WorldWideScience

Sample records for included history physical

  1. History of modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biezunski, M.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents an history of the principal concepts of contemporary physics and their genesis from the great cleavages of the beginning of the century with some incursions in a more far-away past. The essential concepts are replaced in their creation context, especially relativity, quantum mechanics and particles physics. (A.B.)

  2. History of Medical Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Traces the development of basic radiation physics that underlies much of today's medical physics and looks separately at the historical development of two major subfields of medical physics: radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Indicates that radiation physics has made important contributions to solving biomedical problems in medical…

  3. [Diagnosis. History and physical examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Family physicians play a key role in the diagnosis and management of patients with osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. A complete history should be taken with meticulous physical examination of the joints. The history-taking should aim to detect risk factors and compatible clinical symptoms. Pain characteristics should be identified, distinguishing between mechanical and inflammatory pain, and an exhaustive examination of the joints should be performed, with evaluation of the presence of pain, deformity, mobility restrictions (both active and passive), crepitus, joint effusion, and inflammation. A differential diagnosis should be made with all diseases that affect the joints and/or produce joint stiffness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. A cultural history of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Simonyi, Károly

    2012-01-01

    While the physical sciences are a continuously evolving source of technology and of understanding about our world, they have become so specialized and rely on so much prerequisite knowledge that for many people today the divide between the sciences and the humanities seems even greater than it was when C. P. Snow delivered his famous 1959 lecture, "The Two Cultures." In A Cultural History of Physics, Hungarian scientist and educator Károly Simonyi succeeds in bridging this chasm by describing the experimental methods and theoretical interpretations that created scientific knowledge, from ancient times to the present day, within the cultural environment in which it was formed. Unlike any other work of its kind, Simonyi’s seminal opus explores the interplay of science and the humanities to convey the wonder and excitement of scientific development throughout the ages. These pages contain an abundance of excerpts from original resources, a wide array of clear and straightforward explanations, and an astonis...

  5. Physics History Books in the Fermilab Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara Tompson.

    1999-09-17

    Fermilab is a basic research high-energy physics laboratory operated by Universities Research Association, Inc. under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. Fermilab researchers utilize the Tevatron particle accelerator (currently the worlds most powerful accelerator) to better understand subatomic particles as they exist now and as they existed near the birth of the universe. A collection review of the Fermilab Library monographs was conducted during the summers of 1998 and 1999. While some items were identified for deselection, the review proved most fruitful in highlighting some of the strengths of the Fermilab monograph collection. One of these strengths is history of physics, including biographies and astrophysics. A bibliography of the physics history books in the collection as of Summer, 1999 follows, arranged by author. Note that the call numbers are Library of Congress classification.

  6. Physics History Books in the Fermilab Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, Sara

    1999-01-01

    Fermilab is a basic research high-energy physics laboratory operated by Universities Research Association, Inc. under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. Fermilab researchers utilize the Tevatron particle accelerator (currently the worlds most powerful accelerator) to better understand subatomic particles as they exist now and as they existed near the birth of the universe. A collection review of the Fermilab Library monographs was conducted during the summers of 1998 and 1999. While some items were identified for deselection, the review proved most fruitful in highlighting some of the strengths of the Fermilab monograph collection. One of these strengths is history of physics, including biographies and astrophysics. A bibliography of the physics history books in the collection as of Summer, 1999 follows, arranged by author. Note that the call numbers are Library of Congress classification

  7. Nursing 450: The History and Physical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lynn

    A description is provided of a third-year registered nursing course entitled "The History and Physical," designed to help the student acquire knowledge and skills in the areas of taking the history of an individual and physical assessment. The opening sections present information on course prerequisites, grading procedures, and meeting times;…

  8. Exercises in experimental physics including complete solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.; Loos, G.

    1978-01-01

    This collection of exercises is not only addressed to students of physics but also to scientists of other branches and to engineers. Possibilities are offered to the student to gain control on his growing knowledge from the beginning of his studies until the examination. The individual exercises are linked thematically and are mostly composed by several single tasks. Complete and detailed numerical solutions are presented. The topics covered are: (1) Mechanics, (2) thermodynamics, (3) oscillations and their propagation, (4) electricity and magnetism, (5) atomic physics, and (6) nuclear physics. (KBE)

  9. Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  10. History of physical culture as a reflection of social history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshenko Y.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic of the article consists of the letters of the USSR citizens, which are dedicated to some aspects of physical culture development in the years after the World War II. In particular, the situation concerning renewing air sports, airclubs and in general the situation in sport field is described. The author, within the framework of historical hermeneutics, analyses letters and describes the social history of soviet Ukraine through the view of physical culture. In this context physical culture shows as a part of every day history.

  11. Teaching the Conceptual History of Physics to Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garik, Peter; Garbayo, Luciana; Benétreau-Dupin, Yann; Winrich, Charles; Duffy, Andrew; Gross, Nicholas; Jariwala, Manher

    2015-01-01

    For nearly a decade we have taught the history and philosophy of science as part of courses aimed at the professional development of physics teachers. The focus of the history of science instruction is on the stages in the development of the concepts and theories of physics. For this instruction, we designed activities to help the teachers…

  12. A History of Physical Education in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubita Akatama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of physical education (PE in Zambia follows the pattern of the history of education in Zambia. Thus, the history of PE in Zambia can be divided into the indigenous period, the colonial period and the post-independence period. “PE” was essential and utilitarian in the indigenous period because it was simply part of the lives of the people at that time. People walked, swam, ran, and were involved in many other forms of physical activity. PE was indispensable. Later, the missionaries provided education to the Africans for the purpose of transmitting the Good News. However, in doing so they rid the Africans of their culture. Africans also wanted to assert themselves in the newly created society and therefore embraced European culture. Eventually, the demand for education grew and many subjects were added including PE. However, while many subjects have enjoyed immense popularity in the country’s curriculum, PE has suffered marginalization. Although the subject was taught in schools supported by the mining companies and in private schools with facilities and infrastructure as well as teacher training institutions, it was not examined. Later, the subject was examined at teacher training colleges and the University of Zambia. From 2005, however, major developments have taken place in the area of PE. President Mwanawasa declared that PE should be taught in all schools. The subject was introduced to the primary school examination as part of Creative and Technology Studies (CTS and most recently as Expressive Arts (EA. It is now also being examined at junior and senior secondary levels. Teacher education institutions have been steadfast in training students in PE. Despite this, the teaching of the subject still leaves much to be desired. It appears that the past as well as the present are vehemently holding the subject down.

  13. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2017-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  14. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  15. History of twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1995-01-01

    The meaning and message of the history of science will be discussed with relevance to XX century physics. This decisive period began in 1894-95 with the discoveries of the electron,X-rays and radioactivity,with the consequent development of relativity and quantumphysics. Connections of the development of science and society in XX century with culture and the influence on industry will be examined. Finally, the corruption of physics by the military will be considered. The influence of physics on chemistry and biology will be briefly treated and the impact of the approach and method of physics on modern thinking will be assessed. It should be kept in mind that the history of science is not a way of getting a simplified or adulterated presentation of the subject ,in this case of physics and so some understanding of general physics will be assumed. On the other hand, the broader generalisations of the history of ideas and events are illustrated (if not proven) by the facts (and myths) of science. Finally,as an e...

  16. History of Astroparticle Physics and its Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirkel-Bartelt Vanessa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an outline of the historical events that led to the formation of contemporary astroparticle physics. As a starting point for analyzing the history of astroparticle physics this article will review the various, yet scattered pieces of historical work that have been done so far. To make the picture more complete it will then give a brief survey of the most important fields that have played a role in the development of astroparticle physics as we know it today. It will conclude with an overview of the historical questions that are still open and the rich philosophical implications that lie behind those questions.

  17. Transient motion of hypersonic vehicles including time history effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, W. H.; Van Roessel, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An analytic method is developed for calculating the transient pitching motion of a wedge in hypersonic flow, taking into account fully the interaction between its motion and the unsteady air flow passing it. The effects of past motion history on the present state of motion are shown to be caused by the wave reflection from the bow shock. In the Newtonian limit they are equivalent to that of an added moment of inertia. The time history effects generally tend to decrease the damping, rendering the oscillatory motion more persistent. Numerical examples are given.

  18. History and Evolution of Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvoglis, Harry

    The history of any discipline is always based on written texts. In this way, to restrict ourselves to texts of Antiquity, the history of the Jewish people is based on the books of the Old Testament, the history of the Persian Wars on the books by Herodotus and the history of the Peloponnesian War on the books by Thucydides. Even the history of the Trojan War is based on Homer's written work, although this was based, in turn, on earlier oral traditions of the Greeks of Homer's time. This rule, of course, cannot find an exemption in the history of physics. This is the main reason why the history of physics, and hence the evolution of concepts in this science, necessarily starts from the ancient Greeks. It is certain that other people of historical times were also involved in scientific activities, such as the Babylonians, who developed astronomy, and the Egyptians, who developed geometry. But their aim was to solve practical problems of their everyday life and not to understand nature and its laws. The geometry of the ancient Egyptians was developed for the purpose of redistributing land after the annual flooding of Nile, while Babylonian astronomy was limited to the simple recording of astronomical observations, with a few surviving examples of predictions of future events. Instead, the interpretation of nature and its laws, in both these nations, was the responsibility of priests and kings. In other words, the interpretation of nature for them was not a result of rational thinking; it was based on truth by revelation. The "truth" was revealed to rulers, nobles and priests, and accepted, without questioning, by the rest of the people. This truth was closely related to the religion of each nation.

  19. The Oxford handbook of the history of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Oxford Handbook of the History of Physics brings together cutting-edge writing by more than twenty leading authorities on the history of physics from the seventeenth century to the present day. By presenting a wide diversity of studies in a single volume, it provides authoritative introductions to scholarly contributions that have tended to be dispersed in journals and books not easily accessible to the general reader. While the core thread remains the theories and experimental practices of physics, the Handbook contains chapters on other dimensions that have their place in any rounded history. These include the role of lecturing and textbooks in the communication of knowledge, the contribution of instrument-makers and instrument-making companies in providing for the needs of both research and lecture demonstrations, and the growing importance of the many interfaces between academic physics, industry, and the military.

  20. Early history of physics with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The early history of physics at accelerators is reviewed, with emphasis on three experiments which have had a profound influence on our veiw of the structure of matter: The Franck and Hertz experiment opening practical ways of studying nuclear disintegration, and the discovery of the del ++ isobar of the proton by Fermi and collaborators, revealing structure in the nucleon. Fermi's work is illustrated by pages from his notebooks

  1. Resource Letter HEPP-1: History of elementary-particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovis, R.C. (Department of Physics, Clark Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (USA)); Kragh, H. (TISK Project, Roskilde University Centre, Postbox 260, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark))

    1991-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the history of modern elementary-particle physics. Histories that treat developments from the 1930s through the 1980s are focused on and a sampling is included of the historiography covering the period c. 1890--1930, the prehistory of elementary-particle physics as a discipline. Also included are collections of scientific papers, which might be especially valuable to individuals who wish to undertake historical research on particular scientists or subfields of elementary-particle physics. The introduction presents some statistical data and associated references for elementary-particle physics and surveys historiographical approaches and issues that are represented in historical accounts in the bibliography. All references are assigned a rating of E (Elementary), I (Intermediate), or A (Advanced) based on their technical or conceptual difficulty or their appropriateness for a person attempting a graduated study of the history of modern particle physics. That is, items labeled E are suitable for the layman or would be fundamental to a beginning exploration of the history of particle physics, whereas items labeled A are technically demanding (mathematically, historiographically, or philosophically) or would be most appropriate for specialized or advanced examinations of various topics.

  2. The physics and history of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yongyun

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is not only a hot research area in atmospheric sciences and even all Earth sciences but is also a controversial topic in the international community. The purpose of this paper is not to clarify these controversies, but instead, to address the physical basis on which our understanding of global warming is founded, and to briefly review the nearly 200-year history of global warming sciences. We hope the paper will help readers, who have no background in the atmospheric and climate sciences, understand scientific issues of global warming. (author)

  3. The principle of least action history and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The principle of least action originates in the idea that, if nature has a purpose, it should follow a minimum or critical path. This simple principle, and its variants and generalizations, applies to optics, mechanics, electromagnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics, and provides an essential guide to understanding the beauty of physics. This unique text provides an accessible introduction to the action principle across these various fields of physics, and examines its history and fundamental role in science. It includes - with varying levels of mathematical sophistication - explanations from historical sources, discussion of classic papers, and original worked examples. The result is a story that is understandable to those with a modest mathematical background, as well as to researchers and students in physics and the history of physics.

