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Sample records for included hiv-1 rna

  1. HIV-1 as RNA evolution machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben

    2011-01-01

    We have over the years studied several sequence or structural elements within the HIV-1 RNA genome. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the role of these RNA motifs in virus replication. We have developed HIV-1 evolution as a powerful research method to study different aspects of the viral

  2. Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity contributes to perturbation of lymphocyte miRNA by HIV-1

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    Yu Lianbo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA-mediated RNA silencing is integral to virtually every cellular process including cell cycle progression and response to virus infection. The interplay between RNA silencing and HIV-1 is multifaceted, and accumulating evidence posits a strike-counterstrike interface that alters the cellular environment to favor virus replication. For instance, miRNA-mediated RNA silencing of HIV-1 translation is antagonized by HIV-1 Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity. The activity of HIV-1 accessory proteins Vpr/Vif delays cell cycle progression, which is a process prominently modulated by miRNA. The expression profile of cellular miRNA is altered by HIV-1 infection in both cultured cells and clinical samples. The open question stands of what, if any, is the contribution of Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity or Vpr/Vif activity to the perturbation of cellular miRNA by HIV-1. Results Herein, we compared the perturbation of miRNA expression profiles of lymphocytes infected with HIV-1NL4-3 or derivative strains that are deficient in Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity (Tat K51A substitution or ablated of the vpr/vif open reading frames. Microarrays recapitulated the perturbation of the cellular miRNA profile by HIV-1 infection. The miRNA expression trends overlapped ~50% with published microarray results on clinical samples from HIV-1 infected patients. Moreover, the number of miRNA perturbed by HIV-1 was largely similar despite ablation of Tat RSS activity and Vpr/Vif; however, the Tat RSS mutation lessened HIV-1 downregulation of twenty-two miRNAs. Conclusions Our study identified miRNA expression changes attributable to Tat RSS activity in HIV-1NL4-3. The results accomplish a necessary step in the process to understand the interface of HIV-1 with host RNA silencing activity. The overlap in miRNA expression trends observed between HIV-1 infected CEMx174 lymphocytes and primary cells supports the utility of cultured

  3. Cloning and detection of HIV-1-encoded microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Shinya; Fujii, Yoichi R

    2006-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-to 25-nucleotides (nt) long and interact with messenger RNAs to trigger either translational repression or RNA cleavage through RNA interference (RNAi). We have shown that HIV-1 nef double-stranded RNA from AIDS patients who are long-term nonprogressors, inhibits HIV-1 transcription; and that nef-derived miRNA, miR-N367, is produced in human T-cells persistently infected with HIV-1. The miR-N367 can block HIV-1 Nef expression and long terminal repeat (LTR) transcription, suggesting that miR-N367 might suppress both Nef function and HIV-1 transcription through the RNAi pathway. Protocols are presented here for cloning HIV-1-encoded miRNA and confirming miRNA expression by Northern blot hybridization.

  4. Roles of the linker region of RNA helicase A in HIV-1 RNA metabolism.

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    Li Xing

    Full Text Available RNA helicase A (RHA promotes multiple steps in HIV-1 production including transcription and translation of viral RNA, annealing of primer tRNA(Lys3 to viral RNA, and elevating the ratio of unspliced to spliced viral RNA. At its amino terminus are two double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs that are essential for RHA-viral RNA interaction. Linking the dsRBDs to the core helicase domain is a linker region containing 6 predicted helices. Working in vitro with purified mutant RHAs containing deletions of individual helices reveals that this region may regulate the enzyme's helicase activity, since deletion of helix 2 or 3 reduces the rate of unwinding RNA by RHA. The biological significance of this finding was then examined during HIV-1 production. Deletions in the linker region do not significantly affect either RHA-HIV-1 RNA interaction in vivo or the incorporation of mutant RHAs into progeny virions. While the partial reduction in helicase activity of mutant RHA containing a deletion of helices 2 or 3 does not reduce the ability of RHA to stimulate viral RNA synthesis, the promotion of tRNA(Lys3 annealing to viral RNA is blocked. In contrast, deletion of helices 4 or 5 does not affect the ability of RHA to promote tRNA(Lys3 annealing, but reduces its ability to stimulate viral RNA synthesis. Additionally, RHA stimulation of viral RNA synthesis results in an increased ratio of unspliced to spliced viral RNA, and this increase is not inhibited by deletions in the linker region, nor is the pattern of splicing changed within the ∼ 4.0 kb or ∼ 1.8 kb HIV-1 RNA classes, suggesting that RHA's effect on suppressing splicing is confined mainly to the first 5'-splice donor site. Overall, the differential responses to the mutations in the linker region of RHA reveal that RHA participates in HIV-1 RNA metabolism by multiple distinct mechanisms.

  5. DBR1 siRNA inhibition of HIV-1 replication

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    Naidu Yathi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 and all retroviruses are related to retroelements of simpler organisms such as the yeast Ty elements. Recent work has suggested that the yeast retroelement Ty1 replicates via an unexpected RNA lariat intermediate in cDNA synthesis. The putative genomic RNA lariat intermediate is formed by a 2'-5' phosphodiester bond, like that found in pre-mRNA intron lariats and it facilitates the minus-strand template switch during cDNA synthesis. We hypothesized that HIV-1 might also form a genomic RNA lariat and therefore that siRNA-mediated inhibition of expression of the human RNA lariat de-branching enzyme (DBR1 expression would specifically inhibit HIV-1 replication. Results We designed three short interfering RNA (siRNA molecules targeting DBR1, which were capable of reducing DBR1 mRNA expression by 80% and did not significantly affect cell viability. We assessed HIV-1 replication in the presence of DBR1 siRNA and found that DBR1 knockdown led to decreases in viral cDNA and protein production. These effects could be reversed by cotransfection of a DBR1 cDNA indicating that the inhibition of HIV-1 replication was a specific effect of DBR1 underexpression. Conclusion These data suggest that DBR1 function may be needed to debranch a putative HIV-1 genomic RNA lariat prior to completion of reverse transcription.

  6. HIV-1 nef suppression by virally encoded microRNA

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    Brisibe Ebiamadon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are 21~25-nucleotides (nt long and interact with mRNAs to trigger either translational repression or RNA cleavage through RNA interference (RNAi, depending on the degree of complementarity with the target mRNAs. Our recent study has shown that HIV-1 nef dsRNA from AIDS patients who are long-term non-progressors (LTNPs inhibited the transcription of HIV-1. Results Here, we show the possibility that nef-derived miRNAs are produced in HIV-1 persistently infected cells. Furthermore, nef short hairpin RNA (shRNA that corresponded to a predicted nef miRNA (~25 nt, miR-N367 can block HIV-1 Nef expression in vitro and the suppression by shRNA/miR-N367 would be related with low viremia in an LTNP (15-2-2. In the 15-2-2 model mice, the weight loss, which may be rendered by nef was also inhibited by shRNA/miR-N367 corresponding to suppression of nef expression in vivo. Conclusions These data suggest that nef/U3 miRNAs produced in HIV-1-infected cells may suppress both Nef function and HIV-1 virulence through the RNAi pathway.

  7. HIV-1 Tropism Testing in Subjects Achieving Undetectable HIV-1 RNA: Diagnostic Accuracy, Viral Evolution and Compartmentalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Christian; Codoñer, Francisco M.; Thielen, Alexander; Bellido, Rocío; Pérez-Álvarez, Susana; Cabrera, Cecilia; Dalmau, Judith; Curriu, Marta; Lie, Yolanda; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Puig, Jordi; Martínez-Picado, Javier; Blanco, Julià; Coakley, Eoin; Däumer, Martin; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background Technically, HIV-1 tropism can be evaluated in plasma or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). However, only tropism testing of plasma HIV-1 has been validated as a tool to predict virological response to CCR5 antagonists in clinical trials. The preferable tropism testing strategy in subjects with undetectable HIV-1 viremia, in whom plasma tropism testing is not feasible, remains uncertain. Methods & Results We designed a proof-of-concept study including 30 chronically HIV-1-infected individuals who achieved HIV-1 RNA tropism shifts during viremia suppression suggests that, when available, testing of stored plasma samples is generally safe and informative, provided that HIV-1 suppression is maintained. Tropism testing in PBMCs may not necessarily produce equivalent biological results to plasma, because the structure of viral populations and the diagnostic performance of tropism assays may sometimes vary between compartments. Thereby, proviral DNA tropism testing should be specifically validated in clinical trials before it can be applied to routine clinical decision-making. PMID:23936293

  8. Identification of Acute HIV-1 Infection by Hologic Aptima HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manak, Mark M; Eller, Leigh Anne; Malia, Jennifer; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Oundo, Joseph; Lueer, Cornelia; Cham, Fatim; de Souza, Mark; Michael, Nelson L; Robb, Merlin L; Peel, Sheila A

    2017-07-01

    The Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Qualitative RNA assay was used in a rigorous screening approach designed to identify individuals at the earliest stage of HIV-1 infection for enrollment into subsequent studies of cellular and viral events in early infection (RV 217/Early Capture HIV Cohort [ECHO] study). Volunteers at high risk for HIV-1 infection were recruited from study sites in Thailand, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya with high HIV-1 prevalence rates among the populations examined. Small-volume blood samples were collected by finger stick at twice-weekly intervals and tested with the Aptima assay. Participants with reactive Aptima test results were contacted immediately for entry into a more comprehensive follow-up schedule with frequent blood draws. Evaluation of the Aptima test prior to use in this study showed a detection sensitivity of 5.5 copies/ml (50%), with all major HIV-1 subtypes detected. A total of 54,306 specimens from 1,112 volunteers were examined during the initial study period (August 2009 to November 2010); 27 individuals were identified as converting from uninfected to infected status. A sporadic reactive Aptima signal was observed in HIV-1-infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy. Occasional false-reactive Aptima results in uninfected individuals, or nonreactive results in HIV-1-infected individuals not on therapy, were observed and used to calculate assay sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity and specificity of the Aptima assay were 99.03% and 99.23%, respectively; positive and negative predictive values were 92.01% and 99.91%, respectively. Conversion from HIV-1-uninfected to -infected status was rapid, with no evidence of a prolonged period of intermittent low-level viremia. Copyright © 2017 Manak et al.

  9. Nanotherapeutics Using an HIV-1 Poly A and Transactivator of the HIV-1 LTR-(TAR- Specific siRNA

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    Supriya D. Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 replication can be efficiently inhibited by intracellular expression of an siRNA targeting the viral RNA. We used a well-validated siRNA (si510 which targets the poly A/TAR (transactivator of the HIV-1 LTR site and suppresses viral replication. Nanotechnology holds much potential for impact in the field of HIV-1 therapeutics, and nanoparticles such as quantum rods (QRs can be easily functionalized to incorporate siRNA forming stable nanoplexes that can be used for gene silencing. We evaluated the efficacy of the QR-si510 HIV-1 siRNA nanoplex in suppressing viral replication in the HIV-1-infected monocytic cell line THP-1 by measuring p24 antigen levels and gene expression levels of HIV-1 LTR. Our results suggest that the QR-si510 HIV-1 siRNA nanoplex is not only effective in delivering siRNA, but also in suppressing HIV-1 viral replication for a longer time period. HIV-1 nanotherapeutics can thus enhance systemic bioavailability and offer multifunctionality.

  10. Total cellular HIV-1 DNA decreases after switching to raltegravir-based regimens in patients with suppressed HIV-1 RNA.

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    Rossetti, Barbara; Meini, Genny; Bianco, Claudia; Lamonica, Silvia; Mondi, Annalisa; Belmonti, Simone; Fanti, Iuri; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Zazzi, Maurizio; De Luca, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    The integrase inhibitor raltegravir has been used to intensify antiretroviral therapy in patients with undetectable plasma HIV-1RNA, resulting in variable perturbation of HIV-1 nucleic acids levels in peripheral blood. We aimed at monitoring residual plasma HIV-1RNA and total cellular HIV-1DNA in virologically suppressed patients switching to raltegravir-based regimens. Fifty-eight subjects on protease inhibitor (PI) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens, with plasma HIV-1RNA levels 200cells/μl for ≥12 months were enrolled. Thirty-four patients were from the treatment simplification RASTA randomized study switching standard therapy to a raltegravir-based regimen (RASTA group), while 24 continued a PI or NNRTI based-regimen (controls). Residual plasma HIV-1RNA (5-40copies/mL) and HIV-1DNA were assessed at 0, 24 and 48 weeks. At week 0 (W0), HIV-1DNA was detected in all patients while at W48 it was detectable in 82.4% of the RASTA group vs 100% of controls (p=0.03). There was a significant decline of HIV-1DNA at W48 in the RASTA group (mean change from baseline -0.21 [95% CI -0.41; -0.01] log 10 copies/10 6 CD4; p=0.03) but not in controls. Ultrasensitive HIV-1RNA was detectable at baseline in 50% of RASTA group vs 67% of controls and at W48 in 32.4% vs 42%, respectively. No differences were found between HIV-1RNA levels at baseline and W48 within and between groups. Switching successful therapy to raltegravir-based regimens may be associated with a decrease of the HIV-1 reservoir, as measured by peripheral blood cellular HIV-1DNA levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure and sequence motifs in the HIV-1 RNA genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bel, N.

    2015-01-01

    The untranslated leader of the HIV-1 RNA genome contains some 350 nucleotides and is highly conserved among virus isolates. Several characteristic hairpin structures that regulate important virus replication steps, such as dimerization and packaging in virion particles, are clustered in this leader.

  12. Interplay between the RNA interference machinery and HIV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopman, N.C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Resistente infecties zijn lastig te behandelen. Nick Schopman onderzocht een verbeterde RNA-interferentie (RNAi)-gebaseerde anti-hiv-1 gentherapie. Dit kan in de toekomst leiden tot een nieuwe aanpak van de behandeling van resistente infecties. Schopman beschrijft een nieuw ontwerp van een

  13. HIV-1 can escape from RNA interference by evolving an alternative structure in its RNA genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, Ellen M.; Ooms, Marcel; Vink, Monique; Das, Atze T.; Berkhout, Ben

    2005-01-01

    HIV-1 replication can be efficiently inhibited by intracellular expression of an siRNA targeting the viral RNA. However, HIV-1 escape variants emerged after prolonged culturing. These RNAi-resistant viruses contain nucleotide substitutions or deletions in or near the targeted sequence. We observed

  14. HIV-1 tropism testing in subjects achieving undetectable HIV-1 RNA: diagnostic accuracy, viral evolution and compartmentalization.

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    Christian Pou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Technically, HIV-1 tropism can be evaluated in plasma or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. However, only tropism testing of plasma HIV-1 has been validated as a tool to predict virological response to CCR5 antagonists in clinical trials. The preferable tropism testing strategy in subjects with undetectable HIV-1 viremia, in whom plasma tropism testing is not feasible, remains uncertain. METHODS & RESULTS: We designed a proof-of-concept study including 30 chronically HIV-1-infected individuals who achieved HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL during at least 2 years after first-line ART initiation. First, we determined the diagnostic accuracy of 454 and population sequencing of gp120 V3-loops in plasma and PBMCs, as well as of MT-2 assays before ART initiation. The Enhanced Sensitivity Trofile Assay (ESTA was used as the technical reference standard. 454 sequencing of plasma viruses provided the highest agreement with ESTA. The accuracy of 454 sequencing decreased in PBMCs due to reduced specificity. Population sequencing in plasma and PBMCs was slightly less accurate than plasma 454 sequencing, being less sensitive but more specific. MT-2 assays had low sensitivity but 100% specificity. Then, we used optimized 454 sequence data to investigate viral evolution in PBMCs during viremia suppression and only found evolution of R5 viruses in one subject. No de novo CXCR4-using HIV-1 production was observed over time. Finally, Slatkin-Maddison tests suggested that plasma and cell-associated V3 forms were sometimes compartmentalized. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of tropism shifts during viremia suppression suggests that, when available, testing of stored plasma samples is generally safe and informative, provided that HIV-1 suppression is maintained. Tropism testing in PBMCs may not necessarily produce equivalent biological results to plasma, because the structure of viral populations and the diagnostic performance of tropism assays may sometimes vary

  15. Estimation of HIV-1 DNA Level Interfering with Reliability of HIV-1 RNA Quantification Performed on Dried Blood Spots Collected from Successfully Treated Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zida, Sylvie; Tuaillon, Edouard; Barro, Makoura; Kwimatouo Lekpa Franchard, Arnaud; Kagoné, Thérèse; Nacro, Boubacar; Ouedraogo, Abdoul Salam; Bolloré, Karine; Sanosyan, Armen; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Meda, Nicolas; Sangaré, Lassana; Rouzioux, Christine; Rouet, François; Kania, Dramane

    2016-01-01

    The impact of HIV-1 DNA coamplification during HIV-1 RNA quantification on dried blood spots (DBS) was explored. False-positive HIV RNA detection (22/62, 35%) was associated with high HIV-1 DNA levels. Specificity of HIV-1 RNA assays on DBS should be evaluated following manufacturer protocols on samples with HIV-1 DNA levels of ≥1,000 copies/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  16. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2005-01-01

    ; 287 participants were included in the study, and 227 (79%) were followed up. Among the 130 participants who were coinfected, those who received early treatment (n=64) had a significantly lower increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA load than did those who received delayed treatment (n=66) (P......To determine whether treatment of schistosomiasis has an effect on the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, individuals with schistosomiasis and with or without HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive praziquantel treatment at inclusion or after a delay of 3 months...

  17. Longitudinal community plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations and incidence of HIV-1 among injecting drug users: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Marshall, Brandon D L; Li, Kathy; Zhang, Ruth; Hogg, Robert S; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations in the community and HIV incidence among injecting drug users. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Inner city community in Vancouver, Canada. Participants Injecting drug users, with and without HIV, followed up every six months between 1 May 1996 and 30 June 2007. Main outcome measures Estimated community plasma HIV-1 RNA in the six months before each HIV negative participant?s follow-up visit. Associated HIV incid...

  18. Cell-specific RNA aptamer against human CCR5 specifically targets HIV-1 susceptible cells and inhibits HIV-1 infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiehua; Satheesan, Sangeetha; Li, Haitang; Weinberg, Marc S; Morris, Kevin V; Burnett, John C; Rossi, John J

    2015-03-19

    The C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a receptor expressed by T cells and macrophages that serves as a coreceptor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Loss of CCR5 is associated with resistance to HIV-1. Here, we combine the live-cell-based SELEX with high-throughput sequencing technology to generate CCR5 RNA aptamers capable of specifically targeting HIV-1 susceptible cells (as small interfering RNA [siRNA] delivery agent) and inhibiting HIV-1 infectivity (as antiviral agent) via block of the CCR5 required for HIV-1 to enter cells. One of the best candidates, G-3, efficiently bound and was internalized into human CCR5-expressing cells. The G-3 specifically neutralized R5 virus infection in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in vivo generated human CD4(+) T cells with a nanomolar inhibitory concentration 50%. G-3 was also capable of transferring functional siRNAs to CCR5-expressing cells. Collectively, the cell-specific, internalizing, CCR5-targeted aptamers and aptamer-siRNA conjugates offer promise for overcoming some of the current challenges of drug resistance in HIV-1 by providing cell-type- or tissue-specific delivery of various therapeutic moieties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell-specific RNA aptamer against human CCR5 specifically targets HIV-1 susceptible and inhibits HIV-1 infectivity

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    Zhou, Jiehua; Satheesan, Sangeetha; Li, Haitang; Weinberg, Marc S.; Morris, Kevin V.; Burnett, John; Rossi, John

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a receptor expressed by T-cells and macrophages that serves as a co-receptor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Loss of CCR5 is associated with resistance to HIV-1. Here we combine the live cell-based SELEX with high throughput sequencing technology to generate CCR5 RNA aptamers capable of specifically targeting HIV-1 susceptible cells (as siRNA delivery agent) and inhibiting HIV-1 infectivity (as antiviral agent) via block of the CCR5 required for HIV-1 to enter cells. One of the best candidates, G-3, efficiently bound and was internalized into human CCR5 expressing cells. The G-3 specifically neutralized R5 virus infection in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in vivo generated human CD4+ T cells with a nanomolar IC50. G-3 was also capable of transferring functional siRNAs to CCR5 expressing cells. Collectively, the cell-specific, internalizing, CCR5-targeted aptamers and aptamer-siRNA conjugates offer promise for overcoming some of the current challenges of drug resistance in HIV-1 by providing cell-type- or tissue-specific delivery of various therapeutic moieties. PMID:25754473

  20. RNA glycosidase and other agents target Tat to inhibit HIV-1 transcription.

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    Harrich, David; Jin, Hongping

    2018-03-20

    The HIV-1 tat gene encodes a small 86-104 amino acid protein depending on the HIV-1 strain. Tat is essential for HIV-1 replication through interactions with numerous cellular transcription factors. The interaction between Tat and P-TEFb, which is a cellular protein complex composed of cyclin T1 and CDK9, delivers P-TEFb to the newly transcribed viral mRNAs where phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II by CDK9 leads to highly efficient mRNA transcription. It has long been recognized that Tat is a potential anti-HIV-1 target and possibly a viral Achilles' heel. However, specifically targeting Tat without affecting normal host cell functions has been challenging. Means to inactivate Tat have been reported that includes small compounds, transdominant negative Tat proteins, and by plant-derived antivirals. Investigations of these agents have reported encouraging outcomes that inform and may hopefully affect strategies for a functional HIV-1 cure. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. HIV-1 RNAs are Not Part of the Argonaute 2 Associated RNA Interference Pathway in Macrophages.

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    Valentina Vongrad

    Full Text Available MiRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs are key players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. HIV-1 derived small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs have been described in HIV-1 infected cells, but their biological functions still remain to be elucidated. Here, we approached the question whether viral sncRNAs may play a role in the RNA interference (RNAi pathway or whether viral mRNAs are targeted by cellular miRNAs in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM.The incorporation of viral sncRNAs and/or their target RNAs into RNA-induced silencing complex was investigated using photoactivatable ribonucleoside-induced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP as well as high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP, which capture Argonaute2-bound miRNAs and their target RNAs. HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were chosen as target cells, as they have previously been shown to express HIV-1 sncRNAs. In addition, we applied small RNA deep sequencing to study differential cellular miRNA expression in HIV-1 infected versus non-infected MDMs.PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP data demonstrated the absence of HIV-1 RNAs in Ago2-RISC, although the presence of a multitude of HIV-1 sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected MDMs was confirmed by small RNA sequencing. Small RNA sequencing revealed that 1.4% of all sncRNAs were of HIV-1 origin. However, neither HIV-1 derived sncRNAs nor putative HIV-1 target sequences incorporated into Ago2-RISC were identified suggesting that HIV-1 sncRNAs are not involved in the canonical RNAi pathway nor is HIV-1 targeted by this pathway in HIV-1 infected macrophages.

  2. Dynamics of HIV-1 RNA Near the Plasma Membrane during Virus Assembly.

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    Sardo, Luca; Hatch, Steven C; Chen, Jianbo; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Burdick, Ryan C; Chen, De; Westlake, Christopher J; Lockett, Stephen; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2015-11-01

    To increase our understanding of the events that lead to HIV-1 genome packaging, we examined the dynamics of viral RNA and Gag-RNA interactions near the plasma membrane by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We labeled HIV-1 RNA with a photoconvertible Eos protein via an RNA-binding protein that recognizes stem-loop sequences engineered into the viral genome. Near-UV light exposure causes an irreversible structural change in Eos and alters its emitted fluorescence from green to red. We studied the dynamics of HIV-1 RNA by photoconverting Eos near the plasma membrane, and we monitored the population of photoconverted red-Eos-labeled RNA signals over time. We found that in the absence of Gag, most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane transiently, for a few minutes. The presence of Gag significantly increased the time that RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane: most of the RNAs were still detected after 30 min. We then quantified the proportion of HIV-1 RNAs near the plasma membrane that were packaged into assembling viral complexes. By tagging Gag with blue fluorescent protein, we observed that only a portion, ∼13 to 34%, of the HIV-1 RNAs that reached the membrane were recruited into assembling particles in an hour, and the frequency of HIV-1 RNA packaging varied with the Gag expression level. Our studies reveal the HIV-1 RNA dynamics on the plasma membrane and the efficiency of RNA recruitment and provide insights into the events leading to the generation of infectious HIV-1 virions. Nascent HIV-1 particles assemble on plasma membranes. During the assembly process, HIV-1 RNA genomes must be encapsidated into viral complexes to generate infectious particles. To gain insights into the RNA packaging and virus assembly mechanisms, we labeled and monitored the HIV-1 RNA signals near the plasma membrane. Our results showed that most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane for only a few minutes in the absence of Gag, whereas

  3. A Phylogenetic Survey on the Structure of the HIV-1 Leader RNA Domain That Encodes the Splice Donor Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nancy; Das, Atze T; Berkhout, Ben

    2016-07-21

    RNA splicing is a critical step in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication cycle because it controls the expression of the complex viral proteome. The major 5' splice site (5'ss) that is positioned in the untranslated leader of the HIV-1 RNA transcript is of particular interest because it is used for the production of the more than 40 differentially spliced subgenomic mRNAs. HIV-1 splicing needs to be balanced tightly to ensure the proper levels of all viral proteins, including the Gag-Pol proteins that are translated from the unspliced RNA. We previously presented evidence that the major 5'ss is regulated by a repressive local RNA structure, the splice donor (SD) hairpin, that masks the 11 nucleotides (nts) of the 5'ss signal for recognition by U1 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) of the spliceosome machinery. A strikingly different multiple-hairpin RNA conformation was recently proposed for this part of the HIV-1 leader RNA. We therefore inspected the sequence of natural HIV-1 isolates in search for support, in the form of base pair (bp) co-variations, for the different RNA conformations.

  4. Interactions Between HIV-1 Gag and Viral RNA Genome Enhance Virion Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilley, Kari A; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Galli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Most HIV-1 virions contain two copies of full-length viral RNA, indicating that genome packaging is efficient and tightly regulated. However, the structural protein Gag is the only component required for the assembly of noninfectious virus-like particles and the viral RNA is dispensable...... in this process. The mechanism that allows HIV-1 to achieve such high efficiency of genome packaging when a packageable viral RNA is not required for virus assembly is currently unknown. In this report, we examined the role of HIV-1 RNA in virus assembly and found that packageable HIV-1 RNA enhances particle...... into each nascent virion. These studies shed light on the mechanism by which HIV-1 achieves efficient genome packaging during virus assembly.IMPORTANCE Retrovirus assembly is a well-choreographed event, during which many viral and cellular components come together to generate infectious virions. The viral...

  5. The roles of five conserved lentiviral RNA structures in HIV-1 replication.

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    Liu, Yang; Chen, Jianbo; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Desimmie, Belete A; Busan, Steven; Pathak, Vinay K; Weeks, Kevin M; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2018-01-15

    The HIV-1 RNA genome contains complex structures with many structural elements playing regulatory roles during viral replication. A recent study has identified multiple RNA structures with unknown functions that are conserved among HIV-1 and two simian immunodeficiency viruses. To explore the roles of these conserved RNA structures, we introduced synonymous mutations into the HIV-1 genome to disrupt each structure. These mutants exhibited similar particle production, viral infectivity, and replication kinetics relative to the parent NL4-3 virus. However, when replicating in direct competition with the wild-type NL4-3 virus, mutations of RNA structures at inter-protein domain junctions can cause fitness defects. These findings reveal the ability of HIV-1 to tolerate changes in its sequences, even in apparently highly conserved structures, which permits high genetic diversity in HIV-1 population. Our results also suggest that some conserved RNA structures may function to fine-tune viral replication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. An RNA-binding compound that stabilizes the HIV-1 gRNA packaging signal structure and specifically blocks HIV-1 RNA encapsidation.

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    Ingemarsdotter, Carin K; Zeng, Jingwei; Long, Ziqi; Lever, Andrew M L; Kenyon, Julia C

    2018-03-14

    NSC260594, a quinolinium derivative from the NCI diversity set II compound library, was previously identified in a target-based assay as an inhibitor of the interaction between the HIV-1 (ψ) stem-loop 3 (SL3) RNA and Gag. This compound was shown to exhibit potent antiviral activity. Here, the effects of this compound on individual stages of the viral lifecycle were examined by qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot, to see if its actions were specific to the viral packaging stage. The structural effects of NSC260594 binding to the HIV-1 gRNA were also examined by SHAPE and dimerization assays. Treatment of cells with NSC260594 did not reduce the number of integration events of incoming virus, and treatment of virus producing cells did not affect the level of intracellular Gag protein or viral particle release as determined by immunoblot. However, NSC260594 reduced the incorporation of gRNA into virions by up to 82%, without affecting levels of gRNA inside the cell. This reduction in packaging correlated closely with the reduction in infectivity of the released viral particles. To establish the structural effects of NSC260594 on the HIV-1 gRNA, we performed SHAPE analyses to pinpoint RNA structural changes. NSC260594 had a stabilizing effect on the wild type RNA that was not confined to SL3, but that was propagated across the structure. A packaging mutant lacking SL3 did not show this effect. NSC260594 acts as a specific inhibitor of HIV-1 RNA packaging. No other viral functions are affected. Its action involves preventing the interaction of Gag with SL3 by stabilizing this small RNA stem-loop which then leads to stabilization of the global packaging signal region (psi or ψ). This confirms data, previously only shown in analyses of isolated SL3 oligonucleotides, that SL3 is structurally labile in the presence of Gag and that this is critical for the complete psi region to be able to adopt different conformations. Since replication is otherwise unaffected by NSC260594

  7. Specific Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 by dCas9-SunTag-VP64-mediated Guide RNA Targeting the HIV-1 Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Haiyan; Jiang, Zhengtao; Lu, Panpan; Ma, Li; Li, Chuan; Pan, Hanyu; Fu, Zheng; Qu, Xiying; Wang, Pengfei; Deng, Junxiao; Yang, Xinyi; Wang, Jianhua; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 escapes antiretroviral agents by integrating into the host DNA and forming a latent transcriptionally silent HIV-1 provirus. Transcriptional activation is prerequisite for reactivation and the eradication of latent HIV-1 proviruses. dCas9-SunTag-VP64 transcriptional system has been reported that it can robustly activate the expression of an endogenous gene using a single guide RNA (sgRNA). Here, we systematically investigated the potential of dCas9-SunTag-VP64 with the designed sgRNAs for reactivating latent HIV-1. We found dCas9-SunTag-VP64 with sgRNA 4 or sgRNA 5 targeted from -164 to -146 or -124 to -106 bp upstream of the transcription start sites of HIV-1 could induce high expression of luciferase reporter gene after screening of sgRNAs targeting different regions of the HIV-1 promoter. Further, we confirmed that dCas9-SunTag-VP64 with sgRNA 4 or sgRNA 5 can effectively reactivate latent HIV-1 transcription in several latently infected human T-cell lines. Moreover, we confirmed that the reactivation of latent HIV-1 by dCas9-SunTag-VP64 with the designed sgRNA occurred through specific binding to the HIV-1 LTR promoter without genotoxicity and global T-cell activation. Taken together, our data demonstrated dCas9-SunTag-VP64 system can effectively and specifically reactivate latent HIV-1 transcription, suggesting that this strategy could offer a novel approach to anti-HIV-1 latency.

  8. Comparison of the Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay to the Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test v2.0 for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Johansen, Kim; Landt, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    Background HIV-RNA is the most important parameter for monitoring antiviral treatment in individuals infected with HIV-1. Knowledge of the performance of different tests for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA is therefore important for clinical care. Objectives To compare the analytical performance ...

  9. Deciphering the role of the Gag-Pol ribosomal frameshift signal in HIV-1 RNA genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2014-04-01

    A key step of retroviral replication is packaging of the viral RNA genome during virus assembly. Specific packaging is mediated by interactions between the viral protein Gag and elements in the viral RNA genome. In HIV-1, similar to most retroviruses, the packaging signal is located within the 5' untranslated region and extends into the gag-coding region. A recent study reported that a region including the Gag-Pol ribosomal frameshift signal plays an important role in HIV-1 RNA packaging; deletions or mutations that affect the RNA structure of this signal lead to drastic decreases (10- to 50-fold) in viral RNA packaging and virus titer. We examined here the role of the ribosomal frameshift signal in HIV-1 RNA packaging by studying the RNA packaging and virus titer in the context of proviruses. Three mutants with altered ribosomal frameshift signal, either through direct deletion of the signal, mutation of the 6U slippery sequence, or alterations of the secondary structure were examined. We found that RNAs from all three mutants were packaged efficiently, and they generate titers similar to that of a virus containing the wild-type ribosomal frameshift signal. We conclude that although the ribosomal frameshift signal plays an important role in regulating the replication cycle, this RNA element is not directly involved in regulating RNA encapsidation. To generate infectious viruses, HIV-1 must package viral RNA genome during virus assembly. The specific HIV-1 genome packaging is mediated by interactions between the structural protein Gag and elements near the 5' end of the viral RNA known as packaging signal. In this study, we examined whether the Gag-Pol ribosomal frameshift signal is important for HIV-1 RNA packaging as recently reported. Our results demonstrated that when Gag/Gag-Pol is supplied in trans, none of the tested ribosomal frameshift signal mutants has defects in RNA packaging or virus titer. These studies provide important information on how HIV-1

  10. MicroRNA profile changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs play diverse roles in regulating cellular and developmental functions. We have profiled the miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 36 HIV-1 seropositive individuals and 12 normal controls. The HIV-1-positive individuals were categorized operationally into four classes based on their CD4+ T-cell counts and their viral loads. We report that specific miRNA signatures can be observed for each of the four classes.

  11. Cytoplasmic HIV-1 RNA is mainly transported by diffusion in the presence or absence of Gag protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jianbo; Grunwald, David; Sardo, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Full-length HIV-1 RNA plays a central role in viral replication by serving as the mRNA for essential viral proteins and as the genome packaged into infectious virions. Proper RNA trafficking is required for the functions of RNA and its encoded proteins; however, the mechanism by which HIV-1 RNA i...

  12. Stability of HIV-1 RNA in blood during specimen handling and storage prior to amplification by NASBA-QT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruisten, S. M.; Oudshoorn, P.; van Swieten, P.; Boeser-Nunnink, B.; van Aarle, P.; Tondreau, S. P.; Cuypers, H. T.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of different storage temperatures and anticoagulation conditions on the HIV-1 RNA load as measured by NASBA-QT was examined. Blood specimens from 14 HIV-1 infected individuals were processed within 2 h after collection. The HIV-1 RNA load remained stable for at least 6 months when

  13. Tat-dependent production of an HIV-1 TAR-encoded miRNA-like small RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwig, Alex; Jongejan, Aldo; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that retroviruses can produce microRNAs (miRNAs). To prevent cleavage of their RNA genome, retroviruses have to use an alternative RNA source as miRNA precursor. The transacting responsive (TAR) hairpin structure in HIV-1 RNA has been suggested as source for miRNAs, but how

  14. Selective inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) RNase H by small RNA hairpins and dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoush, Rami N; Carriero, Sandra; Min, Kyung-Lyum; Damha, Masad J

    2004-04-02

    We present here the design of a novel class of RNA inhibitors of the RNase H domain of HIV-1 RT, a ribonuclease activity that is essential for viral replication in vivo. Specifically, we show that small RNA hairpins and dumbbells can selectively inhibit the RNase H activity of HIV-1 RT without affecting other cellular RNases H (e.g., E. coli and human RNase H). These results suggest that the inhibitors do not interact with the nucleic acid binding site of RT RNase H, as this region should be well conserved among the various enzymes. The most potent inhibitors displayed IC50 values in the 3-8 microM range. Remarkably, the DNA polymerase activity, an intrinsic property of HIV RT, was not inhibited by the hairpin and dumbbell aptamers, a property not previously observed for any nucleic acid aptamer directed against RT RNase H. The results described here suggest a noncompetitive binding mechanism, as outlined in the differential inhibitory characteristics of each of the nucleic acid aptamers against the bacterial, human, and viral RNase H homologues.

  15. Annealing to sequences within the primer binding site loop promotes an HIV-1 RNA conformation favoring RNA dimerization and packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Elias; Niu, Meijuan; Kleiman, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) includes structural elements that regulate reverse transcription, transcription, translation, tRNALys3 annealing to the gRNA, and gRNA dimerization and packaging into viruses. It has been reported that gRNA dimerization and packaging are regulated by changes in the conformation of the 5′-UTR RNA. In this study, we show that annealing of tRNALys3 or a DNA oligomer complementary to sequences within the primer binding site (PBS) loop of the 5′ UTR enhances its dimerization in vitro. Structural analysis of the 5′-UTR RNA using selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) shows that the annealing promotes a conformational change of the 5′ UTR that has been previously reported to favor gRNA dimerization and packaging into virus. The model predicted by SHAPE analysis is supported by antisense experiments designed to test which annealed sequences will promote or inhibit gRNA dimerization. Based on reports showing that the gRNA dimerization favors its incorporation into viruses, we tested the ability of a mutant gRNA unable to anneal to tRNALys3 to be incorporated into virions. We found a ∼60% decrease in mutant gRNA packaging compared with wild-type gRNA. Together, these data further support a model for viral assembly in which the initial annealing of tRNALys3 to gRNA is cytoplasmic, which in turn aids in the promotion of gRNA dimerization and its incorporation into virions. PMID:23960173

  16. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Claudia S., E-mail: lopezcl@ohsu.edu [Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel [Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Kozak, Susan L.; Kabat, David [Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Barklis, Eric, E-mail: barklis@ohsu.edu [Departments of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. - Highlights: • At the protein level, full-length HIV-1 Env alters Gag protein expression. • HIV-1 Env RNA expression reduces Gag levels and virus release. • Env RNA effects on Gag are dependent on the RRE. • RRE-containing Env RNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export.

  17. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Claudia S.; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L.; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. - Highlights: • At the protein level, full-length HIV-1 Env alters Gag protein expression. • HIV-1 Env RNA expression reduces Gag levels and virus release. • Env RNA effects on Gag are dependent on the RRE. • RRE-containing Env RNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export

  18. High-throughput SHAPE analysis reveals structures in HIV-1 genomic RNA strongly conserved across distinct biological states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Wilkinson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication and pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is tightly linked to the structure of its RNA genome, but genome structure in infectious virions is poorly understood. We invent high-throughput SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension technology, which uses many of the same tools as DNA sequencing, to quantify RNA backbone flexibility at single-nucleotide resolution and from which robust structural information can be immediately derived. We analyze the structure of HIV-1 genomic RNA in four biologically instructive states, including the authentic viral genome inside native particles. Remarkably, given the large number of plausible local structures, the first 10% of the HIV-1 genome exists in a single, predominant conformation in all four states. We also discover that noncoding regions functioning in a regulatory role have significantly lower (p-value < 0.0001 SHAPE reactivities, and hence more structure, than do viral coding regions that function as the template for protein synthesis. By directly monitoring protein binding inside virions, we identify the RNA recognition motif for the viral nucleocapsid protein. Seven structurally homologous binding sites occur in a well-defined domain in the genome, consistent with a role in directing specific packaging of genomic RNA into nascent virions. In addition, we identify two distinct motifs that are targets for the duplex destabilizing activity of this same protein. The nucleocapsid protein destabilizes local HIV-1 RNA structure in ways likely to facilitate initial movement both of the retroviral reverse transcriptase from its tRNA primer and of the ribosome in coding regions. Each of the three nucleocapsid interaction motifs falls in a specific genome domain, indicating that local protein interactions can be organized by the long-range architecture of an RNA. High-throughput SHAPE reveals a comprehensive view of HIV-1 RNA genome structure, and further

  19. Receptor-targeted aptamer-siRNA conjugate-directed transcriptional regulation of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiehua; Lazar, Daniel; Li, Haitang; Xia, Xin; Satheesan, Sangeetha; Charlins, Paige; O'Mealy, Denis; Akkina, Ramesh; Saayman, Sheena; Weinberg, Marc S.; Rossi, John J.; Morris, Kevin V.

    2018-01-01

    Gene-based therapies represent a promising therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of HIV-1, as they have the potential to maintain sustained viral inhibition with reduced treatment interventions. Such an option may represent a long-term treatment alternative to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods: We previously described a therapeutic approach, referred to as transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), whereby small noncoding RNAs directly inhibit the transcriptional activity of HIV-1 by targeting sites within the viral promoter, specifically the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR). TGS differs from traditional RNA interference (RNAi) in that it is characterized by concomitant silent-state epigenetic marks on histones and DNA. To deliver TGS-inducing RNAs, we developed functional RNA conjugates based on the previously reported dual function of the gp120 (A-1) aptamer conjugated to 27-mer Dicer-substrate anti-HIV-1 siRNA (dsiRNA), LTR-362. Results: We demonstrate here that high levels of processed guide RNAs localize to the nucleus in infected T lymphoblastoid CEM cell line and primary human CD4+ T-cells. Treatment of the aptamer-siRNA conjugates induced TGS with an ~10-fold suppression of viral p24 levels as measured at day 12 post infection. To explore the silencing efficacy of aptamer-siRNA conjugates in vivo, HIV-1-infected humanized NOD/SCID/IL2 rγnull mice (hu-NSG) were treated with the aptamer-siRNA conjugates. Systemic delivery of the A-1-stick-LTR-362 27-mer siRNA conjugates suppressed HIV-1 infection and protected CD4+ T cell levels in viremia hu-NSG mice. Principle conclusions: Collectively these data suggest that the gp120 aptamer-dsiRNA conjugate design is suitable for systemic delivery of small RNAs that can be used to suppress HIV-1. PMID:29556342

  20. Interactions Between HIV-1 Gag and Viral RNA Genome Enhance Virion Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilley, Kari A; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Galli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Most HIV-1 virions contain two copies of full-length viral RNA, indicating that genome packaging is efficient and tightly regulated. However, the structural protein Gag is the only component required for the assembly of noninfectious virus-like particles and the viral RNA is dispensable in this p...

  1. HIV-1 genomic RNA diversification following sexual and parenteral virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, T. F.; Zwart, G.; Bakker, M.; Goudsmit, J.

    1992-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA variation was studied in seven presumed donor-recipient pairs directly following sexual (6/7) or parenteral (1/7) transmission. The first RNA-positive serum sample of each recipient and the serum sample of the virus transmitter, identified by

  2. Efficient inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an artificial polycistronic miRNA construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi has been used as a promising approach to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 replication for both in vitro and in vivo animal models. However, HIV-1 escape mutants after RNAi treatment have been reported. Expressing multiple small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against conserved viral sequences can serve as a genetic barrier for viral escape, and optimization of the efficiency of this process was the aim of this study. Results An artificial polycistronic transcript driven by a CMV promoter was designed to inhibit HIV-1 replication. The artificial polycistronic transcript contained two pre-miR-30a backbones and one pre-miR-155 backbone, which are linked by a sequence derived from antisense RNA sequence targeting the HIV-1 env gene. Our results demonstrated that this artificial polycistronic transcript simultaneously expresses three anti-HIV siRNAs and efficiently inhibits HIV-1 replication. In addition, the biosafety of MT-4 cells expressing this polycistronic miRNA transcript was evaluated, and no apparent impacts on cell proliferation rate, interferon response, and interruption of native miRNA processing were observed. Conclusions The strategy described here to generate an artificial polycistronic transcript to inhibit viral replication provided an opportunity to select and optimize many factors to yield highly efficient constructs expressing multiple siRNAs against viral infection.

  3. Nuclear retention of multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara G Lassen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells represents a major barrier to virus eradication in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. We describe here a novel post-transcriptional block in HIV-1 gene expression in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. This block involves the aberrant localization of multiply spliced (MS HIV-1 RNAs encoding the critical positive regulators Tat and Rev. Although these RNAs had no previously described export defect, we show that they exhibit strict nuclear localization in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. Overexpression of the transcriptional activator Tat from non-HIV vectors allowed virus production in these cells. Thus, the nuclear retention of MS HIV-1 RNA interrupts a positive feedback loop and contributes to the non-productive nature of infection of resting CD4+ T cells. To define the mechanism of nuclear retention, proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins that bind MS HIV-1 RNA. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB was identified as an HIV-1 RNA-binding protein differentially expressed in resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed cytoplasmic accumulation of HIV-1 RNAs. PTB overexpression also induced virus production by resting CD4+ T cells. Virus culture experiments showed that overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed release of replication-competent virus, while preserving a resting cellular phenotype. Whether through effects on RNA export or another mechanism, the ability of PTB to reverse latency without inducing cellular activation is a result with therapeutic implications.

  4. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    OpenAIRE

    López, Claudia S.; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L.; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expre...

  5. In vitro studies on tRNA annealing and reverse transcription with mutant HIV-1 RNA templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, N.; Berkhout, B.

    2000-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome encodes a semistable stem-loop structure, the U5-PBS hairpin, which occludes part of the tRNA primer binding site (PBS). In previous studies, we demonstrated that mutations that alter the stability of the U5-PBS hairpin inhibit virus

  6. RNA interactions in the 5' region of the HIV-1 genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian Kroun; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The untranslated leader of the dimeric HIV-1 RNA genome is folded into a complex structure that plays multiple and essential roles in the viral replication cycle. Here, we have investigated secondary and tertiary structural elements within the 5' 744 nucleotides of the HIV-1 genome using...... a combination of bioinformatics, enzymatic probing, native gel electrophoresis, and UV-crosslinking experiments. We used a recently developed RNA folding algorithm (Pfold) to predict the common secondary structure of an alignment of 20 divergent HIV-1 sequences. Combining this analysis with biochemical data, we...... present a secondary structure model for the entire 744 nucleotide fragment, which incorporates previously recognized and novel structural elements. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for a long-distance interaction between the region encompassing the AUG Gag initiation codon and an upstream...

  7. Inhibition of HIV-1 Viral Infection by an Engineered CRISPR Csy4 RNA Endoribonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    Full Text Available The bacterial defense system CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats has been explored as a powerful tool to edit genomic elements. In this study, we test the potential of CRISPR Csy4 RNA endoribonuclease for targeting HIV-1. We fused human codon-optimized Csy4 endoribonuclease with VPR, a HIV-1 viral preintegration complex protein. An HIV-1 cell model was modified to allow quantitative detection of active virus production. We found that the trans-expressing VPR-Csy4 almost completely blocked viral infection in two target cell lines (SupT1, Ghost. In the MAGI cell assay, where the HIV-1 LTR β-galactosidase is expressed under the control of the tat gene from an integrated provirus, VPR-Csy4 significantly blocked the activity of the provirus-activated HIV-1 reporter. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that Csy4 endoribonuclease is a promising tool that could be tailored further to target HIV-1.

  8. New Structure Sheds Light on Selective HIV-1 Genomic RNA Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik D; Cantara, William A; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2015-08-24

    Two copies of unspliced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) are preferentially selected for packaging by the group-specific antigen (Gag) polyprotein into progeny virions as a dimer during the late stages of the viral lifecycle. Elucidating the RNA features responsible for selective recognition of the full-length gRNA in the presence of an abundance of other cellular RNAs and spliced viral RNAs remains an area of intense research. The recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure by Keane et al. [1] expands upon previous efforts to determine the conformation of the HIV-1 RNA packaging signal. The data support a secondary structure wherein sequences that constitute the major splice donor site are sequestered through base pairing, and a tertiary structure that adopts a tandem 3-way junction motif that exposes the dimerization initiation site and unpaired guanosines for specific recognition by Gag. While it remains to be established whether this structure is conserved in the context of larger RNA constructs or in the dimer, this study serves as the basis for characterizing large RNA structures using novel NMR techniques, and as a major advance toward understanding how the HIV-1 gRNA is selectively packaged.

  9. The RNA helicase DDX1 is involved in restricted HIV-1 Rev function in human astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jianhua; Acheampong, Edward; Dave, Rajnish; Wang Fengxiang; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Pomerantz, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Productive infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS) involves mainly macrophages and microglial cells. A frequency of less than 10% of human astrocytes is estimated to be infectable with HIV-1. Nonetheless, this relatively low percentage of infected astrocytes, but associated with a large total number of astrocytic cells in the CNS, makes human astrocytes a critical part in the analyses of potential HIV-1 reservoirs in vivo. Investigations in astrocytic cell lines and primary human fetal astrocytes revealed that limited HIV-1 replication in these cells resulted from low-level viral entry, transcription, viral protein processing, and virion maturation. Of note, a low ratio of unspliced versus spliced HIV-1-specific RNA was also investigated, as Rev appeared to act aberrantly in astrocytes, via loss of nuclear and/or nucleolar localization and diminished Rev-mediated function. Host cellular machinery enabling Rev function has become critical for elucidation of diminished Rev activity, especially for those factors leading to RNA metabolism. We have recently identified a DEAD-box protein, DDX1, as a Rev cellular co-factor and now have explored its potential importance in astrocytes. Cells were infected with HIV-1 pseudotyped with envelope glycoproteins of amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (MLV). Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) for unspliced, singly-spliced, and multiply-spliced RNA clearly showed a lower ratio of unspliced/singly-spliced over multiply-spliced HIV-1-specific RNA in human astrocytes as compared to Rev-permissive, non-glial control cells. As well, the cellular localization of Rev in astrocytes was cytoplasmically dominant as compared to that of Rev-permissive, non-glial controls. This endogenous level of DDX1 expression in astrocytes was demonstrated directly to lead to a shift of Rev sub-cellular distribution dominance from nuclear and/or nucleolar to

  10. Cell-free (RNA and cell-associated (DNA HIV-1 and postnatal transmission through breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ndirangu

    Full Text Available Transmission through breastfeeding remains important for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT in resource-limited settings. We quantify the relationship between cell-free (RNA and cell-associated (DNA shedding of HIV-1 virus in breastmilk and the risk of postnatal HIV-1 transmission in the first 6 months postpartum.Thirty-six HIV-positive mothers who transmitted HIV-1 by breastfeeding were matched to 36 non-transmitting HIV-1 infected mothers in a case-control study nested in a cohort of HIV-infected women. RNA and DNA were quantified in the same breastmilk sample taken at 6 weeks and 6 months. Cox regression analysis assessed the association between cell-free and cell-associated virus levels and risk of postnatal HIV-1 transmission.There were higher median levels of cell-free than cell-associated HIV-1 virus (per ml in breastmilk at 6 weeks and 6 months. Multivariably, adjusting for antenatal CD4 count and maternal plasma viral load, at 6 weeks, each 10-fold increase in cell-free or cell-associated levels (per ml was significantly associated with HIV-1 transmission but stronger for cell-associated than cell-free levels [2.47 (95% CI 1.33-4.59 vs. aHR 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.96, respectively]. At 6 months, cell-free and cell-associated levels (per ml in breastmilk remained significantly associated with HIV-1 transmission but was stronger for cell-free than cell-associated levels [aHR 2.53 (95% CI 1.64-3.92 vs. 1.73 (95% CI 0.94-3.19, respectively].The findings suggest that cell-associated virus level (per ml is more important for early postpartum HIV-1 transmission (at 6 weeks than cell-free virus. As cell-associated virus levels have been consistently detected in breastmilk despite antiretroviral therapy, this highlights a potential challenge for resource-limited settings to achieve the UNAIDS goal for 2015 of eliminating vertical transmission. More studies would further knowledge on mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission and help develop more effective

  11. Potential of RNA aptamers in the prevention of HIV-1 subtype C infections

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    London, GM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Compounds that have been used to prevent human immunodeficiency virus type-I (HIV-1) infections include synthetic chemicals, plant extras and monoclonal antibodies. Although most of these compounds have potent antiviral activity, they often fail...

  12. Profile of HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-TB co-infected patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlapping epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) is expected in Nigeria that is ranked 10th amongst the 22 countries that bears the burden of TB worldwide. This study aims to estimate the HIV-1 RNA viral load and impact of anti TB therapy (ATT) in a CD4 cell count ...

  13. Toward a durable treatment of HIV-1 infection using RNA interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekels, Julia J. M.; Berkhout, Ben

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular mechanism that mediates sequence-specific gene silencing at the posttranscriptional level. RNAi can be used as an antiviral approach against human pathogens. An attractive target for RNAi therapeutics is the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and the

  14. Full-length RNA structure prediction of the HIV-1 genome reveals a conserved core domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sükösd, Zsuzsanna; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Seemann, Ernst Stefan

    2015-01-01

    of the HIV-1 genome is highly variable in most regions, with a limited number of stable and conserved RNA secondary structures. Most interesting, a set of long distance interactions form a core organizing structure (COS) that organize the genome into three major structural domains. Despite overlapping...

  15. Opening of the TAR hairpin in the HIV-1 genome causes aberrant RNA dimerization and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Atze T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TAR hairpin is present at both the 5′ and 3′ end of the HIV-1 RNA genome. The 5′ element binds the viral Tat protein and is essential for Tat-mediated activation of transcription. We recently observed that complete TAR deletion is allowed in the context of an HIV-1 variant that does not depend on this Tat-TAR axis for transcription. Mutations that open the 5′ stem-loop structure did however affect the leader RNA conformation and resulted in a severe replication defect. In this study, we set out to analyze which step of the HIV-1 replication cycle is affected by this conformational change of the leader RNA. Results We demonstrate that opening the 5′ TAR structure through a deletion in either side of the stem region caused aberrant dimerization and reduced packaging of the unspliced viral RNA genome. In contrast, truncation of the TAR hairpin through deletions in both sides of the stem did not affect RNA dimer formation and packaging. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, although the TAR hairpin is not essential for RNA dimerization and packaging, mutations in TAR can significantly affect these processes through misfolding of the relevant RNA signals.

  16. Cocaine enhances HIV-1 infectivity in monocyte derived dendritic cells by suppressing microRNA-155.

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    Jessica Napuri

    Full Text Available Cocaine and other drugs of abuse increase HIV-induced immunopathogenesis; and neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine addiction implicate a key role for microRNAs (miRNAs, single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and defend against viruses. In fact, HIV defends against miRNAs by actively suppressing the expression of polycistronic miRNA cluster miRNA-17/92, which encodes miRNAs including miR-20a. IFN-g production by natural killer cells is regulated by miR-155 and this miRNA is also critical to dendritic cell (DC maturation. However, the impact of cocaine on miR-155 expression and subsequent HIV replication is unknown. We examined the impact of cocaine on two miRNAs, miR-20a and miR-155, which are integral to HIV replication, and immune activation. Using miRNA isolation and analysis, RNA interference, quantitative real time PCR, and reporter assays we explored the effects of cocaine on miR-155 and miR-20 in the context of HIV infection. Here we demonstrate using monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDCCs that cocaine significantly inhibited miR-155 and miR-20a expression in a dose dependent manner. Cocaine and HIV synergized to lower miR-155 and miR-20a in MDDCs by 90%. Cocaine treatment elevated LTR-mediated transcription and PU.1 levels in MDCCs. But in context of HIV infection, PU.1 was reduced in MDDCs regardless of cocaine presence. Cocaine increased DC-SIGN and and decreased CD83 expression in MDDC, respectively. Overall, we show that cocaine inhibited miR-155 and prevented maturation of MDDCs; potentially, resulting in increased susceptibility to HIV-1. Our findings could lead to the development of novel miRNA-based therapeutic strategies targeting HIV infected cocaine abusers.

  17. The Life-Cycle of the HIV-1 Gag–RNA Complex

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    Elodie Mailler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 replication is a highly regulated process requiring the recruitment of viral and cellular components to the plasma membrane for assembly into infectious particles. This review highlights the recent process of understanding the selection of the genomic RNA (gRNA by the viral Pr55Gag precursor polyprotein, and the processes leading to its incorporation into viral particles.

  18. Comparison of droplet digital PCR and seminested real-time PCR for quantification of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiselinova, Maja; Pasternak, Alexander O.; de Spiegelaere, Ward; Vogelaers, Dirk; Berkhout, Ben; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2014-01-01

    Cell-associated (CA) HIV-1 RNA is considered a potential marker for assessment of viral reservoir dynamics and antiretroviral therapy (ART) response in HIV-infected patients. Recent studies employed sensitive seminested real-time quantitative (q)PCR to quantify CA HIV-1 RNA. Digital PCR has been

  19. Novel RNA Duplex Locks HIV-1 in a Latent State via Chromatin-mediated Transcriptional Silencing

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    Chantelle Ahlenstiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS of mammalian genes can be induced by short interfering RNA (siRNA targeting promoter regions. We previously reported potent TGS of HIV-1 by siRNA (PromA, which targets tandem NF-κB motifs within the viral 5′LTR. In this study, we screened a siRNA panel with the aim of identifying novel 5′LTR targets, to provide multiplexing potential with enhanced viral silencing and application toward developing alternate therapeutic strategies. Systematic examination identified a novel siRNA target, si143, confirmed to induce TGS as the silencing mechanism. TGS was prolonged with virus suppression >12 days, despite a limited ability to induce post- TGS. Epigenetic changes associated with silencing were suggested by partial reversal by histone deacetylase inhibitors and confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, which showed induction of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3, reduction in H3K9Ac, and recruitment of argonaute-1, all characteristic marks of heterochromatin and TGS. Together, these epigenetic changes mimic those associated with HIV-1 latency. Further, robust resistance to reactivation was observed in the J-Lat 9.2 cell latency model, when transduced with shPromA and/or sh143. These data support si/shRNA-mediated TGS approaches to HIV-1 and provide alternate targets to pursue a functional cure, whereby the viral reservoir is locked in latency following antiretroviral therapy cessation.

