the use of water councils (public participation made by comparing the final water council proposal included in the 2015 RBMP to the RBMPs proposed by the central government (Nature Agency in 2014. The study concludes that the measures proposed by the water councils will generally deliver better results than the proposed Nature Agency plans, which do not include the same level of participation. Specifically, the water councils with stakeholder involvement proposed a much longer network of streams (3800 km, yielding a better ecological outcome than the shorter stream network (1615 km proposed by the Nature Agency for the same budget. Having a structured and fixed institutional frame around public participation (top-down meeting bottom-up can produce cost-effective results, but the results show that cost-effectiveness was not the only deciding factor, and that local circumstances like the practicalities of implementing the measures were also considered when developing the Programmes of Measures. The findings suggest that the use of water councils in water planning has significant advantages, including the fact that the knowledge of local conditions helps to identify efficient solutions at lower costs, which can be useful for administrators, policy-makers, and other stakeholders implementing the Water Framework Directive in years to come.

  7. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Game Informed Online Learning Activity and Face to Face Teaching in Increasing Knowledge about Managing Aggression in Health Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…

  8. Mental Rehabilitation of Juvenile Girl Detainees for Increasing Their Self-Esteem Through the Self Knowledge Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Saeghi Mameghani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main purpose of the present study is to consider the rate of impression in group mental rehabilitation based on the regulation of self recognition sources on augmentation of self-respect among 14- to 18-year old female prisoners. Methods: 30 female social seekers were randomly selected from the whole population, 15 of which were gathered in control group and the rest 15 within evidence group. First, GHQ papers (General Health Questionnaire were distributed among the girls in order to evaluate their mental status. Pre- and Post- Cooper Smith self-respect tests were formulated both before and after interventions on experiment group. Interventions were accomplished during 9 sessions within three months by group consulting based on the configuration of self-recognition (collected by Younesi 2007. Considering the point that remedy plans are not utilized for the evidence group and they are evaluated by gathered marks achieved by the two tests to compare average discriminations. Results: After applying remedy interventions, social seekers from experimental group manifested meaningful augmentation during the test of self-esteem invented by Cooper Smith compared with social help seekers from control group. Discussion: The findings indicated that group mental rehabilitation would increase self-esteem in its four dimensions among the subjects. The findings showed that mental rehabilitation based on self knowledge resources is useful for improvement of juvenile detainee's self-esteem.

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 10: Summary report to phase 3 academic library respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 3 of a 4 part study was undertaken to study the use of scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic aerospace community. Phase 3 of this project used three questionnaires that were sent to three groups (i.e., faculty, librarians, and students) in the academic aerospace community. Specific attention was paid to the types of STI used and the methods in which academic users acquire STI. The responses of the academic libraries are focussed on herein. Demographic information on academic aerospace libraries is provided. Data regarding NASA interaction with academic aerospace libraries is also included, as is the survey instrument.

  10. Knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayfun Gülle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The book includes detailed information concerning knowledge and knowledge management with current resources in seven chapters uder the titles of “organizational effects of knowlegde management, knowledge management systems, new knowledge discovery: data mining, computer as an information sharing platform, technologies as knowledge management: artificial intelligence and knowledge based systems, future of knowlegde management”. Concepts of knowledge and knowledge management becomes phenomenon for all disciplinaries so global companies, other companies, state sector, epistemologists, experts of innovation and governance, information professionals etc may find informative to it. The book also includes three prefaces which are well-informed and so all of them is summarized in the text.

  11. Media Reporting on Suicide: Evaluating the Effects of Including Preventative Resources and Psychoeducational Information on Suicide Risk, Attitudes, Knowledge, and Help-Seeking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin L; Witte, Tracy K

    2017-05-15

    We evaluated the effects of exposure to a suicide news article on a variety of outcome variables and whether adhering to one specific media guideline (i.e., including psychoeducational information and preventative resources) buffered any of the negative effects of exposure. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three articles and then asked to complete a battery of self-report questionnaires. Overall, we found no effect of exposure to a suicide news article, regardless of the inclusion of resources and information, with a few minor exceptions. Although researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of media guidelines in the aggregate at reducing imitative suicidal behavior, it remains unclear which guidelines in particular are responsible for this effect. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. School-based prevention program associated with increased short- and long-term retention of safety knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klas, Karla S; Vlahos, Peter G; McCully, Michael J; Piche, David R; Wang, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    Validation of program effectiveness is essential in justifying school-based injury prevention education. Although Risk Watch (RW) targets burn, fire, and life safety, its effectiveness has not been previously evaluated in the medical literature. Between 2007 and 2012, a trained fire service public educator (FSPE) taught RW to all second grade students in one public school district. The curriculum was delivered in 30-minute segments for 9 consecutive weeks via presentations, a safety smoke house trailer, a model-sized hazard house, a student workbook, and parent letters. A written pre-test (PT) was given before RW started, a post-test (PT#1) was given immediately after RW, and a second post-test (PT#2) was administered to the same students the following school year (ranging from 12 to 13 months after PT). Students who did not complete the PT or at least one post-test were excluded. Comparisons were made by paired t-test, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. After 183 (8.7%) were excluded for missing tests, 1,926 remaining students scored significantly higher (P = .0001) on PT#1 (mean 14.8) and PT#2 (mean 14.7) than the PT (mean 12.1). There was 1 FSPE and 36 school teachers with class size ranging from 10 to 27 (mean 21.4). Class size was not predictive of test score improvement (R = 0%), while analysis of variance showed that individual teachers trended toward some influence. This 6-year prospective study demonstrated that the RW program delivered by an FSPE effectively increased short-term knowledge and long-term retention of fire/life safety in early elementary students. Collaborative partnerships are critical to preserving community injury prevention education programs.

  13. Does the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Short Curriculum Increase Resident Knowledge in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguelet, P S; Browner-Elhanan, K J; Fleming, N; Karjane, N W; Loveless, M; Sheeder, J; Talib, H J; Wheeler, C; Kaul, P

    2016-12-01

    To determine if the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG) Short Curriculum improves self-reported knowledge in pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) among obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residents, at programs without PAG-trained faculty. Prospective, cross-sectional exposure to the NASPAG short curriculum with a follow-up questionnaire. Ob/Gyn residency training programs without PAG faculty. Ob/Gyn residents in training from February 2015 to June 2015. Exposure to the NASPAG Short Curriculum. Improvement in self-perceived knowledge after completion of curriculum. Two hundred twenty-seven residents met inclusion criteria; 34 completed the study (15% response). Less than 50% of residents reported adequate knowledge in the areas of prepubertal vaginal bleeding, vulvovaginitis, precocious and delayed puberty, Home environment, Education and Employment, Eating, peer-related Activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression, Safety from injury and violence (HEEADSSS) interview, pelvic pain, and bleeding management in teens with developmental delay. After completion of the curriculum, self-reported knowledge improved in 8 of 10 learning objectives, with no significant improvement in bleeding disorders or Müllerian anomalies. There was no association between pretest knowledge and level of residency training, type of residency program, previous exposure to PAG lectures, and previous exposure to patients with PAG complaints. Significant deficiencies exist regarding self-reported knowledge of core PAG topics among Ob/Gyn residents at programs without PAG-trained faculty. Use of the NASPAG Short Curriculum by residents without access to PAG-trained faculty resulted in improved self-reported knowledge in PAG. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Retrieval of associative information congruent with prior knowledge is related to increased medial prefrontal activity and connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    We remember information that is congruent instead of incongruent with prior knowledge better, but the underlying neural mechanisms related to this enhancement are still relatively unknown. Recently, this memory enhancement due to a prior schema has been suggested to be based on rapid neocortical

  15. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  16. Patient education using virtual reality increases knowledge and positive experience for breast cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Yobelli A; Cumming, Steven; Wang, Wei; Stuart, Kirsty; Thwaites, David I; Lewis, Sarah J

    2018-03-13

    Improved access to technology in the radiation therapy (RT) workforce education has resulted in opportunities for innovative patient education methods. This study investigated the impact of a newly developed education tool using the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) system on patients' RT knowledge and anxiety. Breast cancer patients were recruited into a control group (CG) (n = 18) who underwent the standard pre-RT education package at a targeted cancer therapy centre, followed by a VERT group (VG) (n = 19). VG patients attended a VERT-based education session detailing RT immobilisation, planning and treatment. All patients completed questionnaires at four time points throughout their treatment, with survey sub-sections on RT knowledge, experience and anxiety. For both groups, anxiety levels were highest at time point 1(T1 after initial radiation oncologist consultation) (CG, 41.2; VG, 43.1), with a gradual decrease observed thereafter at time points before simulation, at the beginning of treatment and at the end of treatment (p > 0.05). The VG's RT knowledge scores were statistically significantly higher than those of the CG scores at all time points following VERT education (p education programs in improving RT knowledge and perhaps decreasing patient anxiety. Continued efforts are required to improve patients' accessibility to VERT in Australia, and to better understand the effect of VERT's unique educational features on patients' emotional and physical needs throughout their RT.

  17. Playful Interventions Increase Knowledge about Healthy Habits and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children: The CARDIOKIDS Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Fátima H; Pena, Daniela B; Pellanda, Lucia C

    2017-09-01

    Childhood obesity is an important health problem worldwide. In this context, there is a need for the development and evaluation of innovative educational interventions targeting prevention and formation of health habits. To ascertain the impact of ludic workshops on children's knowledge, self-care, and body weight. This was a randomized, clinical study with 79 students aged 7-11 years, conducted from March to November 2012. Anthropometric measurements were collected and two questionnaires (Typical Day of Physical Activities and Food Intake, in Portuguese, and the CARDIOKIDS, a questionnaire of knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors) were applied at baseline, at the end of intervention, and three months thereafter. The intervention consisted of eight playful workshops, which involved the presentation of a play. Seventy-nine students were randomized to the intervention (n = 40) or the control group (n = 39). Mean age was 10.0 ± 1.1 years. After eight weeks, the intervention group showed significant improvement in the knowledge score (p improve knowledge and physical activity levels in children and, when combined with other strategies, may be beneficial to prevent child obesity and improve self-care.

  18. Knowledge and critical thinking skills increase clinical reasoning ability in urogenital disorders: a Universitas Sriwijaya Medical Faculty experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfannuddin Irfannuddin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Clinical reasoning is one of the essential competencies for medical practitioners, so that it must be exercised by medical students. Studies on quantitative evidence of factors influencing clinical reasoning abilicy of students are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of knowledge and other factors on the clinical reasoning abiliry ofthe students, which can serve as reference to establish methods for learning ctinical reasoning.Methods This is a cross-sectional study on fourth semester students enrolled in the Competency-based Curriculum of the Medical Faculty, University of Sriwijaya. Data on clinical reasoning abilily and risk factors during urogenital blockwere collected inApril 2008, when the students have just completed the btock. Clinical reasoning abiliry was tested using the Script Concordance test and the risk factors were evaluated based on formative tests, block summative assessments, and student characteristics. Data were analyzed by Cox regression.Results The prevalence of low clinical reasoning ability of the 132 students was 38.6%. The group with low basic knowledge was found to have 63% risk ol low clinical reasoning abiliry when compared to those with high basic knowledge (adjusted RR = 1.63; 95% conidence intewal (Ct: 1.10 -2.42. When compared to students with high critical thinking skitls, those with lory critical thinking skills had 2.3 time to be low clinical reasoning abitity (adjusted RR : 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55 - 3.41.Conclusion Students with low critical thinking skills or with inadequate knowledge had a higher risk of low clinical reasoning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 53-9Keywords: clinical reasoning, basic knowledge, critical thinking, competency-based curriculum

  19. The effects of a culturally-tailored campaign to increase blood donation knowledge, attitudes and intentions among African migrants in two Australian States: Victoria and South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Francis

    Full Text Available Research suggests that African migrants are often positively predisposed towards blood donation, but are under-represented in participation. A culturally-tailored intervention targeting the African migrant community in Australia was developed and implemented, to enhance knowledge about blood donation, improve attitudes towards donating, increase intentions to donate blood, and increase the number of new African donors in Australia. Four weeks after a targeted campaign, a survey evaluation process commenced, administered face-to-face by bilingual interviewers from the African community in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia (community survey. The questionnaires covered demographics, campaign awareness, blood donation knowledge and intentions, medical mistrust and perceived discrimination, and were analysed to evaluate changes in knowledge and intention. Sixty-two percent of survey participants (n = 454 reported being aware of the campaign. With increasing campaign awareness, there was a 0.28 increase in knowledge score (p = .005; previous blood donation was also associated with an increased blood donation knowledge score. Blood donation intention scores were not associated with campaign awareness (p = 0.272, but were associated with previous blood donation behaviour and a positive blood donation attitude score. More positive scores on the blood donation attitude measure were associated with increasing blood donation intentions, self-efficacy and campaign awareness (score increases of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.04, respectively, all p<0.05. Data were collected on the ethnicity of new blood donors in six blood collection centres before and after the intervention, and independent of the intervention evaluation survey. These data were also used to assess behavioural changes and the proportions of donors from different countries before and after the survey. There was no difference in the number of new African migrant donors, before and after the intervention. The

  20. The Effectiveness of Health Education to Increase Knowledge on Life Cycle of A. lumbricoides among Orphans in Lubang Buaya Village, East Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina Apsari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of ascariasis in Indonesia remains high, especially in children who live in crowded area. Knowledge on A. lumbricoides is the key in preventing ascariasis. The purpose ofthis research is to know the effectiveness of health education in increasing the knowledge on thelife cycle of A. lumbricoides among the orphans. This experimental study (pre-post study wasconducted at orphanage in Lubang Buaya Village, East Jakarta. The data was taken on June, 122012 by handing out questionnaires about the life cycle of A.lumbricoides to the subjects before andafter health education. All orphans who gathered were becoming the research subjects. Data wasprocessed using SPSS 11.5 and tested with marginal homogeneity. The results show the numbersmale subjects and female subjects are 59 (41.5% and 83 (58.5%, 78 primary school (54.9%,55 junior highschool (38.7%, and 9 senior highschool students(6.4%. Before health education,the numbers of respondents with good, fair, and poor knowledge level of A. lumbricoides were 1(0.7%, 11 (7.7%, 130 subjects (91.6%. After education, the number of subjects with good andfair knowledge increased to 8 (5.6% and 50 subjects (35.2%, while poor knowledge decreasedto 84 (59.2%. Marginal homogeneity test showed a significant difference (p<0.001 between theorphans’ knowledge before and after health education. In conclusion, health education is effectiveto increase knowledge of A. lumbricoides in orphans.Keywords: knowledge level, health education, orphans, ascariasis.

  1. Preliminary Report on Floodplain Animals of the Upper Mississippi River and the Illinois Waterway Including Some Probable Impacts of Increased Commercial Traffic,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    C race- runner sexlineatus rexlineea’us Wabash, Saline, cept north prairies, minor Linnaeus Illinois & ¢ral sand areas Mississippi ft. Family...most habitats R summer (Bechstein) resident 37. Mississippi kite Icrinja misisippren s Restricted to Restricted to older stand R increasing in

  2. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    data from three European population studies; NQplus, Lifelines and the Young Finns Study (paper I) as well as the large international RCT (paper II and paper III). In paper I, the aim of the study was to develop a protein diet score, based on both dietary protein quantity and source i.e. plant...... intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW...... or animal protein. The score was used to investigate the relation to T2D-related adverse metabolic health events. A total of 76,777 healthy individuals were included in the analysis. We found that a higher total protein diet score (higher intake of total protein and plant to animal protein ratio...

  3. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention to increase health knowledge of cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural Mississippi middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, T Kristopher; Davy, Brenda M; Stewart, Jimmy L; King, Deborah S

    2005-12-01

    Few school-based interventions have been evaluated to assess health awareness among children in rural southern areas. The purpose of this controlled investigation was to increase health awareness among middle school-aged children residing in a racially diverse rural community in Mississippi. This investigation assessed health knowledge before and after a 16-week school-based intervention in 205 fifth-grade students. Height, weight, BMI, body composition, waist circumference, dietary intake, blood lipids and lipoprotein concentrations, blood glucose concentrations, and resting blood pressure were measured to enhance student awareness of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Values in the intervention school were compared with those obtained simultaneously in a control school within the same community. The school-based intervention was effective in increasing health knowledge in the intervention as compared with the control school. Secondarily, it was effective in improving certain dietary behaviors. Utilizing health care professionals in the classroom to teach students appropriate lifestyles and actually measuring cardiovascular risk factors to increase awareness among students was effective in increasing overall health knowledge. Health knowledge of rural adolescents can be increased through partnerships with schools and multidisciplinary teams of health care professionals. Ongoing efforts to reduce childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors are urgently needed, and information obtained during this investigation may be used in planning school-based interventions in other diverse, rural communities.

  4. The cooperative learning: Understanding and increasing the knowledge of the facilities design without a professor extra effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ferrera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lecturing has been prevailing in higher education. This teaching and learning model hinders the understanding of fundamental concepts in practical courses. The cooperative learning allows an improvement in the student’s achievements, attitudes and persistence. The main goal of this work is to implement the cooperative learning in the teaching of the design of industrial facilities. This methodology aims to solve part of the problems of recently graduate students when they undertake engineering projects lacking knowledge. Finally, the results of an end-of-course satisfaction survey, conducted to assess this experience, are also presented.

  5. A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen

    2013-12-01

    The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.

  6. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  7. Integrating K-W-L Prompts into Science Journal Writing: Can Simple Question Scaffolding Increase Student Content Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brandon Joel

    Writing-to-learn strategies have been administered in the past to enrich student learning. The purpose of this study was to see if K-W-L prompts in science journal writing could benefit student content knowledge within biology. Two high school biology classes were provided with learning journals. The journals given to the students during the treatment unit were provided with K-W-L question prompts to guide student learning while during the comparison unit students were given an open ended writing assignment. Pre and posttests were administered to determine student-learning gains. Student motivations and opinions of the treatment were collected through student interviews. The combined results were used to determine to what extent could K-W-L prompts in science journal writing influence comprehension of content knowledge. This study found there to be no difference in student learning gains when utilizing the K-W-L literacy strategy versus another free-writing activity. When scored, student K-W-Ls total scores did correlate to student success on unit tests. This opens up the potential for K-W-Ls to serve as an adequate tool for formative assessment. Here the K-W-L could be expanded to enrich student question asking, potentially aid students learning English, and potentially be used by students without teacher scaffolding.

  8. Does Increasing Biology Teacher Knowledge of Evolution and the Nature of Science Lead to Greater Preference for the Teaching of Evolution in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week…

  9. Report of Increasing Overdose Deaths that include Acetyl Fentanyl in Multiple Counties of the Southwestern Region of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jessica B; Janssen, Jennifer; Luckasevic, Todd M; Williams, Karl E

    2018-01-01

    Acetyl fentanyl is a Schedule I controlled synthetic opioid that is becoming an increasingly detected "designer drug." Routine drug screening procedures in local forensic toxicology laboratories identified a total of 41 overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl within multiple counties of the southwestern region of the state of Pennsylvania. The range, median, mean, and standard deviation of blood acetyl fentanyl concentrations for these 41 cases were 0.13-2100 ng/mL, 11 ng/mL, 169.3 ng/mL, and 405.3 ng/mL, respectively. Thirty-six individuals (88%) had a confirmed history of substance abuse, and all but one case (96%) were ruled multiple drug toxicities. This report characterizes this localized trend of overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl and provides further evidence supporting an alarmingly concentrated opiate and opioid epidemic of both traditional and novel drugs within this region of the United States. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. [On the increase in mortality in Italy in 2015: analysis of seasonal mortality in the 32 municipalities included in the Surveillance system of daily mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; De' Donato, Francesca; Scortichini, Matteo; De Sario, Manuela; Asta, Federica; Agabiti, Nera; Guerra, Ranieri; de Martino, Annamaria; Davoli, Marina

    2016-01-01

    the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) estimated an increase in mortality in Italy of 11.3% between January and August 2015 compared to the previous year. During summer 2015, an excess in mortality, attributed to heat waves, was observed. to estimate the excess mortality in 2015 using data from the rapid mortality surveillance system (SiSMG) operational in 32 Italian cities. time series models were used to estimate the excess in mortality among the elderly (65+ years) in 2015 by season (winter and summer). Excess mortality was defined as the difference between observed daily and expected (baseline) mortality for the five previous years (2009- 2013); seasonal mortality in 2015 was compared with mortality observed in 2012, 2013, and 2014. An analysis by cause of death (cardiovascular and respiratory), gender, and age group was carried out in Rome. data confirm an overall estimated excess in mortality of +11% in 2015. Seasonal analysis shows a greater excess in winter (+13%) compared to the summer period (+10%). The excess in winter deaths seems to be attributable to the peak in influenza rather than to low temperatures. Summer excess mortality was attributed to the heat waves of July and August 2015. The lower mortality registered in Italy during summer 2014 (-5.9%) may have contributed to the greater excess registered in 2015. In Rome, cause-specific analysis showed a higher excess among the very old (85+ years) mainly for cardiovascular and respiratory causes in winter. In summer, the excess was observed among both the elderly and in the adult population (35-64 years). results suggest the need for a more timely use of mortality data to evaluate the impact of different risk factors. Public health measures targeted to susceptible subgroups should be enhanced (e.g., Heat Prevention Plans, flu vaccination campaigns).

  11. Increasing a Community's Knowledge about Drought, Watershed Ecosystems, and Water Quality Through Educational Activities Added to Coastal Cleanup Day Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Allen, L.; Cole, P.; Rho, C.

    2016-12-01

    International Coastal Cleanup Day, held each September, is an effective campaign to bring volunteers together to clean trash from beaches and waterways and document results. Over 500,000 participants cleared over 9 million pounds of trash in 2015. To build on the enthusiasm for this event, the city of Livermore, California's Water Resource Department, the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District, Livermore Area Recreation and Parks Department created a water education program to embed within the city's Coastal Cleanup Day events. Goals of the education program are to increase awareness of the local watershed and its geographic reach, impacts of climate change and drought on local water supplies, pollution sources and impacts of local pollution on the ocean, positive impacts of a recent plastic bag ban, water quality assessment, and action steps citizens can take to support a healthy watershed. Volunteers collect and test water samples (when water is in the creek) using modified GLOBE and World Water Monitoring Day protocols. Test results are uploaded to the World Water Monitoring Day site and documented on the program web site. Volunteers report that they did not know about watersheds, impacts of local pollution, and water quality components before the education program. Volunteers are encouraged to adopt a creek spot for one year, and continue to collect and document trash. High school and middle school science classes added the water quality testing into curriculum, and regularly visit creek sites to clean the spots and monitor habitats. Each year for the past five years, about 300 volunteers have worked on creek clean-up events, 20 have adopted creek sites, and collected over 4,000 gallons of trash annually. As a result of these efforts, sites have been downgraded from a trash hot spot of concern. Strategies will be shared to expand an established (or start a new) Coastal Cleanup Day event into a successful watershed and climate awareness citizen science

  12. Climate-smart crop production in semi-arid areas through increased knowledge of varieties, environment and management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    In large regions of sub-Saharan Africa, semi-arid conditions are likely to increase with climate change, yet these regions are becoming more important to feed production zones due to increasing population pressure. A production system in the semi-arid south eastern Zimbabwe was studied to assess

  13. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Elizabeth Bond

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice question (MCQ examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the

  14. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O F; Jones, D Hugh; Restall, Colin J; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the

  15. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Bjorn; Vandevelde, Senne; Walukano, Wilberforce; Van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers’ knowledge of recommended practices on (i) potato seed selection and (ii) seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers’ knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context. PMID:28122005

  16. Agricultural Extension Messages Using Video on Portable Devices Increased Knowledge about Seed Selection, Storage and Handling among Smallholder Potato Farmers in Southwestern Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn Van Campenhout

    Full Text Available To feed a growing population, agricultural productivity needs to increase dramatically. Agricultural extension information, with its public, non-rival nature, is generally undersupplied, and public provision remains challenging. In this study, simple agricultural extension video messages, delivered through Android tablets, were tested in the field to determine if they increased farmers' knowledge of recommended practices on (i potato seed selection and (ii seed storage and handling among a sample of potato farmers in southwestern Uganda. Using a field experiment with ex ante matching in a factorial design, it was established that showing agricultural extension videos significantly increased farmers' knowledge. However, results suggested impact pathways that went beyond simply replicating what was shown in the video. Video messages may have triggered a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context.

  17. [Impact of an educational program for parents of children with cancer on the increased knowledge of their children's disease and the decrease in anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Maza L, Verónica; Fernández C, Maria; Concha R, Lorena; Santolaya D, María Elena; Villarroel C, Milena; Castro C, Magdalena; Torres T, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of an educational program provided by a nurse to parents of children with cancer to improve the level of knowledge of the disease and to decrease the levels of anxiety. A prospective randomized study was conducted on parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer and treated in the Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna. After informed consent, parents were randomized in two groups: one receiving the educational program and another without intervention. Both groups completed a questionnaire on social risk, and three tests to assess the levels of knowledge and anxiety. A total of 96 parents were enrolled (July 2010-November 2011). When comparing the number of correct responses on day 10, and day 90 after the intervention, a significant increase was observed in the level of parental knowledge in the group that received the educational program (P<.0001). No significant differences were observed in the levels of anxiety (P=.06) between both groups. An educational program provided by nurses to parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer, increased the knowledge of their children's disease. However there was no effect on the levels of anxiety. A feasible educational intervention is proposed that could be implemented at other cancer centers for children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Just Be It! Healthy and Fit Increases Fifth Graders' Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Physical Activity, and Nutrition Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelCampo, Diana; Baca, Jacqueline S.; Jimenez, Desaree; Sanchez, Paula Roybal; DelCampo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Just Be It! Healthy and Fit reduces the risk factors for childhood obesity for fifth graders using hands-on field trips, in-class lessons, and parent outreach efforts. Pre-test and post-test scores from the year-long classroom instruction showed a statistically significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and nutrition…

  19. Stop the drama Downunder: a social marketing campaign increases HIV/sexually transmitted infection knowledge and testing in Australian gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Alisa; Hellard, Margaret; Guy, Rebecca; El-Hayek, Carol; Gouillou, Maelenn; Asselin, Jason; Batrouney, Colin; Nguyen, Phuong; Stoovè, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Since 2000, notifications of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have increased significantly in Australian gay men. We evaluated the impact of a social marketing campaign in 2008-2009 aimed to increase health-seeking behavior and STI testing and enhance HIV/STI knowledge in gay men. A convenience sample of 295 gay men (18-66 years of age) was surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Participants were asked about campaign awareness, HIV/STI knowledge, health-seeking behavior, and HIV/STI testing. We examined associations between recent STI testing and campaign awareness. Trends in HIV/STI monthly tests at 3 clinics with a high case load of gay men were also assessed. Logistic and Poisson regressions and χ tests were used. Both unaided (43%) and aided (86%) campaign awareness was high. In a multivariable logistic regression, awareness of the campaign (aided) was independently associated with having had any STI test within the past 6 months (prevalence ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.0-2.4. Compared with the 13 months before the campaign, clinic data showed significant increasing testing rates for HIV, syphilis, and chlamydia among HIV-negative gay men during the initial and continued campaign periods. These findings suggest that the campaign was successful in achieving its aims of increasing health-seeking behavior, STI testing, and HIV/STI knowledge among gay men in Victoria.