  4. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  5. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  6. Recasting particle physics by entangling physics, history and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, Eugenio; Levrini, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design process we followed to recast particle physics so as to make it conceptually relevant for secondary school students. In this design process, the concept of symmetry was assumed as core-idea because of its structural and foundational role in particle physics, its crosscutting character and its epistemological and philosophical value. The first draft of the materials was tested in a pilot-study which involved 19 students of a regular class (grade 13) of an Italian school. The data analysis showed that the students were in their 'regime of competence' for grasping subtle nuances of the materials and for providing important hints for revising them. In particular, students’ reactions brought into light the need of clarifying the 'foundational' character that symmetry attained in twentieth-century physics. The delicate step of re-thinking the materials required the researchers to articulate the complex relationship between researches on physics teaching, history and philosophy of physics. This analytic phase resulted in a version of the materials which implies the students to be guided to grasp the meaning of symmetry as normative principle in twentieth-century physics, throughout the exploration of the different meanings assumed by symmetry over time. The whole process led also to the production of an essential, on-line version, of the materials targeted to a wider audience.

  7. Dissociation between history and challenge in patients with physical urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarow, Hirsh D; Arceo, Sarah; Young, Michael; Nelson, Celeste; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2014-01-01

    Physical urticaria is a subtype of chronic urticaria induced by a physical stimulus. To evaluate the consistency between a history of physical urticaria and results of challenge testing. Seventy-six subjects, ages 3 to 77 years old, were referred with the diagnosis of a physical urticaria and were evaluated by using challenge testing directed toward the presenting diagnosis, yet included other stimuli based on history. The majority of subjects were tested to 3 or more stimuli, thus 294 provocation tests were performed. Fifty-seven subjects were surveyed for the status of their physical urticaria at least 1 year after initial evaluation. Of the 76 subjects with a positive history of a physical urticaria, 38% (n = 29) were challenge negative to the presenting diagnosis. Eight subjects within the challenge negative group reacted positively to additional testing, thus 28% (n = 21) remained negative to all challenge testing, which allowed discontinuation of medications and avoidance behavior. A negative challenge result was less likely with subjects who presented with cold-induced urticaria (25%), delayed pressure urticaria (25%), and dermatographism (29%), yet more common with cholinergic (65%) and solar urticaria (67%). A 1-year follow-up survey of 57 subjects was consistent with initial results. Nineteen of this subgroup were rechallenged for the presenting diagnosis, and the outcome was unchanged in 17 subjects and, in 2 subjects the urticaria had resolved. The diagnosis by history of a physical urticaria should be verified by testing whenever possible and particularly if the condition is judged as severe and thus requires both significant life-style changes and pharmacologic intervention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two...

  9. Compendium of quantum physics concepts, experiments, history and philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschel, Klaus; Weinert, Friedel

    2009-01-01

    With contributions by many of today's leading quantum physicists, philosophers and historians, including three Nobel laureates, this comprehensive A to Z of quantum physics provides a lucid understanding of the key concepts of quantum theory and experiment. It covers technical and interpretational aspects alike, and includes both traditional topics and newer areas such as quantum information and its relatives. The central concepts that have shaped contemporary understanding of the quantum world are clearly defined, with illustrations where helpful, and discussed at a level suitable for undergraduate and graduate students of physics, history of science, and philosophy of physics. All articles share three main aims: (1) to provide a clear definition and understanding of the term concerned; (2) where possible, to trace the historical origins of the concept; and (3) to provide a small but optimal selection of references to the most relevant literature, including pertinent historical studies. Also discussed are th...

  10. 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This book introduces the root of Korean physics, the dawning of Korean physics, foundation and childhood of Korean physics society, growth of Korean physics society, revival of Korean physics society, corporation Korean physics society, leap of Korean physics society and challenges towards future. It also deals with 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society according to committees, special interest groups, branches in cities and provinces, branches in universities, laboratories, society bureau, and commemoration business to celebrate 50th anniversary.

  11. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  12. Music and physics: a cultural, interdisciplinary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Myles W

    2008-06-01

    This essay investigates the triangular exchange among physicists, musicians, and instrument makers in nineteenth-century Germany by proffering a material, cultural, and interdisciplinary history. It does so by analyzing four concrete examples of such exchanges: the relationship between musical automata and virtuosi, the reed pipe as an object of music and scientific measurement, the history of standardizing performance pitch, and the attempts to measure musical virtuosity. The goal of the essay is to suggest ways in which interdisciplinary cultural histories, which take the scientific content seriously, can be an improvement upon purely disciplinary histories.

  13. Physics Teacher Use of the History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winrich, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The School of Education and the Department of Physics at Boston University offer a sequence of 10 two-credit professional development courses through the Improving the Teaching of Physics (ITOP) project. The ITOP courses combine physics content, readings from the physics education research (PER) literature, and the conceptual history of physics…

  14. Clinical history and physical examination skills - A requirement for radiographers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Beverly A.; Lancaster, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Radiographer's roles have evolved with their scope broadening over the last 20 years culminating in the development of advanced and consultant posts. Yet one development has not been embraced, despite being inherent in medicine and a common extension of nurse and other allied health professionals' roles, is that of clinical assessment. This article explores the evolving role of the radiographer and discusses whether this should include skills in clinical history taking and physical examination. Issues for education and development will be addressed together with examples of current and potential roles

  15. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  16. Thermal histories of chondrules in solar nebula shocks, including the effect of molecular line cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melissa A.

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized, silicate (mostly ferromagnesian) igneous spheres found within chondritic meteorites. They are some of the oldest materials in our Solar System, having formed within a few million years of its birth. Chondrules were melted at high temperature (over 1800 K), while they were free-floating objects in the early solar nebula. Their petrology and chemistry constrain their formation, especially their thermal histories. Chondrules provide some of the most powerful constraints on conditions in the solar nebula. Models in which chondrule precursors melted by passage through solar nebula shocks are very promising, and meet most constraints on chondrule formation in broad brush. However, these models have been lacking in some of the relevant physics. Previous shock models have used incorrect approximations to the input radiation boundary condition, and the opacity of solids has been treated simply. Most important, a proper treatment of cooling due to molecular line emission has not been included. In this thesis, the shock model is significantly improved in order to determine if it remains consistent with observational constraints. The appropriate boundary condition for the input radiation and the proper method for calculation of the opacity of solids are determined, and a complete treatment of molecular line cooling due to water is included. Previous estimates of the effect of line cooling predicted chondrule cooling rates in excess of 10,000 K per hour. However, once molecular line cooling due to water was incorporated into the full shock model, it was found that line cooling has a minimal effect on the thermal histories of gas and chondrules. This behavior is attributed mostly to the thermal buffering of the gas due to hydrogen dissociation and recombination, which tends to keep the gas temperature at approximately 2000 K until the column densities of water become optically thick to line emission. Chondrule cooling rates in the range of 10

  17. From the history of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunfelt, Arild O.

    2000-01-01

    The article describes the development within nuclear physics from the discovery of the radioactivity in 1895 to the discovery of element number 118 in 1999. The nature of radioactivity and status in atom research is briefly outlined

  18. History and evolution of concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Varvoglis, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of nature, and in particular of physics and the laws governing it, has changed radically since the days of the ancient Greek natural philosophers. This book explains how and why these changes occurred, through landmark experiments as well as theories that - for their time - were revolutionary. The presentation covers Mechanics, Optics, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, Relativity Theory, Atomic Physics and Quantum Physics. The book places emphasis on ideas and on a qualitative presentation, rather than on mathematics and equations. Thus, although primarily addressed to those who are studying or have studied science, it can also be read by non-specialists. The author concludes with a discussion of the evolution and organization of universities, from ancient times until today, and of the organization and dissemination of knowledge through scientific publications and conferences.

  19. History of physical terms: ‘energy’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontali, Clara

    2014-09-01

    Difficulties encountered by teachers in giving a definition of the term ‘energy’, and by students in grasping its actual meaning, reflect the lengthy process through which the concept eventually came to maturity around 1850. Tracing the history of this process illuminates the different aspects covered by the term and shows the important role played by advancements in animal physiology in the concept’s elaboration. A unique example of cross-fertilization between historically separate fields, the history of the studies on animal heat, is recounted here. The recount starts from the early experiments by Boyle and Hooke on the effect of void on living beings and from Lavoisier’s revolutionary interpretation of respiration as a ‘slow combustion’ process, touching on the contributions by Spallanzani, von Humboldt and Liebig. It ends with the first enunciation of an energy conservation law by two German physicians, Meyer and Helmholtz, in advance of the elaboration of a coherent thermodynamic framework by Kelvin.

  20. Brief histories of medical physics in Asia-Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W H; Jafari, S; Kron, T; Azhari, H A; Chhom, S; Hu, Y; Mauldon, G F; Cheung, K Y; Kuppusamy, T; Pawiro, S A; Lubis, L E; Soejoko, D S; Haryanto, F; Endo, M; Han, Y; Suh, T S; Ng, K H; Luvsan-Ish, A; Maung, S O; Chaurasia, P P; Jafri, S M A; Farrukh, S; Peralta, A; Toh, H J; Sarasanandarajah, S; Shiau, A C; Krisanachinda, A; Suriyapee, S; Vinijsorn, S; Nguyen, T C

    2015-09-01

    The history of medical physics in Asia-Oceania goes back to the late nineteenth century when X-ray imaging was introduced, although medical physicists were not appointed until much later. Medical physics developed very quickly in some countries, but in others the socio-economic situation as such prevented it being established for many years. In others, the political situation and war has impeded its development. In many countries their medical physics history has not been well recorded and there is a danger that it will be lost to future generations. In this paper, brief histories of the development of medical physics in most countries in Asia-Oceania are presented by a large number of authors to serve as a record. The histories are necessarily brief; otherwise the paper would quickly turn into a book of hundreds of pages. The emphasis in each history as recorded here varies as the focus and culture of the countries as well as the length of their histories varies considerably.

  1. [Association between type 2 diabetes and physical activity in individuals with family history of diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Fanny; Díaz-Martínez, Ximena; Garrido-Méndez, Álex; Leiva, Ana María; Martínez, María Adela; Salas, Carlos; Poblete-Valderrama, Felipe; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and family history of diabetes is modified by the levels of physical activity in the Chilean population. In this study were included 5129 participants from the cross-sectional 2009-2010 National Health Survey. Physical activity level was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and family history of T2D, through self-reporting. The association between diabetes, family history of diabetes and physical activity was determined using logistic regression. The odds of developing T2D in people with family history of this pathology is high, independent of their levels of physical activity and adiposity. Both men and women with family history of T2D have a higher probability of developing T2D. The odds ratio for having T2D was 5,49 (95%CI: 3,85-7,84; p <0,0001) in women, and 8,16 (95%CI: 4,96-13,4; p <0,0001) in men with family history of T2D and low levels of physical activity in comparison to those with high levels of physical activity and without a family history. Given the elevated risk of developing T2D presented by individuals with a family history of this pathology, and the effect of physical activity in reducing such risk, people with family history of diabetes may need higher levels of physical activity to attenuate their susceptibility to T2D. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The Value of Home Education Including Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iradge Ahrabi-Fard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a false notion that public school can educate great students. Facing diversity of students’ potential, different timing of growth pattern and varieties of home preparation of students to be a assiduous learner it is serious challenging task. Schools offer a general education to all with some attention to the diversity of students. It is home education, dealing with concentration habits during learning process, valuing educational process and respecting the rules of group learning that are influential in acquiring most from the educational opportunities. School is not able to go against the home culture and re-educate students to behave as a concern and diligent learner if these habits are not emphasized or supported at home. Public education in US is ranked between 18 to 22 in the world (according to different sources. Comparing with the world, American schools as the whole rank first for school structures, are number one for allocation of school budget, the emphasis and requirements of teacher education is number one. America expenditure per student exceed the top ten of the world combined. It is the lack of home education of learning demeanor and respecting the learning process that causes the inferiority. Physical education faces the same general dilemma at school having a very diverse group of students within variety of growth stages, potentials, sizes and capabilities based on their previous experiences. Decent general physical education at school can only offer a limited advancement. It is the responsibilities of parents to learn about the specifics of healthy growth and suitable skill development for their unique child. It is their parental task to act responsibly for the healthy growth of their child concerning: bone density and health, muscular strength, size and endurance, heart development to endure the stress of activities and function well, the range of motion of joints and finally their weight management. All the above

  3. Walking In The Footsteps of Einstein: Why History of Physics Aids Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-03-01

    We twice organized and led a European Study Abroad course to explore the early history of relativity and quantum theory. The course led us to Munich, Bern, Berlin, Zurich, Copenhagen, and Göttingen. The talk describes the sites, impressions, experiences, academics, logistics, and learning outcomes of our courses. It also addresses how some of the aspects of the history of physics can and should be used in teaching regular physics courses.