  20. Full-length RNA structure prediction of the HIV-1 genome reveals a conserved core domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sükösd, Zsuzsanna; Andersen, Ebbe S; Seemann, Stefan E; Jensen, Mads Krogh; Hansen, Mathias; Gorodkin, Jan; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-12-02

    A distance constrained secondary structural model of the ≈10 kb RNA genome of the HIV-1 has been predicted but higher-order structures, involving long distance interactions, are currently unknown. We present the first global RNA secondary structure model for the HIV-1 genome, which integrates both comparative structure analysis and information from experimental data in a full-length prediction without distance constraints. Besides recovering known structural elements, we predict several novel structural elements that are conserved in HIV-1 evolution. Our results also indicate that the structure of the HIV-1 genome is highly variable in most regions, with a limited number of stable and conserved RNA secondary structures. Most interesting, a set of long distance interactions form a core organizing structure (COS) that organize the genome into three major structural domains. Despite overlapping protein-coding regions the COS is supported by a particular high frequency of compensatory base changes, suggesting functional importance for this element. This new structural element potentially organizes the whole genome into three major domains protruding from a conserved core structure with potential roles in replication and evolution for the virus. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. HIV-1 and M-PMV RNA Nuclear Export Elements Program Viral Genomes for Distinct Cytoplasmic Trafficking Behaviors.

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    Pocock, Ginger M; Becker, Jordan T; Swanson, Chad M; Ahlquist, Paul; Sherer, Nathan M

    2016-04-01

    Retroviruses encode cis-acting RNA nuclear export elements that override nuclear retention of intron-containing viral mRNAs including the full-length, unspliced genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged into assembling virions. The HIV-1 Rev-response element (RRE) recruits the cellular nuclear export receptor CRM1 (also known as exportin-1/XPO1) using the viral protein Rev, while simple retroviruses encode constitutive transport elements (CTEs) that directly recruit components of the NXF1(Tap)/NXT1(p15) mRNA nuclear export machinery. How gRNA nuclear export is linked to trafficking machineries in the cytoplasm upstream of virus particle assembly is unknown. Here we used long-term (>24 h), multicolor live cell imaging to directly visualize HIV-1 gRNA nuclear export, translation, cytoplasmic trafficking, and virus particle production in single cells. We show that the HIV-1 RRE regulates unique, en masse, Rev- and CRM1-dependent "burst-like" transitions of mRNAs from the nucleus to flood the cytoplasm in a non-localized fashion. By contrast, the CTE derived from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) links gRNAs to microtubules in the cytoplasm, driving them to cluster markedly to the centrosome that forms the pericentriolar core of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). Adding each export element to selected heterologous mRNAs was sufficient to confer each distinct export behavior, as was directing Rev/CRM1 or NXF1/NXT1 transport modules to mRNAs using a site-specific RNA tethering strategy. Moreover, multiple CTEs per transcript enhanced MTOC targeting, suggesting that a cooperative mechanism links NXF1/NXT1 to microtubules. Combined, these results reveal striking, unexpected features of retroviral gRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport and demonstrate roles for mRNA export elements that extend beyond nuclear pores to impact gRNA distribution in the cytoplasm.

  2. p21(WAF1/CIP1 RNA expression in highly HIV-1 exposed, uninfected individuals.

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    Joshua Herbeck

    Full Text Available Some individuals remain HIV-1 antibody and PCR negative after repeated exposures to the virus, and are referred to as HIV-exposed seronegatives (HESN. However, the causes of resistance to HIV-1 infection in cases other than those with a homozygous CCR5Δ32 deletion are unclear. We hypothesized that human p21WAF1/CIP1 (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor could play a role in resistance to HIV-1 infection in HESN, as p21 expression has been associated with suppression of HIV-1 in elite controllers and reported to block HIV-1 integration in cell culture. We measured p21 RNA expression in PBMC from 40 HESN and 40 low exposure HIV-1 seroconverters (LESC prior to their infection using a real-time PCR assay. Comparing the 20 HESN with the highest exposure risk (median = 111 partners/2.5 years prior to the 20 LESC with the lowest exposure risk (median = 1 partner/2.5 years prior, p21 expression trended higher in HESN in only one of two experiments (P = 0.11 vs. P = 0.80. Additionally, comparison of p21 expression in the top 40 HESN (median = 73 partners/year and lowest 40 LESC (median = 2 partners/year showed no difference between the groups (P = 0.84. There was a weak linear trend between risk of infection after exposure and increasing p21 gene expression (R2 = 0.02, P = 0.12, but again only in one experiment. Hence, if p21 expression contributes to the resistance to viral infection in HESN, it likely plays a minor role evident only in those with extremely high levels of exposure to HIV-1.

  3. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release.

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    López, Claudia S; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-08-01

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-occurrence of Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastring, Danielle R; Amedee, Angela; Gatski, Megan; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro A; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are independently associated with increased risk of vaginal shedding in HIV-positive women. Because these 2 conditions commonly co-occur, this study was undertaken to examine the association between TV/BV co-occurrence and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. HIV-positive women attending outpatient HIV clinics in 3 urban US cities underwent a clinical examination; were screened for TV, BV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis; and completed a behavioral survey. Women shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally (≥50 copies/mL) were compared with women who had an undetectable (women who were TV positive and BV positive or had co-occurrence of TV/BV had higher odds of shedding vaginally when compared with women who did not have these conditions. In this sample of 373 HIV-positive women, 43.1% (n = 161) had co-occurrence of TV/BV and 33.2% (n = 124) were shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally. The odds of shedding HIV vaginally in the presence of TV alone or BV alone and when TV/BV co-occurred were 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-9.37), 5.65 (95% CI, 2.64-12.01), and 18.63 (95% CI, 6.71-51.72), respectively, when compared with women with no diagnosis of TV or BV, and after adjusting for age, antiretroviral therapy status, and plasma viral load. T. vaginalis and BV were independently and synergistically related to vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. Screening and prompt treatment of these 2 conditions among HIV-positive women are important not only clinically but for HIV prevention, as well.

  5. Inhibition of HIV-1 by multiple siRNAs expressed from a single microRNA polycistron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ying Poi; Haasnoot, Joost; ter Brake, Olivier; Berkhout, Ben; Konstantinova, Pavlina

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. However, HIV-1 can escape from RNAi-mediated antiviral therapy by selection of mutations in the targeted sequence. To prevent viral escape, multiple small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)

  6. Endogenous expression of a high-affinity pseudoknot RNA aptamer suppresses replication of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloin, Laurent; Lehmann, Maik Jörg; Sczakiel, Georg; Restle, Tobias

    2002-09-15

    Aptamers, small oligonucleotides derived from an in vitro evolution process called SELEX, are promising therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Although very effective in vitro, only a few examples are available showing their potential in vivo. We have analyzed the effect of a well characterized pseudoknot RNA aptamer selected for tight binding to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 reverse transcriptase on HIV replication. Transient intracellular expression of a chimeric RNA consisting of the human initiator tRNA(Met) (tRNA(Meti))/aptamer sequence in human 293T cells showed inhibition of HIV particle release by >75% when the cells were co-transfected with proviral HIV-1 DNA. Subsequent virus production of human T-lymphoid C8166 cells, infected with viral particles derived from co-transfected 293T cells, was again reduced by >75% as compared with the control. As the observed effects are additive, in this model for virus spread, the total reduction of HIV particle formation by transient intracellular expression of the pseudoknot RNA aptamer amounts to >95%. Low-dose HIV infection of human T cells stably expressing the aptamer did not show any virus replication over a period of 35 days. This is the first example of an RNA aptamer selected against a viral enzyme target to show powerful antiviral activity in HIV-1-permissive human T-lymphoid cell lines.

  7. CCR5 gene disruption via lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and single guided RNA renders cells resistant to HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming; Ye, Chaobaihui; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Di; Kimata, Jason T; Zhou, Paul

    2014-01-01

    CCR5, a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry, is a major target for drug and genetic intervention against HIV-1. Genetic intervention strategies have knocked down CCR5 expression levels by shRNA or disrupted the CCR5 gene using zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) or Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN). In the present study, we silenced CCR5 via CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) and single guided RNAs (sgRNAs). We constructed lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and CCR5 sgRNAs. We show that a single round transduction of lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and CCR5 sgRNAs into HIV-1 susceptible human CD4+ cells yields high frequencies of CCR5 gene disruption. CCR5 gene-disrupted cells are not only resistant to R5-tropic HIV-1, including transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV-1 isolates, but also have selective advantage over CCR5 gene-undisrupted cells during R5-tropic HIV-1 infection. Importantly, using T7 endonuclease I assay we did not detect genome mutations at potential off-target sites that are highly homologous to these CCR5 sgRNAs in stably transduced cells even at 84 days post transduction. Thus we conclude that silencing of CCR5 via Cas9 and CCR5-specific sgRNAs could be a viable alternative strategy for engineering resistance against HIV-1.

  8. HIV-1 splicing at the major splice donor site is restricted by RNA structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nancy; van Bel, Nikki; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T

    2014-11-01

    The 5' leader region of the HIV-1 RNA contains the major 5' splice site (ss) that is used in the production of all spliced viral RNAs. This splice-donor (SD) region can fold a stem-loop structure. We demonstrate that whereas stabilization of this SD hairpin reduces splicing efficiency, destabilization increases splicing. Both stabilization and destabilization reduce viral fitness. These results demonstrate that the stability of the SD hairpin can modulate the level of splicing, most likely by controlling the accessibility of the 5'ss for the splicing machinery. The natural stability of the SD hairpin restricts splicing and this stability seems to be fine-tuned to reach the optimal balance between unspliced and spliced RNAs for efficient virus replication. The 5'ss region of different HIV-1 isolates and the related SIVmac239 can fold a similar structure. This evolutionary conservation supports the importance of this structure in viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of both HIV-1 reverse transcription and gene expression by a cyclic peptide that binds the Tat-transactivating response element (TAR RNA.

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    Matthew S Lalonde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The RNA response element TAR plays a critical role in HIV replication by providing a binding site for the recruitment of the viral transactivator protein Tat. Using a structure-guided approach, we have developed a series of conformationally-constrained cyclic peptides that act as structural mimics of the Tat RNA binding region and block Tat-TAR interactions at nanomolar concentrations in vitro. Here we show that these compounds block Tat-dependent transcription in cell-free systems and in cell-based reporter assays. The compounds are also cell permeable, have low toxicity, and inhibit replication of diverse HIV-1 strains, including both CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic primary HIV-1 isolates of the divergent subtypes A, B, C, D and CRF01_AE. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the cyclic peptidomimetic L50 exhibited an IC(50 ∼250 nM. Surprisingly, inhibition of LTR-driven HIV-1 transcription could not account for the full antiviral activity. Timed drug-addition experiments revealed that L-50 has a bi-phasic inhibition curve with the first phase occurring after HIV-1 entry into the host cell and during the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. The second phase coincides with inhibition of HIV-1 transcription. Reconstituted reverse transcription assays confirm that HIV-1 (- strand strong stop DNA synthesis is blocked by L50-TAR RNA interactions in-vitro. These findings are consistent with genetic evidence that TAR plays critical roles both during reverse transcription and during HIV gene expression. Our results suggest that antiviral drugs targeting TAR RNA might be highly effective due to a dual inhibitory mechanism.

  10. Inhibition of both HIV-1 reverse transcription and gene expression by a cyclic peptide that binds the Tat-transactivating response element (TAR) RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Matthew S; Lobritz, Michael A; Ratcliff, Annette; Chamanian, Mastooreh; Athanassiou, Zafiria; Tyagi, Mudit; Wong, Julian; Robinson, John A; Karn, Jonathan; Varani, Gabriele; Arts, Eric J

    2011-05-01

    The RNA response element TAR plays a critical role in HIV replication by providing a binding site for the recruitment of the viral transactivator protein Tat. Using a structure-guided approach, we have developed a series of conformationally-constrained cyclic peptides that act as structural mimics of the Tat RNA binding region and block Tat-TAR interactions at nanomolar concentrations in vitro. Here we show that these compounds block Tat-dependent transcription in cell-free systems and in cell-based reporter assays. The compounds are also cell permeable, have low toxicity, and inhibit replication of diverse HIV-1 strains, including both CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic primary HIV-1 isolates of the divergent subtypes A, B, C, D and CRF01_AE. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the cyclic peptidomimetic L50 exhibited an IC(50) ∼250 nM. Surprisingly, inhibition of LTR-driven HIV-1 transcription could not account for the full antiviral activity. Timed drug-addition experiments revealed that L-50 has a bi-phasic inhibition curve with the first phase occurring after HIV-1 entry into the host cell and during the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. The second phase coincides with inhibition of HIV-1 transcription. Reconstituted reverse transcription assays confirm that HIV-1 (-) strand strong stop DNA synthesis is blocked by L50-TAR RNA interactions in-vitro. These findings are consistent with genetic evidence that TAR plays critical roles both during reverse transcription and during HIV gene expression. Our results suggest that antiviral drugs targeting TAR RNA might be highly effective due to a dual inhibitory mechanism.

  11. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  12. Stabilization of the U5-leader stem in the HIV-1 RNA genome affects initiation and elongation of reverse transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, N.; Groot, F.; Berkhout, B.

    2000-01-01

    Reverse transcription of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type I (HIV-1) RNA genome is primed by a cellular tRNA-lys3 molecule that binds to the primer binding site (PBS). The PBS is predicted to be part of an extended RNA structure, consisting of a small U5-PBS hairpin and a large U5-leader stem.

  13. Inhibition of HIV Replication by Cyclic and Hairpin PNAs Targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Upert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 replication and gene expression entails specific interaction of the viral protein Tat with its transactivation responsive element (TAR, to form a highly stable stem-bulge-loop structure. Previously, we described triphenylphosphonium (TPP cation-based vectors that efficiently deliver nucleotide analogs (PNAs into the cytoplasm of cells. In particular, we showed that the TPP conjugate of a linear 16-mer PNA targeting the apical stem-loop region of TAR impedes Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR in vitro and also in cell culture systems. In this communication, we conjugated TPP to cyclic and hairpin PNAs targeting the loop region of HIV-1 TAR and evaluated their antiviral efficacy in a cell culture system. We found that TPP-cyclic PNAs containing only 8 residues, showed higher antiviral potency compared to hairpin PNAs of 12 or 16 residues. We further noted that the TPP-conjugates of the 8-mer cyclic PNA as well as the 16-mer linear PNA displayed similar antiviral efficacy. However, cyclic PNAs were shown to be highly specific to their target sequences. This communication emphasizes on the importance of small constrained cyclic PNAs over both linear and hairpin structures for targeting biologically relevant RNA hairpins.

  14. Comparison of the Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay to the Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test v2.0 for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schønning, Kristian; Johansen, Kim; Landt, Bodil; Benfield, Thomas; Westh, Henrik

    2017-07-01

    HIV-RNA is the most important parameter for monitoring antiviral treatment in individuals infected with HIV-1. Knowledge of the performance of different tests for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA is therefore important for clinical care. To compare the analytical performance of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay (Aptima) and the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test v2.0 (CAPCTMv2) for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma samples. The performance of the two tests was compared on 216 clinical plasma samples, on dilutions series in seven replicates of five clinical samples of known subtype and on ten replicates of the Acrometrix High and Low Positive Control. Bland-Altman analysis of 130 samples that quantified in both tests did not show indications of gross mis-quantification of either test. A tendency of the Aptima assay to quantify higher at high viral load compared to the CAPCTMv2 was observed in Bland-Altman analysis, by Deming regression (Slope 1.13) and in dilution series of clinical samples. Precision evaluated using the Acrometrix Positive Controls was similar for the High Control (CV: 1.2% vs. 1.3%; Aptima assay vs. CAPCTMv2 test, respectively), but differed for the Low control (CV: 17.9% vs. 7.1%; Aptima assay vs. CAPCTMv2 test, respectively). However, this did not impact clinical categorization of clinical samples at neither the 50 cp/mL nor 200 cp/mL level. The Aptima assay and the CAPCTMv2 test are highly correlated and are useful for monitoring HIV-infected individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Endogenous MCM7 microRNA cluster as a novel platform to multiplex small interfering and nucleolar RNAs for combinational HIV-1 gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Janet; Zhang, Jane; Li, Haitang; Ouellet, Dominique L; DiGiusto, David L; Rossi, John J

    2012-11-01

    Combinational therapy with small RNA inhibitory agents against multiple viral targets allows efficient inhibition of viral production by controlling gene expression at critical time points. Here we explore combinations of different classes of therapeutic anti-HIV-1 RNAs expressed from within the context of an intronic MCM7 (minichromosome maintenance complex component-7) platform that naturally harbors 3 microRNAs (miRNAs). We replaced the endogenous miRNAs with anti-HIV small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting HIV-1 tat and rev messages that function to induce post-transcriptional gene silencing by the RNA interference pathway, a nucleolar-localizing RNA ribozyme that targets the conserved U5 region of HIV-1 transcripts for degradation, and finally nucleolar trans-activation response (TAR) and Rev-binding element (RBE) RNA decoys designed to sequester HIV-1 Tat and Rev proteins inside the nucleolus. We demonstrate the versatility of the MCM7 platform in expressing and efficiently processing the siRNAs as miRNA mimics along with nucleolar small RNAs. Furthermore, three of the combinatorial constructs tested potently suppressed viral replication during a 1-month HIV challenge, with greater than 5-log inhibition compared with untransduced, HIV-1-infected CEM T lymphocytes. One of the most effective constructs contains an anti-HIV siRNA combined with a nucleolar-localizing U5 ribozyme and TAR decoy. This represents the first efficacious example of combining Drosha-processed siRNAs with small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP)-processed nucleolar RNA chimeras from a single intron platform for effective inhibition of viral replication. Moreover, we demonstrated enrichment/selection for cells expressing levels of the antiviral RNAs that provide optimal inhibition under the selective pressure of HIV. The combinations of si/snoRNAs represent a new paradigm for combinatorial RNA-based gene therapy applications.

  16. Repeat testing of low-level HIV-1 RNA: assay performance and implementation in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kirsten; Garner, Will; Wei, Lilian; Eron, Joseph J; Zhong, Lijie; Miller, Michael D; Martin, Hal; Plummer, Andrew; Tran-Muchowski, Cecilia; Lindstrom, Kim; Porter, James; Piontkowsky, David; Light, Angela; Reiske, Heinz; Quirk, Erin

    2018-02-08

    Assess the performance of HIV-1 RNA repeat testing of stored samples in cases of low-level viremia during clinical trials. Prospective and retrospective analysis of randomized clinical trial samples and reference standards. To evaluate assay variability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0, three separate sources of samples were utilized: the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV reference standard (assayed using 50 independent measurements at six viral loads <200 copies/ml), retrospective analysis of four to six aliquots of plasma samples from four clinical trial participants, and prospective repeat testing of 120 samples from participants in randomized trials with low-level viremia. The TaqMan assay on the WHO HIV-1 RNA standards at viral loads <200 copies/ml performed within the expected variability according to assay specifications. However, standards with low viral loads of 36 and 18 copies/ml reported values of at least 50 copies/ml in 66 and 18% of tests, respectively. In participants treated with antiretrovirals who had unexpected viremia of 50-200 copies/ml after achieving <50 copies/ml, retesting of multiple aliquots of stored plasma found <50 copies/ml in nearly all cases upon retesting (14/15; 93%). Repeat testing was prospectively implemented in four clinical trials for all samples with virologic rebound of 50-200 copies/ml (n = 120 samples from 92 participants) from which 42% (50/120) had a retest result of less than 50 copies/ml and 58% (70/120) retested at least 50 copies/ml. The TaqMan HIV-1 RNA assay shows variability around 50 copies/ml that affects clinical trial results and may impact clinical practice. In participants with a history of viral load suppression, unexpected low-level viremia may be because of assay variability rather than low-drug adherence or true virologic failure. Retesting a stored aliquot of the same sample may differentiate between assay variability and virologic failure as the source

  17. Live cell visualization of the interactions between HIV-1 Gag and the cellular RNA-binding protein Staufen1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouland Andrew J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 uses cellular proteins and machinery to ensure transmission to uninfected cells. Although the host proteins involved in the transport of viral components toward the plasma membrane have been investigated, the dynamics of this process remain incompletely described. Previously we showed that the double-stranded (dsRNA-binding protein, Staufen1 is found in the HIV-1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP that contains the HIV-1 genomic RNA (vRNA, Gag and other host RNA-binding proteins in HIV-1-producing cells. Staufen1 interacts with the nucleocapsid domain (NC domain of Gag and regulates Gag multimerization on membranes thereby modulating HIV-1 assembly. The formation of the HIV-1 RNP is dynamic and likely central to the fate of the vRNA during the late phase of the HIV-1 replication cycle. Results Detailed molecular imaging of both the intracellular trafficking of virus components and of virus-host protein complexes is critical to enhance our understanding of factors that contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis. In this work, we visualized the interactions between Gag and host proteins using bimolecular and trimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC and TriFC analyses. These methods allow for the direct visualization of the localization of protein-protein and protein-protein-RNA interactions in live cells. We identified where the virus-host interactions between Gag and Staufen1 and Gag and IMP1 (also known as VICKZ1, IGF2BP1 and ZBP1 occur in cells. These virus-host interactions were not only detected in the cytoplasm, but were also found at cholesterol-enriched GM1-containing lipid raft plasma membrane domains. Importantly, Gag specifically recruited Staufen1 to the detergent insoluble membranes supporting a key function for this host factor during virus assembly. Notably, the TriFC experiments showed that Gag and Staufen1 actively recruited protein partners when tethered to mRNA. Conclusions The

  18. APOBEC3G inhibits HIV-1 RNA elongation by inactivating the viral trans-activation response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-07-29

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. dC-to-dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defense against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. We further show that free single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3'+5' ends is sufficient for A3G deamination. These results identify A3G as an efficient mutator and that deamination of (-)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NF45 and NF90 Bind HIV-1 RNA and Modulate HIV Gene Expression

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    Yan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A previous proteomic screen in our laboratory identified nuclear factor 45 (NF45 and nuclear factor 90 (NF90 as potential cellular factors involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 replication. Both are RNA binding proteins that regulate gene expression; and NF90 has been shown to regulate the expression of cyclin T1 which is required for Tat-dependent trans-activation of viral gene expression. In this study the roles of NF45 and NF90 in HIV replication were investigated through overexpression studies. Ectopic expression of either factor potentiated HIV infection, gene expression, and virus production. Deletion of the RNA binding domains of NF45 and NF90 diminished the enhancement of HIV infection and gene expression. Both proteins were found to interact with the HIV RNA. RNA decay assays demonstrated that NF90, but not NF45, increased the half-life of the HIV RNA. Overall, these studies indicate that both NF45 and NF90 potentiate HIV infection through their RNA binding domains.

  20. Engineering HIV-1-resistant T-cells from short-hairpin RNA-expressing hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in humanized BLT mice.

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    Gene-Errol E Ringpis

    Full Text Available Down-regulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 holds significant potential for long-term protection against HIV-1 in patients. Using the humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (hu-BLT mouse model which allows investigation of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC transplant and immune system reconstitution as well as HIV-1 infection, we previously demonstrated stable inhibition of CCR5 expression in systemic lymphoid tissues via transplantation of HSPCs genetically modified by lentiviral vector transduction to express short hairpin RNA (shRNA. However, CCR5 down-regulation will not be effective against existing CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 and emergence of resistant viral strains. As such, combination approaches targeting additional steps in the virus lifecycle are required. We screened a panel of previously published shRNAs targeting highly conserved regions and identified a potent shRNA targeting the R-region of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR. Here, we report that human CD4(+ T-cells derived from transplanted HSPC engineered to co-express shRNAs targeting CCR5 and HIV-1 LTR are resistant to CCR5- and CXCR4- tropic HIV-1-mediated depletion in vivo. Transduction with the combination vector suppressed CXCR4- and CCR5- tropic viral replication in cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. No obvious cytotoxicity or interferon response was observed. Transplantation of combination vector-transduced HSPC into hu-BLT mice resulted in efficient engraftment and subsequent stable gene marking and CCR5 down-regulation in human CD4(+ T-cells within peripheral blood and systemic lymphoid tissues, including gut-associated lymphoid tissue, a major site of robust viral replication, for over twelve weeks. CXCR4- and CCR5- tropic HIV-1 infection was effectively inhibited in hu-BLT mouse spleen-derived human CD4(+ T-cells ex vivo. Furthermore, levels of gene-marked CD4(+ T-cells in peripheral blood increased despite systemic infection with either

  1. Analytical Performances of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA-Based Amplix® Real-Time PCR Platform for HIV-1 RNA Quantification

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    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We evaluated the performances of Amplix real-time PCR platform developed by Biosynex (Strasbourg, France, combining automated station extraction (Amplix station 16 Dx and real-time PCR (Amplix NG, for quantifying plasma HIV-1 RNA by lyophilized HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix reagents targeting gag and LTR, using samples from HIV-1-infected adults from Central African Republic. Results. Amplix real-time PCR assay showed low limit of detection (28 copies/mL, across wide dynamic range (1.4–10 log copies/mL, 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity, high reproducibility, and accuracy with mean bias < 5%. The assay showed excellent correlations and concordance of 95.3% with the reference HIV-1 RNA load assay (Roche, with mean absolute bias of +0.097 log copies/mL by Bland-Altman analysis. The assay was able to detect and quantify the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype strains and the majority of non-B subtypes, CRFs of HIV-1 group M, and HIV-1 groups N and O circulating in Central Africa. The Amplix assay showed 100% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity to diagnose virological failure in clinical samples from antiretroviral drug-experienced patients. Conclusions. The HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix real-time PCR platform constitutes sensitive and reliable system for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 RNA load in HIV-1-infected children and adults, particularly adapted to intermediate laboratory facilities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates interfere with the HIV-1 Tat-TAR RNA interaction critical for viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J.; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-07-01

    The interaction between the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat and TAR (transactivation responsive region) RNA, plays a critical role in HIV-1 transcription. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates were evaluated for their in vitro activity to inhibit Tat-TAR RNA interaction using UV melting studies, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and RNase A footprinting. The results demonstrate that iron(II) supramolecular helicates inhibit Tat-TAR interaction at nanomolar concentrations by binding to TAR RNA. These studies provide a new insight into the biological potential of metallosupramolecular helicates.

  3. Increasing cerebrospinal fluid chemokine concentrations despite undetectable cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA in HIV-1-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisolf, E. H.; van Praag, R. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Portegies, P.; Goudsmit, J.; Danner, S. A.; Lange, J. M.; Prins, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Only limited data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-1 RNA responses and markers of local inflammation in CSF during antiretroviral therapy are available. HIV-RNA, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor (sTNFr)-II, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interferon-gamma-inducible protein

  4. SL1 revisited: functional analysis of the structure and conformation of HIV-1 genome RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Sayuri; Yokoyama, Masaru; Shioda, Tatsuo; Sato, Hironori; Sakuragi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-11

    The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5' end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-loop 1 (SL1) is believed to be most important and an essential key to dimerization, since the sequence and predicted secondary structure of SL1 are highly stable and conserved among various virus subtypes. In particular, a six-base palindromic sequence is always present at the hairpin loop of SL1 and the formation of kissing-loop structure at this position between the two strands of genomic RNA is suggested to trigger dimerization. Although the higher-order structure model of SL1 is well accepted and perhaps even undoubted lately, there could be stillroom for consideration to depict the functional SL1 structure while in vivo (in virion or cell). In this study, we performed several analyses to identify the nucleotides and/or basepairing within SL1 which are necessary for HIV-1 genome dimerization, encapsidation, recombination and infectivity. We unexpectedly found that some nucleotides that are believed to contribute the formation of the stem do not impact dimerization or infectivity. On the other hand, we found that one G-C basepair involved in stem formation may serve as an alternative dimer interactive site. We also report on our further investigation of the roles of the palindromic sequences on viral replication. Collectively, we aim to assemble a more-comprehensive functional map of SL1 on the HIV-1 viral life cycle. We discovered several possibilities for a novel structure of SL1 in HIV-1 DLS. The newly proposed structure model suggested that the hairpin loop of SL1 appeared larger, and genome dimerization process might consist of more complicated mechanism than previously understood. Further investigations would be still required to fully understand the genome packaging and dimerization of HIV.

  5. Timing of intermittent seminal HIV-1 RNA shedding in patients with undetectable plasma viral load under combination antiretroviral therapy.

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    Xavier Ferraretto

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART reduces the HIV-1 viral load (VL in the blood and the seminal compartment. Some studies have reported that the seminal HIV-1 VL is undetectable in individuals with an undetectable blood plasma viral load (bpVL under cART. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that seminal HIV-1 RNA may still be detected, and potentially infectious, even in the case of an undetectable bpVL. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the detection rate of a seminal VL and whether shedding could be intermittent over a very short time. From January 2006 to December 2011, 88 HIV-1 infected men, enrolled in an Assisted Reproduction program, provided 306 semen samples, corresponding to 177 frozen sperm samples (two samples delivered at a one-hour interval (n = 129 or one sample (n = 48. All enrolled men were under cART, with an undetectable bpVL for more than 6 months. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in seminal plasma using a Roche COBAS Ampliprep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test. Seminal HIV-1 RNA was detected in 23 samples (7.5% from 17 patients (19.3%. This detection rate was stable over years. With regards to the freezing of two samples delivered at a one-hour interval, the proportion of discordance between the first and second samples was 9.3% (12/129. Our results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen. While this finding has been shown by studies examining longer time intervals, to our knowledge, this has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval.

  6. Timing of intermittent seminal HIV-1 RNA shedding in patients with undetectable plasma viral load under combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, Xavier; Estellat, Candice; Damond, Florence; Longuet, Pascale; Epelboin, Sylvie; Demailly, Pauline; Yazbeck, Chadi; Llabador, Marie-Astrid; Pasquet, Blandine; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Matheron, Sophie; Patrat, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It was demonstrated that combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the blood and the seminal compartment. Some studies have reported that the seminal HIV-1 VL is undetectable in individuals with an undetectable blood plasma viral load (bpVL) under cART. However, some recent studies have demonstrated that seminal HIV-1 RNA may still be detected, and potentially infectious, even in the case of an undetectable bpVL. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the detection rate of a seminal VL and whether shedding could be intermittent over a very short time. From January 2006 to December 2011, 88 HIV-1 infected men, enrolled in an Assisted Reproduction program, provided 306 semen samples, corresponding to 177 frozen sperm samples (two samples delivered at a one-hour interval (n = 129) or one sample (n = 48)). All enrolled men were under cART, with an undetectable bpVL for more than 6 months. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in seminal plasma using a Roche COBAS Ampliprep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test. Seminal HIV-1 RNA was detected in 23 samples (7.5%) from 17 patients (19.3%). This detection rate was stable over years. With regards to the freezing of two samples delivered at a one-hour interval, the proportion of discordance between the first and second samples was 9.3% (12/129). Our results confirm the intermittent shedding of HIV-1 in semen. While this finding has been shown by studies examining longer time intervals, to our knowledge, this has never been demonstrated over such a short time interval.

  7. Immunogenicity of Semliki Forest virus based self-amplifying RNA expressing Indian HIV-1C genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbani, Seema P; Velhal, Shilpa M; Kadam, Ravindra B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2015-11-01

    Development of recombinant vaccines is considered as a promising approach to prevent transmission and eradication of HIV/AIDS. Candidate vaccines tested so far have shown poor to modest efficacy. Self-amplifying RNAs of positive strand alphaviruses are reported to be promising vectors for development of recombinant vaccines. This study describes the construction, in vitro expression and in vivo immunogenicity of recombinant RNA vaccines developed by individually cloning gag, env and polRT genes of primary HIV-1C Indian isolates using Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vector. HIV-1C specific T cell responses were detected in mice immunized with rSFV2gen/gag RNA by IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Furthermore, using flow cytometry based intracellular cytokine staining (ICCS) assay HIV-1C specific IL-2 responses were detected in immunized mice that were mediated by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Mice immunized with rSFV2gen/env RNA elicited HIV-1C Env-specific antibodies as detected by gp120 ELISA. The Env, Gag and Pol (RT) RNA constructs in combination elicited better HIV-1C Env-specific humoral responses compared to mice immunized with Env RNA alone. In conclusion, rSFV2gen RNA constructs encoding HIV-1C antigens elicited clear cell mediated and humoral immune responses in mice, thus demonstrating the potential of self-amplifying rSFV2gen RNA as a promising candidate for anti-HIV vaccine development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. On the importance of the primer activation signal for initiation of tRNA(lys3)-primed reverse transcription of the HIV-1 RNA genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huthoff, Hendrik; Bugala, Katarzyna; Barciszewski, Jan; Berkhout, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Initiation of reverse transcription is a complex and regulated process in all retroviruses. Several base pairing interactions have been proposed to occur between the HIV-1 RNA genome and the specific tRNA(lys3) primer. The tRNA primer can form up to 21 bp with the primer binding site (PBS), and an

  9. CD4+ T-cell counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels beyond 5 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhong; Margolick, Joseph B; Jamieson, Beth D; Rinaldo, Charles R; Phair, John P; Jacobson, Lisa P

    2011-08-15

    The heterogeneity of CD4 T-cell counts and HIV-1 RNA at 5-12 years after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains largely uncharacterized. In the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 614 men who initiated HAART contributed data 5-12 years subsequently. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the predictors of CD4 counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. At 5 to 12 years post-HAART, the median CD4 T-cell count was 586 (interquartile range, 421-791) cells per microliter and 78% of the HIV-1 RNA measurements were undetectable. Higher CD4 T-cell counts 5-12 years post HAART were predicted by higher CD4 T-cell counts and higher total lymphocyte count pre HAART, lack of hepatitis B or C virus coinfections, and greater CD4 T-cell change and suppressed HIV-1 RNA in the first 5 years after starting HAART. Men who were 50 years and older with 351-500 CD4 cells per microliter at HAART initiation had adjusted mean CD4 T-cell count of 643 cells per microliter at 10-12 years post HAART, which was similar to the adjusted mean CD4 T-cell count (670 cells/μL, P = 0.45) in this period for younger men starting HAART with lower CD4 T-cell counts. HIV-1 RNA suppression in the first 5 years post HAART predicted subsequent viral suppression. Immunological and virological responses in the first 5 years post HAART predicted subsequent CD4 T-cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. The association between age and subsequent CD4 T-cell count supports incorporating age in the guidelines for use of HAART.

  10. Probing the HIV-1 genomic RNA trafficking pathway and dimerization by genetic recombination and single virion analyses.

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    Michael D Moore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Once transcribed, the nascent full-length RNA of HIV-1 must travel to the appropriate host cell sites to be translated or to find a partner RNA for copackaging to form newly generated viruses. In this report, we sought to delineate the location where HIV-1 RNA initiates dimerization and the influence of the RNA transport pathway used by the virus on downstream events essential to viral replication. Using a cell-fusion-dependent recombination assay, we demonstrate that the two RNAs destined for copackaging into the same virion select each other mostly within the cytoplasm. Moreover, by manipulating the RNA export element in the viral genome, we show that the export pathway taken is important for the ability of RNA molecules derived from two viruses to interact and be copackaged. These results further illustrate that at the point of dimerization the two main cellular export pathways are partially distinct. Lastly, by providing Gag in trans, we have demonstrated that Gag is able to package RNA from either export pathway, irrespective of the transport pathway used by the gag mRNA. These findings provide unique insights into the process of RNA export in general, and more specifically, of HIV-1 genomic RNA trafficking.

  11. Coordination of Genomic RNA Packaging with Viral Assembly in HIV-1

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    Chris Hellmund

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous progress made in unraveling the complexities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV replication has resulted in a library of drugs to target key aspects of the replication cycle of the virus. Yet, despite this accumulated wealth of knowledge, we still have much to learn about certain viral processes. One of these is virus assembly, where the viral genome and proteins come together to form infectious progeny. Here we review this topic from the perspective of how the route to production of an infectious virion is orchestrated by the viral genome, and we compare and contrast aspects of the assembly mechanisms employed by HIV-1 with those of other RNA viruses.

  12. Towards improved shRNA and miRNA reagents as inhibitors of HIV-1 replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben; Liu, Ying Poi

    2014-01-01

    miRNAs are the key players of the RNAi mechanism, which regulates the expression of a large number of mRNAs in human cells. shRNAs are man-made synthetic miRNA mimics that exploit similar intracellular RNA processing routes. Massive amounts of data derived from next-generation sequencing have

  13. Partner characteristics predicting HIV-1 set point in sexually acquired HIV-1 among African seroconverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingappa, Jairam R; Thomas, Katherine K; Hughes, James P; Baeten, Jared M; Wald, Anna; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Fife, Kenneth H; Campbell, Mary S; Kapiga, Saidi; Mullins, James I; Celum, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Plasma HIV-1 RNA set point is an important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression. We hypothesized that inoculum size and HIV-1 exposure prior to HIV-1 transmission may modulate set point. We evaluated predictors of set point among 141 African HIV-1 seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected study partners. We compared characteristics of seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected partners and HIV-1 set point. Data were from a clinical trial of genital HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with HIV-1 transmission linkage assigned through virus sequencing. Our analysis includes data from all transmissions including those with transmission linkage to the HIV-1-infected "source partner" and those that were not linked to their HIV-1-infected study partner. In multivariable analysis, higher plasma HIV-1 in source partners was associated with higher seroconverter set point ( + 0.44 log10 copies/ml per log(10) source partner plasma HIV-1, p + 0.49 log(10), p = 0.04). Source partner characteristics associated with lower set point included male circumcision ( - 0.63 log(10), p = 0.03) and assignment to acyclovir ( - 0.44 log10, p = 0.02). The proportion of variation in set point explained by plasma HIV-1 RNA of the source partner, after controlling for other factors, was 0.06. Source partner plasma HIV-1 level is the most significant predictor of seroconverter set point, possibly reflecting characteristics of the transmitted virus. Acyclovir use, BV among women source partners, and circumcision among male source partners may alter the set point by affecting transmitted virus inoculum in the source partners' genital compartment.

  14. A Conserved Target Site in HIV-1 Gag RNA is Accessible to Inhibition by Both an HDV Ribozyme and a Short Hairpin RNA

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    Robert J Scarborough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense-based molecules targeting HIV-1 RNA have the potential to be used as part of gene or drug therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. In this study, HIV-1 RNA was screened to identify more conserved and accessible target sites for ribozymes based on the hepatitis delta virus motif. Using a quantitative screen for effects on HIV-1 production, we identified a ribozyme targeting a highly conserved site in the Gag coding sequence with improved inhibitory potential compared to our previously described candidates targeting the overlapping Tat/Rev coding sequence. We also demonstrate that this target site is highly accessible to short hairpin directed RNA interference, suggesting that it may be available for the binding of antisense RNAs with different modes of action. We provide evidence that this target site is structurally conserved in diverse viral strains and that it is sufficiently different from the human transcriptome to limit off-target effects from antisense therapies. We also show that the modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is more sensitive to a mismatch in its target site compared to the short hairpin RNA. Overall, our results validate the potential of a new target site in HIV-1 RNA to be used for the development of antisense therapies.

  15. Evaluation of COBAS AmpliPrep nucleic acid extraction in conjunction with COBAS AmpliScreen HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HIV-1 RNA amplification and detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Sjerps, M. C.; Reesink, H. W.; Cuypers, H. T. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This report describes the evaluation of the COBAS AmpliPrep instrument for fully automated generic nucleic acid extraction in conjunction with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 RNA COBAS AmpliScreen

  16. A comparison of serum HIV-1 RNA levels as measured by two quantitative assays in zidovudine-treated, asymptomatic, HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weverling, G. J.; Lange, J. M.; de Jong, M. D.; de Weerd, H.; Goudsmit, J.; de Wolf, F.

    1996-01-01

    HIV-1 RNA levels as measured by two commercially available quantitative assays were compared before and during zidovudine treatment. HIV-1 RNA levels were measured in stored serum samples from 24 Dutch zidovudine-treated participants of a zidovudine efficacy study (European-Australian Collaborative

  17. Engineering and Validation of a Vector for Concomitant Expression of Rare Transfer RNA (tRNA) and HIV-1 nef Genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mualif, Siti Aisyah; Teow, Sin-Yeang; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Chew, Yik Wei; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Ali, Syed A

    2015-01-01

    Relative ease in handling and manipulation of Escherichia coli strains make them primary candidate to express proteins heterologously. Overexpression of heterologous genes that contain codons infrequently used by E. coli is related with difficulties such as mRNA instability, early termination of transcription and/or translation, deletions and/or misincorporation, and cell growth inhibition. These codon bias -associated problems are addressed by co-expressing ColE1-compatible, rare tRNA expressing helper plasmids. However, this approach has inadequacies, which we have addressed by engineering an expression vector that concomitantly expresses the heterologous protein of interest, and rare tRNA genes in E. coli. The expression vector contains three (argU, ileY, leuW) rare tRNA genes and a useful multiple cloning site for easy in-frame cloning. To maintain the overall size of the parental plasmid vector, the rare tRNA genes replaced the non-essential DNA segments in the vector. The cloned gene is expressed under the control of T7 promoter and resulting recombinant protein has a C-terminal 6His tag for IMAC-mediated purification. We have evaluated the usefulness of this expression vector by expressing three HIV-1 genes namely HIV-1 p27 (nef), HIV-1 p24 (ca), and HIV-1 vif in NiCo21(DE3) E.coli and demonstrated the advantages of using expression vector that concomitantly expresses rare tRNA and heterologous genes.

  18. Selective translational repression of HIV-1 RNA by Sam68DeltaC occurs by altering PABP1 binding to unspliced viral RNA

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    Soros Vanessa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 structural proteins are translated from incompletely spliced 9 kb and 4 kb mRNAs, which are transported to the cytoplasm by Crm1. It has been assumed that once in the cytoplasm, translation of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs occurs in the same manner as host mRNAs. Previous analyses have demonstrated that Sam68 and a mutant thereof, Sam68ΔC, have dramatic effects on HIV gene expression, strongly enhancing and inhibiting viral structural protein synthesis, respectively. While investigating the inhibition of incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNAs by Sam68ΔC, we determined that the effect was independent of the perinuclear bundling of the viral RNA. Inhibition was dependent upon the nuclear export pathway used, as translation of viral RNA exported via the Tap/CTE export pathway was not blocked by Sam68ΔC. We demonstrate that inhibition of HIV expression by Sam68ΔC is correlated with a loss of PABP1 binding with no attendant change in polyadenosine tail length of the affected RNAs. The capacity of Sam68ΔC to selectively inhibit translation of HIV-1 RNAs exported by Crm1 suggests that it is able to recognize unique characteristics of these viral RNPs, a property that could lead to new therapeutic approaches to controlling HIV-1 replication.

  19. Nevirapine, sodium concentration and HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and plasma among HIV-infected women receiving short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child include high plasma and breast milk viral load, low maternal CD4 count and breast pathology such as mastitis. Objective To determine the impact of nevirapine and subclinical mastitis on HIV-1 RNA in maternal plasma...... and breast milk after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine combined with either 1-week tail of Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine) or single-dose Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine). Methods Maternal plasma and bilateral breast milk samples were collected between April 2008 and April 2011 at 1, 4 and 6 weeks....../mL), respectively. Maternal plasma and breast milk HIV-1 RNA correlated at all visits (R = 0.48, R = 0.7, R = 0.59; all P = 0.01). Subclinical mastitis was detected in 67% of the women at some time during 6 weeks, and in 38% of the breast milk samples. Breast milk samples with subclinical mastitis had significantly...

  20. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether treatment of schistosomiasis has an effect on the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, individuals with schistosomiasis and with or without HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive praziquantel treatment at inclusion or after a delay of 3 months...

  1. Analysis of the EIAV Rev-responsive element (RRE reveals a conserved RNA motif required for high affinity Rev binding in both HIV-1 and EIAV.

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    Jae-Hyung Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A cis-acting RNA regulatory element, the Rev-responsive element (RRE, has essential roles in replication of lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and equine infection anemia virus (EIAV. The RRE binds the viral trans-acting regulatory protein, Rev, to mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport of incompletely spliced mRNAs encoding viral structural genes and genomic RNA. Because of its potential as a clinical target, RRE-Rev interactions have been well studied in HIV-1; however, detailed molecular structures of Rev-RRE complexes in other lentiviruses are still lacking. In this study, we investigate the secondary structure of the EIAV RRE and interrogate regulatory protein-RNA interactions in EIAV Rev-RRE complexes. Computational prediction and detailed chemical probing and footprinting experiments were used to determine the RNA secondary structure of EIAV RRE-1, a 555 nt region that provides RRE function in vivo. Chemical probing experiments confirmed the presence of several predicted loop and stem-loop structures, which are conserved among 140 EIAV sequence variants. Footprinting experiments revealed that Rev binding induces significant structural rearrangement in two conserved domains characterized by stable stem-loop structures. Rev binding region-1 (RBR-1 corresponds to a genetically-defined Rev binding region that overlaps exon 1 of the EIAV rev gene and contains an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE. RBR-2, characterized for the first time in this study, is required for high affinity binding of EIAV Rev to the RRE. RBR-2 contains an RNA structural motif that is also found within the high affinity Rev binding site in HIV-1 (stem-loop IIB, and within or near mapped RRE regions of four additional lentiviruses. The powerful integration of computational and experimental approaches in this study has generated a validated RNA secondary structure for the EIAV RRE and provided provocative evidence that high affinity Rev binding sites of

  2. Changes in HIV-1 Subtypes B and C Genital Tract RNA in Women and Men After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Susan A.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Eshete, Abel Tilahun; Hughes, Michael D.; Bao, Yajing; Hosseinipour, Mina; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W.; Braun, Ken; Moran, Laura; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, N.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Klingman, Karin L.; Nair, Apsara; Walawander, Ann; Smeaton, Laura M.; De Gruttola, Victor; Martinez, Ana I.; Swann, Edith; Barnett, Ronald L.; Brizz, Barbara; Delph, Yvette; Gettinger, Nikki; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Eshleman, Susan; Safren, Steven; Andrade, Adriana; Haas, David W.; Amod, Farida; Berthaud, Vladimir; Bollinger, Robert C.; Bryson, Yvonne; Celentano, David; Chilongozi, David; Cohen, Myron; Collier, Ann C.; Currier, Judith Silverstein; Eron, Joseph; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Flexner, Charles; Gallant, Joel E.; Gulick, Roy M.; Hammer, Scott M.; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton; Lama, Javier R.; Lawrence, Jody; Maponga, Chiedza; Martinson, Francis; Mayer, Kenneth; Nielsen, Karin; Pendame, Richard B.; Ramratnam, Bharat; Rooney, James F.; Sanchez, Jorge; Sanne, Ian; Schooley, Robert T.; Snowden, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Tabet, Steve; Taha, Taha; Uy, Jonathan; van der Horst, Charles; Wanke, Christine; Gormley, Joan; Marcus, Cheryl J.; Putnam, Beverly; Ntshele, Smanga; Loeliger, Edde; Pappa, Keith A.; Webb, Nancy; Shugarts, David L.; Winters, Mark A.; Descallar, Renard S.; Sharma, Jabin; Poongulali, S.; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Faria, Deise Lucia; Berendes, Sima; Burke, Kelly; Kanyama, Cecelia; Kayoyo, Virginia; Samaneka, Wadzanai P.; Chisada, Anthony; Santos, Breno; La Rosa, Alberto; Infante, Rosa; Balfour, Henry H.; Mullan, Beth; Kim, Ge-Youl; Klebert, Michael K.; Mildvan, Donna; Revuelta, Manuel; Jan Geiseler, P.; Santos, Bartolo; Daar, Eric S.; Lopez, Ruben; Frarey, Laurie; Currin, David; Haas, David H.; Bailey, Vicki L.; Tebas, Pablo; Zifchak, Larisa; Sha, Beverly E.; Fritsche, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1 subtype. Methods. HIV-1 RNA from blood plasma, seminal plasma, or cervical wicks was quantified at baseline and at weeks 48 and 96 after entry in a randomized clinical trial of 3 cART regimens. Results. One hundred fifty-eight men and 170 women from 7 countries were studied (men: 55% subtype B and 45% subtype C; women: 24% subtype B and 76% subtype C). Despite similar baseline CD4+ cell counts and blood plasma viral loads, women with subtype C had the highest GTVL (median, 5.1 log10 copies/mL) compared to women with subtype B and men with subtype C or B (4.0, 4.0, and 3.8 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P < .001). The proportion of participants with a GTVL below the lower limit of quantification (LLQ) at week 48 (90%) and week 96 (90%) was increased compared to baseline (16%; P < .001 at both times). Women were significantly less likely to have GTVL below the LLQ compared to men (84% vs 94% at week 48, P = .006; 84% vs 97% at week 96, P = .002), despite a more sensitive assay for seminal plasma than for cervical wicks. No difference in GTVL response across the 3 cART regimens was detected. Conclusions. The female genital tract may serve as a reservoir of persistent HIV-1 replication during cART and affect the use of cART to prevent sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV-1. PMID:23532477

  3. ACTG A5353: A pilot study of dolutegravir plus lamivudine for initial treatment of HIV-1-infected participants with HIV-1 RNA < 500,000 copies/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Babafemi O; Zheng, Lu; Stefanescu, Andrei; Nyaku, Amesika; Bezins, Baiba; Wallis, Carole L; Godfrey, Catherine; Sax, Paul E; Acosta, Edward; Haas, David; Smith, Kimberly Y; Sha, Beverly; Van Dam, Cornelius; Gulick, Roy M

    2017-12-14

    Limited data exist on initial HIV-1 treatment with dolutegravir plus lamivudine , particularly for pre-treatment HIV-1 RNA >100,000 copies/mL. A5353 is a phase II, single-arm, pilot study of once-daily dolutegravir (50mg) plus lamivudine (300 mg) in treatment-naïve participants with HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 and 400 copies/mL at week 16/20, or >200 copies/mL at/after week 24. Dolutegravir levels and drug resistance testing were performed at VF. One hundred and twenty participants (87% male, median age 30 years, 37 (31%) HIV-1 RNA > 100,000 copies/mL) initiated study treatment. Median entry HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count were 4.61 log10 copies/mL and 387 cells/mm 3. Virologic efficacy by FDA snapshot at week 24 was 108/120 (90%, CI [83%, 95%]) with comparable results in the >100,000 copies/mL and ≤100,000 copies/mL strata: 89% [75%, 97%] and 90% [82%, 96%], respectively. Three participants had VF, each with undetected plasma dolutegravir at ≥1 timepoints; the M184V reverse transcriptase and R263R/K integrase mutations developed in one participant. Two participants experienced Grade 3 possibly/probably treatment-related adverse events; none discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Dolutegravir plus lamivudine demonstrated efficacy in individuals with pre-treatment HIV-1 RNA up to 500,000 copies/mL in this pilot trial, but a participant selected resistance mutations to lamivudine and dolutegravir. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. HIV-1 Viral RNA Dynamics at the Plasma Membrane May Provide Insight into Viral Assembly | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many aspects of how infectious viruses assemble in cells have yet to be completely deciphered. However, as reported in a recent Journal of Virology paper, researchers may be one step closer to understanding how HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS, assembles and replicates.

  5. Engineering and Validation of a Vector for Concomitant Expression of Rare Transfer RNA (tRNA and HIV-1 nef Genes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Mualif

    Full Text Available Relative ease in handling and manipulation of Escherichia coli strains make them primary candidate to express proteins heterologously. Overexpression of heterologous genes that contain codons infrequently used by E. coli is related with difficulties such as mRNA instability, early termination of transcription and/or translation, deletions and/or misincorporation, and cell growth inhibition. These codon bias -associated problems are addressed by co-expressing ColE1-compatible, rare tRNA expressing helper plasmids. However, this approach has inadequacies, which we have addressed by engineering an expression vector that concomitantly expresses the heterologous protein of interest, and rare tRNA genes in E. coli. The expression vector contains three (argU, ileY, leuW rare tRNA genes and a useful multiple cloning site for easy in-frame cloning. To maintain the overall size of the parental plasmid vector, the rare tRNA genes replaced the non-essential DNA segments in the vector. The cloned gene is expressed under the control of T7 promoter and resulting recombinant protein has a C-terminal 6His tag for IMAC-mediated purification. We have evaluated the usefulness of this expression vector by expressing three HIV-1 genes namely HIV-1 p27 (nef, HIV-1 p24 (ca, and HIV-1 vif in NiCo21(DE3 E.coli and demonstrated the advantages of using expression vector that concomitantly expresses rare tRNA and heterologous genes.

  6. Impact of Genetic Variations in HIV-1 Tat on LTR-Mediated Transcription via TAR RNA Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larance Ronsard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 evades host defense through mutations and recombination events, generating numerous variants in an infected patient. These variants with an undiminished virulence can multiply rapidly in order to progress to AIDS. One of the targets to intervene in HIV-1 replication is the trans-activator of transcription (Tat, a major regulatory protein that transactivates the long terminal repeat promoter through its interaction with trans-activation response (TAR RNA. In this study, HIV-1 infected patients (n = 120 from North India revealed Ser46Phe (20% and Ser61Arg (2% mutations in the Tat variants with a strong interaction toward TAR leading to enhanced transactivation activities. Molecular dynamics simulation data verified that the variants with this mutation had a higher binding affinity for TAR than both the wild-type Tat and other variants that lacked Ser46Phe and Ser61Arg. Other mutations in Tat conferred varying affinities for TAR interaction leading to differential transactivation abilities. This is the first report from North India with a clinical validation of CD4 counts to demonstrate the influence of Tat genetic variations affecting the stability of Tat and its interaction with TAR. This study highlights the co-evolution pattern of Tat and predominant nucleotides for Tat activity, facilitating the identification of genetic determinants for the attenuation of viral gene expression.

  7. Long-term suppression of HIV-1C virus production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by LTR heterochromatization with a short double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Palanichamy, Jayanth K; Ramalingam, Pradeep; Kassab, Muzaffer A; Bhagat, Mohita; Andrabi, Raiees; Luthra, Kalpana; Sinha, Subrata; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad

    2014-02-01

    A region in the conserved 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter of the integrated HIV-1C provirus was identified for effective targeting by a short double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to cause heterochromatization leading to a long-lasting decrease in viral transcription, replication and subsequent productive infection in human host cells. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were transfected into siHa cells containing integrated LTR-luciferase reporter constructs and screened for efficiency of inducing transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). TGS was assessed by a dual luciferase assay and real-time PCR. Chromatin modification at the targeted region was also studied. The efficacy of potent siRNA was then checked for effectiveness in TZM-bl cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with HIV-1C virus. Viral Gag-p24 antigen levels were determined by ELISA. One HIV-1C LTR-specific siRNA significantly decreased luciferase activity and its mRNA expression with no such effect on HIV-1B LTR. This siRNA-mediated TGS was induced by histone methylation, which leads to heterochromatization of the targeted LTR region. The same siRNA also substantially suppressed viral replication in TZM-bl cells and human PBMCs infected with various HIV-1C clinical isolates for ≥3 weeks after a single transfection, even of a strain that had a mismatch in the target region. We have identified a potent dsRNA that causes long-term suppression of HIV-1C virus production in vitro and ex vivo by heritable epigenetic modification at the targeted C-LTR region. This dsRNA has promising therapeutic potential in HIV-1C infection, the clade responsible for more than half of AIDS cases worldwide.

  8. Novel AgoshRNA molecules for silencing of the CCR5 co-receptor for HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Berkhout, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic transplantation of blood stem cells from a CCR5-Δ32 homozygous donor to an HIV-infected individual, the "Berlin patient", led to a cure. Since then there has been a search for approaches that mimic this intervention in a gene therapy setting. RNA interference (RNAi) has evolved as a powerful tool to regulate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner and can be used to inactivate the CCR5 mRNA. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules can impair CCR5 expression, but these molecules may cause unintended side effects and they will not be processed in cells that lack Dicer, such as monocytes. Dicer-independent RNAi pathways have opened opportunities for new AgoshRNA designs that rely exclusively on Ago2 for maturation. Furthermore, AgoshRNA processing yields a single active guide RNA, thus reducing off-target effects. In this study, we tested different AgoshRNA designs against CCR5. We selected AgoshRNAs that potently downregulated CCR5 expression on human T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and that had no apparent adverse effect on T cell development as assessed in a competitive cell growth assay. CCR5 knockdown significantly protected T cells from CCR5 tropic HIV-1 infection.