  20. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  1. Arleigh Burke Destroyers: Delaying Procurement of DDG 51 Flight III Ships Would Allow Time to Increase Design Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    defense, area air defense, and some types of anti-submarine warfare, the Navy determined to restart production of DDG 51 Flight IIA ships to combat...and Navy documentation. | GAO-16-613 aPer 10 U.S.C. § 2306b(i)(2) the Navy would be required to preliminarily find that these criteria would be met...design changes— including number, type , and location of those changes—to Navy and contractor estimates and to previous DDG 51-class upgrades to assess

  2. Exploring the Effectiveness of Curriculum Provided Through Transmedia Books for Increasing Students' Knowledge and Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponners, Pamela Jones

    Transmedia books are new and emerging technologies which are beginning to be used in current classrooms. Transmedia books are a traditional printed book that uses multiple media though the use of Quick Response (QR) codes and augmented reality (AR) triggers to access web-based technology. Using the transmedia book Skills That Engage Me students in kindergarten through second grade engage in curriculum designed to introduce science skills and careers. Using the modified Draw-a-Scientist Test (mDAST), observations and interviews, researchers analyzed pre and post data to describe changes students have about science and scientists. Future study may include the development and validation of a new instrument, Draw a Science Student, and examining the mDAST checklist with the intention of updating the parameters of what is considered positive and negative in relationship with work a scientist conducts.

  3. Module Based on Pedagogical Content Knowledge to Increase the Engagement and Skills of the Future Teachers in Designing a Lesson Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Maryani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lesson plans is the most important component in preparing a quality learning. Teachers’ low understanding on pedagogical content knowledge affects their skills in designing learning. It needs serious effort to equip future teachers with pedagogical content knowledge to produce professional teachers. The aim of this study is to increase the engagement and skills of future teachers in designing lesson plans using module based on pedagogical content knowledge. College-students engagement indicators are adopted from Students Engagement Instrument (SEI-Appleton, Christenson, Kim, and Reschly, consisting of affective and cognitive engagement. The skill in question are the ability to writing the subject’s identity, writing competencies, formulating indicators, compiling teaching materials, designing media, choosing learning method, compiling learning scenarios, as well as designing assessment. This research is a classroom action research that is designed in two cycles of learning with the number of respondents is 73 college-students. Each learning cycle is consisting of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The data collection techniques was self-report, observation, portfolios, interviews, field notes, and study documentation. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the quantitative data, whereas qualitative data were analysed by qualitative analysis of Miles & Hubberman model. The results showed that the PCK-based module is able to increase college-students engagement and ability in designing a lesson plan.

  4. A web-based program to increase knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking among Arab university students in Israel: mixed-methods study to test acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa-Hadad, Jumanah; Linn, Shai; Rafaeli, Sheizaf

    2015-02-20

    Among Arab citizens in Israel, cigarette and nargila (hookah, waterpipe) smoking is a serious public health problem, particularly among the young adult population. With the dramatic increase of Internet and computer use among Arab college and university students, a Web-based program may provide an easy, accessible tool to reduce smoking rates without heavy resource demands required by traditional methods. The purpose of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a pilot Web-based program that provides tailored feedback to increase smoking knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking behaviors among Arab college/university students in Israel. A pilot Web-based program was developed, consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and feedback system on cigarette and nargila smoking. Arab university students were recruited to participate in a mixed-methods study, using both quantitative (pre-/posttest study design) and qualitative tools. A posttest was implemented at 1 month following participation in the intervention to assess any changes in smoking knowledge and behaviors. Focus group sessions were implemented to assess acceptability and preferences related to the Web-based program. A total of 225 participants-response rate of 63.2% (225/356)-completed the intervention at baseline and at 1-month poststudy, and were used for the comparative analysis. Statistically significant reductions in nargila smoking among participants (P=.001) were found. The intervention did not result in reductions in cigarette smoking. However, the tailored Web intervention resulted in statistically significant increases in the intention to quit smoking (P=.021). No statistically significant increases in knowledge were seen at 1-month poststudy. Participants expressed high satisfaction with the intervention and 93.8% (211/225) of those who completed the intervention at both time intervals reported that they would recommend the program to their friends

  5. Design, implementation, and evaluation of a knowledge translation intervention to increase organ donation after cardiocirculatory death in Canada: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Taljaard, Monica; Linklater, Stefanie; Chassé, Michaël; Shemie, Sam D; Knoll, Gregory A

    2014-06-20

    A shortage of transplantable organs is a global problem. There are two types of organ donation: living and deceased. Deceased organ donation can occur following neurological determination of death (NDD) or cardiocirculatory death. Donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) accounts for the largest increments in deceased organ donation worldwide. Variations in the use of DCD exist, however, within Canada and worldwide. Reasons for these discrepancies are largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to develop, implement, and evaluate a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to provide practical guidance about how to increase the numbers of DCD organ donors without reducing the numbers of standard NDD donors. We will use a mixed method three-step approach. In step one, we will conduct semi-structured interviews, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework, to identify and describe stakeholders' beliefs and attitudes about DCD and their perceptions of the multi-level factors that influence DCD. We will identify: determinants of the evidence-practice gap; specific behavioural changes and/or process changes needed to increase DCD; specific group(s) of clinicians or organizations (e.g., provincial donor organizations) in need of behaviour change; and specific targets for interventions. In step two, using the principles of intervention mapping, we will develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention that encompasses behavior change techniques to overcome the identified barriers and enhance the enablers to DCD. In step three, we will roll out the intervention in hospitals across the 10 Canadian provinces and evaluate its effectiveness using a multiple interrupted time series design. We will adopt a behavioural approach to define and test novel, theory-based, and ethically-acceptable knowledge translation strategies to increase the numbers of available DCD organ donors in Canada. If successful, this study will ultimately lead to more transplantations

  6. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR THE EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona – Diana Leon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly more literature mention that in the current competitive environment, knowledge have become the main source of the competitive advantages, while recent researches regarding economic growth and development have defined knowledge as being the most critical resource of the emerging countries.Therefore, the organizations interest for knowledge has increased, the latter being defined as knowledge management process in order to meet existing needs, to identify and exploit existing and/or acquired knowledge and developing new opportunities.In other words, knowledge management facilitates productive information usage, intelligence growth, storing intellectual capital, strategic planning, flexible acquisition, collection of best practices, increasing the likelihood of being successful as well as a more productive collaboration within the company.In order to benefit from all these advantages, it is required the usage of specific tools including models and systems to stimulate the creation, dissemination and use of knowledge held by each employee and the organization as a whole.

  7. Uncovering tacit knowledge: a pilot study to broaden the concept of knowledge in knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita R; Bickford, Julia J; Edwards, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen J; Meyer, Mechthild

    2011-08-18

    All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews), legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation

  8. Broadcasting behavior change: a comparison of the effectiveness of paid and unpaid media to increase folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption among Hispanic women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alina L; Prue, Christine E; Daniel, Katherine Lyon

    2007-04-01

    Awareness about folic acid's effectiveness in reducing the risk of certain birth defects has increased among women in the United States; however, few Hispanic women are consuming enough folic acid daily. A 1998 survey conducted by the Gallup Organization for the National March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation found that English-speaking Hispanic women had lower folic acid awareness (53% vs. 72%) and lower daily consumption (29% vs. 33%) than non-Hispanic White women. In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted baseline surveys with Spanish-speaking Hispanic women in selected U.S. markets to measure folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption. A Spanish-language public service announcement (PSA) volunteer campaign and a paid Spanish-language media and community education campaign were conducted in 2000 and 2002, respectively. Comparisons of postcampaign surveys indicate that the paid media campaign was significantly more effective than the PSA campaign in increasing folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption among Spanish-speaking Hispanic women.

  9. Increasing the Chances of Implementing NGSS by Bolstering High School Teacher Knowledge and Views about Climate Change, a NICE NASA Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose of Presentation This paper will highlight how the results of this initial study foreshadow possibilities of NGSS (NGSS, 2013) playing out in high school classrooms in the near future. Research findings from a three-year NASA-funded project, Promoting Educational Leadership in Climate Science (PEL) will be presented. Objectives and Research Questions PEL aims to increase climate science literacy in high school teachers and students through scientific argumentation using authentic NASA data. This initial study focuses on the following questions: 1. Are teachers increasing their climate science knowledge? 2. Are there changes in teachers' views about climate change? 3. What resources and are provided to assist teachers to develop their students' scientific argumentation skills? Theoretical Framework Because of the changing nature of climate science knowledge and its relevance to societal issues, teachers must be able to understand the basic concepts and remain up-to-date on scientific issues. The need for a more thorough understanding of the concepts of climate change are highlighted by recent studies on the public perceptions and attitudes on the subject (Leiserowitz et al., 2013). Teachers need to understand the difference between skepticism as a characteristic of the nature of science and denial of climate change (Sommervillle & Hasol, 2011). Teachers need to understand the natural and human-induced factors affecting climate, and the potential consequences, and ways to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Generally, when teachers learn about a subject, they demonstrate more self-efficacy to teach about it (Bleicher & Lindgren, 2005). Analytic Strategy Data were analyzed using paired-samples t-tests, independent t -tests, and ANOVA. Latent class analysis was employed to analyze the Six America's Survey data. Correlational studies were conducted to examine possible relationships among variables. Findings in Brief Teachers' content knowledge increased

  10. Increasing business resilience to flood risk: Developing an effective e-learning tool to bridge the knowledge gap between policy, practice and business owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Amanda; McEwen, Lindsey; Harries, Tim

    2015-04-01

    part that their knowledges and learning play in decision-making have been explored. The co-production process engages regional/national stakeholders who form a Stakeholder Competency Group (from policy and practice), and, a Business Research Partnership Group comprising local business participants. The two groups have opportunities to liaise and network in discussing the prototype for the learning tool. Whatmore et al (2008) and McEwen et al (2014) show that stakeholder views, experience and expertise can strengthen research outputs. The approach reflects current ethics and practices of stakeholder participation in that alongside an academic approach to the research, other equally valid forms of knowledge are recognised: 'a lot can be learned from exploring parallels, controversies and frictions between different forms of competency and knowledge (McEwen et al, 2014), for example, scientific, local, tacit and embedded. This paper presents concerns identified by businesses and wider stakeholders in relation to how the tool is framed and its key design premises. The tool is planned as a living resource that can support a community of learning practice among SMEs to increase flood resilience in the face of increased risk. References Federation of Small Businesses (2014) http://www.fsb.org.uk/stats Whatmore, Lane and Ward et al (2007-2010) Understanding Environmental Knowledge Controversies ESRC/NERC funded interdisciplinary research project (2007-2010) McEwen et al (2014) https://floodmemories.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/advice-from-competent-stakeholders/.

  11. Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

  12. Increasing patient knowledge on the proper usage of a PCA machine with the use of a post-operative instructional card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovel, Louisa; Max, Bryan; Correll, Darin J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if an instructional card, attached to the PCA machine following total hip arthroplasty describing proper use of the device, would positively affect subjects' understanding of device usage, pain scores, pain medication consumption and satisfaction. Eighty adults undergoing total hip replacements who had been prescribed PCA were randomized into two study groups. Forty participants received the standard post-operative instruction on PCA device usage at our institution. The other 40 participants received the standard of care in addition to being given a typed instructional card immediately post-operatively, describing proper PCA device use. This card was attached to the PCA device during their recovery period. On post-operative day one, each patient completed a questionnaire on PCA usage, pain scores and satisfaction scores. The pain scores in the Instructional Card group were significantly lower than the Control group (p = 0.024). Subjects' understanding of PCA usage was also improved in the Instructional Card group for six of the seven questions asked. The findings from this study strongly support that postoperative patient information on proper PCA use by means of an instructional card improves pain control and hence the overall recovery for patients undergoing surgery. In addition, through improved understanding it adds an important safety feature in that patients and potentially their family members and/or friends may refrain from PCA-by-proxy. This article demonstrates that the simple intervention of adding an instructional card to a PCA machine is an effective method to improve patients' knowledge as well as pain control and potentially increase the safety of the device use.

  13. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  14. Utilization of an Educational Web-Based Mobile App for Acquisition and Transfer of Critical Anatomical Knowledge, Thereby Increasing Classroom and Laboratory Preparedness in Veterinary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Contact time with students is becoming more valuable and must be utilized efficiently. Unfortunately, many students attend anatomy lectures and labs ill-prepared, and this limits efficiency. To address this issue we have created an interactive mobile app designed to facilitate the acquisition and transfer of critical anatomical knowledge in…

  15. Increasing Knowledge Flows between the Agricultural Research and Advisory System in Italy: Combining Virtual and Non-Virtual Interaction in Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materia, Valentina Cristiana; Giarè, Francesca; Klerkx, Laurens

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the use of Communities of Practice and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance knowledge sharing between researchers and advisors. The associated research question is to what extent ICT supported a virtual Community of Practice and has been effective in counteracting fragmentation…

  16. School Gardens: An Experiential Learning Approach for a Nutrition Education Program to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Knowledge, Preference, and Consumption among Second-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmer, Sondra M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shannon, David; Struempler, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a school garden on children's fruit and vegetable knowledge, preference, and consumption. Design: Self-report questionnaires, interview-style taste and rate items, lunchroom observations. Setting: An elementary school. Participants: Second-grade students (n = 115). Intervention: Participants were assigned to…

  17. Increasing Knowledge Flows between the Agricultural Research and Advisory System in Italy: Combining Virtual and Non-virtual Interaction in Communities of Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, V.C.; Giarè, F.; Klerkx, L.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the use of Communities of Practice and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance knowledge sharing between researchers and advisors. The associated research question is to what extent ICT supported a virtual Community of Practice and has

  18. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...

  19. Digital Repository as Instrument for Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakopov, Zaven N.

    2016-03-01

    In the modern technologically advanced world, implicit knowledge, but also certain manifestations of tacit knowledge, is accumulated primarily in digital form, increasing the dependence of Knowledge Management (KM) on tools and specifically on digital content management platforms and repositories. The latter, powered by subject classification system such as a thesaurus or an ontology, can form a complete Knowledge Organization System (KOS). The purpose of this paper is to describe and (re)define the role of these systems as an integral part of KM, and present an example of such a KOS, including its major role in knowledge preservation. (author)

  20. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  1. Does Knowledge Sharing Pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben; Venzin, Markus

    are developed using a simultaneous equation model applied to a unique dataset encompassing a German MNC, HeidelbergCement. Enablers and impediments of knowledge outflows are assessed in order to explain why subsidiaries share their knowledge with other MNC units. Implications are examined by studying the link...... between knowledge outflows and subsidiary performance. Our findings suggest that knowledge outflows increase a subsidiary's performance only up to a certain point and that too much knowledge sharing may be detrimental to the contributing subsidiary's performance....

  2. Can Latin America Move Forward after a Lost Decade in Technical Change? …Looking at Opportunities for Knowledge-based Change in Times of Increasing Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Heitor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the current global context, which challenges are facing science- and technology-based developments and cooperation in a way to contribute for policies that stimulate localized learning, innovation and endogenous development in Latin America? This broad question has motivated the work behind the Special Issue introduced by this paper, which considers the development of case studies in selected Latin America regions. The analysis lead us to argue that value-based networks have the potential to make both public policies and markets more effective, promoting learning trajectories for the inclusive development of regions. But they require effective public investments to keep attracting and qualifying human resources, together with long-term developments towards technical industries and export capacity for emerging markets worldwide. Our analysis argues about the unique potential for further developing Latin America through strategic international, knowledge-based ventures, exploring the emerging role the internationalization of universities and scientific institutions may play at a global level. Above all, they require the systematic observation of science and technical change in international comparison, as well as a relational infrastructure for collective action, at an international level, in a context much influenced by a dynamic of change and a necessary balance between the creation and diffusion of knowledge towards the endogenous development of all parts involved. The role of Latin America Universities and science policies based on international cooperation are considered to be particularly important in this process.

  3. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  4. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge...... within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of both approaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit and knowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for the knowledge management practices in a given organization....

  5. The role of authentic astronomy in the classroom: does participating in authentic astronomy activities increase knowledge and improve attitude towards science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heary, Auriol; Coward, David; Blair, David; Venville, Grady

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the impact of authentic science activities on student knowledge and attitudes. It uses optical astronomy as a core research theme. Modern, relatively cheap automated telescopes and imaging software has made transient object searches a valuable addition to research based searches conducted by professional astronomers. It is an exciting field of modern research where discoveries can have real life implications, such as discovering potentially hazardous near Earth asteroids. This has provided an opportunity to use transient object searches as a tool for authentic science in the classroom. My research followed the attitude of students aged eleven to seventeen in Australian schools, as they use research grade telescopes to study known asteroids and search for ones yet to be discovered.

  6. Increasing Knowledge and Self-Efficacy through a Pre-Service Course on Promoting Positive School Climate: The Crucial Role of Reducing Moral Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Jaffe, Peter G.; Rodriguez, Arely

    2017-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in promoting a positive school climate, which in turns supports academic achievement and positive mental health among students. This study evaluated the impact of a pre-service teacher education course addressing a range of contributors to school climate. Participants included a cohort of 212 pre-service teachers…

  7. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... making, which I call ‘sound knowledge’. Sound knowledge is an approach to knowledge that takes the reflexive considerations of actors in policymaking processes as well as in research about what knowledge is into account. Seeing knowledge as sound makes connections between different ideas, concepts...... and ideologies explicit. Furthermore, in relation to an anthropology of knowledge, sound knowledge also offers a reconsideration of the way anthropologists study knowledge, as it specifies that studying knowledge for anthropologists means studying what people consider as knowledge, in what circumstances...

  8. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, including neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    . Treatment effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic and non-serotonergic cells in the midbrain raphe nuclei were determined 2 h following open-field exposure or home cage control (CO) conditions. Rats tested under both light conditions responded with increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons...... of neurons in the midbrain raphe complex that projects to forebrain circuits regulating anxiety states, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) as a retrograde tracer to identify neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex (BL) in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells...

  9. Dietary echium oil increases long-chain n-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid, in blood fractions and alters biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease independently of age, sex, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20-35 and 49-69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n-3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n-3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (-5% and -23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15-20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n-3 PUFA in human nutrition.

  10. Knowledge Management: A Skeptic's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation discussing knowledge management is shown. The topics include: 1) What is Knowledge Management? 2) Why Manage Knowledge? The Presenting Problems; 3) What Gets Called Knowledge Management? 4) Attempts to Rethink Assumptions about Knowledgs; 5) What is Knowledge? 6) Knowledge Management and INstitutional Memory; 7) Knowledge Management and Culture; 8) To solve a social problem, it's easier to call for cultural rather than organizational change; 9) Will the Knowledge Management Effort Succeed? and 10) Backup: Metrics for Valuing Intellectural Capital i.e. Knowledge.

  11. Should vitamin B12 tablets be included in more Canadian drug formularies? An economic model of the cost-saving potential from increased utilisation of oral versus intramuscular vitamin B12 maintenance therapy for Alberta seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Sherilyn K D; Kolber, Michael R; Chuck, Anderson W

    2014-05-02

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-savings attainable if all patients aged ≥65 years in Alberta, Canada, currently on intramuscular therapy were switched to oral therapy, from the perspective of a provincial ministry of health. Primary care setting in Alberta, Canada. Seniors of age 65 years and older currently receiving intramuscular vitamin B12 therapy. Oral vitamin B12 therapy at 1000 μg/day versus intramuscular therapy at 1000 μg/month. Cost saving from oral therapy over intramuscular therapy, from the perspective of the Alberta Ministry of Health, including drug costs, dispensing fees, injection administration fees, additional laboratory monitoring and physician visit fees. Over 5 years, if all Albertans aged 65 years and older who currently receive intramuscular B12 are switched to oral therapy, our model found that $C13 975 883 can be saved. Even if no additional physician visits are billed for among patients receiving intramuscular therapy, $C8 444 346 could be saved from reduced administration costs alone. Oral B12 therapy has been shown to be an effective therapeutic option for patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, yet only three provinces and the Non-Insured Health Benefits program include oral tablets on their formulary rather than the parenteral preparation. To ensure judicious use of limited health resources, clinicians and formulary committees are encouraged to adopt oral B12 therapy as a clinically and cost-effective first-line therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  12. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  13. Path tortuosity in everyday movements of elderly persons increases fall prediction beyond knowledge of fall history, medication use, and standardized gait and balance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, William D; Fozard, James L; Becker, Marion; Jasiewicz, Jan M; Craighead, Jeffrey D; Holtsclaw, Lori; Dion, Charles

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that variability in voluntary movement paths of assisted living facility (ALF) residents would be greater in the week preceding a fall compared with residents who did not fall. Prospective, observational study using telesurveillance technology. Two ALFs. The sample consisted of 69 older ALF residents (53 female) aged 76.9 (SD ± 11.9 years). Daytime movement in ALF common use areas was automatically tracked using a commercially available ultra-wideband radio real-time location sensor network with a spatial resolution of approximately 20 cm. Movement path variability (tortuosity) was gauged using fractal dimension (fractal D). A logistic regression was performed predicting movement related falls from fractal D, presence of a fall in the prior year, psychoactive medication use, and movement path length. Fallers and non-fallers were also compared on activities of daily living requiring supervision or assistance, performance on standardized static and dynamic balance, and stride velocity assessments gathered at the start of a 1-year fall observation period. Fall risk due to cognitive deficit was assessed by the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and by clinical dementia diagnoses from participant's activities of daily living health record. Logistic regression analysis revealed odds of falling increased 2.548 (P = .021) for every 0.1 increase in fractal D, and having a fall in the prior year increased odds of falling by 7.36 (P = .006). There was a trend for longer movement paths to reduce the odds of falling (OR .976 P = .08) but it was not significant. Number of psychoactive medications did not contribute significantly to fall prediction in the model. Fallers had more variable stride-to-stride velocities and required more activities of daily living assistance. High fractal D levels can be detected using commercially available telesurveillance technologies and offers a new tool for health services administrators seeking to reduce falls at their

  14. Mapping of suitable zones for manual drilling as a possible solution to increase access to drinking water in Africa through integration of systematized GIS data and local knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussi, Fabio; Alvino, Roberta; Caruba, Massimo; Galimberti, Luca; Marzan, Ignacio; Tarrason y Cerda', David; Sabatini, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    , presence of hand dug well and perception of local geologists; - Suitability according to water depth is related to the depth where exploitable water strikes can be found. it has been estimated through analysis of the spa tial distribution of water level obtained by national inventories of water points and direct experience of drillers; - Geomorphological suitability refers to the existence of a surface morphology that facilitates the accumulation of unconsolidated materials. It has been obtained from SRTM digital elevation model, estimating slope and topographic position index The general suitability has been obtained through the combination of geological and water depth suitability using 2-dimensional tables for the whole country. Morphological suitability has been finally integrated for a more detailed analysis in those areas with hilly topography. The final results provide an important support for the definition of those areas where promotion of manual drilling is a suitable strategy and the choice of specific techniques to apply. Furthermore this study has put in evidence the high value of keeping well organized geographic database for the implementation of correct development strategy in Africa, and in the mean time has given an example of integration of systematized data and traditional knowledge

  15. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...

  16. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  17. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  18. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  19. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  20. A staff intervention targeting resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) in long-term care increased staff knowledge, recognition and reporting: Results from a cluster randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie; Silver, Stephanie; Boratgis, Gabriel; Kong, Jian; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Lachs, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Elder abuse in long term care has received considerable attention; however, resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) has not been well researched. Preliminary findings from studies of R-REM suggest that it is sufficiently widespread to merit concern, and is likely to have serious detrimental outcomes for residents. However, no evidence-based training, intervention and implementation strategies exist that address this issue. Objectives The objective was to evaluate the impact of a newly developed R-REM training intervention for nursing staff on knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. Design The design was a prospective cluster randomized trial with randomization at the unit level. Methods A sample of 1405 residents (685 in the control and 720 in the intervention group) from 47 New York City nursing home units (23 experimental and 24 control) in 5 nursing homes was assessed. Data were collected at three waves: baseline, 6 and 12 months. Staff on the experimental units received the training and implementation protocols, while those on the comparison units did not. Evaluation of outcomes was conducted on an intent-to-treat basis using mixed (random and fixed effects) models for continuous knowledge variables and Poisson regressions for longitudinal count data measuring recognition and reporting. Results There was a significant increase in knowledge post-training, controlling for pre-training levels for the intervention group (p<0.001), significantly increased recognition of R-REM (p<0.001), and longitudinal reporting in the intervention as contrasted with the control group (p=0.0058). Conclusions A longitudinal evaluation demonstrated that the training intervention was effective in enhancing knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. It is recommended that this training program be implemented in long term care facilities. PMID:23159018

  1. PERBEDAAN METODE TEAM GAME TOURNAMENT DAN CERAMAH TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PENGETAHUAN PEMILIHAN JAJANAN SEHAT (THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TEAM GAME TOURNAMENT AND LECTURE IN INCREASING THE KNOWLEDGE OF CHOOSING HEALTHY SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Herdiana Safitri

    2014-12-01

    Elementary school students is one of the most vulnerable groups to become victims food poisoning. The incidence occurring in the school environment reaches 17,26 to 25,15% cases, which was due to PJAS (snack for aged school children not fulfilling the health requirements. Providing a Lecture is the basic learning method often used, but this method is occasionally boring due to passive respondents, while  playing in childhood is an important educational tool to explore brain. Team Game Tournament (TGT is  one of the educational methods combining educationional concept and play activities. This study aims to determine the method differences of TGT and lectures to increase students’s knowledge of grade 5 students in SDN Tumpakrejo 1 and SDN Tumpakrejo 2 electoral district of Malang concerning healthy snacks. This research was an experimental study in which the research design was quasy experimental study with  pretest-posttest design. The sampling method in this research was 41 samples from grade 5 students in class B of SDN Tumpakrejo 1 and grade 5 students of SDN Tumpakrejo 2. The variables studied and analyzed in the respondents are nutritional knowledge concerning healthy snacks related to the lecture group and TGT group based on the value of the pretest and posttest. The results showed that there were significant differences between the increased knowledge of TGT group and lecture group (p<0.05, accounting for 2,93% higher average value in the former group. Team Game Tournament is then recommended as an educational method, more appropriate to target  school-aged children. Keywords: Team Game Tournament (TGT, Lecture , Knowledge, Healthy Snacks

  2. Knowledge, Attitude And Practice of Mother with Children Under Five Years on The Use of Virgin Coconut Oil’s Residue to Local Foods to Increase Child’s Nutritional in Buton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murlan Murlan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Buton District was had the highest case on children under fi ve years’ malnutritions in South East Sulawesi Province. Butonesse have culture of making Virgin Coconut Oil which made from coconut untill now. Side product of VCO was a coconut residue (blondo which has not been used by the community. Blondo VCO contains a lot of protein clumps of coconut which is similar to the formula that can be used for food additives, especially in children because it is easily to absorb. The aim of this study was to determine increasing of knowledge, changing behavior and attitudes on mothers of children under fi ve years about the use of blondo VCO for additional nutritional improvement of local food. Methods: this study used intervention on nutritions’ knowledge based on the use of lokal ingredient. Training and practice about children’s local food processing with blondo VCO were held. Results: The results showed that there was an improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers after they had been given the intervention with counseling and training of local food with blondo VCO ingredients. There were variations of local food made by mothers more than before. Conclusions: It showed that the presence of counseling and training on the use of blondo VCO can increase knowledge, attitudes and behavior towards mothers who have children under fi ve. Recomendation: Suggestions of this study was processed of blondo VCO could be used as ingredient of local food with high nutritional value for society in general and for children in particular.