  4. Quantum generations: a history of physics in the twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechenberg, H

    2000-11-01

    Full text: The author attempts to handle the most important physics development of the twentieth century, namely that of quantum theory, in one, not too bulky, volume. This heroic task is split into 29 chapters, each treating a topic that forms a well defined subpart of the big theme embracing quantum theory itself (and also some of its companions), and the experimental discoveries, technology, sociology and science politics connected with it. The contents of Part One cover roughly the first twenty years of the century. There are also chapters on the introduction of the quantum of action and atomic constitution, on discharge in gases, low-temperature research and the interaction of science with industrial and military affairs in World War I. Part Two, leading up to the Hiroshima bomb, includes, beyond such central chapters as the rise of nuclear physics, quantum field theory and the physical and philosophical interpretation of quantum mechanics, further accounts of the Eddington-Milne cosmology, physics in the dictatorial regimes of National Socialism, Fascism and Stalinism, and the intellectual immigration during the 1930s into the USA. Part Three brings the story up to the end of the century, embracing great topics like nuclear energy, Big Science (i.e. physics in military and civil projects), fundamental particle theories up to speculations about 'grand unification', quantum electronics, or the increasingly hostile attitude toward science in the past 30 years. The short Part Four contains two chapters on a century in retrospect, which was really the century of physics. An enormous amount of material has been addressed in this book, and one wonders how one person can say anything reasonable about all these topics. The overall organization and the selection of chapters appears to be well planned and carried out quite successfully. In this reviewer's opinion, some chapters, e.g. on Dirac's theoretical work or cosmology (on which the author has

  5. Dying art of a history and physical: pulsatile tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan; Fekete, Zoltan

    2017-11-27

    Modern medicine often leaves the history and physical by the wayside. Physicians instead skip directly to diagnostic modalities like MRI and angiography. In this case report, we discuss a patient who presented with migraine symptoms. Auscultation revealed signs of pulsatile tinnitus. Further imaging concluded that it was secondary to a type I dural arteriovenous fistula. Thanks to a proper and thorough history and physical, the patient was streamlined into an accurate and efficient work-up leading to symptomatic relief and quality of life improvement. Imaging is a powerful adjunctive technique in modern medicine, but physicians must not rely on machines to diagnose their patients. If this trend continues, it will have a tremendous negative impact on the cost and calibre of healthcare. Our hope is that this case will spread awareness in the medical community, urging physicians to use the lost art of a history and physical. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. The Oxford Guide to the History of Physics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, John L.

    2005-06-01

    With over 150 alphabetically arranged entries about key scientists, concepts, discoveries, technological innovations, and learned institutions, the Oxford Guide to Physics and Astronomy traces the history of physics and astronomy from the Renaissance to the present. For students, teachers, historians, scientists, and readers of popular science books such as Galileo's Daughter , this guide deciphers the methods and philosophies of physics and astronomy as well as the historical periods from which they emerged. Meant to serve the lay reader and the professional alike, this book can be turned to for the answer to how scientists learned to measure the speed of light, or consulted for neat, careful summaries of topics as complicated as quantum field theory and as vast as the universe. The entries, each written by a noted scholar and edited by J. L. Heilbron, Professor of History and Vice Chancellor, Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley, reflect the most up-to-date research and discuss the applications of the scientific disciplines to the wider world of religion, law, war, art and literature. No other source on these two branches of science is as informative or as inviting. Thoroughly cross-referenced and accented by dozens of black and white illustrations, the Oxford Guide to Physics and Astronomy is the source to turn to for anyone looking for a quick explanation of alchemy, x-rays and any type of matter or energy in between.

  7. Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estrogen defi ciency after menopause leads to accelerated loss of bone mass. The aim of this study was to examine influence of physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: This prospective study included 100 postmenopausal women, ages between 50 and 65, living in Sarajevo area without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. To assess level of physical activity an International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form was used.Results: In the examination group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen deficit, level of physical activity was low in 52.00% female, and in 48.00% women level of physical activity was moderate. In the control group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen defi cit in 10.00% female level of physical activity was low, and in 90.00% female level of physical activity was moderate. The difference in levels of physical activity between the two groups was statistically significant, X2 test = 20.6, p <0.005.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that moderate physical activity has positive impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen defi ciency in menstrual history and has the potential to reduce rapid bone loss after menopause.

  8. Validity of Combining History Elements and Physical Examination Tests to Diagnose Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Frémont, Pierre; Pelletier, Bruno; Fallaha, Michel; Belzile, Sylvain; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2018-04-01

    To assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude patellofemoral pain (PFP). Prospective diagnostic study. Orthopedic outpatient clinics, family medicine clinics, and community-dwelling. Consecutive patients (N=279) consulting one of the participating orthopedic surgeons (n=3) or sport medicine physicians (n=2) for any knee complaint. Not applicable. History elements and physical examination tests were obtained by a trained physiotherapist blinded to the reference standard: a composite diagnosis including both physical examination tests and imaging results interpretation performed by an expert physician. Penalized logistic regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of PFP, and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Two hundred seventy-nine participants were evaluated, and 75 had a diagnosis of PFP (26.9%). Different combinations of history elements and physical examination tests including the age of participants, knee pain location, difficulty descending stairs, patellar facet palpation, and passive knee extension range of motion were associated with a diagnosis of PFP and used in clusters to accurately discriminate between individuals with PFP and individuals without PFP. Two diagnostic clusters developed to confirm the presence of PFP yielded a positive likelihood ratio of 8.7 (95% CI, 5.2-14.6) and 3 clusters to exclude PFP yielded a negative likelihood ratio of .12 (95% CI, .06-.27). Diagnostic clusters combining common history elements and physical examination tests that can accurately diagnose or exclude PFP compared to various knee

  9. Physics a short history from quintessence to quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Heilbron, John L

    2015-01-01

    How does the physics we know today - a highly professionalised enterprise, inextricably linked to government and industry - link back to its origins as a liberal art in Ancient Greece? What is the path that leads from the old philosophy of nature and its concern with humankind's place in the universe to modern massive international projects that hunt down fundamental particles and industrial laboratories that manufacture marvels? John Heilbron's fascinating history of physics introduces us to Islamic astronomers and mathematicians, calculating the size of the earth whilst their caliphs conquered much of it; to medieval scholar-theologians investigating light; to Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton, measuring, and trying to explain, the universe. We visit the 'House of Wisdom' in 9th-century Baghdad; Europe's first universities; the courts of the Renaissance; the Scientific Revolution and the academies of the 18th century; the increasingly specialised world of 20th and 21st century science. Highlighting th...

  10. History and physical examination of hip injuries in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedan Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Hip fracture is the most common injury occurring to elderly people and is associated with restrictions of the activities of the patients themselves. The discovery of a hip fracture can be the beginning of a complex journey of care, from initial diagnosis, through operational procedures to rehabilitation. The patient's history and physical examination form the basis of the diagnosis and monitoring of elderly patients with hip problems and dictate the appropriate treatment strategy to be implemented. The aim of this study is to discuss the different diagnoses of hip pain in a case study of an elderly woman who initially complained of pain in her right knee following a fall at home. It shows that musculoskeletal physical examination determined the management of the hip fracture that was found to be present. In addition, the aim of this article is to review diagnostic tests such as radiographs and recommend appropriate management and treatment of hip fractures in elderly patients.

  11. Communication pitfalls of traditional history and physical write-up documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey L

    2017-01-01

    An unofficial standardized "write-up" outline is commonly used for documenting history and physical examinations, giving oral presentations, and teaching clinical skills. Despite general acceptance, there is an apparent discrepancy between the way clinical encounters are conducted and how they are documented. Fifteen medical school websites were randomly selected from search-engine generated lists. One example of a history and physical write-up from each of six sites, one teaching outline from each of nine additional sites, and recommendations for documentation made in two commonly used textbooks were compared for similarities and differences. Except for minor variations in documenting background information, all sampled materials utilized the same standardized format. When the examiners' early perceptions of the patients' degree of illness or level of distress were described, they were categorized as "general appearance" within the physical findings. Contrary to clinical practice, none of the examples or recommendations documented these early perceptions before chief concerns and history were presented. An examiner's initial perceptions of a patient's affect, degree of illness, and level of distress can influence the content of the history, triage decisions, and prioritization of likely diagnoses. When chief concerns and history are shared without benefit of this information, erroneous assumptions and miscommunications can result. This survey confirms common use of a standardized outline for documenting, communicating, and teaching history-taking and physical examination protocol. The present outline shares early observations out of clinical sequence and may provide inadequate context for accurate interpretation of chief concerns and history. Corrective actions include modifying the documentation sequence to conform to clinical practice and teaching contextual methodology for sharing patient information.

  12. Book Review: A Concise History of Solar and Stellar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2005-01-01

    There is no doubt that the awareness of the often long history and its principal players of a scientific specialty is disappearing among present-day researchers. The reason is the inexorable rise of specialization, in which scientists are expected to keep pace with publications in their own field, not to mention the inevitable round of writing grant proposals and teaching and other mundane responsibilities. The authors of this small book had the intention of rectifying this for solar and stellar physics, disciplines which are still broad enough to embrace fields as diverse as nuclear fusion, magnetohydrodynamics, and the dynamic theory of gas spheres. They take the read on a journey from ancient Greek and middle Eastern astronomy to the late 1990s, one which has an emphasis very much on a theoretical point of view. For the authors, it is the ideas that are central, not the observations.

  13. A contribution to the history of Jewish physical education and sport in the Czech Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Štumbauer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The history of physical education of the Jewish minority in Czechoslovakia is an integral and significant part of the history of physical education in the Czech Lands. This paper deals with its formation, gradual development, and closure at the beginning of World War Two; and it is divided into several sections. The first focuses on the ideological basis of Jewish physical education and sport, and the specifics of the Czech Lands environment; and subsequent sections on the very formation and development of Jewish physical education in the Czech Lands up to 1918. The focal point of this paper is the section on the origin and development of the Union Maccabi in the Czechoslovak Republic, its organizational structure, and international relations, including participation in international Maccabiah games and its violent termination. The paper also includes mention of the failed attempt to establish a Jewish umbrella organization of physical education and sport and the effort to restore Jewish physical education and sport in Czechoslovakia after World War Two.

  14. A history of digit identification in the manus of theropods (including Aves)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lykke

    2010-01-01

    The identification of avian and dinosaurian digits remains one of the major controversies in vertebrate evolution. A long history of morphological interpretations of fossil forms and studies of limb development in embryos has been given as evidence for two differing points of view. From...

  15. A history of digit identification in the manus of theropods (including Aves)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lykke

    2010-01-01

    The identification of avian and dinosaurian digits remains one of the major controversies in vertebrate evolution. A long history of morphological interpretations of fossil forms and studies of limb development in embryos has been given as evidence for two differing points of view. From an origin...

  16. Robin's Story: Life History of an Exemplary American Female Physical Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to construct the life history of Robin, an exemplary female physical educator, to hear her voice, and to explore ways in which she experienced marginalization. Few life histories of exemplary physical educators have been recounted. Method: Robin's life history was investigated in light of the theory of occupational…

  17. A history of the ideas of theoretical physics essays on the nineteenth and twentieth century physics

    CERN Document Server

    D’Agostino, Salvo

    2000-01-01

    This book presents a perspective on the history of theoretical physics over the past two hundreds years. It comprises essays on the history of pre-Maxwellian electrodynamics, of Maxwell's and Hertz's field theories, and of the present century's relativity and quantum physics. A common thread across the essays is the search for and the exploration of themes that influenced significant con­ ceptual changes in the great movement of ideas and experiments which heralded the emergence of theoretical physics (hereafter: TP). The fun. damental change involved the recognition of the scien­ tific validity of theoretical physics. In the second half of the nine­ teenth century, it was not easy for many physicists to understand the nature and scope of theoretical physics and of its adept, the theoreti­ cal physicist. A physicist like Ludwig Boltzmann, one of the eminent contributors to the new discipline, confessed in 1895 that, "even the formulation of this concept [of a theoretical physicist] is not entirely without...

  18. History and physical examination of the hip: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hal David; Palmer, Ian James

    2013-09-01

    The history and physical examination of the hip is the key component for evaluation of patients presenting with hip pain. As our understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the normal hip vs the pathologic hip advances, the physical examination progresses as well. As with the shoulder and knee examinations, there are critical steps that form the basis of the examination of the hip joint. This hip examination contains 21 steps, which compares well with the shoulder 20 step exam and the knee 33 step exam. Consideration should be given for the hip as comprised of 4 layers: the osseous, capsulolabral, musculotendinous, and neurovascular. The hip represents the link between the upper body and lower body, therefore the fifth layer, the kinematic chain, plays an essential role in treatment recommendations. A clinical evaluation of the hip that incorporates this multifactor thought process will lead to an accurate diagnosis in a timely manner. This paper is a description of the 21 core examinations of a standardized clinical evaluation of the hip.

  19. Validating the 5Fs mnemonic for cholelithiasis: time to include family history.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bass, Gary

    2013-11-01

    The time-honoured mnemonic of \\'5Fs\\' is a reminder to students that patients with upper abdominal pain and who conform to a profile of \\'fair, fat, female, fertile and forty\\' are likely to have cholelithiasis. We feel, however, that a most important \\'F\\'-that for \\'family history\\'-is overlooked and should be introduced to enhance the value of a useful aide memoire.