  9. Physician experience and rates of plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression among illicit drug users: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsari Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART, suboptimal treatment outcomes have been observed among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. As there is an urgent need to improve responses to antiretroviral therapy among this population, we undertook this study to evaluate the role of physician experience on rates of plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression following initiation of ART. Methods Using data from a community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the time to plasma viral HIV RNA Results Between May 1996 and December 2008, 267 individuals initiated ART among whom 227 (85% achieved a plasma HIV RNA Conclusions In this setting of universal HIV/AIDS care, illicit drug users with more experienced physicians exhibited faster rates of plasma viral load suppression. These findings argue for specialized services to help optimize HIV treatment outcomes among this population.

  10. Structural and functional similarities between HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase beta' subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilvay, A M; Stern, B; Blichenberg, A; Helland, D E

    2000-10-27

    Four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) were shown here to cross-react with the beta' subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP). The anti-RT MAbs bind to a peptide comprising residues 294-305 of the RT amino acid sequence. Computer analyses revealed sequence similarity between this peptide and two regions of the RNAP beta' subunit. MAb-binding studies using RT mutants suggested that the epitope is located to amino acids 652-663 of the beta' sequence. One of the MAbs which inhibited the polymerase activity of RT also mediated a dose dependent inhibition of the RNAP activity.

  11. Regulation of HIV-1 splicing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, N.

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) produces a single primary RNA transcript. The full-length transcript functions as RNA genome that is packaged into virions and as mRNA for translation of the Gag and Pol proteins. HIV-1 RNA contains several splice donor (5’splice site; 5’ss) and splice

  12. HIV-1 Tat C-mediated regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-3 by microRNA 32 in human microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Ritu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 Tat protein is known to be associated with neuroinflammation, a condition that develops in almost half of patients infected with HIV-1. HIV-1 Tat can alter glial neuroprotective functions, leading to neurotoxicity within the CNS. HIV-1 Tat is known to be secreted from productively infected cells and can affect neighboring uninfected cells by modulating cellular gene expression in a bystander fashion. Methods We were interested to study whether exogenous exposure to HIV-1 Tat-C protein perturbs the microRNA (miRNA expression profile of human microglial cells, leading to altered protein expression. We used protein expression and purification, miRNA overexpression, miRNA knockdown, transfection, site-directed mutagenesis, real-time PCR, luciferase assay and western blotting techniques to perform our study. Results HIV-1 Tat-C treatment of human microglial cells resulted in a dose-dependent increase in miR-32 expression. We found that tumor necrosis factor-receptor–associated factor 3 TRAF3 is a direct target for miR-32, and overexpression of miR-32 in CHME3 cells decreased TRAF3 both at the mRNA and the protein level. Recovery of TRAF3 protein expression after transfection of anti-miR-32 and the results of the luciferase reporter assay provided direct evidence of TRAF3 regulation by miR-32. We found that the regulation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and IRF7 is controlled by cellular levels of TRAF3 protein in microglial cells, as after overexpression of miR-32 and application of anti-miR-32, expression levels of IRF3 and IRF7 were inversely regulated by expression levels of TRAF3. Thus, our results suggest a novel miRNA mediated mechanism for regulation of TRAF3 in human microglial cells exposed to HIV-1 Tat C protein. These results may help to elucidate the detrimental neuroinflammatory consequences of HIV-1 Tat C protein in bystander fashion. Conclusion HIV-1 Tat protein can modulate TRAF3 expression through

  13. Antenatal HIV-1 RNA load and timing of mother to child transmission; a nested case-control study in a resource poor setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirenje Mike Z

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine HIV-1 RNA load during the third trimester of pregnancy and evaluate its effect on in utero and intra-partum/postpartum transmissions in a breastfeeding population. Design A nested case-control study within a PMTCT cohort of antiretroviral therapy naive pregnant women and their infants. Methods A case was a mother who transmitted HIV-1 to her infant (transmitter who was matched to one HIV-1 positive but non-transmitting mother (control. Results From a cohort of 691 pregnant women, 177 (25.6% were HIV-1 positive at enrolment and from these 29 (23% transmitted HIV-1 to their infants, 10 and 19 during in utero and intra-partum/postpartum respectively. Twenty-four mothers sero-converted after delivery and three transmitted HIV-1 to their infants. Each unit increase in log10 viral load was associated with a 178 cells/mm3 and 0.2 g/dL decrease in TLC and hemoglobin levels, p = 0.048 and 0.021 respectively, and a 29% increase in the risk of transmission, p = 0.023. Intra-partum/postpartum transmitters had significantly higher mean viral load relative to their matched controls, p = 0.034. Conclusion Antenatal serum HIV-1 RNA load, TLC and hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with vertical transmission but this association was independent of transmission time. This finding supports the rationale for preventive strategies designed to reduce vertical transmission by lowering maternal viral load.

  14. HIV-1 in the RNA world: Transcription regulation, miRNAs and antiviral RNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwig, A.

    2015-01-01

    All organisms, from bacteria to human, use three biological molecules that each serve critical functions in the expression of genes in the cell. These are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA) and proteins. RNA is synthesized from DNA in a process called transcription. RNA differs from

  15. Decrease in Seminal HIV-1 RNA Load After Praziquantel Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis Coinfection in HIV-Positive Men-An Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mudenge, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma hematobium infection is hypothesized to cause increased HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen in HIV co-infected men as result of chronic egg-induced inflammation in the prostate and the seminal vesicles. The effect of treatment with the antihelmint......Background: Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma hematobium infection is hypothesized to cause increased HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen in HIV co-infected men as result of chronic egg-induced inflammation in the prostate and the seminal vesicles. The effect of treatment...... with the antihelminthic agent praziquantel on seminal HIV-1 RNA load was assessed in this study. Methods: HIV-1 RNA load was determined in blood plasma and semen at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. Praziquantel was administered at baseline and two weeks later. Results: Eighteen HIV-positive men with S. haematobium co......-infection were enrolled into the study. Status of antiretroviral therapy (ART): 6 ART-naïve and 12 ART-experienced. All participants became egg-negative in urine at follow-up. Among the ART-naïve men, the mean HIV-1 RNA load decreased by 0.32 log10 copies per mL (4.41 vs 4.09) in blood plasma from baseline...

  16. Efficient in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 gag reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) at minimal ratios of PNA/RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Zachar, Vladimir; Nielsen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    We have tested the inhibitory potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) on in vitro reverse transcription of the HIV-1 gag gene. PNA was designed to target different regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and the effect on reverse transcription by HIV-1, MMLV and AMV reverse transcriptases (RTs......) was investigated. We found that a bis-PNA (parallel antisense 10mer linked to antiparallel antisense 10mer) was superior to both the parallel antisense 10mer and antiparallel antisense 10mer in inhibiting reverse transcription of the gene, thus indicating triplex formation at the target sequence. A complete arrest...... of reverse transcription was obtained at approximately 6-fold molar excess of the bis-PNA with respect to the gag RNA. At this molar ratio we found no effect on in vitro translation of gag RNA. A 15mer duplex-forming PNA was also found to inhibit reverse transcription at very low molar ratios of PNA/ gag RNA...

  17. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun; Geng, Guannan; Liang, Juanran; Li, Yingniang; Chen, Jingliang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-box of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. - Highlights: • MOV10 can function as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev. • MOV10 facilitates Rev/RRE-dependent transport of viral mRNAs. • MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. • The DEAG-box of MOV10 is required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent export.

  18. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun; Geng, Guannan; Liang, Juanran; Li, Yingniang; Chen, Jingliang [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of Ministry of Education, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Liu, Chao, E-mail: liuchao9@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of Ministry of Education, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zhang, Hui [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of Ministry of Education, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-box of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. - Highlights: • MOV10 can function as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev. • MOV10 facilitates Rev/RRE-dependent transport of viral mRNAs. • MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. • The DEAG-box of MOV10 is required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent export.

  19. Japanese external quality assessment program to standardize HIV-1 drug-resistance testing (JEQS2010 program) using in vitro transcribed RNA as reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Okada, Kiyomi; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ibe, Shiro; Fujisawa, Shin-ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi; Tatsumi, Masashi; Kato, Shingo; Sugiura, Wataru

    2015-03-01

    To design appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimens and avoid the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 variants with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs, genotypic drug-resistance testing (HIV genotyping) is strongly recommended. To monitor the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA), named the Japanese external quality assessment program, to standardize HIV genotyping (JEQS). To accurately evaluate the quality of HIV genotyping, we employed as reference material (RM) a well-characterized sample, in vitro transcribed RNA (trRNA) that includes the HIV gag-pol sequence, and created a JEQS2010 panel consisting of three single variant and three mixed trRNA samples. All 11 participating laboratories showed high concordance rates (>96%) for the single variant samples. Eight laboratories also showed good rates of detecting minor variants, but three laboratories failed to detect the variants comprising one-half of the sample. These three laboratories used a common primer that had four internal mismatches to the minor trRNA clone. This program showed the usefulness of trRNA as RM, the high quality of HIV genotyping, and extensive interlaboratory variation in the ability to detect minor variants. These results suggest that improving the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan requires regularly implementing the EQA program and improving the HIV genotyping protocol in each laboratory.

  20. CD4+ T-cell counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels beyond 5 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhong; Margolick, Joseph; Jamieson, Beth; Rinaldo, Charles; Phair, John; Jacobson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Background The heterogeneity of CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV-1 RNA at 5-12 years after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains largely uncharacterized. Methods In the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 614 men who initiated HAART contributed data 5-12 years subsequently. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the predictors of CD4+ counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Results At 5-12 years post-HAART, the median CD4+ T-cell count was 586 (inter quartile range (IQR): 421-791) cells/μl and 78% of the HIV-1 RNA measurements were undetectable. Higher CD4+ T-cell counts 5-12 years post-HAART were predicted by higher CD4+ T-cell counts and higher total lymphocyte count pre-HAART, lack of hepatitis B or C virus co-infections, and greater CD4+ T-cell change as well as suppressed HIV-1 RNA in the first 5 years after starting HAART. Older men (≥50 years) with 351-500 CD4+ cells/μl at HAART initiation had adjusted mean CD4+ T-cell count of 643 cells/μl at 10-12 years post-HAART, which was similar to the adjusted mean CD4+ T-cell count (670 cells/μl, p=0.45) in this period for younger men starting HAART with lower CD4+ T-cell counts. HIV-1 RNA suppression in the first 5 years post-HAART predicted subsequent viral suppression. Conclusion Immunological and virological responses in the first five years post-HAART predicted subsequent CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. The association between age and subsequent CD4+ T-cell count supports incorporating age in guidelines for use of HAART. PMID:21602699

  1. Effect of antiretroviral drugs on maternal CD4 lymphocyte counts, HIV-1 RNA levels, and anthropometric parameters of their neonates Efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre os valores dos linfócitos TCD4, RNA do HIV-1 e parâmetros antropométricos de neonatos de gestantes portadoras do HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered during pregnancy on CD4 lymphocyte counts and HIV-1 RNA levels of pregnant women and on the anthropometric parameters of their neonates. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 57 pregnant women and their neonates divided into 3 groups: ZDV Group, HIV-infected mothers taking zidovudine (n = 20; triple therapy (TT Group, mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (n = 25, and Control Group, normal women (n = 12. CD4 lymphocyte counts and HIV-1 RNA levels of pregnant women were analyzed during two periods of pregnancy. The perinatal prognosis took into account preterm rates, birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, perinatal death, and vertical transmission of HIV-1. Data were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon matched pairs tests, with the level of significance set at P OBJETIVOS: Estudar o efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre a quantificação dos linfócitos TCD4 e RNA do HIV-1 de gestantes portadoras do HIV-1 e parâmetros antropométricos de seus neonatos. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo avaliando 57 gestantes e seus neonatos em três grupos: Grupo AZT, gestantes portadoras do HIV utilizando zidovudina (n=20; Grupo TT, mães utilizando zidovudina+lamivudina+nelfinavir (n=25, e Grupo Controle, mulheres saudáveis (n=12. A quantificação dos linfócitos TCD4 e RNA do HIV-1 de gestantes portadoras do HIV foi analisada em dois períodos durante a gestação. O prognóstico perinatal levou em consideração as taxas de pré-termos, restrição de crescimento intra-útero, mortalidade perinatal e transmissão vertical do HIV-1. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se testes não paramétricos de qui-quadrado, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallys e Wilcoxon para amostras pareadas, considerando-se significativos valores associados a p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Observou-se homogeneidade entre

  2. Determining the frequency and mechanisms of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA copackaging by single-virion analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilley, Kari A; Ni, Na; Nikolaitchik, Olga A

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 are derived from two distinct primate viruses and share only limited sequence identity. Despite this, HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag polyproteins can coassemble into the same particle and their genomes can undergo recombination, albeit at an extremely low frequency, implying that HIV-1 and H...

  3. Dynamics of breast milk HIV-1 RNA with unilateral mastitis or abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Brooks, Daniel R; Cabral, Howard; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-03-01

    Mastitis and abscess in HIV-infected women increase the risk of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. Guidelines encourage women to stop breastfeeding on the affected breast and feed on the contralateral breast. However, impact of breast pathology on breast milk HIV dynamics is unknown. HIV RNA was quantified in 211 breast milk samples collected before, during, and after a clinical mastitis or an abscess diagnosis from 38 HIV-infected women participating in a Zambian breastfeeding study. HIV RNA quantity was compared between affected and unaffected breasts over time using generalized estimating equation models. A sample of 115 women without breast pathology was selected as a control group. In the affected breast, breast milk HIV RNA quantity increased from the pre- to during-pathology period by log(10) 0.45 copies per milliliter [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16 to 0.74], and after symptom resolution, HIV RNA levels were no different from prepathology levels (log10 -0.04 copies per milliliter 95% CI: -0.33 to 0.25). In the contralateral, unaffected breast, HIV RNA quantity did not significantly increase (log(10) 0.15 copies per milliliter, 95% CI: -0.41 to 0.10). Increase was more marked in women with abscess or with a greater number of mastitis symptoms. HIV RNA was not significantly different between affected and unaffected women, except at the time of diagnosis. Breast milk HIV RNA increased modestly in the affected breast with unilateral mastitis or abscess and returned to prepathology levels with symptom resolution. Contralateral HIV RNA was not affected. Results support guidelines encouraging feeding from the contralateral breast to minimize the risk of HIV transmission associated with unilateral breast pathology.

  4. Dynamics of breast milk HIV-1 RNA with unilateral mastitis or abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Brooks, Daniel R.; Cabral, Howard; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mastitis and abscess in HIV-infected women increase risk of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. Guidelines encourage women to stop breastfeeding on the affected breast and feed on the contralateral breast. However, impact of breast pathology on breast milk HIV dynamics is unknown. Methods HIV RNA was quantified in 211 breast milk samples collected before, during and after a clinical mastitis or abscess diagnosis from 38 HIV-infected women participating in a Zambian breastfeeding study. HIV RNA quantity was compared between affected and unaffected breasts over time using generalized estimating equation models. A sample of 115 women without breast pathology was selected as a control group. Results In the affected breast, breast milk HIV RNA quantity increased from the pre- to during-pathology period by log10 0.45 copies/mL (95% CI: 0.16, 0.74) and after symptom resolution, HIV RNA levels were no different from pre-pathology levels (log10 -0.04 copies/mL 95%CI: -0.33, 0.25). In the contralateral unaffected breast, HIV RNA quantity did not significantly increase (log10 0.15 copies/mL, 95% CI: -0.41, 0.10). Increase was more marked in women with abscess or with a greater number of mastitis symptoms. HIV RNA was not significantly different between affected and unaffected women, except at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Breast milk HIV RNA increased modestly in the affected breast with unilateral mastitis or abscess and returned to pre-pathology levels with symptom resolution. Contralateral HIV RNA was not affected. Results support guidelines encouraging feeding from the contralateral breast to minimize risk of HIV transmission associated with unilateral breast pathology. PMID:23202812

  5. Preclinical safety and efficacy of an anti–HIV-1 lentiviral vector containing a short hairpin RNA to CCR5 and the C46 fusion inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Wolstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer has therapeutic potential for treating HIV-1 infection by generating cells that are resistant to the virus. We have engineered a novel self-inactivating lentiviral vector, LVsh5/C46, using two viral-entry inhibitors to block early steps of HIV-1 cycle. The LVsh5/C46 vector encodes a short hairpin RNA (shRNA for downregulation of CCR5, in combination with the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor, C46. We demonstrate here the effective delivery of LVsh5/C46 to human T cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, primary CD4+ T lymphocytes, and CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC. CCR5-targeted shRNA (sh5 and C46 peptide were stably expressed in the target cells and were able to effectively protect gene-modified cells against infection with CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic strains of HIV-1. LVsh5/C46 treatment was nontoxic as assessed by cell growth and viability, was noninflammatory, and had no adverse effect on HSPC differentiation. LVsh5/C46 could be produced at a scale sufficient for clinical development and resulted in active viral particles with very low mutagenic potential and the absence of replication-competent lentivirus. Based on these in vitro results, plus additional in vivo safety and efficacy data, LVsh5/C46 is now being tested in a phase 1/2 clinical trial for the treatment of HIV-1 disease.

  6. Factors influencing cerebrospinal fluid and plasma HIV-1 RNA detection rate in patients with and without opportunistic neurological disease during the HAART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleixo Agdemir W

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the central nervous system, HIV replication can occur relatively independent of systemic infection, and intrathecal replication of HIV-1 has been observed in patients with HIV-related and opportunistic neurological diseases. The clinical usefulness of HIV-1 RNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with opportunistic neurological diseases, or the effect of opportunistic diseases on CSF HIV levels in patients under HAART has not been well defined. We quantified CSF and plasma viral load in HIV-infected patients with and without different active opportunistic neurological diseases, determined the characteristics that led to a higher detection rate of HIV RNA in CSF, and compared these two compartments. Methods A prospective study was conducted on 90 HIV-infected patients submitted to lumbar puncture as part of a work-up for suspected neurological disease. Seventy-one patients had active neurological diseases while the remaining 19 did not. Results HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 90 CSF and 70 plasma samples. The HIV-1 RNA detection rate in CSF was higher in patients with neurological diseases, in those with a CD4 count lower than 200 cells/mm3, and in those not receiving antiretroviral therapy, as well as in patients with detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. Median viral load was lower in CSF than in plasma in the total population, in patients without neurological diseases, and in patients with toxoplasmic encephalitis, while no significant difference between the two compartments was observed for patients with cryptococcal meningitis and HIV-associated dementia. CSF viral load was lower in patients with cryptococcal meningitis and neurotoxoplasmosis under HAART than in those not receiving HAART. Conclusion Detection of HIV-1 RNA in CSF was more frequent in patients with neurological disease, a CD4 count lower than 200 cells/mm3 and detectable plasma HIV-1. Median HIV-1 RNA levels were generally lower in CSF than in

  7. Phosphate-methylated DNA aimed at HIV-1 RNA loops and integrated DNA inhibits viral infectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, H. M.; Koole, L. H.; van Genderen, M. H.; Smit, L.; Geelen, J. L.; Jurriaans, S.; Goudsmit, J.

    1990-01-01

    Phosphate-methylated DNA hybridizes strongly and specifically to natural DNA and RNA. Hybridization to single-stranded and double-stranded DNA leads to site-selective blocking of replication and transcription. Phosphate-methylated DNA was used to interrupt the life cycle of the human

  8. Lentiviral Delivery of RNAi Effectors Against HIV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ying Poi; Berkhout, Ben

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) holds great promise as gene therapy approach against viral pathogens, including HIV-1. A specific anti-HIV-1 response can be induced via transfection of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or via intracellular transgene expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) or

  9. HIV-1 resistance conferred by siRNA cosuppression of CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors by a bispecific lentiviral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkina Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs has proved to be a highly effective gene silencing mechanism with great potential for HIV/AIDS gene therapy. Previous work with siRNAs against cellular coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 had shown that down regulation of these surface molecules could prevent HIV-1 entry and confer viral resistance. Since monospecific siRNAs targeting individual coreceptors are inadequate in protecting against both T cell tropic (X4 and monocyte tropic (R5 viral strains simultaneously, bispecific constructs with dual specificity are required. For effective long range therapy, the bispecific constructs need to be stably transduced into HIV-1 target cells via integrating viral vectors. Results To achieve this goal, lentiviral vectors incorporating both CXCR4 and CCR5 siRNAs of short hairpin design were constructed. The CXCR4 siRNA was driven by a U6 promoter whereas the CCR5 siRNA was driven by an H1 promoter. A CMV promoter driven EGFP reporter gene is also incorporated in the bispecific construct. High efficiency transduction into coreceptor expressing Magi and Ghost cell lines with a concomitant down regulation of respective coreceptors was achieved with lentiviral vectors. When the siRNA expressing transduced cells were challenged with X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1, they demonstrated marked viral resistance. HIV-1 resistance was also observed in bispecific lentiviral vector transduced primary PBMCs. Conclusions Both CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors could be simultaneously targeted for down regulation by a single combinatorial lentiviral vector incorporating respective anti-coreceptor siRNAs. Stable down regulation of both the coreceptors protects cells against infection by both X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1. Stable down regulation of cellular molecules that aid in HIV-1 infection will be an effective strategy for long range HIV gene therapy.

  10. HIV-1 incidence among people seeking voluntary counseling and testing centers, including pregnant women, in Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Kledoaldo Oliveira de; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Leal, Élcio de Souza; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos

    2015-06-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil has displayed new characteristics over time, with an increase in heterosexual transmission and a decline in the male-to-female ratio in AIDS cases. HIV screening was offered to patients attending the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Paulista, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, in Northeast Brazil, to determine HIV-1 incidence. BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) was used to measure HIV-1 incidence, comparing it to the AxSYM avidity index method (Ax-AI). From 2006 to 2009, 14,014 individuals were tested, and only 18 pregnant women were diagnosed with HIV infection, resulting in 0.15% annual incidence (95%CI: 0-0.33), significantly lower than in men (1.03; 95%CI: 0.45-1.61) and non-pregnant women (0.50; 95%CI: 0.11-0.89). Despite the low HIV-1 incidence in pregnant women, the high rate of recent infection detected during prenatal care emphasizes the need to increase measures to prevent vertical transmission.

  11. Conformations of flanking bases in HIV-1 RNA DIS kissing complexes studied by molecular dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Réblová, Kamila; Fadrná, E.; Sarzynska, J.; Kulinski, T.; Kulhánek, P.; Ennifar, E.; Koča, J.; Šponer, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 11 (2007), s. 3932-3949 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0009; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0388; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : molecular dynamics * RNA * virus Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.627, year: 2007

  12. A lateral flow assay for quantitative detection of amplified HIV-1 RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany A Rohrman

    Full Text Available Although the accessibility of HIV treatment in developing nations has increased dramatically over the past decade, viral load testing to monitor the response of patients receiving therapy is often unavailable. Existing viral load technologies are often too expensive or resource-intensive for poor settings, and there is no appropriate HIV viral load test currently available at the point-of-care in low resource settings. Here, we present a lateral flow assay that employs gold nanoparticle probes and gold enhancement solution to detect amplified HIV RNA quantitatively. Preliminary results show that, when coupled with nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA, this assay can detect concentrations of HIV RNA that match the clinically relevant range of viral loads found in HIV patients. The lateral flow test is inexpensive, simple and rapid to perform, and requires few resources. Our results suggest that the lateral flow assay may be integrated with amplification and sample preparation technologies to serve as an HIV viral load test for low-resource settings.

  13. A Lateral Flow Assay for Quantitative Detection of Amplified HIV-1 RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrman, Brittany A.; Leautaud, Veronica; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.

    2012-01-01

    Although the accessibility of HIV treatment in developing nations has increased dramatically over the past decade, viral load testing to monitor the response of patients receiving therapy is often unavailable. Existing viral load technologies are often too expensive or resource-intensive for poor settings, and there is no appropriate HIV viral load test currently available at the point-of-care in low resource settings. Here, we present a lateral flow assay that employs gold nanoparticle probes and gold enhancement solution to detect amplified HIV RNA quantitatively. Preliminary results show that, when coupled with nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA), this assay can detect concentrations of HIV RNA that match the clinically relevant range of viral loads found in HIV patients. The lateral flow test is inexpensive, simple and rapid to perform, and requires few resources. Our results suggest that the lateral flow assay may be integrated with amplification and sample preparation technologies to serve as an HIV viral load test for low-resource settings. PMID:23029134

  14. Intragenic HIV-1 env sequences that enhance gag expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Lee, T.-H.; Auewarakul, Prasert

    2003-01-01

    Expression of HIV-1 genes is regulated at multiple levels including the complex RNA splicing and transport mechanisms. Multiple cis-acting elements involved in these regulations have been previously identified in various regions of HIV-1 genome. Here we show that another cis-acting element was present in HIV-1 env region. This element enhanced the expression of Gag when inserted together with Rev response element (RRE) into a truncated HIV-1 genome in the presence of Rev. The enhancing activity was mapped to a 263-bp fragment in the gp41 region downstream to RRE. RNA analysis showed that it might function by promoting RNA stability and Rev-dependent RNA export. The enhancement was specific to Rev-dependent expression, since it did not enhance Gag expression driven by Sam68, a cellular protein that has been shown to be able to substitute for Rev in RNA export function

  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 subtype C by 2’F-RNA aptamers isolated against enveloped pseudovirus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    London, GG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type-I (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates the first step of entry and represents an attractive target . However, the genetic diversity of Env among HIV-1 subtypes poses a challenge. Although evidence suggest...

  16. Isolation and characterization of 20'-F-RNA aptamers against whole HIV-1 subtype C envelope pseudovirus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    London, GM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available , with a view to target surface molecules that facilitate infection, such as the envelope protein, in their native form. HIV-1(subCAP45) belongs to subtype C viruses endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and responsible for the majority of the global HIV-1...

  17. G3BP1 restricts HIV-1 replication in macrophages and T-cells by sequestering viral RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Martinez, Fernando O.; Booiman, Thijs; van Dort, Karel A.; van de Klundert, Maarten A. A.; Gordon, Siamon; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 exploits the cellular machinery for replication and therefore several interactions with cellular factors take place, some of which are yet unknown. We identified GTPase-activating protein-(SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) as a cellular factor that restricts HIV-1, by analyzing

  18. In silico Analyses of Subtype Specific HIV-1 Tat-TAR RNA Interaction Reveals the Structural Determinants for Viral Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larance Ronsard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Tat transactivates viral genes through strong interaction with TAR RNA. The stem-loop bulged region of TAR consisting of three nucleotides at the position 23–25 and the loop region consisting of six nucleotides at the position 30–35 are essential for viral transactivation. The arginine motif of Tat (five arginine residues on subtype TatC is critically important for TAR interaction. Any mutations in this motif could lead to reduce transactivation ability and pathogenesis. Here, we identified structurally important residues (arginine and lysine residues of Tat in this motif could bind to TAR via hydrogen bond interactions which is critical for transactivation. Natural mutant Ser46Phe in the core motif could likely led to conformational change resulting in more hydrogen bond interactions than the wild type Tat making it highly potent transactivator. Importantly, we report the possible probabilities of number of hydrogen bond interactions in the wild type Tat and the mutants with TAR complexes. This study revealed the differential transactivation of subtype B and C Tat could likely be due to the varying number of hydrogen bonds with TAR. Our data support that the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of Tat is involved in the TAR interactions through hydrogen bonds which is important for transactivation. This study highlights the evolving pattern of structurally important determinants of Tat in the arginine motif for viral transactivation.

  19. Deep Sequencing of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Baseline Drug Resistance Showed No Indications for Hidden Resistance and Is Biased by Strong Interference of Hypermutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwe, Kenny; Staelens, Delfien; Vancoillie, Leen; Mortier, Virginie; Verhofstede, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Deep sequencing of plasma RNA or proviral DNA may be an interesting alternative to population sequencing for the detection of baseline transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance. Using a Roche 454 GS Junior HIV-1 prototype kit, we performed deep sequencing of the HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase genes on paired plasma and buffy coat samples from newly diagnosed HIV-1-positive individuals. Selection was based on the outcome of population sequencing and included 12 patients with either a revertant amino acid at codon 215 of the reverse transcriptase or a singleton resistance mutation, 4 patients with multiple resistance mutations, and 4 patients with wild-type virus. Deep sequencing of RNA and DNA detected 6 and 43 mutations, respectively, that were not identified by population sequencing. A subsequently performed hypermutation analysis, however, revealed hypermutation in 61.19% of 3,188 DNA reads with a resistance mutation. The removal of hypermutated reads dropped the number of additional mutations in DNA from 43 to 17. No hypermutation evidence was found in the RNA reads. Five of the 6 additional RNA mutations and all additional DNA mutations, after full exclusion of hypermutation bias, were observed in the 3 individuals with multiple resistance mutations detected by population sequencing. Despite focused selection of patients with T215 revertants or singleton mutations, deep sequencing failed to identify the resistant T215Y/F or M184V or any other resistance mutation, indicating that in most of these cases there is no hidden resistance and that the virus detected at diagnosis by population sequencing is the original infecting variant. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

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    Clare Tanton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania.Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load.Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load.RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  1. Elevated Abundance, Size, and MicroRNA Content of Plasma Extracellular Vesicles in Viremic HIV-1+ Patients: Correlations With Known Markers of Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Audrey; Subra, Caroline; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Tremblay Labrecque, Pierre-François; Tremblay, Cécile; Laffont, Benoit; Provost, Patrick; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Because of factors only partly understood, the generalized elevated immune activation and inflammation characterizing HIV-1-infected patients are corrected incompletely with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes and microvesicles released by several cell types may contribute to immune activation and dysfunction. EV size, abundance, and content appear to differ according to infection phase, disease progression, and ART. We examined whether the size of EVs and the abundance of exosomes in plasma are associated with cell and tissue activation as well as with viral production. Acetylcholinesterase-bearing (AChE+) exosomes in plasma were quantified using an AChE assay. EV size was analyzed using dynamic light scattering. Proteins and microRNAs present in EVs were detected by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Exosomes were found more abundant in the plasma of ART-naive patients. EV size was larger in ART-naive than in ART-suppressed patients, elite controllers, or healthy control subjects. Both exosome abundance and EV sizes were inversely correlated with CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio and neutrophil, platelet, and CD4 T-cell counts and positively correlated with CD8 T-cell counts. A negative correlation was found between CD4 T-cell nadir and exosome abundance, but not EV size. Levels of miR-155 and miR-223 but not miR-92 were strongly correlated negatively with EV abundance and size in ART-naive patients. Monitoring of circulating EVs and EV-borne microRNA is possible and may provide new insight into HIV-1 pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated inflammatory state, as well as the efficacy of ART and the treatments intended to reduce immune activation.

  2. Patterns of residual HIV-1 RNA shedding in the seminal plasma of patients on effective antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquier, Christophe; Walschaerts, Marie; Raymond, St?phanie; Moinard, Nathalie; Saune, Karine; Daudin, Myriam; Izopet, Jacques; Bujan, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Background More and more HIV-1-infected men on effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) have unprotected sex in order to procreate. The main factor influencing transmission is seminal HIV shedding. While the risk of HIV transmission is very low, it is difficult to assess in individuals. Nevertheless, it should be quantified. Results We retrospectively analysed seminal plasma HIV-1 shedding by 362 treated HIV-infected men attending a medically assisted reproduction centre (1998?2013) in order ...

  3. MicroRNA-210, MicroRNA-331, and MicroRNA-7 Are Differentially Regulated in Treated HIV-1-Infected Individuals and Are Associated With Markers of Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballegaard, Vibe; Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Pedersen, Karin K; Hove, Malene; Koplev, Simon; Brændstrup, Peter; Ryder, Lars P; Madsen, Hans O; Gerstoft, Jan; Grønbæk, Kirsten; Nielsen, Susanne D

    2017-04-01

    Inflammation may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-1 infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of inflammation. In treated HIV-1-infected individuals, we aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs with known roles in inflammation and CVD risk and to investigate associations between these and systemic inflammation. In a screening cohort including 14 HIV-1-infected individuals and 9 uninfected controls, microarray profiling was performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Differentially regulated miRNAs previously related to inflammation and CVD were validated using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in 26 HIV-1-infected individuals and 20 uninfected controls. Validated miRNAs were measured in PBMCs, CD4 and CD8 T cells. Interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, lipids, and fasting glucose were measured, and associations with validated miRNAs were assessed with multiple linear regression analysis. Upregulation of miR-210, miR-7, and miR-331 was found in PBMCs from HIV-1-infected individuals when compared with those from uninfected controls (P LPS (P = 0.023) and triglycerides (P = 0.003) but positively associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P = 0.004). MiR-7 in PBMC was positively associated with interleukin-6 (P = 0.025) and fasting glucose (P = 0.005), whereas miR-331 was negatively associated with LPS (P = 0.006). In PBMCs from HIV-1-infected individuals with low cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, miR-7, miR-29a, miR-221, and miR-222 were downregulated. In 2 independent cohorts, miR-210, miR-7, and miR-331 were differentially regulated in treated HIV-1-infected individuals and associated with markers of systemic inflammation.

  4. Possible involvement of distinct phylogenetic clusters of HIV-1 variants in the discrepancies between coreceptor tropism predictions based on viral RNA and proviral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Hiroshi; Sudo, Koji; Hasegawa, Naoki; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Tomohisa; Iketani, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kato, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The coreceptor tropism testing should be conducted prior to commencing a regimen containing a CCR5 antagonist for treatment of HIV-1 infection. For aviremic patients on long antiretroviral therapy, proviral DNA is often used instead of viral RNA in genotypic tropism testing. However, the tropism predictions from RNA and DNA are sometimes different. We examined the cause of the discrepancies between HIV-1 tropism predictions based on viral RNA and proviral DNA. The nucleotide sequence of the env C2V3C3 region was determined using pair samples of plasma RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA from 50 HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals using population-based sequencing. The samples with discrepant tropism assessments between RNA and DNA were further analyzed using deep sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analysis. The tropism was assessed using the algorithm geno2pheno with a false-positive rate cutoff of 10 %. In population-based sequencing, five of 50 subjects showed discrepant tropism predictions between their RNA and DNA samples: four exhibited R5 tropism in RNA and X4 tropism in DNA, while one exhibited the opposite pattern. In the deep sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, three subjects had single clusters comprising of RNA- and DNA-derived sequences that were a mixture of R5 and X4 sequences. The other two subjects had two and three distinct phylogenetic clusters of sequences, respectively, each of which was dominated by R5 or X4 sequences; sequences of the R5-dominated cluster were mostly found in RNA, while sequences of the X4-dominated cluster were mostly in DNA. Some of HIV-1 tropism discrepancies between viral RNA and proviral DNA seem to be caused by phylogenetically distinct clusters which resides in plasma and cells in different frequencies. Our findings suggest that the tropism testing using PBMC DNA or deep sequencing may be required when the viral load is not suppressed or rebounds in the course of a CCR5 antagonist-containing regimen.

  5. HIV-1 reverse transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H

    2012-10-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name "retrovirus" derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral factors that can affect reverse transcription, and discusses fidelity and recombination, two processes in which reverse transcription plays an important role. In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT.

  6. An evaluation of p16INK4a expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia specimens, including women with HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcina F Nicol

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have evaluated the role of p16INK4a as a diagnostic marker of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and its association with disease progression, studies regarding the role of p16INK4a in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients remain scarce. The present study was designed to determine the potential utility of p16INK4a as a diagnostic marker for CIN and invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive and negative cervical specimens. An immunohistochemical analysis of p16INK4a was performed in 326 cervical tissue microarray specimens. Performance indicators were calculated and compared using receiving operating characteristics curve (ROC/area under the curve. In HIV-1-negative women, the percentage of cells that was positive for p16INK4a expression was significantly correlated with the severity of CIN (p < 0.0001. A ROC curve with a cut-off value of 55.28% resulted in a sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 81%, a positive predictive value of 91% and a negative predictive value of 78%. HIV-seropositive women exhibited decreased expression of p16INK4a in CIN2-3 specimens compared with HIV-negative specimens (p = 0.031. The ROC data underscore the potential utility of p16INK4a under defined conditions as a diagnostic marker for CIN 2-3 staging and invasive cervical cancer. HIV-1 infection, however, is associated with relatively reduced p16INK4a expression in CIN 2-3.

  7. The connection domain in reverse transcriptase facilitates the in vivo annealing of tRNALys3 to HIV-1 genomic RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Meijuan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The primer tRNA for reverse transcription in HIV-1, tRNALys3, is selectively packaged into the virus during its assembly, and annealed to the viral genomic RNA. The ribonucleoprotein complex that is involved in the packaging and annealing of tRNALys into HIV-1 consists of Gag, GagPol, tRNALys, lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS, and viral genomic RNA. Gag targets tRNALys for viral packaging through Gag's interaction with LysRS, a tRNALys-binding protein, while reverse transcriptase (RT sequences within GagPol (the thumb domain bind to tRNALys. The further annealing of tRNALys3 to viral RNA requires nucleocapsid (NC sequences in Gag, but not the NC sequences GagPol. In this report, we further show that while the RT connection domain in GagPol is not required for tRNALys3 packaging into the virus, it is required for tRNALys3 annealing to the viral RNA genome.

  8. In-gel probing of individual RNA conformers within a mixed population reveals a dimerization structural switch in the HIV-1 leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Julia C; Prestwood, Liam J; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Lever, Andrew M L

    2013-10-01

    Definitive secondary structural mapping of RNAs in vitro can be complicated by the presence of more than one structural conformer or multimerization of some of the molecules. Until now, probing a single structure of conformationally flexible RNA molecules has typically relied on introducing stabilizing mutations or adjusting buffer conditions or RNA concentration. Here, we present an in-gel SHAPE (selective 2'OH acylation analysed by primer extension) approach, where a mixed structural population of RNA molecules is separated by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis and the conformers are individually probed within the gel matrix. Validation of the technique using a well-characterized RNA stem-loop structure, the HIV-1 trans-activation response element, showed that authentic structure was maintained and that the method was accurate and highly reproducible. To further demonstrate the utility of in-gel SHAPE, we separated and examined monomeric and dimeric species of the HIV-1 packaging signal RNA. Extensive differences in acylation sensitivity were seen between monomer and dimer. The results support a recently proposed structural switch model of RNA genomic dimerization and packaging, and demonstrate the discriminatory power of in-gel SHAPE.

  9. MicroRNA-210, MicroRNA-331, and MicroRNA-7 Are Differentially Regulated in Treated HIV-1–Infected Individuals and Are Associated With Markers of Systemic Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe; Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Pedersen, Karin K.

    2017-01-01

    in inflammation and CVD risk and to investigate associations between these and systemic inflammation. Methods: In a screening cohort including 14 HIV-1-infected individuals and 9 uninfected controls, microarray profiling was performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Differentially regulated mi......-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, lipids, and fasting glucose were measured, and associations with validated miRNAs were assessed with multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Upregulation of miR-210, miR-7, and miR-331 was found in PBMCs from HIV-1...... with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P = 0.004). MiR-7 in PBMC was positively associated with interleukin-6 (P = 0.025) and fasting glucose (P = 0.005), whereas miR-331 was negatively associated with LPS (P = 0.006). In PBMCs from HIV-1-infected individuals with low cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, miR-7, mi...

  10. Identification of novel CDK9 and Cyclin T1-associated protein complexes (CCAPs whose siRNA depletion enhances HIV-1 Tat function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Rajesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 Tat activates RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II elongation of the integrated provirus by recruiting a protein kinase known as P-TEFb to TAR RNA at the 5′ end of nascent viral transcripts. The catalytic core of P-TEFb contains CDK9 and Cyclin T1 (CCNT1. A human endogenous complexome has recently been described – the set of multi-protein complexes in HeLa cell nuclei. We mined this complexome data set and identified 12 distinct multi-protein complexes that contain both CDK9 and CCNT1. We have termed these complexes CCAPs for CDK9/CCNT1-associated protein complexes. Nine CCAPs are novel, while three were previously identified as Core P-TEFb, the 7SK snRNP, and the Super-Elongation Complex. We have investigated the role of five newly identified CCAPs in Tat function and viral gene expression. Results We examined five CCAPs that contain: 1 PPP1R10/TOX3/WDR82; 2 TTF2; 3 TPR; 4 WRNIP1; 5 FBXO11/CUL1/SKP1. SiRNA depletions of protein subunits of the five CCAPs enhanced Tat activation of an integrated HIV-1 LTR-Luciferase reporter in TZM-bl cells. Using plasmid transfection assays in HeLa cells, we also found that siRNA depletions of TTF2, FBXO11, PPP1R10, WDR82, and TOX3 enhanced Tat activation of an HIV-1 LTR-luciferase reporter, but the depletions did not enhance expression of an NF-κB reporter plasmid with the exception of PPP1R10. We found no evidence that depletion of CCAPs perturbed the level of CDK9/CCNT1 in the 7SK snRNP. We also found that the combination of siRNA depletions of both TTF2 and FBXO11 sensitized a latent provirus in Jurkat cells to reactivation by sub-optimal amounts of αCD3/CD28 antibodies. Conclusions Our results identified five novel CDK9/CCNT1 complexes that are capable of negative regulation of HIV-1 Tat function and viral gene expression. Because siRNA depletions of CCAPs enhance Tat function, it is possible that these complexes reduce the level of CDK9 and CCNT1 available for Tat, similar to the

  11. Highly conserved RNA pseudoknots at the gag-pol junction of HIV-1 suggest a novel mechanism of −1 ribosomal frameshifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Guan; Cheng, Qiang; Du, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    −1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is utilized by many viruses to synthesize their enzymatic (Pol) and structural (Gag) proteins at a defined ratio. For efficient −1 PRF, two cis-acting elements are required: a heptanucleotide frameshift site and a downstream stimulator such as a pseudoknot. We have analyzed the gag-pol junction sequences from 4254 HIV-1 strains. Approximately ninety-five percent of the sequences can form four pseudoknots PK1–PK4 (∼97% contain PK1, PK3, and PK4), covering ∼72 nt including the frameshift site. Some pseudoknots are mutually excluded due to sequence overlap. PK1 and PK3 arrange tandemly. Their stems form a quasi-continuous helix of ∼22 bp. We propose a novel mechanism for possible roles of these pseudoknots. Multiple alternative structures may exist at the gag-pol junction. In most strains, the PK1–PK3 tandem pseudoknots may dominate the structurally heterogeneous pool of RNA due to their greater overall stability. The tandem pseudoknots may function as a breaking system to slow down the ribosome. The ribosome unwinds PK1 and stem 1 of PK3 before it can reach the frameshift site. Then, PK4 can form rapidly because the intact stem 2 of PK3 makes up a large part of the stem 1 of PK4. The newly formed PK4 jams the entrance of the mRNA tunnel. The process then proceeds as in a typical case of −1 PRF. This mechanism incorporates several exquisite new features while still being consistent with the current paradigm of pseudoknot-dependent −1 PRF. PMID:24671765

  12. Molecular dynamics and MM/GBSA-integrated protocol probing the correlation between biological activities and binding free energies of HIV-1 TAR RNA inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddi, Saikiran Reddy; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2018-02-01

    The interaction of HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat with its cognate transactivation response (TAR) RNA has emerged as a promising target for developing antiviral compounds and treating HIV infection, since it is a crucial step for efficient transcription and replication. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and MM/GBSA calculations have been performed on a series of neamine derivatives in order to estimate appropriate MD simulation time for acceptable correlation between ΔG bind and experimental pIC 50 values. Initially, all inhibitors were docked into the active site of HIV-1 TAR RNA. Later to explore various conformations and examine the docking results, MD simulations were carried out. Finally, binding free energies were calculated using MM/GBSA method and were correlated with experimental pIC 50 values at different time scales (0-1 to 0-10 ns). From this study, it is clear that in case of neamine derivatives as simulation time increased the correlation between binding free energy and experimental pIC 50 values increased correspondingly. Therefore, the binding energies which can be interpreted at longer simulation times can be used to predict the bioactivity of new neamine derivatives. Moreover, in this work, we have identified some plausible critical nucleotide interactions with neamine derivatives that are responsible for potent inhibitory activity. Furthermore, we also provide some insights into a new class of oxadiazole-based back bone cyclic peptides designed by incorporating the structural features of neamine derivatives. On the whole, this approach can provide a valuable guidance for designing new potent inhibitors and modify the existing compounds targeting HIV-1 TAR RNA.

  13. Association of human mitochondrial lysyl-tRNA synthetase with HIV-1 GagPol does not require other viral proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kobbi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In human, the cytoplasmic (cLysRS and mitochondrial (mLysRS species of lysyl-tRNA synthetase are encoded by a single gene. Following HIV-1 infection, mLysRS is selectively taken up into viral particles along with the three tRNALys isoacceptors. The GagPol polyprotein precursor is involved in this process. With the aim to reconstitute in vitro the HIV-1 tRNA3Lys packaging complex, we first searched for the putative involvement of another viral protein in the selective viral hijacking of mLysRS only. After screening all the viral proteins, we observed that Vpr and Rev have the potential to interact with mLysRS, but that this association does not take place at the level of the assembly of mLysRS into the packaging complex. We also show that tRNA3Lys can form a ternary complex with the two purified proteins mLysRS and the Pol domain of GagPol, which mimicks its packaging complex.

  14. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein switches the pathway of transactivation response element RNA/DNA annealing from loop-loop "kissing" to "zipper".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, My-Nuong; Barany, George; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2009-02-27

    The chaperone activity of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) nucleocapsid protein (NC) facilitates multiple nucleic acid rearrangements that are critical for reverse transcription of the single-stranded RNA genome into double-stranded DNA. Annealing of the transactivation response element (TAR) RNA hairpin to a complementary TAR DNA hairpin is an essential step in the minus-strand transfer step of reverse transcription. Previously, we used truncated 27-nt mini-TAR RNA and DNA constructs to investigate this annealing reaction pathway in the presence and in the absence of HIV-1 NC. In this work, full-length 59-nt TAR RNA and TAR DNA constructs were used to systematically study TAR hairpin annealing kinetics. In the absence of NC, full-length TAR hairpin annealing is approximately 10-fold slower than mini-TAR annealing. Similar to mini-TAR annealing, the reaction pathway for TAR in the absence of NC involves the fast formation of an unstable "kissing" loop intermediate, followed by a slower conversion to an extended duplex. NC facilitates the annealing of TAR by approximately 10(5)-fold by stabilizing the bimolecular intermediate ( approximately 10(4)-fold) and promoting the subsequent exchange reaction ( approximately 10-fold). In contrast to the mini-TAR annealing pathway, wherein NC-mediated annealing can initiate through both loop-loop kissing and a distinct "zipper" pathway involving nucleation at the 3'-/5'-terminal ends, full-length TAR hairpin annealing switches predominantly to the zipper pathway in the presence of saturated NC.

  15. HIV-1 RNA levels and antiretroviral drug resistance in blood and non-blood compartments from HIV-1-infected men and women enrolled in AIDS clinical trials group study A5077.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Kantor

    Full Text Available Detectable HIV-1 in body compartments can lead to transmission and antiretroviral resistance. Although sex differences in viral shedding have been demonstrated, mechanisms and magnitude are unclear. We compared RNA levels in blood, genital-secretions and saliva; and drug resistance in plasma and genital-secretions of men and women starting/changing antiretroviral therapy (ART in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG 5077 study.Blood, saliva and genital-secretions (compartment fluids were collected from HIV-infected adults (≥ 13 years at 14 United-States sites, who were initiating or changing ART with plasma viral load (VL ≥ 2,000 copies/mL. VL testing was performed on all compartment fluids and HIV resistance genotyping on plasma and genital-secretions. Spearman rank correlations were used to evaluate concordance and Fisher's and McNemar's exact tests to compare VL between sexes and among compartments.Samples were available for 143 subjects; 36% treated (23 men, 29 women and 64% 'untreated' (40 men, 51 women. RNA detection was significantly more frequent in plasma (100% than genital-secretions (57% and saliva (64% (P<0.001. A higher proportion of men had genital shedding versus women (78% versus 41%, and RNA detection was more frequent in saliva versus genital-secretions in women when adjusted for censoring at the limit of assay detection. Inter-compartment fluid VL concordance was low in both sexes. In 22 (13 men, 9 women paired plasma-genital-secretion genotypes from treated subjects, most had detectable resistance in both plasma (77% and genital-secretions (68%. Resistance discordance was observed between compartments in 14% of subjects.HIV shedding and drug resistance detection prior to initiation/change of ART in ACTG 5077 subjects differed among tissues and between sexes, making the gold standard blood-plasma compartment assessment not fully representative of HIV at other tissue sites. Mechanisms of potential sex-dependent tissue

  16. RNA interference-based therapeutics for human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 treatment: synthetic siRNA or vector-based shRNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, Sandesh; Kim, Sang-Soo; Manjunath, N; Shankar, Premlata

    2010-02-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the prospect of life-long antiretroviral treatment poses significant problems, which has spurred interest in developing new drugs and strategies to treat HIV infection and eliminate persistent viral reservoirs. RNAi has emerged as a therapeutic possibility for HIV. We discuss progress in overcoming hurdles to translating transient and stable RNAi enabling technologies to clinical application for HIV; covering the past 2 - 3 years. HIV inhibition can be achieved by transfection of chemically or enzymatically synthesized siRNAs or by DNA-based vector systems expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that are processed intracellularly into siRNA. We compare these approaches, focusing on technical and safety issues that will guide the choice of strategy for clinical use. Introduction of synthetic siRNA into cells or its stable endogenous production using vector-driven shRNA have been shown to suppress HIV replication in vitro and, in some instances, in vivo. Each method has advantages and limitations in terms of ease of delivery, duration of silencing, emergence of escape mutants and potential toxicity. Both appear to have potential as future therapeutics for HIV, once the technical and safety issues of each approach are overcome.

  17. Developing strategies for HIV-1 eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Christine M.; Blankson, Joel N.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, transforming the outlook for infected patients. However, reservoirs of replication-competent forms of the virus persist during HAART, and when treatment is stopped, high rates of HIV-1 replication return. Recent insights into HIV-1 latency, as well as a report that HIV-1 infection was eradicated in one individual, have renewed interest in finding a cure for HIV-1 infection. Strategies for HIV-1 eradication include gene therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, stimulating host immunity to control HIV-1 replication, and targeting latent HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells. Future efforts should aim to provide better understanding of how to reconstitute the CD4+ T cell compartment with genetically engineered cells, exert immune control over HIV-1 replication, and identify and eliminate all viral reservoirs. PMID:22867874

  18. Structure of an anti-HIV-1 hammerhead ribozyme complex with a 17-mer DNA substrate analog of HIV-1 gag RNA and a mechanism for the cleavage reaction: 750 MHz NMR and computer experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, R. P.; Dhingra, M. M.; Sarma, M. H.; Myer, Y. P.; Setlik, R. F.; Shibata, M.; Kazim, A. L.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.; Turner, C. J.; hide

    1997-01-01

    The structure of an anti-HIV-1 ribozyme-DNA abortive substrate complex was investigated by 750 MHz NMR and computer modeling experiments. The ribozyme was a chimeric molecule with 30 residues-18 DNA nucleotides, and 12 RNA residues in the conserved core. The DNA substrate analog had 17 residues. The chimeric ribozyme and the DNA substrate formed a shortened ribozyme-abortive substrate complex of 47 nucleotides with two DNA stems (stems I and III) and a loop consisting of the conserved core residues. Circular dichroism spectra showed that the DNA stems assume A-family conformation at the NMR concentration and a temperature of 15 degrees C, contrary to the conventional wisdom that DNA duplexes in aqueous solution populate entirely in the B-form. It is proposed that the A-family RNA residues at the core expand the A-family initiated at the core into the DNA stems because of the large free energy requirement for the formation of A/B junctions. Assignments of the base H8/H6 protons and H1' of the 47 residues were made by a NOESY walk. In addition to the methyl groups of all T's, the imino resonances of stems I and III and AH2's were assigned from appropriate NOESY walks. The extracted NMR data along with available crystallographic data, were used to derive a structural model of the complex. Stems I and III of the final model displayed a remarkable similarity to the A form of DNA; in stem III, a GC base pair was found to be moving into the floor of the minor groove defined by flanking AT pairs; data suggest the formation of a buckled rhombic structure with the adjacent pair; in addition, the base pair at the interface of stem III and the loop region displayed deformed geometry. The loop with the catalytic core, and the immediate region of the stems displayed conformational multiplicity within the NMR time scale. A catalytic mechanism for ribozyme action based on the derived structure, and consistent with biochemical data in the literature, is proposed. The complex

  19. HIV-1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  20. Severe gastrointestinal disease due to HIV-1-seronegative AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkemüller, K; Fry, L C; Decker, J M; Rickes, S; Smith, P D

    2007-08-01

    An HIV-1 seronegative man presented with odynophagia, dysphagia, diarrhea, tenesmus and a 50-lb weight loss. A large esophageal ulcer and a rectal fissure were identified endoscopically. Stool samples and biopsy specimens from the esophageal ulcer, duodenum, colon and rectum were negative for pathogens. Seronegative AIDS was suspected, and high levels of HIV-1 mRNA (> 242,000 copies/mL) were detected. The esophageal ulcer responded to oral steroids and the HIV-1 infection to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The virus isolated from the patient and an HIV-1 seropositive, asymptomatic, female sex worker with whom he had recently terminated a one-year heterosexual relationship showed sequence homology, indicating her as the source of his virus. The unusual presentation of severe gastrointestinal disease in an HIV-1 seronegative man with HIV-1 viremia underscores the importance of including AIDS in the differential diagnosis of wasting syndrome (i. e., B-type symptoms such as fever, night sweats, weight loss) in patients who are HIV-1 seronegative but at risk for AIDS.

  1. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Efficient in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 gag reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) at minimal ratios of PNA/RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Zachar, Vladimir; Nielsen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    We have tested the inhibitory potential of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) on in vitro reverse transcription of the HIV-1 gag gene. PNA was designed to target different regions of the HIV-1 gag gene and the effect on reverse transcription by HIV-1, MMLV and AMV reverse transcriptases (RTs...

  3. HIV-1 transcription and latency: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lint, Carine; Bouchat, Sophie; Marcello, Alessandro

    2013-06-26

    Combination antiretroviral therapy, despite being potent and life-prolonging, is not curative and does not eradicate HIV-1 infection since interruption of treatment inevitably results in a rapid rebound of viremia. Reactivation of latently infected cells harboring transcriptionally silent but replication-competent proviruses is a potential source of persistent residual viremia in cART-treated patients. Although multiple reservoirs may exist, the persistence of resting CD4+ T cells carrying a latent infection represents a major barrier to eradication. In this review, we will discuss the latest reports on the molecular mechanisms that may regulate HIV-1 latency at the transcriptional level, including transcriptional interference, the role of cellular factors, chromatin organization and epigenetic modifications, the viral Tat trans-activator and its cellular cofactors. Since latency mechanisms may also operate at the post-transcriptional level, we will consider inhibition of nuclear RNA export and inhibition of translation by microRNAs as potential barriers to HIV-1 gene expression. Finally, we will review the therapeutic approaches and clinical studies aimed at achieving either a sterilizing cure or a functional cure of HIV-1 infection, with a special emphasis on the most recent pharmacological strategies to reactivate the latent viruses and decrease the pool of viral reservoirs.

  4. HIV-1 transcription and latency: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy, despite being potent and life-prolonging, is not curative and does not eradicate HIV-1 infection since interruption of treatment inevitably results in a rapid rebound of viremia. Reactivation of latently infected cells harboring transcriptionally silent but replication-competent proviruses is a potential source of persistent residual viremia in cART-treated patients. Although multiple reservoirs may exist, the persistence of resting CD4+ T cells carrying a latent infection represents a major barrier to eradication. In this review, we will discuss the latest reports on the molecular mechanisms that may regulate HIV-1 latency at the transcriptional level, including transcriptional interference, the role of cellular factors, chromatin organization and epigenetic modifications, the viral Tat trans-activator and its cellular cofactors. Since latency mechanisms may also operate at the post-transcriptional level, we will consider inhibition of nuclear RNA export and inhibition of translation by microRNAs as potential barriers to HIV-1 gene expression. Finally, we will review the therapeutic approaches and clinical studies aimed at achieving either a sterilizing cure or a functional cure of HIV-1 infection, with a special emphasis on the most recent pharmacological strategies to reactivate the latent viruses and decrease the pool of viral reservoirs. PMID:23803414

  5. Herpes viruses and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations influence the virologic and immunologic milieu of the male genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Sara; Morris, Sheldon R; Anderson, Christy; Spina, Celsa A; Vargas, Milenka V; Young, Jason A; Richman, Douglas D; Little, Susan J; Smith, Davey M

    2013-01-02

    To further understand the role that chronic viral infections of the male genital tract play on HIV-1 dynamics and replication. Retrospective, observational study including 236 paired semen and blood samples collected from 115 recently HIV-1 infected antiretroviral naive men who have sex with men. In this study, we evaluated the association of seminal HIV-1 shedding to coinfections with seven herpes viruses, blood plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, CD4 T-cell counts, presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in HIV-1 pol, participants' age and stage of HIV-infection using multivariate generalized estimating equation methods. Associations between herpes virus shedding, seminal HIV-1 levels, number and immune activation of seminal T-cells was also investigated (Mann-Whitney). Seminal herpes virus shedding was observed in 75.7% of individuals. Blood HIV-1 RNA levels (P herpes virus (HHV)-8 levels (P herpes viruses seminal shedding in our cohort. Shedding of CMV, EBV and HHV-8 and absence of DRM were associated with increased frequency of HIV-1 shedding and/or higher levels of HIV-1 RNA in semen, which are likely important cofactors for HIV-1 transmission.