  3. Nuclear Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanamitsu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge is a strategic asset in every business. It should be actively managed by creating, acquiring, sharing, transferring and retaining among workers. Leaders and managers have to understand the significance of knowledge management (KM), recognise the risks of knowledge loss and gaps, and its impact on their working environment. Nuclear industry appears to be behind other industries in KM. This is firstly attributed to the nature of business which deals with sensitive data on nuclear materials and prioritises safety and security over information sharing. Second, it faces strong competition over the operational life-cycle, which discourages to exchange know-how and experiences. Third, nuclear industry is highly technology-oriented with homogeneous form, which misleads people to believe that KM has been already in place. Those factors could be barriers to establish nuclear KM culture on the basis of corporate core value and safety culture. Practical example of KM in business includes codification of particular skills into knowledge repository such as manual, handbook and database, and implicit knowledge transfer from experts to successors through apprenticeship and mentoring programmes. The examples suggest that KM applications closely link to information technology (IT) and human resource development (HRD) strategies, which results in effective integration of all available resources: people, process, and technology. Globalization and diversity is another dimension where KM can contribute to the solution. Global companies have to achieve a common goal beyond cultural, racial and gender differences. KM helps reduce the gaps, identify the core competence, and increase flexibility in workplace. Working women have been developing their professional career while adapting to situational changes in their lives. It might be easier for them to understand the importance of KM and develop KM practices in the organizations. KM will help nuclear industry to respond to the

  4. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  5. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  6. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  7. Knowledge Map of Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nenonen, Suvi; Jensen, Per Anker; Lindahl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    in creating an inventory of knowledge (i.e. the knowledge base) and developing/improving the processes of knowledge sharing in research, education and practice. Theory Knowledge mapping is discussed in terms of knowledge management. The research is connected to knowledge mapping in the facilities management......Purpose This paper aims to draft a knowledge map of the fragmented and multidisciplinary research of and relevant to FM. Facilities management knowledge map is a tool for presenting what relevant data and knowledge, a.k.a. knowledge, resides in different disciplines. Knowledge mapping is a step...... profession, research and education. The knowledge map aims to contrast perspectives on how to map interdisciplinary research. Design/methodology/approach The Knowledge map is based on classification of 83 articles, including volume 2013 of Facilities (40 articles) and of Journal of Facilities Management (21...

  8. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  9. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural p...

  10. Knowledge management for efficient quantitative analyses during regulatory reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krudys, Kevin; Li, Fang; Florian, Jeffry; Tornoe, Christoffer; Chen, Ying; Bhattaram, Atul; Jadhav, Pravin; Neal, Lauren; Wang, Yaning; Gobburu, Joga; Lee, Peter I D

    2011-11-01

    Knowledge management comprises the strategies and methods employed to generate and leverage knowledge within an organization. This report outlines the activities within the Division of Pharmacometrics at the US FDA to effectively manage knowledge with the ultimate goal of improving drug development and advancing public health. The infrastructure required for pharmacometric knowledge management includes provisions for data standards, queryable databases, libraries of modeling tools, archiving of analysis results and reporting templates for effective communication. Two examples of knowledge management systems developed within the Division of Pharmacometrics are used to illustrate these principles. The benefits of sound knowledge management include increased productivity, allowing reviewers to focus on research questions spanning new drug applications, such as improved trial design and biomarker development. The future of knowledge management depends on the collaboration between the FDA and industry to implement data and model standards to enhance sharing and dissemination of knowledge.

  11. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...... of parent firms to share knowledge is manifested in an increased capacity to articulate and codify knowledge and create opportunities to transfer this knowledge. Mediated by the effective use of organizational communication channels, articulation and codification capabilities have a significant impact...... on the transfer of knowledge. The creation of opportunities for face-to-face interactions between organizations also has an impact on knowledge transfer, but only when senders and receivers have similar products and technologies...

  12. Knowledge cycle and strategic knowledge within company

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Nicolescu

    2007-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  13. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  14. Knowledge Acquisition Using Linguistic-Based Knowledge Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Most knowledge-based system developmentefforts include acquiring knowledge from one or more sources. difficulties associated with this knowledge acquisition task are readily acknowledged by most researchers. While a variety of knowledge acquisition methods have been reported, little has been done to organize those different methods and to suggest how to apply them...

  15. Personal knowledge management: the foundation of organisational knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this small-scale study was to explore how people perceived Personal Knowledge Management (PKM, whether people were aware of the PKM concept, and how PKM can have an impact on organisational knowledge management and productivity. A questionnaire survey with quantitative and qualitative questions was used. The study revealed that a majority (63% of respondents were not aware of the PKM concept; 33% were aware, while 2% had a vague idea about it. Eighty three (83% felt that it was important to manage personal knowledge and that PKM could increase individual productivity and organisational performance. The major recommendations included creating awareness about PKM. It should be at the heart of each employee-development programme, alignment of personal and organisational goals and adequate facilities and training in PKM.

  16. Towards Knowledge Management for Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaw C; Bernstein, William Z; Hedberg, Thomas; Feeney, Allison Barnard

    2017-09-01

    The need for capturing knowledge in the digital form in design, process planning, production, and inspection has increasingly become an issue in manufacturing industries as the variety and complexity of product lifecycle applications increase. Both knowledge and data need to be well managed for quality assurance, lifecycle-impact assessment, and design improvement. Some technical barriers exist today that inhibit industry from fully utilizing design, planning, processing, and inspection knowledge. The primary barrier is a lack of a well-accepted mechanism that enables users to integrate data and knowledge. This paper prescribes knowledge management to address a lack of mechanisms for integrating, sharing, and updating domain-specific knowledge in smart manufacturing. Aspects of the knowledge constructs include conceptual design, detailed design, process planning, material property, production, and inspection. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a methodology on what knowledge manufacturing organizations access, update, and archive in the context of smart manufacturing. The case study in this paper provides some example knowledge objects to enable smart manufacturing.

  17. Managing customer knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M. Phil. (Information Management) Customer relationship management has been exposed as a strategic failure, unveiling only customer dissatisfaction. A new method for managing customers is consequently required. The effect of the knowledge economy has brought about a change in global orientation, in the focus on customer wants and needs to increase satisfaction. There was then a shift in focus from information to knowledge. In such an economy, the customer knowledge management strategy, as ...

  18. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...

  19. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  20. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  1. Insights from knowledge management theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management as a field is concerned with the management of knowledge, including the management of knowledge in research processes. Knowledge management theory has the potential to support research into problems such as HIV, antibiotic resistance and others, particularly in terms of aspects of scientific ...

  2. Knowledge Creation in Constructivist Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Sajna; Verghis, Alie Molly

    2015-01-01

    In today's competitive global economy characterized by knowledge acquisition, the concept of knowledge management has become increasingly prevalent in academic and business practices. Knowledge creation is an important factor and remains a source of competitive advantage over knowledge management. Constructivism holds that learners learn actively…

  3. Advances in Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Phillips-Wren, Gloria; Jain, Lakhmi C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter briefly overviews the evolution of KM from a historical perspective and discusses core concepts associated with the management of knowledge, projects and networks. We introduce theoretical perspectives that are used in the KM literature, discuss the concept of a networked......-centric collaborative organization, and present future technologies in KM including the management of knowledge using social media and intelligent techniques....

  4. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  5. Cities, knowledge and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107712741; Lambooy, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current theories and empirical research on cities and the knowledge economy. Two recent and interrelated streams of literature are discussed: the first focusing on agglomeration economies related to increasing returns and knowledge spillovers of firms in cities

  6. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  7. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  8. Knowledge sharing in knowledge communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, B. van den; Elving, W.; Meeuwsen, J.M.; Dumoulin, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter of the book ‘Communities and Technologies’ (M. Huysman et al. (eds.), Kluwer 2003) the contribution of ICT to knowledge sharing in communities of practice is investigated. A theoretical model is built that identifies the possible influence of ICT on the extent to which knowledge is

  9. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  10. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  11. From Idea Crowdsourcing to Managing User Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Rajala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how technology companies can benefit from user knowledge in product and service innovation beyond mere idea generation through crowdsourcing. We investigate a case from the telecommunications sector to discover the ways a company can overcome the challenges of motivating users to participate in innovation activity and gaining from their knowledge in the innovation process. In particular, we seek to learn how the company has created understanding about the future uses of technology and the developments of the market with the lead users. In addition, we analyze the key means of capturing value from the knowledge gathered from the users, including the essential organizational practices that support user innovation and the ways the company makes sense of the vast volume and variety of user knowledge. Our empirical inquiry increases the understanding of how technology companies can complement and use crowdsourcing to effectively utilize knowledge resident in user communities.

  12. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  13. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world......; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case...

  14. Operationalization of a graphical knowledge representation language

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Charreton; Jean-Louis Ermine

    1996-01-01

    International audience; : MOISE is a knowledge engineering methodology which includes a knowledge specification stage which separates static knowledge from dynamic knowledge. This stage integrates a graphical knowledge specification language (KRL) that combines a static specification language (semantic networks) and a dynamic specification language (task language). The modelling language KRL is the source language describing knowledge which becomes available for consultation. Some additional ...

  15. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  16. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  17. General knowledge structure for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinar Brendeford, T.

    1996-01-01

    At the OECD Halden Reactor Project work has been going on for several years in the field of automatic fault diagnosis for nuclear power plants. Continuing this work, studies are now carried out to combine different diagnostic systems within the same framework. The goal is to establish a general knowledge structure for diagnosis applied to a NPP process. Such a consistent and generic storage of knowledge will lighten the task of combining different diagnosis techniques. An integration like this is expected to increase the robustness and widen the scope of the diagnosis. Further, verification of system reliability and on-line explanations of hypotheses can be helped. Last but not least there is a potential in reuse of both specific and generic knowledge. The general knowledge framework is also a prerequisite for a successful integration of computerized operator support systems within the process supervision and control complex. Consistency, verification and reuse are keywords also in this respect. Systems that should be considered for integration are; automatic control, computerized operator procedures, alarm - and alarm filtering, signal validation, diagnosis and condition based maintenance. This paper presents three prototype diagnosis systems developed at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. A software arrangement for process simulation with these three systems attached in parallel is briefly described. The central part of this setup is a 'blackboard' system to be used for representing shared knowledge. Examples of such knowledge representations are included in the paper. The conclusions so far in this line of work are only tentative. The studies of existing methodologies for diagnosis, however, show a potential for several generalizations to be made in knowledge representation and use. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

  18. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  19. Tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexander Muir

    2017-04-01

    Information that is not made explicit is nonetheless embedded in most of our standard procedures. In its simplest form, embedded information may take the form of prior knowledge held by the researcher and presumed to be agreed to by consumers of the research product. More interesting are the settings in which the prior information is held unconsciously by both researcher and reader, or when the very form of an "effective procedure" incorporates its creator's (unspoken) understanding of a problem. While it may not be productive to exhaustively detail the embedded or tacit knowledge that manifests itself in creative scientific work, at least at the beginning, we may want to routinize methods for extracting and documenting the ways of thinking that make "experts" expert. We should not back away from both expecting and respecting the tacit knowledge the pervades our work and the work of others.

  20. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years a number of studies have explored different inter-organizational search strategies in relation to knowledge brokering and innovation performance. So far there has been very limited research that involves a crossing of both organizational and technological boundaries that also......-organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...... on such an opportunity, than a strong tie would be. Furthermore, a number of organizational enablers for this open inter-organizational search and knowledge brokering strategy are identified. The main arguments point to the role of a general technological competence and the R&D department being the networking department....

  1. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination

  2. Does Formal Environmental Knowledge Inform the Everyday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It emphasises the development of appropriate skills and motivation to work towards the ... knowledgeable about the environment and its problems will motivate them to act responsibly. An increasing body .... was subdivided into categories and includes quotations as examples of responses from learners. The percentage of ...

  3. Knowledge Building: Reinventing Education for the Knowledge Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Donald N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…

  4. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...

  5. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  6. Priority knowledge needs. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the knowledge needs identified during the work on the scientific basis for the management plan. The overview includes knowledge needs identified in: the impact assessments for various sectors; the reports on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas; proposed indicators for a monitoring system; cumulative environmental effects; conflicting interests and the need for coordination; and the report on analysis of population and, economic activity and ecosystem services. In addition, the working group has identified several additional knowledge needs. The present report summarises the 2010 status report and describes new developments since its publication.(Author)

  7. Priority knowledge needs. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the knowledge needs identified during the work on the scientific basis for the management plan. The overview includes knowledge needs identified in: the impact assessments for various sectors; the reports on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas; proposed indicators for a monitoring system; cumulative environmental effects; conflicting interests and the need for coordination; and the report on analysis of population and, economic activity and ecosystem services. In addition, the working group has identified several additional knowledge needs. The present report summarises the 2010 status report and describes new developments since its publication.(Author)

  8. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-01-01

    The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  9. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  10. [Knowledge management and healthcare organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaretti, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    The present scenario is characterized by a high "environmental turbulence". Healthcare professionals and organizations must increase their knowledge, skills and attitudes for choosing wisely. Healthcare organizations are complex adaptive systems which should use integrated governance systems: knowledge management should be a strategic goal. These organizations should become learning organizations: they should build and renovate their knowledge in a systematic, explicit and definite way.

  11. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentjes, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  12. Knowledge management: processes and systems | Igbinovia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management: processes and systems. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... observation, role reversal technique, and discussion forums as well as the forms of knowledge representation to include report writing, database management system and institutional repositories.

  13. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  14. Knowledge management (KM) processes in organizations theoretical foundations and practice

    CERN Document Server

    McInerney, Claire R

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is an effort to increase useful knowledge in the organization. It is a natural outgrowth of late twentieth century movements to make organizational management and operations more effective, of higher quality, and more responsive to constituents in a rapidly changing global environment. This document traces the evolution of KM in organizations, summarizing the most influential research and literature in the field. It also presents an overview of selected common and current practices in knowledge management, including the relationship between knowledge management and de

  15. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, J.; Duiven, M.; Garibaldi, A.; McGregor, D.; Straker, J.; Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  16. Aboriginal traditional knowledge - panel presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, J. [JB, Consultant, Paris (France); Duiven, M. [Skeena Fisheries Commission, Kispiox, BC (Canada); Garibaldi, A. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); McGregor, D. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Geography and Aboriginal Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group, Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Patton, P. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are playing a more active role in land use and resource management decisions around industrial development in their traditional territories and communities. Both indigenous and non-indigenous people are therefore increasing efforts to collaborate in decision-making and to effectively interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) and Western knowledge or science. Challenges exist, in part because non-Aboriginal people often find it difficult to define ATK and to understand the differences from Western perspectives. ATK is best defined as a holistic system that involves not only knowledge but principles of conduct and a strong relationship component. Research has focused on approaches to more easily bridge ATK and Western knowledge, through dialogue/negotiation and shared decision-making that is complementary to both. There are some examples of organizations and communities that have achieved success in this bridging of the two forms of knowledge. The Skeena Fisheries Commission (SFC) in British Columbia manages the fish resource in the Skeena Watershed and generates scientific research through links to ATK. The observations of indigenous people about apparent changes in the resource are subjected to scientific assessment, which has led to changes in how fish are caught, and in how and by whom data is collected. Traditional knowledge has also been incorporated into the reclamation of lands and species in Fort McKay, Alberta, an indigenous community whose traditional way of life has been significantly affected by development of the oil sands. New models have been developed to incorporate ATK into long-term planning for land use. This includes using ATK to develop a 50-to 60-year projection of probable future effects from development and to build strategies for achieving a 'desired future landscape.' To plan for post-mining land reclamation projects, another project makes use of cultural keystone species (CKS), through which

  17. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  18. Knowledge creation in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanian, Zahra Marzieh; Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Suleiman; Hossein Gholizadeh, Rezvan; Karimi-Moonaghi, Hossein

    2014-09-28

    In today's society, knowledge is recognized as a valuable social asset and the educational system is in search of a new strategy that allows them to construct their knowledge and experience. The purpose of this study was to explore the process of knowledge creation in nursing education. In the present study, the grounded theory approach was used. This method provides a comprehensive approach to collecting, organizing, and analyzing data. Data were obtained through 17 semi-structured interviews with nursing faculties and nursing students. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was conducted. Based on the method of Strauss and Corbin, the data were analyzed using fragmented, deep, and constant-comparative methods. The main categories included striving for growth and reduction of ambiguity, use of knowledge resources, dynamism of mind and social factors, converting knowledge, and creating knowledge. Knowledge was converted through mind processes, individual and group reflection, praxis and research, and resulted in the creation of nursing knowledge. Discrete nursing knowledge is gained through disconformity research in order to gain more individual advantages. The consequence of this analysis was gaining new knowledge. Knowledge management must be included in the mission and strategic planning of nursing education, and it should be planned through operational planning in order to create applicable knowledge.

  19. The letter knowledge assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cassandra; Lousada, Marisa; Pereira, Rita; Hall, Andreia; Jesus, Luis M T

    2017-10-10

    There is a need to develop letter knowledge assessment tools to characterise the letter knowledge in Portuguese pre-schoolers and to compare it with pre-schoolers from other countries, but there are no tools for this purpose in Portugal. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and validation procedures of the Prova de Avaliação de Competências de Pré-Literacia (PACPL), which assesses letter knowledge. This study includes data that has been gathered in two phases: pilot and main study. In the pilot study, an expert panel of six speech and language pathologists analysed the instrument. Children (n = 216) aged 5;0-7;11 participated in the main study that reports data related to the psychometric characteristics of the PACPL. Content validity, internal consistency, reliability and contributing factors to performance were examined statistically. A modified Bland-Altman method revealed good agreement amongst evaluators. The main study showed that the PACPL has a very good internal consistency and high inter-rater (96.2% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.92) and intra-rater (95.6% of agreement and a Cohen's k value of 0.91) agreement. Construct validity of the PCAPL was also assured (Cronbach's α of 0.982). Significant differences were found between age groups with children increasing their letter knowledge with age. In addition, they were better at identifying than at producing both letter names and letter sounds. The PACPL is a valid and reliable instrument to assess letter knowledge in Portuguese children.

  20. Nuclear Knowledge Preservation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2006-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna, Austria) was founded in 1957 as an autonomous intergovernmental organization, it was authorized for exchange of technical and scientific information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 35 years ago the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established from IAEA as an international bibliographic database in the nuclear field and in nuclear related areas. INIS as an instrument for a comprehensive and systematic dissemination of all information and knowledge becomes a big technological and science information system with 134 Members (114 countries and 20 international organizations). In INIS Membership Arrangements all Members are responsible for the collection, selection, description of information and providing the Agency with the full text of each item of non-conventional literature. Participation of each Member is important because decentralized information management is an operational philosophy of INIS. During all these years status of nuclear power changed significantly in the world. Some developing countries started to develop nuclear power programme and some developed countries showed tendency to decrease use of nuclear power. Anyway, expert knowledge accumulated over decades and the achievements in the field of nuclear science and technology have to be preserved and later transferred to future generations. It became obvious that the INIS is practically a pioneer in the area of nuclear knowledge preservation with well defined goals of knowledge preservation: selection of the most valuable information to convey to the future, ensuring that it remains accessible, readable and understandable and management of technological change. Main components of knowledge preservation are: selection of information for preservation including evaluation and prioritisation by value, use and risk, information capture (purchasing, copy, digitise, web links), describing, classifying, store and access

  1. Knowledge repositories in knowledge cities: institutions, conventions and knowledge subnetworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger

  2. Does interdisciplinary and multiprofessional undergraduate education increase students' self-confidence and knowledge toward palliative care? Evaluation of an undergraduate curriculum design for palliative care at a German academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christina; Mai, Sandra; Schmidtmann, Irene; Massen, Clara; Reinholz, Ulrike; Laufenberg-Feldmann, Rita; Weber, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Undergraduate palliative care education (UPCE) became mandatory in Germany by 2013. The training in Mainz, addressing fifth-year (5Y) medical students, emphasizes transfer of knowledge and skills. In this study we assessed students' knowledge and students' self-estimation of self-confidence in palliative care (PC) according to Bandura's concept of self-efficacy. The study objective was to evaluate the effects of the Mainz UPCE on students' self-confidence regarding important domains in PC. We conducted a prospective questionnaire-based cohort study with a pre-post design. 5Y medical students (n=329) were asked for self-estimation concerning knowledge, somatic aspects, spiritual and psychological aspects before and after a 7x90-minute teaching course. To assess knowledge, students completed a multiple choice examination at the end of the term. Overall, 156 students completed matched surveys at both points of measurement. The majority of these students felt more confident after the course than before in all aspects of PC (p<0.0001). All students passed the exam with average scores greater than 90%. A 7x90-minute interactive tutorial in PC for 5Y medical students is feasible and improves both self-efficacy and knowledge of core PC issues. Whether the effects of the course are long-lasting is the objective for further research.

  3. Nuclear knowledge management: The GRS realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraha, D.; Heigl, T.; Puhr-Westerheide, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the set-up of a knowledge management system at GRS. A knowledge model has been used as a guideline through the stages of knowledge-related activities, including specification of the knowledge goals, knowledge identification, acquisition, development, use, dissemination, preservation and assessment of the knowledge management system. The activities related to these stages are described. In addition, process-oriented knowledge management as a means to integrate knowledge-related activities into everyday work, and semantic technologies for modelling knowledge domains and for improving search for relevant documents are presented. (author)

  4. Nuclear knowledge management: The GRS realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraha, D.; Heigl, T.; Westerheide, P.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the setup of a knowledge management system at GRS. A knowledge model has been used as a guideline through the stages of knowledge related activities, including specification of the knowledge goals, knowledge identification, acquisition, development, use, dissemination, preservation, and assessment of the knowledge management system. The activities related to these stages are described. In addition, process-oriented knowledge management as a means to integrate knowledge related activities into everyday work, and semantic technologies for modelling knowledge domains and for improving search for relevant documents are presented. (author)

  5. Nuclear knowledge management: The GRS realisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraha, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Wissensmanagement in der Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungsgelaende, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: David.Beraha@grs.de; Heigl, T.; Puhr-Westerheide, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Wissensmanagement in der Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungsgelaende, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the set-up of a knowledge management system at GRS. A knowledge model has been used as a guideline through the stages of knowledge-related activities, including specification of the knowledge goals, knowledge identification, acquisition, development, use, dissemination, preservation and assessment of the knowledge management system. The activities related to these stages are described. In addition, process-oriented knowledge management as a means to integrate knowledge-related activities into everyday work, and semantic technologies for modelling knowledge domains and for improving search for relevant documents are presented. (author)

  6. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  7. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  8. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository--research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Bruce H; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-05-10

    Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  9. Knowledge management in production enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bitkowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that companies are constantly subjected to changes creates challenges connected with constant learning and acquiring knowledge. Companies are forced to act in accordance with the generative strategy. Besides realizing the traditional tasks of production or service, companies need to acquire and process knowledge and apply it in practice. The consequence of these changes is the transformation of contemporary enterprises into knowledge-based organizations, with managers increasingly recognizing the role and importance of the concept of knowledge management in creating enterprises competitiveness. The main aim of the article is identification of knowledge management in production enterprises.

  10. Harvesting Cultural Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a year-long course called Outdoor Science taught at an American Indian reservation high school that demonstrates to students the connection between traditional tribal knowledge and western science to spark student interest in science. Presents a list that contains references on the subject of ethnobotany. Includes specific references for…

  11. Legal and Ethical Issues around Incorporating Traditional Knowledge in Polar Data Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge of the polar region is a unique blend of Western scientific knowledge and local and indigenous knowledge. It is increasingly recognized that to exclude Traditional Knowledge from repositories of polar data would both limit the value of such repositories and perpetuate colonial legacies of exclusion and exploitation. However, the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within repositories that are conceived and designed for Western scientific knowledge raises its own unique challenges. There is increasing acceptance of the need to make these two knowledge systems interoperable but in addition to the technical challenge there are legal and ethical issues involved. These relate to ‘ownership’ or custodianship of the knowledge; obtaining appropriate consent to gather, use and incorporate this knowledge; being sensitive to potentially different norms regarding access to and sharing of some types of knowledge; and appropriate acknowledgement for data contributors. In some cases, respectful incorporation of Traditional Knowledge may challenge standard conceptions regarding the sharing of data, including through open data licensing. These issues have not been fully addressed in the existing literature on legal interoperability which does not adequately deal with Traditional Knowledge. In this paper we identify legal and ethical norms regarding the use of Traditional Knowledge and explore their application in the particular context of polar data. Drawing upon our earlier work on cybercartography and Traditional Knowledge we identify the elements required in the development of a framework for the inclusion of Traditional Knowledge within data infrastructures.

  12. Metaphors for Knowledge in Knowledge Intensive Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of different...... answers to what knowledge is. It could be outlined as a dichotomy between tacit and explicit knowledge, as a hierarchy from data over information to knowledge or as orders of reflection upon ones own knowledge in relation to the surrounding world. In this dissertation the focus is on knowledge...... as a metaphorical concept in groups of knowledge workers from creative start-ups. The research question of the dissertation is: How is knowledge conceptualized metaphorically in groups? This question is investigated from two methodological angles: through the analysis of metaphors in dynamic conversations...

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides including galactooligosaccharides, oligofructose, polyfructose and inulin” and “increase in calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides including galacto-oligosaccharides, oligofructose, polyfructose and inulin” and “increase in calcium absorption”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health...... claim referring to children’s development and health. The food constituents that are proposed by the applicant to be the subject of the health claim are “non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides including galacto-oligosaccharides, oligofructose, polyfructose and inulin”. Upon requests by EFSA...... for clarification on the food constituent, the applicant did not clarify the food constituent that is the subject of the health claim. The Panel considers that the food constituents, “non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides including galacto-oligosaccharides, oligofructose, polyfructose and inulin”, which...

  14. Evaluating knowledge transfer practices among construction organization in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mohd Azian; Baharuddin, Mohd Nurfaisal; Bahardin, Nur Fadhilah; Yasin, Mohd Fadzil Mat; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Deraman, Rafikullah

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this paper is to identify a key dimension of knowledge transfer component to improve construction organization performance. It investigates the effectiveness of present knowledge transfer practices currently adopted by the Malaysian construction organizations and examines the relationship between knowledge transfer factors and organizational factors. A survey among 151 respondents including a different contractor registration grade was employed for the study. The survey shows that a seven-teen (17) factors known as creating shared awareness for information sharing, communication, personal skills,individual attitude,training, organizational culture, information technology,motivation, monitoring and supervision, service quality,information accessibility, information supply, socialization process,knowledge tools, coaching and monitoring, staff briefing and information sharing were identify as a key dimension for knowledge transfer success. This finding suggest that through improvement of each factor, the recognition of the whole strategic knowledge transfer process can be increase thus helping to strengthen the Malaysian construction organization for competitive advantages.