  20. Classroom culture in a course on History and Epistemology of Physics for prospective physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Teresinha Massoni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe the construction process of a contextualized descriptive comprehension of the classroom culture of a subject on History and Epistemology of Physics pertaining to the curriculum of a teacher preparation course in a federal public university. In order to do that, participative observation of daily classroom activities was carried out during a one year period of time. The narrative of this process is extensive full of details that suggest some charges in students’ conceptions of science and, at the same time, how deeply rosted are some other ones.

  1. Validating the 5Fs mnemonic for cholelithiasis: time to include family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Gary; Gilani, S Nadia S; Walsh, Thomas N

    2013-11-01

    The time-honoured mnemonic of '5Fs' is a reminder to students that patients with upper abdominal pain and who conform to a profile of 'fair, fat, female, fertile and forty' are likely to have cholelithiasis. We feel, however, that a most important 'F'-that for 'family history'-is overlooked and should be introduced to enhance the value of a useful aide memoire. To assess the usefulness of each of the existing factors of a popular mnemonic, 398 patients admitted with upper abdominal pain between March 2009 and April 2010 were studied. The clinical features expressed in the cholelithiasis mnemonic in patients with sonographic evidence of cholelithiasis were compared with those of patients without. In the cholelithiasis group, significantly more patients were women (150/198 (75.8%) vs 111/200 (55.5%), p30 (56/198 (28.3%) vs 19/200 (9.5%) (pmnemonic retains a role in clinical diagnosis of patients suspected of cholelithiasis but the factor 'familial' should be substituted for 'forty' in recognition of the role of inheritance and the changing demographics of gallstone incidence.

  2. Cold fusion in the context of a scientific revolution in physics: History and economic ramifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Scientific revolutions have occurred in an approximately 80 year periodicity since 1500. Economic depressions have occurred at an approximately 40-50 year periodicity since 1790, and the economic depressions are a result of the scientific revolutions. The field of cold fusion is a part of a scientific revolution in physics. Understanding cold fusion phenomena in the broader historical context is helpful for understanding the development of the field and the significance of the phenomena technologically and economically. This paper includes a short history of science and of the recent scientific revolution, and includes predictions about the economic consequences of the development of the paradigm. (author)

  3. Context Influences Preschool Children's Decisions to Include a Peer with a Physical Disability in Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young; Tu, Huifang

    2008-01-01

    Understanding children's decisions to include a child with a disability in activities is an important component of the social environment of children with disabilities. We examined preschool children's understanding of the motor and social competence of hypothetical children with a physical disability, children's decisions to include or exclude a…

  4. Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

  5. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize…

  6. Physical well-being in women with a history of severe preeclampsia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roes, E.M.; Raijmakers, M.; Schoonenberg, M.P.G.; Wanner, N.; Peters, W.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physical and mental health of women with a history of severe preeclampsia. METHODS: In a historical cohort study 131 former patients with a history of severe preeclampsia and 127 control patients received questionnaires about experienced physical and mental complaints

  7. "Broader Curricular Issues" in Physics: Technology, History, Science, Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Hoddeson, Lillian

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary report is given on work in progress on a science in society course at Rutgers. The course is designed to relate physics to human affairs. The role of the physics teacher in this approach is discussed. (DF)

  8. Hip joint pathology: relationship between patient history, physical tests, and arthroscopy findings in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijssen, M; van Cingel, R E H; de Visser, E; Hölmich, P; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M W G

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to (a) describe the clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip labral pathology; (b) describe the accuracy of patient history and physical tests for FAI and labral pathology as confirmed by hip arthroscopy. Patients (18-65 years) were included if they were referred to a physical therapist to gather pre-operative data and were then diagnosed during arthroscopy. Results of pre-operative patient history and physical tests were collected and compared to arthroscopy. Data of 77 active patients (mean age: 37 years) were included. Groin as main location of pain, the Anterior Impingement test (AIT), Flexion-Abduction-External Rotation (FABER) test, and Fitzgerald test had a high sensitivity (range 0.72-0.91). Sensitivity increased when combining these tests (0.97) as either groin as main location of pain and a positive FABER test or a positive AIT and a positive FABER test were the shortest most sensitive combinations. The results of this study point out that in clinical practice absence of groin as main location of pain combined with a negative FABER test or the combination of a negative AIT and a negative FABER test are suggested to rule out the diagnosis of symptomatic FAI and/or labral pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Getting Started in the History of Sport and Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, William H., Ed.

    Information is provided for the beginning student or writer. Suggestions are made on general historical research and research methodology in the field of sport history. Bibliographies are provided of books, journals and filmstrips on the subject. (JD)

  10. Cellulite treatment: evidence and ethics, brief history, and emphasis on current practices including liposuction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Riese, Cornelia

    2005-04-01

    According to Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary "cellulite" is defined as: "a non-technical term for subcutaneous deposits of fat, especially in the buttocks, legs, and thighs." These deposits result in puckered, dimply skin and they are a cause for major aesthetic concerns in affected patients. The etiology of this condition is still unclear. Female predilection is witnessed in clinical practice as it is reported in the literature. It remains a subject for further studies whether it is a structural problem of connective tissue or as suggested probably related to hormonal causes. Magnetic resonance imaging may provide some answers to these questions. Not knowing what is causing this nuisance makes it almost impossible to treat. No wonder that there is little scientific validation to support any of the many treatments that are advertised on the Internet or in women's magazines. This review focuses on mechanical and microinvasive interventions that claim to alleviate "cellulite": lipoplasty, liposcultpure, liposuction, subcision, and laser. Among the parameters analyzed are the proposed modes of action of these techniques as well as adverse events and complications that may occur. Of special interest will be the evidence that backs these procedures. Extracting reliable data is hampered by methodical problems with the design of most of the published trials. In essence, at this time there is no "cure" for cellulite. Safe treatment recommendations are related to healthy life style choices that include toning exercises, dietary changes, and weight loss.

  11. Seismic hazard analyses for Taipei city including deaggregation, design spectra, and time history with excel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Pin; Huang, Duruo; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Shao, Kuo-Shin; Wu, Yuan-Chieh; Chang, Chih-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Given the difficulty of earthquake forecast, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has been a method to best estimate site-specific ground motion or response spectra in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology. In this paper, the first in-depth PSHA study for Taipei, the economic center of Taiwan with a six-million population, was carried out. Unlike the very recent PSHA study for Taiwan, this study includes the follow-up hazard deaggregation, response spectra, and the earthquake motion recommendations. Hazard deaggregation results show that moderate-size and near-source earthquakes are the most probable scenario for this city. Moreover, similar to the findings in a few recent studies, the earthquake risk for Taipei should be relatively high and considering this city's importance, the high risk should not be overlooked and a potential revision of the local technical reference would be needed. In addition to the case study, some innovative Excel applications to PSHA are introduced in this paper. Such spreadsheet applications are applicable to geosciences research as those developed for data reduction or quantitative analysis with Excel's user-friendly nature and wide accessibility.

  12. "Teaching Physics as one of the humanities": The history of (harvard) project Physics, 1961-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshoulam, David

    In the United States after World War II, science had come to occupy a central place in the minds of policy makers, scientists, and the public. Negotiating different views between these groups proved a difficult task and spilled into debates over the role and scope of science education. To examine this process, this dissertation traces the history of Harvard Project Physics (HPP), a high-school physics curriculum from the 1960s that incorporated a humanistic and historical approach to teaching science. The narrative begins with the rise of General Education in the 1940s. Under the leadership of Harvard president James Conant, faculty at Harvard developed several Natural Science courses that connected science to history as a way to teach students about science and its relationship to culture. By the late 1950s this historical approach faced resistance from scientists who viewed it as misrepresenting their disciplines and called for students to learn specialized subject matter. With the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), in the early 1960s scientists' vision of science education emerged in high-school classrooms across the country. By the mid 1960s, with the passage of the Civil Rights Act, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and the Daddario Amendment to the NSF, the political and education landscape began to change. These laws transformed the goals of two of the NSF and the Office of Education (USOE). These organizations faced demands to work together to develop projects that would speak to domestic concerns over equity and diversity. Their first joint educational venture was HPP. In order to succeed, HPP had to speak to the needs of disciplinary-minded scientists at the NSF, equity-minded educators at the USOE, and results-focused politicians in Congress. This work argues that HPP succeeded because it met the needs of these various stakeholders regarding the roles of science and education in American society.

  13. The History of Physical Education in Spanish Schools. A transversal bibliographical review to foster a social and critical history of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Torrebadella-Flix

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of 226 studies that shed light on the history of physical education in Spanish schools from 1881 to the present day. Following documentary analysis of these studies, we call for proposals concerning new theoretical and methodological approaches to add to a social and critical history of physical education. The methodology applied introduces a literature review of localised studies (doctoral theses, book with IBSN, articles in academic journals and conference papers in Spanish sources of academic documentation (Dialnet, Google Académico, Recoleta, Teseo, etc., followed by an analysis of their content, with the corresponding document indexing. The work is divided into two parts: in the first we approach the fields of study related to physical education in schools, and in the second we undertake a critical evaluation of the studies presented, from 1881 to 2015, in order of the main nature of their content. The results reveal the state of the history of physical education in Spanish schools. The meagre interest raised by studies into physical education in Spain inveighs against this area of research, which, nevertheless, still harbours an aspiration to re-contextualise knowledge in its own field. To this end we propose new lines of research, point out the advantages and disadvantages of steering history towards a different social and critical paradigm, and discuss the issues that this raises.

  14. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Resu...

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and

  16. HISTORY OF THE ENGINEERING PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS DIVISION 1955-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    2001-09-14

    A review of division progress reports noting significant events and findings of the Applied Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics, Engineering Physics, and then Engineering Physics and Mathematics divisions from 1955 to 1993 was prepared for use in developing a history of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in celebration of its 50th year. The research resulted in an accumulation of historic material and photographs covering 38 years of effort, and the decision was made to publish a brief history of the division. The history begins with a detailed account of the founding of the Applied Nuclear Physics Division in 1955 and continues through the name change to the Neutron Physics Division in the late 1950s. The material thereafter is presented in decades--the sixties, seventies, and eighties--and ends as we enter the nineties.

  17. Physics-based elastic image registration using splines and including landmark localization uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, Stefan; Rohr, Karl

    2006-01-01

    We introduce an elastic registration approach which is based on a physical deformation model and uses Gaussian elastic body splines (GEBS). We formulate an extended energy functional related to the Navier equation under Gaussian forces which also includes landmark localization uncertainties. These uncertainties are characterized by weight matrices representing anisotropic errors. Since the approach is based on a physical deformation model, cross-effects in elastic deformations can be taken into account. Moreover, we have a free parameter to control the locality of the transformation for improved registration of local geometric image differences. We demonstrate the applicability of our scheme based on 3D CT images from the Truth Cube experiment, 2D MR images of the brain, as well as 2D gel electrophoresis images. It turns out that the new scheme achieves more accurate results compared to previous approaches.

  18. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: Stories by Yurii Borisovich Rumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumer, Yurii B.

    2001-10-01

    Yurii Borisovich Rumer (Yu B) was an excellent story-teller. Grateful listeners long remembered his stories about life in the first years after the 1917 Great Socialist Revolution in Russia, about the Göttingen School, about Albert Einstein, about Soviet physicists, about the years he spent in prison and in the secret research institution where all researchers and staff were prisoners. Unfortunately, nobody was perceptive enough to record these stories for posterity. Yu B himself would not agree to it as after the many years of his gruesome prison experience he was always cautious and carefully censored his stories himself according to the audience and the political climate of the period. The few reminiscences published in his lifetime also exhibit evidence of such self-censorship. M P Kemoklidze made detailed records but she says she destroyed them after publishing the book Quantum age (1989) for which they were intended. Here we are publishing a transcript of the tape recording made by Anna Livanova in 1962 when Yu B visited her in Moscow (she knew him from her days as a student of the Physics Department of Moscow State University). When Livanova was on a business trip to the Novosibirsk Academy Town she attended a talk given by Yu B to the students of Novosibirsk University at which they asked him to tell of the most important occasion in his life. He said it was his meeting with Einstein. In Moscow Livanova recorded an extended version of that talk. Livanova used the recording for writing the essays ''Academy Town in Siberia'' (Znamya magazine, No. 11, 12, 1962) and ''Physicists about Physicists'' (in the book Roads to the Unknown — Writers Telling about Science in which a section was entitled 'Meeting with Einstein'), and her book 'Physicists about Physicists' (Moscow: 'Molodaya Gvardiya' Publishers, 1968) which also included a section on Rumer's meeting with Einstein. The publications were significantly edited and only a part of the recording transcript

  19. Discordance between data acquired by history and findings of physical examination: a phenomenal paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafailidis, Petros I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-06-01

    History and physical examination are the basis of any diagnosis. The findings of the physical examination usually corroborate the thoughts generated by the medical history. However, it is not uncommon for the physician to note discrepancies between the history and the physical examination. Two physicians provided a list of diseases they have encountered in which there is occasionally discordance between the data retrieved from the patient's medical history and the findings of the physical examination. To verify the data from knowledge and experience, we resorted to two main medical textbooks and relevant articles from PubMed. We identified 25 diseases where a discordance between history and physical examination may frequently be observed. These diseases cover a wide spectrum of systems (i.e., neurological, cardiological, respiratory, and gastrointestinal). A variety of diseases are associated with a discordance between the findings one might expect based on the medical history and the actual findings of the physical examination. Physicians need to be aware of this paradox, as misdiagnosis can be detrimental in some of these diseases. We acknowledge that this is just a sample, and not an exhaustive list, of all diseases with such a discordance.