  6. Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection Increases Apoptosis and HIV-1 Replication in HIV-1 Infected Jurkat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Jiying; Biswas, Santanu; Zhao, Jiangqin; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-02-02

    Influenza virus infection has a significant impact on public health, since it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is not well-known whether influenza virus infection affects cell death and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in HIV-1-infected patients. Using a lymphoma cell line, Jurkat, we examined the in vitro effects of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infection on cell death and HIV-1 RNA production in infected cells. We found that pH1N1 infection increased apoptotic cell death through Fas and Bax-mediated pathways in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells. Infection with pH1N1 virus could promote HIV-1 RNA production by activating host transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-ĸB), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-related pathways. The replication of HIV-1 latent infection could be reactivated by pH1N1 infection through TCR and apoptotic pathways. These data indicate that HIV-1 replication can be activated by pH1N1 virus in HIV-1-infected cells resulting in induction of cell death through apoptotic pathways.

  7. Novel AgoshRNA molecules for silencing of the CCR5 co-receptor for HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Berkhout, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic transplantation of blood stem cells from a CCR5-Δ32 homozygous donor to an HIV-infected individual, the "Berlin patient", led to a cure. Since then there has been a search for approaches that mimic this intervention in a gene therapy setting. RNA interference (RNAi) has evolved as a

  8. Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassew, Nardos Gobena

    This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and

  9. A genotypic HIV-1 proviral DNA coreceptor tropism assay: characterization in viremic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-1 coreceptor tropism testing is used to evaluate eligibility for CCR5 antagonist therapy. However, HIV-1 RNA-based tests are not suitable for virologically suppressed patients, therefore the use of proviral DNA tropism testing has been investigated. We describe a novel proviral DNA-based genotypic tropism assay and compare its performance to that of a sensitive HIV-1 RNA-based genotypic test. Methods Tropism was determined using HIV-1 plasma RNA and proviral DNA from 42 paired samples from patients with plasma viral loads ≥1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. Proviral DNA sample types included whole blood, separated peripheral blood mononuclear cells resuspended in phosphate-buffered saline and peripheral blood mononuclear cells resuspended in spun plasma. The HIV-1 envelope V3 region was PCR-amplified, sequenced in triplicate, and analyzed for tropism with the geno2pheno algorithm using a 10% false-positive rate (FPR). Results Amplicons were obtained from proviral DNA and plasma RNA in 41/42 samples. Tropism predictions were highly concordant (93%–98%) between proviral DNA and plasma RNA, regardless of the proviral DNA isolation method. Non-R5 proviral DNA results were obtained for 100% of patients with detectable non-R5 plasma HIV-1 RNA results. Geno2pheno FPRs for proviral DNA and plasma RNA were highly correlated (Spearman rho = 0.86). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that proviral DNA tropism determinations from whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells were highly concordant with plasma HIV-1 RNA tropism determinations. This assay may be useful for screening virologically suppressed patients for CCR5-antagonist eligibility and for research purposes. PMID:24904682

  10. Codon optimization of the HIV-1 vpu and vif genes stabilizes their mRNA and allows for highly efficient Rev-independent expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Kim-Lien; Llano, Manuel; Akari, Hirofumi; Miyagi, Eri; Poeschla, Eric M.; Strebel, Klaus; Bour, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    Two HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vpu and Vif, are notoriously difficult to express autonomously in the absence of the viral Tat and Rev proteins. We examined whether the codon bias observed in the vpu and vif genes relative to highly expressed human genes contributes to the Rev dependence and low expression level outside the context of the viral genome. The entire vpu gene as well as the 5' half of the vif gene were codon optimized and the resulting open reading frames (ORFs) (vphu and hvif, respectively) were cloned in autonomous expression vectors under the transcriptional control of the CMV promoter. Codon optimization efficiently removed the expression block observed in the native genes and allowed high levels of Rev- and Tat-independent expression of Vpu and Vif. Most of the higher protein levels detected are accounted for by enhanced steady-state levels of the mRNA encoding the optimized species. Nuclear run-on experiments show for the first time that codon optimization has no effect on the rate of transcriptional initiation or elongation of the vphu mRNA. Instead, optimization of the vpu gene was found to stabilize the vphu mRNA in the nucleus and enhance its export to the cytoplasm. This was achieved by allowing the optimized mRNA to use a new CRM1-independent nuclear export pathway. This work provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of codon optimization and introduces novel tools to study the biological functions of the Vpu and Vif proteins independently of other viral proteins

  11. Longer duration of homelessness is associated with a lower likelihood of non-detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jane; Kennedy, Mary Clare; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Marshall, Brandon; Parashar, Surita; Montaner, Julio; Milloy, M-J

    2016-11-01

    Homelessness is common among people who use drugs (PWUD) and, for those living with HIV/AIDS, an important contributor to sub-optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) non-detectability among a cohort of HIV-positive PWUD. We used data from the ACCESS study, a long-running prospective cohort study of HIV-positive PWUD linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records including systematic plasma HIV-1 RNA VL monitoring. We estimated the longitudinal relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of exhibiting a non-detectable VL (i.e., effects modelling. Between May 1996 and June 2014, 922 highly active antiretroviral therapy-exposed participants were recruited and contributed 8188 observations. Of these, 4800 (59%) were characterized by non-detectable VL. Participants reported they were homeless in 910 (11%) interviews (median: six months, interquartile range: 6-12 months). A longer duration of homelessness was associated with lower odds of VL non-detectability (adjusted odds ratio = 0.71 per six-month period of homelessness, 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.83) after adjustment for age, ancestry, drug use patterns, engagement in addiction treatment, and other potential confounders. Longer durations of episodes of homelessness in this cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users were associated with a lower likelihood of plasma VL non-detectability. Our findings suggest that interventions that seek to promptly house homeless individuals, such as Housing First approaches, might assist in maximizing the clinical and public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS.

  12. Differential expression and interaction of host factors augment HIV-1 gene expression in neonatal mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaravaradan, Vasudha; Mehta, Roshni; Harris, David T.; Zack, Jerome A.; Ahmad, Nafees

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown a higher level of HIV-1 replication and gene expression in neonatal (cord) blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) compared with adult blood cells (PBMC), which could be due to differential expression of host factors. We performed the gene expression profile of CBMC and PBMC and found that 8013 genes were expressed at higher levels in CBMC than PBMC and 8028 genes in PBMC than CBMC, including 1181 and 1414 genes upregulated after HIV-1 infection in CBMC and PBMC, respectively. Several transcription factors (NF-κB, E2F, HAT-1, TFIIE, Cdk9, Cyclin T1), signal transducers (STAT3, STAT5A) and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10) were upregulated in CBMC than PBMC, which are known to influence HIV-1 replication. In addition, a repressor of HIV-1 transcription, YY1, was down regulated in CBMC than PBMC and several matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7, -12, -14) were significantly upregulated in HIV-1 infected CBMC than PBMC. Furthermore, we show that CBMC nuclear extracts interacted with a higher extent to HIV-1 LTR cis-acting sequences, including NF-κB, NFAT, AP1 and NF-IL6 compared with PBMC nuclear extracts and retroviral based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for STAT3 and IL-6 down regulated their own and HIV-1 gene expression, signifying that these factors influenced differential HIV-1 gene expression in CBMC than PBMC.

  13. Efficacy of interventions in improving highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence and HIV-1 RNA viral load. A meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Jane M; Pearson, Cynthia R; Pantalone, David W; Marks, Gary; Crepaz, Nicole

    2006-12-01

    Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is generally suboptimal, limiting the effectiveness of HAART. This meta-analytic review examined whether behavioral interventions addressing HAART adherence are successful in increasing the likelihood of a patient attaining 95% adherence or an undetectable HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL). We searched electronic databases from January 1996 to September 2005, consulted with experts in the field, and hand searched reference sections from relevant articles. Nineteen studies (with a total of 1839 participants) met the selection criteria of describing a randomized controlled trial among adults evaluating a behavioral intervention with HAART adherence or VL as an outcome. Random-effects models indicated that across studies, participants in the intervention arm were more likely than those in the control arm to achieve 95% adherence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16 to 1.94); the effect was nearly significant for undetectable VL (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.59). The intervention effect for 95% adherence was significantly stronger in studies that used recall periods of 2 weeks or 1 month (vs.

  14. Structure of the 30 kDa HIV-1 RNA Dimerization Signal by a Hybrid Cryo-EM, NMR, and Molecular Dynamics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaiming; Keane, Sarah C; Su, Zhaoming; Irobalieva, Rossitza N; Chen, Muyuan; Van, Verna; Sciandra, Carly A; Marchant, Jan; Heng, Xiao; Schmid, Michael F; Case, David A; Ludtke, Steven J; Summers, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2018-03-06

    Cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are routinely used to determine structures of macromolecules with molecular weights over 65 and under 25 kDa, respectively. We combined these techniques to study a 30 kDa HIV-1 dimer initiation site RNA ([DIS] 2 ; 47 nt/strand). A 9 Å cryo-EM map clearly shows major groove features of the double helix and a right-handed superhelical twist. Simulated cryo-EM maps generated from time-averaged molecular dynamics trajectories (10 ns) exhibited levels of detail similar to those in the experimental maps, suggesting internal structural flexibility limits the cryo-EM resolution. Simultaneous inclusion of the cryo-EM map and 2 H-edited NMR-derived distance restraints during structure refinement generates a structure consistent with both datasets and supporting a flipped-out base within a conserved purine-rich bulge. Our findings demonstrate the power of combining global and local structural information from these techniques for structure determination of modest-sized RNAs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of menstrual cycle on HIV-1 levels in the peripheral blood and genital tract. WHS 001 Study Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelderfer, P S; Coombs, R W; Wright, D J; Cohn, J; Burns, D N; Cu-Uvin, S; Baron, P A; Coheng, M H; Landay, A L; Beckner, S K; Lewis, S R; Kovacs, A A

    2000-09-29

    To assess the variation in HIV-1 over the menstrual cycle, including RNA levels in the female genital tract, plasma HIV-1-RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, and culturable virus. A prospective analysis of 55 HIV-1-infected women. Blood and genital tract specimens were collected weekly over 8 weeks, spanning two complete menstrual cycles. Applying repeated-measures models that used menses as the reference level, the variation in viral RNA levels was compared in endocervical canal fluid and cells (collected by Sno-strips and cytobrush, respectively) and ectocervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid. Repeated-measures models were also used to assess the variation in plasma CD4 cell counts and viral load. Shedding patterns differed among the three sampling methods, independent of genital tract co-infections. Genital tract HIV-1-RNA levels from CVL fluid and endocervical canal cytobrush specimens were highest during menses and lowest immediately thereafter (P = 0.001 and P = 0.04). The HIV-1-RNA level in endocervical canal fluid was highest in the week preceding menses (P = 0.003). The menstrual cycle had no effect on blood levels of RNA (P = 0.62), culturable virus (P = 0.34), or CD4 cell counts (P = 0.55). HIV-1-RNA levels were higher in endocervical canal fluid than in peripheral blood plasma during the late luteal phase (P = 0.03). HIV-1-RNA levels vary with the menstrual cycle in the female genital tract but not the blood compartment. HIV-1-RNA levels are higher in endocervical canal fluid than in blood plasma. These findings may have important implications for sex-specific pathogenesis, heterosexual transmission, and contraceptive hormone interventions in HIV-1-infected women.

  16. Probiotics Differently Affect Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Indolamine-2,3-Dioxygenase mRNA and Cerebrospinal Fluid Neopterin Levels in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV-1 Infected Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagnolari, Carolina; Corano Scheri, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Carla; Schietroma, Ivan; Najafi Fard, Saeid; Mastrangelo, Andrea; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; Pinacchio, Claudia; Pavone, Paolo; Fanello, Gianfranco; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Vullo, Vincenzo; d'Ettorre, Gabriella

    2016-09-27

    Recently the tryptophan pathway has been considered an important determinant of HIV-1 infected patients' quality of life, due to the toxic effects of its metabolites on the central nervous system (CNS). Since the dysbiosis described in HIV-1 patients might be responsible for the microbial translocation, the chronic immune activation, and the altered utilization of tryptophan observed in these individuals, we speculated a correlation between high levels of immune activation markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-1 infected patients and the over-expression of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) at the gut mucosal surface. In order to evaluate this issue, we measured the levels of neopterin in CSF, and the expression of IDO mRNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), in HIV-1-infected patients on effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), at baseline and after six months of probiotic dietary management. We found a significant reduction of neopterin and IDO mRNA levels after the supplementation with probiotic. Since the results for the use of adjunctive therapies to reduce the levels of immune activation markers in CSF have been disappointing so far, our pilot study showing the efficacy of this specific probiotic product should be followed by a larger confirmatory trial.

  17. CRISPR/gRNA-directed synergistic activation mediator (SAM) induces specific, persistent and robust reactivation of the HIV-1 latent reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonggang; Yin, Chaoran; Zhang, Ting; Li, Fang; Yang, Wensheng; Kaminski, Rafal; Fagan, Philip Regis; Putatunda, Raj; Young, Won-Bin; Khalili, Kamel; Hu, Wenhui

    2015-11-05

    Current antiretroviral therapy does not eliminate the integrated and transcriptionally silent HIV-1 provirus in latently infected cells. Recently, a "shock and kill" strategy has been extensively explored to eradicate the HIV-1 latent reservoirs for a permanent cure of AIDS. The therapeutic efficacy of currently used agents remains disappointing because of low efficiency, non-specificity and cellular toxicity. Here we present a novel catalytically-deficient Cas9-synergistic activation mediator (dCas9-SAM) technology to selectively, potently and persistently reactivate the HIV-1 latent reservoirs. By screening 16 MS2-mediated single guide RNAs, we identified long terminal repeat (LTR)-L and O that surround the enhancer region (-165/-145 for L and -92/-112 for O) and induce robust reactivation of HIV-1 provirus in HIV-1 latent TZM-bI epithelial, Jurkat T lymphocytic and CHME5 microglial cells. This compulsory reactivation induced cellular suicide via toxic buildup of viral proteins within HIV-1 latent Jurkat T and CHME5 microglial cells. These results suggest that this highly effective and target-specific dCas9-SAM system can serve as a novel HIV-latency-reversing therapeutic tool for the permanent elimination of HIV-1 latent reservoirs.

  18. Morphogenesis of the infectious HIV-1 virion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi eSakuragi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The virion of HIV-1 is spherical and viral glycoprotein spikes (gp120, gp41 protrude from its envelope. The characteristic cone-shaped core exists within the virion, caging the ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex, which is comprised of viral RNA, nucleocapsid (NC and viral enzymes. The HIV-1 virion is budded and released from the infected cell as an immature donut-shaped particle. During or immediately after release, viral protease (PR is activated and subsequently processes the viral structural protein Gag. Through this maturation process, virions acquire infectivity, but its mechanism and transition of morphology largely remain unclear. Recent technological advances in experimental devices and techniques have made it possible to closely dissect the viral production site on the cell, the exterior – or even the interior – of an individual virion, and many new aspects on virion morphology and maturation. In this manuscript, I review the morphogenesis of HIV-1 virions. I focus on several studies, including some of our recent findings, which examined virion formation and/or maturation processes. The story of novel compound, which inhibits virion maturation, and the importance of maturation research are also discussed.

  19. Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 by Inhibition of BRD4

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jian; Gaiha, Gaurav D.; John, Sinu P.; Pertel, Thomas; Chin, Christopher R.; Gao, Geng; Qu, Hongjing; Walker, Bruce D.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Brass, Abraham L.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 depends on many host factors for propagation. Other host factors, however, antagonize HIV-1 and may have profound effects on viral activation. Curing HIV-1 requires the reduction of latent viral reservoirs that remain in the face of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using orthologous genetic screens, we identified bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) as a negative regulator of HIV-1 replication. Antagonism of BRD4, via RNA interference or with a small molecule inhibitor, JQ1, both increased prov...

  20. Reverse Transcriptase and Cellular Factors: Regulators of HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kylie; Warrilow, David; Meredith, Luke; Harrich, David

    2009-01-01

    There is ample evidence that synthesis of HIV-1 proviral DNA from the viral RNA genome during reverse transcription requires host factors. However, only a few cellular proteins have been described in detail that affect reverse transcription and interact with reverse transcriptase (RT). HIV-1 integrase is an RT binding protein and a number of IN-binding proteins including INI1, components of the Sin3a complex, and Gemin2 affect reverse transcription. In addition, recent studies implicate the c...

  1. Effect of HSV-2 Suppressive Therapy on Genital Tract HIV-1 RNA Shedding among Women on HAART: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Nijhawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of suppressive HSV therapy in women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is unclear. Methods. 60 women with HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection on HAART with plasma HIV-1 viral load (PVL ≤75 copies/mL were randomized to receive acyclovir (N=30 or no acyclovir (N=30. PVL, genital tract (GT HIV-1, and GT HSV were measured every 4 weeks for one year. Results. Detection of GT HIV-1 was not significantly different in the two arms (OR 1.23, P=0.67, although this pilot study was underpowered to detect this difference. When PVL was undetectable, the odds of detecting GT HIV were 0.4 times smaller in the acyclovir arm than in the control arm, though this was not statistically significant (P=0.07. The odds of detecting GT HSV DNA in women receiving acyclovir were significantly lower than in women in the control group, OR 0.38, P<0.05. Conclusions. Chronic suppressive therapy with acyclovir in HIV-1/HSV-2-positive women on HAART significantly reduces asymptomatic GT HSV shedding, though not GT HIV shedding or PVL. PVL was strongly associated with GT HIV shedding, reinforcing the importance of HAART in decreasing HIV sexual transmission.

  2. Mode of inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by polyacetylenetriol, a novel inhibitor of RNA- and DNA-directed DNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Shoshana; Rudi, Amira; Kashman, Yoel; Hizi, Amnon

    2002-03-15

    Polyacetylenetriol (PAT), a natural marine product from the Mediterranean sea sponge Petrosia sp., was found to be a novel general potent inhibitor of DNA polymerases. It inhibits equally well the RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities of retroviral reverse transcriptases (RTs) (i.e. of HIV, murine leukaemia virus and mouse mammary tumour virus) as well as cellular DNA polymerases (i.e. DNA polymerases alpha and beta and Escherichia coli polymerase I). A study of the mode and mechanism of the polymerase inhibition by PAT has been conducted with HIV-1 RT. PAT was shown to be a reversible non-competitive inhibitor. PAT binds RT independently and at a site different from that of the primer-template and dNTP substrates with high affinity (K(i)=0.51 microM and K(i)=0.53 microM with dTTP and with dGTP as the variable substrates respectively). Blocking the polar hydroxy groups of PAT has only a marginal effect on the inhibitory capacity, thus hydrophobic interactions are likely to play a major role in inhibiting RT. Preincubation of RT with the primer-template substrate prior to the interaction with PAT reduces substantially the inhibition capacity, probably by preventing these contacts. PAT does not interfere with the first step of polymerization, the binding of RT to DNA, nor does the inhibitor interfere with the binding of dNTP to RT/DNA complex, as evident from the steady-state kinetic study, whereby K(m) remains unchanged. We assume, therefore, that PAT interferes with subsequent catalytic steps of DNA polymerization. The inhibitor may alter the optimal stereochemistry of the polymerase active site relative to the primer terminus, bound dNTP and the metal ions that are crucial for efficient catalysis or, alternatively, may interfere with the thumb sub-domain movement and, thus, with the translocation of the primer-template following nucleotide incorporation.

  3. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  4. Nucleolar protein trafficking in response to HIV-1 Tat: rewiring the nucleolus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Jarboui

    Full Text Available The trans-activator Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein essential for HIV-1 replication. Tat trafficks to the nucleoplasm and the nucleolus. The nucleolus, a highly dynamic and structured membrane-less sub-nuclear compartment, is the site of rRNA and ribosome biogenesis and is involved in numerous cellular functions including transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control and viral infection. Importantly, transient nucleolar trafficking of both Tat and HIV-1 viral transcripts are critical in HIV-1 replication, however, the role(s of the nucleolus in HIV-1 replication remains unclear. To better understand how the interaction of Tat with the nucleolar machinery contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis, we investigated the quantitative changes in the composition of the nucleolar proteome of Jurkat T-cells stably expressing HIV-1 Tat fused to a TAP tag. Using an organellar proteomic approach based on mass spectrometry, coupled with Stable Isotope Labelling in Cell culture (SILAC, we quantified 520 proteins, including 49 proteins showing significant changes in abundance in Jurkat T-cell nucleolus upon Tat expression. Numerous proteins exhibiting a fold change were well characterised Tat interactors and/or known to be critical for HIV-1 replication. This suggests that the spatial control and subcellular compartimentaliation of these cellular cofactors by Tat provide an additional layer of control for regulating cellular machinery involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Pathway analysis and network reconstruction revealed that Tat expression specifically resulted in the nucleolar enrichment of proteins collectively participating in ribosomal biogenesis, protein homeostasis, metabolic pathways including glycolytic, pentose phosphate, nucleotides and amino acids biosynthetic pathways, stress response, T-cell signaling pathways and genome integrity. We present here the first differential profiling of the nucleolar proteome of T-cells expressing HIV-1 Tat. We

  5. Effects of new quinizarin derivatives on both HCV NS5B RNA polymerase and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase associated ribonuclease H activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontano, E; Kharlamova, T; Zinzula, L; Esposito, F

    2011-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affect 60 and 170 million infected individuals worldwide, respectively, and co-infection by both pathogens is often observed. This represents a serious public health problem that requires the identification of new drugs targeting essential phases of the life cycle of these two viruses. In this report, the synthesis and inhibitory activity of quinizarin derivatives towards both HCV NS5B polymerase and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase associated functions are reported. Our results demonstrate that anthraquinone derivatives are promising anti-polymerase viral inhibitors.

  6. HIV-1 transmission linkage in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Campbell, Mary S [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Mullins, James I [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Hughes, James P [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Wong, Kim G [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Raugi, Dana N [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Scrensen, Stefanie [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage

  7. The HIV-1 integrase-LEDGF allosteric inhibitor MUT-A: resistance profile, impairment of virus maturation and infectivity but without influence on RNA packaging or virus immunoreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadori, Céline; Ubeles van der Velden, Yme; Bonnard, Damien; Orlov, Igor; van Bel, Nikki; Le Rouzic, Erwann; Miralles, Laia; Brias, Julie; Chevreuil, Francis; Spehner, Daniele; Chasset, Sophie; Ledoussal, Benoit; Mayr, Luzia; Moreau, François; García, Felipe; Gatell, José; Zamborlini, Alessia; Emiliani, Stéphane; Ruff, Marc; Klaholz, Bruno P.; Moog, Christiane; Berkhout, Ben; Plana, Montserrat; Benarous, Richard

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 Integrase (IN) interacts with the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75 and tethers the HIV preintegration complex to the host genome enabling integration. Recently a new class of IN inhibitors was described, the IN-LEDGF allosteric inhibitors (INLAIs). Designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF

  8. Cytoplasmic Dynein Promotes HIV-1 Uncoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Pawlica

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral capsid (CA cores undergo uncoating during their retrograde transport (toward the nucleus, and/or after reaching the nuclear membrane. However, whether HIV-1 CA core uncoating is dependent upon its transport is not understood. There is some evidence that HIV-1 cores retrograde transport involves cytoplasmic dynein complexes translocating on microtubules. Here we investigate the role of dynein-dependent transport in HIV-1 uncoating. To interfere with dynein function, we depleted dynein heavy chain (DHC using RNA interference, and we over-expressed p50/dynamitin. In immunofluorescence microscopy experiments, DHC depletion caused an accumulation of CA foci in HIV-1 infected cells. Using a biochemical assay to monitor HIV-1 CA core disassembly in infected cells, we observed an increase in amounts of intact (pelletable CA cores upon DHC depletion or p50 over-expression. Results from these two complementary assays suggest that inhibiting dynein-mediated transport interferes with HIV-1 uncoating in infected cells, indicating the existence of a functional link between HIV-1 transport and uncoating.

  9. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical...

  10. Aggressive HIV-1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Ben; de Ronde, Anthony; van der Hoek, Lia

    2005-02-28

    New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was held to announce the emergence of an aggressive HIV-1 strain that may be difficult to treat and that appears to trigger rapid progression to AIDS. Is the panic justified?

  11. Reactivation of latent HIV-1 infection by the periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis involves histone modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenichi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Okamoto, Takashi

    2009-03-15

    Latently infected cells harbor the HIV-1 proviral DNA genome primarily integrated into heterochromatin, allowing the persistence of transcriptionally silent proviruses. Hypoacetylation of histone proteins by histone deacetylases (HDAC) is involved in the maintenance of HIV-1 latency by repressing viral transcription. In addition, periodontal diseases, caused by polymicrobial subgingival bacteria including Porphyromonas gingivalis, are among the most prevalent infections of mankind. Here we demonstrate the effects of P. gingivalis on HIV-1 replication. This activity could be ascribable to the bacterial culture supernatant but not to other bacterial components such as fimbriae or LPS. We found that this HIV-1-inducing activity was recovered in the lower molecular mass (HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter upon stimulation with bacterial culture supernatant concomitantly with the association of acetylated histone and RNA polymerase II. We thus found that P. gingivalis could induce HIV-1 reactivation via chromatin modification and that butyric acid, one of the bacterial metabolites, is responsible for this effect. These results suggest that periodontal diseases could act as a risk factor for HIV-1 reactivation in infected individuals and might contribute to the systemic dissemination of the virus.

  12. HIV-1 is not a major driver of increased plasma IL-6 levels in chronic HIV-1 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Carey L.; Biancotto, Angélique; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Pilch-Cooper, Heather A.; Valdez, Hernan; Margolis, Leonid; Sieg, Scott F.; McComsey, Grace A.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Lederman, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Increased plasma IL-6 levels have been associated with HIV-1 disease progression risk, yet the drivers of IL-6 production in HIV-1 infection are not known. This study was designed to explore the relationship between HIV-1 replication and IL-6 induction. Design Correlations between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA were examined in two clinical studies. To more directly assess the induction of IL-6 by HIV-1, several cell and tissue types that support HIV-1 replication in vivo were infected with HIV-1 and expression of IL-6 was measured. Methods Spearman’s rank correlations were used to examine the relationship between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA. Macrophages, and colonic and lymph node histocultures were infected with HIV-1 or stimulated with bacterial products, LPS or flagellin, and IL-6 levels in supernatant were measured by ELISA or multiplex bead assay. Results In the clinical studies there was weak or no correlation between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA but IL-6 levels were correlated with plasma levels of the LPS coreceptor CD14. Macrophages stimulated with LPS or flagellin showed robust production of IL-6, but there was no increase in IL-6 production after HIV-1 infection. IL-6 expression was not increased in lymph node histocultures obtained from HIV-1 infected subjects nor after productive HIV-1 infection of colonic or lymph node histocultures ex vivo. Conclusions We find no evidence that HIV-1 replication is an important driver of IL-6 expression in vivo or in in vitro systems. PMID:22659649

  13. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  14. In vitro nuclear interactome of the HIV-1 Tat protein.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gautier, Virginie W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One facet of the complexity underlying the biology of HIV-1 resides not only in its limited number of viral proteins, but in the extensive repertoire of cellular proteins they interact with and their higher-order assembly. HIV-1 encodes the regulatory protein Tat (86-101aa), which is essential for HIV-1 replication and primarily orchestrates HIV-1 provirus transcriptional regulation. Previous studies have demonstrated that Tat function is highly dependent on specific interactions with a range of cellular proteins. However they can only partially account for the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamics of proviral gene expression. To obtain a comprehensive nuclear interaction map of Tat in T-cells, we have designed a proteomic strategy based on affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Our approach resulted in the identification of a total of 183 candidates as Tat nuclear partners, 90% of which have not been previously characterised. Subsequently we applied in silico analysis, to validate and characterise our dataset which revealed that the Tat nuclear interactome exhibits unique signature(s). First, motif composition analysis highlighted that our dataset is enriched for domains mediating protein, RNA and DNA interactions, and helicase and ATPase activities. Secondly, functional classification and network reconstruction clearly depicted Tat as a polyvalent protein adaptor and positioned Tat at the nexus of a densely interconnected interaction network involved in a range of biological processes which included gene expression regulation, RNA biogenesis, chromatin structure, chromosome organisation, DNA replication and nuclear architecture. CONCLUSION: We have completed the in vitro Tat nuclear interactome and have highlighted its modular network properties and particularly those involved in the coordination of gene expression by Tat. Ultimately, the highly specialised set of molecular interactions identified will

  15. Improving clinical laboratory efficiency: a time-motion evaluation of the Abbott m2000 RealTime and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan PCR systems for the simultaneous quantitation of HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Alessandra; Coen, Sabrina; Belladonna, Stefano; Pulvirenti, F Renato; Clemens, John M; Capobianchi, M Rosaria

    2011-08-01

    Diagnostic laboratories need automation that facilitates efficient processing and workflow management to meet today's challenges for expanding services and reducing cost, yet maintaining the highest levels of quality. Processing efficiency of two commercially available automated systems for quantifying HIV-1 and HCV RNA, Abbott m2000 system and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan 96 (docked) systems (CAP/CTM), was evaluated in a mid/high throughput workflow laboratory using a representative daily workload of 24 HCV and 72 HIV samples. Three test scenarios were evaluated: A) one run with four batches on the CAP/CTM system, B) two runs on the Abbott m2000 and C) one run using the Abbott m2000 maxCycle feature (maxCycle) for co-processing these assays. Cycle times for processing, throughput and hands-on time were evaluated. Overall processing cycle time was 10.3, 9.1 and 7.6 h for Scenarios A), B) and C), respectively. Total hands-on time for each scenario was, in order, 100.0 (A), 90.3 (B) and 61.4 min (C). The interface of an automated analyzer to the laboratory workflow, notably system set up for samples and reagents and clean up functions, are as important as the automation capability of the analyzer for the overall impact to processing efficiency and operator hands-on time.

  16. A novel approach for inhibition of HIV-1 by RNA interference: counteracting viral escape with a second generation of siRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brake, Olivier; Berkhout, Ben

    2005-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionary conserved gene silencing mechanism in which small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediates the sequence specific degradation of mRNA. The recent discovery that exogenously delivered siRNA can trigger RNAi in mammalian cells raises the possibility to use this

  17. LONGER DURATION OF HOMELESSNESS IS ASSOCIATED WITH A LOWER LIKELIHOOD OF NON-DETECTABLE PLASMA HIV-1 RNA VIRAL LOAD AMONG PEOPLE WHO USE ILLICIT DRUGS IN A CANADIAN SETTING

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Jane; Kennedy, Mary Clare; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Marshall, Brandon; Parashar, Surita; Montaner, Julio; Milloy, M.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Homelessness is common among people who use drugs (PWUD) and, for those living with HIV/AIDS, an important contributor to sub-optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) non-detectability among a cohort of HIV-positive PWUD. We used data from the ACCESS study, a long-running prospective cohort study of HIV-positive PWUD linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records in...

  18. Difficulties in diagnosing atypical primary HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Casseb, Jorge Simão do Rosário; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    1994-01-01

    Several cases of primary HIV-1 infection are not identified, either because the diagnosis is not suspected or because they test negative for HIV-1 antibody. This work presents an uncommon case of primary HIV-1 infection in an young parenteral drug abuser man, who presented symptoms of acute hepatitis. During the initial acute phase the serum sample of the patient tested negative for the presence of antibodies against several viruses, including HIV-1. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of primary HIV...

  19. Aggressive HIV-1?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Hoek Lia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was held to announce the emergence of an aggressive HIV-1 strain that may be difficult to treat and that appears to trigger rapid progression to AIDS. Is the panic justified?

  20. Antibody responses to HIV-1 antigens are higher in HIV-1(+) intravenous drug users than in HIV-1(+) homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J D; Bekesi, G J

    2001-07-01

    Immune responses to HIV-1 infection of 42 HIV-1-positive asymptomatic intravenous drug users (IVDUs) were compared with those of 135 HIV-1-infected asymptomatic homosexual men in the present study. Twenty-five HIV-1(-) individuals served as normal controls. The comparison included antibody responses to five computer-predicted epitopes of HIV-1 p17, and viral proteins gp120 and p24 as well as p17. Major immunophenotypes were also investigated. Results showed that antibody responses to the five epitopes were significantly higher in the IVDUs. A larger proportion of the IVDUs, with respect to that of homosexuals, showed positive antibody responses to p24 and p17, respectively. However, the antibody response to gp120 was similar between the two cohorts. Immunophenotyping showed that HIV-1(+) homosexuals had higher profiles in most of the major subsets than did the IVDUs, especially in the total count of lymphocytes, absolute numbers of CD3+ cells and CD8+ cells. It appeared that the HIV-1(+) IVDU cohort had higher antibody responses to most of the viral antigens, but had lower levels of lymphocyte subsets in comparison with HIV(+) homosexuals.

  1. Association of CD4+ T-cell Count, HIV-1 RNA Viral Load, and Antiretroviral Therapy With Kaposi Sarcoma Risk Among HIV-infected Persons in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrow, Robert; Qin, Li; Lin, Haiqun; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Neugebauer, Romain S; Leyden, Wendy; Althoff, Keri N; Achenbach, Chad J; Hessol, Nancy A; Modur, Sharada P; DʼSouza, Gypsyamber; Bosch, Ronald J; Grover, Surbhi; Horberg, Michael A; Kitahata, Mari M; Mayor, Angel M; Novak, Richard M; Rabkin, Charles S; Sterling, Timothy R; Goedert, James J; Justice, Amy C; Engels, Eric A; Moore, Richard D; Silverberg, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) remains common among HIV-infected persons. To better understand KS etiology and to help target prevention efforts, we comprehensively examined a variety of CD4 T-cell count and HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) measures, as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, to determine independent predictors of KS risk. North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design. We followed HIV-infected persons during 1996-2009 from 18 cohorts. We used time-updated Cox regression to model relationships between KS risk and recent, lagged, trajectory, and cumulative CD4 count or VL measures, as well as ART use. We used Akaike's information criterion and global P values to derive a final model. In separate models, the relationship between each measure and KS risk was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Our final mutually adjusted model included recent CD4 count [hazard ratio (HR) for <50 vs. ≥500 cells/μL = 12.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.5 to 23.8], recent VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0 to 7.3), and cumulative (time-weighted mean) VL (HR for ≥100,000 vs. ≤500 copies/mL = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0 to 5.9). Each P-trend was <0.0001. After adjusting for these measures, we did not detect an independent association between ART use and KS risk. Our results suggested a multifactorial etiology for KS, with early and late phases of development. The cumulative VL effect suggested that controlling HIV replication promptly after HIV diagnosis is important for KS prevention. We observed no evidence for direct anti-KS activity of ART, independent of CD4 count and VL.

  2. Acyclovir and Transmission of HIV-1 from Persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celum, Connie; Wald, Anna; Lingappa, Jairam R.; Magaret, Amalia S.; Wang, Richard S.; Mugo, Nelly; Mujugira, Andrew; Baeten, Jared M.; Mullins, James I.; Hughes, James P.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; Stewart, Grace John; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Myron; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth H.; de Bruyn, Guy; Gray, Glenda E.; McIntyre, James A.; Manongi, Rachel; Kapiga, Saidi; Coetzee, David; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Karita, Etienne; Kanweka, William; Delany, Sinead; Rees, Helen; Vwalika, Bellington; Stevens, Wendy; Campbell, Mary S.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Coombs, Robert W.; Morrow, Rhoda; Whittington, William L.H.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Barnes, Linda; Ridzon, Renee; Corey, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    were observed. CONCLUSIONS Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519.) PMID:20089951

  3. NMR structure of the chimeric hybrid duplex r(gcaguggc).r(gcca)d(CTGC) comprising the tRNA-DNA junction formed during initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szyperski, Thomas; Goette, Matthias; Billeter, Martin; Perola, Emanuele; Cellai, Luciano; Heumann, Hermann; Wuethrich, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    A high-quality NMR solution structure of the chimeric hybrid duplex r(gcaguggc).r(gcca)d(CTGC) was determined using the program DYANA with its recently implemented new module FOUND, which performs exhaustive conformational grid searches for dinucleotides. To ensure conservative data interpretation, the use of 1H-1H lower distance limit constraints was avoided. The duplex comprises the tRNA-DNA junction formed during the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. It forms an A-type double helix that exhibits distinct structural deviations from a standard A-conformation. In particular, the minor groove is remarkably narrow, and its width decreases from about 7.5 A in the RNA/RNA stem to about 4.5 A in the RNA/DNA segment. This is unexpected, since minor groove widths for A-RNA and RNA/DNA hybrid duplexes of ∼11 A and ∼8.5 A, respectively, were previously reported. The present, new structure supports that reverse transcriptase-associated RNaseH specificity is related primarily to conformational adaptability of the nucleic acid in 'induced-fit'-type interactions, rather than the minor groove width of a predominantly static nucleic acid duplex

  4. Aggressive HIV-1?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben; de Ronde, Anthony; van der Hoek, Lia

    2005-01-01

    New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was

  5. Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-li LU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods  Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results  Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion  The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.

  6. Quantitative live-cell imaging of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgärtel, Viola; Müller, Barbara; Lamb, Don C

    2012-05-01

    Advances in fluorescence methodologies make it possible to investigate biological systems in unprecedented detail. Over the last few years, quantitative live-cell imaging has increasingly been used to study the dynamic interactions of viruses with cells and is expected to become even more indispensable in the future. Here, we describe different fluorescence labeling strategies that have been used to label HIV-1 for live cell imaging and the fluorescence based methods used to visualize individual aspects of virus-cell interactions. This review presents an overview of experimental methods and recent experiments that have employed quantitative microscopy in order to elucidate the dynamics of late stages in the HIV-1 replication cycle. This includes cytosolic interactions of the main structural protein, Gag, with itself and the viral RNA genome, the recruitment of Gag and RNA to the plasma membrane, virion assembly at the membrane and the recruitment of cellular proteins involved in HIV-1 release to the nascent budding site.

  7. Bacterial vaginosis associated with increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort analysis among African couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R Cohen

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV, a disruption of the normal vaginal flora, has been associated with a 60% increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in women and higher concentration of HIV-1 RNA in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women. However, whether BV, which is present in up to half of African HIV-1-infected women, is associated with an increase in HIV-1 transmission to male partners has not been assessed in previous studies.We assessed the association between BV on female-to-male HIV-1 transmission risk in a prospective study of 2,236 HIV-1-seropositive women and their HIV-1 uninfected male partners from seven African countries from a randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled heterosexual African adults who were seropositive for both HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus (HSV-2, and their HIV-1-seronegative partners. Participants were followed for up to 24 months; every three months, vaginal swabs were obtained from female partners for Gram stain and male partners were tested for HIV-1. BV and normal vaginal flora were defined as a Nugent score of 7-10 and 0-3, respectively. To reduce misclassification, HIV-1 sequence analysis of viruses from seroconverters and their partners was performed to determine linkage of HIV-1 transmissions. Overall, 50 incident HIV-1 infections occurred in men in which the HIV-1-infected female partner had an evaluable vaginal Gram stain. HIV-1 incidence in men whose HIV-1-infected female partners had BV was 2.91 versus 0.76 per 100 person-years in men whose female partners had normal vaginal flora (hazard ratio 3.62, 95% CI 1.74-7.52. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, sexual behavior, male circumcision, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in female partners, BV was associated with a greater than 3-fold increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission (adjusted hazard ratio 3.17, 95% CI 1.37-7.33.This study identified an association between BV and increased risk of HIV

  8. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells suppress HIV-1 replication but contribute to HIV-1 induced immunopathogenesis in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis remains unclear. HIV-1 infection in the humanized mouse model leads to persistent HIV-1 infection and immunopathogenesis, including type I interferons (IFN-I induction, immune-activation and depletion of human leukocytes, including CD4 T cells. We developed a monoclonal antibody that specifically depletes human pDC in all lymphoid organs in humanized mice. When pDC were depleted prior to HIV-1 infection, the induction of IFN-I and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs were abolished during acute HIV-1 infection with either a highly pathogenic CCR5/CXCR4-dual tropic HIV-1 or a standard CCR5-tropic HIV-1 isolate. Consistent with the anti-viral role of IFN-I, HIV-1 replication was significantly up-regulated in pDC-depleted mice. Interestingly, the cell death induced by the highly pathogenic HIV-1 isolate was severely reduced in pDC-depleted mice. During chronic HIV-1 infection, depletion of pDC also severely reduced the induction of IFN-I and ISGs, associated with elevated HIV-1 replication. Surprisingly, HIV-1 induced depletion of human immune cells including T cells in lymphoid organs, but not the blood, was reduced in spite of the increased viral replication. The increased cell number in lymphoid organs was associated with a reduced level of HIV-induced cell death in human leukocytes including CD4 T cells. We conclude that pDC play opposing roles in suppressing HIV-1 replication and in promoting HIV-1 induced immunopathogenesis. These findings suggest that pDC-depletion and IFN-I blockade will provide novel strategies for treating those HIV-1 immune non-responsive patients with persistent immune activation despite effective anti-retrovirus treatment.

  9. Genes (including RNA editing information) - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RMG Genes... (including RNA editing information) Data detail Data name Genes (including RNA edi... Site Policy | Contact Us Genes (including RNA editing information) - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, newly diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Sim~ao Mendes in Guinea......-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. Results: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive...

  11. NMR Studies of the Structure and Function of the HIV-1 5'-Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Sarah C; Summers, Michael F

    2016-12-21

    The 5'-leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome plays several critical roles during viral replication, including differentially establishing mRNA versus genomic RNA (gRNA) fates. As observed for proteins, the function of the RNA is tightly regulated by its structure, and a common paradigm has been that genome function is temporally modulated by structural changes in the 5'-leader. Over the past 30 years, combinations of nucleotide reactivity mapping experiments with biochemistry, mutagenesis, and phylogenetic studies have provided clues regarding the secondary structures of stretches of residues within the leader that adopt functionally discrete domains. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy approaches have been developed that enable direct detection of intra- and inter-molecular interactions within the intact leader, providing detailed insights into the structural determinants and mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 genome packaging and function.

  12. NMR Studies of the Structure and Function of the HIV-1 5′-Leader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Keane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5′-leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genome plays several critical roles during viral replication, including differentially establishing mRNA versus genomic RNA (gRNA fates. As observed for proteins, the function of the RNA is tightly regulated by its structure, and a common paradigm has been that genome function is temporally modulated by structural changes in the 5′-leader. Over the past 30 years, combinations of nucleotide reactivity mapping experiments with biochemistry, mutagenesis, and phylogenetic studies have provided clues regarding the secondary structures of stretches of residues within the leader that adopt functionally discrete domains. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy approaches have been developed that enable direct detection of intra- and inter-molecular interactions within the intact leader, providing detailed insights into the structural determinants and mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 genome packaging and function.

  13. Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 by Inhibition of BRD4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 depends on many host factors for propagation. Other host factors, however, antagonize HIV-1 and may have profound effects on viral activation. Curing HIV-1 requires the reduction of latent viral reservoirs that remain in the face of antiretroviral therapy. Using orthologous genetic screens, we identified bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4 as a negative regulator of HIV-1 replication. Antagonism of BRD4, via RNA interference or with a small molecule inhibitor, JQ1, both increased proviral transcriptional elongation and alleviated HIV-1 latency in cell-line models. In multiple instances, JQ1, when used in combination with the NF-κB activators Prostratin or PHA, enhanced the in vitro reactivation of latent HIV-1 in primary T cells. These data are consistent with a model wherein BRD4 competes with the virus for HIV-1 dependency factors (HDFs and suggests that combinatorial therapies that activate HDFs and antagonize HIV-1 competitive factors may be useful for curing HIV-1 infection.

  14. Reactivation of latent HIV-1 by inhibition of BRD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Gaiha, Gaurav D; John, Sinu P; Pertel, Thomas; Chin, Christopher R; Gao, Geng; Qu, Hongjing; Walker, Bruce D; Elledge, Stephen J; Brass, Abraham L

    2012-10-25

    HIV-1 depends on many host factors for propagation. Other host factors, however, antagonize HIV-1 and may have profound effects on viral activation. Curing HIV-1 requires the reduction of latent viral reservoirs that remain in the face of antiretroviral therapy. Using orthologous genetic screens, we identified bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) as a negative regulator of HIV-1 replication. Antagonism of BRD4, via RNA interference or with a small molecule inhibitor, JQ1, both increased proviral transcriptional elongation and alleviated HIV-1 latency in cell-line models. In multiple instances, JQ1, when used in combination with the NF-κB activators Prostratin or PHA, enhanced the in vitro reactivation of latent HIV-1 in primary T cells. These data are consistent with a model wherein BRD4 competes with the virus for HIV-1 dependency factors (HDFs) and suggests that combinatorial therapies that activate HDFs and antagonize HIV-1 competitive factors may be useful for curing HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Endolysosomes in HIV-1 Tat-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combined anti-retroviral therapeutic drugs effectively increase the lifespan of HIV-1-infected individuals who then have a higher prevalence of HAND (HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder. Soluble factors including HIV-1 proteins released from HIV-1-infected cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND, and particular attention has been paid to the HIV-1 Tat (transactivator of transcription protein because of its ability to directly excite neurons and cause neuronal cell death. Since HIV-1 Tat enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and since endolysosomes play an important role in neuronal cell life and death, we tested here the hypothesis that HIV-1 Tat neurotoxicity is associated with changes in the endolysosome structure and function and also autophagy. Following the treatment of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons with HIV-1 Tat or as controls mutant-Tat or PBS, neuronal viability was determined using a triple staining method. Preceding observations of HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal cell death, we observed statistically significant changes in the structure and membrane integrity of endolysosomes, endolysosome pH and autophagy. As early as 24 h after HIV-1 Tat was applied to neurons, HIV-1 Tat accumulated in endolysosomes, endolysosome morphology was affected and their size increased, endolysosome membrane integrity was disrupted, endolysosome pH increased, specific activities of endolysosome enzymes decreased and autophagy was inhibited, as indicated by the significant changes in three markers for autophagy. In contrast, statistically significant levels of HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal cell death were observed only after 48 h of HIV-1 Tat treatment. Our findings suggest that endolysosomes are involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced neurotoxicity and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention against HAND.

  16. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in the form of unique or stable circulating recombinants forms (CRFs) are responsible for over 20% of infections in the worldwide epidemic. Mechanisms controlling the generation, selection, and transmission of these intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants still require further investigation. All intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants are generated and evolve from initial dual infections, but are difficult to identify in the human population. In vitro studies provide the most practical system to study mechanisms, but the recombination rates are usually very low in dual infections with primary HIV-1 isolates. This study describes the use of HIV-1 isolate-specific siRNAs to enrich intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants and inhibit the parental HIV-1 isolates from a dual infection. Results Following a dual infection with subtype A and D primary HIV-1 isolates and two rounds of siRNA treatment, nearly 100% of replicative virus was resistant to a siRNA specific for an upstream target sequence in the subtype A envelope (env) gene as well as a siRNA specific for a downstream target sequence in the subtype D env gene. Only 20% (10/50) of the replicating virus had nucleotide substitutions in the siRNA-target sequence whereas the remaining 78% (39/50) harbored a recombination breakpoint that removed both siRNA target sequences, and rendered the intersubtype D/A recombinant virus resistant to the dual siRNA treatment. Since siRNAs target the newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA, the siRNAs only enrich intersubtype env recombinants and do not influence the recombination process during reverse transcription. Using this system, a strong bias is selected for recombination breakpoints in the C2 region, whereas other HIV-1 env regions, most notably the hypervariable regions, were nearly devoid of intersubtype recombination breakpoints. Sequence conservation plays an important role in selecting for recombination breakpoints, but the lack of breakpoints in many conserved

  17. Longitudinal Trends in Western Australian HIV-1 Sequence Diversity and Viral Transmission Networks and Their Influence on Clinical Parameters: 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castley, Alison S L; Gaudieri, Silvana; James, Ian; Gizzarelli, Laila S; Guelfi, George; John, Mina; Nolan, David

    2016-03-01

    We examined baseline HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences and HIV clinical parameters from 1,021 consecutive patients (814 male, 207 female) through the Royal Perth Hospital HIV service to investigate HIV-1 subtype diversity and local phylogenetic networks from 2000 to 2014. HIV-1 subtype B virus sequences were demonstrated in 619 (61%) of cases, with increasing non-B HIV-1 subtypes from 23.2% (2000-2003) to 48% (2008-2011) and 43% (2012-2014) (p 2: 135/211; 64% vs. 13/69; 19%; p = 0.001), including one cluster of 53 HIV-1 B subtype sequences that evolved from 2008 to 2014. Non-B subtype HIV-1 was associated with lower baseline CD4 T cell count (p = 0.005) but not plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (p = 0.31), suggesting relatively delayed diagnosis. Baseline viral load was strongly associated with calendar time [mean 18,620 copies/ml in 2000-2003; 75,858 copies/ml in 2012-2014 (p 2) in adjusted analyses (p = 0.03). This study identifies a number of temporal trends over the past 15 years, including an increasing prevalence of non-B subtype HIV-1 that highlights the growing influence of migration and travel on the Australian HIV-1 epidemic and the associated increased role of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission in this context. At the same time, these data indicate that local transmission within predominantly male networks remains a challenging issue for HIV-1 prevention.

  18. Evaluation of Xpert HIV-1 Qual assay for resolution of HIV-1 infection in samples with negative or indeterminate Geenius HIV-1/2 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, Michal; Wax, Marina; Gozlan, Yael; Rakovsky, Aviya; Mendelson, Ella; Mor, Orna

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of HIV infection is a multistage algorithm. Following screening with 4(th) generation combination immunoassay, confirmation of HIV infection is performed with an antibody assay that differentiates HIV-1 from HIV-2 infection. In the newly updated algorithm, samples that are nonreactive or indeterminate in the differentiation assay are to be tested with an HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) test for resolution. Xpert HIV-1 Qual is a new NAAT assay approved for the identification of HIV infection in whole and dried blood. To assess the performance of Xpert HIV-1 Qual supplementary assay in resolving the clinical status of serum samples reactive by 4(th) generation immunoassays and indeterminate or negative by Geenius HIV-1/2 confirmatory assay. In a retrospective study, samples from 97 individuals for whom the true HIV-1 status was already known (by follow-up samples) and which were negative or indeterminate by HIV-1/2 Geenius assay were tested with Xpert Qual HIV-1 assay. Xpert Qual assay correctly classified all 97 samples from HIV-1 positive (n=49) and negative (n=48) individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert Qual when using the true HIV status as a reference were 100% (92.7-100% at 95% confidence interval [CI] and 92.6-100% at 95% CI, respectively). Applying Xpert Qual HIV-1 assay in the new HIV multi-stage diagnostic algorithm correctly classified 100% of HIV-1 infections including 49 from HIV-1 carriers who have not yet seroconverted. With this assay the total time required for acute HIV diagnosis could be significantly reduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Conformational transitions of flanking purines in HIV-1 RNA dimerization initiation site kissing complexes studied by charmm explicit solvent molecular dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarzynska, J.; Réblová, Kamila; Šponer, Jiří; Kulinski, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 9 (2008), s. 732-746 ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : molecular dynamics * RNA * force field Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.823, year: 2008

  20. Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; Rocha, Monica Simões; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Maranhão, Adriana Gonçalves; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Rocha, Myrna Santos; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello

    2017-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) have distinct etiological profiles in immune-deficient and immune-competent patients. This study compares detection rates, genotype distribution and viral loads of different enteric viral agents in HIV-1 seropositive (n = 200) and HIV-1 seronegative (n = 125) children hospitalized with DD in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Except for group A rotavirus (RVA), which were detected through enzyme immunoassay, the other enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], astrovirus [HAstV], adenovirus [HAdV] and bocavirus [HBoV]) were detected through PCR or RT-PCR. A quantitative PCR was performed for RVA, NoV, HAstV, HAdV and HBoV. Infections with NoV (19% vs. 9.6%; pHIV-1 seropositive children. RVA was significantly less frequent among HIV-1 seropositive patients (6.5% vs. 20%; pHIV-1 seropositive children (5.5% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.018). Among HIV-1 seropositive children 33 (16.5%) had co-infections, including three enteric viruses, such as NoV, HBoV and HAdV (n = 2) and NoV, HAstV and HAdV (n = 2). The frequency of infection with more than one virus was 17 (13.6%) in the HIV-1 negative group, triple infection (NoV + HAstV + HBoV) being observed in only one patient. The median viral load of HAstV in feces was significantly higher among HIV-1 positive children compared to HIV-1 negative children. Concerning children infected with RVA, NoV, HBoV and HAdV, no statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of viral loads in feces, comparing HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children. Similar detection rates were observed for RVA, HAstV and HAdV, whilst NoV and HBoV were significantly more prevalent among children with CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3. Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along with pathogens more classically associated with intestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts.

  1. HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected adults in early HIV-1 infection have elevated CD4+ T cell counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Barbour

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is often acquired in the presence of pre-existing co-infections, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2. We examined the impact of HSV-2 status at the time of HIV-1 acquisition for its impact on subsequent clinical course, and total CD4+ T cell phenotypes.We assessed the relationship of HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection status on CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels over time prior in a cohort of 186 treatment naïve adults identified during early HIV-1 infection. We assessed the activation and differentiation state of total CD4+ T cells at study entry by HSV-2 status.Of 186 recently HIV-1 infected persons, 101 (54% were sero-positive for HSV-2. There was no difference in initial CD8+ T cell count, or differences between the groups for age, gender, or race based on HSV-2 status. Persons with HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infection sustained higher CD4+ T cell counts over time (+69 cells/ul greater (SD = 33.7, p = 0.04 than those with HIV-1 infection alone (Figure 1, after adjustment for HIV-1 RNA levels (-57 cells per 1 log(10 higher HIV-1 RNA, p<0.0001. We did not observe a relationship between HSV-2 infection status with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels over time. HSV-2 acquisition after HIV-1 acquisition had no impact on CD4+ count or viral load. We did not detect differences in CD4+ T cell activation or differentiation state by HSV-2+ status.We observed no effect of HSV-2 status on viral load. However, we did observe that treatment naïve, recently HIV-1 infected adults co-infected with HSV-2+ at the time of HIV-1 acquisition had higher CD4+ T cell counts over time. If verified in other cohorts, this result poses a striking paradox, and its public health implications are not immediately clear.

  2. A riboswitch regulates RNA dimerization and packaging in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Marcel; Huthoff, Hendrik; Russell, Rodney; Liang, Chen; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    The genome of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), consists of two identical RNA strands that are packaged as noncovalently linked dimers. The core packaging and dimerization signals are located in the downstream part of the untranslated leader of HIV-1 RNA-the Psi

  3. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnakumar Devadas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death.

  4. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-01-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4 + T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4 + T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4 + T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the “Shock and Kill” strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. - Highlights: • X-ray irradiation (IR) increases

  5. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordanskiy, Sergey [School of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Van Duyne, Rachel [School of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao [School of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Romerio, Fabio [Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Kashanchi, Fatah, E-mail: fkashanc@gmu.edu [School of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Molecular Virology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4{sup +} T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4{sup +} T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4{sup +} T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the “Shock and Kill” strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. - Highlights: • X-ray irradiation

  6. Potent Cell-Intrinsic Immune Responses in Dendritic Cells Facilitate HIV-1-Specific T Cell Immunity in HIV-1 Elite Controllers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Martin-Gayo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of HIV-1 elite controllers (EC restrict HIV-1 replication through highly functional HIV-1-specific T cell responses, but mechanisms supporting the evolution of effective HIV-1-specific T cell immunity in these patients remain undefined. Cytosolic immune recognition of HIV-1 in conventional dendritic cells (cDC can facilitate priming and expansion of HIV-1-specific T cells; however, HIV-1 seems to be able to avoid intracellular immune recognition in cDCs in most infected individuals. Here, we show that exposure of cDCs from EC to HIV-1 leads to a rapid and sustained production of type I interferons and upregulation of several interferon-stimulated effector genes. Emergence of these cell-intrinsic immune responses was associated with a reduced induction of SAMHD1 and LEDGF/p75, and an accumulation of viral reverse transcripts, but inhibited by pharmacological blockade of viral reverse transcription or siRNA-mediated silencing of the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS. Importantly, improved cell-intrinsic immune recognition of HIV-1 in cDCs from elite controllers translated into stronger abilities to stimulate and expand HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses. These data suggest an important role of cell-intrinsic type I interferon secretion in dendritic cells for the induction of effective HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells, and may be helpful for eliciting functional T cell immunity against HIV-1 for preventative or therapeutic clinical purposes.