  15. Teachers' tacit knowledge: A prolegomenic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag Ž.

    2013-01-01

    of knowledge are those aspects that can not be codified but can be transferred through training and exercise, or they can gain experience. Tacit knowledge can be described as know-how, as opposed to know- what (you know what (facts, know-why (science or know who (know who (networking. This knowledge includes learning and skills, but not in the form in which they may write. Tacit knowledge is knowledge which involves understanding, intuition and hunches, it is the knowledge that in our 'heads', but not formalized, expressed in numbers or letters. It depends on the personality of its experience, emotion, intuition. Polanyi (1987 makes a distinction : explicit knowledge - objectified in a variety of technologies, documents, procedures, projects, drawings, databases, etc.. Explicit knowledge is objektizovano, rational and mostly technical ; implicit knowledge - (quietly, silently are increased and accumulated in each individual as a means of his individual abilities, intellect, and culture. This knowledge is always more than we can formally express and measure. Tacit knowledge contributes to the ' intangible property ' (attitudes, imagination, intuition.... There are controversies in the relationship between theory and practice in the field of pedagogy, where there is no harmony or the final decision on how to model this relationship. From our perspective, the theory of science education become ' promising ' if they face and connect with diversified pedagogical and professional practices and the specific circumstances in which it takes place. The identity of teachers and tacit knowledge touching the concept of 'taking the role and adoption ' (roletaking, Mid 1934. The concept involves the use of ' self' in a reflexive dialogue with them until the fulfillment of the role. Different ' I' that is reflective inner self, and the 'self ' which is visible social self. Both of these processes and actions come together during the download and the role of exercise, so reflexive 'I

  16. Distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    Some current research in the development and application of distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems technology is addressed. The focus of the current research is the spacecraft ground operations environment. The underlying hypothesis is that, because of the increasing size, complexity, and cost of planned systems, conventional procedural approaches to the architecture of automated systems will give way to a more comprehensive knowledge-based approach. A hallmark of these future systems will be the integration of multiple knowledge-based agents which understand the operational goals of the system and cooperate with each other and the humans in the loop to attain the goals. The current work includes the development of a reference model for knowledge-base management, the development of a formal model of cooperating knowledge-based agents, the use of testbed for prototyping and evaluating various knowledge-based concepts, and beginning work on the establishment of an object-oriented model of an intelligent end-to-end (spacecraft to user) system. An introductory discussion of these activities is presented, the major concepts and principles being investigated are highlighted, and their potential use in other application domains is indicated.

  17. Professional knowledge and interprofessional practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, Peter C.; Colyer, Hazel

    2008-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is well-established in the professional discipline of radiography and other health and social care professions, driven by central government policies promoting interprofessional, collaborative working. The development of an appropriate knowledge base for interprofessional work is therefore important and, as a starting point, the article investigates the concept and significance of professional knowledge as a means to unravel and shed light on the potential emergence of a new body of knowledge, 'interprofessional knowledge'. The paper discusses whether the term 'interprofessional knowledge' (IPK) is meaningful and its utility for interprofessional practice, arguing that such knowledge is located within the discourse of interprofessional learning and practice. As such it is fluid and contextualised. The implications of this for all health and social care professionals, including radiographers, are elaborated to assist in future curriculum development and enhance understanding of the knowledge that underpins effective, collaborative, interprofessional practice. The paper concludes by suggesting there are a number of key implications for professional practice namely, IPE cannot teach interprofessional knowledge, rather it should facilitate interprofessional practice, through which such knowledge is construed, and person-centred care can be more effectively achieved. Second, interprofessional practice is highly contextualised by practice setting and point of service delivery. Any attempt to decontextualise it for the purpose of curriculum development would be illogical; interprofessional knowledge is in a symbiotic relationship with its prior professional knowledge. Third, the organisation of IPE would be better driven by alliances of complementary professions in order to maximise its potential effectiveness and credibility with practitioners

  18. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge, indigenous knowledge, peace and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to understand the nature of knowledge, introduce the concept of indigenous knowledge, provide some idea of the status of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) in Tanzania, explore how IK is linked to peace and consider the way ahead, recognizing some of the obstacles and discussing how knowledge may be ...

  20. Urban Knowledge and Urban Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Atkinson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    As we have seen in contemporary societies, particularly in relation to the ‘knowledge-based society and economy’, the role and position of knowledge has acquired increasingly strong and positive connotations; this is an indication that reflection and careful preparation is important before action...

  1. CardioKnowledge: A Knowledge Management Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Montoni, Mariella A.; Galotta, Catia; Rocha, Ana Regina; Rabelo, Álvaro; Rabelo, Lisia

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management supports decision-making by capturing and analyzing key performance indicators, providing visibility into the effectiveness of the business model, and by concentrating collaborative work and employee knowledge reviews on critical business problems. CardioKnowledge is a knowledge management environment based on the business and process requirements of a health care organization in Cardiology. CardioKnowledge supports organizational processes in order to facilitate the comm...

  2. Emotional Knowledge: the Hidden Part of the Knowledge Iceberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contantin BRĂTIANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Daniel Kahneman (2011, our thinking process is based on two systems: system 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little awareness of voluntary control, system2 operates slowly and constructs thoughts in a logic order. System 1 processes actually emotional knowledge using our unconscious cognitive capability. Cognitive scientists discovered that we are primarily emotional decision makers, which means that managers and leaders need to rely on their emotional knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to present a qualitative and quantitative research concerning the paradox of emotional knowledge. That means that on one hand most of us ignore emotional knowledge by identifying knowledge with cognitive knowledge, and on the other hand by using emotional knowledge in decision making. The qualitative research has been done by reflecting on knowledge management, strategic management and change management literature concerning emotional knowledge and emotional intelligence, while the quantitative research has been done by conceiving a questionnaire and using it in an academic environment. A total of 1200 questionnaires were distributed to the students of Bucharest University of Economic Studies, and we got a response rate of 37%. Each questionnaire contains 40 questions concerning the awareness, education, transfer, and management of emotional knowledge. The data has been processed with the help of the specialized software SPSS version 19, and AMOS version 18. Statistical analysis includes both exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis. The results of the statistical analysis reveal the main influence factors affecting our understanding of emotional knowledge, the way we learn through education about emotional knowledge, the way this knowledge is transferred, and the importance of using it by managers and leaders.

  3. Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

    2012-01-01

    All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

  4. Contributing Knowledge and Knowledge Workers: The Role of Chinese Universities in the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Ye

    2012-01-01

    As China has appeared only recently as an important knowledge producer with growing global economic significance, little is known internationally about how these processes develop and are managed within China. The rapidly expanding Chinese higher education system is playing an increasingly important role in China's knowledge economy and therefore…

  5. Knowledge information management toolkit and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Antoinette R.; Brown, Kenneth L.

    2006-08-15

    A system is provided for managing user entry and/or modification of knowledge information into a knowledge base file having an integrator support component and a data source access support component. The system includes processing circuitry, memory, a user interface, and a knowledge base toolkit. The memory communicates with the processing circuitry and is configured to store at least one knowledge base. The user interface communicates with the processing circuitry and is configured for user entry and/or modification of knowledge pieces within a knowledge base. The knowledge base toolkit is configured for converting knowledge in at least one knowledge base from a first knowledge base form into a second knowledge base form. A method is also provided.

  6. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international...... acclaims. Our analysis shows that there are strong disincentives in place for departments to share knowledge. We found that the nature of the businesses of the departments was very different and so were their knowledge requirements and their preferred ways to seek knowledge. Additionally, confidentiality...... agreements with clients and lack of cross-departmental interaction inhibited knowledge sharing outside departmental boundaries. Contrary to the common belief in the organization, we found that one single IT system could not satisfy the contextspecific knowledge-sharing needs of the different departments. We...

  7. Knowledge Translation for Cardiovascular Disease Research and Management in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shommu, Nusrat S; Turin, Tanvir C

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge translation is an essential and emerging arena in healthcare research. It is the process of aiding the application of research knowledge into clinical practice or policymaking. Individuals at all levels of the health care system, including patients, healthcare professionals, and policymakers, are affected by the gaps that exist between research evidence and practice; the process of knowledge translation plays a role in bridging these gaps and incorporating high-quality clinical research into decision-making. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) management is a crucial area of healthcare where information gaps are known to exist. Although Japan has one of the lowest risks and mortality rates from CVDs, an increasing trend of cardiovascular incidence and changes in the risk factor conditions have been observed in recent years. This article provides an overview of knowledge translation and its importance in the cardiovascular health of the Japanese population, and describes the key steps of a typical knowledge translation strategy.

  8. Knowledge Preservation and Data Collection on FR in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andropenkov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004 after the JSC NAK “Kazatomprom” became the owner of the “MAEK-Kazatomprom” LLP, the work on search, collecting and preservation of the knowledge connected with life cycle of BN-350 RI was initiated. The participating organizations, which were involved in work connected with different stages of life cycle of BN-350 RI, including international were defined. The structure of the organization of works on preservation of knowledge of BN-350 RI was defined. The main objectives of the knowledge preservation initiative are: • Halt the on-going loss of the knowledge connected with stages of life cycle of BN-350 RI. • Search, collecting, retrieving and preservation of the accumulated knowledge connected with stages of life cycle of BN-350 RI, for their possible use when developing the program of development of nuclear power in the RK, maintenance of the reached level of safety and its increase

  9. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  10. The differential impact of knowledge depth and knowledge breadth on creativity over individual careers

    OpenAIRE

    Mannucci, P; Yong, Y

    2017-01-01

    While usually argued to be fostering creativity, the effect of knowledge depth and breadth on creativity is actually mixed. We take a dynamic approach to the knowledge-creativity relationship and argue that the effect of knowledge depth and knowledge breadth is likely to be contingent on career age. We propose that individuals' knowledge structures become increasingly rigid as career age grows and that because of this, knowledge depth and breadth have different effects on creativity at differ...

  11. Knowledge Base Editor (SharpKBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikidjian, Raffi; James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The SharpKBE software provides a graphical user interface environment for domain experts to build and manage knowledge base systems. Knowledge bases can be exported/translated to various target languages automatically, including customizable target languages.

  12. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  13. Vernacular Knowledge and Water Management – Towards the Integration of Expert Science and Local Knowledge in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Simpson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex environmental problems cannot be solved using expert science alone. Rather, these kinds of problems benefit from problem-solving processes that draw on 'vernacular' knowledge. Vernacular knowledge integrates expert science and local knowledge with community beliefs and values. Collaborative approaches to water problem-solving can provide forums for bringing together diverse, and often competing, interests to produce vernacular knowledge through deliberation and negotiation of solutions. Organised stakeholder groups are participating increasingly in such forums, often through involvement of networks, but it is unclear what roles these networks play in the creation and sharing of vernacular knowledge. A case-study approach was used to evaluate the involvement of a key stakeholder group, the agricultural community in Ontario, Canada, in creating vernacular knowledge during a prescribed multi-stakeholder problem-solving process for source water protection for municipal supplies. Data sources – including survey questionnaire responses, participant observation, and publicly available documents – illustrate how respondents supported and participated in the creation of vernacular knowledge. The results of the evaluation indicate that the respondents recognised and valued agricultural knowledge as an information source for resolving complex problems. The research also provided insight concerning the complementary roles and effectiveness of the agricultural community in sharing knowledge within a prescribed problem-solving process.

  14. The usefulness of useless knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Flexner, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    A short, provocative book about why "useless" science often leads to humanity's greatest technological breakthroughs. A forty-year tightening of funding for scientific research has meant that resources are increasingly directed toward applied or practical outcomes, with the intent of creating products of immediate value. In such a scenario, it makes sense to focus on the most identifiable and urgent problems, right? Actually, it doesn't. In his classic essay "The Usefulness of Useless Knowledge," Abraham Flexner, the founding director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and the man who helped bring Albert Einstein to the United States, describes a great paradox of scientific research. The search for answers to deep questions, motivated solely by curiosity and without concern for applications, often leads not only to the greatest scientific discoveries but also to the most revolutionary technological breakthroughs. In short, no quantum mechanics, no computer chips. This brief book includes Flexn...

  15. Tacit knowledge emergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, B. [McMaster Univ., Univ. Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering, Hamilton, Ontario, (Canada)], E-mail: garlandw@mcmaster.ca

    2008-07-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge.

  16. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility....... By common standard, the proclaimed responsibility of knowledge management is shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action in an organization. The significance of the practices of knowledge management is the intention of shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action....

  17. Tacit knowledge emergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge

  18. Knowledge management: organizing nursing care knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane A; Willson, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Almost everything we do in nursing is based on our knowledge. In 1984, Benner (From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley; 1984) described nursing knowledge as the culmination of practical experience and evidence from research, which over time becomes the "know-how" of clinical experience. This "know-how" knowledge asset is dynamic and initially develops in the novice critical care nurse, expands within competent and proficient nurses, and is actualized in the expert intensive care nurse. Collectively, practical "know-how" and investigational (evidence-based) knowledge culminate into the "knowledge of caring" that defines the profession of nursing. The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of knowledge management as a framework for identifying, organizing, analyzing, and translating nursing knowledge into daily practice. Knowledge management is described in a model case and implemented in a nursing research project.

  19. Technical Knowledge Creation: Enabling Tacit Knowledge Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates knowledge creation in nascent technical industries, a somewhat neglected empirical setting concerning knowledge creation. Frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation assume that knowledge creation depends on language creation and neglect the benefits involved...... by allowing elements of new product and process ideas to mature in a tacit form, whereas cognitive neuroscience data suggests that technical knowledge creation is largely nonlinguistic. The four case studies point to excessive reliance on group discussion, a need for more trial and error and that field tests...... and prototypes generate new learnings that save time and lowers subsequent risks. Technical knowledge creation in nascent high tech industries requires opportunities to work with and further develop knowledge in its tacit form. The paper refines frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation...

  20. Corporate Knowledge Communication and Knowledge Communication Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    H. Buluthan Cetintas; M. Nejat Ozupek

    2012-01-01

    Communication is an important factor and a prop in directing corporate activities efficiently, in ensuring the flow of knowledge which is necessary for the continuity of the institution, in creating a common language in the institution, in transferring corporate culture and ultimately in corporate success. The idea of transmitting the knowledge among the workers in a healthy manner has revived knowledge communication. Knowledge communication can be defined as the act of m...

  1. Public knowledge of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a study of the scientific literacy of the British public a quota sample of 1033 adults over the age of 15 was interviewed by Market and Opinion Research International (MORI) in 80 constituency sampling points in Britain. All interviews were conducted face to face between 21 June and 1 July 1986. The questions asked included a series of knowledge questions pitched at about the Grade 4 level of the English Certificate of Secondary Education examination, the level intended to represent the attainment of an average person. In addition to these general questions, there were two concerned with the knowledge that respondents had of radioactivity, as well as three concerned with their views about issues related to nuclear power generation. (author)

  2. Community Sites of Knowledge: Knowledge Creation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article the question is asked: What is relationship between knowledge creation and sustainable peace in Africa? The specific aim of this article is to identify specific principles of knowledge creation and sustainable peace that can serve as propositions for further research. The knowledge foundation of this discussion ...

  3. Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

  4. Knowledge Co-production at the Research-Practice Interface: Embedded Case Studies from Urban Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen; Lara A. Roman

    2016-01-01

    Cities are increasingly engaging in sustainability efforts and investment in green infrastructure, including large-scale urban tree planting campaigns. In this context, researchers and practitioners are working jointly to develop applicable knowledge for planning and managing the urban forest. This paper presents three case studies of knowledge co-production in the...

  5. Knowledge management in the firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , transforming and utilizing various kinds of knowledge as a firm-specific asset is a very important element of firm competitiveness and innovative performance. In managing knowledge learning and innovation learning approaches are central. The paper identifies various approaches to learning and strategies...... of the importance of deliberately combining various approaches to innovation and learning in order to include a maximum of actors as sources in building knowledge assets and strategies. Research limitations/implications – Most of the empirical examples are from private sector enterprises, even though......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to set focus on, and discuss the concept of knowledge, and show how the interrelations between knowledge and other concepts, such as learning, have become a decisive element in managing human resources and firm performance. Design...

  6. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT UNTUK CUSTOMER SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianna Sugandi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a success key in every field aspects. Along with the development in the world nowadays, where globalization is a challenge in every Indonesian human resource to face global competition. In this case, education has important part as media in developing qualified human resources and also as the place where they can be educated in their field. In the development of information technology, it came new systems in several fields including what educational field known as e-learning. Knowledge management (KM is one implementation of e-learning. There is a concept that gathers all knowledge aspects in easily accessed file or document, and also in hardly accessed as knowledge and experience.Keywords: knowledge management, human resource, education

  7. University, Knowledge and Regional Development: Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in a Developing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongwa, Neba Samuel; Marais, Lochner

    2016-01-01

    The role of knowledge in the current knowledge economy cannot be overly emphasised. Successful regions are continuously being linked to excellence in the production, accumulation, and application of knowledge. Universities have increasingly been at the centre of such knowledge production, application and transfer. Yet, there is little research and…

  8. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  9. The Misfits in Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Harder; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is changing rapidly and knowledge work is conducted increasingly in settings that are global, digital, flat and networked. The epicenter of value-creation are the individuals and their interactions. Unified Communication and Collaboration Technology (UC&C) supports individual...... interactions, collaboration and knowledge creation. The use of this technology is growing globally. In a previous study, we found that UC&C in collocated and distributed settings, produced misfits and fits between situated enacted practice-use of UC&C and the experienced productivity. We respond to the KITA...... 2015 call with this work-in-progress paper. We apply the IT Knowledge Artefact (ITKA)-interpretive lens from Cabitza and Locoro (2014) to a case of knowledge workers struggling with appropriation of UC&C for creating and sharing practice knowledge. We evaluate the framework - and discuss the usefulness...

  10. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    . To look at how knowledge about virtual work is established in a multinational context, we interviewed members of a team that connects Finland and India. Results reveal five objects shared between the team members with varying knowledge about them. By making these differences in knowledge visible through......How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from...... contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective...

  11. La Palabra Es Salud: A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Popular Education vs. Traditional Education for Enhancing Health Knowledge and Skills and Increasing Empowerment among Parish-Based Community Health Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    Popular education is a mode of teaching and learning which seeks to bring about more equitable social conditions by creating settings in which people can identify and solve their own problems. While the public health literature offers evidence to suggest that popular education is an effective strategy for increasing empowerment and improving…

  12. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  13. Sexually active older Australian's knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and safer sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline

    2017-06-01

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising among older Australians. We conducted a large survey of older people's knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. A total of 2,137 Australians aged 60 years and older completed the survey, which included 15 questions assessing knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. We examined both levels of knowledge and factors associated with an overall knowledge score. In total, 1,652 respondents reported having sex in the past five years and answered all knowledge questions. This group had good general knowledge but poorer knowledge in areas such as the protection offered by condoms and potential transmission modes for specific STIs. Women had better knowledge than men. Men in their 60s, men with higher education levels, and men who thought they were at risk of STIs reported better knowledge than other men. Knowledge was also better among men and women who had been tested for STIs or reported 'other' sources of knowledge on STIs. Many older Australians lack knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. Implications for public health: To reverse current trends toward increasing STI diagnoses in this population, policies and education campaigns aimed at improving knowledge levels may need to be considered. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Professional knowledge and interprofessional practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milburn, Peter C. [Canterbury Christ Church University, Undergraduate Interprofessional Studies, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.milburn@canterbury.ac.uk; Colyer, Hazel [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is well-established in the professional discipline of radiography and other health and social care professions, driven by central government policies promoting interprofessional, collaborative working. The development of an appropriate knowledge base for interprofessional work is therefore important and, as a starting point, the article investigates the concept and significance of professional knowledge as a means to unravel and shed light on the potential emergence of a new body of knowledge, 'interprofessional knowledge'. The paper discusses whether the term 'interprofessional knowledge' (IPK) is meaningful and its utility for interprofessional practice, arguing that such knowledge is located within the discourse of interprofessional learning and practice. As such it is fluid and contextualised. The implications of this for all health and social care professionals, including radiographers, are elaborated to assist in future curriculum development and enhance understanding of the knowledge that underpins effective, collaborative, interprofessional practice. The paper concludes by suggesting there are a number of key implications for professional practice namely, IPE cannot teach interprofessional knowledge, rather it should facilitate interprofessional practice, through which such knowledge is construed, and person-centred care can be more effectively achieved. Second, interprofessional practice is highly contextualised by practice setting and point of service delivery. Any attempt to decontextualise it for the purpose of curriculum development would be illogical; interprofessional knowledge is in a symbiotic relationship with its prior professional knowledge. Third, the organisation of IPE would be better driven by alliances of complementary professions in order to maximise its potential effectiveness and credibility with practitioners.

  15. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge...

  16. Recycling management including transportation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear industry, at least in advanced countries such as Japan, France and other European countries, has developed for years a global strategy of fuel utilization which implies an extensive recycling and reuse of spent fuel. Such recycling strategies are now increasingly required from the industry in general by the various Governments and international organizations. Nuclear fuel recycling and waste management are the two faces of the same policy: the closed fuel cycle, whereby reprocessing of spent fuel makes available for recycling the energetic contents : uranium and plutonium, while segregating the real waste in categories for their specific treatment, conditioning, storage, transportation and final disposal. Plutonium recycling is performed through the fabrication of the so-called mixed oxide fuel (MOX), where fissile plutonium replaces the U 235 isotope used in UO 2 fuel. The international trade of nuclear materials and services, under close control of IAEA and other national and international organization, has let to the circulation of materials between the producers of uranium and enrichment fuel, fabrication, reprocessing and recycling services, and the customers worldwide. The industrial transport experience now accumulated shows an excellent record in terms of safety and quality. This communication will describe the current situation and future trends of the recycling route mainly through COGEMA industrial experience. 1 fig

  17. Nuclear Knowledge - Demand or Pride?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Valeca, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, the increasing energy demand and the decreasing 'classical' resources is a reality. In this context, sustainable development and economical growth is mandatory for each country. Nuclear energy becomes more and more attractive in order to solve those problems. During last years, nuclear knowledge management became an interesting topic in dedicated debates, due to the uniqueness of nuclear Industry. With five decades of operational experience in commercial power production, the nuclear power industry is mature and represents the first high technology enterprise of the twentieth century. There is a constant expectation that fission reactor technologies of today will 'soon' be superseded by more advanced designs, new concepts like Generation IV, fusion reactors, etc. Nuclear industry is highly regulated and politicized and strong anti-nuclear lobbies led to stagnation. The presentation underlines the key activity areas of the nuclear knowledge: - providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems; - facilitating knowledge creation and utilization; - implementing effective knowledge management systems; - preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; - enhancing nuclear education and training. Knowledge management in nuclear life cycle should cover all stages involved, namely: - design and engineering; - procurement; - manufacturing; - construction and commissioning; - operation and maintenance- refurbishment and decommissioning. In this context, Romania must change the Nuclear Educational System in order to face the requirements raised by Bologna Process and nuclear development. Possible solutions to attain this goal are illustrated in this presentation. (authors)

  18. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676

  19. Construction of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire for assessing plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (Pplagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

  20. SAPHO: Treatment options including bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaenepoel, Tom; Vlam, Kurt de

    2016-10-01

    Both the diagnosis and treatment of the syndrome of synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) remain difficult. We describe a case series of 21 patients with SAPHO and their response to several pharmacological treatments. Clinical and biochemical data, along with medical imaging, were collected from the medical records of 21 patients, diagnosed as SAPHO during follow-up between 2005 and 2013. Symptoms and inflammatory markers were recorded twice, once at first patient presentation, and once at the end of follow-up. Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis were labeled as defining features. All treatment options were categorized according to their respective responses (full remission, partial remission, and no disease control). There was a female predominance and a median age of 32 years (range: 12-54 years). Median follow-up duration was 45 months (range: 0-188 months). Total prevalence of defining features in this cohort increased for each defining feature during follow-up, except for acne. All patients reached full or partial remission at the end of follow-up. A total of 14 patients were treated with bisphosphonates. Of which 8 of them went into full or partial remission. In our case series, none of the patients had the full presentation of SAPHO at the first consultation. Some presented with symptoms suggestive for psoriatic arthritis. This explains why diagnosis of SAPHO can be challenging. Full remission was induced in the majority of individuals. Bisphosphonates seem to be a noteworthy treatment option. We suggest a prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial with bisphosphonates to confirm this observation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Increasing Library Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Susan

    1977-01-01

    Libraries could benefit from the businesslike approach of an entrepreneur. Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior of value to libraries include: moderate risk-taking as a function of skill, not chance; energetic instrumental activity; insistence upon individual responsibility; knowledge of results of decisions; anticipation of future…

  2. knowledge and information on psychological, physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... of sex education. CONCLUSION: Thus, the results show that not only knowledge regarding sex education was poor among the subjects but also their knowledge regarding sexual infections including AIDS .... Distribution of respondents' source of Knowledge regarding puberty and adolescence, Midnapore,.

  3. 16 CFR 1115.11 - Imputed knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imputed knowledge. 1115.11 Section 1115.11... PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.11 Imputed knowledge. (a) In evaluating whether or... care to ascertain the truth of complaints or other representations. This includes the knowledge a firm...

  4. Knowledge Exchange Between Universities and SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Sarai; Lykke, Marianne

    Exchanging knowledge between university and industry is generally known to be problematic. In this paper we address the situation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to understand their use of knowledge: in particular scientific knowledge. The paper will present data from....... The paper presents new understandings related to industry’s ways of perceiving, accessing and imple- menting scientific knowledge; these include insights into the primary ways in which SMEs appropriate new knowledge; the barriers to acquiring new knowledge; how SMEs understand the university setting...

  5. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  6. Climate change: linking traditional and scientific knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riewe, R. R. (Roderick R.); Oakes, Jill E. (Jill Elizabeth)

    2006-01-01

    This book includes papers written by over 50 community experts and scientists addressing theoretical concerns, knowledge transfer, adapting to climate change, implications of changing weather, water...