  20. The History of Elementary School Physical Education (1950-1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    Elementary school physical education in the 1950s espoused the aims of complete education through programs which emphasized mastery of skills in games, sports, dance, and similar activities. Since the middle of the 1960s, movement education has gained in popularity as both a methodology and as a program focusing on learning through efficient…

  1. History and development of medical physics and medical physicist in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyofuku, F.

    2014-01-01

    The history of medical physics in Japan dates back to the mid-1950's when radioisotope sources such as cobalt-60 were initiated into hospitals. In 1961, a total of about 30 medical physics researchers created a sub-committee of medical physics under the Japan Radiological Society (JRS), which flourished throughout the decade, and the number of members exceeded to more than 200 in 1970. Although there were great advances in medical technologies, the number of members of the medical physics community did not grow for the next two decades from 1980 to 2000. Then, the JRS began to officially recognize medical physicists as a professional group in 1987. Qualifications of candidacy for the examination included having the education equivalent of a Bachelor of Science/Engineering and being a member of the JRS. For the first official examination, 70 medical physicists were approved by the JRS. As of 2013, there are currently 700 medical physicists, however, the number of practicing clinical medical physicists remains only about 150. The main reason for this limited number of medical physicists is that the certification is not recognized as a national license and therefore is challenging to find professional employment as qualified medical personnel at hospitals. (author)

  2. The Manhattan project—a part of physics history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2006-11-01

    Current physics textbooks tend to exclude military applications, but it is explained here how a study of the Manhattan project—the devastatingly successful attempt to develop an atomic bomb—can show students how the lives and work of physicists are shaped by events in society. Much of the original source material is available in books and on the internet (and referenced here), which allows students to discover the views of the scientists for themselves.

  3. A physical and chemical model of early lunar history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, N. J.; Minear, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    A 'cool' thermal model of the moon's early history is discussed in terms of lunar petrology. Heat from the totally molten outer half of the moon's volume was, according to the model, lost to space and to the lunar interior, so that, barring additions of heat from external sources, all petrogenesis operating exclusively on material of the initially totally molten zone must have occured in an environment of decreasing temperatures. Mare basalts would result from hybridization by migration, mixing, and reequilibration of a variety of intercumulus liquids. Evidence is considered for the layered structure and a significant structural boundary that should result from differentiation of the approximately 350-km-thick initially totally molten zone. Magnetization of lunar rocks is considered.

  4. The Hindenburg Disaster: Combining Physics and History in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLisi, Gregory A.

    2017-05-01

    This May marks the 80th anniversary of the Hindenburg disaster. On May 6, 1937, the German passenger zeppelin Hindenburg, hovering 300 feet in the air and held aloft by seven million cubic feet of hydrogen gas, burst into flames while preparing to dock at the Naval Air Station in Lakehurst, NJ (Fig. 1). Amazingly, the ensuing fire consumed the massive airship in only 35 seconds! In the aftermath, 35 of 97 people onboard died (13 passengers and 22 crewmen) plus one member of the ground crew. Herbert Morrison, the broadcaster from Chicago's WLS radio station, was on assignment that day covering the arrival of the majestic airship. Morrison's eyewitness account of the disaster is legendary audio history. In fact, Morrison's phrase, "Oh, the humanity!" has become a cultural idiom.

  5. Structures including network and topology for identifying, locating and quantifying physical phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John G.; Moore, Karen A.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2006-04-25

    A method and system for detecting, locating and quantifying a physical phenomena such as strain or a deformation in a structure. A plurality of laterally adjacent conductors may each include a plurality of segments. Each segment is constructed to exhibit a unit value representative of a defined energy transmission characteristic. A plurality of identity groups are defined with each identity group comprising a plurality of segments including at least one segment from each of the plurality of conductors. The segments contained within an identity group are configured and arranged such that each of their associated unit values may be represented by a concatenated digit string which is a unique number relative to the other identity groups. Additionally, the unit values of the segments within an identity group maintain unique ratios with respect to the other unit values in the identity group.

  6. Pipeline including network and topology for identifying, locating and quantifying physical phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John G.; Moore, Karen A.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for detecting, locating and quantifying a physical phenomena such as strain or a deformation in a structure. A plurality of laterally adjacent conductors may each include a plurality of segments. Each segment is constructed to exhibit a unit value representative of a defined energy transmission characteristic. A plurality of identity groups are defined with each identity group comprising a plurality of segments including at least one segment from each of the plurality of conductors. The segments contained within an identity group are configured and arranged such that each of their associated unit values may be represented by a concatenated digit string which is a unique number relative to the other identity groups. Additionally, the unit values of the segments within an identity group maintain unique ratios with respect to the other unit values in the identity group.

  7. Frustration influences impact of history and disciplinary attitudes on physical discipline decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russa, Mary B; Rodriguez, Christina M; Silvia, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Although intergenerational patterns of punitive physical punishment garner considerable research attention, the mechanisms by which historical, cognitive, and contextual factors interplay to influence disciplinary responding remains poorly understood. Disciplinary attitudes have been shown to mediate the association between disciplinary history and disciplinary responding. The present study investigated whether frustration influences these mediation effects. Half of a sample of 330 undergraduates was randomly assigned to frustration induction. Structural equation modeling confirmed that, for participants in the frustration condition, the relation between disciplinary history and physical discipline decision-making was fully mediated by attitudes approving physical discipline. In contrast, for respondents in the no-frustration condition, the pathway from disciplinary history to discipline decision-making was only partially mediated by attitudes. Under conditions of frustration, attitudes may become a more central means by which personal disciplinary history is associated with disciplinary decision-making. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Data Stewardship in the Ocean Sciences Needs to Include Physical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M.; Lehnert, K.

    2016-02-01

    Across the Ocean Sciences, research involves the collection and study of samples collected above, at, and below the seafloor, including but not limited to rocks, sediments, fluids, gases, and living organisms. Many domains in the Earth Sciences have recently expressed the need for better discovery, access, and sharing of scientific samples and collections (EarthCube End-User Domain workshops, 2012 and 2013, http://earthcube.org/info/about/end-user-workshops), as has the US government (OSTP Memo, March 2014). iSamples (Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences) is a Research Coordination Network within the EarthCube program that aims to advance the use of innovative cyberinfrastructure to support and advance the utility of physical samples and sample collections for science and ensure reproducibility of sample-based data and research results. iSamples strives to build, grow, and foster a new community of practice, in which domain scientists, curators of sample repositories and collections, computer and information scientists, software developers and technology innovators engage in and collaborate on defining, articulating, and addressing the needs and challenges of physical samples as a critical component of digital data infrastructure. A primary goal of iSamples is to deliver a community-endorsed set of best practices and standards for the registration, description, identification, and citation of physical specimens and define an actionable plan for implementation. iSamples conducted a broad community survey about sample sharing and has created 5 different working groups to address the different challenges of developing the internet of samples - from metadata schemas and unique identifiers to an architecture for a shared cyberinfrastructure to manage collections, to digitization of existing collections, to education, and ultimately to establishing the physical infrastructure that will ensure preservation and access of the physical samples. Repositories that curate

  9. Horror, happenings and highlights in the history of vacuum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleint, Christian

    1998-12-01

    The origin of vacuum physics can be traced back to a statement of Aristotle that a vacuum cannot exist, which was questioned by Otto von Guericke. He tried to answer the question by experiment and was one of the most successful personalities to overcome medieval thought, and to pave the way to a new vistas for science and technology. His life and his famous demonstrations are described and a short account of the development of his apparatus and the impact on research in various countries is discussed. A list of old and newer reviews concludes the article.

  10. Basics of Lasers: History, Physics, and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Philipp; Henderson, Peter W; Rothaus, Kenneth O

    2016-07-01

    Lasers are increasingly used by plastic surgeons to address issues such as wrinkles and textural changes, skin laxity, hyperpigmentation, vascularity, and excess fat accumulation. A fundamental understanding of the underlying science and physics of laser technology is important for the safe and efficacious use of laser in medical settings. The purpose of this article was to give clinicians with limited exposure to lasers a basic understanding of the underlying science. In that manner, they can confidently make appropriate decisions as to the best device to use on a patient (or the best device to purchase for a practice). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The contribution, history, impact and future of physics in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This is an "Opinion" or "Commentary" text to support the Invited Opening Plenary Lecture of the NACP2008 Conference. It is an outrageously broad title, that I have been given, and I have made selections for the focus of the lecture and for this report. I observe a research methodology in medical physics whereby key developments have come from standing on the shoulders of those who have come before and I illustrate this by the invention of x-ray computed tomography and the development of intensity-modulated radiation therapy. The equally key role of somewhat maligned incremental science is also discussed. Some commentary is made on the enormous range of activities in medicine to which medical physicists have contributed. Conversely, future gazing is a totally unscientific process. Nevertheless I add my thoughts in broad generalities and also in specifics for the field (radiotherapy physics) in which I work and might be expected to be more accurate in my proposals. I conclude with some remarks on the conditions needed to achieve good scientific outcome.

  12. A history of the work concept from physics to economics

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Agamenon R E

    2014-01-01

    This  book traces the history of the concept of work from its earliest stages and shows that its further formalization leads to equilibrium principle and to the principle of virtual works, and so pointing the way ahead for future research and applications. The idea that something remains constant in a machine operation is very old and has been expressed by many mathematicians and philosophers such as, for instance, Aristotle. Thus,  a concept of energy developed. Another important  idea in machine operation is Archimedes' lever principle. In modern times the concept of work is analyzed in the context of applied mechanics mainly in Lazare Carnot mechanics and the mechanics of the new generation of polytechnical engineers like Navier, Coriolis and Poncelet. In this context the word "work" is finally adopted. These engineers are also responsible for the incorporation of the concept of work into the discipline of economics when they endeavoured to combine the study  of the work of machines and men together.

  13. Regional dust deposits on Mars: Physical properties, age, and history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Major dust storms on Mars play an important role in the deposition and removal of fine dust material. Thermal, radar, and visual remote sensing observations provide important constraints on the Martian regolith which have been used to determine the location and physical properties of regional dust deposits. These deposits are located in three northern equatorial regions, Tharsis (-20 0 S to 50 0 N, 60 0 to 190 0 W), Arabia (-5 0 S to 30 0 N, 300 0 to 360 0 W), and Elysium (10 0 to 30 0 N, 210 0 to 225 0 W). They are covered by fine (approx.2--40 μm), bright (albedo >0.27) particles, with fewer exposed rocks and coarse deposits than found elsewhere. Dust is currently deposited uniformly throughout the equatorial region at a rate of approx.40 μm/global storm

  14. Self-efficacy of physical education teachers in including students with cerebral palsy in their classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Barak, Sharon

    2017-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are often mainstreamed into the general education system, but are likely to be excluded from physical education (PE) classes. A questionnaire was constructed and utilized to measure PE teachers' self-efficacy (SE) toward inclusion of students with CP in each of three mobility categories (independent, using assistive devices, using wheelchair mobility) and the impact of experience and training on teachers' SE. Participants in the study were 121 PE teachers from different parts of Israel (mean age: 41.02±9.33 years; range: 25.00-59.00 years). Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the structure of the sub-scales' factors' structure and Cronbach's Alpha reliability was satisfactory (range 0.872-0.941). Independent t-tests were calculated in order to compare the SE of teachers with and without adapted PE experience. Repeated Analysis of Variance was performed to measure within-group differences in SE. Results revealed that the PE teachers' SE in teaching students who use mobility assistive devices or wheelchairs was significantly lower compared to teaching those who walk and run unaided (F=19.11; pteachers' SE towards including CP children who independently ambulate was influenced (pteacher's experience (elementary school practicum). SE in the mobility with assistive device group was also significantly influenced (pteachers' SE and enable greater participation of children with CP in general physical education classes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic Validity of Combining History Elements and Physical Examination Tests for Traumatic and Degenerative Symptomatic Meniscal Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Fallaha, Michel; Frémont, Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie E; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2017-10-27