  7. HIV-1 Replication and the Cellular Eukaryotic Translation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic translation is a complex process composed of three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. During infections by RNA- and DNA-viruses, the eukaryotic translation machinery is used to assure optimal viral protein synthesis. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 uses several non-canonical pathways to translate its own proteins, such as leaky scanning, frameshifting, shunt, and cap-independent mechanisms. Moreover, HIV-1 modulates the host translation machinery by targeting key translation factors and overcomes different cellular obstacles that affect protein translation. In this review, we describe how HIV-1 proteins target several components of the eukaryotic translation machinery, which consequently improves viral translation and replication.

  8. Extrachromosomal HIV-1 DNA in persistently infected U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauza, C D; Singh, M K

    1990-08-01

    Persistent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of U937 monocytic cells resulted in the accumulation of novel forms of extrachromosomal viral DNA. These DNA species are larger than the genome size of HIV-1 and persist indefinitely. The extrachromosomal viral DNA species (E-DNA) were shown to be structurally stable by subcloning of infected cell lines and restriction fragment analysis. Similar E-DNA structures were observed in independent infections. Persistently infected monocytic cells had low levels of viral antigens, reflecting the low levels of viral RNA that were detected. These results support a role for E-DNA in persistent HIV-1 infection of monocytic cells.

  9. Plasma HIV-1 Tropism and the Risk of Short-Term Clinical Progression to AIDS or Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casadellà, Maria; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Phillips, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if plasma HIV-1 tropism testing could identify subjects at higher risk for clinical progression and death in routine clinical management. DESIGN: Nested case-control study within the EuroSIDA cohort. METHODS: Cases were subjects with AIDS or who died from any cause......, with a plasma sample with HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL available for tropism testing 3 to 12 months prior to the event. At least 1 control matched for age, HIV-1 RNA and HCV status at the time of sampling were selected per each case. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate exposures associated...... with clinical progression to AIDS or death. A linear mixed model with random intercept was used to compare CD4+T-cell slopes by HIV tropism over the 12 months following the date of sampling. RESULTS: The study included 266 subjects, 100 cases and 166 controls; one quarter had X4 HIV; 26% were ART...

  10. Cloning and characterization of HIV-1-inducible astrocyte elevated gene-1, AEG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Chul; Su, Zao-Zhong; Sarkar, Devanand; Emdad, Luni; Volsky, David J; Fisher, Paul B

    2005-06-20

    We presently describe the full-length cloning and functional characterization of an HIV-1-inducible gene, astrocyte elevated gene (AEG)-1. Additionally, a novel method is outlined for producing tag-free recombinant protein in a baculovirus system and its use in producing AEG-1 protein. AEG-1 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously with higher expression in tissues containing muscular actin and its expression is increased in astrocytes infected with HIV-1 or treated with gp120 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The mRNA encodes a single pass transmembrane protein of predicted molecular mass of 64-kDa and pI 9.3 that predominantly localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear region. Ectopic expression of AEG-1 inhibits excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) promoter activity with the potential to promote glutamate excitotoxicity and consequently HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). AEG-1 expression is elevated in subsets of breast carcinomas, malignant gliomas and melanomas and it synergizes with oncogenic Ha-ras to enhance soft agar colony forming ability of non-tumorigenic immortalized melanocytes, documenting its tumor promoting activity. AEG-1 may affect tumor progression in multiple cell lineages by augmenting expression of the transformed phenotype and/or by inducing glutamate excitotoxicity in malignant glioma. In these contexts, an HIV-1-inducible gene, AEG-1, may contribute to multiple brain abnormalities, including HAD and tumor formation, by both common and distinct mechanisms.

  11. HIV-1 infection of macrophages is dependent on evasion of innate immune cellular activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Jhen; Chain, Benjamin M; Miller, Robert F; Webb, Benjamin L J; Barclay, Wendy; Towers, Greg J; Katz, David R; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2009-11-13

    The cellular innate immune response to HIV-1 is poorly characterized. In view of HIV-1 tropism for macrophages, which can be activated via pattern recognition receptors to trigger antimicrobial defences, we investigated innate immune responses to HIV-1 by monocyte-derived macrophages. In a model of productive HIV-1 infection, cellular innate immune responses to HIV-1 were investigated, at the level of transcription factor activation, specific gene expression and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. In addition, the viral determinants of macrophage responses and the physiological effect of innate immune cellular activation on HIV-1 replication were assessed. Productive HIV-1 infection did not activate nuclear factor-kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 3 transcription factors or interferon gene expression (IFN) and caused remarkably small changes to the host-cell transcriptome, with no evidence of inflammatory or IFN signatures. Evasion of IFN induction was not dependent on HIV-1 envelope-mediated cellular entry, inhibition by accessory proteins or reverse transcription of ssRNA that may reduce innate immune cellular activation by viral RNA. Furthermore, IFNbeta priming did not sensitize responses to HIV-1. Importantly, exogenous IFNbeta or stimulation with the RNA analogue poly I:C to simulate innate immune activation invoked HIV-1 restriction. We conclude that macrophages lack functional pattern recognition receptors for this virus and that HIV-1 tropism for macrophages helps to establish a foothold in the host without triggering innate immune cellular activation, which would otherwise block viral infection effectively.

  12. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  13. Detection of HIV-1 p24 at Attomole Level by Ultrasensitive ELISA with Thio-NAD Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuma, Akira; Kaneda, Mugiho; Kodama, Hiromi; Morikawa, Mika; Watabe, Satoshi; Nakaishi, Kazunari; Yamashita, Masakane; Yoshimura, Teruki; Miura, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Masaki; Ito, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the window period between HIV-1 infection and the ability to diagnose it, a fourth-generation immunoassay including the detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen has been developed. However, because the commercially available systems for this assay use special, high-cost instruments to measure, for example, chemiluminescence, it is performed only by diagnostics companies and hub hospitals. To overcome this limitation, we applied an ultrasensitive ELISA coupled with a thio-NAD cycling, which is based on a usual enzyme immunoassay without special instruments, to detect HIV-1 p24. The p24 detection limit by our ultrasensitive ELISA was 0.0065 IU/assay (i.e., ca. 10-18 moles/assay). Because HIV-1 p24 antigen is thought to be present in the virion in much greater numbers than viral RNA copies, the value of 10-18 moles of the p24/assay corresponds to ca. 103 copies of the HIV-1 RNA/assay. That is, our ultrasensitive ELISA is chasing the detection limit (102 copies/assay) obtained by PCR-based nucleic acid testing (NAT) with a margin of only one different order. Further, the detection limit by our ultrasensitive ELISA is less than that mandated for a CE-marked HIV antigen/antibody assay. An additional recovery test using blood supported the reliability of our ultrasensitive ELISA. PMID:26098695

  14. Detection of HIV-1 p24 at Attomole Level by Ultrasensitive ELISA with Thio-NAD Cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nakatsuma

    Full Text Available To reduce the window period between HIV-1 infection and the ability to diagnose it, a fourth-generation immunoassay including the detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen has been developed. However, because the commercially available systems for this assay use special, high-cost instruments to measure, for example, chemiluminescence, it is performed only by diagnostics companies and hub hospitals. To overcome this limitation, we applied an ultrasensitive ELISA coupled with a thio-NAD cycling, which is based on a usual enzyme immunoassay without special instruments, to detect HIV-1 p24. The p24 detection limit by our ultrasensitive ELISA was 0.0065 IU/assay (i.e., ca. 10(-18 moles/assay. Because HIV-1 p24 antigen is thought to be present in the virion in much greater numbers than viral RNA copies, the value of 10(-18 moles of the p24/assay corresponds to ca. 10(3 copies of the HIV-1 RNA/assay. That is, our ultrasensitive ELISA is chasing the detection limit (10(2 copies/assay obtained by PCR-based nucleic acid testing (NAT with a margin of only one different order. Further, the detection limit by our ultrasensitive ELISA is less than that mandated for a CE-marked HIV antigen/antibody assay. An additional recovery test using blood supported the reliability of our ultrasensitive ELISA.

  15. Drugs That Fight HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection (not a complete list of every medication used to treat HIV) • Treatment of HIV-1 infection requires a combination of different medications, also called antiretroviral drugs • Some of these medications are combined together into ...

  16. Double-Stranded RNA Is Detected by Immunofluorescence Analysis in RNA and DNA Virus Infections, Including Those by Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-No; Liang, Zhiguo; Lipton, Howard L

    2015-09-01

    -stimulated genes. The present study demonstrates that infections, including those by ssDNA viruses and positive- and negative-strand RNA viruses, produce dsRNAs detectable by standard immunofluorescence staining. While dsRNA staining was primarily observed in the cytoplasm, nuclear staining was also present in some RNA and DNA virus infections. The nucleus is unlikely to have pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors for dsRNA because of the presence of host dsRNA molecules. Thus, it is likely that most animal virus infections produce dsRNA species detectable by immunofluorescence staining, which may prove useful in viral discovery as well. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. HIV-1 Nef: a master manipulator of the membrane trafficking machinery mediating immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Emily N; Dikeakos, Jimmy D

    2015-04-01

    Many viral genomes encode a limited number of proteins, illustrating their innate efficiency in bypassing host immune surveillance. This concept of genomic efficiency is exemplified by the 9 kb RNA genome of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), encoding 15 proteins sub-divided according to function. The enzymatic group includes proteins such as the drug targets reverse transcriptase and protease. In contrast, the accessory proteins lack any known enzymatic or structural function, yet are essential for viral fitness and HIV-1 pathogenesis. Of these, the HIV-1 accessory protein Nef is a master manipulator of host cellular processes, ensuring efficient counterattack against the host immune response, as well as long-term evasion of immune surveillance. In particular, the ability of Nef to downmodulate major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) is a key cellular event that enables HIV-1 to bypass the host's defenses by evading the adaptive immune response. In this article, we briefly review how various pathogenic viruses control cell-surface MHC-I, and then focus on the mechanisms and implications of HIV-1 Nef-mediated MHC-I downregulation via modulation of the host membrane trafficking machinery. The extensive interaction network formed between Nef and numerous membrane trafficking regulators suggests that Nef's role in evading the immune surveillance system intersects multiple host membrane trafficking pathways. Nef's ability to evade the immune surveillance system is linked to AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, a complete understanding of the molecular pathways that are subverted by Nef in order to downregulate MHC-I will enhance our understanding of HIV-1's progression to AIDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gut microbiota diversity predicts immune status in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Piotr; Troseid, Marius; Avershina, Ekatarina; Barqasho, Babilonia; Neogi, Ujjwal; Holm, Kristian; Hov, Johannes R; Noyan, Kajsa; Vesterbacka, Jan; Svärd, Jenny; Rudi, Knut; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2015-11-28

    HIV-1 infection is characterized by altered intestinal barrier, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that changes of the gut microbiota predict immune dysfunction and HIV-1 progression, and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) partially restores the microbiota composition. An observational study including 28 viremic patients, three elite controllers, and nine uninfected controls. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and for 19 individuals at follow-up (median 10 months) during ART. Microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). Soluble markers of microbial translocation and monocyte activation were analyzed by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay or ELISA. Several alpha-diversity measures, including number of observed bacterial species and Shannon index, were significantly lower in viremic patients compared to controls. The alpha diversity correlated with CD4 T-cell counts and inversely with markers of microbial translocation and monocyte activation. In multivariate linear regression, for every age and sex-adjusted increase in the number of bacterial species, the CD4 T-cell count increased with 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.35-1.41) cells/μl (P = 0.002). After introduction of ART, microbiota alterations persisted with further reduction in alpha diversity. The microbiota composition at the genus level was profoundly altered in viremic patients, both at baseline and after ART, with Prevotella reduced during ART (P Gut microbiota alterations are closely associated with immune dysfunction in HIV-1 patients, and these changes persist during short-term ART. Our data implicate that re-shaping the microbiota may be an adjuvant therapy in patients commencing successful ART.

  19. Astrocytes Resist HIV-1 Fusion but Engulf Infected Macrophage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues and establishes long-lived viral reservoirs. These reservoirs include the CNS, in which macrophage-lineage cells, and as suggested by many studies, astrocytes, may be infected. Here, we have investigated astrocyte infection by HIV-1. We confirm that astrocytes trap and internalize HIV-1 particles for subsequent release but find no evidence that these particles infect the cell. Astrocyte infection was not observed by cell-free or cell-to-cell routes using diverse approaches, including luciferase and GFP reporter viruses, fixed and live-cell fusion assays, multispectral flow cytometry, and super-resolution imaging. By contrast, we observed intimate interactions between HIV-1-infected macrophages and astrocytes leading to signals that might be mistaken for astrocyte infection using less stringent approaches. These results have implications for HIV-1 infection of the CNS, viral reservoir formation, and antiretroviral therapy.

  20. The HIV-1 transmission bottleneck

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki, Samuel Mundia; Selhorst, Philippe; Ari?n, Kevin K.; Dorfman, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that most new systemic infections of HIV-1 can be traced back to one or a limited number of founder viruses. Usually, these founders are more closely related to minor HIV-1 populations in the blood of the presumed donor than to more abundant lineages. This has led to the widely accepted idea that transmission selects for viral characteristics that facilitate crossing the mucosal barrier of the recipient?s genital tract, although the specific selective forces or advantag...

  1. HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name “retrovirus” derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral fact...

  2. HTLV-1/-2 and HIV-1 co-infections: retroviral interference on host immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Maria V; De Maria, Andrea; Bozzano, Federica; Romanelli, Maria G; Bertazzoni, Umberto; Casoli, Claudio

    2013-12-23

    The human retroviruses HIV-1 and HTLV-1/HTLV-2 share similar routes of transmission but cause significantly different diseases. In this review we have outlined the immune mediated mechanisms by which HTLVs affect HIV-1 disease in co-infected hosts. During co-infection with HIV-1, HTLV-2 modulates the cellular microenvironment favoring its own viability and inhibiting HIV-1 progression. This is achieved when the HTLV-2 proviral load is higher than that of HIV-1, and thanks to the ability of HTLV-2 to: (i) up-regulate viral suppressive CCL3L1 chemokine expression; (ii) overcome HIV-1 capacity to activate the JAK/STAT pathway; (iii) reduce the activation of T and NK cells; (iv) modulate the host miRNA profiles. These alterations of immune functions have been mainly attributed to the effects of the HTLV-2 regulatory protein Tax and suggest that HTLV-2 exerts a protective role against HIV-1 infection. Contrary to HIV-1/HTLV-2, the effect of HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infection on immunological and pathological conditions is still controversial. There is evidence that indicates a worsening of HIV-1 infection, while other evidence does not show clinically relevant effects in HIV-positive people. Possible differences on innate immune mechanisms and a particularly impact on NK cells are becoming evident. The differences between the two HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 co-infections are highlighted and further discussed.

  3. HTLV-1/-2 and HIV-1 Co-infections: Retroviral Interference On Host Immune Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta ePilotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human retroviruses HIV-1 and HTLV-1/HTLV-2 share similar routes of transmission but cause significantly different diseases. In this review we have outlined the immune mediated mechanisms by which HTLVs affect HIV-1 disease in co-infected hosts. During co-infection with HIV-1, HTLV-2 modulates the cellular microenvironment favoring its own viability and inhibiting HIV-1 progression. This is achieved when the HTLV-2 proviral load is higher than that of HIV-1, and thanks to the ability of HTLV-2 to: i up-regulate viral suppressive CCL3L1 chemokine expression; ii overcome HIV-1 capacity to activate the JAK/STAT pathway; iii reduce the activation of T and NK cells; iv modulate the host miRNA profiles. These alterations of immune functions have been mainly attributed to the effects of the HTLV-2 regulatory protein Tax and suggest that HTLV-2 exerts a protective role against HIV-1 infection. Contrary to HIV-1/HTLV-2, the effect of HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infection on immunological and pathological conditions is still controversial. There is evidence that indicate a worsening of HIV-1 infection, while other evidence does not show clinically relevant effects in HIV-positive people. Possible differences on innate immune mechanisms and a particularly impact on NK cells are becoming evident. The differences between the two HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 co-infections are highlighted and further discussed.

  4. Unperturbed posttranscriptional regulatory Rev protein function and HIV-1 replication in astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Chauhan

    Full Text Available Astrocytes protect neurons, but also evoke proinflammatory responses to injury and viral infections, including HIV. There is a prevailing notion that HIV-1 Rev protein function in astrocytes is perturbed, leading to restricted viral replication. In earlier studies, our finding of restricted viral entry into astrocytes led us to investigate whether there are any intracellular restrictions, including crippled Rev function, in astrocytes. Despite barely detectable levels of DDX3 (Rev-supporting RNA helicase and TRBP (anti-PKR in primary astrocytes compared to astrocytic cells, Rev function was unperturbed in wild-type, but not DDX3-ablated astrocytes. As in permissive cells, after HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes, viral-encoded Tat and Rev proteins had robust regulatory activities, leading to efficient viral replication. Productive HIV-1 infection in astrocytes persisted for several weeks. Our findings on HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes demonstrated that the intracellular environment is conducive to viral replication and that Tat and Rev functions are unperturbed.

  5. Effectiveness and safety of rilpivirine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, in treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Li; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Gui-Xiang; Lu, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of rilpivirine in treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1. We ran duplicate searches of multiple databases and searchable websites of major HIV conferences (up to October 2013) to identify randomized controlled trials reporting the effectiveness and safety of rilpivirine in treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. Data were extracted independently in duplicate using predefined data fields. All analyses used random-effects models to calculate the summary treatment effect estimates. Four randomized controlled trials with a total of 2522 patients were included in the inclusion criteria. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with confirmed HIV-1 RNA levels of  infected with HIV-1 at week 48.

  6. Which therapeutic strategy will achieve a cure for HIV-1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, Anthony R; Mellors, John W

    2016-06-01

    Strategies to achieve a cure for HIV-1 infection can be broadly classified into three categories: eradication cure (elimination of all viral reservoirs), functional cure (immune control without reservoir eradication), or a hybrid cure (reservoir reduction with improved immune control). The many HIV-1 cure strategies being investigated include modification of host cells to resist HIV-1, engineered T cells to eliminate HIV-infected cells, broadly HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, and therapeutic vaccination, but the 'kick and kill' strategy to expose latent HIV-1 with latency reversing agents (LRAs) and kill the exposed cells through immune effector functions is currently the most actively pursued. It is unknown, however, whether LRAs can deplete viral reservoirs in vivo or whether current LRAs are sufficiently safe for clinical use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effectiveness of tipranavir versus darunavir as a salvage therapy in HIV-1 treatment-experienced patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Hermosillo, Juan Carlos; Mata-Marin, José Antonio; Herrera-González, Norma Estela; Chávez-García, Marcelino; Huerta-García, Gloria; Nuñez-Rodríguez, Nohemí; García-Gámez, José Gerardo; Jiménez-Romero, Anai; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús Enrique

    2016-09-30

    Although both tipranavir (TPV) and darunavir (DRV) represent important options for the management of patients with multi-protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), currently there are no studies comparing the effectiveness and safety of these two drugs in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of TPV versus DRV as a salvage therapy in HIV-1 treatment-experienced patients. This was a comparative, prospective, cohort study. Patients with HIV and triple-class drug resistance evaluated at the Hospital de Infectología "La Raza", National Medical Center, were included. All patients had the protease and retrotranscriptase genotype; resistance mutation interpretation was done using the Stanford database. A total of 35 HIV-1 triple-class drug-resistant patients were analyzed. All of them received tenofovir and raltegravir, 22 received darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), and 13 received tipranavir/ritonavir (TPV/r) therapies. The median baseline RNA HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ cell count were 4.34 log (interquartile range [IQR], 4.15-4.72) and 267 cells/mm3 (IQR, 177-320) for the DRV/r group, and 4.14 log (IQR, 3.51-4.85) and 445 cells/mm3 (IQR, 252-558) for the TPV/r group. At week 24 of treatment, 91% of patients receiving DRV/r and 100% of patients receiving TPV/r had an RNA HIV-1 viral load HIV-1 patients who were highly experienced in antiretroviral therapy.

  8. HIV-1 Populations in Semen Arise through Multiple Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibben, Oliver; Jabara, Cassandra B.; Arney, Leslie; Kincer, Laura; Tang, Yuyang; Hobbs, Marcia; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Jones, Corbin D.; Borrow, Persephone; Fiscus, Susan; Cohen, Myron S.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus. PMID:20808902

  9. Deep sequencing of HIV-1 near full-length proviral genomes identifies high rates of BF1 recombinants including two novel circulating recombinant forms (CRF) 70_BF1 and a disseminating 71_BF1 among blood donors in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Rodrigo; Watanabe, Jaqueline Tomoko; Calabria, Paula; Felix, Alvina Clara; Loureiro, Paula; Sabino, Ester C; Busch, Michael P; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2014-01-01

    The findings of frequent circulation of HIV-1 subclade F1 viruses and the scarcity of BF1 recombinant viruses based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing among blood donors in Pernambuco (PE), Northeast of Brazil, were reported recently. Here, we aimed to determine whether the classification of these strains (n = 26) extends to the whole genome sequences. Five overlapping amplicons spanning the HIV near full-length genomes (NFLGs) were PCR amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 26 blood donors. The amplicons were molecularly bar-coded, pooled, and sequenced by Illumina paired-end protocol. The prevalence of viral variants containing drug resistant mutations (DRMs) was compared between plasma and PBMCs. Of the 26 samples studied, 20 NFLGs and 4 partial fragments were de novo assembled into contiguous sequences and successfully subtyped. Two distinct BF1 recombinant profiles designated CRF70_BF1 and CRF71_BF1, with 4 samples in profile I and 11 in profile II were detected and thus constitute two novel recombinant forms circulating in PE. Evidence of dual infections was detected in four patients co-infected with distinct HIV-1 subtypes. According to our estimate, the new CRF71_BF1 accounts for 10% of the HIV-1 circulating strains among blood donors in PE. Discordant data between the plasma and PBMCs-virus were found in 15 of 24 donors. Six of these strains displayed major DRMs only in PBMCs and four of which had detectable DRMs changes at prevalence between 1-20% of the sequenced population. The high percentage of the new RF71_BF1 and other BF1 recombinants found among blood donors in Pernambuco, coupled with high rates of transmitted DRMs and dual infections confirm the need for effective surveillance to monitor the prevalence and distribution of HIV variants in a variety of settings in Brazil.

  10. HIV-1 activates macrophages independent of Toll-like receptors.

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    Joseph N Brown

    Full Text Available Macrophages provide an interface between innate and adaptive immunity and are important long-lived reservoirs for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1. Multiple genetic networks involved in regulating signal transduction cascades and immune responses in macrophages are coordinately modulated by HIV-1 infection.To evaluate complex interrelated processes and to assemble an integrated view of activated signaling networks, a systems biology strategy was applied to genomic and proteomic responses by primary human macrophages over the course of HIV-1 infection. Macrophage responses, including cell cycle, calcium, apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, and cytokines/chemokines, to HIV-1 were temporally regulated, in the absence of cell proliferation. In contrast, Toll-like receptor (TLR pathways remained unaltered by HIV-1, although TLRs 3, 4, 7, and 8 were expressed and responded to ligand stimulation in macrophages. HIV-1 failed to activate phosphorylation of IRAK-1 or IRF-3, modulate intracellular protein levels of Mx1, an interferon-stimulated gene, or stimulate secretion of TNF, IL-1beta, or IL-6. Activation of pathways other than TLR was inadequate to stimulate, via cross-talk mechanisms through molecular hubs, the production of proinflammatory cytokines typical of a TLR response. HIV-1 sensitized macrophage responses to TLR ligands, and the magnitude of viral priming was related to virus replication.HIV-1 induced a primed, proinflammatory state, M1(HIV, which increased the responsiveness of macrophages to TLR ligands. HIV-1 might passively evade pattern recognition, actively inhibit or suppress recognition and signaling, or require dynamic interactions between macrophages and other cells, such as lymphocytes or endothelial cells. HIV-1 evasion of TLR recognition and simultaneous priming of macrophages may represent a strategy for viral survival, contribute to immune pathogenesis, and provide important targets for therapeutic

  11. Decreased emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in a cohort of Ugandan women initiating option B+ for PMTCT.

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    Patrycja Machnowska

    Full Text Available Since 2012, WHO guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings recommend the initiation of lifelong antiretroviral combination therapy (cART for all pregnant HIV-1 positive women independent of CD4 count and WHO clinical stage (Option B+. However, long-term outcomes regarding development of drug resistance are lacking until now. Therefore, we analysed the emergence of drug resistance mutations (DRMs in women initiating Option B+ in Fort Portal, Uganda, at 12 and 18 months postpartum (ppm.124 HIV-1 positive pregnant women were enrolled within antenatal care services in Fort Portal, Uganda. Blood samples were collected at the first visit prior starting Option B+ and postpartum at week six, month six, 12 and 18. Viral load was determined by real-time RT-PCR. An RT-PCR covering resistance associated positions in the protease and reverse transcriptase HIV-1 genomic region was performed. PCR-positive samples at 12/18 ppm and respective baseline samples were analysed by next generation sequencing regarding HIV-1 drug resistant variants including low-frequency variants. Furthermore, vertical transmission of HIV-1 was analysed. 49/124 (39.5% women were included into the DRM analysis. Virological failure, defined as >1000 copies HIV-1 RNA/ml, was observed in three and seven women at 12 and 18 ppm, respectively. Sequences were obtained for three and six of these. In total, DRMs were detected in 3/49 (6.1% women. Two women displayed dual-class resistance against all recommended first-line regimen drugs. Of 49 mother-infant-pairs no infant was HIV-1 positive at 12 or 18 ppm.Our findings suggest that the WHO-recommended Option B+ for PMTCT is effective in a cohort of Ugandan HIV-1 positive pregnant women with regard to the low selection rate of DRMs and vertical transmission. Therefore, these results are encouraging for other countries considering the implementation of lifelong cART for all pregnant

  12. Stable assembly of HIV-1 export complexes occurs cotranscriptionally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawroth, Isabel; Mueller, Florian; Basyuk, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 Rev protein mediates export of unspliced and singly spliced viral transcripts by binding to the Rev response element (RRE) and recruiting the cellular export factor CRM1. Here, we investigated the recruitment of Rev to the transcription sites of HIV-1 reporters that splice either post......- or cotranscriptionally. In both cases, we observed that Rev localized to the transcription sites of the reporters and recruited CRM1. Rev and CRM1 remained at the reporter transcription sites when cells were treated with the splicing inhibitor Spliceostatin A (SSA), showing that the proteins associate with RNA prior...... to or during early spliceosome assembly. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed that Rev and CRM1 have similar kinetics as the HIV-1 RNA, indicating that Rev, CRM1, and RRE-containing RNAs are released from the site of transcription in one single export complex. These results suggest...

  13. HIV-1 exploits importin 7 to maximize nuclear import of its DNA genome

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    Leyens Lada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear import of the HIV-1 reverse transcription complex (RTC is critical for infection of non dividing cells, and importin 7 (imp7 has been implicated in this process. To further characterize the function of imp7 in HIV-1 replication we generated cell lines stably depleted for imp7 and used them in conjunction with infection, cellular fractionation and pull-down assays. Results Imp7 depletion impaired HIV-1 infection but did not significantly affect HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac, or equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV. The lentiviral dependence on imp7 closely correlated with binding of the respective integrase proteins to imp7. HIV-1 RTC associated with nuclei of infected cells with remarkable speed and knock down of imp7 reduced HIV-1 DNA nuclear accumulation, delaying infection. Using an HIV-1 mutant deficient for reverse transcription, we found that viral RNA accumulated within nuclei of infected cells, indicating that reverse transcription is not absolutely required for nuclear import. Depletion of imp7 impacted on HIV-1 DNA but not RNA nuclear import and also inhibited DNA transfection efficiency. Conclusion Although imp7 may not be essential for HIV-1 infection, our results suggest that imp7 facilitates nuclear trafficking of DNA and that HIV-1 exploits imp7 to maximize nuclear import of its DNA genome. Lentiviruses other than HIV-1 may have evolved to use alternative nuclear import receptors to the same end.

  14. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

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    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  15. HIV-1 evades innate immune recognition through specific cofactor recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasaiyaah, Jane; Tan, Choon Ping; Fletcher, Adam J.; Price, Amanda J.; Blondeau, Caroline; Hilditch, Laura; Jacques, David A.; Selwood, David L.; James, Leo C.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Towers, Greg J.

    2013-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is able to replicate in primary human macrophages without stimulating innate immunity despite reverse transcription of genomic RNA into double-stranded DNA, an activity that might be expected to trigger innate pattern recognition receptors. We reasoned that if correctly orchestrated HIV-1 uncoating and nuclear entry is important for evasion of innate sensors then manipulation of specific interactions between HIV-1 capsid and host factors that putatively regulate these processes should trigger pattern recognition receptors and stimulate type 1 interferon (IFN) secretion. Here we show that HIV-1 capsid mutants N74D and P90A, which are impaired for interaction with cofactors cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 6 (CPSF6) and cyclophilins (Nup358 and CypA), respectively, cannot replicate in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages because they trigger innate sensors leading to nuclear translocation of NF-κB and IRF3, the production of soluble type 1 IFN and induction of an antiviral state. Depletion of CPSF6 with short hairpin RNA expression allows wild-type virus to trigger innate sensors and IFN production. In each case, suppressed replication is rescued by IFN-receptor blockade, demonstrating a role for IFN in restriction. IFN production is dependent on viral reverse transcription but not integration, indicating that a viral reverse transcription product comprises the HIV-1 pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Finally, we show that we can pharmacologically induce wild-type HIV-1 infection to stimulate IFN secretion and an antiviral state using a non-immunosuppressive cyclosporine analogue. We conclude that HIV-1 has evolved to use CPSF6 and cyclophilins to cloak its replication, allowing evasion of innate immune sensors and induction of a cell-autonomous innate immune response in primary human macrophages.

  16. From reactivation of latent HIV-1 to elimination of the latent reservoir: the presence of multiple barriers to viral eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liang; Siliciano, Robert F

    2013-06-01

    The discovery of a stable latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4(+) T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1. The long-lived latently infected cells persist in spite of prolonged highly active antiretroviral therapy and present a major barrier to a cure of HIV-1 infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of HIV-1 persistence and latent viral infection in the context of effective antiretroviral therapy and the recent progress in purging latent viral reservoirs. Recent studies demonstrate that reactivation of latent HIV-1 is a promising strategy for the depletion of these viral reservoirs. A thorough evaluation of the anti-latency activity of drug candidates should include the measurement of changes in intracellular viral RNA, plasma virus levels, and the size of latent viral reservoirs, as well as potential adverse effects. Currently, there are several technical barriers to the evaluation of anti-latency drugs in vivo. We also discuss these challenging issues that remain unresolved. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

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    Noah Fahlgren

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  18. Phytophthora have distinct endogenous small RNA populations that include short interfering and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R; Kasschau, Kristin D; Cuperus, Josh T; Press, Caroline M; Sullivan, Christopher M; Chapman, Elisabeth J; Hoyer, J Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Carrington, James C

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work.

  19. Phytophthora Have Distinct Endogenous Small RNA Populations That Include Short Interfering and microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Press, Caroline M.; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Chapman, Elisabeth J.; Hoyer, J. Steen; Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Carrington, James C.

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA silencing pathways utilize 20-30-nucleotide small RNAs to regulate gene expression, specify and maintain chromatin structure, and repress viruses and mobile genetic elements. RNA silencing was likely present in the common ancestor of modern eukaryotes, but most research has focused on plant and animal RNA silencing systems. Phytophthora species belong to a phylogenetically distinct group of economically important plant pathogens that cause billions of dollars in yield losses annually as well as ecologically devastating outbreaks. We analyzed the small RNA-generating components of the genomes of P. infestans, P. sojae and P. ramorum using bioinformatics, genetic, phylogenetic and high-throughput sequencing-based methods. Each species produces two distinct populations of small RNAs that are predominantly 21- or 25-nucleotides long. The 25-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from loci encoding transposable elements and we propose that these small RNAs define a pathway of short-interfering RNAs that silence repetitive genetic elements. The 21-nucleotide small RNAs were primarily derived from inverted repeats, including a novel microRNA family that is conserved among the three species, and several gene families, including Crinkler effectors and type III fibronectins. The Phytophthora microRNA is predicted to target a family of amino acid/auxin permeases, and we propose that 21-nucleotide small RNAs function at the post-transcriptional level. The functional significance of microRNA-guided regulation of amino acid/auxin permeases and the association of 21-nucleotide small RNAs with Crinkler effectors remains unclear, but this work provides a framework for testing the role of small RNAs in Phytophthora biology and pathogenesis in future work. PMID:24204767

  20. HIV-1 and the macrophage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, Sebastiaan M.; Cobos-Jimenez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; van 't Wout, Angelique B.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages and CD4(+) T cells are natural target cells for HIV-1, and both cell types contribute to the establishment of the viral reservoir that is responsible for continuous residual virus replication during antiretroviral therapy and viral load rebound upon treatment interruption. Scientific

  1. Human Polycomb group EED protein negatively affects HIV-1 assembly and release

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    Darlix Jean-Luc

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human EED protein, a member of the superfamily of Polycomb group (PcG proteins with WD-40 repeats, has been found to interact with three HIV-1 components, namely the structural Gag matrix protein (MA, the integrase enzyme (IN and the Nef protein. The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible biological role of EED in HIV-1 replication, using the HIV-1-based vector HIV-Luc and EED protein expressed by DNA transfection of 293T cells. Results During the early phase of HIV-1 infection, a slight negative effect on virus infectivity occurred in EED-expressing cells, which appeared to be dependent on EED-MA interaction. At late times post infection, EED caused an important reduction of virus production, from 20- to 25-fold as determined by CAp24 immunoassay, to 10- to 80-fold based on genomic RNA levels, and this decrease was not due to a reduction of Gag protein synthesis. Coexpression of WTNef, or the non-N-myristoylated mutant NefG2A, restored virus yields to levels obtained in the absence of exogenous EED protein. This effect was not observed with mutant NefΔ57 mimicking the Nef core, or with the lipid raft-retargeted fusion protein LAT-Nef. LATAA-Nef, a mutant defective in the lipid raft addressing function, had the same anti-EED effect as WTNef. Cell fractionation and confocal imaging showed that, in the absence of Nef, EED mainly localized in membrane domains different from the lipid rafts. Upon co-expression with WTNef, NefG2A or LATAA-Nef, but not with NefΔ57 or LAT-Nef, EED was found to relocate into an insoluble fraction along with Nef protein. Electron microscopy of HIV-Luc producer cells overexpressing EED showed significant less virus budding at the cell surface compared to control cells, and ectopic assembly and clustering of nuclear pore complexes within the cytoplasm. Conclusion Our data suggested that EED exerted an antiviral activity at the late stage of HIV-1 replication, which included genomic

  2. Variants in host viral replication cycle genes are associated with heterosexual HIV-1 acquisition in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Abigail W; Mackelprang, Romel D; Celum, Connie; De Bruyn, Guy; Beima-Sofie, Kristin; John-Stewart, Grace; Ronald, Allan; Mugo, Nelly R; Buckingham, Kati; Bamshad, Michael J; Mullins, James I; McElrath, M J; Lingappa, Jairam R

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated genetic variants in 51 candidate genes encoding proteins that interact with HIV-1 during the virus life cycle for association with HIV-1 outcomes in an African cohort. Using a nested case-control study within a cohort of heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples, we genotyped 475 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) and 18 SNPs previously associated with HIV-1 transmission and/or progression (candidate SNPs) in 51 host genes. We used logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for sex, age, and population stratification to detect SNP associations with HIV-1 acquisition, plasma HIV-1 set point, and a composite measure of HIV-1 disease progression. Significant thresholds for tagSNP, but not candidate SNP, associations were subjected to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. We evaluated 491 HIV-1-infected and 335 HIV-1-uninfected individuals for 493 SNPs, 459 of which passed quality control filters. Candidate SNP PPIA rs8177826 and tagSNP SMARCB1 rs6003904 were significantly associated with HIV-1 acquisition risk (odds ratio = 0.14, P = 0.03, and odds ratio = 2.11, Pcorr = 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, the TT genotype for CCR5 rs1799988 was associated with a mean 0.2 log10 copies per milliliter lower plasma HIV-1 RNA set point (P = 0.04). We also identified significant associations with HIV-1 disease progression for variants in FUT2 and MBL2. Using a targeted gene approach, we identified variants in host genes whose protein products interact with HIV-1 during the virus replication cycle and were associated with HIV-1 outcomes in this African cohort.

  3. Extracellular histones identified in crocodile blood inhibit in-vitro HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Hannah N; Lai, Eric T L; Havugimana, Pierre C; White, Carl; Emili, Andrew; Sakac, Darinka; Binnington, Beth; Neschadim, Anton; McCarthy, Stephen D S; Branch, Donald R

    2016-08-24

    It has been reported that crocodile blood contains potent antibacterial and antiviral properties. However, its effects on HIV-1 infection remain unknown. We obtained blood from saltwater crocodiles to examine whether serum or plasma could inhibit HIV-1 infection. We purified plasma fractions then used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the inhibitory protein factor(s). We then analyzed the ability of recombinant proteins to recapitulate HIV-1 inhibition and determine their mechanism of action. Crocodylus porosus plasma was tested for inhibition of Jurkat T-cell HIV-1 infection. Inhibitor(s) were purified by reverse-phase chromatography then identified by protein liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-HIV-1 activity of purified plasma or recombinant proteins were measured by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luciferase readouts, and mechanism of action was determined by measuring HIV-1 RNA, cDNA and transcription (using 1G5 cells). Crocodile plasma contains potent inhibitors of HIV-1IIIB infection, which were identified as histones. Recombinant human histones H1 and H2A significantly reduced HIV-1JR-FL infection (IC50 of 0.79 and 0.45 μmol/l, respectively), whereas H4 enhanced JR-FL luciferase activity. The inhibitory effects of crocodile plasma, recombinant H1 or recombinant H2A on HIV-1 infection were during or post-viral transcription. Circulating histones in crocodile blood, possibly released by neutrophil extracellular traps, are significant inhibitors of HIV-1 infection in-vitro. Extracellular recombinant histones have different effects on HIV-1 transcription and protein expression and are downregulated in HIV-1 patients. Circulating histones may be a novel resistance factor during HIV-1 infection, and peptide versions should be explored as future HIV-1 therapeutics that modulate viral transcription.

  4. Development of Lentiviral Vectors Simultaneously Expressing Multiple siRNAs Against CCR5, vif and tat/rev Genes for an HIV-1 Gene Therapy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanevello, Francesca; Calistri, Arianna; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Mantelli, Barbara; Frasson, Chiara; Basso, Giuseppe; Palù, Giorgio; Cavazzana, Marina; Parolin, Cristina

    2016-04-19

    Gene therapy holds considerable promise for the functional cure of HIV-1 infection and, in this context, RNA interference (RNAi)-based approaches represent powerful strategies. Stable expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting HIV genes or cellular cofactors has the potential to render HIV-1 susceptible cells resistant to infection. To inhibit different steps of virus life cycle, self-inactivating lentiviral vectors expressing multiple siRNAs targeting the CCR5 cellular gene as well as vif and tat/rev viral transcripts, under the control of different RNA polymerase III promoters (U6, 7SK, H1) were developed. The use of a single RNA polymerase III promoter driving the expression of a sequence giving rise to three siRNAs directed against the selected targets (e-shRNA) was also investigated. Luciferase assay and inhibition of HIV-1 replication in human Jurkat T-cell line were adopted to select the best combination of promoter/siRNA. The efficacy of selected developed combinatorial vectors in interfering with viral replication was evaluated in human primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We identified two effective anti-HIV combinatorial vectors that conferred protection against R5- and X4- tropic viruses. Overall, our results showed that the antiviral effect is influenced by different factors, including the promoter used to express the RNAi molecules and the selected cassette combination. These findings contribute to gain further insights in the design of RNAi-based gene therapy approaches against HIV-1 for clinical application.

  5. Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moussi, Awatef; Thomson, Michael M; Delgado, Elena; Cuevas, María Teresa; Nasr, Majda; Abid, Salma; Ben Hadj Kacem, Mohamed Ali; Benaissa Tiouiri, Hanene; Letaief, Amel; Chakroun, Mohamed; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hamdouni, Hayet; Tej Dellagi, Rafla; Kheireddine, Khaled; Boutiba, Ilhem; Pérez-Álvarez, Lucía; Slim, Amine

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in Tunisia was analyzed. For this, 193 samples were collected in different regions of Tunisia between 2012 and 2015. A protease and reverse transcriptase fragment were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed through maximum likelihood and recombination was analyzed by bootscanning. Six HIV-1 subtypes (B, A1, G, D, C, and F2), 5 circulating recombinant forms (CRF02_AG, CRF25_cpx, CRF43_02G, CRF06_cpx, and CRF19_cpx), and 11 unique recombinant forms were identified. Subtype B (46.4%) and CRF02_AG (39.4%) were the predominant genetic forms. A group of 44 CRF02_AG sequences formed a distinct Tunisian cluster, which also included four viruses from western Europe. Nine viruses were closely related to isolates collected in other African or in European countries. In conclusion, a high HIV-1 genetic diversity is observed in Tunisia and the local spread of CRF02_AG is first documented in this country.

  6. HIV-1 Eradication Strategies: Design and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent developments have generated renewed interest in the possibility of curing HIV-1 infection. This review describes some of the practical challenges that will need to be overcome if curative strategies are to be successful. Recent findings The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells is the major barrier to curing the infection. The most widely discussed approach to curing the infection involves finding agents that reverse latency in resting CD4+ T cells, with the assumption that the cells will then die from viral cytopathic effects or be lysed by host cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL). A major challenge is the development of in vitro models that can be used to explore mechanisms and identify latency reversing agents (LRA). Although several models have been developed, including primary cell models, none of them may fully capture the quiescent state of the cells that harbor latent HIV-1 in vivo. An additional problem is that LRA that do not cause T cell activation may not lead to the death of infected cells. Finally, measuring the effects of LRAs in vivo is complicated by the lack of correlation between different assays for the latent reservoir. Summary Progress on these practical issues is essential to finding a cure. PMID:23698561

  7. Dynamics of 103K/N and 184M/V HIV-1 drug resistant populations: relative comparison in plasma virus RNA versus CD45RO+T cell proviral DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M R; Tolstrup, M; Bertelsen, L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Viral populations defined by 103K/N and 184M/V as linked or single mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase gene were investigated in plasma samples and compared with previous findings in the CD45RO(+)T cell compartment. OBJECTIVE: To develop an ARMS assay for plasma virions...

  8. Reduction of the HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T-lymphocytes by high dosage intravenous immunoglobulin treatment: a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Annika C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latency of HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T-lymphocytes constitutes a major obstacle for the eradication of virus in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART. As yet, no approach to reduce this viral reservoir has proven effective. Methods Nine subjects on effective ART were included in the study and treated with high dosage intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG for five consecutive days. Seven of those had detectable levels of replication-competent virus in the latent reservoir and were thus possible to evaluate. Highly purified resting memory CD4+ T-cells were activated and cells containing replication-competent HIV-1 were quantified. HIV-1 from plasma and activated memory CD4+ T-cells were compared with single genome sequencing (SGS of the gag region. T-lymphocyte activation markers and serum interleukins were measured. Results The latent HIV-1 pool decreased with in median 68% after IVIG was added to effective ART. The reservoir decreased in five, whereas no decrease was found in two subjects with detectable virus. Plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥ 2 copies/mL was detected in five of seven subjects at baseline, but in only one at follow-up after 8–12 weeks. The decrease of the latent HIV-1 pool and the residual plasma viremia was preceded by a transitory low-level increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA and serum interleukin 7 (IL-7 levels, and followed by an expansion of T regulatory cells. The magnitude of the viral increase in plasma correlated to the size of the latent HIV-1 pool and SGS of the gag region showed that viral clones from plasma clustered together with virus from activated memory T-cells, pointing to the latent reservoir as the source of HIV-1 RNA in plasma. Conclusion The findings from this uncontrolled proof-of-concept study suggest that the reservoir became accessible by IVIG treatment through activation of HIV-1 gene expression in latently-infected resting CD4+ T-cells. We propose that IVIG should be further evaluated as an adjuvant

  9. Integrated and Total HIV-1 DNA Predict Ex Vivo Viral Outgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kiselinova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of a reservoir of latently infected CD4 T cells remains one of the major obstacles to cure HIV. Numerous strategies are being explored to eliminate this reservoir. To translate these efforts into clinical trials, there is a strong need for validated biomarkers that can monitor the reservoir over time in vivo. A comprehensive study was designed to evaluate and compare potential HIV-1 reservoir biomarkers. A cohort of 25 patients, treated with suppressive antiretroviral therapy was sampled at three time points, with median of 2.5 years (IQR: 2.4-2.6 between time point 1 and 2; and median of 31 days (IQR: 28-36 between time point 2 and 3. Patients were median of 6 years (IQR: 3-12 on ART, and plasma viral load (<50 copies/ml was suppressed for median of 4 years (IQR: 2-8. Total HIV-1 DNA, unspliced (us and multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA, and 2LTR circles were quantified by digital PCR in peripheral blood, at 3 time points. At the second time point, a viral outgrowth assay (VOA was performed, and integrated HIV-1 DNA and relative mRNA expression levels of HIV-1 restriction factors were quantified. No significant change was found for long- and short-term dynamics of all HIV-1 markers tested in peripheral blood. Integrated HIV-1 DNA was associated with total HIV-1 DNA (p<0.001, R² = 0.85, us HIV-1 RNA (p = 0.029, R² = 0.40, and VOA (p = 0.041, R2 = 0.44. Replication-competent virus was detected in 80% of patients by the VOA and it correlated with total HIV-1 DNA (p = 0.039, R² = 0.54. The mean quantification difference between Alu-PCR and VOA was 2.88 log10, and 2.23 log10 between total HIV-1 DNA and VOA. The levels of usHIV-1 RNA were inversely correlated with mRNA levels of several HIV-1 restriction factors (TRIM5α, SAMHD1, MX2, SLFN11, pSIP1. Our study reveals important correlations between the viral outgrowth and total and integrated HIV-1 DNA measures, suggesting that the total pool of HIV-1 DNA may predict the size of the

  10. Usefulness of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound stiffness for the evaluation of bone health in HIV-1-infected subjects: comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantauzzi, Alessandra; Floridia, Marco; Ceci, Fabrizio; Cacciatore, Francesco; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mezzaroma, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    With the development of effective treatments and the resulting increase in life expectancy, bone mineral density (BMD) alteration has emerged as an important comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. The potential contributors to the pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis include a higher prevalence of risk factors, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-exposure, HIV-1 itself and chronic immune activation/inflammation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the "gold standard" technique for assessing bone status in HIV-1 population. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate bone mineral status in a group of 158 HIV-1-infected subjects. The primary endpoint was the feasibility of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) as a screening tool for BMD. All subjects were receiving stable cART and were virologically suppressed (HIV-RNA HIV-1-specific characteristics, also including cART strategies. In the univariate analyses BMD, QUS indexes, and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool scores conversely showed significant associations with one or more demographic or HIV-1-related variables. Moreover, a significant relationship between calcaneal quantitative ultrasound index/stiffness and femoral/lumbar BMD values from DXA was described. The multivariate analysis showed an independent association between calcaneal quantitative ultrasound index/stiffness and body mass index, higher CD4+ T-cell numbers and low 25-OH D2/D3 vitamin D levels HIV-1-infected patients for assessing bone health impairment. In fact, the results obtained confirm that calcaneal QUS may be useful for monitoring bone status, being a noninvasive and inexpensive technique, especially in those subjects with the classical traditional risk factors for bone damage that were observed earlier in HIV-1 population.

  11. Reactivation of latently infected HIV-1 viral reservoirs and correction of aberrant alternative splicing in the LMNA gene via AMPK activation: Common mechanism of action linking HIV-1 latency and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2015-09-01

    Although the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven highly effective in controlling and suppressing HIV-1 replication, the persistence of latent but replication-competent proviruses in a small subset of CD4(+) memory T cells presents significant challenges to viral eradication from infected individuals. Attempts to eliminate latent reservoirs are epitomized by the 'shock and kill' approach, a strategy involving the combinatorial usage of compounds that influence epigenetic modulation and initiation of proviral transcription. However, efficient regulation of viral pre-mRNA splicing through manipulation of host cell splicing machinery is also indispensible for HIV-1 replication. Interestingly, aberrant alternative splicing of the LMNA gene via the usage of a cryptic splice site has been shown to be the cause of most cases of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic condition characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype due to the accumulation of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. Recent evidence has shown that inhibition of the splicing factors ASF/SF2 (or SRSF1) and SRp55 (or SRSF6) leads to a reduction or an increase in progerin at both the mRNA and protein levels, respectively, thus altering the LMNA pre-mRNA splicing ratio. It is also well-established that during the latter stages of HIV-1 infection, an increase in the production and nuclear export of unspliced viral mRNA is indispensible for efficient HIV-1 replication and that the presence of ASF/SF2 leads to excessive viral pre-mRNA splicing and a reduction of unspliced mRNA, while the presence of SRp55 inhibits viral pre-mRNA splicing and aids in the generation and translation of unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs. The splicing-factor associated protein and putative mitochondrial chaperone p32 has also been shown to inhibit ASF/SF2, increase unspliced HIV-1 viral mRNA, and enhance mitochondrial DNA replication and oxidative phosphorylation. It is our hypothesis that activation of

  12. Differential expression of CD163 on monocyte subsets in healthy and HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Tippett

    Full Text Available CD163, a haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb scavenger receptor, expressed by monocytes and macrophages, is important in resolution of inflammation. Age-related non-AIDS co-morbidities in HIV-infected individuals, particularly dementia and cardiovascular disease, result in part from effects of HIV-1 infection on monocyte and macrophage biology. CD163 co-expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes has been proposed as a useful biomarker for HIV-1 disease progression and the presence of HIV associated dementia. Here we investigated CD163 expression on monocyte subsets ex vivo, on cultured macrophages, and soluble in plasma, in the setting of HIV-1 infection. Whole blood immunophenotyping revealed CD163 expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes but not on CD14+CD16++ monocytes (P = 0.004, supported by CD163 mRNA levels. Incubation with M-CSF induced CD163 protein expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes to the same extent as CD14++CD16- monocytes. CD163 expression on CD14++CD16+ monocytes from HIV-infected subjects was significantly higher than from uninfected individuals, with a trend towards increased expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes (P = 0.019 and 0.069 respectively, which is accounted for by HIV-1 therapy including protease inhibitors. Shedding of CD163 was shown to predominantly occur from the CD14++CD16- subset after Ficoll isolation and LPS stimulation. Soluble CD163 concentration in plasma from HIV-1 infected donors was similar to HIV-1 uninfected donors. Monocyte CD163 expression in HIV-1 infected patients showed a complicated relationship with classical measures of disease progression. Our findings clarify technical issues regarding CD163 expression on monocyte subsets and further elucidates its role in HIV-associated inflammation by demonstrating that CD163 is readily lost from CD14++CD16- monocytes and induced in pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16++ monocytes by M-CSF. Our data show that all monocyte subsets are potentially capable of differentiating into CD

  13. Inhibition of the DNA polymerase and RNase H activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 replication by Brasenia schreberi (Junsai) and Petasites japonicus (Fuki) components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisayoshi, Tetsuro; Shinomura, Mayu; Yokokawa, Kanta; Kuze, Ikumi; Konishi, Atsushi; Kawaji, Kumi; Kodama, Eiichi N; Hata, Keishi; Takahashi, Saori; Nirasawa, Satoru; Sakuda, Shohei; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) possesses two distinct enzymatic activities: those of RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerases and RNase H. In the current HIV-1 therapy, all HIV-1 RT inhibitors inhibit the activity of DNA polymerase, but not that of RNase H. We previously reported that ethanol and water extracts of Brasenia schreberi (Junsai) inhibited the DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT [Hisayoshi et al. (2014) J Biol Macromol 14:59-65]. In this study, we screened 43 edible plants and found that ethanol and water extracts of Brasenia schreberi and water extract of Petasites japonicus strongly inhibit not only the activity of DNA polymerase to incorporate dTTP into poly(rA)-p(dT)15 but also the activity of RNase H to hydrolyze the RNA strand of an RNA/DNA hybrid. In addition, these three extracts inhibit HIV-1 replication in human cells, with EC50 values of 1-2 µg/ml. These results suggest that Brasenia schreberi and Petasites japonicus contain substances that block HIV-1 replication by inhibiting the DNA polymerase activity and/or RNase H activity of HIV-1 RT.

  14. The latest evidence for possible HIV-1 curative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh Thi; Mesplède, Thibault

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. In developed countries, antiretroviral therapy has extended its reach from treatment of people living with HIV-1 to post-exposure prophylaxis, treatment as prevention, and, more recently, pre-exposure prophylaxis. These healthcare strategies offer the epidemiological tools to curve the epidemic in rich settings and will be concomitantly implemented in developing countries. One of the remaining challenges is to identify an efficacious curative strategy. This review manuscript will focus on some of the current curative strategies aiming at providing a sterilizing or functional cure to HIV-1-positive individuals. These include the following: early treatment initiation in post-treatment controllers as a long-term HIV-1 remission strategy, latency reversal, gene editing with or without stem cell transplantation, and antibodies against either the viral envelope protein or the host integrin α4β7.

  15. Diagnostik af HIV-1 infektionen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C B; Dickmeiss, E; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1991-01-01

    Different methods have been developed for the diagnosis of HIV infection, i.e. detection of antibodies, antigen and proviral DNA. ELISA methods for detecting HIV-1 antibodies are widely used as screening assays. A sample which is repeatedly positive with ELISA is re-tested with a confirmatory test....... For research purposes, detection of small amounts of proviral DNA can be made with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method is not yet applicable in routine diagnosis of HIV infection......., e.g. western blot. Antibodies to HIV-1 are not detectable until 2-3 months after infection, but antigens may be detectable during the last weeks of this initial period, though they disappear with the appearance of the antibodies. In the later stages of HIV infection, HIV antigen is again detectable...

  16. Risk Minimization Measures for Blood Screening HIV-1 Nucleic Acid Amplification Technique Assays in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudy, Michael; Kress, Julia; Halbauer, Jochen; Heiden, Margarethe; Funk, Markus B.; Nübling, C. Micha

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Several publications describe HIV-1 RNA false-negative results or viral load underquantitation associated with Communauté Européenne(CE)-marked qualitative or quantitative nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT) assays. 6 cases occurred during blood screening in Germany, with 2 of them causing HIV-1 transmissions to recipients of blood components. The implicated NAT assays were mono-target assays amplifying in different viral genome regions (gag or long terminal repeat). Methods Specimens characterized by HIV-1 NAT underquantitation or false-negative NAT results were comparatively investigated in CE-marked HIV-1 NAT systems of different design to identify potential reasons. The target regions of the viral nucleic acids were sequenced and these sequences compared to primers and probes of the assays. Potential risk minimization measures were considered for quantitative and blood-screening HIV-1 NAT systems. Results Nucleotide sequencing of the viral target region in cases of HIV-1 RNA underquantitation or false-negative test results revealed new HIV-1 variants that were mismatched with primers and probes used in some mono-target assays. So far, dualtarget NAT assays have not been associated with mismatch-based false-negative test results. From 2015, the Paul Ehrlich Institute will request HIV-1 NAT assays of dual-target design or an analogous solution for further reducing the risk in blood screening. Conclusion HIV differs from other blood-borne viruses with regard to its fast evolution of new viral variants. The evolution of new sequences is hardly predictable; therefore, NAT assays with only 1 target region appear to be more vulnerable to sequence variations than dual-target assays. The associated risk may be higher for HIV-1 NAT assays used for blood screening compared to quantitative assays used for monitoring HIV-1-infected patients. In HIV-1 screening NAT assays of dual-target design may adequately address the risk imposed by new HIV-1

  17. Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Management in HIV-1-Infected Subjects Treated with HAART in the Spanish VACH Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Pere; Suarez-Lozano, Ignacio; Teira, Ramón; Lozano, Fernando; Terrón, Alberto; Viciana, Pompeyo; González, Juan; Galindo, Mª José; Geijo, Paloma; Vergara, Antonio; Cosín, Jaime; Ribera, Esteban; Roca, Bernardino; Garcia-Alcalde, Mª Luisa; Sánchez, Trinitario; Torres, Ferran; Lacalle, Juan Ramón; Garrido, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that metabolic adverse effects associated with antiretroviral therapy may translate into an increased cardiovascular risk in HIV-1-infected patients. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-1-infected persons, and to investigate any association between them, stage of HIV-1 disease, and use of antiretroviral therapies. Methods: Multicentric, cross-sectional analysis of CVD risk factors of treated patients in the VACH cohort. The data collected includes: demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, body mass index, stage of HIV-1 infection, and antiretroviral therapy. Results: The analysis included 2358 patients. More than 18% of the study population was at an age of appreciable risk of CVD. 1.7% had previous CVD and 59.2% were smokers. Increased prevalence of elevated total cholesterol was observed among subjects receiving an NNRTI but no PI [odds ratio (OR), 3.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.77–6.31], PI but no NNRTI (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 2.12–7.71), or NNRTI + PI (OR, 17.77; 95% CI, 7.24–43.59) compared to patients treated only with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Higher CD4 cell count, lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical signs of lipodystrophy, longer exposure times to NNRTI and PI, and older age were all also associated with elevated cholesterol levels. The use of lipid lowering agents was very low among our patients. Conclusion: Patients in the VACH cohort present multiple known risk factors for CVD, and a very low rate of lipid lowering therapy use. NNRTI and/or PI-based antiretroviral therapies are associated with the worst lipid profile. This is more frequent in older subjects with greater CD4 counts and controlled HIV-1 replication. PMID:18923695

  18. Factors Associated With the Control of Viral Replication and Virologic Breakthrough in a Recently Infected HIV-1 Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W; Veenhuis, Rebecca T; May, Megan; Luna, Krystle A; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Cox, Andrea L; Carrington, Mary; Bailey, Justin R; Arduino, Roberto C; Blankson, Joel N

    2017-02-01

    HIV-1 controllers are patients who control HIV-1 viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Control is achieved very early in the course of infection, but the mechanisms through which viral replication is restricted are not fully understood. We describe a patient who presented with acute HIV-1 infection and was found to have an HIV-1 RNA level of controlled in acute HIV-1 infection in some patients without protective HLA alleles and that NK cell responses may contribute to this early control of viral replication. © 2016.