  7. Cross-cultural Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Mihai PARASCHIV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of international companies in providing high quality products and outstanding services is subject, on the one hand, to the increasing dynamic of the economic environment and on the other hand to the adoption of worldwide quality standards and procedures. As market place is becoming more and more global, products and services offered worldwide by international companies must face the multi-cultural environment challenges. These challenges manifest themselves not only at customer relationship level but also deep inside companies, at employee level. Important support in facing all these challenges has been provided at cognitive level by management system models and at technological level by information cutting edge technologies Business Intelligence & Knowledge Management Business Intelligence is already delivering its promised outcomes at internal business environment and, with the explosive deployment of public data bases, expand its analytical power at national, regional and international level. Quantitative measures of economic environment, wherever available, may be captured and integrated in companies’ routine analysis. As for qualitative data, some effort is still to be done in order to integrate measures of social, political, legal, natural and technological environment in companies’ strategic analysis. An increased difficulty is found in treating cultural differences, common knowledge making the most hidden part of any foreign environment. Managing cultural knowledge is crucial to success in cultivating and maintaining long-term business relationships in multicultural environments. Knowledge Management provides the long needed technological support for cross-cultural management in the tedious task of improving knowledge sharing in multi-national companies and using knowledge effectively in international joint ventures. The paper is approaching the conceptual frameworks of knowledge management and proposes an unified model

  8. Formal ontologies in biomedical knowledge representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Jansen, L

    2013-01-01

    Medical decision support and other intelligent applications in the life sciences depend on increasing amounts of digital information. Knowledge bases as well as formal ontologies are being used to organize biomedical knowledge and data. However, these two kinds of artefacts are not always clearly distinguished. Whereas the popular RDF(S) standard provides an intuitive triple-based representation, it is semantically weak. Description logics based ontology languages like OWL-DL carry a clear-cut semantics, but they are computationally expensive, and they are often misinterpreted to encode all kinds of statements, including those which are not ontological. We distinguish four kinds of statements needed to comprehensively represent domain knowledge: universal statements, terminological statements, statements about particulars and contingent statements. We argue that the task of formal ontologies is solely to represent universal statements, while the non-ontological kinds of statements can nevertheless be connected with ontological representations. To illustrate these four types of representations, we use a running example from parasitology. We finally formulate recommendations for semantically adequate ontologies that can efficiently be used as a stable framework for more context-dependent biomedical knowledge representation and reasoning applications like clinical decision support systems.

  9. Ontological knowledge structure of intuitive biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne Michele

    It has become increasingly important for individuals to understand infections disease, as there has been a tremendous rise in viral and bacterial disease. This research examines systematic misconceptions regarding the characteristics of viruses and bacteria present in individuals previously educated in biological sciences at a college level. 90 pre-nursing students were administered the Knowledge Acquisition Device (KAD) which consists of 100 True/False items that included statements about the possible attributes of four entities: bacteria, virus, amoeba, and protein. Thirty pre-nursing students, who incorrectly stated that viruses were alive, were randomly assigned to three conditions. (1) exposed to information about the ontological nature of viruses, (2) Information about viruses, (3) control. In the condition that addressed the ontological nature of a virus, all of those participants were able to classify viruses correctly as not alive; however any items that required inferences, such as viruses come in male and female forms or viruses breed with each other to make baby viruses were still incorrectly answered by all conditions in the posttest. It appears that functional knowledge, ex. If a virus is alive or dead, or how it is structured, is not enough for an individual to have a full and accurate understanding of viruses. Ontological knowledge information may alter the functional knowledge but underlying inferences remain systematically incorrect.

  10. How Knowledge Influences Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how children's knowledge can be measured/described, knowledge patterns across diverse concepts, interaction of knowledge/learning, and ways children construct more advanced problem-solving rules to replace less adequate ones. Evidence, drawn from studies on children's acquisition of knowledge about balance beams, suggests that knowledge…

  11. Developing knowledge cities : Aligning urban, corporate and university strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, A.C.; De Vries, J.C.; De Jonge, H.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of knowledge cities increasingly depends on collaboration between urban and regional authorities, knowledge institutions and businesses. Policy makers and business strategists do acknowledge the interrelated objectives of these actors in the knowledge economy and their

  12. Cernavoda NPP Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valache, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a description of the Knowledge Transfer (KT) process implemented at Cernavoda NPP, its designing and implementation. It is underlined that applying a KT approach should improve the value of existing processes of the organization through: • Identifying business, operational and safety risks due to knowledge gaps, • Transfer of knowledge from the ageing workforce to the peers and/or the organization, • Continually learning from successes and failures of individual or teams, • Convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, • Improving operational and safety performance through creating both new knowledge and better access to existing knowledge. (author

  13. Participative knowledge management to empower manufacturing workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campatelli, Gianni; Richter, Alexander; Stocker, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    skills. In this paper, the authors suggest a participative knowledge management approach to empower manufacturing workers. Starting from a comprehensive empirical analysis of the existing work practices in a manufacturing company, the authors have developed and validated a knowledge management system...... prototype. The prototype is aimed for training, problem solving, and facilitating the discovery, acquisition, and sharing of manufacturing knowledge. The conducted evaluation of the prototype indicates that workers' skills and level of work satisfaction will increase since the knowledge management system...

  14. Knowledge, perception and attitude towards human papillomavirus among pre-university students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ng Beng; Yee, Choy Mun; Shan, Lim Pei; Teik, Chew Kah; Chandralega, Kampan Nirmala; Abdul Kadir, Abdul Karim

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, perception and attitudes towards human papilloma virus (HPV) among pre-university students in Malaysia. In this cross sectional study, between November 2013 to March 2014, in a public university, a convenient sampling method was used. A total of 716 respondents were recruited and interviewed with a set of standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, perception and attitudes towards HPV and predictor variables associated with level of knowledge. Almost half (48.9%) of the respondents scored less than 5 and were categorised as having poor knowledge. Three hundred and twelve (43.6%) respondents had moderate knowledge and only 54 (7.5%) respondents exhibited good knowledge with the score of 11 and above. Only 142 (20%) students perceived themselves to be vulnerable to HPV infection though 560 (78.2%) students thought that HPV infection is a serious disease. Perceived benefits and desire to be vaccinated were significantly associated with gender (p=0.000) and knowledge of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer (p=0.000). The level of knowledge regarding HPV among the pre-university students was low. However, student intention for vaccination increased with increasing level of knowledge. Thus, efforts to improve knowledge and awareness should be prioritised to increase uptake of the HPV vaccination programme and hence reduce morbidity and mortality from consequences of HPV infection, including cervical carcinoma.

  15. Tacit Knowledge: Revisiting the Epistemology of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The concept of tacit knowledge encompasses all of the intricacy of the different experiences that people acquire over time, and which they utilize and bring to bear in carrying out tasks effectively, reacting to unforeseen circumstances, or innovating. The intuitive nature of tacit knowledge, its particular context, and the difficulty of…

  16. Why Explicit Knowledge Cannot Become Implicit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Bill

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I review one of the conclusions in Lindseth (2016) published in "Foreign Language Annals." That conclusion suggests that explicit learning and practice (what she called form-focused instruction) somehow help the development of implicit knowledge (or might even become implicit knowledge). I argue for a different…

  17. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how...... deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes: sharing, retaining, and creating knowledge. We survey the papers in this volume of the special issue, and discuss the remaining research challenges....

  18. Knowledge that Acts: Evaluating the Outcomes of a Knowledge Brokering Intervention in Western Australia's Ningaloo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kelly; Boschetti, Fabio; Fulton, Elizabeth; Horwitz, Pierre; Jones, Tod; Scherrer, Pascal; Syme, Geoff

    2017-11-01

    Knowledge exchange involves a suite of strategies used to bridge the divides between research, policy and practice. The literature is increasingly focused on the notion that knowledge generated by research is more useful when there is significant interaction and knowledge sharing between researchers and research recipients (i.e., stakeholders). This is exemplified by increasing calls for the use of knowledge brokers to facilitate interaction and flow of information between scientists and stakeholder groups, and the integration of scientific and local knowledge. However, most of the environmental management literature focuses on explicit forms of knowledge, leaving unmeasured the tacit relational and reflective forms of knowledge that lead people to change their behaviour. In addition, despite the high transaction costs of knowledge brokering and related stakeholder engagement, there is little research on its effectiveness. We apply Park's Manag Learn 30(2), 141-157 (1999); Knowledge and Participatory Research, London: SAGE Publications (2006) tri-partite knowledge typology as a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of knowledge brokering in the context of a large multi-agency research programme in Australia's Ningaloo coastal region, and for testing the assumption that higher levels of interaction between scientists and stakeholders lead to improved knowledge exchange. While the knowledge brokering intervention substantively increased relational networks between scientists and stakeholders, it did not generate anticipated increases in stakeholder knowledge or research application, indicating that more prolonged stakeholder engagement was required, and/or that there was a flaw in the assumptions underpinning our conceptual framework.

  19. Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes in ontol......This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...

  20. Contemporary HIV/AIDS research: Insights from knowledge management theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Chris William

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge management as a field is concerned with the management of knowledge, including the management of knowledge in research processes. Knowledge management theory has the potential to support research into problems such as HIV, antibiotic resistance and others, particularly in terms of aspects of scientific research related to the contribution of social science. To date, however, these challenges remain with us, and theoretical contributions that can complement natural science efforts to eradicate these problems are needed. This paper seeks to offer a theoretical contribution grounded in Kuhn's paradigm theory of innovation, and in the argument by Lakatos that scientific research can be fundamentally non-innovative, which suggests that social science aspects of knowledge creation may hold the key to more effective biomedical innovation. Given the consequences of ongoing and emerging global crises, and the failure of knowledge systems of scientific research to solve such problems outright, this paper provides a review of theory and literature arguing for a new paradigm in scientific research, based on the development of global systems to maximise research collaborations. A global systems approach effectively includes social science theory development as an important complement to the natural sciences research process. Arguably, information technology and social media technology have developed to the point at which solutions to knowledge aggregation challenges can enable solutions to knowledge problems on a scale hitherto unimaginable. Expert and non-expert crowdsourced inputs can enable problem-solving through exponentially increasing problem-solving inputs, using the 'crowd,' thereby increasing collaborations dramatically. It is argued that these developments herald a new era of participatory research, or a democratisation of research, which offers new hope for solving global social problems. This paper seeks to contribute to this end, and to the recognition

  1. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    It is now well recognized that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are differentiated networks wherein subsidiaries vary in terms of their ability to create new knowledge and competencies for their parent groups. In much of this theory, it is taken for granted that subsidiary innovativeness has...... a positive correlation with the extent of reverse knowledge transfers to the parent MNE. Relying on the headquarters-subsidiary view of the MNE, we argue that, beyond a point, increasing subsidiary innovativeness will be associated with lower reverse knowledge transfers. Further, we argue...... that this relationship is sensitive to the subsidiary entry mode. Using data from a sample of 293 Italian subsidiaries, we find strong support for our hypotheses. In particular, our results confirm that the effect of subsidiary innovativeness on reverse knowledge transfers displays an inverted-U shape...

  2. Professional Knowledge and Everyday Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing...... their professional knowledge with regards to collective reflection and creating coherent practices and everyday lives for children and families. I propose an alternative perspective on development of professional knowledge, which takes aspects of professional knowledge and everyday practice......, that are not traditionally valued, nor by “users” or the professionals themselves, into account. With inspiration from a Danish researcher of everyday life and her concept of ‘the unnoticed/unrecognized’ (det upåagtede) (Bech-Jørgensen 1994), this paper will discuss how understandings of professional identity...

  3. Biocuration: Distilling data into knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Data, including information generated from them by processing and analysis, are an asset with measurable value. The assets that biological research funding produces are the data generated, the information derived from these data, and, ultimately, the discoveries and knowledge these lead to. From the time when Henry Oldenburg published the first scientific journal in 1665 (Proceedings of the Royal Society) to the founding of the United States National Library of Medicine in 1879 to the present, there has been a sustained drive to improve how researchers can record and discover what is known. Researchers' experimental work builds upon years and (collectively) billions of dollars' worth of earlier work. Today, researchers are generating data at ever-faster rates because of advances in instrumentation and technology, coupled with decreases in production costs. Unfortunately, the ability of researchers to manage and disseminate their results has not kept pace, so their work cannot achieve its maximal impact. Strides have recently been made, but more awareness is needed of the essential role that biological data resources, including biocuration, play in maintaining and linking this ever-growing flood of data and information. The aim of this paper is to describe the nature of data as an asset, the role biocurators play in increasing its value, and consistent, practical means to measure effectiveness that can guide planning and justify costs in biological research information resources' development and management.

  4. Risk management of knowledge loss in nuclear industry organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This publication is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this it is based upon the actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to: develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; provide processes and in conducting risk assessments to determine the potential for loss of critical knowledge caused by the loss of experienced workers; and enable nuclear organizations to utilize this knowledge to improve the skill and competence of new and existing workers In 2004, the IAEA published a report entitled The Nuclear Power Industry's Ageing Workforce: Transfer of Knowledge to the Next Generation (IAEA-TECDOC-1399). That report highlighted some of the knowledge management issues in Member States resulting from the large number of retiring nuclear power plant personnel who had been involved with the commissioning and initial operation of nuclear power plants. This publication complements that report by providing a practical methodology on knowledge loss risk management as one element of an overall strategic approach to workforce management which includes work force planning, recruitment, training, leadership development and knowledge retention

  5. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  6. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

  7. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin; Ghitescu, Petre

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear knowledge is characterized by high-complexity and variety of the component topics and long duration required by the build-up of individual competence. At organizational level, these characteristics made the power of an organization or institution to be determined by the capital accumulated of existing knowledge. Furthermore, the capacity of an organization to re-generate and raise the knowledge capital according to the specific processes it is running according to the existing demand decides its position/ranking in the economy of nuclear field. Knowledge management emphasizes re-utilization of existing practice and experience, upgrade, enrich and re-value of accumulated knowledge. The present paper identifies and classifies the nuclear knowledge steps, namely: tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge, preserving, transfer, knowledge capture etc. On this basis there are identified the existing problems of nuclear knowledge management in Romania such as: difficulties to keep within the country the existing expertise, lack of interest in nuclear education, low level of organization of existing knowledge due to a small number of data bases, an insufficient integration of existing knowledge in IT systems, lack of ontology and taxonomy or an average structuralism. Nuclear knowledge in Romania is facing a major challenge which is generated by the future development of nuclear facilities. It is related to the rising demand of expertise and experts. This challenge is better solved by partnership between end users and institutions of Research and Development and university organization as well which could ensure the generation, transfer and preservation of nuclear knowledge. (authors)

  8. Co-production of knowledge: An Inuit Indigenous Knowledge perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R.; Behe, C.

    2017-12-01

    A "co-production of knowledge" approach brings together different knowledge systems while building equitable and collaborative partnerships from `different ways of knowing.' Inuit Indigenous Knowledge is a systematic way of thinking applied to phenomena across biological, physical, cultural and spiritual systems; rooted with a holistic understanding of ecosystems (ICC Alaska 2016). A holistic image of Arctic environmental change is attained by bringing Indigenous Knowledge (IK) holders and scientists together through a co-production of knowledge framework. Experts from IK and science should be involved together from the inception of a project. IK should be respected as its own knowledge system and should not be translated into science. A co-production of knowledge approach is important in developing adaptation policies and practices, for sustainability and to address biodiversity conservation (Daniel et al. 2016). Co-production of knowledge is increasingly being recognized by the scientific community at-large. However, in many instances the concept is being incorrectly applied. This talk will build on the important components of co-production of knowledge from an Inuit perspective and specifically IK. In this presentation we will differentiate the co-production of knowledge from a multi-disciplinary approach or multi-evidence based decision-making. We underscore the role and value of different knowledge systems with different methodologies and the need for collaborative approaches in identifying research questions. We will also provide examples from our experiences with Indigenous communities and scientists in the Arctic. References: Inuit Circumpolar Council of Alaska. 2016. Alaskan Inuit Food Security Conceptual Framework: How to Assess the Arctic From An Inuit Perspective, 201pp. Daniel, R., C. Behe, J. Raymond-Yakoubian, E. Krummel, and S. Gearhead. Arctic Observing Summit White Paper Synthesis, Theme 6: Interfacing Indigenous Knowledge, Community

  9. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  10. Exploring linkages between research, policy and practice in the Netherlands: perspectives on sexual and reproductive health and rights knowledge flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Billie; van der Kwaak, Anke

    2017-05-12

    The attention to and demand for stronger linkages between research, policy and practice are increasing, especially in fields concerned with sensitive and challenging issues such as sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The study described in this article was conducted in the Netherlands among actors working in international development, especially the domain of SRHR. It explores the perceived flow of knowledge between research, policy and practice, the perceived impeding factors, and suggested strategies for improvement. A narrative literature review was performed and 28 key informants were interviewed between May and August 2015. Most interviewees were either active or passive members of Share-Net Netherlands, an SRHR knowledge platform. All interviews, which lasted 70 minutes on average, were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded in MAXQDA. Linkages between research, policy and practice are many and diffuse. The demands for and supplies of knowledge within and across the fields vary and do not always match, which is shown by participants' research purposes and approaches. Participants identified various barriers to strengthening knowledge flows, including a lack of familiarity with practices in other fields, power relations and the undervaluation of tacit knowledge. They suggested a more visible and concrete demand for and supply of knowledge, the development of a joint knowledge agenda, more opportunities for the interdisciplinary creation of knowledge, and the development of a system for learning and sharing knowledge. This study shows the willingness to undertake, and the perceived advantages of, interdisciplinary dialogues and joint creation of knowledge to advance SRHR research, policies and practices. Whereas barriers to the flow of knowledge may maintain present understandings of knowledge and of whose knowledge is valid, enabling factors, such as interactions between research, policy and practice in knowledge-sharing activities, may

  11. The tourism knowledge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribe, John; Liburd, Janne J.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual study addresses the significant need for every mature field of knowledge to understand itself. It builds upon previous studies of the epistemology and ontology of tourism by critiquing, synthesising, discarding, re-ordering and adding material. Its contribution is an original...... reconceptualisation of the structure, systems, processes and outcomes that define the field of tourism. These are explained by the creation of a model and detailed analysis that examines knowledge space, the knowledge force-field, knowledge networks, four key domains in knowledge creation and their interrelationships....... Finally the model is used to examine some of the key challenges and consequences that the knowledge system reveals for tourism and its research....

  12. Knowledge and the University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Ronald; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    What role does knowledge play in universities today? In a post-truth era, and an age of alternative facts, what legitimacy does the university have today as the institution that creates and safeguards knowledge on the highest level? Knowledge has long been heralded as the central concept for the ......What role does knowledge play in universities today? In a post-truth era, and an age of alternative facts, what legitimacy does the university have today as the institution that creates and safeguards knowledge on the highest level? Knowledge has long been heralded as the central concept...

  13. The geography of the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    Today, acquisition, creation and utilisation of knowledge are the key factors explaining economic development. Firms must constantly employ new knowledge and combine different types of knowledge in their activities to maintain competitiveness. This thesis examines the knowledge economy from two...... perspectives. The first focuses on the role of geographical proximity for interactive knowledge creation. It follows from the increasing knowledge intensity of the economy that it is highly unlikely that firms can access knowledge of a sufficient depth and variety within their own boundaries. Papers I...... as vital to economic development, lowand medium low-tech industries maintain economic importance in high-wage countries. Papers IV-VI in the thesis examine the responses of low- and medium low-tech manufacturing industries to the challenges of the knowledge economy. The results of the first part...

  14. Ontologies, Knowledge Bases and Knowledge Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chalupsky, Hans

    2002-01-01

    ...) an application called Strategy Development Assistant (SDA) that uses that ontology. The JFACC ontology served as a basis for knowledge sharing among several applications in the domain of air campaign planning...

  15. Knowledge Strategies in Using Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contantin BRĂTIANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge strategy selection is a multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM problem, and requires adequate methods to solve it appropriately. Knowledge strategies are also intrinsically linked to individuals and their ability to comprehend the world and leverage their intellectual assets to respond e!ectively to a fast changing environment. the essential features of social networking sites include but are not limited to: blogging, grouping, networking and instant messaging. Since the social networks facilitate communication and interaction among users, there is a continuous need of researches to examine what are the motives that a!ect the acceptance of usage of the social networks. This study aims at examining the role of the knowledge strategies that individuals employ in using social networks with respect to the overall objective of increasing the knowledge level. For this purpose we have used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP mathematical model since it allows us a structuring of the overall objective on the main components. For the present research we considered a structure composed of three levels: L1 – the purpose of networking, L2 – strategies used to achieve that purpose, and L3 – activities needed for strategies implementation. At the upper level (L1, the main objective of a person in using social networks is to increase its knowledge level. To obtain the aforementioned objective we considered for the second level (L2 the following strategies: S1 – to learn from other persons; S2 – to make new friends; S3 – to increase the personal experience and visibility. the implementation of these strategies is realized through the following activities considered at the third hierarchy level (L3: A1– joining general social networks (e.g. Facebook, Google+, MySpace, Hi5 etc.; A2– joining professional social networks (e.g. LinkedIn etc.; A3– creating a personal blog (e.g. Blogster, Wordpress etc.; A4– joining online communities of

  16. Management of nuclear knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.; Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2008-04-01

    The IAEA Technical Meeting (TM) on the 'Role of universities in preserving and managing nuclear knowledge' was held in Vienna, Austria, 10-14 December 2007. This TM is the continuation of IAEA efforts to address future workforce demand developments, quality and quantity of nuclear higher education in member states. IAEA activities always focussed in particular on curricula, on networking universities and on internet platforms. The objective of this meeting was to provide a forum to present and discuss the status of and good practices of nuclear higher education in member states. Around twenty experts from different member states presented the status and on-going practices of nuclear education. This meeting was divided into two main sections: part A gave the status of nuclear education in the member states while part B included the best practices and recommendations. A summary of both sessions are provided in this report. (Nevyjel)

  17. Wind farm power optimization including flow variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herp, Jürgen; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A model-based optimisation approach is used to investigate the potential gain of wind-farm power with a cooperative control strategy between the wind turbines. Based on the Jensen wake model with the Katic wake superposition rule, the potential gain for the Nysted offshore wind farm is calculated...... to be 1.4–5.4% for standard choices 0.4 ≥ k ≥ 0.25 of the wake expansion parameter. Wake model fits based on short time intervals of length 15sec ≤ T ≤ 10 min within three months of data reveal a strong wake flow variability, resulting in rather broad distributions for the wake expansion parameter. When...... an optimized wind-farm control strategy, derived from a fixed wake parameter, is facing this flow variability, the potential gain reduces to 0.3–0.5%. An omnipotent control strategy, which has real-time knowledge of the actual wake flow, would be able to increase the gain in wind-farm power to 4.9%....

  18. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin......The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  19. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multimedia Education Increases Elder Knowledge of Emergency Department Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Terndrup

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elders who utilize the emergency department (ED may have little prospectiveknowledge of appropriate expectations during an ED encounter. Improving elder orientation toED expectations is important for satisfaction and health education. The purpose of this study wasto evaluate a multi-media education intervention as a method for informing independently livingelders about ED care. The program delivered messages categorically as, the number of tests,providers, decisions and disposition decision making.Methods: Interventional trial of representative elders over 59 years of age comparing pre andpost multimedia program exposure. A brief (0.3 hour video that chronicled the key events after ahypothetical 911 call for chest pain was shown. The video used a clinical narrator, 15 ED healthcare providers, and 2 professional actors for the patient and spouse. Pre- and post-video testsresults were obtained with audience response technology (ART assessed learning using a 4point Likert scale.Results: Valid data from 142 participants were analyzed pre to post rankings (Wilcoxon signedranktests. The following four learning objectives showed significant improvements: number oftests expected [median differences on a 4-point Likert scale with 95% confidence intervals: 0.50(0.00, 1.00]; number of providers expected 1.0 (1.00, 1.50; communications 1.0 (1.00, 1.50;and pre-hospital medical treatment 0.50 (0.00, 1.00. Elders (96% judged the intervention asimproving their ability to cope with an ED encounter.Conclusion: A short video with graphic side-bar information is an effective educational strategy toimprove elder understanding of expectations during a hypothetical ED encounter following calling911.

  1. Virtual reality negotiation training increases negotiation knowledge and skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Brinkman W.; Jonker, C.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally investigate learning effects of a rigourously set up virtual reality (VR) negotiation training. We discuss the design of the system in detail. Further, we present results of an experiment (between subject; three experimental conditions: control, training once,

  2. Exploring the Associations Among Nutrition, Science, and Mathematics Knowledge for an Integrative, Food-Based Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Virginia C; Kolasa, Kathryn M; Díaz, Sebastián R; Duffrin, Melani W

    2018-01-01

    Explore associations between nutrition, science, and mathematics knowledge to provide evidence that integrating food/nutrition education in the fourth-grade curriculum may support gains in academic knowledge. Secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study. Sample included 438 students in 34 fourth-grade classrooms across North Carolina and Ohio; mean age 10 years old; gender (I = 53.2% female; C = 51.6% female). Dependent variable = post-test-nutrition knowledge; independent variables = baseline-nutrition knowledge, and post-test science and mathematics knowledge. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. The hypothesized model predicted post-nutrition knowledge (F(437) = 149.4, p Science and mathematics knowledge were predictive of nutrition knowledge indicating use of an integrative science and mathematics curriculum to improve academic knowledge may also simultaneously improve nutrition knowledge among fourth-grade students. Teachers can benefit from integration by meeting multiple academic standards, efficiently using limited classroom time, and increasing nutrition education provided in the classroom. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  3. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    knowledge accessed from the corporate memory. We suggest thatmultinational companies (MNCs) solve knowledge retrieval problems by implementingvirtual communities of practice - intranet-based collaborative forums. Codification andpersonalization strategies have previously been emphasized as an either...

  4. Knowledge and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    , a spate of work in management research and new institutional economics has highlighted dimensions such as complementarity, complexity, tacitness, and so on of knowledge assets and shown how knowledge assets, thus dimensionalized, has explanatory value with respect to economic organization. However......Assumptions about the knowledge held by economic agents have been an integral part of the theory of economic organization since its inception. However, recent work—here called “knowledge governance”—has more explicitly highlighted knowledge as both an independent and dependent variable. Thus......, knowledge may also be seen as being caused by governance mechanisms and structures; specifically, incentives, allocations of decision rights, organizational structure and so on influence the search for knowledge, and the creation, sharing and integration of knowledge. More philosophically, the concern...

  5. Evolution of knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of business and management is changing rapidly, and changes are expected to continue. Emerging concepts and paradigms are being introduced and applied to organizational life. Knowledge management (KM is not new but rather newly structured concept. Although the concept was not popularized until the last two decades of the 20th century, transmitting and managing knowledge stretch back into distant history. The aim of this paper is to analyse knowledge management evolutionary history and to investigate the use of knowledge management as management tool in organizations. This paper is focused on systematic review of literature on knowledge management. Emphasis is placed on correlation between knowledge management and information and communication technology and advent and use of new tools and techniques; change in the way knowledge has been conceptualized; social context of KM, big data and analytics, artificial intelligence. The importance of knowledge itself was not questioned, as it is recognized as highly valuable resource.

  6. Effects of Political Knowledge on Political Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Powell

    2018-01-01

    Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…

  7. The Framework of Knowledge Creation for Online Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Huang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In today’s competitive global economy characterized by knowledge acquisition, the concept of knowledge management has become increasingly prevalent in academic and business practices. Knowledge creation is an important factor and remains a source of competitive advantage over knowledge management. Information technology facilitates knowledge management practices by disseminating knowledge and making codified knowledge retrievable. Thus, this paper proposes a framework of knowledge creation in online learning environments. In addition, the features and issues of knowledge creation in these environments are discussed.