    The current approach to the clinical diagnosis of traumatic and degenerative symptomatic meniscal tears (SMTs) proposes combining history elements and physical examination tests without systematic prescription of imaging investigations, yet the evidence to support this diagnostic approach is scarce. To assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude traumatic and degenerative SMT compared with other knee disorders. Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Patients were recruited from 2 orthopedic clinics, 2 family medicine clinics, and from a university community. A total of 279 consecutive patients who underwent consultation for a new knee complaint. Each patient was assessed independently by 2 evaluators. History elements and standardized physical examination tests performed by a physiotherapist were compared with the reference standard: an expert physicians' composite diagnosis including a clinical examination and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Participating expert physicians were orthopedic surgeons (n = 3) or sport medicine physicians (n = 2). Penalized logistic regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of SMT and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighty patients had a diagnosis of SMT (28.7%), including 35 traumatic tears and 45 degenerative tears. The combination a history of trauma during a pivot, medial knee pain location, and a positive medial joint line tenderness test was able to diagnose (LR+ = 8.9; 95% CI 6.1-13.1) or exclude (LR- = 0.10; 95% CI 0.03-0.28) a traumatic SMT. Combining a history of

  16. Abrupt global events in the Earth's history: a physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskin, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The timeline of the Earth's history reveals quasi-periodicity of the geological record over the last 542 Myr, on timescales close, in the order of magnitude, to 1 Myr. What is the origin of this quasi-periodicity? What is the nature of the global events that define the boundaries of the geological time scale? I propose that a single mechanism is responsible for all three types of such events: mass extinctions, geomagnetic polarity reversals, and sea-level fluctuations. The mechanism is fast, and involves a significant energy release. The mechanism is unlikely to have astronomical causes, both because of the energies involved and because it acts quasi-periodically. It must then be sought within the Earth itself. And it must be capable of reversing the Earth's magnetic field. The last requirement makes it incompatible with the consensus model of the origin of the geomagnetic field-the hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the Earth's fluid core. In the second part of the paper, I show that a vast amount of seemingly unconnected geophysical and geological data can be understood in a unified way if the source of the Earth's main magnetic field is a ∼200 km thick lithosphere, repeatedly magnetized as a result of methane-driven oceanic eruptions, which produce ocean flow capable of dynamo action. The eruptions are driven by the interplay of buoyancy forces and exsolution of dissolved gas, which accumulates in the oceanic water masses prone to stagnation and anoxia. Polarity reversals, mass extinctions and sequence boundaries are consequences of these eruptions. Unlike the consensus model of geomagnetism, this scenario is consistent with the paleomagnetic data showing that 'directional changes during a reversal can be astonishingly fast, possibly occurring as a nearly instantaneous jump from one inclined dipolar state to another in the opposite hemisphere'.

  17. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences

  18. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, Adrian J.; van Stralen, Maartje M.; Kunst, Anton E.; te Velde, Saskia J.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the

  19. History of sexual and physical abuse in women with dyspareunia: association with pain, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Bianca; Bergeron, Sophie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalifé, Samir

    2010-02-01

    Dyspareunia is a women's sexual health problem that still often goes undiagnosed despite its high prevalence and its detrimental impact on sexual, relationship, and psychological adjustment. Although sexual and physical abuse may constitute risk factors for the development of dyspareunia, the effects of past abuse on current pain and associated sexual and psychosocial impairments have never been examined. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the relation between a history of sexual and physical abuse and a series of pain, psychological, dyadic, and sexual functioning variables in a sample of women with dyspareunia. A hundred and fifty-one women took part in the study via health professional referrals and advertisements in local newspapers. Each participant underwent a standardized gynecological examination and a structured interview in order to confirm the diagnosis of dyspareunia. They also completed self-report questionnaires investigating past sexual and physical abuse, in addition to current pain, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual functioning. Dependent measures included: (i) The Brief Symptom Inventory; (ii) the Sexual History Form; and (iii) the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale. Pain was assessed via the McGill Pain Questionnaire and a visual analogue scale. Results revealed that a history of sexual abuse involving penetration was associated with poorer psychological adjustment and sexual functioning. Additionally, findings showed that women who perceived a link between their dyspareunia and their past sexual abuse reported worse sexual functioning than those who did not. Finally, the experience of sexual abuse was not associated with pain intensity and physical abuse was not associated with any of the outcome measures. Findings suggest that the presence of a sexual abuse history in women with dyspareunia is associated with increased psychological distress and sexual impairment, although there is no relation between a history of physical abuse

  20. History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L E; Meijers, J H; Sol, P; Seidell, J C; van Staveren, W.A.

    Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. The two groups of elderly women were selected based on a validated physical activity questionnaire. A previous study on their current

  1. Learning in an Introductory Physics MOOC: All Cohorts Learn Equally, Including an On-Campus Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly F Colvin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied student learning in the MOOC 8.MReV Mechanics ReView, run on the edX.org open source platform. We studied learning in two ways. We administered 13 conceptual questions both before and after instruction, analyzing the results using standard techniques for pre- and posttesting. We also analyzed each week’s homework and test questions in the MOOC, including the pre- and posttests, using item response theory (IRT. This determined both an average ability and a relative improvement in ability over the course. The pre- and posttesting showed substantial learning: The students had a normalized gain slightly higher than typical values for a traditional course, but significantly lower than typical values for courses using interactive engagement pedagogy. Importantly, both the normalized gain and the IRT analysis of pre- and posttests showed that learning was the same for different cohorts selected on various criteria: level of education, preparation in math and physics, and overall ability in the course. We found a small positive correlation between relative improvement and prior educational attainment. We also compared homework performance of MIT freshmen taking a reformed on-campus course with the 8.MReV students, finding them to be considerably less skillful than the 8.MReV students.

  2. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  3. Internet-based physical activity intervention for women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Marinac, Catherine R; Marcus, Bess H; Rosen, Rochelle K; Gans, Kim M

    2015-12-01

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. A total of 55 women with at least 1 first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Participants were on average 46.2 (SD = 11.4) years old with a body mass index of 27.3 (SD = 4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both ps Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

  5. Including Visually Impaired Students in Physical Education Lessons: A Case Study of Teacher and Pupil Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Dandolo, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Following recent education policy and curriculum changes in England, the notion of inclusion of children with special educational needs in physical education has increasingly become a topic of research interest and concern. It was the aim of this study to explore personal experiences and perspectives of inclusion in physical education. To this end…

  6. The Examination of Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Their Teacher Training to Include Students with Disabilities in General Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Despite legislative mandates, only 32% of states require specific licensure in adapted physical education (APE); consequently, general physical educators are challenged with including students with disabilities into regular classrooms. Although physical education teachers are considered qualified personnel to teach students with disabilities in…

  7. Abraham Pais Prize Lecture: Shifting Problems and Boundaries in the History of Modern Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Mary-Jo

    A long established category of study in the history of science is the ``history of physical sciences.'' It is a category that immediately begs the question of disciplinary boundaries for the problems and subjects addressed in historical inquiry. As a historian of the physical sciences, I often have puzzled over disciplinary boundaries and the means used to create or justify them. Scientists most often have been professionally identified with specific institutionalized fields since the late 19th century, but the questions they ask and the problems they solve are not neatly carved up by disciplinary perimeters. Like institutional departments or professorships, the Nobel Prizes in the 20th century often have delineated the scope of ``Physics'' or ``Chemistry'' (and ``Physiology or Medicine''), but the Prizes do not reflect disciplinary rigidity, despite some standard core subjects. In this paper I examine trends in Nobel Prize awards that indicate shifts in problem solving and in boundaries in twentieth century physics, tying those developments to changing themes in the history of physics and physical science in recent decades.

  8. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  9. The History of the Physics Department of the Technical University of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Alexandru

    2016-02-01

    A very complete outline of the history of the Physics Departament of the Technical University of Moldova has been given, since its foundation in 1964. The main lecturers, professors are listed with short biographical data, their main scientific interests and didactic works. The Internet page is well illustrated.

  10. The History and Philosophy of Science in Physics Teaching: A Research Synthesis of Didactic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Elder Sales; Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This work is a systematic review of studies that investigate teaching experiences applying History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) in physics classrooms, with the aim of obtaining critical and reliable information on this subject. After a careful process of selection and exclusion of studies compiled from a variety of databases, an in-depth review…

  11. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be diagnosed reliably using history and physical examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, M.; Bakker, E. W. P.; Moen, M. H.; Barten, C. C.; Teeuwen, R.; Weir, A.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using

  12. Hip joint pathology: relationship between patient history, physical tests, and arthroscopy findings in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M.; Cingel, R.E. van; Visser, E de; Holmich, P.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to (a) describe the clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip labral pathology; (b) describe the accuracy of patient history and physical tests for FAI and labral pathology as confirmed by hip arthroscopy. Patients (18-65

  13. The value of routine physical examination in the follow up of women with a history of early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenli; de Bock, Geertruida H; Schaapveld, Michael; Baas, Peter C; Wiggers, Theo; Jansen, Liesbeth

    2011-03-01

    Routine physical examination is recommended in follow up guidelines for women with a history of breast cancer. The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of routine physical examination in addition to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer recurrences. The medical follow-up documents of 669 patients were reviewed. 127 contra-lateral breast cancers (CBCs) and 58 loco-regional recurrences (LRRs) in 163 patients were included. The additional contribution of routine physical examination over mammography was evaluated with the proportions of CBCs or LRRs detected by physical examination alone. χ(2) tests were used to compare the difference of contribution of physical examination among subgroups. Seven (6%) out of 127 CBCs and 13 (22%) out of 58 LRRs were detected by routine physical examination alone. Six LRRs (17%; 6/35) were in patients after breast conserving surgery and seven LRRs (30%; 7/23) in patients after mastectomy. There was a trend that the contribution of physical examination is higher in women under 60 years of age in the detection of CBCs (9%; 5/57) and LRRs (28%, 8/29) than in women over 60 years of age (CBCs:3%; 2/70 and LRRs:17%, 5/29; χ(2)=3.090, P=0.079). Twenty-two percent of loco regional breast cancer recurrences would have been detected later without physical examination. Routine physical examination may be most valuable for women with a history of breast cancer younger than 60 years at follow-up visit. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. History of science, physics, and art: a complex approach in Brazilian syllabuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marco; Guerra, Andreia; Reis, José Claudio

    2013-09-01

    This paper is about new contents that can be introduced into science education. It is a description of an experience aimed at introducing a complex approach into the final grade of a Brazilian elementary school. The aim is to show the transformation of the conception of space and time from the Middle Ages with the physics of Aristotle to the 20th century, when a new conception arose with the physics of Einstein. These changes were accompanied by new visions of space and time in both physics and arts. Comparison between these two expressions of human culture is used to introduce science as a human construct inserted into history.

  16. A Model for the Design of Puzzle-Based Games Including Virtual and Physical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…

  17. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education: Has Entitlement and Accessibility Been Realised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…

  18. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  19. Including Overweight and Obese Students in Physical Education: An Urgent Need and Effective Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanyu; Li, Weidong; Zhao, Qi; Li, Mingda

    2017-01-01

    Students who are overweight or obese generally have low physical ability and fitness levels, experience serious weight-related health implications, are teased and excluded by their peers, and suffer psycho-social and emotional damages as a result of weight stigma. Overweight and obese students have presented an unprecedented challenge for teachers…

  20. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  1. Didactic implications of the history of science in Physics Education: a literature review through discursive textual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Rodrigues Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a literature review of the educational implications of the history of science in the teaching of Physics in the period 2010 to 2014. The technique used to analyze the data was the discursive textual analysis with the categories defined a priori. These categories include different teaching strategies for the teaching of history of science in Physics classes such as the use of primary or original sources, historical case studies, science through drama activities, historical experiments, biographies and /or autobiographies of scientists and the content analysis of the history of science present in textbooks. The result showed that 36 articles of 1659 available in journals use these teaching strategies. The results of the interpretative step consisted in the production of six metatexts in which two learning objectives were identified: the first one is related to physical concepts and the second one in aspects related to understanding the Nature of Science. The evaluation tools used by the authors to assess the students’ knowledge were identified in our corpus too.

  2. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  3. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  4. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  5. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  6. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  7. Increased Risk of Physical Punishment among Enuretic Children with Family History of Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Cacilda Andrade; Gusmão Paiva, Ana Carolina; de Menezes, Maria Clotilde Lima Bezerra; de Oliveira, Liliana Fajardo; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; de Figueiredo, André Avarese; de Bessa, José; Netto, José Murillo B

    2016-04-01

    Some parents blame their children for bedwetting and, therefore, punish them. This study aimed to assess the rate of punishment experienced by enuretic children and associated causative factors. A total of 87 children 6 to 15 years old with monosymptomatic enuresis were assessed individually. Parents answered the questions in the tolerance scale. The forms of punishment were classified as verbal, chastisement and physical aggression. Family history of enuresis was considered only when 1 or both parents had experienced enuresis. Of the 35 girls and 52 boys with a mean ± SD age of 9.3 ± 2.3 years 67 had a family history of enuresis. Of the 67 parents 57 (85.0%) had a history of being punished due to enuresis. All children experienced some sort of verbal punishment. Children who had a family history of enuresis were more prone to being punished by physical aggression than those without such a family history (32 of 67 or 47.8% vs 4 of 20 or 20%, OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-12.1, p = 0.03). Punishment was found 3 times more frequently in girls than in boys (20 of 35 or 57.1% vs 16 of 52 or 30.8%, OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.3). Parents of 79 of the 87 children (90.8%) had high scores on the tolerance scale regardless of the history of enuresis. Enuretic children are at a high risk for experiencing some kind of punishment. Children whose parents had enuresis are at risk for being physically punished. Parents should be taught about the involuntary nature of enuresis and the fact that no punishment would help improve the condition. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal load histories for North American roof assembles using various cladding materials including wood-thermoplastic composite shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, thermal load histories for various roof cladding types have been monitored in outdoor attic structures that simulate classic North American light-framed construction. In this paper, the 2005 thermal loads for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under wood-plastic composite shingles are compared to common North American roof...