  19. A Synthetic HIV-1 Subtype C Backbone Generates Comparable PR and RT Resistance Profiles to a Subtype B Backbone in a Recombinant Virus Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaers, David; Van Houtte, Margriet; Winters, Bart; Steegen, Kim; Van Baelen, Kurt; Chi, Ellen; Zhou, Mimi; Steiner, Derek; Bonesteel, Rachelle; Aston, Colin; Stuyver, Lieven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT) fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient samples were RT-PCR-amplified and cloned into the HIV-1-C backbone (deleted for GPRT) using In-Fusion reagents. Recombinant viruses (1 to 5 per patient sample) were produced in MT4-eGFP cells where cyto-pathogenic effect (CPE), p24 and Viral Load (VL) were monitored. The resulting HIV-1-C recombinant virus stocks (RVS) were added to MT4-eGFP cells in the presence of serial dilutions of antiretroviral drugs (PI, NNRTI, NRTI) to determine the fold-change in IC50 compared to the IC50 of wild-type HIV-1 virus. Additionally, viral RNA was extracted from the HIV-1-C RVS and the amplified GPRT products were used to generate recombinant virus in a subtype B backbone. Phenotypic resistance profiles in a subtype B and subtype C backbone were compared. The following observations were made: i) functional, infectious HIV-1 subtype C viruses were generated, confirmed by VL and p24 measurements; ii) their rate of infection was slower than viruses generated in the subtype B backbone; iii) they did not produce clear CPE in MT4 cells; and iv) drug resistance profiles generated in both backbones were very similar, including re-sensitizing effects like M184V on AZT. PMID:21629677

  20. A synthetic HIV-1 subtype C backbone generates comparable PR and RT resistance profiles to a subtype B backbone in a recombinant virus assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nauwelaers

    Full Text Available In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient samples were RT-PCR-amplified and cloned into the HIV-1-C backbone (deleted for GPRT using In-Fusion reagents. Recombinant viruses (1 to 5 per patient sample were produced in MT4-eGFP cells where cyto-pathogenic effect (CPE, p24 and Viral Load (VL were monitored. The resulting HIV-1-C recombinant virus stocks (RVS were added to MT4-eGFP cells in the presence of serial dilutions of antiretroviral drugs (PI, NNRTI, NRTI to determine the fold-change in IC50 compared to the IC50 of wild-type HIV-1 virus. Additionally, viral RNA was extracted from the HIV-1-C RVS and the amplified GPRT products were used to generate recombinant virus in a subtype B backbone. Phenotypic resistance profiles in a subtype B and subtype C backbone were compared. The following observations were made: i functional, infectious HIV-1 subtype C viruses were generated, confirmed by VL and p24 measurements; ii their rate of infection was slower than viruses generated in the subtype B backbone; iii they did not produce clear CPE in MT4 cells; and iv drug resistance profiles generated in both backbones were very similar, including re-sensitizing effects like M184V on AZT.

  1. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection in humanized mice and metabolic stability of protein phosphatase-1-targeting small molecule 1E7-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xionghao; Kumari, Namita; DeMarino, Catherine; Kont, Yasemin Saygideğer; Ammosova, Tatiana; Kulkarni, Amol; Jerebtsova, Marina; Vazquez-Meves, Guelaguetza; Ivanov, Andrey; Dmytro, Kovalskyy; Üren, Aykut; Kashanchi, Fatah; Nekhai, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    We recently identified the protein phosphatase-1 - targeting compound, 1E7-03 which inhibited HIV-1 in vitro. Here, we investigated the effect of 1E7-03 on HIV-1 infection in vivo by analyzing its metabolic stability and antiviral activity of 1E7-03 and its metabolites in HIV-1 infected NSG-humanized mice. 1E7-03 was degraded in serum and formed two major degradation products, DP1 and DP3, which bound protein phosphatase-1 in vitro. However, their anti-viral activities were significantly reduced due to inefficient cell permeability. In cultured cells, 1E7-03 reduced expression of several protein phosphatase-1 regulatory subunits including Sds22 as determined by a label free quantitative proteomics analysis. In HIV-1-infected humanized mice, 1E7-03 significantly reduced plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, similar to the previously described HIV-1 transcription inhibitor F07#13. We synthesized a DP1 analog, DP1-07 with a truncated side chain, which showed improved cell permeability and longer pharmacokinetic retention in mice. But DP1-07 was less efficient than 1E7-03 as a HIV-1 inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the full side chain of 1E7-03 was essential for its anti-HIV activity. Analysis of 1E7-03 stability in plasma and liver microsomes showed that the compound was stable in human, primate and ferret plasma but not in rodent plasma. However, 1E7-03 was not stable in human liver microsomes. Our findings suggest that 1E7-03 is a good candidate for future development of HIV-1 transcription inhibitors. Further structural modification and advanced formulations are needed to improve its metabolic stability and enhance its antiviral activity in non-human primate animals and humans. PMID:29100346

  2. A synthetic HIV-1 subtype C backbone generates comparable PR and RT resistance profiles to a subtype B backbone in a recombinant virus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwelaers, David; Van Houtte, Margriet; Winters, Bart; Steegen, Kim; Van Baelen, Kurt; Chi, Ellen; Zhou, Mimi; Steiner, Derek; Bonesteel, Rachelle; Aston, Colin; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine phenotypic protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-associated resistance in HIV subtype C virus, we have synthetically constructed an HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1-C) viral backbone for use in a recombinant virus assay. The in silico designed viral genome was divided into 4 fragments, which were chemically synthesized and joined together by conventional subcloning. Subsequently, gag-protease-reverse-transcriptase (GPRT) fragments from 8 HIV-1 subtype C-infected patient samples were RT-PCR-amplified and cloned into the HIV-1-C backbone (deleted for GPRT) using In-Fusion reagents. Recombinant viruses (1 to 5 per patient sample) were produced in MT4-eGFP cells where cyto-pathogenic effect (CPE), p24 and Viral Load (VL) were monitored. The resulting HIV-1-C recombinant virus stocks (RVS) were added to MT4-eGFP cells in the presence of serial dilutions of antiretroviral drugs (PI, NNRTI, NRTI) to determine the fold-change in IC50 compared to the IC50 of wild-type HIV-1 virus. Additionally, viral RNA was extracted from the HIV-1-C RVS and the amplified GPRT products were used to generate recombinant virus in a subtype B backbone. Phenotypic resistance profiles in a subtype B and subtype C backbone were compared. The following observations were made: i) functional, infectious HIV-1 subtype C viruses were generated, confirmed by VL and p24 measurements; ii) their rate of infection was slower than viruses generated in the subtype B backbone; iii) they did not produce clear CPE in MT4 cells; and iv) drug resistance profiles generated in both backbones were very similar, including re-sensitizing effects like M184V on AZT.

  3. HIV-1 RNAs: sense and antisense, large mRNAs and small siRNAs and miRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwig, Alex; Das, Atze T.; Berkhout, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent findings concerning the ever-growing HIV-1 RNA population. Recent findings The retrovirus HIV-1 has an RNA genome that is converted into DNA and is integrated into the genome of the infected host cell. Transcription from the long terminal

  4. Shutdown of HIV-1 Transcription in T Cells by Nullbasic, a Mutant Tat Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nullbasic is a derivative of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat protein that strongly inhibits HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes. Here we show that lentiviral vectors that constitutively express a Nullbasic-ZsGreen1 (NB-ZSG1 fusion protein by the eEF1α promoter led to robust long-term inhibition of HIV-1 replication in Jurkat cells. Although Jurkat-NB-ZSG1 cells were infected by HIV-1, no virus production could be detected and addition of phorbol ester 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and JQ1 had no effect, while suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA modestly stimulated virus production but at levels 300-fold lower than those seen in HIV-1-infected Jurkat-ZSG1 cells. Virus replication was not recovered by coculture of HIV-1-infected Jurkat-NB-ZSG1 cells with uninfected Jurkat cells. Latently infected Jurkat latent 6.3 and ACH2 cells treated with latency-reversing agents produced measurable viral capsid (CA, but little or none was made when they expressed NB-ZSG1. When Jurkat cells chronically infected with HIV-1 were transduced with lentiviral virus-like particles conveying NB-ZSG1, a >3-log reduction in CA production was observed. Addition of PMA increased virus CA production but at levels 500-fold lower than those seen in nontransduced Jurkat cells. Transcriptome sequencing analysis confirmed that HIV-1 mRNA was strongly inhibited by NB-ZSG1 but indicated that full-length viral mRNA was made. Analysis of HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells expressing NB-ZSG1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that recruitment of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII and histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation were inhibited. The reduction of HIV-1 promoter-associated RNAPII and epigenetic changes in viral nucleosomes indicate that Nullbasic can inhibit HIV-1 replication by enforcing viral silencing in cells.

  5. Impact of monotherapy on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, and co-infection with Epstein-Barr virus.

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    Maria Raffaella Petrara

    Full Text Available Although monotherapy (mART effectiveness in maintaining viral suppression and CD4 cell count has been extensively examined in HIV-1-infected patients, its impact on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, microbial translocation and co-infection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV is unclear.This retrospective study involved 32 patients who switched to mART; patients were studied at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks after mART initiation. Thirty-two patients who continued combined antiretroviral therapy (cART over the same period of time were included in the study. Markers of HIV-1 reservoir (HIV-1 DNA and intracellular HIV-1 RNA were quantified by real-time PCR. Markers of T-(CD3+CD8+CD38+ and B-(CD19+CD80/86+ and CD19+CD10-CD21lowCD27+ cell activation were evaluated by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of microbial translocation markers were quantified by real-time PCR (16S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial [mt]DNA or by ELISA (LPS and sCD14. EBV was typed and quantified by multiplex real-time PCR.At baseline, no differences were found between mART and cART groups. Three (10% mART-treated patients had a virological failure vs none in the cART group. Levels of HIV-1 DNA, intracellular HIV-1 RNA and EBV-DNA remained stable in the mART group, while decreased significantly in the cART group. Percentages of T- and B-activated cells significantly increased in the mART-treated patients, while remained at low levels in the cART-treated ones (p = 0.014 and p<0.001, respectively. Notably, levels of mtDNA remained stable in the cART group, but significantly rose in the mART one (p<0.001.Long-term mART is associated with higher levels of T- and B-cell activation and, conversely to cART, does not reduce the size of HIV-1 reservoir and EBV co-infection.

  6. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

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    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  7. Phylogeny and resistance profiles of HIV-1 POL sequences from rectal biopsies and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Petersen, A B; Storgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    The phylogeny and resistance profiles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were compared among six patients with HIV-1 who had received numerous treatments. RNA and DNA fractions were obtained from concurrent blood and rectal biopsy...... will not be representative of the HIV-1 archived in different sites. Both the resistance profile and phylogeny of HIV-1 often differed in sequences obtained from RNA and DNA from the same site. These findings suggest that additional information regarding the antiviral resistance profile of the patient might be obtained...... samples. Phylogenetic trees and resistance profiles showed that the rectal mucosa and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harbored different HIV-1 strains. The resistance-associated mutations found in each strain corresponded to the treatment history of the patients. The resistance mutations...

  8. Molecular recognition of CCR5 by an HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamis, Phanourios; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-01-01

    The binding of protein HIV-1 gp120 to coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4 is a key step of the HIV-1 entry to the host cell, and is predominantly mediated through the V3 loop fragment of HIV-1 gp120. In the present work, we delineate the molecular recognition of chemokine receptor CCR5 by a dual tropic HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop, using a comprehensive set of computational tools predominantly based on molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations. We report, what is to our knowledge, the first complete HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop : CCR5 complex structure, which includes the whole V3 loop and the N-terminus of CCR5, and exhibits exceptional agreement with previous experimental findings. The computationally derived structure sheds light into the functional role of HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop and CCR5 residues associated with the HIV-1 coreceptor activity, and provides insights into the HIV-1 coreceptor selectivity and the blocking mechanism of HIV-1 gp120 by maraviroc. By comparing the binding of the specific dual tropic HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop with CCR5 and CXCR4, we observe that the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop residues 13-21, which include the tip, share nearly identical structural and energetic properties in complex with both coreceptors. This result paves the way for the design of dual CCR5/CXCR4 targeted peptides as novel potential anti-AIDS therapeutics.

  9. HIV-1 Induced Nuclear Factor I-B (NF-IB Expression Negatively Regulates HIV-1 Replication through Interaction with the Long Terminal Repeat Region

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    Sai Vikram Vemula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retroviruses rely on host factors for cell entry, replication, transcription, and other major steps during their life cycle. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 is well known for utilizing a plethora of strategies to evade the host immune response, including the establishment of latent infection within a subpopulation of susceptible cells. HIV-1 also manipulates cellular factors in latently infected cells and persists for long periods of time, despite the presence of successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Results: In this study we demonstrate that Nuclear Factor-IB (NF-IB is induced during HIV-1 infection and its expression negatively impacts viral replication. During HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and the T cell line, Jurkat or during induction of virus replication in latently infected cells, ACH2 and J1.1, we observed a time-dependent alteration in NF-IB expression pattern that correlated with HIV-1 viral expression. Using the Chip assay, we observed an association of NF-IB with the long terminal repeat region of HIV-1 (LTR (-386 to -453 nt, and this association negatively correlated with HIV-1 transcription. Furthermore, knock-down of NF-IB levels in J1.1 cells resulted in an increase of HIV-1 levels. Knock-down of NF-IB levels in J-Lat-Tat-GFP (A1, (a Jurkat cell GFP reporter model for latent HIV-1 infection resulted in an increase in GFP levels, indicating a potential negative regulatory role of NF-IB in HIV-1 replication. Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest that NF-IB may play a role in intrinsic antiretroviral defenses against HIV-1. These observations may offer new insights into the correlation of the latently infected host cell types and HIV-1, and help to define new therapeutic approaches for triggering the switch from latency to active replication thereby eliminating HIV-1 latent infection.

  10. Prevalence of R5 strains in multi-treated HIV subjects and impact of new regimens including maraviroc in a selected group of patients with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Isabella; Clò, Alberto; Borderi, Marco; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Calza, Leonardo; Morini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Anna; Cricca, Monica; Gibellini, Davide; Re, Maria Carla

    2013-10-01

    Maraviroc currently represents an important antiretroviral drug for multi-experienced and viremic HIV patients. This study focused on two main points: (1) determining the prevalence of R5 and X4 HIV strains in antiretroviral-experienced patients using two main tests currently in use to determine viral tropism, and (2) the follow-up to 3 years of a limited number of patients who started a new antiretroviral protocol including maraviroc. A group of 56 HIV patients, previously multi-treated, were first analyzed by genotyping assay and Trofile™ to establish their eligibility for maraviroc treatment. In addition, 25 subjects selected to follow a new therapeutic protocol including a CCR5 antagonist were monitored by HIV RNA viral load and CD4+ cell count. The determination of viral tropism showed a large percentage of patients with an R5 profile (72% by genotyping assay and 74% by Trofile). The follow-up of most (21 out 25) patients who started the new antiretroviral protocol showed an undetectable viral load throughout the observation period, accompanied by a major improvement in CD4 cell count (cells/mm(3)) (baseline: median CD4 cell count 365, interquartile range (IQR) 204-511; 12 months: median value 501, IQR 349-677, p=0.042; 24 months: median value 503, IQR 386-678, p=0.026; 36 months: median value 601, IQR 517-717, p=0.001). Among the four non-responder subjects, two showed a lack of drug compliance and two switched from R5 to X4. Although our patient cohort was small, the results showed a high prevalence of R5 viral strains in multi-experienced patients. As well as showing the advantages of genotyping, which can be performed in plasma samples with low viral load replication, the follow-up of HIV patients selected for an alternative drug protocol, including a CCR5 antagonist, showed a persistent undetectable viral replication and a good recovery of CD4 cell count in most treated HIV patients. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases

  11. Differential effect of CLK SR Kinases on HIV-1 gene expression: potential novel targets for therapy

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    Dobson Wendy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA processing plays a critical role in the replication of HIV-1, regulated in part through the action of host SR proteins. To explore the impact of modulating SR protein activity on virus replication, the effect of increasing or inhibiting the activity of the Cdc2-like kinase (CLK family of SR protein kinases on HIV-1 expression and RNA processing was examined. Results Despite their high homology, increasing individual CLK expression had distinct effects on HIV-1, CLK1 enhancing Gag production while CLK2 inhibited the virus. Parallel studies on the anti-HIV-1 activity of CLK inhibitors revealed a similar discrepant effect on HIV-1 expression. TG003, an inhibitor of CLK1, 2 and 4, had no effect on viral Gag synthesis while chlorhexidine, a CLK2, 3 and 4 inhibitor, blocked virus production. Chlorhexidine treatment altered viral RNA processing, decreasing levels of unspliced and single spliced viral RNAs, and reduced Rev accumulation. Subsequent experiments in the context of HIV-1 replication in PBMCs confirmed the capacity of chlorhexidine to suppress virus replication. Conclusions Together, these findings establish that HIV-1 RNA processing can be targeted to suppress virus replication as demonstrated by manipulating individual CLK function and identified chlorhexidine as a lead compound in the development of novel anti-viral therapies.

  12. HIV-1 persistence following extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute HIV-1 infection: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Timothy J; Hatano, Hiroyu; Bacon, Oliver; Hogan, Louise E; Rutishauser, Rachel; Hill, Alison; Kearney, Mary F; Anderson, Elizabeth M; Buchbinder, Susan P; Cohen, Stephanie E; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Pohlmeyer, Christopher W; Fromentin, Remi; Hoh, Rebecca; Liu, Albert Y; McCune, Joseph M; Spindler, Jonathan; Metcalf-Pate, Kelly; Hobbs, Kristen S; Thanh, Cassandra; Gibson, Erica A; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Siliciano, Robert F; Price, Richard W; Richman, Douglas D; Chomont, Nicolas; Siliciano, Janet D; Mellors, John W; Yukl, Steven A; Blankson, Joel N; Liegler, Teri; Deeks, Steven G

    2017-11-01

    It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male) and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male) after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) following 32 weeks of continuous ART. Colorectal and lymph node tissues, bone marrow, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), plasma, and very large numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained longitudinally from both participants and were studied for HIV persistence in several laboratories using molecular and culture-based detection methods, including a murine viral outgrowth assay (mVOA). Both participants initiated PrEP with tenofovir/emtricitabine during very early Fiebig stage I (detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, antibody negative) followed by 4-drug ART intensification. Following peak viral loads, both participants experienced full suppression of HIV-1 plasma viremia. Over the following 2 years, no further HIV could be detected in blood or tissue from PrEP Participant A despite extensive sampling from ileum, rectum, lymph nodes, bone marrow, CSF, circulating CD4+ T cell subsets, and plasma. No HIV was detected from tissues obtained from PrEP Participant B, but low-level HIV RNA or DNA was intermittently detected from various CD4+ T cell subsets. Over 500 million CD4+ T cells were assayed from both participants in a humanized mouse outgrowth assay. Three of 8 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant B developed viremia (50 million input cells/surviving mouse), but only 1 of 10 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant A (53 million input cells

  13. HIV-1 persistence following extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART during acute HIV-1 infection: An observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Henrich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI following 32 weeks of continuous ART.Colorectal and lymph node tissues, bone marrow, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF, plasma, and very large numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were obtained longitudinally from both participants and were studied for HIV persistence in several laboratories using molecular and culture-based detection methods, including a murine viral outgrowth assay (mVOA. Both participants initiated PrEP with tenofovir/emtricitabine during very early Fiebig stage I (detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, antibody negative followed by 4-drug ART intensification. Following peak viral loads, both participants experienced full suppression of HIV-1 plasma viremia. Over the following 2 years, no further HIV could be detected in blood or tissue from PrEP Participant A despite extensive sampling from ileum, rectum, lymph nodes, bone marrow, CSF, circulating CD4+ T cell subsets, and plasma. No HIV was detected from tissues obtained from PrEP Participant B, but low-level HIV RNA or DNA was intermittently detected from various CD4+ T cell subsets. Over 500 million CD4+ T cells were assayed from both participants in a humanized mouse outgrowth assay. Three of 8 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant B developed viremia (50 million input cells/surviving mouse, but only 1 of 10 mice infused with CD4+ T cells from PrEP Participant A (53 million input

  14. The role of miR-29a in HIV-1 replication and latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frattari, Giacomo; Aagaard, Lars; Denton, Paul W

    2017-01-01

    The development of an effective HIV-1 eradication strategy relies upon a clear understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in HIV-1 latency. Among such cellular processes, microRNA activities affect HIV-1 production by regulating viral transcripts as well as host cell HIV-1 dependency factors....... miR-29a stands apart from other relevant microRNAs as a potential therapeutic target in HIV-1 eradication.In vitroexperiments have shown that miR-29a binds to a sequence in the 3'UTR of viral transcripts and inhibits their expression.In vivodata revealed the existence of a cytokine-microRNA (i.e. IL......-21/miR-29a) pathway that significantly impacts HIV-1 replication. Here we present and discuss evidence supporting the role of miR-29a in HIV-1 replication and latency. We also discuss potential clinical applications of miR-29a inhibitors and enhancers in HIV-1 eradication strategies....

  15. Identification of HIV-1 genitourinary tract compartmentalization by analyzing the env gene sequences in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Maria; Carpenter, J Harris; Balakumaran, Bala; Cara, Andrea; Gao, Feng; Klotman, Mary E

    2015-08-24

    HIV-1 persists indefinitely in memory CD4 T cells and other long-lived cellular reservoirs despite antiretroviral therapy. Our group had previously demonstrated that HIV-1 can establish a productive infection in renal epithelial cells and that the kidney represents a separate compartment for HIV-1 replication. Here, to better understand the viruses in this unique site, we genetically characterized and compared the viruses in blood and urine specimens from 24 HIV-1 infected patients with detectable viremia. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 35 HIV-1 positive patients. Single-genome amplification was performed on HIV-1 env RNA and DNA isolated from urine supernatants and urine-derived cell pellets, respectively, as well as from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell from the same individuals. Neighbor-joining trees were constructed under the Kimura 2-parameter model. We amplified and sequenced the full-length HIV-1 envelope (env) gene from 12 of the 24 individuals, indicating that 50% of the viremic HIV-1-positive patients had viral RNA in their urine. Phylogenetic analysis of the env sequences from four individuals with more than 15 urine-derived env sequences showed that the majority of the sequences from urine formed distinct cluster(s) independent of those peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma-derived sequences, consistent with viral compartmentalization in the urine. Our results suggest the presence of a distinct HIV compartment in the genitourinary tract.

  16. Infection of female primary lower genital tract epithelial cells after natural pseudotyping of HIV-1: possible implications for sexual transmission of HIV-1.

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    Yuyang Tang

    Full Text Available The global AIDS pandemic continues to expand and in some regions of the world, such as southern Africa, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection exceeds 20%. The devastating spread of the virus in young women in these countries appears disproportional to overall risk of infection. Regions with high prevalence of HIV-1 are often also highly endemic for other pathogenic viruses including HSV, CMV and HTLV. We propose that acquisition by HIV-1 of the envelope glycoproteins of other viruses, in a process we call "natural pseudotyping," expands the cellular tropism of HIV-1, enabling it to infect female genital epithelial cells directly and thereby dramatically increasing risk of infection during sexual intercourse. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that when HIV-1 co-infects T cells along with the gammaretrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV, progeny HIV-1 particles are produced capable of infecting primary vaginal, ectocervical and endocervical epithelial cells. These cell types are normally resistant to HIV-1 infection. Infection of primary genital cells was neutralized by antisera against the XMRV glycoprotein, confirming that infection was mediated by the XMRV glycoprotein acquired through pseudotyping of HIV. Inhibition by AZT showed that active replication of HIV-1 occurred in these cells and ruled out non-specific endocytic uptake of the virus. These results demonstrate that natural pseudotyping can expand the tropism of HIV-1 to include genital epithelial cells and have potential implications for sexual transmission of the virus.

  17. Increased iron export by ferroportin induces restriction of HIV-1 infection in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Ammosova, Tatiana; Diaz, Sharmin; Lin, Xionghao; Niu, Xiaomei; Ivanov, Andrey; Jerebtsova, Marina; Dhawan, Subhash; Oneal, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The low incidence of HIV-1 infection in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro under the conditions of low intracellular iron or heme treatment suggests a potential restriction of HIV-1 infection in SCD. We investigated HIV-1 ex vivo infection of SCD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and found that HIV-1 replication was inhibited at the level of reverse transcription (RT) and transcription. We observed increased expression of heme and iron-regulated genes, previously shown to inhibit HIV-1, including ferroportin, IKBα, HO-1, p21, and SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1). HIV-1 inhibition was less pronounced in hepcidin-treated SCD PBMCs and more pronounced in the iron or iron chelators treated, suggesting a key role of iron metabolism. In SCD PBMCs, labile iron levels were reduced and protein levels of ferroportin, HIF-1α, IKBα, and HO-1 were increased. Hemin treatment induced ferroportin expression and inhibited HIV-1 in THP-1 cells, mimicking the HIV-1 inhibition in SCD PBMCs, especially as hepcidin similarly prevented HIV-1 inhibition. In THP-1 cells with knocked down ferroportin, IKBα, or HO-1 genes but not HIF-1α or p21, HIV-1 was not inhibited by hemin. Activity of SAMHD1-regulatory CDK2 was decreased, and SAMHD1 phosphorylation was reduced in SCD PBMCs and hemin-treated THP-1 cells, suggesting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in SCD. Our findings point to ferroportin as a trigger of HIV-1 restriction in SCD settings, linking reduced intracellular iron levels to the inhibition of CDK2 activity, reduction of SAMHD1 phosphorylation, increased IKBα expression, and inhibition of HIV-1 RT and transcription. PMID:28203649

  18. Apolipoprotein E isoform dependently affects Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nabab; Datta, Gaurav; Geiger, Jonathan D; Chen, Xuesong

    2018-03-20

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major carrier protein that mediates the transport and delivery of cholesterol and other lipids in the brain. Three isoforms of ApoE (ApoE2, ApoE3, ApoE4) exist in humans, and their relative expression levels impact HIV-1 infection, HIV-1/AIDS disease progression, and cognitive decline associated with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder. Because HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein essential for HIV-1 replication, can bind to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) that controls ApoE uptake in the brain, we determined the extent to which different isoforms of ApoE affected Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation. Using U87MG glioblastoma cells expressing LTR-driven luciferase, we determined the extent to which LRP1 as well as ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 affected Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation. A specific LRP1 antagonist and siRNA knockdown of LRP1 both restricted significantly Tat-mediated LTR transactivation. Of the three ApoEs, ApoE4 was the least potent and effective at preventing HIV-1 Tat internalization and at decreasing Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation. Further, Tat-mediated LTR transactivation was attenuated by an ApoE mimetic peptide, and ApoE4-induced restriction of Tat-mediated LTR transactivation was potentiated by an ApoE4 structure modulator that changes ApoE4 into an ApoE3-like phenotype. These findings help explain observed differential effects of ApoEs on HIV-1 infectivity and the prevalence of HAND in people living with HIV-1 infection and suggest that ApoE mimetic peptides and ApoE4 structure modulator might be used as a therapeutic strategy against HIV-1 infection and associated neurocognitive disorders.

  19. Longitudinal assessment of the effects of drug and alcohol abuse on HIV-1 treatment outcomes in an urban clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Gregory M; Gebo, Kelly A; Chaisson, Richard E; Moore, Richard D

    2002-03-29

    To assess the temporal association of changes in substance abuse with antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, HIV-1 RNA suppression, and CD4 cell count changes in patients attending an urban clinic. Prospective cohort study. Six-hundred and ninety-five HIV-1-infected individuals, who completed two or more semi-annual standardized surveys and in whom antiretroviral therapy was indicated, were included in the analysis. Surveys addressed antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, and use of illicit drugs and alcohol. Substance abuse was defined as active heroin, cocaine, or heavy alcohol use in the 6 months preceding survey. The units of analysis were consecutive pairs of surveys (couplets) in individual participants. Couplets in which participants denied substance abuse in both surveys were compared to couplets in which participants switched from non-use to substance abuse, and couplets in which participants reported substance abuse in both surveys were compared to couplets where participants switched from substance abuse to non-use. Switching from non-use to substance abuse was strongly associated with worsening antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, less frequent HIV-1 RNA suppression, and blunted CD4 cell increases, compared to remaining free of substance abuse. Alternatively, switching from substance abuse to non-use was strongly associated with improvements in antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, and HIV-1 treatment outcomes, compared to persisting with substance abuse. This longitudinal study highlights the dynamic nature of substance abuse and its temporal association with the effectiveness of HIV-1 treatment in patients attending an inner-city clinic.

  20. Genotypic and functional properties of early infant HIV-1 envelopes

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    Sullivan John L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the properties of HIV-1 variants that are transmitted from women to their infants is crucial to improving strategies to prevent transmission. In this study, 162 full-length envelope (env clones were generated from plasma RNA obtained from 5 HIV-1 Clade B infected mother-infant pairs. Following extensive genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, 35 representative clones were selected for functional studies. Results Infant quasispecies were highly homogeneous and generally represented minor maternal variants, consistent with transmission across a selective bottleneck. Infant clones did not differ from the maternal in env length, or glycosylation. All infant variants utilized the CCR5 co-receptor, but were not macrophage tropic. Relatively high levels (IC50 ≥ 100 μg/ml of autologous maternal plasma IgG were required to neutralize maternal and infant viruses; however, all infant viruses were neutralized by pooled sera from HIV-1 infected individuals, implying that they were not inherently neutralization-resistant. All infant viruses were sensitive to the HIV-1 entry inhibitors Enfuvirtide and soluble CD4; none were resistant to Maraviroc. Sensitivity to human monoclonal antibodies 4E10, 2F5, b12 and 2G12 varied. Conclusions This study provides extensive characterization of the genotypic and functional properties of HIV-1 env shortly after transmission. We present the first detailed comparisons of the macrophage tropism of infant and maternal env variants and their sensitivity to Maraviroc, the only CCR5 antagonist approved for therapeutic use. These findings may have implications for improving approaches to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

  1. Mechanism of action and resistant profile of anti-HIV-1 coumarin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Yuan, Xiong; Yu, Donglei; Lee, K H; Chen, Chin Ho

    2005-02-20

    Dicamphanoyl khellactone (DCK) is a coumarin derivative that can potently inhibit HIV-1 replication. DCK does not inhibit RNA-dependent DNA synthesis. However, an HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-resistant strain, HIV-1/RTMDR1, is resistant to DCK. Thus, it is possible that HIV-1 RT is the target of DCK. To test this possibility, DCK-resistant viruses were selected in the presence of DCK. Our results indicate that a single amino acid mutation, E138K in HIV-1 RT, is sufficient to confer DCK resistance. Interestingly, a DCK derivative, 3'R,4'R-Di-O-(-)-camphanoyl-2-ethyl-2',2'-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (DCP8), is effective against HIV-1/RTMDR1. However, the DCK-escape virus carrying the E138K mutation remains resistant to DCP8. Since DCK did not inhibit the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT when using poly-rA or poly-rC as template, we evaluated the effect of DCK on the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT. Our results indicate that DCK can inhibit the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of HIV-1 RT. In conclusion, DCK is a unique HIV-1 RT inhibitor that inhibits the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. In contrast, DCK did not significantly affect the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity when poly-rA or poly-rC was used as templates. An E138K mutation in the non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) binding pocket of HIV-1 RT confers resistance to DCK and its chromone derivative, DCP8.

  2. Constraints from protein structure and intra-molecular coevolution influence the fitness of HIV-1 recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jeongmin; Robertson, David L; Lovell, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    A major challenge for developing effective treatments for HIV-1 is the viruses' ability to generate new variants. Inter-strain recombination is a major contributor to this high evolutionary rate, since at least 20% of viruses are observed to be recombinant. However, the patterns of recombination vary across the viral genome. A number of factors influence recombination, including sequence identity and secondary RNA structure. In addition the recombinant genome must code for a functional virus, and expressed proteins must fold to stable and functional structures. Any intragenic recombination that disrupts internal residue contacts may therefore produce an unfolded protein. Here we find that contact maps based on protein structures predict recombination breakpoints observed in the HIV-1 pandemic. Moreover, many pairs of contacting residues that are unlikely to be disrupted by recombination are coevolving. We conclude that purifying selection arising from protein structure and intramolecular coevolutionary changes shapes the observed patterns of recombination in HIV-1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of XMRV Nucleic Acid and Antibody in HIV-1-Infected Men and in Men at Risk for HIV-1 Infection

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    J. Spindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus (XMRV was recently reported to be associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Infection was also reported in 3.7% of healthy individuals. These highly reported frequencies of infection prompted concerns about the possibility of a new, widespread retroviral epidemic. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS provides an opportunity to assess the prevalence of XMRV infection and its association with HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men. Reliable detection of XMRV infection requires the application of multiple diagnostic methods, including detection of human antibodies to XMRV and detection of XMRV nucleic acid. We, therefore, tested 332 patient plasma and PBMC samples obtained from recent visits in a subset of patients in the MACS cohort for XMRV antibodies using Abbott prototype ARCHITECT chemiluminescent immunoassays (CMIAs and for XMRV RNA and proviral DNA using a XMRV single-copy qPCR assay (X-SCA. Although 9 of 332 (2.7% samples showed low positive reactivity against a single antigen in the CMIA, none of these samples or matched controls were positive for plasma XMRV RNA or PBMC XMRV DNA by X-SCA. Thus, we found no evidence of XMRV infection among men in the MACS regardless of HIV-1 serostatus.

  4. Increased genetic diversity of HIV-1 circulating in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hon-Kwan Chen

    Full Text Available HIV-1 group M strains are characterized into 9 pure subtypes and 48 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs. Recent studies have identified the presence of new HIV-1 recombinants in Hong Kong and their complexity continues to increase. This study aims to characterize the HIV-1 genetic diversity in Hong Kong. Phylogenetic analyses were performed by using HIV-1 pol sequences including protease and partial reverse transcriptase isolated from 1045 local patients in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2008. For the pol sequences with unassigned genotype, the evidence of recombination was determined by using sliding-window based bootscan plots and their env C2V3 region were also sequenced. Epidemiological background of these patients was further collected. The pol phylogenetic analyses highlighted the extent of HIV-1 genetic diversity in Hong Kong. Subtype B (450/1045; 43.1% and CRF01_AE (469/1045; 44.9% variants were clearly predominant. Other genotypes (126/1045; 12.1% including 3 defined subtypes, 10 CRFs, 1 unassigned subtype and 33 recombinants with 11 different mosaic patterns were observed. Recombinants of subtype B and CRF01_AE were mainly found among local Chinese MSM throughout 2004 to 2008, while the CRF02_AG and subtype G recombinants were circulating among non-Chinese Asian population in Hong Kong through heterosexual transmission starting from 2008. Our study demonstrated the complex recombination of HIV-1 in Hong Kong and the need in developing surveillance system for tracking the distribution of new HIV-1 genetic variants.

  5. NFAT5 regulates HIV-1 in primary monocytes via a highly conserved long terminal repeat site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Ranjbar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To replicate, HIV-1 capitalizes on endogenous cellular activation pathways resulting in recruitment of key host transcription factors to its viral enhancer. RNA interference has been a powerful tool for blocking key checkpoints in HIV-1 entry into cells. Here we apply RNA interference to HIV-1 transcription in primary macrophages, a major reservoir of the virus, and specifically target the transcription factor NFAT5 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5, which is the most evolutionarily divergent NFAT protein. By molecularly cloning and sequencing isolates from multiple viral subtypes, and performing DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and promoter mutagenesis transfection assays, we demonstrate that NFAT5 functionally interacts with a specific enhancer binding site conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, and multiple simian immunodeficiency viruses. Using small interfering RNA to ablate expression of endogenous NFAT5 protein, we show that the replication of three major HIV-1 viral subtypes (B, C, and E is dependent upon NFAT5 in human primary differentiated macrophages. Our results define a novel host factor-viral enhancer interaction that reveals a new regulatory role for NFAT5 and defines a functional DNA motif conserved across HIV-1 subtypes and representative simian immunodeficiency viruses. Inhibition of the NFAT5-LTR interaction may thus present a novel therapeutic target to suppress HIV-1 replication and progression of AIDS.

  6. HIV-1, methamphetamine and astrocytes at neuroinflammatory Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, Kathleen; Ghorpade, Anuja

    2015-01-01

    As a popular psychostimulant, methamphetamine (METH) use leads to long-lasting, strong euphoric effects. While METH abuse is common in the general population, between 10 and 15% of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) patients report having abused METH. METH exacerbates the severity and onset of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) through direct and indirect mechanisms. Repetitive METH use impedes adherence to antiretroviral drug regimens, increasing the likelihood of HIV-1 disease progression toward AIDS. METH exposure also directly affects both innate and adaptive immunity, altering lymphocyte numbers and activity, cytokine signaling, phagocytic function and infiltration through the blood brain barrier. Further, METH triggers the dopamine reward pathway and leads to impaired neuronal activity and direct toxicity. Concurrently, METH and HIV-1 alter the neuroimmune balance and induce neuroinflammation, which modulates a wide range of brain functions including neuronal signaling and activity, glial activation, viral infection, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity. Pathologically, reactive gliosis is a hallmark of both HIV-1- and METH-associated neuroinflammation. Significant commonality exists in the neurotoxic mechanisms for both METH and HAND; however, the pathways dysregulated in astroglia during METH exposure are less clear. Thus, this review highlights alterations in astrocyte intracellular signaling pathways, gene expression and function during METH and HIV-1 comorbidity, with special emphasis on HAND-associated neuroinflammation. Importantly, this review carefully evaluates interventions targeting astrocytes in HAND and METH as potential novel therapeutic approaches. This comprehensive overview indicates, without a doubt, that during HIV-1 infection and METH abuse, a complex dialog between all neural cells is orchestrated through astrocyte regulated neuroinflammation. PMID:26579077

  7. Difficulties in diagnosing atypical primary HIV-1 infection Dificuldades no diagnóstico de infecção primária atípica por HIV-1. Relato de um caso: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Simão do Rosário Casseb; Adele Caterino-de-Araujo

    1994-01-01

    Several cases of primary HIV-1 infection are not identified, either because the diagnosis is not suspected or because they test negative for HIV-1 antibody. This work presents an uncommon case of primary HIV-1 infection in an young parenteral drug abuser man, who presented symptoms of acute hepatitis. During the initial acute phase the serum sample of the patient tested negative for the presence of antibodies against several viruses, including HIV-1. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of primary HIV...

  8. Rational development of radiopharmaceuticals for HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Maldarelli, Frank; Eckelman, William C.; Neumann, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    The global battle against HIV-1 would benefit from a sensitive and specific radiopharmaceutical to localize HIV-infected cells. Ideally, this probe would be able to identify latently infected host cells containing replication competent HIV sequences. Clinical and research applications would include assessment of reservoirs, informing clinical management by facilitating assessment of burden of infection in different compartments, monitoring disease progression and monitoring response to therapy. A “rational” development approach could facilitate efficient identification of an appropriate targeted radiopharmaceutical. Rational development starts with understanding characteristics of the disease that can be effectively targeted and then engineering radiopharmaceuticals to hone in on an appropriate target, which in the case of HIV-1 (HIV) might be an HIV-specific product on or in the host cell, a differentially expressed gene product, an integrated DNA sequence specific enzymatic activity, part of the inflammatory response, or a combination of these. This is different from the current approach that starts with a radiopharmaceutical for a target associated with a disease, mostly from autopsy studies, without a strong rationale for the potential to impact patient care. At present, no targeted therapies are available for HIV latency, although a number of approaches are under study. Here we discuss requirements for a radiopharmaceutical useful in strategies targeting persistently infected cells. The radiopharmaceutical for HIV should be developed based on HIV biology, studied in an animal model and then in humans, and ultimately used in clinical and research settings

  9. Enfuvirtide antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Christina MR; Nuño, Miriam; Kitchen, Scott G; Krogstad, Paul

    2008-01-01

    It has been over 25 years since the first diagnosis of what would be known as AIDS. Although great strides in anti-HIV therapeutics have been made, there is still a great need for antiretrovirals that are effective against drug-resistant HIV. Enfuvirtide (ENF) is the first of a new class of fusion inhibitors to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents among HIV-1 infected patients with previous treatment experience. The inclusion of enfuvirtide in an optimized antiretroviral background regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infected (treatment-experienced) patients followed the success of two critical clinical trials (TORO: T20 vs Optimized Regimen Only I and II). Even though injection-site reactions persisted in these trials, improved virological and immunological responses were observed among patients. Challenges associated with ENF treatment include the high cost of the drug, injection-site reactions, determining the optimal time to initiate treatment, and the potential for the selection of drug resistant mutants and viral evolution. ENF is a promising novel treatment for HIV infected individuals whose choices for effective treatment are limited by previous treatment and resistance. Understanding the implications of viral fitness and evolution in the presence of ENF treatment is crucial in determining effective and safe treatment regimens, particularly among treatment-experienced patients. PMID:18728846

  10. Effects of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms on HIV-1 susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Tommy E.; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Knowlton, Caitlin; Kim, Baek; Sawyer, Sara L.; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    SAMHD1 is a human restriction factor that prevents efficient infection of macrophages, dendritic cells and resting CD4+ T cells by HIV-1. Here we explored the antiviral activity and biochemical properties of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms. Our studies focused on human SAMHD1 polymorphisms that were previously identified as evolving under positive selection for rapid amino acid replacement during primate speciation. The different human SAMHD1 polymorphisms were tested for their ability to block HIV-1, HIV-2 and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). All studied SAMHD1 variants block HIV-1, HIV-2 and EIAV infection when compared to wild type. We found that these variants did not lose their ability to oligomerize or to bind RNA. Furthermore, all tested variants were susceptible to degradation by Vpx, and localized to the nuclear compartment. We tested the ability of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms to decrease the dNTP cellular levels. In agreement, none of the different SAMHD1 variants lost their ability to reduce cellular levels of dNTPs. Finally, we found that none of the tested human SAMHD1 polymorphisms affected the ability of the protein to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. - Highlights: • Human SAMHD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms block HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms do not affect its ability to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms decrease the cellular levels of dNTPs

  11. Effects of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms on HIV-1 susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tommy E.; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, 1301 Morris Park – Price Center 501, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Knowlton, Caitlin; Kim, Baek [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Sawyer, Sara L. [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Diaz-Griffero, Felipe, E-mail: Felipe.Diaz-Griffero@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, 1301 Morris Park – Price Center 501, New York, NY 10461 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    SAMHD1 is a human restriction factor that prevents efficient infection of macrophages, dendritic cells and resting CD4+ T cells by HIV-1. Here we explored the antiviral activity and biochemical properties of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms. Our studies focused on human SAMHD1 polymorphisms that were previously identified as evolving under positive selection for rapid amino acid replacement during primate speciation. The different human SAMHD1 polymorphisms were tested for their ability to block HIV-1, HIV-2 and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). All studied SAMHD1 variants block HIV-1, HIV-2 and EIAV infection when compared to wild type. We found that these variants did not lose their ability to oligomerize or to bind RNA. Furthermore, all tested variants were susceptible to degradation by Vpx, and localized to the nuclear compartment. We tested the ability of human SAMHD1 polymorphisms to decrease the dNTP cellular levels. In agreement, none of the different SAMHD1 variants lost their ability to reduce cellular levels of dNTPs. Finally, we found that none of the tested human SAMHD1 polymorphisms affected the ability of the protein to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. - Highlights: • Human SAMHD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms block HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms do not affect its ability to block LINE-1 retrotransposition. • SAMHD1 polymorphisms decrease the cellular levels of dNTPs.

  12. Willingness of Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to use antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Kurth, Ann; Curran, Kathryn; Baeten, Jared M

    2012-09-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy as new human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) prevention approaches for HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Among Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples participating in a clinical trial of PrEP, we conducted a cross-sectional study and used descriptive statistical methods to explore couples' willingness to use antiretrovirals for HIV-1 prevention. The study was conducted before July 2011, when studies among heterosexual populations reported that ART and PrEP reduced HIV-1 risk. For 181 couples in which the HIV-1-infected partner had a CD4 count ≥350 cells per microliter and had not yet initiated ART (and thus did not qualify for ART under Kenyan guidelines), 60.2% of HIV-1 infected partners (69.4% of men and 57.9% of women) were willing to use early ART (at CD4 ≥350 cells per microliter) for HIV-1 prevention. Among HIV-1 uninfected partners, 92.7% (93.8% of men and 86.1% of women) reported willingness to use PrEP. When given a hypothetical choice of early ART or PrEP for HIV-1 prevention, 52.5% of HIV-1-infected participants would prefer to initiate ART early and 56.9% of HIV-1-uninfected participants would prefer to use PrEP. Nearly 40% of Kenyan HIV-1-infected individuals in known HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships reported reservations about early ART initiation for HIV-1 prevention. PrEP interest in this PrEP-experienced population was high. Strategies to achieve high uptake and sustained adherence to ART and PrEP for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples will require responding to couples' preferences for prevention strategies.

  13. Dendritic cells exposed to MVA-based HIV-1 vaccine induce highly functional HIV-1-specific CD8(+ T cell responses in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Climent

    Full Text Available Currently, MVA virus vectors carrying HIV-1 genes are being developed as HIV-1/AIDS prophylactic/therapeutic vaccines. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of these vectors on human dendritic cells (DC and their capacity to present HIV-1 antigens to human HIV-specific T cells. This study aimed to characterize the interaction of MVA and MVA expressing the HIV-1 genes Env-Gag-Pol-Nef of clade B (referred to as MVA-B in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC and the subsequent processes of HIV-1 antigen presentation and activation of memory HIV-1-specific T lymphocytes. For these purposes, we performed ex vivo assays with MDDC and autologous lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Infection of MDDC with MVA-B or MVA, at the optimal dose of 0.3 PFU/MDDC, induced by itself a moderate degree of maturation of MDDC, involving secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL1-ra, IL-7, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, IP-10, MIG, and IFN-α. MDDC infected with MVA or MVA-B and following a period of 48 h or 72 h of maturation were able to migrate toward CCL19 or CCL21 chemokine gradients. MVA-B infection induced apoptosis of the infected cells and the resulting apoptotic bodies were engulfed by the uninfected MDDC, which cross-presented HIV-1 antigens to autologous CD8(+ T lymphocytes. MVA-B-infected MDDC co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes induced a highly functional HIV-specific CD8(+ T cell response including proliferation, secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES and IL-6, and strong cytotoxic activity against autologous HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T lymphocytes. These results evidence the adjuvant role of the vector itself (MVA and support the clinical development of prophylactic and therapeutic anti-HIV vaccines based on MVA-B.

  14. HIV-1-infected and immune-activated macrophages induce astrocytic differentiation of human cortical neural progenitor cells via the STAT3 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    Full Text Available Diminished adult neurogenesis is considered a potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD. In HAD, HIV-1-infected and immune-activated brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP; perivascular macrophages and microglia drive central nervous system (CNS inflammation and may alter normal neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated HIV-1-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS activated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM inhibit human neural progenitor cell (NPC neurogenesis, while enhancing astrogliogenesis through the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, in vitro and in vivo. Here we further test the hypothesis that HIV-1-infected/activated MDM promote NPC astrogliogenesis via activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, a critical factor for astrogliogenesis. Our results show that LPS-activated MDM-conditioned medium (LPS-MCM and HIV-infected/LPS-activated MDM-conditioned medium (LPS+HIV-MCM induced Janus kinase 1 (Jak1 and STAT3 activation. Induction of the Jak-STAT3 activation correlated with increased glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression, demonstrating an induction of astrogliogenesis. Moreover, STAT3-targeting siRNA (siSTAT3 decreased MCM-induced STAT3 activation and NPC astrogliogenesis. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α produced by LPS-activated and/or HIV-1-infected MDM may contribute to MCM-induced STAT3 activation and astrocytic differentiation. These observations were confirmed in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE. In HIVE mice, siRNA control (without target sequence, sicon pre-transfected NPCs injected with HIV-1-infected MDM showed more astrocytic differentiation and less neuronal differentiation of NPCs as compared to NPC injection alone. siSTAT3 abrogated HIV-1-infected MDM-induced astrogliogenesis of injected NPCs. Collectively, these

  15. Peripheral blood HIV-1 DNA dynamics in antiretroviral-treated HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving directly-acting antivirals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Rozera

    Full Text Available Aim was to determine the dynamics of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC- associated total HIV-1 DNA in successfully ART-treated HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving DAA treatment and to explore possible virological hypotheses underlying the phenomenon.Longitudinal, single-centre study measuring total HIV-1 DNA before the start of DAA, at the end of treatment (EOT, and 3 months after treatment. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess factors associated with HIV-1 DNA increase ≥0.5 Log copies/million PBMC. Episomal 2-LTR forms, residual HIV-1 viremia and proviral DNA quasispecies evolution were also investigated.119 successfully ART-treated HIV/HCV co-infected patients were included. Median baseline HIV-1 DNA was 3.84 Log copies/million PBMC (95%CI 3.49-4.05, and no significant variation with respect to baseline was found at EOT and after 3 months of DAA termination. In 17% of cases an increase ≥0.5 Log copies/million PBMC was observed at EOT compared to baseline. HIV-1 DNA increase was independently associated with lower baseline HIV-1 DNA, longer HIV suppression, raltegravir-based ART and previous exposure to interferon/ribavirin for HCV treatment. In none of the patients with HIV-1 DNA increase, 2-LTR forms were detected at baseline, while in 2 cases 2-LTR forms were found at EOT, without association with residual HIV-1 RNA viremia. No evidence of viral evolution was observed.In successfully ART-treated HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving DAA, PBMC-associated total HIV-1 DNA was quite stable over time, but some patients showed a considerable increase at EOT when compared to baseline. A significantly higher risk of HIV DNA increase was found, in presence of lower cellular HIV reservoir at baseline. Activation of replicative-competent virus generating new rounds of viral replication seems unlikely, while mobilization of cell-associated HIV from tissue reservoirs could be hypothesized.

  16. Genetic Consequences of Antiviral Therapy on HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Arenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of enzyme inhibitors have been developed in combating HIV-1, however the fast evolutionary rate of this virus commonly leads to the emergence of resistance mutations that finally allows the mutant virus to survive. This review explores the main genetic consequences of HIV-1 molecular evolution during antiviral therapies, including the viral genetic diversity and molecular adaptation. The role of recombination in the generation of drug resistance is also analyzed. Besides the investigation and discussion of published works, an evolutionary analysis of protease-coding genes collected from patients before and after treatment with different protease inhibitors was included to validate previous studies. Finally, the review discusses the importance of considering genetic consequences of antiviral therapies in models of HIV-1 evolution that could improve current genotypic resistance testing and treatments design.

  17. Sieve analysis in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefsen, Paul T.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Rolland, Morgane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The genetic characterization of HIV-1 breakthrough infections in vaccine and placebo recipients offers new ways to assess vaccine efficacy trials. Statistical and sequence analysis methods provide opportunities to mine the mechanisms behind the effect of an HIV vaccine. Recent findings The release of results from two HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials, Step/HVTN-502 and RV144, led to numerous studies in the last five years, including efforts to sequence HIV-1 breakthrough infections and compare viral characteristics between the vaccine and placebo groups. Novel genetic and statistical analysis methods uncovered features that distinguished founder viruses isolated from vaccinees from those isolated from placebo recipients, and identified HIV-1 genetic targets of vaccine-induced immune responses. Summary Studies of HIV-1 breakthrough infections in vaccine efficacy trials can provide an independent confirmation to correlates of risk studies, as they take advantage of vaccine/placebo comparisons while correlates of risk analyses are limited to vaccine recipients. Through the identification of viral determinants impacted by vaccine-mediated host immune responses, sieve analyses can shed light on potential mechanisms of vaccine protection. PMID:23719202

  18. Limited HIV-1 Reactivation in Resting CD4+T cells from Aviremic Patients under Protease Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Abbas, Wasim; Bouchat, Sophie; Gatot, Jean-Stéphane; Pasquereau, Sébastien; Kabeya, Kabamba; Clumeck, Nathan; De Wit, Stéphane; Van Lint, Carine; Herbein, Georges

    2016-12-06

    A latent viral reservoir that resides in resting CD4 + T cells represents a major barrier for eradication of HIV infection. We test here the impact of HIV protease inhibitor (PI) based combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) over nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based cART on HIV-1 reactivation and integration in resting CD4 + T cells. This is a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic HIV-1 infection treated with conventional cART with an undetectable viremia. We performed a seven-year study of 47 patients with chronic HIV-infection treated with cART regimens and with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for at least 1 year. Of these 47 patients treated with cART, 24 were treated with a PI-based regimen and 23 with a NNRTI-based regimen as their most recent treatment for more than one year. We evaluated the HIV-1 reservoir using reactivation assay and integrated HIV-1 DNA, respectively, in resting CD4 + T cells. Resting CD4 + T cells isolated from PI-treated patients compared to NNRTI-treated patients showed a limited HIV-1 reactivation upon T-cell stimulation (p = 0·024) and a lower level of HIV-1 integration (p = 0·024). Our study indicates that PI-based cART could be more efficient than NNRTI-based cART for limiting HIV-1 reactivation in aviremic chronically infected patients.

  19. Compartmentalization of the gut viral reservoir in HIV-1 infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Tannika

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there has been an increasing interest and appreciation for the gut as both a viral reservoir as well as an important host-pathogen interface in human immunodefiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. The gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is the largest lymphoid organ infected by HIV-1. In this study we examined if different HIV-1 quasispecies are found in different parts of the gut of HIV-1 infected individuals. Results Gut biopsies (esophagus, stomach, duodenum and colorectum were obtained from eight HIV-1 infected preHAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy patients. HIV-1 Nef and Reverse transcriptase (RT encoding sequences were obtained through nested PCR amplification from DNA isolated from the gut biopsy tissues. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were subjected to various phylogenetic analyses. Expression of the nef gene and viral RNA in the different gut tissues was determined using real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the Nef protein-encoding region revealed compartmentalization of viral replication in the gut within patients. Viral diversity in both the Nef and RT encoding region varied in different parts of the gut. Moreover, increased nef gene expression (p Conclusion Our results indicated that different HIV-1 quasispecies populate different parts of the gut, and that viral replication in the gut is compartmentalized. These observations underscore the importance of the gut as a host-pathogen interface in HIV-1 infection.