  8. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes...... knowledge accessed from the corporate memory. We suggest thatmultinational companies (MNCs) solve knowledge retrieval problems by implementingvirtual communities of practice - intranet-based collaborative forums. Codification andpersonalization strategies have previously been emphasized as an either...

  9. Knowledge Development in Internship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering different...... kinds of access to tacit and explicit knowledge by apprenticeship and reflection, have consequences for both students’ learning and the professions’ knowledge development?...

  10. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  11. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  12. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha thelecoryphe, Geotrochus oedobasis, Geotrochus spilokeiria, Geotrochus scolops, Geotrochus kitteli, Geotrochus subscalaris, and Geotrochus meristorhachis (Trochomorphidae). PMID:26692803

  13. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jaap J; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha thelecoryphe, Geotrochus oedobasis, Geotrochus spilokeiria, Geotrochus scolops, Geotrochus kitteli, Geotrochus subscalaris, and Geotrochus meristorhachis (Trochomorphidae).

  14. Managing Knowledge Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Noshir S.; Monge, Peter R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a multitheoretical, multilevel (MTML) model to study the management of knowledge networks. Considers theoretical mechanisms for emergence of knowledge networks and presents empirical findings about the emergence of knowledge networks. Concludes that it is necessary to utilize MTML models to integrate multiple social and communication…

  15. From Knowledge to Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Møller, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    of a greater process of bringing knowledge to action, encompassing the social and organisational contexts of research utilisation. The article concludes by stating that knowledge portals have the potential to be effective instruments in knowledge-to-action processes. The two main challenges, however...

  16. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...

  17. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...

  18. The Necessity of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M. Mitchell

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of artificial intelligence, focusing on three interrelated issues: (1) representation of knowledge, which is roughly the machine equivalent of human memory; (2) control and use of knowledge, which corresponds to human abilities in problem solving and planning; and (3) the acquisition of knowledge, or what humans call…

  19. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility...

  20. Accessing Remote Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    awareness (what remote knowledge is needed?) and source awareness (where does this knowledge reside?) the article explores the relative merits and inherent limitations of pipelines, listening posts, crowdsourcing and trade fairs to acquire knowledge and solutions from geographically and relationally remote...

  1. Knowledge and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses a major fissure in the sociology of knowledge with respect to the theories of knowledge which inform teaching and learning. Instructional teaching, or "teaching knowledge to the child", is compared to facilitation teaching, the "teaching the child" approach to show the extent to which their differences are…

  2. Semantics-based plausible reasoning to extend the knowledge coverage of medical knowledge bases for improved clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hossein; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning , which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning , which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15

  3. Knowledge Management at CNAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callosada, C. de la

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge management at CNAT (Almaraz & Trillo NPPs) representsa significant part of our safety-oriented management system. The purpose is to generate for the stations useful knowledge, which should be then preserved and made easily accessible for everyone in the organization. The aim is to promote knowledge usage for ensuring safe plant operation and facilitating the required generational change-over. In fact, knowledge management is considered one of the main policies at CNAT, with everyone in the organization being expected to collaborate in it. Similarly, some general behavioral expectations at CNAT are directly or indirectly related to knowledge management (i.e. qualification, teamwork, learning and continuous improvement). (Author)

  4. Theorising about Mathematics Teachers' Professional Knowledge: The Content, Form, Nature, and Course of Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    The guiding philosophy of this theoretical work lays in the argument that mathematics teachers' professional knowledge is the integration of various knowledge facets derived from different sources including teaching experience and research. This paper goes beyond past trends identifying what the teachers' knowledge is about (content) by providing…

  5. Tacit knowledge: A refinement and empirical test of the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insch, Gary S; McIntyre, Nancy; Dawley, David

    2008-11-01

    Researchers have linked tacit knowledge to improved organizational performance, but research on how to measure tacit knowledge is scarce. In the present study, the authors proposed and empirically tested a model of tacit knowledge and an accompanying measurement scale of academic tacit knowledge. They present 6 hypotheses that support the proposed tacit knowledge model regarding the role of cognitive (self-motivation, self-organization); technical (individual task, institutional task); and social (task-related, general) skills. The authors tested these hypotheses with 542 responses to the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale, which included the respondents' grade point average-the performance variable. All 6 hypotheses were supported.

  6. The Tombros and McWhirter Knowledge Commons at Penn State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fennewald

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Tombros and McWhirter Knowledge Commons at the Penn State University Park campus and its use by library patrons. The Knowledge Commons required a major renovation of the first floor of the Pattee Library. In addition to providing attractive and inviting new spaces for students to study and collaborate, it includes library, tutoring, information technology, and multimedia support services. Many of these services existed prior to the Knowledge Commons but were not used to the extent they are now. As this article shows, increasing the accessibility of services and offering them in an attractive new setting will increase their use.

  7. "Knowledge trinity" : considerazioni terminologiche legali

    OpenAIRE

    Carosella, Maria Pia

    2002-01-01

    In the context of a legal organization, 'explicit knowledg' is generally refered to external sources. Silent knowledge is individual knowledge; new knowledge is new areas of knowledge, e.g. information technology or information retrieval.

  8. Importance of Knowledge Management in Human Resource Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, Sanda

    2014-01-01

    Human resource management and knowledge management: • In human resource management - important to identify crucial knowledge base on which competitiveness of company depends → according this ensure appropriate development of human resources. • Era of so-called knowledge economy - only individual and organizational knowledge could give competitive advantage. • From operational perspective, knowledge management - systematic processes by which an organization identifies, creates, captures, acquires, shares and increase knowledge

  9. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  10. Knowledge management and the elephant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, G.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: I am pleased that NEA is a sponsor of this important conference and that I have been given the opportunity to welcome all of you on behalf of NEA. Knowledge management has been a personal interest of mine for some time now, and I have been gratified to see the increasing interest in this area. This international conference is therefore most timely, and by drawing in experts from across the spectrum of knowledge management, has the potential to help integrate different aspects of this field, and thereby help chart its future course. I would like to try to set the stage for your meeting by posing a few issues that I hope you will consider during the course of this conference.1 Discussing knowledge management sometimes reminds me a little of the parable of the blind men and the elephant - or, if I may be politically correct, of the visually challenged people and the elephant. In this story, a number of sightless men approach an elephant and touch it in different places. 'Ah,' says the first, who is touching the elephant's massive leg, 'An elephant looks like a tree.' 'No,' objects the second, who is holding the ear, 'The elephant is clearly like a giant fan.' 'Come, come,' chides a third, who has grabbed the elephant by its trunk, 'The elephant most resembles a snake.' Others, touching the side of the animal conclude it is like a wall, or feeling the tusk believe it resembles a spear, or grasping the tail likens it to a rope.2 Likewise, in my discussions on knowledge management (KM), I come away with a sense that different nuclear communities have somewhat different perceptions of what it is, and therefore, of what the issues or problems are. For educators, KM is education, and the most important need is to develop the right academic courses to train the next generation of nuclear professionals. Corporate management sees KM in terms of its strategic market advantages, and considers the passing on of corporate knowledge a major need. In some parts of the

  11. Factors Associated with Medical Knowledge Acquisition During Internal Medicine Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeger, Scott L.; Kolars, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Knowledge acquisition is a goal of residency and is measurable by in-training exams. Little is known about factors associated with medical knowledge acquisition. OBJECTIVE To examine associations of learning habits on medical knowledge acquisition. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS Cohort study of all 195 residents who took the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) 421 times over 4 years while enrolled in the Internal Medicine Residency, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. MEASUREMENTS Score (percent questions correct) on the IM-ITE adjusted for variables known or hypothesized to be associated with score using a random effects model. RESULTS When adjusting for demographic, training, and prior achievement variables, yearly advancement within residency was associated with an IM-ITE score increase of 5.1% per year (95%CI 4.1%, 6.2%; p < .001). In the year before examination, comparable increases in IM-ITE score were associated with attendance at two curricular conferences per week, score increase of 3.9% (95%CI 2.1%, 5.7%; p < .001), or self-directed reading of an electronic knowledge resource 20 minutes each day, score increase of 4.5% (95%CI 1.2%, 7.8%; p = .008). Other factors significantly associated with IM-ITE performance included: age at start of residency, score decrease per year of increasing age, −0.2% (95%CI −0.36%, −0.042%; p = .01), and graduation from a US medical school, score decrease compared to international medical school graduation, −3.4% (95%CI −6.5%, −0.36%; p = .03). CONCLUSIONS Conference attendance and self-directed reading of an electronic knowledge resource had statistically and educationally significant independent associations with knowledge acquisition that were comparable to the benefit of a year in residency training. PMID:17468889

  12. The Role of Media in 'Knowledge Agency'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manica Žmauc

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Knowledge Agency' is an information centre, which has been successfully connecting the offerers and searchers ofvarious knowledge and information for four years. The performance of the ser­ vice is basically dependent on the number of people included into the exchange of knowledge and information. This makes regular and flexible informing of the public one of the Agency's crucial activities. General public has to be informed on current educational offer and inquiry as well as on possibilities of mutual help. Therefore cooperation with various media is indespensible for the Agency. In the past three years the cooperation with some radio and television stations has been established as well as with some newspapers, publishing our information for free. The public is being informed also by means of dissemination of various information material. Also in the future, the Agency will only be able to meet the increasing needs of its users if its activities are supported by new information media, both on national and local

  13. Physician Knowledge of Radiation Exposure and Risk in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jason B; Goldstein, Noah; Lind, Kimberly E; Elder, Deirdre; Dodd, Gerald D; Borgstede, James P

    2018-01-01

    Medical imaging is an increasingly important source of radiation exposure for the general population, and there are risks associated with such exposure; however, recent studies have demonstrated poor understanding of medical radiation among various groups of health care providers. This study had two aims: (1) analyze physicians' knowledge of radiation exposure and risk in diagnostic imaging across multiple specialties and levels of training, and (2) assess the effectiveness of a brief educational presentation on improving physicians' knowledge. From 2014 to 2016, 232 health care providers from multiple departments participated in an educational presentation and pre- and postpresentation tests evaluating knowledge of radiation exposure and risk at a large academic institution. Knowledge of radiation exposure and risk was relatively low on the prepresentation test, including particularly poor understanding of different imaging modalities, with 26% of participants unable to correctly identify which modalities expose patients to ionizing radiation. Test scores significantly increased after the educational presentation. Radiologists had higher prepresentation test scores than other specialties, and therefore less opportunity for improvement, but also demonstrated improvement in radiation safety knowledge after education. Aside from radiology, there was no significant difference in initial knowledge of radiation exposure and risk among the other specialties. Providers' knowledge of radiation exposure and risk was low at baseline but significantly increased after a brief educational presentation. Efforts to educate ordering providers about radiation exposure and risk are needed to ensure that providers are appropriately weighing the risks and benefits of medical imaging and to ensure high-quality, patient-centered care. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Knowledge management in Portuguese healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sofia Gaspar; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge management imposes itself as a pressing need for the organizations of several sectors of the economy, including healthcare. to evaluate the perception of healthcare institution collaborators in relation to knowledge management in the institution where they operate and analyze the existence of differences in this perception, based on the institution's management model. a study conducted in a sample consisting of 671 collaborators from 10 Portuguese healthcare institutions with different models of management. In order to assess the knowledge management perception, we used a score designed from and based on items from the scores available in the literature. the perception of moderate knowledge management on the healthcare institutions and the statistically significant differences in knowledge management perception were evidenced in each management model. management knowledge takes place in healthcare institutions, and the current management model determines the way staff at these institutions manage their knowledge.

  15. Mechanism of information resources knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Izmailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern vector of development of the economy is quite different from previous periods, which in it turn is reflected in the strategic state documents generated including the Government of Russia. In particular, it should be noted that to date, the state defined the vector of development defined as an innovative and socially oriented. Given the level of technical and technological progress and its impact on the realities of the present time it is necessary to pay attention to enhance the relevance and significance of information in the development of modern society. The article analyzes the degree of influence of information and knowledge in modern economic processes taking place in society. The analysis is based on the study of scientific works of modern scientists specializing in the study of information problems and knowledge economy. The main trends in the development of the information society status related primarily to the expansion of data, as well as strengthening the role of progressive information technologies to reduce the role of the geographical factor of resistance in sharing knowledge. The authors defined the essence of information knowledge environment, as well as the marked characteristics form the spectrum of features inherent to the modern information environment. The analysis of the concept of «information knowledge resource» (IKR, which is a synthesis of three terms: information, knowledge, resources, and refined his interpretation. IKR designated role in shaping the knowledge economy. Presents specific features which have knowledge information and resources, among which stands out: intangibility, immeasurable, non-exclusive use. The paper presents a model of the PSI, based on the transformation of information into knowledge under the influence of certain factors that could affect the quality of the resulting knowledge. Also in the proposed IKR management mechanism as a central element of organizational change

  16. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Blower, Sally; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagu...

  17. Public Knowledge of Monarchs and Support for Butterfly Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrod Penn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator populations in North America are in decline, including the iconic monarch butterfly. In order to determine if public knowledge of monarchs informs opinions on butterfly conservation, we surveyed the public to assess their knowledge of monarchs. We also asked participants about their attitudes towards general butterfly conservation and if they believe that butterfly gardens contribute to conservation. Respondents generally had some knowledge of monarchs but were unaware of monarch population declines and the necessity of milkweed to their life cycle. Respondent knowledge was correlated with more positive attitudes about butterfly conservation. Furthermore, membership in an environmental organization increased the likelihood that the participant had prior knowledge of monarchs and cared about monarch conservation. Respondent socioeconomic factors of age and sex were also significantly correlated with conservation attitudes—older and female participants had more positive attitudes towards general butterfly conservation. Interestingly, females were also less likely than males to admit having prior knowledge of monarchs, indicating that gender may also play an important role in conservation outreach efforts. Our study indicates that educational efforts need to be directed more toward individuals not already associated with an environmental organization as these individuals are predisposed to regard conservation positively.

  18. New Technologies for Parliaments Managing Knowledge for Sustaining Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro ROMANELLI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parliaments as information and knowledge-based organizations are embracing the Internet and new technologies of information and communication for coping with the crisis of legitimacy relying on citizens feeling disenchanted about politics. Parliaments as democratic institutions engaging citizens use technology for better managing sources of knowledge and information and developing public policies as result of knowledge sharing and dialogue between public institutions and citizens. Parliaments dealing with an increasing complexity of governing tend to introduce new technologies following an information or knowledge approach to achieve legitimacy as credible institutions encouraging an active participation of citizens, for building a sustainable and democratic path promoting active citizenship. Parliaments sustain democracy by managing knowledge and information, structuring the e-parliament between merely providing a channel for citizens having access to information and developing active communication for engendering a dialogue with citizens to be included and exert influence in the policy process by encouraging participatory models driving the search of knowledge for building policies.

  19. Knowledge Economy: Characteristics and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrazad HADAD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, the theme of knowledge economy (KE has become increasingly important, being seen as a source of economic growth and competitiveness in all economic sectors. As a consequence of this development, the author provides evidence that scholars and commentators have pleaded in favor of using modern resources which enrich knowledge-based-economies, such as investments in IT&C, high-technology industries, and highly skilled workers. These factors are perceived as fundamental factors of KE, as the present research will state. The drivers of KE are indeed technologies with the help of knowledge and the production of information, all these conditioned by dissemination. The hereby article opens with a compare and contrast analysis of the traditional economy versus the knowledge economy. Also, the article defines the KE, focusing on the debate existing on the subject of its key characteristics and components (dimensions according to international forums, scholars, and practitioners. At the same time, the author provides information on the drivers of KE, by thoroughly reviewing the academic literature in this field. In the end of the research, the focus moves to the four pillars of KE and their means of assessment. The positive economic trends that the KE brings forth are also analyzed, as well as the core elements of KE, also known under the name of the four pillars of KE: economic and institutional development stimuli; educated and skilled workers that can facilitate the creation and dissemination of knowledge; an adequate innovation system able to embrace the globalized knowledge stock, grasp it and adjust it to particular regional/local conditions; up-to-date information infrastructure enabling communication, information delivery and handling of information and knowledge.

  20. Knowledge management at the IAEA - Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.L.; Cherif, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 'Knowledge Management caters to the critical issues of organizational adaptation, survival and competence in face of increasingly discontinuous change of environment. Essentially, it embodies organizational processes that seek synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of information technologies, and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings' (Malhotra 1997). International organizations are coming to view knowledge as their most valuable and strategic resource, and bringing that knowledge to bear on problems and opportunities as their most important capability. It is being realised that to remain geared to the evolving needs of their Member States it is a must to explicitly manage all intellectual resources and capabilities of the organization. To this end, many international organizations have initiated a range of knowledge management projects and programs. The primary focus of these efforts has been on developing new applications of information technology to support the digital capture, storage, retrieval and distribution of an organization's documented knowledge but also capturing valuable tacit knowledge existing within peoples' heads, augmented or shared via interpersonal interaction and social relationships. Numerous technical and organizational initiatives have been aligned and integrated, providing a comprehensive infrastructure to support knowledge management processes. But while the appropriate infrastructure can enhance an organization's ability to create and exploit knowledge, it does not insure that the organization is making the best investment of its resources or that it is managing the right knowledge in the right way. Against the background of these trends and the opportunities and challenges they present, the Agency has been active in establishing knowledge management as a crosscutting activity that includes both assisting Member States in managing their own nuclear knowledge assets but also in

  1. Evaluation of the impact of a diabetes education eLearning program for school personnel on diabetes knowledge, knowledge retention and confidence in caring for students with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nehad A; Rahme, Zahra; Mesbah, Naglaa; Mahmoud, Fatma; AlKandari, Sarah; Othman, Nashwa; Sharaikha, Hanan; Lari, Bashayer S; AlBeloushi, Shaima; Saad, Eglal; Arefanian, Hossein; Sukkar, Faten F

    2018-03-21

    To study the impact of a novel comprehensive eLearning approach in delivering diabetes related education program that includes knowledge and sets of practices to the school personnel in Kuwait to enable them to provide a supportive environment for students with diabetes. The program was designed with three components namely; knowledge, skills and recommendations. The diabetes knowledge was delivered through an interactive eLearning program, the effectiveness of which was assessed using diabetes knowledge questionnaires which were deployed pre- and post-course delivery. Additionally, the participants' knowledge retention and confidence in caring for a student with diabetes were evaluated at 6 or 12 months post-intervention. A total of 124 public schools' personnel participated in the program. Post e-Learning delivery, diabetes knowledge increased significantly from baseline (p < 0.0001) and knowledge was retained over 6 and 12 months. Average of overall confidence scores in caring for students with diabetes was 61.86% in all items of care. Offering eLearning diabetes education for school personnel increases their knowledge which can be retained for up to 12 months and imparts confidence in caring for students with diabetes. This novel approach of delivering diabetes education will help school personnel in managing students with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Planning and Nuclear Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grance Torales, V.L.; Lira, L.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The present case aims to share the experience of the Intellectual Capital Section (ICS), part of Planning, Coordination and Control Department of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in its search for a sustainable knowledge management. Among the strategic objectives included in CNEA’s Strategic Plan (SP), is the development, preservation and transference of knowledge and experience. Under this framework, the role initially assumed by the ICS, consisted on the observation and diagnosis of the situation of the Institutional Human Capital (HC), through the study of the main characteristics of the staff of CNEA. The second stage of SP (2015–2025), which consisted of updating the HC data, the incorporation of the concept of “knowledge management” was approved by the authorities of the Institution. Based on this background, in 2016 the objectives of the ICS are aimed at organizing and coordinating a network of knowledge management that involves the entire organization. This new phase implies, among other things, the proposal of a knowledge management policy, interaction with other sectors of CNEA for implementation, analysis of the tools to be used, in order to determine a way and work style that suits the culture and structure of the organization. (author

  3. What Constitutes Doctoral Knowledge? Exploring Issues of Power and Subjectivity in Doctoral Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Anita; Somerville, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation has brought increasing diversity in student populations and therefore the potential for different sorts of knowledges to enter the academy. At the same time there is heightened surveillance brought about in response to the pressures of global competition, including increasing standardisation, marketisation and performativity…

  4. Chapter 1: Biomedical knowledge integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R O Payne

    Full Text Available The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing in the translational bioinformatics domain, where many fundamental research questions require the integration of large scale, multi-dimensional clinical phenotype and bio-molecular data sets. Modern biomedical informatics theory and practice has demonstrated the distinct benefits associated with the use of knowledge-based systems in such contexts. A knowledge-based system can be defined as an intelligent agent that employs a computationally tractable knowledge base or repository in order to reason upon data in a targeted domain and reproduce expert performance relative to such reasoning operations. The ultimate goal of the design and use of such agents is to increase the reproducibility, scalability, and accessibility of complex reasoning tasks. Examples of the application of knowledge-based systems in biomedicine span a broad spectrum, from the execution of clinical decision support, to epidemiologic surveillance of public data sets for the purposes of detecting emerging infectious diseases, to the discovery of novel hypotheses in large-scale research data sets. In this chapter, we will review the basic theoretical frameworks that define core knowledge types and reasoning operations with particular emphasis on the applicability of such conceptual models within the biomedical domain, and then go on to introduce a number of prototypical data integration requirements and patterns relevant to the conduct of translational bioinformatics that can be addressed

  5. The Knowledge Management Activities in Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Development of Knowledge Portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer Ayub Baig; Fahad Mushtaq; Muhammad Masood

    2011-01-01

    Timely and consistent availability of knowledge and redundancy of knowledge resources are the key factors necessary for purposeful functioning of a knowledge intensive organization or KIO. The fact of knowledge being the primary asset for these KIOs has led to the invention of major knowledge retention techniques. With the evolution of information technology, several methods of preservation came into existence. Notable methods may include data mining and ware housing, networking, intranet portals, human resource systems, distant learning, simulators, advance library systems etc. All these methods excellently cover the preservation of explicit or documented knowledge. Still, the vulnerability of embodied knowledge of personnel has always been a problem for knowledge mangers and was one of the main reasons behind the participation of PNRA in the coordinated research project (CRP) arranged on IAEA platform to answer the issue and cordially confer to the remedies. PNRA is using some of the modern day techniques for explicit knowledge preservation. Like other knowledge intensive organizations, the Authority is concerned with the loss of tacit knowledge with retirements of its experts. The agency-led programme provided a deep insight into the programmes of the participating member states in exploring the remedies for catering the knowledge loss through harmonization. The participation of PNRA in the CRP primarily helped in: i. Discovering the techniques for capturing the tacit knowledge and its subsequent conversion into preserve-able explicit form; ii. Gaining know-how of economical, robust and reliable modern knowledge preservation systems in use of fellow KIOs and their feasibility of application.

  6. Knowledge management in creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Hansen, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Is it possible to predetermine what kind of ideas that comes out of creativity by using knowledge management? Is it possible to decide beforehand what ideas we want to generate and the direction in which an idea takes in the further development? This paper deals with knowledge management in creat......Is it possible to predetermine what kind of ideas that comes out of creativity by using knowledge management? Is it possible to decide beforehand what ideas we want to generate and the direction in which an idea takes in the further development? This paper deals with knowledge management...... in creativity. The point of departure is taken in the connection between knowledge in a cognitive sense, and creativity focussing on ideas. The paper gives a perspective on how knowledge management can be part of creativity. It develops a concept of horizontal thinking and combines it with the fuzzy set theory...

  7. Stop the Knowledge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Faria, Pedro; Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira

    Recent research has given special attention to international knowledge spillovers. Yet, multinational companies (MNCs) subsidiaries are generally treated as passive actors by most studies. We challenge this assumption by investigating the drivers of knowledge protection intensity of MNC subsidiar......Recent research has given special attention to international knowledge spillovers. Yet, multinational companies (MNCs) subsidiaries are generally treated as passive actors by most studies. We challenge this assumption by investigating the drivers of knowledge protection intensity of MNC......, technological cluster regions in the host country can be expected to provide opportunities for knowledge sourcing and MNC subsidiaries may be willing to protect knowledge less intensively to participate in cluster networks. We test our hypotheses using a dataset of 694 observations of 631 MNC subsidiaries...

  8. Managing knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    ) and colleagues, who stresses that to understand knowledge management practices we need to magnify the space of knowledge in action and consider the presentation and circulation of epistemic objects in extended contexts. In other words, we need to consider that the routes from research to practice...... management techniques. Knowledge management in health care practice has the promotion of evidence-based health care as a core objective. At the same time, it forms an epistemic practice itself through which health care professionals get involved in knowledge work, i.e. epistemic modes of working. Researchers...... of knowledge in health care relate to managerial techniques in knowledge management and, thus, form complex epistemic practices in health care organizations. The theoretical approach in this paper draws on perspectives form Social Studies of Science, in particular from Karin Knorr Cetina (2006, 2007...

  9. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN A COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică Stoica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All organisations are primarily interested in maintaining and increasing intellectual capital assets, and knowledge management represents only a manner of supporting the satisfaction of this interest and of laying stress on this type of assets. A mistaken conception, according to which at the level of a company there is a finite knowledge store that can be “managed”, reflects nothing but the fact that, at the beginning, many companies have overlooked the general aim of their business. The intangible part is immaterial, difficult to describe, quantify and measure. The intangible asset has and creates value and that is why the evaluation of intellectual property does not represent a simple activity. From a modern viewpoint, organisational learning does not consist only in obtaining new knowledge, but also considers its employment in carrying out the activities of the company, and so it contributes to the generation of new knowledge. The success of companies depends on the personnel’s ability to understand, manipulate and develop information. In case of epistemic economy, the improvement of the innovation capacity, the creation of value and wealth are based on the division of knowledge.

  10. The translation of sports injury prevention and safety promotion knowledge: insights from key intermediary organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Sheree; Paliadelis, Penny; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-03-28

    A recognised research-to-practice gap exists in the health research field of sports injury prevention and safety promotion. There is a need for improved insight into increasing the relevancy, accessibility and legitimacy of injury prevention and safety promotion research knowledge for sport settings. The role of key organisations as intermediaries in the process of health knowledge translation for sports settings remains under-explored, and this paper aims to determine, and describe, the processes of knowledge translation undertaken by a set of key organisations in developing and distributing injury prevention and safety promotion resources. The National Guidance for Australian Football Partnerships and Safety (NoGAPS) project provided the context for this study. Representatives from five key NoGAPS organisations participated in individual face-to-face interviews about organisational processes of knowledge translation. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used to analyse participants' descriptions of knowledge translation activities undertaken at their respective organisations. Several themes emerged around health knowledge translation processes and considerations, including (1) identifying a need for knowledge translation, (2) developing and disseminating resources, and (3) barriers and enablers to knowledge translation. This study provides insight into the processes that key organisations employ when developing and disseminating injury prevention and safety promotion resources within sport settings. The relevancy, accessibility and legitimacy of health research knowledge is foregrounded, with a view to increasing the influence of research on the development of health-related resources suitable for community sport settings.