  9. Comics in Modern Physics: Learning Blackbody Radiation through Quasi-History of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create a short comic story about historical emergence of Planck's explanation of blackbody radiation and to investigate what students learn from it and what they think about the usage of comics in modern physics course. The participants are a small group of undergraduate students studying at department of science…

  10. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lian eTam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011, estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  11. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done as part of a larger initiative to improve prevention efforts. Questionnaires were completed by 770 individuals from three Malaysian states: Selangor, Penang, and Terengganu. Findings showed that people with better health knowledge and those who have a family history of type 2 diabetes were more likely to have healthy diets. Also, health knowledge related to lower alcohol consumption. Participants with diabetic family members, however, also reported higher levels of stress. Counterintuitively, higher educational levels, higher internal locus of control, better health knowledge, as well as a family history of diabetes all correlated with lower levels of physical activity. Thus, it is suggested that, while increasing health knowledge will be important in addressing the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Malaysia, especially in relation to diet, other cultural factors, specifically norms related to exercise and physical activity, also need to be addressed if the spread of type 2 diabetes is to be addressed over the long term.

  12. Participation in physical activity: perceptions of women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graco, Marnie; Garrard, Jan; Jasper, Andrea E

    2009-04-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Regular physical activity plays an important role in preventing T2DM. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of physical activity among women with previous GDM, in the context of preventing T2DM. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women with previous GDM who had not been diagnosed with T2DM. Data were analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Women perceived diet to be significantly more important for the prevention of T2DM than physical activity. They underestimated the role of physical activity in preventing diabetes, which may have resulted from the lack of information they received following their pregnancy. Women consistently placed the needs of their families before their own, despite acknowledging their future health risks. The most commonly cited constraints on physical activity participation were lack of time, partner support, and appropriate childcare. They identified a need for 'family-friendly' community-based physical activity programs for mothers, more accessible childcare, and more information about the role of physical activity in diabetes prevention. Awareness of the role of physical activity for the prevention of diabetes was low. Physical activity promotion for women with previous GDM needs to be shaped around the opportunities and constraints identified by this population group.

  13. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  14. A multivariate generalizability analysis of history-taking and physical examination scores from the USMLE step 2 clinical skills examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Brian E; Balog, Kevin; Harik, Polina; Mee, Janet; Kahraman, Nilufer

    2009-10-01

    In clinical skills, closely related skills are often combined to form a composite score. For example, history-taking and physical examination scores are typically combined. Interestingly, there is relatively little research to support this practice. Multivariate generalizability theory was employed to examine the relationship between history-taking and physical examination scores from the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Skills examination. These two proficiencies are currently combined into a data-gathering score. The physical examination score is less generalizable than the score for history taking, and there is only a modest to moderate relationship between these two proficiencies. A decision about combining physical examination and history-taking proficiencies into one composite score, as well as the weighting of these components, should be driven by the intended use of the score. The choice of weights in combining physical examination and history taking makes a substantial difference in the precision of the resulting score.

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 31-34: Inductance; Wave Properties of Light; Interference; and Introduction to Quantum Physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity in older people with a history of hip fracture. Data were collected from 60- to 85-year-old (n = 78) community-dwelling people, 0.7-7.5 years after hip fracture. Physical activity was assessed with the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS). According to the YPAS summary index distribution, the participants were divided into the physically inactive and physically active groups. Musculoskeletal pain in the lower back, hip or knee region was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale. Pain was defined as severe pain if the subject rated the pain 66 mm or over (upper third of the scale) in at least one of the relevant body regions in the lower body. Thirty-three subjects (42%) experienced severe pain in the lower body, of whom 23 (70%) reported severe pain in the operated hip. Twenty-three patients (30%) used pain medication prescribed by a physician. The level of musculoskeletal pain was significantly higher in the physically inactive (62%) than in the physically active (31%) group (p = 0.011). Logistic regression analysis showed that people with severe pain had over three times (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.30-9.39) the risk for physical inactivity compared to those with less or no pain. Multivariate adjustments for balance confidence, time since fracture, number of chronic diseases and type of surgery did not materially change the estimate (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.00-9.30). Pain is an important associated factor of physical inactivity in older people with a hip fracture history. Pain management may be important in restoring and sustaining the level of physical activity after hip fracture. Further prospective and experimental studies are, however, needed to explore the causality between pain and

  17. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  18. Effect of burnup history by moderator density on neutron-physical characteristics of WWER-1000 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovdiienko, I.; Kuchin, A.; Khalimonchuk, V.; Ieremenko, M.

    2011-01-01

    Results of assessment of burnup history effect by moderator density on neutron physical characteristics of WWER-1000 core are presented on example of stationary fuel loading with Russian design fuel assembly TWSA and AER benchmark for Khmelnitsky NPP that was proposed by TUV and SSTC NRC at nineteenth symposium. Assessment was performed by DYN3D code and cross section library sets generated by HELIOS code. Burnup history was taken into account by preparing of numerous cross section sets with different isotopic composition each of which was obtained by burning under different moderator density. For analysis of history effect 20 cross section sets were prepared for each fuel assembly corresponded to each of 20 axial layers of reactor core model for DYN3D code. Four fuel cycles were modeled both for stationary fuel loading with TWSA and AER benchmark for Khmelnitsky NPP to obtain steady value of error due to neglect of burnup history effect. Main attention of study was paid to effect of burnup history by moderator density to axial power distribution. Results of study for AER benchmark were compared with experimental values of axial power distribution for fuel assemblies of first, second, third and fourth year operation. (Authors)

  19. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  20. Coronary microvascular disease in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy including an overview on history, pathology, and other proposed pathogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marcos A; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Malvestio, Lygia M; Celes, Mara R; Campos, Erica C; Blefari, Valdecir; Prado, Cibele M

    2010-08-31

    This review focuses on the short and bewildered history of Brazilian scientist Carlos Chagas's discovery and subsequent developments, the anatomopathological features of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an overview on the controversies surrounding theories concerning its pathogenesis, and studies that support the microvascular hypothesis to further explain the pathological features and clinical course of CCC. It is our belief that knowledge of this particular and remarkable cardiomyopathy will shed light not only on the microvascular involvement of its pathogenesis, but also on the pathogenetic processes of other cardiomyopathies, which will hopefully provide a better understanding of the various changes that may lead to an end-stage heart disease with similar features. This review is written to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Chagas disease.

  1. Coronary microvascular disease in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy including an overview on history, pathology, and other proposed pathogenic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A Rossi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the short and bewildered history of Brazilian scientist Carlos Chagas's discovery and subsequent developments, the anatomopathological features of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC, an overview on the controversies surrounding theories concerning its pathogenesis, and studies that support the microvascular hypothesis to further explain the pathological features and clinical course of CCC. It is our belief that knowledge of this particular and remarkable cardiomyopathy will shed light not only on the microvascular involvement of its pathogenesis, but also on the pathogenetic processes of other cardiomyopathies, which will hopefully provide a better understanding of the various changes that may lead to an end-stage heart disease with similar features. This review is written to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Chagas disease.

  2. Physical activity, family history of diabetes and risk of developing hyperglycaemia and diabetes among adults in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Wang, Y; Ware, R S; Tse, L Ah; Dunstan, D W; Liang, Y; Wang, Z; Hong, X; Owen, N

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the joint influence of physical activity and family history of diabetes on the subsequent risk of developing hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults. A prospective community-based cohort study was conducted among adults aged 35 years and older during 2004-2007 in Nanjing, China. Four communities (three urban and one rural) were randomly selected from 11 urban districts and two rural counties. Hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes were defined using World Health Organization criteria based on fasting blood glucose concentration and physicians' diagnosis, respectively. Physical activity, parental diabetes history, and other important covariates were assessed at baseline and in the third-year follow-up survey. At study conclusion data were collected from 3031 participants (follow-up rate 81.3%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes was 6.2% and 2.4%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, compared with those with positive family history and insufficient physical activity, the adjusted relative risk ratio (95% CI) of developing hyperglycaemia was 0.19 (0.02, 1.51) for participants with sufficient physical activity and a positive family history; 0.55 (0.31, 0.97) for participants with insufficient physical activity and a negative family history; and 0.36 (0.19, 0.70) for participants with sufficient physical activity but a negative family history. Participants who had a negative family history and insufficient physical activity were also less likely to develop Type 2 diabetes (RRR = 0.28; 0.14, 0.54), and participants with a negative family history and sufficient physical activity were the least likely to develop Type 2 diabetes (0.23; 0.10, 0.56). Sufficient physical activity and negative family history of diabetes may jointly reduce the risk of developing hyperglycaemia and Type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  3. Value Added: History of Physics in a ``Science, Technology, and Society'' General Education Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Dwight

    2016-03-01

    In thirty years of teaching a capstone ``Science, Technology, and Society'' course to undergraduate students of all majors, I have found that, upon entering STS, to most of them the Manhattan Project seems about as remote as the Civil War; few can describe the difference between nuclear and large non-nuclear weapons. With similar lack of awareness, many students seem to think the Big Bang was dreamed up by science sorcerers. One might suppose that a basic mental picture of weapons that held entire populations hostage should be part of informed citizenship. One might also suppose that questions about origins, as they are put to nature through evidence-based reasoning, should be integral to a culture's identity. Over the years I have found the history of physics to be an effective tool for bringing such subjects to life for STS students. Upon hearing some of the history behind (for example) nuclear weapons and big bang cosmology, these students can better imagine themselves called upon to help in a Manhattan Project, or see themselves sleuthing about in a forensic science like cosmology. In this talk I share sample student responses to our class discussions on nuclear weapons, and on cosmology. The history of physics is too engaging to be appreciated only by physicists.

  4. The Collin dynamometer: History of the development of an instrument for measuring physical and mental strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nicolas, S.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2017), s. 173-219 ISSN 0003-5033 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Collin dynamometer * experimental psychology * history of psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2016

  5. The Collin dynamometer: History of the development of an instrument for measuring physical and mental strength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nicolas, S.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2017), s. 173-219 ISSN 0003-5033 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Collin dynamometer * experimental psycho logy * history of psycho logy Subject RIV: AN - Psycho logy OBOR OECD: Psycho logy (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 0.358, year: 2016

  6. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be diagnosed reliably using history and physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, M; Bakker, E W P; Moen, M H; Barten, C C; Teeuwen, R; Weir, A

    2017-02-08

    The majority of sporting injuries are clinically diagnosed using history and physical examination as the cornerstone. There are no studies supporting the reliability of making a clinical diagnosis of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Our aim was to assess if MTSS can be diagnosed reliably, using history and physical examination. We also investigated if clinicians were able to reliably identify concurrent lower leg injuries. A clinical reliability study was performed at multiple sports medicine sites in The Netherlands. Athletes with non-traumatic lower leg pain were assessed for having MTSS by two clinicians, who were blinded to each others' diagnoses. We calculated the prevalence, percentage of agreement, observed percentage of positive agreement (Ppos), observed percentage of negative agreement (Pneg) and Kappa-statistic with 95%CI. Forty-nine athletes participated in this study, of whom 46 completed both assessments. The prevalence of MTSS was 74%. The percentage of agreement was 96%, with Ppos and Pneg of 97% and 92%, respectively. The inter-rater reliability was almost perfect; k=0.89 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.00), phistory and physical examination, in clinical practice and research settings. We also found that concurrent lower leg injuries are common in athletes with MTSS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Summaries of reports of the 30. Conference on low-temperature physics. Pt. 1. Fundamental questions of superconductivity including HTSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Thesis of reporsts of the 30th Conference on low-temperature physics are presented. Fundamental problems of superconductivity are discussed including HTSC in bulk crystals, in thin films of Josephson junctions, ceramics and heterostructures. Specific features of superconductor structure and magnetic properties and also different mechanisms of superconductivity are analyzed

  8. Influence of parental history of hypertension on screen time and physical activity in young offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Teber, Erdahl; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological data on the relationship between parental hypertension and lifestyle factors among children are limited. We assessed the associations between positive parental history of hypertension with a range of indicators of sedentariness (television viewing, computer and videogame usage) and physical activity (outdoor and indoor activity) among prepubertal children. Six-year-old (1765 of 2238 eligible) students from a random cluster sample of 34 Sydney schools were examined. Parents completed questionnaires about their medical conditions and the child's activities. If the biological mother and/or father had hypertension, then this was classified as positive parental history of hypertension. Parents of 160 (9.2%) children gave a positive family history of hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, parental education and employment and exposure to passive smoking, children with, compared with those without, a family history of hypertension were more likely to spend above the median time (hours/day) watching television and playing videogames [odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.96; OR 1.52, CI 1.12-2.06, respectively]. The offspring of hypertensive parents were more likely to spend above the median time in total physical activity (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23-2.27). Maternal (but not paternal) hypertension was associated with increased time spent watching television (P = 0.03) and in outdoor activity (P = 0.01). Parental hypertension influences the time that prepubertal offspring spend in both active and sedentary pursuits. These findings highlight potential factors that could be addressed in the development of cardiovascular disease-preventive measures starting early in life among the offspring of hypertensive parents.