  20. Tailored enrichment strategy detects low abundant small noncoding RNAs in HIV-1 infected cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The various classes of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression across divergent types of organisms. While a rapidly increasing number of sncRNAs has been identified over recent years, the isolation of sncRNAs of low abundance remains challenging. Virally encoded sncRNAs, particularly those of RNA viruses, can be expressed at very low levels. This is best illustrated by HIV-1 where virus encoded sncRNAs represent approximately 0.1-1.0% of all sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected cells or were found to be undetected. Thus, we applied a novel, sequence targeted enrichment strategy to capture HIV-1 derived sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes and macrophages that allows a greater than 100-fold enrichment of low abundant sncRNAs. Results Eight hundred and ninety-two individual HIV-1 sncRNAs were cloned and sequenced from nine different sncRNA libraries derived from five independent experiments. These clones represent up to 90% of all sncRNA clones in the generated libraries. Two hundred and sixteen HIV-1 sncRNAs were distinguishable as unique clones. They are spread throughout the HIV-1 genome, however, forming certain clusters, and almost 10% show an antisense orientation. The length of HIV-1 sncRNAs varies between 16 and 89 nucleotides with an unexpected peak at 31 to 50 nucleotides, thus, longer than cellular microRNAs or short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Exemplary HIV-1 sncRNAs were also generated in cells infected with different primary HIV-1 isolates and can inhibit HIV-1 replication. Conclusions HIV-1 infected cells generate virally encoded sncRNAs, which might play a role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Furthermore, the enormous capacity to enrich low abundance sncRNAs in a sequence specific manner highly recommends our selection strategy for any type of investigation where origin or target sequences of the sought-after sncRNAs are known. PMID:22458358

  1. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HIV-1 viral loads between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HIV-1 test, Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Mancon, Alessandro; Marcos, Mª Angeles; Mileto, Davide; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Viral load monitoring is essential for patients under treatment for HIV. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the novel, automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. ¥ OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HIV-1 Assay at multiple EU laboratories. Method comparison with the VERIS HIV-1 Assay was performed with 415 specimens at 5 sites tested with COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® HIV-1 Test, v2.0, 169 specimens at 3 sites tested with RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and 202 specimens from 2 sites tested with VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Patient monitoring sample results from 4 sites were also compared. Bland-Altman analysis showed the average bias between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay to be 0.28, 0.39, and 0.61 log 10 cp/mL, respectively. Bias at low end levels below 1000cp/mL showed predicted bias to be DxN VERIS System demonstrated comparable clinical performance to COBAS ® HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Copy number variation of KIR genes influences HIV-1 control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelak, Kimberly; Need, Anna C; Fellay, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant (CNV) in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) associates with HIV-1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry. This CNV encompasses...... the KIR3DL1-KIR3DS1 locus, encoding receptors that interact with specific HLA-Bw4 molecules to regulate the activation of lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells. We quantified the number of copies of KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 in a large HIV-1 positive cohort, and showed that an increase in KIR3...... amounts of these activating and inhibitory KIR play a role in regulating the peripheral expansion of highly antiviral KIR3DS1+ NK cells, which may determine differences in HIV-1 control following infection....

  3. Redefining the Viral Reservoirs That Prevent HIV-1 Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Evelyn; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review proposes definitions for key terms in the field of HIV-1 latency and eradication. In the context of eradication, a reservoir is a cell type that allows persistence of replication-competent HIV-1 on a time scale of years in patients on optimal antiretroviral therapy. Reservoirs act as a barrier to eradication in the patient population in whom cure attempts will likely be made. Halting viral replication is essential to eradication, and definitions and criteria for assessing whether this goal has been achieved are proposed. The cell types that may serve as reservoirs for HIV-1 are discussed. Currently, only latently infected resting CD4+ T cells fit the proposed definition of a reservoir, and more evidence is necessary to demonstrate that other cell types including hematopoietic stem cells and macrophages fit this definition. Further research is urgently required on potential reservoirs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the central nervous system. PMID:22999944

  4. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 integration targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Alan N; Singh, Parmit K

    2018-02-07

    Integration is central to HIV-1 replication and helps mold the reservoir of cells that persists in AIDS patients. HIV-1 interacts with specific cellular factors to target integration to interior regions of transcriptionally active genes within gene-dense regions of chromatin. The viral capsid interacts with several proteins that are additionally implicated in virus nuclear import, including cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 6, to suppress integration into heterochromatin. The viral integrase protein interacts with transcriptional co-activator lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 to principally position integration within gene bodies. The integrase additionally senses target DNA distortion and nucleotide sequence to help fine-tune the specific phosphodiester bonds that are cleaved at integration sites. Research into virus-host interactions that underlie HIV-1 integration targeting has aided the development of a novel class of integrase inhibitors and may help to improve the safety of viral-based gene therapy vectors.

  5. p24 as a predictor of mortality in a cohort of HIV-1-infected adults in rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L

    2008-01-01

    in a cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Treatment-naive HIV-1-infected individuals (n=198) from the Mupfure Schistosomiasis and HIV Cohort were followed until death or censoring (3-4.3 years). At baseline, p24, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell counts, and clinical staging (Centers for Disease Control...

  6. Electron tomography of HIV-1 infection in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinsky, Mark S; Kieffer, Collin; Olson, Gregory; Deruaz, Maud; Vrbanac, Vladimir; Tager, Andrew M; Kwon, Douglas S; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Critical aspects of HIV-1 infection occur in mucosal tissues, particularly in the gut, which contains large numbers of HIV-1 target cells that are depleted early in infection. We used electron tomography (ET) to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-1-infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Human immune cells were successfully engrafted in the mice, and following infection with HIV-1, human T cells were reduced in GALT. Virions were found by ET at all stages of egress, including budding immature virions and free mature and immature viruses. Immuno-electron microscopy verified the virions were HIV-1 and showed CD4 sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Observation of HIV-1 in infected GALT tissue revealed that most HIV-1-infected cells, identified by immunolabeling and/or the presence of budding virions, were localized to intestinal crypts with pools of free virions concentrated in spaces between cells. Fewer infected cells were found in mucosal regions and the lamina propria. The preservation quality of reconstructed tissue volumes allowed details of budding virions, including structures interpreted as host-encoded scission machinery, to be resolved. Although HIV-1 virions released from infected cultured cells have been described as exclusively mature, we found pools of both immature and mature free virions within infected tissue. The pools could be classified as containing either mostly mature or mostly immature particles, and analyses of their proximities to the cell of origin supported a model of semi-synchronous waves of virion release. In addition to HIV-1 transmission by pools of free virus, we found evidence of transmission via virological synapses. Three-dimensional EM imaging of an active infection within tissue revealed important differences between cultured cell and tissue infection models and furthered the ultrastructural understanding of

  7. Electron tomography of HIV-1 infection in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Ladinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical aspects of HIV-1 infection occur in mucosal tissues, particularly in the gut, which contains large numbers of HIV-1 target cells that are depleted early in infection. We used electron tomography (ET to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT of HIV-1-infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Human immune cells were successfully engrafted in the mice, and following infection with HIV-1, human T cells were reduced in GALT. Virions were found by ET at all stages of egress, including budding immature virions and free mature and immature viruses. Immuno-electron microscopy verified the virions were HIV-1 and showed CD4 sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Observation of HIV-1 in infected GALT tissue revealed that most HIV-1-infected cells, identified by immunolabeling and/or the presence of budding virions, were localized to intestinal crypts with pools of free virions concentrated in spaces between cells. Fewer infected cells were found in mucosal regions and the lamina propria. The preservation quality of reconstructed tissue volumes allowed details of budding virions, including structures interpreted as host-encoded scission machinery, to be resolved. Although HIV-1 virions released from infected cultured cells have been described as exclusively mature, we found pools of both immature and mature free virions within infected tissue. The pools could be classified as containing either mostly mature or mostly immature particles, and analyses of their proximities to the cell of origin supported a model of semi-synchronous waves of virion release. In addition to HIV-1 transmission by pools of free virus, we found evidence of transmission via virological synapses. Three-dimensional EM imaging of an active infection within tissue revealed important differences between cultured cell and tissue infection models and furthered the ultrastructural

  8. Features of Maternal HIV-1 Associated with Lack of Vertical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nafees; Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted from mother-to-child (vertical transmission) at an estimated rate of approximately 30% without any antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, administration of ART during pregnancy considerably diminishes the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1, which has become a standard of perinatal care in HIV-infected pregnant females in developed countries. Moreover, a majority of children born to HIV-infected mothers are uninfected without any ART. In addition, characteristics of HIV-1 and/or cellular factors in the mothers may play a role in influencing or preventing vertical transmission. Several studies, including from our laboratory have characterized the properties of HIV-1 from infected mothers that transmitted HIV-1 to their infants (transmitting mothers) and compared with those mothers that failed to transmit HIV-1 to their infants (non-transmitting mothers) in the absence of ART. One of the striking differences observed was that the non-transmitting mothers harbored a less heterogeneous HIV-1 population than transmitting mothers in the analyzed HIV-1 regions of p17 gag , env V3, vif and vpr . The other significant and distinctive findings were that the functional domains of HIV-1 vif and vpr proteins were less conserved in non-transmitting mothers compared with transmitting mothers. Furthermore, there were differences seen in two important motifs of HIV-1 Gag p17, including conservation of QVSQNY motif and variation in KIEEEQN motif in non-transmitting mothers compared with transmitting mothers. Several of these distinguishing properties of HIV-1 in non-transmitting mothers provide insights in developing strategies for preventing HIV-1 vertical transmission.

  9. Male reproduction and HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.

    2009-01-01

    From its initial presentation in the early nineteen eighties until 1996, HIV-1 infection almost inevitably led to AIDS, which was a death sentence. Because of the short life expectancy, patients were advised against pregnancy. The improved prognosis of patients with HIV-1 infection following the

  10. Determination of cell tropism of HIV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2005-01-01

    With the discovery that changes in the biological properties of HIV-1 correlate with the progression to disease, it became more and more important to develop assays to distinguish between the viral phenotypes. In this chapter, it is described how the biological phenotype of HIV-1 with regard to

  11. The HIV-1 transcriptional activator Tat has potent nucleic acid chaperoning activities in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kuciak, Monika; Gabus, Caroline; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Semrad, Katharina; Storchak, Roman; Chaloin, Olivier; Muller, Sylviane; Mély, Yves; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a primate lentivirus that causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition to the virion structural proteins and enzyme precursors, that are Gag, Env and Pol, HIV-1 encodes several regulatory proteins, notably a small nuclear transcriptional activator named Tat. The Tat protein is absolutely required for virus replication since it controls proviral DNA transcription to generate the full-length viral mRNA. Tat can also regulat...

  12. Comprehensive processing of high-throughput small RNA sequencing data including quality checking, normalization, and differential expression analysis using the UEA sRNA Workbench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Matthew; Mohorianu, Irina; Stocks, Matthew; Applegate, Christopher; Dalmay, Tamas; Moulton, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has revealed compelling details about the small RNA (sRNA) population in eukaryotes. These 20 to 25 nt noncoding RNAs can influence gene expression by acting as guides for the sequence-specific regulatory mechanism known as RNA silencing. The increase in sequencing depth and number of samples per project enables a better understanding of the role sRNAs play by facilitating the study of expression patterns. However, the intricacy of the biological hypotheses coupled with a lack of appropriate tools often leads to inadequate mining of the available data and thus, an incomplete description of the biological mechanisms involved. To enable a comprehensive study of differential expression in sRNA data sets, we present a new interactive pipeline that guides researchers through the various stages of data preprocessing and analysis. This includes various tools, some of which we specifically developed for sRNA analysis, for quality checking and normalization of sRNA samples as well as tools for the detection of differentially expressed sRNAs and identification of the resulting expression patterns. The pipeline is available within the UEA sRNA Workbench, a user-friendly software package for the processing of sRNA data sets. We demonstrate the use of the pipeline on a H. sapiens data set; additional examples on a B. terrestris data set and on an A. thaliana data set are described in the Supplemental Information A comparison with existing approaches is also included, which exemplifies some of the issues that need to be addressed for sRNA analysis and how the new pipeline may be used to do this. © 2017 Beckers et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  13. Sulfonation pathway inhibitors block reactivation of latent HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Jeffrey P; Godoy, Joseph; Mukim, Amey; Swann, Justine; Bruce, James W; Ahlquist, Paul; Bosque, Alberto; Planelles, Vicente; Spina, Celsa A; Young, John A T

    2014-12-01

    Long-lived pools of latently infected cells are a significant barrier to the development of a cure for HIV-1 infection. A better understanding of the mechanisms of reactivation from latency is needed to facilitate the development of novel therapies that address this problem. Here we show that chemical inhibitors of the sulfonation pathway prevent virus reactivation, both in latently infected J-Lat and U1 cell lines and in a primary human CD4+ T cell model of latency. In each of these models, sulfonation inhibitors decreased transcription initiation from the HIV-1 promoter. These inhibitors block transcription initiation at a step that lies downstream of nucleosome remodeling and affects RNA polymerase II recruitment to the viral promoter. These results suggest that the sulfonation pathway acts by a novel mechanism to regulate efficient virus transcription initiation during reactivation from latency, and further that augmentation of this pathway could be therapeutically useful. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Syphilis and HIV-1 co-infection: influence on CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and treatment response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and syphilis coinfection on HIV-ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load, CD4 cell count, and the response in rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) to treatment of the syphilis infection. STUDY DESIGN: Cases of syphilis diagnosed during 1 year...... in HIV-infected patients in Copenhagen were included. HIV-RNA, CD4 cell counts, and RPR-serology were measured before, during, and after syphilis. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included. CD4 cell count decreased significantly during infection in patients with primary and secondary stages of syphilis...... (mean 106 cells/mm, P = 0.03). Treatment of syphilis was associated with an increase in the CD4 cell count and a decrease in HIV-RNA in the overall group (mean 66 cells/mm and -0.261 RNA log10 copies/ml, P = 0.02 and 0.04). The serological response rates for 15 patients treated with penicillin and 25...

  15. HIV-1 Proteins Influence Novelty-Seeking Behavior and Alter Region-Specific Transcriptional Responses to Chronic Nicotine Treatment in HIV-1Tg Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongli; Nesil, Tanseli; Wingo, Taylor; Chang, Sulie L; Li, Ming D

    2017-09-01

    Clinical studies suggest that HIV-1-infected patients are more likely to use or abuse addictive drugs than is the general population. We hypothesized that HIV-1 proteins impact novelty-seeking behavior and enhance the transcriptional response to nicotine in genes implicated in both novelty-seeking behavior and drug addiction. We assessed the effects of HIV-1 proteins on novelty-seeking behavior by comparing baseline activity differences of HIV-1Tg and F344 control rats in the open-field test. One day after behavioral testing, all rats began daily subcutaneous injections of either nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base) or saline (the same for each rat) for 27 days. At the end of treatment, the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and ventral tegmental area were collected for RNA expression analysis of genes in the receptor families for dopamine, GABA, glutamate, and serotonin. Significant strain difference was detected in the distance moved in the center, such that HIV-1Tg rats traveled greater distance in the center of the arena than did F344 rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA from Drd3 and Grm2 in the prefrontal cortex and Drd5 and Gabra6 in the ventral tegmental area was significantly upregulated, whereas that of Drd5 in the nucleus accumbens was downregulated in HIV-1Tg rats compared with F344 rats. Further, more addiction-related genes were significantly modulated by nicotine in each brain region in the HIV-1Tg rats than in the control animals. HIV-1 proteins may affect novelty-seeking behavior and modulate the expression of genes related to drug addiction and novelty-seeking behavior. HIV-1 viral proteins and chronic nicotine treatment impact the expression of genes involved in novelty-seeking behavior and addiction in three brain regions of the HIV-1 transgenic rat. These findings implicate that HIV-1 proteins may be involved in novelty-seeking behavior and in modulating the expression of genes related to drug addiction and novelty seeking. © The

  16. A single gp120 residue can affect HIV-1 tropism in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Q Del Prete

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Species-dependent variation in proteins that aid or limit virus replication determines the ability of lentiviruses to jump between host species. Identifying and overcoming these differences facilitates the development of animal models for HIV-1, including models based on chimeric SIVs that express HIV-1 envelope (Env glycoproteins, (SHIVs and simian-tropic HIV-1 (stHIV strains. Here, we demonstrate that the inherently poor ability of most HIV-1 Env proteins to use macaque CD4 as a receptor is improved during adaptation by virus passage in macaques. We identify a single amino acid, A281, in HIV-1 Env that consistently changes during adaptation in macaques and affects the ability of HIV-1 Env to use macaque CD4. Importantly, mutations at A281 do not markedly affect HIV-1 Env neutralization properties. Our findings should facilitate the design of HIV-1 Env proteins for use in non-human primate models and thus expedite the development of clinically relevant reagents for testing interventions against HIV-1.

  17. Enhancement of HIV-1 VLP production using gene inhibition strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenmayor, Javier; Cervera, Laura; Rigau, Cristina; Gòdia, Francesc

    2018-03-24

    Gag polyprotein from HIV-1 is able to generate virus-like particles (VLPs) when recombinantly expressed in animal cell platforms. HIV-1 VLP production in HEK293 cells can be improved by the use of different strategies for increasing product titers. One of them is the so-called extended gene expression (EGE), based on repeated medium exchanges and retransfections of the cell culture to prolong the production phase. Another approach is the media supplementation with gene expression enhancers such as valproic acid and caffeine, despite their detrimental effect on cell viability. Valproic acid is a histone deacetylase inhibitor while caffeine has a phosphodiesterase inhibition effect. Here, the combination of the EGE protocol with additive supplementation to maximize VLP production is first tested. As an alternative to the direct additive supplementation, the replacement of these chemical additives by iRNA for obtaining the same inhibition action is also tested. The combination of the EGE protocol with caffeine and valproic acid supplementation resulted in a 1.5-fold improvement in HIV-1 VLP production compared with the EGE protocol alone, representing an overall 18-fold improvement over conventional batch cultivation. shRNAs encoded in the expression vector were tested to substitute valproic acid and caffeine. This novel strategy enhanced VLP production by 2.3 fold without any detrimental effect on cell viability (91.7%) compared with the batch cultivation (92.0%). Finally, the combination of shRNA with EGE resulted in more than 15.6-fold improvement compared with the batch standard protocol traditionally used. The methodology developed enables the production of high titers of HIV-1 VLPs avoiding the toxic effects of additives.

  18. CRISPR-Cas9 Can Inhibit HIV-1 Replication but NHEJ Repair Facilitates Virus Escape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Gang; Zhao, Na; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies demonstrated that the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated endonuclease Cas9 can be used for guide RNA (gRNA)-directed, sequence-specific cleavage of HIV proviral DNA in infected cells. We here demonstrate profound inhibition of HIV-1

  19. Initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription is regulated by a primer activation signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, N.; Groot, F.; Berkhout, B.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome appears to be strictly regulated at the level of initiation. The primer binding site (PBS), at which the tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule anneals and reverse transcription is initiated, is present in a highly structured region

  20. Higher viral load and genetic diversity of HIV-1 in seminal compartments than in blood of seven Chinese men who have sex with men and have early HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yan-Mei; Chen, Guang-Lei; Zhu, Wei-Jun; Huang, Hui-Huang; Fu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Wei; Shi, Ming; Zhang, Tong; Wu, Hao; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To date, there have been no reports characterizing HIV-1 in the semen of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) with early infection. In this study, genetic diversity and viral load of HIV-1 in the seminal compartments and blood of Chinese MSM with early HIV-1 infection were examined. Viral load and genetic diversity of HIV-1 in paired samples of semen and blood were analyzed in seven MSM with early HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 RNA and DNA were quantitated by real-time PCR assays. Through sequencing the C2-V5 region of the HIV-1 env gene, the HIV-1 genotype and genetic diversity based on V3 loop amino acid sequences were determined by using Geno2pheno and PSSM programs co-receptor usage. It was found that there was more HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma than in blood plasma and total, and more 2-LTR circular and integrated HIV-1 DNA in seminal cells than in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from all seven patients with early HIV-infection. There was also greater HIV-1 genetic diversity in seminal than in blood compartments. HIV-1 in plasma displayed higher genetic diversity than in cells from the blood and semen. In addition, V3 loop central motifs, which present some key neutralizing antibody epitopes, varied between blood and semen. Thus, virological characteristics in semen may be more representative when evaluating risk of transmission in persons with early HIV infection. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Prevalence of HIV-1 infection in Zanzibar: results from a national HIV-1 serosurvey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnyika, Kagoma S; Makwaya, Cyprian K; Lyamuya, Elgeus F; Nyamuryekung'e, Klinton; Ndyetabura, Felix E; Dahoma, Mohamed U J; Ali, Salim; Mzee, S

    2012-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV-1 infection in Pemba and Zanzibar islands We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire that consisted of pre-coded and open-ended questions consisting of 29 items. The questionnaire was developed in English and translated into Swahili language before use. The questionnaire was pilot tested and modified before use. A total of 30 Shehias were randomly selected for the survey out of a total of 248 Shehias. A Shehia is the smallest government administrative unit in Pemba and Zanzibar that consists of two to three villages. The study sample was obtained through cluster random sampling of 76 households from each Shehia. Informed consent was sought from the Head of household and from each potential eligible participant. Eligibililty criteria included all persons aged 12 years and above who slept overnight in the selected household at the time of the study. Exclusion criteria included non-residents of Zanzibar and Pemba such as tourists, Informed consent from persons below the age of 18 years were witnessed and ratified by their parents, guardians, caretakers or neighbours. All consenting participants were included in the study sample. Blood sports were collected using filters and tested for HIV-1 using ELISA test at the Zanzibar Reference Laboratory. Samples found positive for ELISA were subjected to a 2nd ELISA test. The total number of persons who participated in the survey was 5852 out of 5868 eligible persons giving the overall response rate of 99.7%. Of the 5852 persons who participated in the survey, 41% (N = 2414) were males and 59% N = 3455) were females. The overall mean age of the study population was 30.4 years with age ranging from 12-65 years. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 0.6% with more women being significantly affected than men (0.9% versus 0.2%; adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.16-7.12). Of the 5852 persons who participated in the survey, 5.7% admitted having had casual partner in the past 6 months and

  2. Alterations in cholesterol metabolism restrict HIV-1 trans infection in nonprogressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappocciolo, Giovanna; Jais, Mariel; Piazza, Paolo; Reinhart, Todd A; Berendam, Stella J; Garcia-Exposito, Laura; Gupta, Phalguni; Rinaldo, Charles R

    2014-04-29

    ABSTRACT HIV-1-infected nonprogressors (NP) inhibit disease progression for years without antiretroviral therapy. Defining the mechanisms for this resistance to disease progression could be important in determining strategies for controlling HIV-1 infection. Here we show that two types of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC), i.e., dendritic cells (DC) and B lymphocytes, from NP lacked the ability to mediate HIV-1 trans infection of CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, APC from HIV-1-infected progressors (PR) and HIV-1-seronegative donors (SN) were highly effective in mediating HIV-1 trans infection. Direct cis infection of T cells with HIV-1 was comparably efficient among NP, PR, and SN. Lack of HIV-1 trans infection in NP was linked to lower cholesterol levels and an increase in the levels of the reverse cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) in APC but not in T cells. Moreover, trans infection mediated by APC from NP could be restored by reconstitution of cholesterol and by inhibiting ABCA1 by mRNA interference. Importantly, this appears to be an inherited trait, as it was evident in APC obtained from NP prior to their primary HIV-1 infection. The present study demonstrates a new mechanism wherein enhanced lipid metabolism in APC results in remarkable control of HIV-1 trans infection that directly relates to lack of HIV-1 disease progression. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 can be captured by antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as dendritic cells and transferred to CD4 helper T cells, which results in greatly enhanced viral replication by a mechanism termed trans infection. A small percentage of HIV-1-infected persons are able to control disease progression for many years without antiretroviral therapy. In our study, we linked this lack of disease progression to a profound inability of APC from these individuals to trans infect T cells. This effect was due to altered lipid metabolism in their APC, which appears to be an inherited trait. These

  3. Novel Acylguanidine-Based Inhibitor of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwimanzi, Philip; Tietjen, Ian; Miller, Scott C.; Shahid, Aniqa; Cobarrubias, Kyle; Kinloch, Natalie N.; Baraki, Bemuluyigza; Richard, Jonathan; Finzi, Andrés; Fedida, David; Brumme, Zabrina L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence of transmissible HIV-1 strains with resistance to antiretroviral drugs highlights a continual need for new therapies. Here we describe a novel acylguanidine-containing compound, 1-(2-(azepan-1-yl)nicotinoyl)guanidine (or SM111), that inhibits in vitro replication of HIV-1, including strains resistant to licensed protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase inhibitors, without major cellular toxicity. At inhibitory concentrations, intracellular p24Gag production was unaffected, but virion release (measured as extracellular p24Gag) was reduced and virion infectivity was substantially impaired, suggesting that SM111 acts at a late stage of viral replication. SM111-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 was partially overcome by a Vpu I17R mutation alone or a Vpu W22* truncation in combination with Env N136Y. These mutations enhanced virion infectivity and Env expression on the surface of infected cells in the absence and presence of SM111 but also impaired Vpu's ability to downregulate CD4 and BST2/tetherin. Taken together, our results support acylguanidines as a class of HIV-1 inhibitors with a distinct mechanism of action compared to that of licensed antiretrovirals. Further research on SM111 and similar compounds may help to elucidate knowledge gaps related to Vpu's role in promoting viral egress and infectivity. IMPORTANCE New inhibitors of HIV-1 replication may be useful as therapeutics to counteract drug resistance and as reagents to perform more detailed studies of viral pathogenesis. SM111 is a small molecule that blocks the replication of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 strains by impairing viral release and substantially reducing virion infectivity, most likely through its ability to prevent Env expression at the infected cell surface. Partial resistance to SM111 is mediated by mutations in Vpu and/or Env, suggesting that the compound affects host/viral protein interactions that are important during viral egress. Further characterization of

  4. Subset of DC-SIGN(+) dendritic cells in human blood transmits HIV-1 to T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engering, Anneke; van Vliet, Sandra J.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    The dendritic cell (DC)-specific molecule DC-SIGN is a receptor for the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and is essential for the dissemination of HIV-1. DC-SIGN is expressed by DCs, both monocyte-derived DCs and DCs in several tissues, including mucosa and lymph nodes. To identify a DC-SIGN(+) DC

  5. A vastly increased chemical variety of RNA modifications that includes a thioacetal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Christina; Keller, Patrick; Kotter, Annika; Werner, Stephan; Duarte, Victor; Marchand, Virginie; Ignarski, Michael; Freiwald, Anja; Müller, Roman-Ulrich; Dieterich, Christoph; Motorin, Yuri; Butter, Falk; Atta, Mohammed; Helm, Mark

    2018-04-06

    Recently discovered new chemical entities in RNA modifications have provided surprises with respect to functional groups that enlarge the chemical space of RNA. Using LC-MS, we found over one hundred signals of RNA constituents that contained a ribose moiety in tRNAs from E. coli. Feeding experiments with variegated stable isotope labeled compounds identified 37 compounds, representing new structures of RNA modifications. One structure was elucidated by deuterium exchange and high resolution mass spectrometry. The structure of msms2i6A (2-methylthiomethylenethio-N6-isopentenyl-adenosine) was confirmed by methione-D3 feeding experiments and finally by synthesis of the nucleobase. The msms2i6A contains a thioacetal, which we demonstrated in vitro to be biosynthetically derived from ms2i6A by the action of the radical-SAM enzyme MiaB. This enzyme performs thiomethylation, forming ms2i6A from i6A in a first turnover. The newly discovered thioacetal is formed by a second turnover, now involving hydrogen abstraction from the previously introduced methyl group. Not only are thioacetals extremely rare in natural product chemistry, but also does this constitute a novel enzymatic mechanism for their formation. In conjunction with the pool of 36 new modification, this work describes a new layer of RNA modification chemistry. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Polyclonal B cell differentiation and loss of gastrointestinal tract germinal centers in the earliest stages of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc C Levesque

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The antibody response to HIV-1 does not appear in the plasma until approximately 2-5 weeks after transmission, and neutralizing antibodies to autologous HIV-1 generally do not become detectable until 12 weeks or more after transmission. Moreover, levels of HIV-1-specific antibodies decline on antiretroviral treatment. The mechanisms of this delay in the appearance of anti-HIV-1 antibodies and of their subsequent rapid decline are not known. While the effect of HIV-1 on depletion of gut CD4(+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection is well described, we studied blood and tissue B cells soon after infection to determine the effect of early HIV-1 on these cells.In human participants, we analyzed B cells in blood as early as 17 days after HIV-1 infection, and in terminal ileum inductive and effector microenvironments beginning at 47 days after infection. We found that HIV-1 infection rapidly induced polyclonal activation and terminal differentiation of B cells in blood and in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT B cells. The specificities of antibodies produced by GALT memory B cells in acute HIV-1 infection (AHI included not only HIV-1-specific antibodies, but also influenza-specific and autoreactive antibodies, indicating very early onset of HIV-1-induced polyclonal B cell activation. Follicular damage or germinal center loss in terminal ileum Peyer's patches was seen with 88% of follicles exhibiting B or T cell apoptosis and follicular lysis.Early induction of polyclonal B cell differentiation, coupled with follicular damage and germinal center loss soon after HIV-1 infection, may explain both the high rate of decline in HIV-1-induced antibody responses and the delay in plasma antibody responses to HIV-1. Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary.

  7. Development of Lentiviral Vectors Simultaneously Expressing Multiple siRNAs Against CCR5, vif and tat/rev Genes for an HIV-1 Gene Therapy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Spanevello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy holds considerable promise for the functional cure of HIV-1 infection and, in this context, RNA interference (RNAi-based approaches represent powerful strategies. Stable expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs targeting HIV genes or cellular cofactors has the potential to render HIV-1 susceptible cells resistant to infection. To inhibit different steps of virus life cycle, self-inactivating lentiviral vectors expressing multiple siRNAs targeting the CCR5 cellular gene as well as vif and tat/rev viral transcripts, under the control of different RNA polymerase III promoters (U6, 7SK, H1 were developed. The use of a single RNA polymerase III promoter driving the expression of a sequence giving rise to three siRNAs directed against the selected targets (e-shRNA was also investigated. Luciferase assay and inhibition of HIV-1 replication in human Jurkat T-cell line were adopted to select the best combination of promoter/siRNA. The efficacy of selected developed combinatorial vectors in interfering with viral replication was evaluated in human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. We identified two effective anti-HIV combinatorial vectors that conferred protection against R5- and X4- tropic viruses. Overall, our results showed that the antiviral effect is influenced by different factors, including the promoter used to express the RNAi molecules and the selected cassette combination. These findings contribute to gain further insights in the design of RNAi-based gene therapy approaches against HIV-1 for clinical application.

  8. Curaxin CBL0100 Blocks HIV-1 Replication and Reactivation through Inhibition of Viral Transcriptional Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Maxime J; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Huang, Huachao; Brennan, Justin; Simpson, Sydney; Purmal, Andrei; Gurova, Katerina; Keefer, Michael C; Kobie, James J; Santoso, Netty G; Zhu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), predominantly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), remains incurable. The barrier to a cure lies in the virus' ability to establish a latent infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Unsurprisingly, efforts for a sterilizing cure have focused on the "shock and kill" strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) to complement cART in order to eliminate these latent reservoirs. However, this method faces numerous challenges. Recently, the "block and lock" strategy has been proposed. It aims to reinforce a deep state of latency and prevent sporadic reactivation ("blip") of HIV-1 using latency-promoting agents (LPAs) for a functional cure. Our studies of curaxin 100 (CBL0100), a small-molecule targeting the facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex, show that it blocks both HIV-1 replication and reactivation in in vitro and ex vivo models of HIV-1. Mechanistic investigation elucidated that CBL0100 preferentially targets HIV-1 transcriptional elongation and decreases the occupancy of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) and FACT at the HIV-1 promoter region. In conclusion, CBL0100 is a newly identified inhibitor of HIV-1 transcription that can be used as an LPA in the "block and lock" cure strategy.

  9. Curaxin CBL0100 Blocks HIV-1 Replication and Reactivation through Inhibition of Viral Transcriptional Elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime J. Jean

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, predominantly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, remains incurable. The barrier to a cure lies in the virus' ability to establish a latent infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Unsurprisingly, efforts for a sterilizing cure have focused on the “shock and kill” strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRAs to complement cART in order to eliminate these latent reservoirs. However, this method faces numerous challenges. Recently, the “block and lock” strategy has been proposed. It aims to reinforce a deep state of latency and prevent sporadic reactivation (“blip” of HIV-1 using latency-promoting agents (LPAs for a functional cure. Our studies of curaxin 100 (CBL0100, a small-molecule targeting the facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT complex, show that it blocks both HIV-1 replication and reactivation in in vitro and ex vivo models of HIV-1. Mechanistic investigation elucidated that CBL0100 preferentially targets HIV-1 transcriptional elongation and decreases the occupancy of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II and FACT at the HIV-1 promoter region. In conclusion, CBL0100 is a newly identified inhibitor of HIV-1 transcription that can be used as an LPA in the “block and lock” cure strategy.

  10. Modulation of chromatin structure by the FACT histone chaperone complex regulates HIV-1 integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Julien; Lesbats, Paul; Mauro, Eric; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lopez, Angelica P; Benleulmi, Mohamed Salah; Calmels, Christina; Andreola, Marie-Line; Ruff, Marc; Llano, Manuel; Delelis, Olivier; Lavigne, Marc; Parissi, Vincent

    2017-07-28

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodeling has been reported to affect integration efficiency. LEDGF/p75-mediated targeting of the integration complex toward RNA polymerase II (polII) transcribed regions ensures optimal access to dynamic regions that are suitable for integration. Consequently, we have investigated the involvement of polII-associated factors in the regulation of HIV-1 integration. Using a pull down approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we have selected the FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) complex as a new potential cofactor of HIV-1 integration. FACT is a histone chaperone complex associated with the polII transcription machinery and recently shown to bind LEDGF/p75. We report here that a tripartite complex can be formed between HIV-1 integrase, LEDGF/p75 and FACT in vitro and in cells. Biochemical analyzes show that FACT-dependent nucleosome disassembly promotes HIV-1 integration into chromatinized templates, and generates highly favored nucleosomal structures in vitro. This effect was found to be amplified by LEDGF/p75. Promotion of this FACT-mediated chromatin remodeling in cells both increases chromatin accessibility and stimulates HIV-1 infectivity and integration. Altogether, our data indicate that FACT regulates HIV-1 integration by inducing local nucleosomes dissociation that modulates the functional association between the incoming intasome and the targeted nucleosome.

  11. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wejse, C; Patsche, C B; Kühle, A; Bamba, F J V; Mendes, M S; Lemvik, G; Gomes, V F; Rudolf, F

    2015-03-01

    HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection in TB patients in Guinea-Bissau, and the impact on outcomes at 12 months of follow-up. We included all adult TB patients in an observational TB cohort at the Bandim Health Project (BHP) in Guinea-Bissau between 2003 and 2013 and assessed survival status at 12 months after the start of treatment. A total 1312 patients were included; 499 (38%) were female (male/female ratio 1.6). Three hundred and seventy-nine patients were HIV-infected: 241 had HIV-1, 93 had HIV-2, and 45 were HIV-1+2 dual infected. The HIV type-associated risk of TB was 6-fold higher for HIV-1, 7-fold higher for HIV-1+2 dual infection, and 2-fold higher for HIV-2 compared with the HIV-uninfected. Of the patients included, 144 (11%) died, 62 (12%) among females and 82 (9%) among males (hazard ratio (HR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-1.30; p=0.596). Compared to male patients, female patients were younger (1 year younger, 95% CI 0.5-2; p=0.04), reported a longer duration of symptoms (14 days longer, 95% CI 4-25; p=0.003), and had a higher TBscoreII (0.5 points more, 95% CI 0.3-0.7; pHIV-infected (36% vs. 25%; pHIV infection increased the mortality risk, with HIV-1 infection displaying the highest HR (5.0, 95% CI 3.5-7.1), followed by HIV-1+2 (HR 4.2, 95% CI 2.2-7.8) and HIV-2 (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8). A TBscoreII ≥4 was associated with increased mortality (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.1). Significantly increased HRs were found for signs of wasting; a BMI HIV type-associated risk of TB was much higher for HIV-1 patients and higher but

  12. HIV-1 survival kinetics in peritoneal dialysis effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadegan, H; Ford, D; Malan, M; Masters, B; Scheel, P J

    1996-11-01

    Viable and potentially infectious HIV-1 has been recovered from the peritoneal dialysis effluent (PDE) of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). No information had previously been available as to how long HIV-1 could survive in this environment, and no data were available as to how long HIV-1 could survive on peritoneal dialysis exchange tubing (PDET). Therefore, this study was designed to answer these questions. HIV-1 Mn was added to PDE and allowed to incubate at room temperature for 0 to 14 days. Following centrifugation, the cellular component of the PDE mixture was placed in co-culture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV negative donors. Aliquots from the co-cultures were removed after 14 days and assayed for the HIV-1-P24 antigen. High levels of HIV P24 antigen were recovered up to and including seven days of room temperature incubation. HIV could not be recovered from PDE that had been incubated at room temperature for 10 to 14 days. Ten milliters of HIV-PDE mixture was placed within PDET and incubated at room temperature for 10 minutes. The solution was then removed by gravity drainage. After drying times of 0 to 168 hours, the tubing was flushed with HIV culture medium and placed in co-culture with PBMCs from HIV negative donors. The culture supernatant was assayed for the HIV-1 P24 antigen as a marker of viral replication. High levels of HIV-1 P24 antigen were recovered from the PDET wash for up to and including 48 hours of drying time. No viable virus could be detected for drying times of between 72 and 168 hours. To determine if common disinfectants found in the dialysis unit could inactivate HIV, dilutions of Amukin 50% and household bleach were prepared at final concentrations ranging from 1:32 to 1:2048. These disinfectant solutions were incubated with PDE containing HIV for 10 minutes. The cellular fraction of the PDE was isolated by centrifugation, washed, and

  13. Proteomic Validation of Transcript Isoforms, Including Those Assembled from RNA-Seq Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tay, Aidan P; Pang, Chi Nam Ignatius; Twine, Natalie a

    2015-01-01

    Human proteome analysis now requires an understanding of protein isoforms. We recently published the PG Nexus pipeline, which facilitates high confidence validation of exons and splice junctions by integrating genomics and proteomics data. Here we comprehensively explore how RNA-seq transcriptomi...

  14. A DEAD box protein facilitates HIV-1 replication as a cellular co-factor of Rev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 Rev escorts unspliced viral mRNAs out of the nucleus of infected cells, which allows formation of infectious HIV-1 virions. We have identified a putative DEAD box (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) RNA helicase, DDX1, as a cellular co-factor of Rev, through yeast and mammalian two-hybrid systems using the N-terminal motif of Rev as 'bait'. DDX1 is not a functional homolog of HIV-1 Rev, but down-regulation of DDX1 resulted in an alternative splicing pattern of Rev-responsive element (RRE)-containing mRNA, and attenuation of Gag p24 antigen production from HLfb rev(-) cells rescued by exogenous Rev. Co-transfection of a DDX1 expression vector with HIV-1 significantly increased viral production. DDX1 binding to Rev, as well as to the RRE, strongly suggest that DDX1 affects Rev function through the Rev-RRE axis. Moreover, down-regulation of DDX1 altered the steady state subcellular distribution of Rev, from nuclear/nucleolar to cytoplasmic dominance. These findings indicate that DDX1 is a critical cellular co-factor for Rev function, which maintains the proper subcellular distribution of this lentiviral regulatory protein. Therefore, alterations in DDX1-Rev interactions could induce HIV-1 persistence and targeting DDX1 may lead to rationally designed and novel anti-HIV-1 strategies and therapeutics

  15. Six Highly Conserved Targets of RNAi Revealed in HIV-1-Infected Patients from Russia Are Also Present in Many HIV-1 Strains Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kretova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RNAi has been suggested for use in gene therapy of HIV/AIDS, but the main problem is that HIV-1 is highly variable and could escape attack from the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs due to even single nucleotide substitutions in the potential targets. To exhaustively check the variability in selected RNA targets of HIV-1, we used ultra-deep sequencing of six regions of HIV-1 from the plasma of two independent cohorts of patients from Russia. Six RNAi targets were found that are invariable in 82%–97% of viruses in both cohorts and are located inside the domains specifying reverse transcriptase (RT, integrase, vpu, gp120, and p17. The analysis of mutation frequencies and their characteristics inside the targets suggests a likely role for APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, A3G in G-to-A mutations and a predominant effect of RT biases in the detected variability of the virus. The lowest frequency of mutations was detected in the central part of all six targets. We also discovered that the identical RNAi targets are present in many HIV-1 strains from many countries and from all continents. The data are important for both the understanding of the patterns of HIV-1 mutability and properties of RT and for the development of gene therapy approaches using RNAi for the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

  16. Development of an HIV-1 Subtype Panel in China: Isolation and Characterization of 30 HIV-1 Primary Strains Circulating in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwan Han

    Full Text Available The complex epidemic and significant diversity of HIV-1 strains in China pose serious challenges for surveillance and diagnostic assays, vaccine development and clinical management. There is a lack of HIV-1 isolates in current canonical HIV-1 subtype panels that can represent HIV-1 diversity in China; an HIV-1 subtype panel for China is urgently needed.Blood samples were collected from HIV-1 infected patients participating in the drug-resistance surveillance program in China. The samples were isolated, cultured and stored as neat culture supernatant. The HIV-1 isolates were fully characterized. The panel was used to compare 2 viral load assays and 2 p24 assays as the examples of how this panel could be used.An HIV-1 subtype panel for China composed of 30 HIV-1 primary strains of four subtypes (B [including Thai-B], CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and G was established. The samples were isolated and cultured to a high-titer (10(6-10(9 copies/ml/high-volume (40 ml. The HIV-1 isolates were fully characterized by the final viral load, p24 concentration, gag-pol and envC2V3 sequencing, co-receptor prediction, determination of the four amino acids at the tip of the env V3-loop, glycosylation sites in the V3 loop and the drug-resistance mutations. The comparison of two p24 assays and two viral load assays on the isolates illustrated how this panel may be used for the evaluation of diagnostic assay performance. The Pearson value between p24 assays were 0.938. The viral load results showed excellent concordance and agreement for samples of Thai-B, but lower correlations for samples of CRF01_AE.The current panel of 30 HIV-1 isolates served as a basis for the development of a comprehensive panel of fully characterized viral isolates, which could reflect the current dynamic and complex HIV-1 epidemic in China. This panel will be available to support HIV-1 research, assay evaluation, vaccine and drug development.

  17. Inhibitory effect of aqueous dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract. Methods The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. Results Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued. Conclusions The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects. PMID:22078030

  18. Inhibitory effect of aqueous dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Huamin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract. Methods The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. Results Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued. Conclusions The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects.

  19. Frequent intra-subtype recombination among HIV-1 circulating in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwelu, Ireen E; Novitsky, Vladimir; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F; Kapiga, Saidi H; Essex, M

    2013-01-01

    The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR) of 38 (28-50) sequences per subject). Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ≤0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84%) subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60%) subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69%) to 36 (82%) over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  20. Frequent intra-subtype recombination among HIV-1 circulating in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireen E Kiwelu

    Full Text Available The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env gp120 V1-C5 quasispecies from 45 subjects were generated by single-genome amplification and sequencing (median (IQR of 38 (28-50 sequences per subject. Recombination analysis was performed using seven methods implemented within the recombination detection program version 3, RDP3. HIV-1 sequences were considered recombinant if recombination signals were detected by at least three methods with p-values of ≤0.05 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. HIV-1 in 38 (84% subjects showed evidence for intra-subtype recombination including 22 with HIV-1 subtype A1, 13 with HIV-1 subtype C, and 3 with HIV-1 subtype D. The distribution of intra-patient recombination breakpoints suggested ongoing recombination and showed selective enrichment of recombinant variants in 23 (60% subjects. The number of subjects with evidence of intra-subtype recombination increased from 29 (69% to 36 (82% over one year of follow-up, although the increase did not reach statistical significance. Adjustment for intra-subtype recombination is important for the analysis of multiplicity of HIV infection. This is the first report of high prevalence of intra-subtype recombination in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, a region where multiple HIV-1 subtypes co-circulate. HIV-1 intra-subtype recombination increases viral diversity and presents additional challenges for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell derived hematopoietic cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent, self-renewing cells known for their differentiation potential into cells of mesenchymal lineage. The ability of single cell clones isolated from adipose tissue resident MSCs (ASCs to differentiate into cells of hematopoietic lineage has been previously demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated if the hematopoietic differentiated (HD cells derived from ASCs could productively be infected with HIV-1. Results HD cells were generated by differentiating clonally expanded cultures of adherent subsets of ASCs (CD90+, CD105+, CD45-, and CD34-. Transcriptome analysis revealed that HD cells acquire a number of elements that increase their susceptibility for HIV-1 infection, including HIV-1 receptor/co-receptor and other key cellular cofactors. HIV-1 infected HD cells (HD-HIV showed elevated p24 protein and gag and tat gene expression, implying a high and productive infection. HD-HIV cells showed decreased CD4, but significant increase in the expression of CCR5, CXCR4, Nef-associated factor HCK, and Vpu-associated factor BTRC. HIV-1 restricting factors like APOBEC3F and TRIM5 also showed up regulation. HIV-1 infection increased apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory genes in HD cells. Although undifferentiated ASCs failed to show productive infection, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of several hematopoietic lineage associated genes such as c-Kit, MMD2, and IL-10. Conclusions Considering the presence of profuse amounts of ASCs in different tissues, these findings suggest the possible role that could be played by HD cells derived from ASCs in HIV-1 infection. The undifferentiated ASCs were non-permissive to HIV-1 infection; however, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of some hematopoietic lineage related genes. The findings relate the importance of ASCs in HIV-1 research and facilitate the understanding of the disease process and management strategies.

  2. Binding of HIV-1 gp120 to DC-SIGN Promotes ASK-1-Dependent Activation-Induced Apoptosis of Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vera S. F.; Chung, Nancy P. Y.; Wang, Shu-Rong; Li, Zhongye; Ma, Jing; Lin, Chia-Wei; Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Chang, Kao-Ping; Kung, Sui-Sum; Wu, Yi-Chia; Chu, Cheng-Wei; Tai, Hsiao-Ting; Gao, George F.; Zheng, Bojian; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Austyn, Jonathan M.; Lin, Chen-Lung S.

    2013-01-01

    During disease progression to AIDS, HIV-1 infected individuals become increasingly immunosuppressed and susceptible to opportunistic infections. It has also been demonstrated that multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DC), including DC-SIGN(+) cells, become significantly depleted in the blood and lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients, which may contribute to the failure in initiating effective host immune responses. The mechanism for DC depletion, however, is unclear. It is also known that vast quantities of viral envelope protein gp120 are shed from maturing HIV-1 virions and form circulating immune complexes in the serum of HIV-1-infected individuals, but the pathological role of gp120 in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains elusive. Here we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism of DC death in chronic HIV-1 infection, in which ligation of DC-SIGN by gp120 sensitizes DC to undergo accelerated apoptosis in response to a variety of activation stimuli. The cultured monocyte-derived DC and also freshly-isolated DC-SIGN(+) blood DC that were exposed to either cross-linked recombinant gp120 or immune-complex gp120 in HIV(+) serum underwent considerable apoptosis after CD40 ligation or exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1β. Furthermore, circulating DC-SIGN(+) DC that were isolated directly from HIV-1(+) individuals had actually been pre-sensitized by serum gp120 for activation-induced exorbitant apoptosis. In all cases the DC apoptosis was substantially inhibited by DC-SIGN blockade. Finally, we showed that accelerated DC apoptosis was a direct consequence of excessive activation of the pro-apoptotic molecule ASK-1 and transfection of siRNA against ASK-1 significantly prevented the activation-induced excessive DC death. Our study discloses a previously unknown mechanism of immune modulation by envelope protein gp120, provides new insights into HIV immunopathogenesis, and suggests potential therapeutic approaches to

  3. HIV-1 concentrations in human breast milk before and after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Walter, Jan; Thea, Donald M; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kankasa, Chipepo; Decker, Don; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-04-17

    Concentrations of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in mucosal compartments influence the risk of sexual transmission and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Breast milk production is physiologically regulated such that supply is a function of infant demand, but whether demand also influences HIV-1 dynamics in breast milk is unknown. We tested whether minor and major changes in feeding frequency influence breast milk viral concentrations in 958 HIV-1-infected women and their infants followed, for 24 months during a trial in Lusaka, Zambia. Women were randomized to wean abruptly at 4 months or to continue breast-feeding for a duration of their own choosing. Two weeks after breast-feeding cessation (4.5 months), HIV-1 concentrations in breast milk were substantially higher (median RNA, 2708 copies/ml; DNA, 14 copies/ml) than if breast-feeding continued (median RNA, <50 copies/ml; DNA, <1 copy/ml; P < 0.0001). Among those continuing breast-feeding, HIV-1 concentrations in milk were higher if breast-feeding was nonexclusive (median RNA, 293 copies/ml; DNA, 2 copies/ml; P = 0.0006). Elevated milk viral concentrations after stopping breast-feeding explained higher than expected rates of late postnatal HIV transmission in those who weaned early. Changes in the frequency of breast-feeding peri-weaning and with nonexclusive breast-feeding influenced milk viral concentrations. This may explain the reduced risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with exclusive breast-feeding and why early weaning does not achieve the magnitude of HIV prevention predicted by models. Our results support continuation of maternal antiretroviral drug interventions over the full duration of time when any breast milk exposures may occur after planned weaning.

  4. Syphilis and HIV-1 co-infection: influence on CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and treatment response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and syphilis coinfection on HIV-ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load, CD4 cell count, and the response in rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) to treatment of the syphilis infection. STUDY DESIGN: Cases of syphilis diagnosed during 1 yea...

  5. Cyclin T1-dependent genes in activated CD4 T and macrophage cell lines appear enriched in HIV-1 co-factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Yu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is dependent upon cellular co-factors to mediate its replication cycle in CD4(+ T cells and macrophages, the two major cell types infected by the virus in vivo. One critical co-factor is Cyclin T1, a subunit of a general RNA polymerase II elongation factor known as P-TEFb. Cyclin T1 is targeted directly by the viral Tat protein to activate proviral transcription. Cyclin T1 is up-regulated when resting CD4(+ T cells are activated and during macrophage differentiation or activation, conditions that are also necessary for high levels of HIV-1 replication. Because Cyclin T1 is a subunit of a transcription factor, the up-regulation of Cyclin T1 in these cells results in the induction of cellular genes, some of which might be HIV-1 co-factors. Using shRNA depletions of Cyclin T1 and transcriptional profiling, we identified 54 cellular mRNAs that appear to be Cyclin T1-dependent for their induction in activated CD4(+ T Jurkat T cells and during differentiation and activation of MM6 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The promoters for these Cyclin T1-dependent genes (CTDGs are over-represented in two transcription factor binding sites, SREBP1 and ARP1. Notably, 10 of these CTDGs have been reported to be involved in HIV-1 replication, a significant over-representation of such genes when compared to randomly generated lists of 54 genes (p value<0.00021. The results of siRNA depletion and dominant-negative protein experiments with two CTDGs identified here, CDK11 and Casein kinase 1 gamma 1, suggest that these genes are involved either directly or indirectly in HIV-1 replication. It is likely that the 54 CTDGs identified here include novel HIV-1 co-factors. The presence of CTDGs in the protein space that was available for HIV-1 to sample during its evolution and acquisition of Tat function may provide an explanation for why CTDGs are enriched in viral co-factors.

  6. Roles of HIV-1 capsid in viral replication and immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sage, Valerie; Mouland, Andrew J; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando

    2014-11-26

    The primary roles of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid (CA) protein are to encapsidate and protect the viral RNA genome. It is becoming increasing apparent that HIV-1 CA is a multifunctional protein that acts early during infection to coordinate uncoating, reverse transcription, nuclear import of the pre-integration complex and integration of double stranded viral DNA into the host genome. Additionally, numerous recent studies indicate that CA is playing a crucial function in HIV-1 immune evasion. Here we summarize the current knowledge on HIV-1 CA and its interactions with the host cell to promote infection. The fact that CA engages in a number of different protein-protein interactions with the host makes it an interesting target for the development of new potent antiviral agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of Polycistronic Anti-CCR5 Artificial microRNA Leads to Improved Accuracy of Its Lentiviral Vector Transfer and More Potent Inhibition of HIV-1 in CD4⁺ T-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusov, Felix; Glazkova, Dina; Omelchenko, Denis; Bogoslovskaya, Elena; Tsyganova, Galina; Kersting, Katerina; Shipulin, German; Pokrovsky, Vadim

    2018-02-04

    C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is utilized by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a co-receptor for cell entry. Suppression of the CCR5 gene by artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) could confer cell resistance. In previous work, we created a lentivector that encoded the polycistron of two identical amiRNAs that could effectively suppress CCR5. However, tandem repeats in lentiviral vectors led to deletions of the repeated sequences during reverse transcription of the vector RNA. To solve this problem, we have created a new amiRNA against CCR5, mic1002, which has a different microRNA scaffold and targets a different sequence. Replacing one of the two identical tandem amiRNAs in the polycistron with the mic1002 amiRNA increased the accuracy of its lentiviral vector transfer while retaining its ability to effectively suppress CCR5. A lentiviral vector containing two heterogenic amiRNAs significantly inhibited HIV replication in a vector-transduced human CD4⁺ lymphocyte culture.

  8. Drug-induced reactivation of apoptosis abrogates HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut M Hanauske-Abel

    Full Text Available HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of

  9. An advanced BLT-humanized mouse model for extended HIV-1 cure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Kerry J; Pace, Craig; Sutter, Kathrin; Messer, Ronald J; Pouncey, Dakota L; Cummins, Nathan W; Natesampillai, Sekar; Zheng, Jim; Goldsmith, Joshua; Widera, Marek; Van Dis, Erik S; Phillips, Katie; Race, Brent; Dittmer, Ulf; Kukolj, George; Hasenkrug, Kim J

    2018-01-02

    Although bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT)-humanized mice provide a robust model for HIV-1 infection and enable evaluation of cure strategies dependent on endogenous immune responses, most mice develop graft versus host disease (GVHD), limiting their utility for extended HIV cure studies. This study aimed to: evaluate the GVHD-resistant C57 black 6 (C57BL/6) recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2)γcCD47 triple knockout (TKO)-BLT mouse as a model to establish HIV-1 latency. Determine whether TKO-BLT mice could be maintained on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for extended periods of time. Assess the rapidity of viral rebound following therapy interruption. TKO-BLT mice were HIV-1 infected, treated with various ART regimens over extended periods of time and assayed for viral rebound following therapy interruption. Daily subcutaneous injection and oral ART-mediated suppression of HIV-1 infection was tested at various doses in TKO-BLT mice. Mice were monitored for suppression of viremia and cellular HIV-1 RNA and DNA prior to and following therapy interruption. Mice remained healthy for 45 weeks posthumanization and could be treated with ART for up to 18 weeks. Viremia was suppressed to less than 200 copies/ml in the majority of mice with significant reductions in cellular HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Treatment interruption resulted in rapid viral recrudescence. HIV-1 latency can be maintained in TKO-BLT mice over extended periods on ART and rapid viral rebound occurs following therapy removal. The additional 15-18 weeks of healthy longevity compared with other BLT models provides sufficient time to examine the decay kinetics of the latent reservoir as well as observe delays in recrudescence in HIV-1 cure studies.