  11. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  12. Practical knowledge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Richard

    1991-01-01

    This book provides knowledge engineers with practical methods for initiating, designing, building, managing, and demonstrating successful commercial expert systems. It is a record of what actually works (and does not work) in the construction of expert systems, drawn from the author's decade of experience in building expert systems in all major areas of application for American, European, and Japanese organizations.The book features:* knowledge engineering programming techniques* useful skills for demonstrating expert systems * practical costing and metrics* guidelines for using knowledge repr

  13. Knowledge Based Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolescu, Ovidiu

    2006-01-01

    The paper is focused on the essential of knowledge-based strategy taking into consideration the theoretical and practical development during the last 10 years and especially knowledge revolution. It demonstrates the specificity of the company knowledgebased strategies and their necesity. More than this it presents essential elements regarding how to elaborate and to implement a knowledge based strategy starting from well know research in the field.

  14. Managing knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2016-01-01

    This work-in-progress focuses on the management of knowledge management and its socio-material implications. More specifically, it focuses on the management of epistemic objects and objectives in professional health care organisations. One of the main characteristics of professional health care t...... decisions about how to explore and assess the validity of knowledge in the context of the present tasks in audits, techniques to distribute and circulate knowledge in information systems, etc....

  15. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  16. Career development of South African knowledge workers

    OpenAIRE

    Roelof van Staden; Adeline du Toit

    2011-01-01

    The demand for knowledge workers is on the increase, yet little is known about their career perceptions and attitudes. The objective of this article is to determine the factors affecting the career development of knowledge workers in South Africa. Part-time learners of a postgraduate course were used as a purposive sample and 82 completed questionnaires were received. The results of the online survey provide an interesting look at the unique career issues knowledge workers experience from a S...

  17. Knowledge Management and Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennanye, D.M.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)

  18. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  19. Knowledge and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge and Inference discusses an important problem for software systems: How do we treat knowledge and ideas on a computer and how do we use inference to solve problems on a computer? The book talks about the problems of knowledge and inference for the purpose of merging artificial intelligence and library science. The book begins by clarifying the concept of """"knowledge"""" from many points of view, followed by a chapter on the current state of library science and the place of artificial intelligence in library science. Subsequent chapters cover central topics in the artificial intellig

  20. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-01

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  1. Knowledge Testing and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša E. Jelenc

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Jelenc presents the pro­ ject entitled Knowledge Testing and Evaluation (hereafter: NTE. She believes in the importance of the project: many adults want to formally prove and evaluate their knowledge acquired outside formal educational institutions. Jelenc suggests that NTE should be carried out in multiple phases. Initially, standards for measuring knowledge and skills, and evaluation methods should be developed. The actual knowledge would be evaluated in the form of exhaustive interviews conducted by specially trained counsellors. Jelenc specifically defines the process of realisation and particular phases of NTE.

  2. Knowledge management for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Forrestal, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Libraries are creating dynamic knowledge bases to capture both tacit and explicit knowledge and subject expertise for use within and beyond their organizations. In this book, readers will learn to move policies and procedures manuals online using a wiki, get the most out of Microsoft SharePoint with custom portals and Web Parts, and build an FAQ knowledge base from reference management applications such as LibAnswers. Knowledge Management for Libraries guides readers through the process of planning, developing, and launching th

  3. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  4. Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB) is a compilation of emissions measurement and monitoring techniques associated with air pollution control devices, industrial...

  5. Nurses' knowledge about venous leg ulcer care: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylönen, M; Stolt, M; Leino-Kilpi, H; Suhonen, R

    2014-06-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of venous leg ulcers coinciding with increasing older people populations. They are therefore important health problems, which restrict daily activities and incur high costs. Efficient and comprehensive nursing care for people with venous leg ulcers requires knowledge of causes, presentations and characteristics, the effects that venous leg ulcers have on individuals and nursing care with evidence-based treatment. To identify the gaps between nurses' demonstrated knowledge of venous leg ulcers and the related nursing care treatment with evidence-based nursing care. A computerized search using MEDLINE, CINAHL the COCHRANE LIBRARY was conducted. The initial search yielded 174 citations from which 16 relevant articles were included in this review. Four themes in venous leg ulcer nursing care emerged demonstrating nurses' knowledge gaps: assessment, physiology and the healing process, nursing care and dressings, and compression treatment. This review suggests that there is a lack of knowledge related to venous leg ulcer physiology, the healing process and how this influences care and treatment. Nurses may not be using the evidence base sufficiently well to support ulcer healing and patient well-being. There is a need for a positive work culture development and ongoing educational programmes aimed at improving nurses' knowledge of venous leg ulcer treatment and care, which address the themes within the results of this review. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  6. Knowledge Management for Enhancing Regulatory Body Capabilities in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apichaibukol, A.; Pakdee, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In order to be a learning organization, the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) has appointed a knowledge-management team in an attempt to manage internal knowledge, both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge, systematically. In principle, the seven steps of knowledge management will be applied for OAP KM, namely; 1. Knowledge identification including the knowledge required of the Regulatory Body. 2. Knowledge creation and acquisition including knowledge sharing, transfer and how to maintain knowledge external factors such as a customers, stakeholder, etc. 3. Knowledge organization based on knowledge structure is needed for a systematic knowledge retention in the future. 4. Knowledge refinement with ISO standards in document storage. 5. Knowledge access for example, using information technology management through web board. 6. Knowledge sharing, OAP staff through numerous methods designed to transfer implicit and tacit knowledge such as formal classroom and on-the-job training, informal Communities of Practice, mentoring. 7. Learning is OAP group continually enhancing their capabilities and making decisions, solving problems and improving the organization. OAP staff could apply knowledge for organization development and planning for a supporting guideline. (author

  7. The Framework of Knowledge Creation for Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu­-Mei; Liaw, Shu­-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    In today's competitive global economy characterized by knowledge acquisition, the concept of knowledge management has become increasingly prevalent in academic and business practices. Knowledge creation is an important factor and remains a source of competitive advantage over knowledge management. Information technology facilitates knowledge…

  8. Knowledge Sharing at Work: An Examination of Organizational Antecedents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Tricia M.

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid pace of today's knowledge-driven industries, organizations are turning to successful knowledge management initiatives to obtain sustainable competitive advantage. As a result, one facet of knowledge management, knowledge sharing at work, has received increased researcher and practitioner attention in the last decade. However, in the…

  9. Application of communities of practice in managing tacit knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universities and other higher learning institutions are recognized to be in the knowledge business because they are involved in knowledge creation, dissemination and learning. However, in recent years knowledge has gained increasing economic importance and therefore the role of knowledge management and ...

  10. Knowledge Protection and Input Complexity Arising from Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Thijs; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Controlling unique knowledge is of increasing importance to firms. Therefore, firms use knowledge protection mechanisms to prevent competitors from imitating their knowledge. We study the effects of the complexity of knowledge inputs that arises from open innovation on the importance of two widely...

  11. Representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, R; Strijker, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    The representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs, a specific kind of semantic network, is discussed. Knowledge it systematically searched this reveals. inconsistencies, reducing superfluous research and knowledge, and showing gaps in a theory. This representation

  12. KM Tools and Technologies that Share Distribute Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Hauer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in information, primarily due to the electronic capture of data and its storage in vast data warehouses, has created a demand for analyzing the large amount of data generated by today’s organizations so that enterprise can respond quickly to fast changing markets. There are various tools and technologies that can be used to share and distribute knowledge, include e-mail, groupware, data mining ,expert systems and others. The paper outlines these technologies, which dominate the technical tools for sharing knowledge from an organizations data assets and finally. The case study, an Expert System, use expert knowledge to attain highlevel decision performance in a narrow domain.

  13. Evaluation of Knowledge Development in a Healthcare Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Scott P.

    Healthcare organizations worldwide have recently increased efforts to improve performance, quality, and knowledge transfer using information and communication technologies. Evaluation of the effectiveness and quality of such efforts is challenging. A macro and micro-level system evaluation conducted with a 14000 member US hospital administrative services organization examined the appropriateness of a blended face-to-face and technology-enabled performance improvement and knowledge development system. Furthermore, a successful team or microsystem in a high performing hospital was studied in-depth. Several types of data methods including interview, observation, and questionnaire were used to address evaluation questions within a knowledge development framework created for the study. Results of this preliminary study focus on how this organization attempted to organize clinical improvement efforts around quality and performance improvement processes supported by networked technologies.

  14. Can a smartphone app improve medical trainees' knowledge of antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Michael; Haj, Reem; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Wong, Karen; Muller, Matthew; Matukas, Larissa; Bartlett, John; Leung, Elizabeth; Taggart, Linda

    2017-11-30

    To determine whether a smartphone app, containing local bacterial resistance patterns (antibiogram) and treatment guidelines, improved knowledge of prescribing antimicrobials among medical trainees. We conducted a prospective, controlled, pre-post study of medical trainees with access to a smartphone app (app group) containing our hospital's antibiogram and treatment guidelines compared to those without access (control group). Participants completed a survey which included a knowledge assessment test (score range, 0 [lowest possible score] to 12 [highest possible score]) at the start of the study and four weeks later. The primary outcome was change in mean knowledge assessment test scores between week 0 and week 4. Change in knowledge assessment test scores in the app group were compared to the difference in scores in the control group using multivariable linear regression. Sixty-two residents and senior medical students participated in the study. In a multivariable analysis controlling for sex and prior knowledge, app use was associated with a 1.1 point (95% CI: 0.10, 2.1) [β = 1.08, t(1) = 2.08, p = 0.04]  higher change in knowledge score compared to the change in knowledge scores in the control group. Among those in the app group, 88% found it easy to navigate, 85% found it useful, and about one- quarter used it daily. An antibiogram and treatment algorithm app increased knowledge of prescribing antimicrobials in the context of local antibiotic resistance patterns. These findings reinforce the notion that smartphone apps can be a useful and innovative means of delivering medical education.

  15. Effect of Education on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Bioterrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hamzeh pour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism, as a major health problem, has received lots of attention in recent years. To date, the effect of education on knowledge and attitude of students regarding bioterrorism has not been evaluated in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to determine how education affects knowledge and attitude of biological sciences students about bioterrorism. Methods: The present interventional before-after study was carried out on the students of different branches of biological sciences. The students’ level of knowledge on nature of bioterrorism and its causatives, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, management at the time of biological and bioterrorist attacks, and tendency to participate in relief at these events were evaluated before and after training using a pre-designed checklist. Then the effect of education on the students’ knowledge and attitude was evaluated based on their sex. Results: 120 students were included (60% female; mean age 21 ± 3.2 years. The knowledge score was not significantly different between female and male students before educational intervention (p > 0.05. After education, the knowledge score raised significantly in the 4 areas of bioterrorism nature (p < 0.0001, causative factors (p < 0.0001, diagnosing bioterrorism agents (p < 0.0001, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks (p < 0.0001 in female participants, but not in male students (p > 0.05. In addition, after education both male and female participants showed greater tendency to work and do research in the field of bioterrorism (p < 0.0001 but the increase was more significant in females (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Educational intervention led to an improvement in female participants’ knowledge regarding bioterrorism nature, causative factors, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks. Yet, the low level of knowledge and tendency of the students indicates the need for more education in this field.

  16. Interventions to Increase Walking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Matthews, Charles; Rutt, Candace; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Walking is the most prevalent and preferred method of physical activity for both work and leisure purposes, thus making it a prime target for physical activity promotion interventions. We identified 14 randomized controlled trials, which tested interventions specifically targeting and assessing walking behavior. Results show that among self-selected samples intensive interventions can increase walking behavior relative to controls. Brief telephone prompts appear to be as effective as more substantial telephone counseling. Although more research is needed, individual studies support prescriptions to walk 5–7 d/wk versus 3–5 d/wk and at a moderate (versus vigorous) intensity pace, with no differences in total walking minutes when single or multiple daily walking bouts are prescribed. Mediated interventions delivering physical activity promotion materials through non-face-to-face channels may be ideal for delivering walking promotion interventions and have shown efficacy in promoting overall physical activity, especially when theory-based and individually tailored. Mass media campaigns targeting broader audiences, including those who may not intend to increase their physical activity, have been successful at increasing knowledge and awareness about physical activity, but are often too diffuse to successfully impact individual behavior change. Incorporating individually tailored programs into broader mass media campaigns may be an important next step, and the Internet could be a useful vehicle. PMID:18562974

  17. Factors promoting knowledge sharing & knowledge creation in banking sector of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors promoting knowledge sharing and knowledge creation in banking sector of Pakistan. With the help of literature review, we identified most important factors in knowledge sharing and knowledge creation including organizational culture, trust, motivation, employee’s attitude and socialization. The populations selected for analysis consist of (250 male and female employees of banking sector of Pakistan and response have been received from 225 respondents. The collection of data was a very difficult task and it has taken almost four months. The data were collected from the five cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Faisalabad, Multan, Peshawar and Lahore. The results show that all the factors have significant impact on knowledge creation and Knowledge sharing. The findings of the study also show that these factors are necessary for the promotion of knowledge creation and knowledge sharing culture in an organization. The knowledge sharing and knowledge creation are the keys for the success of an organization. A firm or an organization can sustain its competitive edge in market with the help of Knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. The final results of this study conclude that socialization factor is at top, trust factor is at second and motivational factor is at third according to the respondents’ point of view.

  18. Knowledge Economy Core Journals: Identification through LISTA Database Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Rasool; Karimi, Saeed; Ashrafi-rizi, Hassan; Nouri, Azadeh

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge economy has become increasingly broad over the years and identification of core journals in this field can be useful for librarians in journal selection process and also for researchers to select their studies and finding Appropriate Journal for publishing their articles. Present research attempts to determine core journals of Knowledge Economy indexed in LISTA (Library and Information Science and Technology). The research method was bibliometric and research population include the journals indexed in LISTA (From the start until the beginning of 2011) with at least one article a bout "knowledge economy". For data collection, keywords about "knowledge economy"-were extracted from the literature in this area-have searched in LISTA by using title, keyword and abstract fields and also taking advantage of LISTA thesaurus. By using this search strategy, 1608 articles from 390 journals were retrieved. The retrieved records import in to the excel sheet and after that the journals were grouped and the Bradford's coefficient was measured for each group. Finally the average of the Bradford's coefficients were calculated and core journals with subject area of "Knowledge economy" were determined by using Bradford's formula. By using Bradford's scattering law, 15 journals with the highest publication rates were identified as "Knowledge economy" core journals indexed in LISTA. In this list "Library and Information update" with 64 articles was at the top. "ASLIB Proceedings" and "Serials" with 51 and 40 articles are next in rank. Also 41 journals were identified as beyond core that "Library Hi Tech" with 20 articles was at the top. Increased importance of knowledge economy has led to growth of production of articles in this subject area. So the evaluation of journals for ranking these journals becomes a very challenging task for librarians and generating core journal list can provide a useful tool for journal selection and also quick and easy access to information. Core

  19. Validation of a questionnaire of knowledge about asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Carlos; Sossa, Monica Patricia

    2004-01-01

    An educative intervention destined to increase the knowledge in asthma allows the children and/or its parents to acquire abilities that allow to prevent and/or to handle the asthmatic attacks, decreasing the morbidity produced by the disease, nevertheless we do not account with a validated instrument that allows us to quantify the level of asthma knowledge. The objective is to develop and to validate a questionnaire of knowledge about asthma to be filled out by the parents and/or people in charge of the care of the asthmatic pediatric patients. The 17 items that conform the questionnaire were obtained alter literature review, realization of focal groups the professional experience of the investigators and the realization of pilot studies. The face content and concurrent validity of the instrument was evaluated; we also determined the factor structure, test-retest reproducibility, and sensitivity to change of the questionnaire. We included 120 patients with average age of 4.5 %3.7 years the factor analysis demonstrated a probable structure of three factors that altogether explain 85% of the total variance of the results the face and content validity was based on the concept of a multi-disciplinary group of experts in the field the concurrent validity was demonstrated by the ability of the questionnaire to distinguish low from high knowledge parents. Test-retest reproducibility and sensitivity to change were demonstrated comparing scores of the questionnaire filled out in two different occasions. The questionnaire of knowledge of asthma developed in the study is a useful and reliable tool to quantify the basal level of asthma knowledge in parents of asthmatic children and to determine the effectiveness of an educative intervention destined to increase the knowledge and understanding of the disease

  20. MSFC Propulsion Systems Department Knowledge Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccioli, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Knowledge Management (KM) project of the Propulsion Systems Department at Marshall Space Flight Center. KM is needed to support knowledge capture, preservation and to support an information sharing culture. The presentation includes the strategic plan for the KM initiative, the system requirements, the technology description, the User Interface and custom features, and a search demonstration.

  1. Statistical data analytics foundations for data mining, informatics, and knowledge discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Piegorsch, Walter W

    2015-01-01

      A comprehensive introduction to statistical methods for data mining and knowledge discovery.Applications of data mining and 'big data' increasingly take center stage in our modern, knowledge-driven society, supported by advances in computing power, automated data acquisition, social media development and interactive, linkable internet software.  This book presents a coherent, technical introduction to modern statistical learning and analytics, starting from the core foundations of statistics and probability. It includes an overview of probability and statistical distributions, basic

  2. Knowledge Development in Internship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering different...

  3. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  4. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  5. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  6. Knowledge is power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, J.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management appears to be difficult to realise in the institute. Although their is a possibility to learn from other people's experiences, and the general access to the internet to learn about others skills, the knowledge system is hard to organize

  7. [Acquisition of arithmetic knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on contemporary research on the number counting and arithmetical competencies that emerge during infancy, the preschool years, and the elementary school. I provide a brief overview of the evolution of children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic knowledge, the acquisition and use of counting and how they solve simple arithmetic problems (e.g. 4 + 3).

  8. Physiotherapists' knowledge of pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overall pain knowledge. Conclusion. There is an inadequate level of pain knowledge among members of the sports and orthopaedic manipulative physiotherapy ... Improving an individual's coping skills is more important than determining the extent to which there may be a psychological cause of the pain. 0.62. Pain due to ...

  9. Essays on Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    For many firms, particularly those operating in high technology and competitive markets, knowledge is cited as the most important strategic asset to the firm, which significantly drives its survival and success (Grant 1996, Webber 1993). Knowledge management (KM) impacts the firm's ability to develop process features that reduce manufacturing…

  10. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...

  11. Nigerian physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the paediatric age group, information concerning Nigerian physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices with regard to diabetes care in children and adolescents is scarce. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of physicians working in ...

  12. Developing Ontological Background Knowledge for Biomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Beißwanger, Anna Elena

    2013-01-01

    Biomedicine is an impressively fast developing, interdisciplinary field of research. To control the growing volumes of biomedical data, ontologies are increasingly used as common organization structures. Biomedical ontologies describe domain knowledge in a formal, computationally accessible way. They serve as controlled vocabularies and background knowledge in applications dealing with the integration, analysis and retrieval of heterogeneous types of data. The development of...

  13. Supporting the Learning Dimension of Knowledge Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstaedt, S.N.; Aehnelt, M.; de Hoog, Robert; Cress, U.; Dimitrova, V.; Specht, M.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that in order to increase knowledge work productivity we have to put more emphasis on supporting this learning dimension of knowledge work. The key distinctions compared to other TEL approaches are (1) taking the tight integration of working and learning seriously, (2) enabling seamless

  14. Indigenous Knowledge Management Transfer Systems Across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge transfer is becoming an increasingly important issue in the development fraternity as development practitioners seek answers to develop indigenous communities. This article reports on the findings of a study that was aimed at establishing how indigenous knowledge can be preserved and transferred ...

  15. KAM (Knowledge Acquisition Module): A tool to simplify the knowledge acquisition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettig, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Analysts, knowledge engineers and information specialists are faced with increasing volumes of time-sensitive data in text form, either as free text or highly structured text records. Rapid access to the relevant data in these sources is essential. However, due to the volume and organization of the contents, and limitations of human memory and association, frequently: (1) important information is not located in time; (2) reams of irrelevant data are searched; and (3) interesting or critical associations are missed due to physical or temporal gaps involved in working with large files. The Knowledge Acquisition Module (KAM) is a microcomputer-based expert system designed to assist knowledge engineers, analysts, and other specialists in extracting useful knowledge from large volumes of digitized text and text-based files. KAM formulates non-explicit, ambiguous, or vague relations, rules, and facts into a manageable and consistent formal code. A library of system rules or heuristics is maintained to control the extraction of rules, relations, assertions, and other patterns from the text. These heuristics can be added, deleted or customized by the user. The user can further control the extraction process with optional topic specifications. This allows the user to cluster extracts based on specific topics. Because KAM formalizes diverse knowledge, it can be used by a variety of expert systems and automated reasoning applications. KAM can also perform important roles in computer-assisted training and skill development. Current research efforts include the applicability of neural networks to aid in the extraction process and the conversion of these extracts into standard formats.

  16. Technical knowledge creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to amend shortcomings of existing theory concerning organizational learning and knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews and refines existing theory. Findings - Findings from cognitive neuroscience suggest that technical knowledge...... domains essential for product development are largely nonlinguistic. Operations management/strategy tools enable the use of tacit knowledge in its tacit form and discourage premature standardization. Similarly, language use introduces standardization, which if introduced prematurely, causes incrementalism...... in line with findings from product development research. However, frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge management focus on language development and neglect use of tacit knowledge and the benefits involved with allowing elements of new product ideas to mature in a tacit form. Originality...

  17. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  18. Managing knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The work-in-progress that I would like to present and discuss in the workshop focuses on the management of knowledge management and its socio-material implications. More specifically, my work focuses on how epistemic objects and objectives are managed in professional health care organisations. One...... of knowledge in health care relate to managerial techniques in knowledge management and, thus, form complex epistemic practices in health care organizations. The theoretical approach in this paper draws on perspectives form Social Studies of Science, in particular from Karin Knorr Cetina (2006, 2007......) and colleagues, who stresses that to understand knowledge management practices we need to magnify the space of knowledge in action and consider the presentation and circulation of epistemic objects in extended contexts. In other words, we need to consider that the routes from research to practice...

  19. KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN PARTNERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    for the building design counts members from different companies like architects, engineers, and contractors. The paper discusses three central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in a complex construction project, redundancy, relations, and governance. The knowledge relations is conceptualised through focusing......This paper adopts practicebased theory for understanding interorganisational knowledge work and extents it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. The paper presents a case study of a project partnership in construction using the partnering concept. The project group responsible....... The diversity and disjunct feature of the practices is a condition of possibility of knowledge handling as it is a prerequisite for the synthesis of various forms of knowledge in the building construct. Here an orchestrated combination of relationbased interaction with boundary objects and brokers, requisite...

  20. Vision, knowledge, and assertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, John

    2016-04-01

    I report two experiments studying the relationship among explicit judgments about what people see, know, and should assert. When an object of interest was surrounded by visibly similar items, it diminished people's willingness to judge that an agent sees, knows, and should tell others that it is present. This supports the claim, made by many philosophers, that inhabiting a misleading environment intuitively decreases our willingness to attribute perception and knowledge. However, contrary to stronger claims made by some philosophers, inhabiting a misleading environment does not lead to the opposite pattern whereby people deny perception and knowledge. Causal modeling suggests a specific psychological model of how explicit judgments about perception, knowledge, and assertability are made: knowledge attributions cause perception attributions, which in turn cause assertability attributions. These findings advance understanding of how these three important judgments are made, provide new evidence that knowledge is the norm of assertion, and highlight some important subtleties in folk epistemology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear Knowledge to the Next Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, Thomas; Kossilov, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    The safe, reliable, and cost-effective operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) requires that personnel possess and maintain the requisite knowledge, skills, and attitudes to do their jobs properly. Such knowledge includes not only the technical competencies required by the nature of the technology and particular engineering designs, but also the softer competencies associated with effective management, communication and teamwork. Recent studies have shown that there has been a loss of corporate knowledge and memory. Both explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge must be passed on to the next generation of workers in the industry to ensure a quality workforce. New and different techniques may be required to ensure timely and effective knowledge retention and transfer. The IAEA prepared a report on this subject. The main conclusions from the report regarding strategies for managing the aging workforce are included. Also included are main conclusions from the report regarding the capture an d preservation of mission critical knowledge, and the effective transfer of this knowledge to the next generation of NPP personnel. The nuclear industry due to its need for well-documented procedures, specifications, design basis, safety analyses, etc., has a greater fraction of its mission critical knowledge as explicit knowledge than do many other industries. This facilitates the task of knowledge transfer. For older plants in particular, there may be a need for additional efforts to transfer tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge to support major strategic initiatives such as plant license extensions/renewals, periodic safety reviews, major plant upgrades, and plant specific control room simulator development. The challenge in disseminating explicit knowledge is to make employees aware that it is available and provide easy access in formats and forms that are usable. Tacit knowledge is more difficult to identify and disseminate. The challenge is to identify what can be converted to

  2. Knowledge representation an approach to artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bench-Capon, TJM

    1990-01-01

    Although many texts exist offering an introduction to artificial intelligence (AI), this book is unique in that it places an emphasis on knowledge representation (KR) concepts. It includes small-scale implementations in PROLOG to illustrate the major KR paradigms and their developments.****back cover copy:**Knowledge representation is at the heart of the artificial intelligence enterprise: anyone writing a program which seeks to work by encoding and manipulating knowledge needs to pay attention to the scheme whereby he will represent the knowledge, and to be aware of the consequences of the ch

  3. Implementing Knowledge Translation Strategies in Funded Research in Canada and Australia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge translation plans. It identifies the challenges faced by the Men’s Mental Health Program Team and how these were resolved. The strategies explored include articulating knowledge translation requirements, ensuring a common understanding of knowledge translation, assessing knowledge translation plans, methods of engaging end users, and building capacity with applicants. An iterative approach to facilitating knowledge translation planning within project development was rolled out in Australia just prior to Canada so that lessons learned were immediately available to refine the second roll out. Implementation included the use of external knowledge translation expertise, the development of knowledge translation plans, and the need for internal infrastructure to support monitoring and reporting. Differences in the Australian and Canadian contexts may point to differential exposure to the concepts and practices of knowledge translation. This case study details an example of designing and implementing an integrated knowledge translation strategy that moves beyond traditional dissemination models. Lessons learned point to the importance of a long lead-up time, the use of knowledge translation expertise for capacity building, the need for flexible implementation, and the need for efficiencies in supporting applicants.

  4. Knowledge Flows, Governance and the Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben

    This work contributes to the understanding of knowledge governance in the multinational corporation. Intra-firm and inter-firm processes of knowledge creation, sharing and exploitation have attracted increasingly managerial and scholarly interest. However the relation between particular knowledge...... processes, determinants of organizational choices, governance mechanisms, their relevant costs and benefits, and associated strategic advantages remain less well understood. To address these challenges, this book gives answers to the following questions: what are key challenges of governing knowledge...... in the multinational corporation? How do contingencies influence relevant trade offs? And how do sets of governance mechanisms respond to problems of cognition and incentives?...

  5. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  6. Flexibility in adaptation planning: When, where and how to include flexibility for increasing urban flood resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakrishnan, M.

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude and urgency of the need to adapt to climate change is such that addressing it has been taken up by the United Nations as one of the sustainable development goals - Goal 13 (SDG13) in 2015. SDG13 emphasises the need to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related

  7. Flexibility in adaptation planning : When, where and how to include flexibility for increasing urban flood resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakrishnan, M.

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude and urgency of the need to adapt to climate change is such that addressing it has been taken up by the United Nations as one of the sustainable development goals - Goal 13 (SDG13) in 2015. SDG13 emphasises the need to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related

  8. A vastly increased chemical variety of RNA modifications that includes a thioacetal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Christina; Keller, Patrick; Kotter, Annika; Werner, Stephan; Duarte, Victor; Marchand, Virginie; Ignarski, Michael; Freiwald, Anja; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Dieterich, Christoph; Motorin, Yuri; Butter, Falk; Atta, Mohammed; Helm, Mark

    2018-04-06

    Recently discovered new chemical entities in RNA modifications have provided surprises with respect to functional groups that enlarge the chemical space of RNA. Using LC-MS, we found over one hundred signals of RNA constituents that contained a ribose moiety in tRNAs from E. coli. Feeding experiments with variegated stable isotope labeled compounds identified 37 compounds, representing new structures of RNA modifications. One structure was elucidated by deuterium exchange and high resolution mass spectrometry. The structure of msms2i6A (2-methylthiomethylenethio-N6-isopentenyl-adenosine) was confirmed by methione-D3 feeding experiments and finally by synthesis of the nucleobase. The msms2i6A contains a thioacetal, which we demonstrated in vitro to be biosynthetically derived from ms2i6A by the action of the radical-SAM enzyme MiaB. This enzyme performs thiomethylation, forming ms2i6A from i6A in a first turnover. The newly discovered thioacetal is formed by a second turnover, now involving hydrogen abstraction from the previously introduced methyl group. Not only are thioacetals extremely rare in natural product chemistry, but also does this constitute a novel enzymatic mechanism for their formation. In conjunction with the pool of 36 new modification, this work describes a new layer of RNA modification chemistry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cross-Cultural Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Manlio Del; Peruta, Maria Rosaria Della

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural knowledge management, an elusive yet consequential phenomenon, is becoming an increasingly essential factor in organizational practice and policy in the era of globalization. In order to overcome culturally shaped blind spots in conducting research in different settings, this volume highlights how the structuring of roles, interests, and power among different organizational elements, such as teams, departments, and management hierarchies (each comprised of members from different intellectual and professional backgrounds), generates various paradoxes and tensions that bring into

  10. Status study of knowledge management in universities and to provide a suitable model (Case Study: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Mustafa; Asadi, M. Mahdi

    2010-05-01

    During the past two decades to increase the volume of information and knowledge in organizations and the necessity of effective use of it in Organizational decisions is led to the emerging phenomenon of knowledge management. Knowledge management, including all the ways the organization manage their knowledge assets that include how collection, storage, transfer, deployment, update and create knowledge. Universities that type of knowledge based organizations are important sources of knowledge and therefore can be considered as strategic in universities and higher education centers of knowledge management will be more important. In this research The status of knowledge management in universities and a case study of Mashhad University are checked are the problems and challenges are identified and finally as for the features, requirements and conditions to implement a model for universities and deployment of knowledge management is presented in it.Therefore, basic research problem is: the status of knowledge management in universities and the case Mashhad University is how and which model for implementation and deployment of knowledge management is recommended? Importance and necessity of research topicare: Knowledge management experts in the emergence of knowledge management consider four major factors:1) passing the material tangible assets dominated era to the domination of capital in non-palpable, nonetheless organizations. 2) increase the extraordinary volume of information, the electronic storage and increased access to information 3) risk to the story of institutional knowledge due to retirement or exit from the crew 4) become more specialized activities in the organization 5) the emergence of knowledge based organizations and incidence of the most important capital is its knowledge. Knowledge management solutions focus on the entire system, including organization, human resources and technology in the take-the most important tools for solving problems and

  11. Overweight and obesity knowledge prior to pregnancy: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitert Marloes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk for pregnancy complications. Knowledge about increased risks in overweight and obese women could contribute to successful prevention strategies and the aim of this study is to assess current levels of knowledge in a pregnant population. Methods Cross sectional survey of 412 consecutive unselected women in early pregnancy in Brisbane, Australia: 255 public women attending their first antenatal clinic visit and 157 women at private maternal fetal medicine clinics undergoing a routine ultrasound evaluation prior to 20 weeks gestation. The cohort was stratified according to pre pregnancy BMI ( Results Over 75% of respondents identified that obese women have an increased risk of overall complications, including gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy compared to women of normal weight. More than 60% of women asserted that obesity would increase the risk of caesarean section and less than half identified an increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. Women were less likely to know about neonatal complications (19.7% did not know about the effect of obesity on these than maternal complications (7.4%. Knowledge was similar amongst women recruited at the public hospital and those recruited whilst attending for an ultrasound scan at a private clinic. For most areas they were also similar between women of lower and higher BMI, but women with BMI Conclusions Many women correctly identify that overweight and obesity increases the overall risk of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. The increased risks of maternal complications associated with being obese are better known than the increased risk of neonatal complications. Maternal education status is a main determinant of the extent of knowledge and this should be considered when designing education campaigns.

  12. Nutrition practices and knowledge among NCAA Division III football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Elizabeth Lea; Wright, Cynthia Joy; Kirkpatrick, Christina M

    2017-01-01

    Participation in collegiate American football is physically demanding and may have long-term health implications, particularly in relation to cardiovascular and neurological health. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III (DIII) football players are a relatively unstudied population, particularly in terms of their dietary habits and knowledge. The aim of the present study was to descriptively evaluate the dietary intake of DIII football players including a subset of linemen and assess the nutritional knowledge and sources of information of these athletes. The study sample was 88 DIII football players including a subset of nine linemen. All participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, and a nutritional knowledge questionnaire that included a quiz and questions about their main sources of nutrition information. Heights and body masses were also recorded. The linemen submitted written 3-day diet records for assessment of their dietary intake. Of the 88 participants, >50% reported consuming starches/grains, meat and dairy daily, but football players had dietary habits that may both mitigate and increase their risk of chronic diseases. These athletes have room to improve their nutrition knowledge. Their reliance on athletic team staff for nutrition guidance highlights the importance of nutrition education for both athletes and staff and the potential role of a registered dietitian nutritionist.

  13. Digging for knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Hsu, Charles; Goehl, Steve; Miao, Liden; Cader, Masud; Benachenhou, Dalila

    2009-04-01

    the causes (What, How, Why) and the effects (Where, When and Who). If this hypothesis of brain strategy were true, one must then develop a 6W query language to support a 6Wordered set storage of linkage pointers in high D space. In other words, one can easily map the basic 1st Gen. Google Web, 1-D statistical PageRanking databases, to a nested 6W tree where each branch of sub-6-W is stemming from the prime 6 W tree, using a system of automated text mining assisted by syntactic semantics to discern the properties of the 6W for that query. Goehl et al. has demonstrated previously that such is doable, but one may need more tools to support the knowledge extraction and automated feature reduction. In this paper, we have set out to demonstrate lossless down sampling using the 2nd Gen wavelet transform, the so-called "1-D Cartesian lifting processing of Swelden" adopted by JPEG 2000. "The loss of statistics, if any (including PageRanking and 1-D lifting), is the loss of geometry insights," such as 2-D vector time series, video, whose 1-D lifting Cartesian product will loss the diagonal changes insights.

  14. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  15. Day-to-Day Inconsistency in Parent Knowledge: Links with Youth Health and Parents’ Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A.; McHale, Susan M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Considerable evidence documents the linkages between higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities and positive youth outcomes. This study investigated how day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge of youth activities was linked to youth behavioral, psychological, and physical health as well as parents’ stress. Methods Participants were employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company and their children (N =129, Mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female). Data were collected from parents and youth via separate workplace and in-home surveys as well as telephone diary surveys on 8 consecutive evenings. We assessed day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge across these eight calls. Results Parents differed in their knowledge from day to day almost as much as their average knowledge scores differed from those of other parents. Controlling for mean levels of knowledge, youth whose parents exhibited more knowledge inconsistency reported more physical health symptoms (e.g., colds, flu). Knowledge inconsistency was also associated with more risky behavior for girls but greater psychological well-being for older adolescents. Parents who reported more stressors also had higher knowledge inconsistency. Conclusions Assessing only average levels of parental knowledge does not fully capture how this parenting dimension is associated with youth health. Consistent knowledge may promote youth physical health and less risky behavior for girls. Yet knowledge inconsistency also may reflect normative increases in autonomy as it was positively associated with psychological well-being for older adolescents. Given the linkages between parental stress and knowledge inconsistency, parent interventions should include stress-management components. PMID:25703318

  16. Day-to-day inconsistency in parent knowledge: links with youth health and parents' stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; McHale, Susan M; Davis, Kelly D; Kossek, Ellen Ernst

    2015-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents the linkages between higher levels of parental knowledge about youth activities and positive youth outcomes. This study investigated how day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge of youth activities was linked to youth behavioral, psychological, and physical health and parents' stress. Participants were employees in the Information Technology Division of a Fortune 500 company and their children (N = 129, mean age of youth = 13.39 years, 55% female). Data were collected from parents and youth via separate workplace and in-home surveys as well as telephone diary surveys on eight consecutive evenings. We assessed day-to-day inconsistency in parental knowledge across these eight calls. Parents differed in their knowledge from day to day almost as much as their average knowledge scores differed from those of other parents. Controlling for mean levels of knowledge, youth whose parents exhibited more knowledge inconsistency reported more physical health symptoms (e.g., colds and flu). Knowledge inconsistency was also associated with more risky behavior for girls but greater psychological well-being for older adolescents. Parents who reported more stressors also had higher knowledge inconsistency. Assessing only average levels of parental knowledge does not fully capture how this parenting dimension is associated with youth health. Consistent knowledge may promote youth physical health and less risky behavior for girls. Yet knowledge inconsistency also may reflect normative increases in autonomy as it was positively associated with psychological well-being for older adolescents. Given the linkages between parental stress and knowledge inconsistency, parent interventions should include stress management components. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction

  18. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  19. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER THROUGH NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYÖRGY ATTILA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a vital intangible asset for any organization and cannot be valued exactly due its special form of materialization. Although we have this drawback, a scientifically established value should be used in order to measure the performance of knowledge holders. A correct valuation helps to know the worth of assets offered in exploitation. Exploitation of this resource could be done in several different ways, but integration in knowledge networks seems to generate best efficiency ratio. Networks offer the possibility to change information, to obtain new information, to build further ideas arose from network partners or to develop together new ideas. Thus, networks assure conditions to optimize the members’ knowledge portfolios. Optimization of knowledge usage creates benefits for network members. These benefits could be profits (if members are private companies or social welfare (if members are looking after collective purposes. Taxonomy of knowledge networks is diverse, permitting an adaptation to the needs of members. Networks permit a large scale of heterogeneity. Since an important part of new knowledge creating costs is covered from public budgetary resources, a special development is recorded at those networks which are exclusively or partly organized in the public sector or benefit by participation from the public sector.

  20. Breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of health professional students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Fei; Salamonson, Yenna; Burns, Elaine; Schmied, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding support from health professionals can be effective in influencing a mother's decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding. However, health professionals, including nursing students, do not always receive adequate breastfeeding education during their foundational education programme to effectively help mothers. In this paper, we report on a systematic review of the literature that aimed to describe nursing and other health professional students' knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding, and examine educational interventions designed to increase breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes amongst health professional students. A systematic review of peer reviewed literature was performed. The search for literature was conducted utilising six electronic databases, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane, for studies published in English from January 2000 to March 2017. Studies focused on nursing students' or other health professional students' knowledge, attitudes or experiences related to breastfeeding. Intervention studies to improve knowledge and attitudes, were also included. All papers were reviewed using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Fourteen studies were included in the review. This review indicates that in some settings, health professional students demonstrated mid-range scores on breastfeeding attitudes, and their knowledge of breastfeeding was limited, particularly in relation to breastfeeding assessment and management. All of the studies that tested a specialised breastfeeding education programme, appeared to increase nursing students' knowledge overall or aspects of their knowledge related to breastfeeding. Several factors were found to influence breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes, including timing of maternal and child health curriculum component, previous personal breastfeeding experience, gender, cultural practices and government legislation. Based on this review, it appears that

  1. Knowledge silos: assessing knowledge sharing between specialties through the vestibular schwannoma literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurman, Zane; Golfinos, John G; Roland, J Thomas; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE It is common for a medical disorder to be managed or researched by individuals who work within different specialties. It is known that both neurosurgeons and neurotologists manage vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients. While overlap in specialty focus has the potential to stimulate multidisciplinary collaboration and innovative thinking, there is a risk of specialties forming closed-communication loops, called knowledge silos, which may inhibit knowledge diffusion. This study quantitatively assessed knowledge sharing between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the subject of VS. METHODS A broad Web of Science search was used to download details for 4439 articles related to VS through 2016. The publishing journal's specialty and the authors' specialties (based on author department) were determined for available articles. All 114,647 of the article references were categorized by journal specialty. The prevalence of several VS topics was assessed using keyword searches of titles. RESULTS For articles written by neurosurgeons, 44.0% of citations were from neurosurgery journal articles and 23.4% were from otolaryngology journals. The citations of otolaryngology authors included 11.6% neurosurgery journals and 56.5% otolaryngology journals. Both author specialty and journal specialty led to more citations of the same specialty, though author specialty had the largest effect. Comparing the specialties' literature, several VS topics had significantly different levels of coverage, including radiosurgery and hearing topics. Despite the availability of the Internet, there has been no change in the proportions of references for either specialty since 1997 (the year PubMed became publicly available). CONCLUSIONS Partial knowledge silos are observed between neurosurgery and otolaryngology on the topic of VS, based on the peer-reviewed literature. The increase in access provided by the Internet and searchable online databases has not decreased specialty reference bias

  2. Resisting anchoring effects: The roles of metric and mapping knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The biasing influence of anchors on numerical estimates is well established, but the relationship between knowledge level and the susceptibility to anchoring effects is less clear. In two studies, we addressed the potential mitigating effects of having knowledge in a domain on vulnerability to anchoring effects in that domain. Of critical interest was a distinction between two forms of knowledge-metric and mapping knowledge. In Study 1, participants who had studied question-relevant information-that is, high-knowledge participants-were less influenced by anchors than were participants who had studied irrelevant information. The results from knowledge measures suggested that the reduction in anchoring was tied to increases in metric rather than mapping knowledge. In Study 2, participants studied information specifically designed to influence different types of knowledge. As we predicted, increases in metric knowledge-and not mapping knowledge-led to reduced anchoring effects. Implications for debiasing anchoring effects are discussed.

  3. A knowledge management journey at BNG Sellafield: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.; Kelleher, M.; Kruizinga, E.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: All organisations manage knowledge in some shape of form. Over the last decade BNFL and latterly BNG, has undertaken a number of business improvement initiatives, however it was not until the late 1990's that a formal integrative KM programme was sanctioned. Great progress was made with the chief aims of a broadly based KM programme with setting up of electronic 'team rooms', improved database searching and 'Learning from experience' processes and an embryonic 'yellow pages' system etc. By 2001, following major reorganisations of the business, Knowledge Management was classified as a 'Cross-business issue'. Consequently, the decision was made to withdraw the Group Office co-ordination and resourcing of Knowledge Management in BNFL. There were no further significant developments until 2006, when there was an explicit request from the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) for all nuclear site license holders (including BNG Sellafield) to manage knowledge and intellectual property effectively (NDA, 2005; 2006a; 2006b). This policy posed several challenges for BNG Sellafield: - Demonstrating that knowledge and good practise was being leveraged not only at each nuclear site but across the whole of the NDA's portfolio of 20 geographically and organisationally separated sites; - Demonstrating that the considerable body of Intellectual property and associated rights was being managed for the benefit of the nation and in such a way that promoted Innovation in an industry where increased competition was being encouraged; - The plethora of conceptual frameworks and definitions of knowledge management suggested a lack of uniformity as to what constitutes knowledge management; let alone how to implement such a programme. Our solution was to employ a knowledge transfer process from experienced consultants and trainers to an internal team charged with the implementation of knowledge management at Sellafield. Our brief was to design and deliver a two year programme

  4. Knowledge and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    , a spate of work in management research and new institutional economics has highlighted dimensions such as complementarity, complexity, tacitness, and so on of knowledge assets and shown how knowledge assets, thus dimensionalized, has explanatory value with respect to economic organization. However...... with the role of knowledge in the context of economic organization prompts a reevaluation of a number of the fundamental assumptions that are often used to guide theory-building in the economics of organization (e.g., Bayesian and game theoretical foundations)....

  5. Knowledge management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, T.

    2013-01-01

    To capture and retain the CANDU experience from a wider CANDU base and transfer knowledge and experience to our members, supplier participants and universities in a cost effective manner. Major focus area of the program is knowledge management joint projects, generic training delivery, inter-utilities mentoring and technical support, public education programs. The path forward is execution of transition of OPG NPDS Program as an ongoing program in COG with member funding, pursue opportunities to provide member utilities with additional leadership and train-the-trainer training and grow the knowledge management activities by 20% per year based on 2013/2014 results.

  6. Building Community Knowledge Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    The paper reports a field study of knowledge sharing in a large and complex organization. The objective of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the implementation and use of a web-based knowledge sharing system designed to facilitate the circulation of best practices among middle ma...... interviews and observations we identify five reasons for the systems failure. We close the paper by some reflections on the use of the concept of “shared practice” in the development of IT-supported knowledge sharing systems....

  7. Highways of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Katja Strøm; Højmark, Jeppe; Nielsen, Christian

    , such as student-industry cooperation or collaboration projects between researchers and businesses. This research shows that to secure real value adding through knowledge transfer in university - in-dustry collaboration projects, it is important that the involved parties view each other as equal part......The objective of this paper is to discuss mechanisms, enablers and barriers for knowledge transfer in university - industry collaboration projects. The underlying question is how to acquire the right kind of knowledge to stay innovative and competitive in today’s fast changing society. The study...

  8. Beyond unidirectional knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Neergaard, Helle; Bjerregaard, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Using theory on technology transfer and on trust and an indepth study of nine university departments and nineteen science-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the authors explore the nature and direction of knowledge flows during university-industry R&D collaboration. More specifically......, they examine the nature and direction of R&D technological knowledge transfer in collaborations between universities and science-based SMEs and the primary mechanisms regulating such collaborations. The findings suggest that these collaborations are highly recursive processes of technological knowledge...

  9. Implementing Web 2.0 Design Patterns in an Institutional Repository May Increase Community Participation. A Review of: Cocciolo, A. (2010. Can Web 2.0 enhance community participation in an institutional repository? The case of PocketKnowledge at Teachers College, Columbia University. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(4, 304–312. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2010.05.004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Hultman Özek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate whether Web 2.0 can enhance participation in institutional repositories (IRs and whether its widespread use can lead to success in this context. Another purpose was to emphasize how an IR with a Web 2.0 approach can connect individuals in their creative and intellectual outputs, no matter what form of shared material is contributed.Design – Comparative study.Setting –Two IRs at Teachers College, Columbia University, which is a graduate and professional school of education in New York City.Subjects – Students, faculty, and staff using the PocketKnowledge and CPC IRs.Methods – Cocciolo compared two different IRs called PocketKnowledge and Community Program Collections (CPC. PocketKnowledge had the following Web 2.0 design patterns: users control their own data; users should be trusted; flexible tags are preferred over hierarchical taxonomies; the attitude should be playful; software gets better the more people use it. The PocketKnowledge IR design patterns were compared with the traditional design of the CPC IR. The CRC IR organized information based on taxonomy (e.g., programs and departments, lack of user control of their own content, and centrality of authority.Data were collected during a 22-month period. The PocketKnowledge IR was studied from September 2006 to July 2008, compiling information on both contributions and contributors. Contributions made by library staff to aid availability in archival collections were excluded from the data sets, because the study was focused on community participation in the learning environment. The CPC was studied between November 2004 and July 2006. Data collected included the contributions made to the system and information on the role of the contributor (e.g., student, faculty, or staff.Main Results – Participation was much greater in the Web 2.0 system (PocketKnowledge than in the non-Web 2.0 system (CPC. Involvement in the latter, the CPC, was noted primarily for

  10. Current trends on knowledge-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia-García, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book presents innovative and high-quality research on the implementation of conceptual frameworks, strategies, techniques, methodologies, informatics platforms and models for developing advanced knowledge-based systems and their application in different fields, including Agriculture, Education, Automotive, Electrical Industry, Business Services, Food Manufacturing, Energy Services, Medicine and others. Knowledge-based technologies employ artificial intelligence methods to heuristically address problems that cannot be solved by means of formal techniques. These technologies draw on standard and novel approaches from various disciplines within Computer Science, including Knowledge Engineering, Natural Language Processing, Decision Support Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Databases, Software Engineering, etc. As a combination of different fields of Artificial Intelligence, the area of Knowledge-Based Systems applies knowledge representation, case-based reasoning, neural networks, Semantic Web and TICs used...

  11. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices toward Post Exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    designed educational programs need to be conducted to increase the understanding of dental professionals on this issue. Keywords: Attitude, Dental interns, Human immunodeficiency virus post‑exposure prophylaxis, Knowledge, post graduate ...

  12. Enabling knowledge processes in innovative environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavesi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of organisational knowledge as a valuable strategic asset has become quite popular recently. Increased competition, globalisation and the emergence of new organisational models built on process-based organisational structures require organisations to create, capture, share and apply

  13. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilities – Synthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2017-01-01

    % in the dual porosity filter, stressing the importance of including a conservative tracer for correction of contaminant retention values. The method is considered useful in future treatment performance testing of STFs. The observed performance of the STFs is presented in coming papers.......Stormwater treatment facilities (STFs) are becoming increasingly widespread but knowledge on their performance is limited. This is due to difficulties in obtaining representative samples during storm events and documenting removal of the broad range of contaminants found in stormwater runoff...

  14. Human Resources Management in the Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is increasingly claimed to be a key critical resource and source of competitive advantage in the modern global economy, especially with the rise of the service economy, the growth in the number of 'knowledge workers', the increasingly rapid flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital and intellectual property rights. Knowledge, with its intangible aspects, is becoming a defining characteristic of economic activities, as opposed to tangibles such as goods, services or production processes. The rise of the knowledge economy has seen a proliferation of information and communication technologies, coupled with greater organizational complexity, the growth of virtual and global organizations and rapid change. This in turn requires drastic change within HRM to respond to changing demands of the knowledge economy.

  15. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt......Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies....... These companies employ highly educated and com-petent people who apply their personal knowledge to generate new knowledge in close relationship with both custom-ers and colleagues. The employees are self-managed and work in networks and decentralised structures around pro-jects. Their working life is described...

  16. Knowledge Governance for Sustainable Development: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrae van Kerkhoff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a knowledge intensive process, but plagued by persistent concerns over our apparent inability to connect what we know with more sustainable practices and outcomes. While considerable attention has been given to ways we may better understand and enhance the knowledge-based processes that support the governance of social-­ecological systems, relatively few have examined the governance of knowledge itself. The institutions—rules and norms—that govern knowledge may shed light on the persistence of 'gaps' between knowledge and action. In this review I seek to answer the question: can interdisciplinary knowledge governance literature contribute to understanding and analysing the institutional knowledge-based dimensions of sustainable development? I present and analyse the concept of knowledge governance as it is emerging in a range of disciplines and practice areas, including private sector management literature and public regulation theory and practice. I then integrate the findings from this review into a model of sustainable development proposed by Nilsson et al. [1]. I show that knowledge governance (as a scale above knowledge management can inform Nilsson et al.'s three "nested" dimensions of sustainability: human wellbeing (through access to knowledge and freedom to exercise informed choice; resource-base management (though enhancing regulation and innovation and transitions from exclusive to inclusive knowledge systems; and global public goods (by balancing public and private interests and fostering global innovation systems. This review concludes by presenting a framework that places sustainable development in the context of broader socio-political struggles towards more open, inclusive knowledge systems.

  17. Analysis of Knowledge Management Trend by Bibliometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu-Hao Tsai; Jiann-Min Yang

    2010-01-01

    The analysis is mainly concentrating on the knowledge management literatures productivity trend which subjects as "knowledge management" in SSCI database. The purpose what the analysis will propose is to summarize the trend information for knowledge management researchers since core knowledge will be concentrated in core categories. The result indicated that the literature productivity which topic as "knowledge management" is still increasing extremely and will demonstrat...

  18. Global knowledge economy in the post-colony: public universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These trends from the global knowledge economy have noticeable reverberations in Nigeria in many dimensions like widening digital divide and increasing exclusion from the global knowledge economy, devaluation of indigenous knowledge systems, increased 'white slavery' and perpetuation of the culture of dependency ...

  19. Online strategies to facilitate health-related knowledge transfer: a systematic search and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, Katie; McNeil, Heather; McLeod, Jordache; Prorok, Jeanette C; Stolee, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Health interventions and practices often lag behind the available research, and the need for timely translation of new health knowledge into practice is becoming increasingly important. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic search and review of the literature on online knowledge translation techniques that foster the interaction between various stakeholders and assist in the sharing of ideas and knowledge within the health field. The search strategy included all published literature in the English language since January 2003 and used the medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (cinahl), embase and Inspec databases. The results of the review indicate that online strategies are diverse, yet all are applicable in facilitating online health-related knowledge translation. The method of knowledge sharing ranged from use of wikis, discussion forums, blogs, and social media to data/knowledge management tools, virtual communities of practice and conferencing technology - all of which can encourage online health communication and knowledge translation. Online technologies are a key facilitator of health-related knowledge translation. This review of online strategies to facilitate health-related knowledge translation can inform the development and improvement of future strategies to expedite the translation of research to practice. © 2013 Health Libraries Group of CILIP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Physicians' lack of knowledge - a possible reason for red blood cell transfusion overuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahav Koren, Roni; Suriu, Celia; Yakir, Orly; Akria, Luiza; Barhoum, Masad; Braester, Andrei

    2017-12-12

    A significant percentage of red blood cell transfusions are inappropriately overused. This study investigated physicians from the western Galilee in terms of their knowledge of transfusion medicine as a potential reason for red blood cell overuse, and assessed the influence of personal background characteristics on their knowledge. Data were collected via anonymous questionnaires. The questionnaires included a personal background section and a professional section. Study participants were grouped according to field of specialty, seniority, and location of medical school graduation, in order to correlate participant characteristics with knowledge. Scores were calculated on a 0-100 scale. The overall knowledge of the study population was low (mean score 47.8 ± 18.6). Knowledge regarding basic physiology of red blood cell transfusion was also low. Internal medicine physicians and senior physicians had significantly greater overall knowledge scores and were more familiar with a restrictive blood management policy than were surgeons and residents, respectively. Comparing knowledge scores, no difference was found regarding indications for transfusion. General and fundamental knowledge in transfusion medicine is lacking among physicians in the non-operating room setting, which may play a role in red blood cell transfusion overuse. Field of specialty and professional status influenced knowledge of transfusion medicine. Educational programs and increased physicians' awareness might help decrease unnecessary transfusions. Not applicable.