  10. Endocannabinoids affect innate immunity of Muller glia during HIV-1 Tat cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gopinath; Chatterjee, Nivedita

    2014-03-01

    In the retina, increased inflammatory response can cause visual impairment during HIV infection in spite of successful anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The HIV-1 Tat protein is implicated in neurodegeneration by eliciting a cytokine response in cells of the CNS, including glia. The current study investigated whether innate immune response in human retinal Muller glia could be immune-modulated to combat inflammation. Endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are used to alleviate Tat-induced cytotoxicity and rescue retinal cells. The neuroprotective mechanism involved suppression in production of pro-inflammatory and increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines, mainly through the MAPK pathway. The MAPK regulation was primarily by MKP-1. Both endocannabinoids regulated cytokine production by affecting at the transcriptional level the NF-κB complex, including IRAK1BP1 and TAB2. Stability of cytokine mRNA is likely to have been influenced through tristetraprolin. These findings have direct relevance in conditions like immune-recovery uveitis where anti-retroviral therapy has helped immune reconstitution. In such conditions drugs to combat overwhelming inflammatory response would need to supplement HAART. Endocannabinoids and their agonists may be thought of as neurotherapeutic during certain conditions of HIV-1 induced inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Innate antiviral immune signaling, viral evasion and modulation by HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Arjun; Gale, Michael

    2014-03-20

    The intracellular innate antiviral response in human cells is an essential component of immunity against virus infection. As obligate intracellular parasites, all viruses must evade the actions of the host cell's innate immune response in order to replicate and persist. Innate immunity is induced when pathogen recognition receptors of the host cell sense viral products including nucleic acid as "non-self". This process induces downstream signaling through adaptor proteins to activate latent transcription factors that drive the expression of genes encoding antiviral and immune modulatory effector proteins that restrict virus replication and regulate adaptive immunity. The interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors that play major roles in innate immunity. In particular, IRF3 is activated in response to infection by a range of viruses including RNA viruses, DNA viruses and retroviruses. Among these viruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a major global health problem mediating chronic infection in millions of people wherein recent studies show that viral persistence is linked with the ability of the virus to dysregulate and evade the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss viral pathogen sensing, innate immune signaling pathways and effectors that respond to viral infection, the role of IRF3 in these processes and how it is regulated by pathogenic viruses. We present a contemporary overview of the interplay between HIV-1 and innate immunity, with a focus on understanding how innate immune control impacts infection outcome and disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Spread of HIV-1 to children in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richner, B; Laurent, D; Sunnarat, Y; Bee, D; Nadal, D

    1997-05-17

    Beginning November 1, 1995, children under 5 years of age, who were admitted to Kantha Bopha Hospitals and who were suspected tuberculosis cases, were screened for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By January 31, 1997, 9026 children, 83% of the under 5-year-olds admitted, had been tested; 290 (3.2%) were positive. Serum samples from 205 children of the 236 seropositive children under the age of 18 months were tested for p24 antigen; 51 (25%) were positive. Mothers of 173 of the seropositive children were tested for antibodies to HIV; 170 were positive, which suggests that the main mode of acquisition of HIV-1 in the children was vertical transmission. If HIV-1 infection occurred only in the 54 seropositive children older than 18 months and in the 51 children younger than 18 months with detectable p24 antigen, the calculated prevalence of HIV-1 in children under 5 years old who were suspected of having tuberculosis when admitted to Kantha Bopha Children's Hospitals would be 1.2%. If the 17% not included in the test were all negative, the prevalence would be 1%. This is an underestimate because some of the children not tested could be positive and because some of the children tested had indeterminate HIV status. HIV testing was extended to all children admitted to the hospital; 715 were younger than 5 years of age, 596 of whom were suspected of having tuberculosis, and 119 of whom were not. The seroprevalences for the 2 subgroups were 3.2% and 0.8%, respectively. None of the 369 older children was seropositive. In 1996, the World Health Organization estimated a seroprevalence of 1.97% in adults 15-49 years old in Cambodia, the highest among Asian countries. The blood bank at Kantha Bopha found 211 (6.6%) HIV-1 seropositives among 3197 donors in 1995 and 211 (7.5%) among 2834 donors in 1996. Similar figures were seen at the National Transfusion Centre in Phnom Penh. A 1996 survey in Cambodia found an HIV-1

  13. Interaction of the phospholipid scramblase 1 with HIV-1 Tat results in the repression of Tat-dependent transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shuichi; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •PLSCR1 specifically interacted with HIV-1 Tat in vitro and in vivo. •PLSCR1 repressed Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR. •Suppression of PLSCR1 expression enhanced the levels of HIV-1 transcripts. •PLSCR1 reduced the nuclear localization of Tat. -- Abstract: Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene and possesses an IFN-mediated antiviral function. We show here that PLSCR1 directly interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat. This interaction occurs both in vitro and in vivo through amino acids 160–250 of PLSCR1. Overexpression of PLSCR1 efficiently represses the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and reduces the nuclear translocation of Tat. In addition, shRNA-mediated suppression of endogenous PLSCR1 expression enhances the levels of gag mRNA in an HIV-1-infected T-cell line. These findings indicate that PLSCR1 negatively regulates the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR during HIV-1 infection

  14. Interaction of the phospholipid scramblase 1 with HIV-1 Tat results in the repression of Tat-dependent transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Shuichi, E-mail: skusano@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •PLSCR1 specifically interacted with HIV-1 Tat in vitro and in vivo. •PLSCR1 repressed Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR. •Suppression of PLSCR1 expression enhanced the levels of HIV-1 transcripts. •PLSCR1 reduced the nuclear localization of Tat. -- Abstract: Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene and possesses an IFN-mediated antiviral function. We show here that PLSCR1 directly interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat. This interaction occurs both in vitro and in vivo through amino acids 160–250 of PLSCR1. Overexpression of PLSCR1 efficiently represses the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and reduces the nuclear translocation of Tat. In addition, shRNA-mediated suppression of endogenous PLSCR1 expression enhances the levels of gag mRNA in an HIV-1-infected T-cell line. These findings indicate that PLSCR1 negatively regulates the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR during HIV-1 infection.

  15. Engineering Cellular Resistance to HIV-1 Infection In Vivo Using a Dual Therapeutic Lentiviral Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Burke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We described earlier a dual-combination anti-HIV type 1 (HIV-1 lentiviral vector (LVsh5/C46 that downregulates CCR5 expression of transduced cells via RNAi and inhibits HIV-1 fusion via cell surface expression of cell membrane-anchored C46 antiviral peptide. This combinatorial approach has two points of inhibition for R5-tropic HIV-1 and is also active against X4-tropic HIV-1. Here, we utilize the humanized bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT mouse model to characterize the in vivo efficacy of LVsh5/C46 (Cal-1 vector to engineer cellular resistance to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC either nonmodified or transduced with LVsh5/C46 vector were transplanted to generate control and treatment groups, respectively. Control and experimental groups displayed similar engraftment and multilineage hematopoietic differentiation that included robust CD4+ T-cell development. Splenocytes isolated from the treatment group were resistant to both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 during ex vivo challenge experiments. Treatment group animals challenged with R5-tropic HIV-1 displayed significant protection of CD4+ T-cells and reduced viral load within peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues up to 14 weeks postinfection. Gene-marking and transgene expression were confirmed stable at 26 weeks post-transplantation. These data strongly support the use of LVsh5/C46 lentiviral vector in gene and cell therapeutic applications for inhibition of HIV-1 infection.

  16. HIV-1 epidemiology and circulating subtypes in the countryside of South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Sperotto Librelotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 has spread worldwide, with several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. Brazil has an incidence of 20.5 HIV-1/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients per 100,000 inhabitants; however, the Southernmost State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS has more than twice the number of HIV-1-infected people (41.3/100,000 inhabitants and a different pattern of subtype frequencies, as previously reported in studies conducted in the capital (Porto Alegre and its metropolitan region. This study examined HIV-1/AIDS epidemiological and molecular aspects in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical and risk behavioral characteristics were obtained from HIV-1-positive adult patients using a structured questionnaire. HIV-1 subtypes were determined by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of the pol and env genes. RESULTS: The study sample included 149 (55% women patients with a mean age of 41.8 ± 11.9 years. Most (73.8% patients had a low education level and reported heterosexual practices as the most (91.9% probable transmission route. HIV-1 subtypes were detected in 26 patients: 18 (69.2% infected with subtype C, six (23.1% infected with subtype B and two (7.7% infected with BC recombinant forms. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the increasing number of HIV-1 subtype C infections in the countryside of South Brazil.

  17. Expression, purification and characterization of a full-length recombinant HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njengele, Zikhona; Kleynhans, Ronel; Sayed, Yasien; Mosebi, Salerwe

    2016-12-01

    Vpu is one of four accessory proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Vpu modulates the expression of several cellular restriction factors within the HIV-1 infected cell including CD4, CD74, the bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) and NK-T-and-B antigen. The interaction of HIV-1 Vpu with these proteins interferes with the innate immune response directed against HIV-1; thereby promoting viral persistence. The involvement of HIV-1 Vpu in manipulating the cellular environment in ways that favor viral replication makes it an attractive target for anti-HIV drug intervention. This paper describes the over-expression and purification of a soluble HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies by ion-exchange chromatography, allowing production of 6 mg of highly purified protein (>95% purity) per 10 mg of pelleted cells obtained from 1 L of bacterial culture. Far-UV circular dichroism showed that the recombinant protein is folded and retained its secondary structure. Moreover, using ELISA, known HIV-1 Vpu binding partners, BST-2 and CD74, showed that the refolded purified protein is functional or at least assumes a conformation that is capable of binding these putative binding partners. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the purification and successful solubilization of full-length, wild-type HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Defining the HLA class I-associated viral antigen repertoire from HIV-1-infected human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternette, Nicola; Yang, Hongbing; Partridge, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    the identification of 75 HIV-1-derived peptides bound to HLA class I complexes that were purified directly from HIV-1-infected human primary CD4+ T cells and the C8166 human T-cell line. Importantly, one-third of eluted HIV-1 peptides had not been previously known to be presented by HLA class I. Over 82......Recognition and eradication of infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. High-throughput definition of HLA class I-associated immunopeptidomes by mass spectrometry is an increasingly important analytical tool to advance our understanding...... of the induction of T-cell responses against pathogens such as HIV-1. We utilized a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry workflow including de novo-assisted database searching to define the HLA class I-associated immunopeptidome of HIV-1-infected human cells. We here report for the first time...

  19. Identification of cell surface targets for HIV-1 therapeutics using genetic screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Stephen J.; Khan, Imran H.; Chan, Ursula A.; Scearce, Robin L.; Melara, Claudia L.; Paul, Amber M.; Sharma, Vikram; Bih, Fong-Yih; Holzmayer, Tanya A.; Luciw, Paul A.; Abo, Arie

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs designed to interfere with obligatory utilization of certain host cell factors by virus are less likely to encounter development of resistant strains than drugs directed against viral components. Several cellular genes required for productive infection by HIV were identified by the use of genetic suppressor element (GSE) technology as potential targets for anti-HIV drug development. Fragmented cDNA libraries from various pools of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were expressed in vitro in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-susceptible cell lines and subjected to genetic screens to identify GSEs that interfered with viral replication. After three rounds of selection, more than 15 000 GSEs were sequenced, and the cognate genes were identified. The GSEs that inhibited the virus were derived from a diverse set of genes including cell surface receptors, cytokines, signaling proteins, transcription factors, as well as genes with unknown function. Approximately 2.5% of the identified genes were previously shown to play a role in the HIV-1 life cycle; this finding supports the biological relevance of the assay. GSEs were derived from the following 12 cell surface proteins: CXCR4, CCR4, CCR7, CD11C, CD44, CD47, CD68, CD69, CD74, CSF3R, GABBR1, and TNFR2. Requirement of some of these genes for viral infection was also investigated by using RNA interference (RNAi) technology; accordingly, 10 genes were implicated in early events of the viral life cycle, before viral DNA synthesis. Thus, these cell surface proteins represent novel targets for the development of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection and AIDS

  20. Dolutegravir reshapes the genetic diversity of HIV-1 reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Pierre; Lee, Guinevere Q; Rey, David; Mesplede, Thibault; Partisani, Marialuisa; Cheneau, Christine; Beck-Wirth, Geneviève; Faller, Jean-Pierre; Mohseni-Zadeh, Mahsa; Martinot, Martin; Wainberg, Mark A; Fafi-Kremer, Samira

    2018-04-01

    Better understanding of the dynamics of HIV reservoirs under ART is a critical step to achieve a functional HIV cure. Our objective was to assess the genetic diversity of archived HIV-1 DNA over 48 weeks in blood cells of individuals starting treatment with a dolutegravir-based regimen. Eighty blood samples were prospectively and longitudinally collected from 20 individuals (NCT02557997) including: acutely (n = 5) and chronically (n = 5) infected treatment-naive individuals, as well as treatment-experienced individuals who switched to a dolutegravir-based regimen and were either virologically suppressed (n = 5) or had experienced treatment failure (n = 5). The integrase and V3 loop regions of HIV-1 DNA isolated from PBMCs were analysed by pyrosequencing at baseline and weeks 4, 24 and 48. HIV-1 genetic diversity was calculated using Shannon entropy. All individuals achieved or maintained viral suppression throughout the study. A low and stable genetic diversity of archived HIV quasispecies was observed in individuals starting treatment during acute infection. A dramatic reduction of the genetic diversity was observed at week 4 of treatment in the other individuals. In these patients and despite virological suppression, a recovery of the genetic diversity of the reservoirs was observed up to 48 weeks. Viral variants bearing dolutegravir resistance-associated substitutions at integrase position 50, 124, 230 or 263 were detected in five individuals (n = 5/20, 25%) from all groups except those who were ART-failing at baseline. None of these substitutions led to virological failure. These data demonstrate that the genetic diversity of the HIV-1 reservoir is reshaped following the initiation of a dolutegravir-based regimen and strongly suggest that HIV-1 can continue to replicate despite successful treatment.

  1. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubert, Monique E; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rivera, Nina T; Wigdahl, Brian; Nonnemacher, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr) have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  2. Comparative biochemical analysis of recombinant reverse transcriptase enzymes of HIV-1 subtype B and subtype C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisi Daniella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 subtype C infections account for over half of global HIV infections, yet the vast focus of HIV-1 research has been on subtype B viruses which represent less than 12% of the global pandemic. Since HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT is a major target of antiviral therapy, and since differential drug resistance pathways have been observed among different HIV subtypes, it is important to study and compare the enzymatic activities of HIV-1 RT derived from each of subtypes B and C as well as to determine the susceptibilities of these enzymes to various RT inhibitors in biochemical assays. Methods Recombinant subtype B and C HIV-1 RTs in heterodimeric form were purified from Escherichia coli and enzyme activities were compared in cell-free assays. The efficiency of (- ssDNA synthesis was measured using gel-based assays with HIV-1 PBS RNA template and tRNA3Lys as primer. Processivity was assayed under single-cycle conditions using both homopolymeric and heteropolymeric RNA templates. Intrinsic RNase H activity was compared using 5'-end labeled RNA template annealed to 3'-end recessed DNA primer in a time course study in the presence and absence of a heparin trap. A mis-incorporation assay was used to assess the fidelity of the two RT enzymes. Drug susceptibility assays were performed both in cell-free assays using recombinant enzymes and in cell culture phenotyping assays. Results The comparative biochemical analyses of recombinant subtype B and subtype C HIV-1 reverse transcriptase indicate that the two enzymes are very similar biochemically in efficiency of tRNA-primed (- ssDNA synthesis, processivity, fidelity and RNase H activity, and that both enzymes show similar susceptibilities to commonly used NRTIs and NNRTIs. Cell culture phenotyping assays confirmed these results. Conclusions Overall enzyme activity and drug susceptibility of HIV-1 subtype C RT are comparable to those of subtype B RT. The use of RT inhibitors (RTIs

  3. Emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants after triple antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hauser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: WHO-guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings recommend complex maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis comprising antenatal zidovudine (AZT, nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD at labor onset and AZT/lamivudine (3TC during labor and one week postpartum. Data on resistance development selected by this regimen is not available. We therefore analyzed the emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in Tanzanian women following complex prophylaxis. METHOD: 1395 pregnant women were tested for HIV-1 at Kyela District Hospital, Tanzania. 87/202 HIV-positive women started complex prophylaxis. Blood samples were collected before start of prophylaxis, at birth and 1-2, 4-6 and 12-16 weeks postpartum. Allele-specific real-time PCR assays specific for HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D were developed and applied on samples of mothers and their vertically infected infants to quantify key resistance mutations of AZT (K70R/T215Y/T215F, NVP (K103N/Y181C and 3TC (M184V at detection limits of <1%. RESULTS: 50/87 HIV-infected women having started complex prophylaxis were eligible for the study. All women took AZT with a median duration of 53 days (IQR 39-64; all women ingested NVP-SD, 86% took 3TC. HIV-1 resistance mutations were detected in 20/50 (40% women, of which 70% displayed minority species. Variants with AZT-resistance mutations were found in 11/50 (22%, NVP-resistant variants in 9/50 (18% and 3TC-resistant variants in 4/50 women (8%. Three women harbored resistant HIV-1 against more than one drug. 49/50 infants, including the seven vertically HIV-infected were breastfed, 3/7 infants exhibited drug-resistant virus. CONCLUSION: Complex prophylaxis resulted in lower levels of NVP-selected resistance as compared to NVP-SD, but AZT-resistant HIV-1 emerged in a substantial proportion of women. Starting AZT in pregnancy week 14 instead of 28 as recommended by the current WHO-guidelines may further increase

  4. Emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants after triple antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Andrea; Sewangi, Julius; Mbezi, Paulina; Dugange, Festo; Lau, Inga; Ziske, Judith; Theuring, Stefanie; Kuecherer, Claudia; Harms, Gundel; Kunz, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    WHO-guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings recommend complex maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis comprising antenatal zidovudine (AZT), nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD) at labor onset and AZT/lamivudine (3TC) during labor and one week postpartum. Data on resistance development selected by this regimen is not available. We therefore analyzed the emergence of minor drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in Tanzanian women following complex prophylaxis. 1395 pregnant women were tested for HIV-1 at Kyela District Hospital, Tanzania. 87/202 HIV-positive women started complex prophylaxis. Blood samples were collected before start of prophylaxis, at birth and 1-2, 4-6 and 12-16 weeks postpartum. Allele-specific real-time PCR assays specific for HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D were developed and applied on samples of mothers and their vertically infected infants to quantify key resistance mutations of AZT (K70R/T215Y/T215F), NVP (K103N/Y181C) and 3TC (M184V) at detection limits of HIV-infected women having started complex prophylaxis were eligible for the study. All women took AZT with a median duration of 53 days (IQR 39-64); all women ingested NVP-SD, 86% took 3TC. HIV-1 resistance mutations were detected in 20/50 (40%) women, of which 70% displayed minority species. Variants with AZT-resistance mutations were found in 11/50 (22%), NVP-resistant variants in 9/50 (18%) and 3TC-resistant variants in 4/50 women (8%). Three women harbored resistant HIV-1 against more than one drug. 49/50 infants, including the seven vertically HIV-infected were breastfed, 3/7 infants exhibited drug-resistant virus. Complex prophylaxis resulted in lower levels of NVP-selected resistance as compared to NVP-SD, but AZT-resistant HIV-1 emerged in a substantial proportion of women. Starting AZT in pregnancy week 14 instead of 28 as recommended by the current WHO-guidelines may further increase the frequency of AZT-resistance mutations. Given its impact on

  5. Use of Dried Blood Spots to Elucidate Full-Length Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Genomes

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    Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification of HIV-1 genomes responsible for establishing clinical infection in newly infected individuals is fundamental to prevention and pathogenesis research. Processing, storage, and transportation of the clinical samples required to perform these virologic assays in resource-limited settings requires challenging venipuncture and cold chain logistics. Here, we validate the use of dried-blood spots (DBS as a simple and convenient alternative to collecting and storing frozen plasma. Methods: We performed parallel nucleic acid extraction, single genome amplification (SGA, next generation sequencing (NGS, and phylogenetic analyses on plasma and DBS. Results: We demonstrated the capacity to extract viral RNA from DBS and perform SGA to infer the complete nucleotide sequence of the transmitted/founder (TF HIV-1 envelope gene and full-length genome in two acutely infected individuals. Using both SGA and NGS methodologies, we showed that sequences generated from DBS and plasma display comparable phylogenetic patterns in both acute and chronic infection. SGA was successful on samples with a range of plasma viremia, including samples as low as 1,700 copies/ml and an estimated ~50 viral copies per blood spot. Further, we demonstrated reproducible efficiency in gp160 env sequencing in DBS stored at ambient temperature for up to three weeks or at -20ºC for up to five months. Conclusions: These findings support the use of DBS as a practical and cost-effective alternative to frozen plasma for clinical trials and translational research conducted in resource-limited settings.

  6. A Case of Kaposi's Sarcoma during Primary HIV-1 Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, Marlous L.; Cornelissen, Marion; Prins, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of cases of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) occur at low CD4 counts during chronic HIV-1 infection. We present a case of KS which was diagnosed during primary HIV-1 infection. This report aims to draw attention that KS may occur early in the course of HIV-1 infection and that primary HIV-1

  7. Effect of HIV-1-related protein expression on cardiac and skeletal muscles from transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and the consequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has protean manifestations, including muscle wasting and cardiomyopathy, which contribute to its high morbidity. The pathogenesis of these myopathies remains partially understood, and may include nutritional deficiencies, biochemical abnormalities, inflammation, and other mechanisms due to viral infection and replication. Growing evidence has suggested that HIV-1-related proteins expressed by the host in response to viral infection, including Tat and gp120, may also be involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, particularly in cells or tissues that are not directly infected with HIV-1. To explore the potentially independent effects of HIV-1-related proteins on heart and skeletal muscles, we used a transgenic rat model that expresses several HIV-1-related proteins (e.g., Tat, gp120, and Nef. Outcome measures included basic heart and skeletal muscle morphology, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress, and gene expressions of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGFβ1, three factors associated with muscle catabolism. Results Consistent with HIV-1 associated myopathies in humans, HIV-1 transgenic rats had increased relative heart masses, decreased relative masses of soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreased total and myosin heavy chain type-specific plantaris muscle fiber areas. In both tissues, the levels of cystine (Cyss, the oxidized form of the anti-oxidant cysteine (Cys, and Cyss:Cys ratios were significantly elevated, and cardiac tissue from HIV-1 transgenic rats had altered glutathione metabolism, all reflective of significant oxidative stress. In HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts, MuRF-1 gene expression was increased. Further, HIV-1-related protein expression also increased atrogin-1 (~14- and ~3-fold and TGFβ1 (~5-fold and ~3-fold in heart and

  8. CCR5 inhibitors in HIV-1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Patrick; Perros, Manos

    2008-11-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is the causative pathogen of AIDS, the world's biggest infectious disease killer. About 33 million people are infected worldwide, with 2.1 million deaths a year as a direct consequence. The devastating nature of AIDS has prompted widespread research, which has led to an extensive array of therapies to suppress viral replication and enable recovery of the immune system to prolong and improve patient life substantially. However, the genetic plasticity and replication rate of HIV-1 are considerable, which has lead to rapid drug resistance. This, together with the need for reducing drug side effects and increasing regimen compliance, has led researchers to identify antiretroviral drugs with new modes of action. This review describes the discovery and clinical development of CCR5 antagonists and the recent approval of maraviroc as a breakthrough in anti-HIV-1 therapy. CCR5 inhibitors target a human cofactor to disable HIV-1 entry into the cells, and thereby provide a new hurdle for the virus to overcome. The status and expert opinion of CCR5 antagonists for the treatment of HIV-1 infection are detailed.

  9. Analytical characteristics and comparative evaluation of Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay with Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test v2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzakis, Angelos; Papachristou, Helen; Nair, Sangeetha J; Fortunko, Jacqueline; Foote, Tracy; Kim, HeeCheol; Peling, Tashi L; Worlock, Andrew J

    2016-10-21

    Quantitation of HIV-RNA is critically important for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, monitoring and assessment of infectivity in HIV-1 infection. The objective of this study was to assess performance characteristics of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima), a new transcription mediated amplification (TMA), fully integrated and automated assay from Hologic Inc., San Diego, CA, USA. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, precision and detection of HIV-1 subtypes were tested based on commercially available international standards or panels. A selected group of 244 anti-HIV-1 (+) plasma samples was used for comparison with Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV- 1 test v2.0 (Roche CAP/CTM), (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA). The 50 and 95 % limit of detection were estimated at 4.9 (95 % CI 3.9-5.7) and 17.6 (15.2-21.2) IU/mL respectively. The specificity was found 99.83 (99.06-99.97) %. The standard deviations and coefficient of variations for panels with 50 and 100 copies/mL (1.7 and 2 log copies/mL) were 0.14 log copies/mL (8.67 %CV) and 0.18 log copies/mL (9.91 %CV) respectively. The detection rate for Aptima and Roche assays was 220/244 (90.2 %) and 217/244 (88.9 %) respectively. The Aptima assay is a sensitive, specific, precise and accurate test for measuring HIV-1 viral loads and for the detection of HIV-1 infections.

  10. μ-opioid modulation of HIV-1 coreceptor expressionand HIV-1 replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, Amber D.; Henderson, Earl E.; Rogers, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    A substantial proportion of HIV-1-infected individuals are intravenous drug users (IVDUs) who abuse opiates. Opioids induce a number of immunomodulatory effects that may directly influence HIV-1 disease progression. In the present report, we have investigated the effect of opioids on the expression of the major HIV-1 coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5. For these studies we have focused on opiates which are ligands for the μ-opioid receptor. Our results show that DAMGO, a selective μ-opioid agonist, increases CXCR4 and CCR5 expression in both CD3 + lymphoblasts and CD14 + monocytes three- to fivefold. Furthermore, DAMGO-induced elevation of HIV-1 coreceptor expression translates into enhanced replication of both X4 and R5 viral strains of HIV-1. We have confirmed the role of the μ-opioid receptor based on the ability of a μ-opioid receptor-selective antagonist to block the effects of DAMGO. We have also found that morphine enhances CXCR4 and CCR5 expression and subsequently increases both X4 and R5 HIV-1 infection. We suggest that the capacity of μ-opioids to increase HIV-1 coreceptor expression and replication may promote viral binding, trafficking of HIV-1-infected cells, and enhanced disease progression

  11. Selected drugs with reported secondary cell-differentiating capacity prime latent HIV-1 infection for reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Takao; Wolschendorf, Frank; Duverger, Alexandra; Wagner, Frederic; Kappes, John; Jones, Jennifer; Kutsch, Olaf

    2012-09-01

    Reactivation of latent HIV-1 infection is considered our best therapeutic means to eliminate the latent HIV-1 reservoir. Past therapeutic attempts to systemically trigger HIV-1 reactivation using single drugs were unsuccessful. We thus sought to identify drug combinations consisting of one component that would lower the HIV-1 reactivation threshold and a synergistic activator. With aclacinomycin and dactinomycin, we initially identified two FDA-approved drugs that primed latent HIV-1 infection in T cell lines and in primary T cells for reactivation and facilitated complete reactivation at the population level. This effect was correlated not with the reported primary drug effects but with the cell-differentiating capacity of the drugs. We thus tested other cell-differentiating drugs/compounds such as cytarabine and aphidicolin and found that they also primed latent HIV-1 infection for reactivation. This finding extends the therapeutic promise of N'-N'-hexamethylene-bisacetamide (HMBA), another cell-differentiating agent that has been reported to trigger HIV-1 reactivation, into the group of FDA-approved drugs. To this end, it is also noteworthy that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a polar compound that was initially developed as a second-generation cell-differentiating agent using HMBA as a structural template and which is now marketed as the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat, also has been reported to trigger HIV-1 reactivation. Our findings suggest that drugs with primary or secondary cell-differentiating capacity should be revisited as HIV-1-reactivating agents as some could potentially be repositioned as candidate drugs to be included in an induction therapy to trigger HIV-1 reactivation.

  12. Reactivation of latent HIV-1 provirus via targeting protein phosphatase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Mudit; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Ammosova, Tatyana; Kumari, Namita; Smith, Kahli; Breuer, Denitra; Ilatovskiy, Andrey V; Kont, Yasemin Saygideğer; Ivanov, Andrey; Üren, Aykut; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; Petukhov, Michael; Kashanchi, Fatah; Nekhai, Sergei

    2015-07-16

    HIV-1 escapes antiretroviral drugs by integrating into the host DNA and forming a latent transcriptionally silent HIV-1 provirus. This provirus presents the major hurdle in HIV-1 eradication and cure. Transcriptional activation, which is prerequisite for reactivation and the eradication of latent proviruses, is impaired in latently infected T cells due to the lack of host transcription factors, primarily NF-κB and P-TEFb (CDK9/cyclin T1). We and others previously showed that protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulates HIV-1 transcription by modulating CDK9 phosphorylation. Recently we have developed a panel of small molecular compounds targeting a non-catalytic site of PP1. Here we generated a new class of sulfonamide-containing compounds that activated HIV-1 in acute and latently infected cells. Among the tested molecules, a small molecule activator of PP1 (SMAPP1) induced both HIV-1 replication and reactivation of latent HIV-1 in chronically infected cultured and primary cells. In vitro, SMAPP1 interacted with PP1 and increased PP1 activity toward a recombinant substrate. Treatment with SMAPP1 increased phosphorylation of CDK9's Ser90 and Thr186 residues, but not Ser175. Proteomic analysis showed upregulation of P-TEFb and PP1 related proteins, including PP1 regulatory subunit Sds22 in SMAPP1-treated T cells. Docking analysis identified a PP1 binding site for SMAPP1 located within the C-terminal binding pocket of PP1. We identified a novel class of PP1-targeting compounds that reactivate latent HIV-1 provirus by targeting PP1, increasing CDK9 phosphorylation and enhancing HIV transcription. This compound represents a novel candidate for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics aiming at eradication of latent HIV-1 reservoirs.

  13. N-terminal Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by regulating the actin cytoskeleton

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    Anand Appakkudal R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slit2 is a ~ 200 kDa secreted glycoprotein that has been recently shown to regulate immune functions. However, not much is known about its role in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. Results In the present study, we have shown that the N-terminal fragment of Slit2 (Slit2N (~120 kDa inhibits replication of both CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses in T-cell lines and peripheral blood T-cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated inhibition of HIV-1 infection in resting CD4+ T-cells. In addition, we showed that Slit2N blocks cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. We have shown that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 infection by blocking viral entry into T-cells. We also ruled out Slit2N-mediated inhibition of various other steps in the life cycle including binding, integration and viral transcription. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism revealed that Slit2N mediates its functional effects by binding to Robo1 receptor. Furthermore, we found that Slit2N inhibited Gp120-induced Robo1-actin association suggesting that Slit2N may inhibit cytoskeletal rearrangements facilitating HIV-1 entry. Studies into the mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 revealed that Slit2N abrogated HIV-1 envelope-induced actin cytoskeletal dynamics in both T-cell lines and primary T-cells. We further showed that Slit2N specifically attenuated the HIV-1 envelope-induced signaling pathway consisting of Rac1, LIMK and cofilin that regulates actin polymerization. Conclusions Taken together, our results show that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 replication through novel mechanisms involving modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. Our study, thus, provides insights into the role of Slit2N in HIV-1 infection and underscores its potential in limiting viral replication in T-cells.

  14. Phylogeny and resistance profiles of HIV-1 POL sequences from rectal biopsies and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Petersen, A B; Storgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    The phylogeny and resistance profiles of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were compared among six patients with HIV-1 who had received numerous treatments. RNA and DNA fractions were obtained from concurrent blood and rectal biopsy...... samples. Phylogenetic trees and resistance profiles showed that the rectal mucosa and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harbored different HIV-1 strains. The resistance-associated mutations found in each strain corresponded to the treatment history of the patients. The resistance mutations...... acquired during earlier treatment regimens were detected in the sequences obtained from the rectal samples and in the PBMCs in several of the patients. Also, differences in the resistance profiles were observed between anatomical sites and between RNA and DNA fractions. Thus, a single sample probably...

  15. Vif is an auxiliary factor of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and facilitates abasic site bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancio, Reynel; Spadari, Silvio; Maga, Giovanni

    2004-11-01

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vif was found to modulate the RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA synthesis activity of the viral RT (reverse transcriptase) in two ways: (i) it stimulated the binding of the viral RT to the primer by increasing the association rate kcat/K(m) and by decreasing the thermodynamic barrier DeltaH([ES]) for complex formation, and (ii) it increased the polymerization rate of HIV-1 RT. A Vif mutant lacking the final 56 amino acids at the C-terminus failed to stimulate the viral RT. On the other hand, another Vif mutant lacking the first 43 amino acids at the N-terminus, which are involved in RNA binding and interaction with the viral protease, was able to stimulate RT activity. In addition, Vif was found to promote the bypass of an abasic site by HIV-1 RT.

  16. Endogenous CD317/Tetherin limits replication of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus in rodent cells and is resistant to antagonists from primate viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffinet, Christine; Schmidt, Sarah; Kern, Christian; Oberbremer, Lena; Keppler, Oliver T

    2010-11-01

    Human CD317 (BST-2/tetherin) is an intrinsic immunity factor that blocks the release of retroviruses, filoviruses, herpesviruses, and arenaviruses. It is unclear whether CD317 expressed endogenously in rodent cells has the capacity to interfere with the replication of the retroviral rodent pathogen murine leukemia virus (MLV) or, in the context of small-animal model development, contributes to the well-established late-phase restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here, we show that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of CD317 relieved a virion release restriction and markedly enhanced the egress of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in rat cells, including primary macrophages. Moreover, rodent CD317 potently inhibited MLV release, and siRNA-mediated depletion of CD317 in a mouse T-cell line resulted in the accelerated spread of MLV. Several virus-encoded antagonists have recently been reported to overcome the restriction imposed by human or monkey CD317, including HIV-1 Vpu, envelope glycoproteins of HIV-2 and Ebola virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K5, and SIV Nef. In contrast, both rat and mouse CD317 showed a high degree of resistance to these viral antagonists. These data suggest that CD317 is a broadly acting and conserved mediator of innate control of retroviral infection and pathogenesis that restricts the release of retroviruses and lentiviruses in rodents. The high degree of resistance of the rodent CD317 restriction factors to antagonists from primate viruses has implications for HIV-1 small-animal model development and may guide the design of novel antiviral interventions.

  17. Creation of chimeric human/rabbit APOBEC1 with HIV-1 restriction and DNA mutation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Terumasa; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Koito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    APOBEC1 (A1) proteins from lagomorphs and rodents have deaminase-dependent restriction activity against HIV-1, whereas human A1 exerts a negligible effect. To investigate these differences in the restriction of HIV-1 by A1 proteins, a series of chimeric proteins combining rabbit and human A1s was constructed. Homology models of the A1s indicated that their activities derive from functional domains that likely act in tandem through a dimeric interface. The C-terminal region containing the leucine-rich motif and the dimerization domains of rabbit A1 is important for its anti-HIV-1 activity. The A1 chimeras with strong anti-HIV-1 activity were incorporated into virions more efficiently than those without anti-HIV-1 activity, and exhibited potent DNA-mutator activity. Therefore, the C-terminal region of rabbit A1 is involved in both its packaging into the HIV-1 virion and its deamination activity against both viral cDNA and genomic RNA. This study identifies the novel molecular mechanism underlying the target specificity of A1.

  18. Comparison of Newly Assembled Full Length HIV-1 Integrase With Prototype Foamy Virus Integrase: Structure-Function Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Mohammad Reza

    2016-05-01

    Drug design against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase through its mechanistic study is of great interest in the area in biological research. The main obstacle in this area is the absence of the full-length crystal structure for HIV-1 integrase to be used as a model. A complete structure, similar to HIV-1 of a prototype foamy virus integrase in complex with DNA, including all conservative residues, is available and has been extensively used in recent investigations. The aim of this study was to determine whether the above model is precisely representative of HIV-1 integrase. This would critically determine the success of any designed drug using the model in deactivation of integrase and AIDS treatment. Primarily, a new structure for HIV-1 was constructed, using a crystal structure of prototype foamy virus as the starting structure. The constructed structure of HIV-1 integrase was simultaneously simulated with a prototype foamy virus integrase on a separate occasion. Our results indicate that the HIV-1 system behaves differently from the prototype foamy virus in terms of folding, hydration, hydrophobicity of binding site and stability. Based on our findings, we can conclude that HIV-1 integrase is vastly different from the prototype foamy virus integrase and does not resemble it, and the modeling output of the prototype foamy virus simulations could not be simply generalized to HIV-1 integrase. Therefore, our HIV-1 model seems to be more representative and more useful for future research.

  19. Development and validation of a risk score to assist screening for acute HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Dijkstra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early treatment of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI is beneficial for patients and could reduce onward transmission. However, guidelines on whom to test for AHI with HIV-1 RNA testing are lacking. Methods A risk score for possible AHI based on literature and expert opinion – including symptoms associated with AHI and early HIV-1 – was evaluated using data from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among men who have sex with men (MSM. Subsequently, we optimized the risk score by constructing two multivariable logistic regression models: one including only symptoms and one combining symptoms with known risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion, using generalized estimating equations. Several risk scores were generated from these models and the optimal risk score was validated using data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Results Using data from 1562 MSM with 175 HIV-1 seroconversion visits and 17,271 seronegative visits in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies, the optimal risk score included four symptoms (oral thrush, fever, lymphadenopathy, weight loss and three risk factors (self-reported gonorrhea, receptive condomless anal intercourse, more than five sexual partners, all in the preceding six months and yielded an AUC of 0.82. Sensitivity was 76.3% and specificity 76.3%. Validation in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study resulted in an AUC of 0.78, sensitivity of 56.2% and specificity of 88.8%. Conclusions The optimal risk score had good overall performance in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies and performed comparable (but showed lower sensitivity in the validation study. Screening for AHI with four symptoms and three risk factors would increase the efficiency of AHI testing and potentially enhance early diagnosis and immediate treatment.

  20. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  1. Effects of heme degradation products on reactivation of latent HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, P; Madlenakova, M; Hajkova, V; Jilich, D; Svobodova, I; Horinek, A; Fujikura, Y; Melkova, Z

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection can be currently controlled by combined antiretroviral therapy, but a sterilizing cure is not achievable as this therapy does not target persistent HIV-1 in latent reservoirs. Therefore, different latency reversal agents are intensively explored in various models. We have previously observed that heme arginate, a drug approved for human use, reveals a strong synergism with PKC inducers in reactivation of the latent provirus. Heme is physiologically decomposed by heme oxygenases into 3 degradation products: iron (Fe2+), carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin which is further converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. In this paper, we have studied the effects of individual heme-degradation products on latent HIV-1 reactivation in ACH-2 cells harboring integrated HIV-1 provirus and in H12 clone of Jurkat cells harboring HIV-minivirus expressing EGFP. We employed addition of ascorbate to generate Fe2+, resulting in increased expression of both HIV-1 p24 Ag and EGFP in PMA-stimulated ACH-2 and H12 cells, respectively, as characterized on RNA and protein levels. On the other hand, addition of a CO-donor or bilirubin decreased the p24 expression. The reactivation of latent HIV-1 by iron or heme arginate was inhibited by antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, or by an iron chelator desferrioxamine, suggesting that the effects were mediated by iron- or heme-induced redox stress. Finally, we demonstrated the stimulatory effects of heme arginate and PMA on HIV-1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected patients cultured ex vivo. These results may constitute a new direction in the latent HIV-1 reactivation and therapy.

  2. Anti-HIV-1 activity of a new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqing Chen

    Full Text Available For over 30 years, HIV/AIDS has wreaked havoc in the world. In the absence of an effective vaccine for HIV, development of new anti-HIV agents is urgently needed. We previously identified the antiviral activities of the scorpion-venom-peptide-derived mucroporin-M1 for three RNA viruses (measles viruses, SARS-CoV, and H5N1. In this investigation, a panel of scorpion venom peptides and their derivatives were designed and chosen for assessment of their anti-HIV activities. A new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7 was identified as the most potent anti-HIV-1 peptide by screening assays with an EC(50 value of 2.76 µg/ml (1.65 µM and showed low cytotoxicity to host cells with a selective index (SI of 13.93. Kn2-7 could inhibit all members of a standard reference panel of HIV-1 subtype B pseudotyped virus (PV with CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 PV strain. Furthermore, it also inhibited a CXCR4-tropic replication-competent strain of HIV-1 subtype B virus. Binding assay of Kn2-7 to HIV-1 PV by Octet Red system suggested the anti-HIV-1 activity was correlated with a direct interaction between Kn2-7 and HIV-1 envelope. These results demonstrated that peptide Kn2-7 could inhibit HIV-1 by direct interaction with viral particle and may become a promising candidate compound for further development of microbicide against HIV-1.

  3. Reactivation capacity by latency-reversing agents ex vivo correlates with the size of the HIV-1 reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcis, Gilles; Bouchat, Sophie; Kula, Anna; Van Driessche, Benoit; Delacourt, Nadège; Vanhulle, Caroline; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique; De Wit, Stéphane; Rohr, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Van Lint, Carine

    2017-01-14

    HIV-1 reservoirs are the major hurdle to virus clearance in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated patients. An approach to eradicating HIV-1 involves reversing latency in cART-treated patients to make latent cells visible to the host immune system. Stimulation of patient cell cultures with latency-reversing agents (LRAs) ex vivo results in heterogeneous responses among HIV-infected patients. Determinants of this heterogeneity are unknown and consequently important to determine. Here, we grouped and retrospectively analyzed the data from our two recent HIV-1 reactivation studies to investigate the role of the HIV-1 reservoir size in the reactivation capacity by LRAs in ex vivo cultures of CD8-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from 54 cART-treated patients and of resting CD4 T cells isolated from 30 cART-treated patients. Our results established a statistically relevant positive correlation between the HIV-1 reservoir size measured by total cell-associated HIV-1 DNA and the frequency of positive HIV-1 recovery measurements in response to various LRAs in ex vivo cultures of cells isolated from cART-treated HIV aviremic patients. HIV-1 reservoir size also correlated with the extracellular HIV-1 RNA median level measured in supernatants of cell cultures following LRA treatments. However, we identified HIV patients whose positive measurements frequency and median level of extracellular HIV-1 RNA deviated from linearity relative to their corresponding HIV reservoir size. We demonstrated that the reservoir size is one predictive marker of LRA effectiveness but this parameter alone is not sufficient. The identification of other predictive markers is necessary to predict the success of HIV anti-latency approaches.

  4. Including RNA secondary structures improves accuracy and robustness in reconstruction of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Alexander; Förster, Frank; Müller, Tobias; Dandekar, Thomas; Schultz, Jörg; Wolf, Matthias

    2010-01-15

    In several studies, secondary structures of ribosomal genes have been used to improve the quality of phylogenetic reconstructions. An extensive evaluation of the benefits of secondary structure, however, is lacking. This is the first study to counter this deficiency. We inspected the accuracy and robustness of phylogenetics with individual secondary structures by simulation experiments for artificial tree topologies with up to 18 taxa and for divergency levels in the range of typical phylogenetic studies. We chose the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal cistron as an exemplary marker region. Simulation integrated the coevolution process of sequences with secondary structures. Additionally, the phylogenetic power of marker size duplication was investigated and compared with sequence and sequence-structure reconstruction methods. The results clearly show that accuracy and robustness of Neighbor Joining trees are largely improved by structural information in contrast to sequence only data, whereas a doubled marker size only accounts for robustness. Individual secondary structures of ribosomal RNA sequences provide a valuable gain of information content that is useful for phylogenetics. Thus, the usage of ITS2 sequence together with secondary structure for taxonomic inferences is recommended. Other reconstruction methods as maximum likelihood, bayesian inference or maximum parsimony may equally profit from secondary structure inclusion. This article was reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber) and Eugene V. Koonin. Reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber) and Eugene V. Koonin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  5. Involvement of histone methyltransferase GLP in HIV-1 latency through catalysis of H3K9 dimethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Donglin; Qu, Xiying; Li, Lin; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Sijie; Lin, Shiguan; Wang, Pengfei; Liu, Shaohui; Kong, Chuijin; Wang, Xiaohui; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Huanzhang, E-mail: hzzhu@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-06-05

    Understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 latency is crucial to eradication of the viral reservoir in HIV-1-infected individuals. However, the role of histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a-like protein (GLP) in HIV-1 latency is still unclear. In the present work, we established four clonal cell lines containing HIV-1 vector. We found that the integration sites of most clonal cell lines favored active gene regions. However, we also observed hypomethylation of CpG of HIV 5′LTR in all four clonal cell lines. Additionally, 5′-deoxy-5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA), a broad-spectrum histone methyltransferase inhibitor, was used to examine the role of histone methylation in HIV-1 latency. MTA was found to decrease the level of H3K9 dimethylation, causing reactivation of latent HIV-1 in C11 cells. GLP knockdown by small interfering RNA clearly induced HIV-1 LTR expression. Results suggest that GLP may play a significant role in the maintenance of HIV-1 latency by catalyzing dimethylation of H3K9. - Highlights: ► We have established an in vitro model of HIV-1 latency. ► The integration sites of most clonal cell lines favor in active gene regions. ► Hypomethylation occurs in CpG islands of HIV 5′LTR in all four clonal cell lines. ► MTA can reactivate latent HIV-1 by decreasing the level of H3K9 me2 in C11 cells. ► HMT GLP may play a significant role in the maintenance of HIV-1 latency.

  6. Maturation Pathways of Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter S. Dimitrov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs and antibody fragments, including the best characterized in terms of structure-function b12 and Fab X5, exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity. However, the elicitation of b12 or b12-like antibodies in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has not been successful. B12 is highly divergent from the closest corresponding germline antibody while X5 is less divergent. We have hypothesized that the relatively high degree of specific somatic hypermutations may preclude binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env to closest germline antibodies, and that identifying antibodies that are intermediates in the pathways to maturation could help design novel vaccine immunogens to guide the immune system for their enhanced elicitation. In support of this hypothesis we have previously found that a germline-like b12 (monovalent and bivalent scFv as an Fc fusion protein or IgG lacks measurable binding to an Env as measured by ELISA with a sensitivity in the μM range [1]; here we present evidence confirming and expanding these findings for a panel of Envs. In contrast, a germline-like scFv X5 bound Env with high (nM affinity. To begin to explore the maturation pathways of these antibodies we identified several possible b12 intermediate antibodies and tested their neutralizing activity. These intermediate antibodies neutralized only some HIV-1 isolates and with relatively weak potency. In contrast, germline-like scFv X5 neutralized a subset of the tested HIV-1 isolates with comparable efficiencies to that of the mature X5. These results could help explain the relatively high immunogenicity of the coreceptor binding site on gp120 and the abundance of CD4-induced (CD4i antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients (X5 is a CD4i antibody as well as the maturation pathway of X5. They also can help identify antigens that can bind specifically to b12 germline and

  7. Fullerene Derivatives Strongly Inhibit HIV-1 Replication by Affecting Virus Maturation without Impairing Protease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Zachary S; Castro, Edison; Seong, Chang-Soo; Cerón, Maira R; Echegoyen, Luis; Llano, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Three compounds (1, 2, and 3) previously reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication and/or in vitro activity of reverse transcriptase were studied, but only fullerene derivatives 1 and 2 showed strong antiviral activity on the replication of HIV-1 in human CD4(+) T cells. However, these compounds did not inhibit infection by single-round infection vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G (VSV-G)-pseudotyped viruses, indicating no effect on the early steps of the viral life cycle. In contrast, analysis of single-round infection VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 produced in the presence of compound 1 or 2 showed a complete lack of infectivity in human CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle were affected. Quantification of virion-associated viral RNA and p24 indicates that RNA packaging and viral production were unremarkable in these viruses. However, Gag and Gag-Pol processing was affected, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis with an anti-p24 antibody and the measurement of virion-associated reverse transcriptase activity, ratifying the effect of the fullerene derivatives on virion maturation of the HIV-1 life cycle. Surprisingly, fullerenes 1 and 2 did not inhibit HIV-1 protease in an in vitro assay at the doses that potently blocked viral infectivity, suggesting a protease-independent mechanism of action. Highlighting the potential therapeutic relevance of fullerene derivatives, these compounds block infection by HIV-1 resistant to protease and maturation inhibitors. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Suppression of APOBEC3-mediated restriction of HIV-1 by Vif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuqing; Baig, Tayyba T.; Love, Robin P.; Chelico, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The APOBEC3 restriction factors are a family of deoxycytidine deaminases that are able to suppress replication of viruses with a single-stranded DNA intermediate by inducing mutagenesis and functional inactivation of the virus. Of the seven human APOBEC3 enzymes, only APOBEC3-D, -F, -G, and -H appear relevant to restriction of HIV-1 in CD4+ T cells and will be the focus of this review. The restriction of HIV-1 occurs most potently in the absence of HIV-1 Vif that induces polyubiquitination and degradation of APOBEC3 enzymes through the proteasome pathway. To restrict HIV-1, APOBEC3 enzymes must be encapsidated into budding virions. Upon infection of the target cell during reverse transcription of the HIV-1 RNA into (-)DNA, APOBEC3 enzymes deaminate cytosines to form uracils in single-stranded (-)DNA regions. Upon replication of the (-)DNA to (+)DNA, the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase incorporates adenines opposite to the uracils thereby inducing C/G to T/A mutations that can functionally inactivate HIV-1. APOBEC3G is the most studied APOBEC3 enzyme and it is known that Vif attempts to thwart APOBEC3 function not only by inducing its proteasomal degradation but also by several degradation-independent mechanisms, such as inhibiting APOBEC3G virion encapsidation, mRNA translation, and for those APOBEC3G molecules that still become virion encapsidated, Vif can inhibit APOBEC3G mutagenic activity. Although most Vif variants can induce efficient degradation of APOBEC3-D, -F, and -G, there appears to be differential sensitivity to Vif-mediated degradation for APOBEC3H. This review examines APOBEC3-mediated HIV restriction mechanisms, how Vif acts as a substrate receptor for a Cullin5 ubiquitin ligase complex to induce degradation of APOBEC3s, and the determinants and functional consequences of the APOBEC3 and Vif interaction from a biological and biochemical perspective. PMID:25206352

  9. Residual viraemia in HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S.R.; Katzenstein, T.L.; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2008-01-01

    )-microglobulin (+22 nmol/l, P = 0.016) and time-points with PCR-RV were also associated with higher IgA (+0.82 micromol/l, P = 0.035) and CD8-count (+1.18-fold, P = 0.001). Patients with TMA-RV in the study-period had higher HIV-1 RNA pre-HAART (P = 0.032). RV was not associated with proviral-HIV-1-DNA, CD4......Despite undetectable viral load in conventional assays, probably all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected patients have residual viraemia (RV) detectable by ultra-sensitive assays. To study this issue, this study investigated virologic and immunologic consequences of RV in highly active...... antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated HIV-1-infected patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA or=1 episode with TMA-RV whereas 9 patients had undetectable TMA-RV throughout the study-period. Time-points with TMA-RV and PCR-RV were associated with higher circulating sTNFrII (+0.234 ng/ml, P = 0.030) and beta(2...

  10. Ex vivo analysis identifies effective HIV-1 latency–reversing drug combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Gregory M.; Bullen, C. Korin; Rosenbloom, Daniel I.S.; Martin, Alyssa R.; Hill, Alison L.; Durand, Christine M.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Reversal of HIV-1 latency by small molecules is a potential cure strategy. This approach will likely require effective drug combinations to achieve high levels of latency reversal. Using resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4s) from infected individuals, we developed an experimental and theoretical framework to identify effective latency-reversing agent (LRA) combinations. Utilizing ex vivo assays for intracellular HIV-1 mRNA and virion production, we compared 2-drug combinations of leading candidate LRAs and identified multiple combinations that effectively reverse latency. We showed that protein kinase C agonists in combination with bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 or histone deacetylase inhibitors robustly induce HIV-1 transcription and virus production when directly compared with maximum reactivation by T cell activation. Using the Bliss independence model to quantitate combined drug effects, we demonstrated that these combinations synergize to induce HIV-1 transcription. This robust latency reversal occurred without release of proinflammatory cytokines by rCD4s. To extend the clinical utility of our findings, we applied a mathematical model that estimates in vivo changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA from ex vivo measurements of virus production. Our study reconciles diverse findings from previous studies, establishes a quantitative experimental approach to evaluate combinatorial LRA efficacy, and presents a model to predict in vivo responses to LRAs. PMID:25822022

  11. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1

  12. Including RNA secondary structures improves accuracy and robustness in reconstruction of phylogenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandekar Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In several studies, secondary structures of ribosomal genes have been used to improve the quality of phylogenetic reconstructions. An extensive evaluation of the benefits of secondary structure, however, is lacking. Results This is the first study to counter this deficiency. We inspected the accuracy and robustness of phylogenetics with individual secondary structures by simulation experiments for artificial tree topologies with up to 18 taxa and for divergency levels in the range of typical phylogenetic studies. We chose the internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal cistron as an exemplary marker region. Simulation integrated the coevolution process of sequences with secondary structures. Additionally, the phylogenetic power of marker size duplication was investigated and compared with sequence and sequence-structure reconstruction methods. The results clearly show that accuracy and robustness of Neighbor Joining trees are largely improved by structural information in contrast to sequence only data, whereas a doubled marker size only accounts for robustness. Conclusions Individual secondary structures of ribosomal RNA sequences provide a valuable gain of information content that is useful for phylogenetics. Thus, the usage of ITS2 sequence together with secondary structure for taxonomic inferences is recommended. Other reconstruction methods as maximum likelihood, bayesian inference or maximum parsimony may equally profit from secondary structure inclusion. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber and Eugene V. Koonin. Open peer review Reviewed by Shamil Sunyaev, Andrea Tanzer (nominated by Frank Eisenhaber and Eugene V. Koonin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  13. Inhibition of HIV-1 Integrase gene expression by 10-23 DNAzyme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have designed three novel DNAzymes, DIN54, DIN116, and DIN152, against HIV-1 Integrase gene using Mfold software and evaluated them for target site cleavage activity on the in vitro transcribed mRNA. All DNAzymes were tested for its inhibition of expression of HIV Integrase protein in the transiently transfected cell ...

  14. Enhanced HIV-1 replication in ex vivo ectocervical tissues from post-menopausal women correlates with increased inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollenhagen, C; Asin, S N

    2011-11-01

    Knowledge about early innate immune responses at the mucosal surfaces of the female genital tract is important in understanding the pathogenesis of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). As estradiol decreases inflammatory responses, we postulated that an estradiol-deficient state such as post-menopause could enhance expression of inflammatory factors that stimulate HIV-1 replication. We compare HIV-1 integration, transcription, and viral p24 release levels among ectocervical tissues obtained from pre- and post-menopausal donors. We detected enhanced HIV-1 p24 release levels in post- compared with pre-menopausal tissues (Ppost-menopausal tissues exhibited levels of HIV-1 transcription above background compared with only 60% of pre-menopausal tissues. Increased HIV-1 transcription was associated with enhanced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, growth-regulated oncogene-α, and interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 expression. Neutralization and nuclear factor-κB-targeting small-interfering RNA experiments both decreased HIV-1 transcription, suggesting that the early inflammatory response may facilitate HIV-1 replication in ex vivo ectocervical tissues from post-menopausal women.

  15. A role for CD81 on the late steps of HIV-1 replication in a chronically infected T cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conjeaud Hélène

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 uses cellular co-factors for virion formation and release. The virus is able to incorporate into the viral particles host cellular proteins, such as tetraspanins which could serve to facilitate HIV-1 egress. Here, we investigated the implication of several tetraspanins on HIV-1 formation and release in chronically infected T-lymphoblastic cells, a model that permits the study of the late steps of HIV-1 replication. Results Our data revealed that HIV-1 Gag and Env structural proteins co-localized with tetraspanins in the form of clusters. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that Gag proteins interact, directly or indirectly, with CD81, and less with CD82, in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains composed of CD81/CD82/CD63. In addition, when HIV-1 producing cells were treated with anti-CD81 antibodies, or upon CD81 silencing by RNA interference, HIV-1 release was significantly impaired, and its infectivity was modulated. Finally, CD81 downregulation resulted in Gag redistribution at the cell surface. Conclusion Our findings not only extend the notion that HIV-1 assembly can occur on tetraspanin-enriched microdomains in T cells, but also highlight a critical role for the tetraspanin CD81 on the late steps of HIV replication.

  16. Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary S Campbell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519 was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.We obtained partial consensus HIV-1 env and gag sequences from blood plasma for 151 transmission pairs and performed deep sequencing of env in some cases. We analyzed sequences with phylogenetic techniques and developed a Bayesian algorithm to evaluate the probability of linkage. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between enrolled partners' sequences and a Bayesian posterior probability of ≥ 50%. Adjudicators classified each seroconversion, finding 108 (71.5% linked, 40 (26.5% unlinked, and 3 (2.0% indeterminate transmissions, with linkage determined by consensus env sequencing in 91 (84%. Male seroconverters had a higher frequency of unlinked transmissions than female seroconverters. The likelihood of transmission from the enrolled partner was related to time on study, with increasing numbers of unlinked transmissions occurring after longer observation periods. Finally, baseline viral load was found to be significantly higher among linked transmitters.In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner

  17. How HIV-1 entry mechanism and broadly neutralizing antibodies guide structure-based vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancera, Marie; Changela, Anita; Kwong, Peter D

    2017-05-01

    An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization. Sites of vulnerability, however, reside in the context of diverse Env conformations required for HIV-1 entry, including a prefusion-closed state, a single-CD4-bound intermediate, a three-CD4-bound intermediate, a prehairpin intermediate and postfusion states, and it is not always clear which structural state optimally presents a particular site of vulnerability in the vaccine context. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of immunological pathways has led to debate among vaccine developers as to how much of the natural antibody-developmental pathway immunogens should mimic, ranging from only the recognized epitope to multiple antigens from the antibody-virus coevolution process. A plethora of information on bNAbs is guiding HIV-1-vaccine development. We highlight consideration of the appropriate structural context from the HIV-1-entry mechanism and extraordinary progress with replicating template B-cell ontogenies.

  18. HIV-1 DNA predicts disease progression and post-treatment virological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P; Hurst, Jacob; Stöhr, Wolfgang; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Cooper, David; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fidler, Sarah; Carrington, Mary; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    In HIV-1 infection, a population of latently infected cells facilitates viral persistence despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). With the aim of identifying individuals in whom ART might induce a period of viraemic control on stopping therapy, we hypothesised that quantification of the pool of latently infected cells in primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) would predict clinical progression and viral replication following ART. We measured HIV-1 DNA in a highly characterised randomised population of individuals with PHI. We explored associations between HIV-1 DNA and immunological and virological markers of clinical progression, including viral rebound in those interrupting therapy. In multivariable analyses, HIV-1 DNA was more predictive of disease progression than plasma viral load and, at treatment interruption, predicted time to plasma virus rebound. HIV-1 DNA may help identify individuals who could safely interrupt ART in future HIV-1 eradication trials. Clinical trial registration: ISRCTN76742797 and EudraCT2004-000446-20 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03821.001 PMID:25217531

  19. Molecular mechanism