  9. Utility of the History and Physical Examination in the Detection of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Emergency Department Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary DW Dezman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain accounts for approximately 6% of all emergency department (ED visits and is the most common reason for emergency hospital admission. One of the most serious diagnoses emergency physicians must consider is acute coronary syndrome (ACS. This is both common and serious, as ischemic heart disease remains the single biggest cause of death in the western world. The history and physical examination are cornerstones of our diagnostic approach in this patient group. Their importance is emphasized in guidelines, but there is little evidence to support their supposed association. The purpose of this article was to summarize the findings of recent investigations regarding the ability of various components of the history and physical examination to identify which patients presenting to the ED with chest pain require further investigation for possible ACS. Previous studies have consistently identified a number of factors that increase the probability of ACS. These include radiation of the pain, aggravation of the pain by exertion, vomiting, and diaphoresis. Traditional cardiac risk factors identified by the Framingham Heart Study are of limited diagnostic utility in the ED. Clinician gestalt has very low predictive ability, even in patients with a non-diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG, and gestalt does not seem to be enhanced appreciably by clinical experience. The history and physical alone are unable to reduce a patient’s risk of ACS to a generally acceptable level (<1%. Ultimately, our review of the evidence clearly demonstrates that “atypical” symptoms cannot rule out ACS, while “typical” symptoms cannot rule it in. Therefore, if a patient has symptoms that are compatible with ACS and an alternative cause cannot be identified, clinicians must strongly consider the need for further investigation with ECG and troponin measurement.

  10. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse History and Leukocyte Telomere Length among Women in Middle Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Mason

    Full Text Available Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte telomere length among 1,135 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII.The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes collected between 1996 and 1999. The ratio of telomere repeat copy number to a single gene copy number (T/S was determined by a modified version of the quantitative real-time PCR telomere assay. Telomere length was log-transformed and corrected for assay variation across batch. We regressed telomere length on childhood abuse exposure variables and covariates using linear regression.We observed a reduction in telomere length associated with moderate physical abuse versus no physical abuse, but there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship for increased severity of physical abuse. No associations were noted for sexual abuse.We found no evidence of an association between severity of childhood physical or sexual abuse and leukocyte telomere length in the NHSII.

  11. Early diagnosis of Lemierre's syndrome based on a medical history and physical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yutaka; Wada, Mikio; Kawashima, Atsushi; Kagawa, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with fever and rigor after experiencing respiratory symptoms the previous week that had resolved within a few days. On presentation, her neck was swollen along the right sternocleidomastoid muscle, and chest CT showed pulmonary septic embolisms. Lemierre's syndrome was strongly suspected based on the patient's medical history and physical findings. Further examination revealed venous thrombus, and Fusobacterium necrophorum was later isolated from blood cultures. Antibiotics for anaerobes were administered before a final diagnosis was made, and the patient's symptoms thereafter improved. A rapid diagnosis is essential, since Lemierre's syndrome can be fatal with a diagnostic delay.

  12. Pilot evaluation of physical and psychological effects of a physical trek programme including a dog sledding expedition in children and teenagers with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014.

  13. Physical activity history and end-of-life hospital and long-term care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantanen, Taina; Leinonen, Raija

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the early predictors of need for care in late life. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physical activity from midlife onward was associated with hospital and long-term care in the last year of life. METHODS: We studied a decedent population of 846...... had been consistently physically active, whereas use of long-term care did not correlate with physical activity history. Among women, the risk for long-term care was higher for those who had been sedentary (IRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.21) or only occasionally physically active (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1...... 138 days (SD 6.2) of inpatient care in the last year of life. Among men, the risk for all-cause hospital care in the last year of life was higher for those who had been sedentary since midlife (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.42) compared with those who...

  14. Necessity of introducing postencounter note describing history and physical examination at clinical performance examination in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghoon

    2014-06-01

    Information gathering ability had been evaluated mainly via checklists in clinical performance examinations (CPX). But, it is not proved yet if students write the information correctly in postencounter note (PN), although they asked questions or performed physical examinations (PE) about the information when they interacted with standardized patients in CPX. This study addressed the necessity of introducing PN to evaluate the ability in CPX. After patient encounters, students were instructed to write the findings of history taking and physical examination that they considered as important information in approaching the patient's problems in PN. PNs were scored using answer keys selected from checklist items, which were considered to be recorded in PN by CPX experts. PNs of six CPX cases from 54 students were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between the key-checklist scores and PN scores of six cases were moderate to high (0.52 to 0.79). However, students frequently neglected some cardinal features of chief complains, pertinent findings of past/social history and PE, and pertinent negative findings of associated symptoms in PNs, which were checked as 'done' in the keys of checklists. It is necessary to introduce PN in CPX to evaluate the students' ability of synthesis and integration of patient information.

  15. Association between Patient History and Physical Examination and Osteoarthritis after Ankle Sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ochten, John M; de Vries, Anja D; van Putte, Nienke; Oei, Edwin H G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2017-09-01

    Structural abnormalities on MRI are frequent after an ankle sprain. To determine the association between patient history, physical examination and early osteoarthritis (OA) in patients after a previous ankle sprain, 98 patients with persistent complaints were selected from a cross-sectional study. Patient history taking and physical examination were applied and MRI was taken. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to test possible associations. Signs of OA (cartilage loss, osteophytes and bone marrow edema) were seen in the talocrural joint (TCJ) in 40% and the talonavicular joint (TNJ) in 49%. Multivariable analysis showed a significant positive association between swelling (OR 3.58, 95%CI 1.13;11.4), a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.01;1.18) and bone edema in the TCJ. A difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.00;1.15) and pain at the end range of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion (OR 5.23, 95%CI 1.88;14.58) were associated with osteophytes in the TNJ. Pain at the end of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion and swelling seem to be associated with features of OA (bone marrow edema, osteophytes) in the TCJ and TNJ. Our findings may guide physicians to predict structural joint abnormalities as signs of osteoarthritis. 1b. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Evaluation of the first seizure patient: Key points in the history and physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Tomasz A; Jirsch, Jeffrey D

    2017-07-01

    This review will present the history and physical examination as the launching point of the first seizure evaluation, from the initial characterization of the event, to the exclusion of alternative diagnoses, and then to the determination of specific acute or remote causes. Clinical features that may distinguish seizures from alternative diagnoses are discussed in detail, followed by a discussion of acute and remote first seizure etiologies. This review article is based on a discretionary selection of English language articles retrieved by a literature search in the PubMed database, and the authors' clinical experience. The first seizure is a dramatic event with often profound implications for patients and family members. The initial clinical evaluation focuses on an accurate description of the spell to confirm the diagnosis, along with careful scrutiny for previously unrecognized seizures that would change the diagnosis more definitively to one of epilepsy. The first seizure evaluation rests primarily on the clinical history, and to a lesser extent, the physical examination. Even in the era of digital EEG recording and neuroimaging, the initial clinical evaluation remains essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of the first seizure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A family history of diabetes is associated with reduced physical fitness in the Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes (PPP)-Botnia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, B; Forsén, B; Lahti, K; Holmström, N; Wadén, J; Matintupa, O; Almgren, P; Eriksson, J G; Lyssenko, V; Taskinen, M-R; Tuomi, T; Groop, L C

    2010-08-01

    We studied the impact of a family history of type 2 diabetes on physical fitness, lifestyle factors and diabetes-related metabolic factors. The Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes (PPP)-Botnia study is a population-based study in Western Finland, which includes a random sample of 5,208 individuals aged 18 to 75 years identified through the national Finnish Population Registry. Physical activity, dietary habits and family history of type 2 diabetes were assessed by questionnaires and physical fitness by a validated 2 km walking test. Insulin secretion and action were assessed based upon OGTT measurements of insulin and glucose. A family history of type 2 diabetes was associated with a 2.4-fold risk of diabetes and lower physical fitness (maximal aerobic capacity 29.2 +/- 7.2 vs 32.1 +/- 7.0, p = 0.01) despite having similar reported physical activity to that of individuals with no family history. The same individuals also had reduced insulin secretion adjusted for insulin resistance, i.e. disposition index (p < 0.001) despite having higher BMI (27.4 +/- 4.6 vs 26.0 +/- 4.3 kg/m(2), p < 0.001). Individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes are characterised by lower physical fitness, which cannot solely be explained by lower physical activity. They also have an impaired capacity of beta cells to compensate for an increase in insulin resistance imposed by an increase in BMI. These defects should be important targets for interventions aiming at preventing type 2 diabetes in individuals with inherited susceptibility to the disease.

  18. Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark. More children diagnosed with autism and ADHD have been included in primary school by law in Denmark over the last years (L379, 2012). In a new School reform (L406, 2014......) the children have to participate in physical activities at least 45 minutes each school day. Autism and ADHD are disabling conditions that affects social communication and interaction, and often also their motor skills and cognition (Harvey & Reid, 2003; Verret, 2010). Therefore these children can be challenge....... There will be used a process-oriented methodology (Baur & Ernst, 2011).The methods of the research are primarily based on qualitative methods: Analysis of the curriculum for PE from the Danish ministry of Education and political strategies of inclusion, field observations primarily in PE, interviews with the 11...

  19. MO-D-213AB-01: A Brief History of Medical Physics Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevezi, J

    2012-06-01

    "Corporate memory" is important in many areas of medical physics, but especially so in the area of economics. To appreciate where medical physics currently resides in the reimbursement arena, it is imperative that we know from whence we came. This talk will trace the history of medical physics reimbursement, chiefly in the area of radiation oncology since most of our reimbursement codes appear in that clinical specialty. We will begin with the initiation of the Harvard RBRVS system and the effect it had on our field. Subsequently, we will trace the impact of new technological advances in the field and how, at each juncture, the reimbursement associated with these advances directly impacted our employment opportunities and salaries. Although much of the operations of the three chief panels associated with health care reimbursement, the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Editorial Panel, the Relative-Value Update Committee (RUC) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are confidential in nature, the history of how these panels operate and their impact on how health care is reimbursed is important to our field. For those of us who have labored in this arena over the years, there are successes and failures as new procedures in radiation oncology were taken for reimbursement consideration, initially by the Joint Economics Committee of ACR and ASTRO, and later by ASTRO in collaboration with AAPM. These will be discussed in a general sense to avoid confidentiality breaches. As we progressed from the use of CT planning images with 3D conventional therapy, brachytherapy -high and low dose rate systems, IMRT planning and delivery (with concomitant plan verification work) to the latest procedures of SRS and SBRT with Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT), each procedure has its own story surrounding how its reimbursement was developed. Where no confidentiality issues are involved, the stories behind the scenes will be discussed as these procedures were

  20. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  1. The value of routine physical examination in the follow up of women with a history of early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, W.; de Bock, G.H.; Schaapveld, M.; Baas, P.C.; Wiggers, T.; Jansen, L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Routine physical examination is recommended in follow up guidelines for women with a history of breast cancer. The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of routine physical examination in addition to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer recurrences. PATIENTS

  2. Evaluation of physical health and its relation with history of work accidents in workers of the Central Iron Ore Company of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Halvani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was conducted to determine the state of physical symptoms of the Iranian Central Iron Ore Company workers and its relation with history of work accidents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed at the Iranian Central Iron Ore Company and included 388 workers sampled randomly out of 2100 workers. Research tool was a two-part questionnaire that its reliability was determined by some of researchers. Data was analyzed by SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science software and statistical tests included variance analysis and Pearson′ correlation tests. Results: According to the findings, 80.9% had favorable physical health conditions and there was a significant relationship between physical health condition, history of work accidents, cigarette smoking and type of work. Conclusion: Considering the strong relationship between physical health and history of work accidents, it is proposed that high-level managers of the Central Iron Ore Company of Iran should pay special attention to the improvement of physical health, psychological, social, and welfare levels.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Educators' Self-Efficacy Toward Including Students With Disabilities-Autism Among Chinese Preservice Physical Education Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiao; Wang, Lijuan; Block, Martin E; Sum, Raymond K W; Wu, Yandan

    2018-03-09

    Teachers' self-efficacy is a critical predictor for successful inclusive physical education. However, little is known about preservice physical educators' self-efficacy toward teaching students with autism spectrum disorders in China. A sound instrument is necessary to measure their self-efficacy level. This validation study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Physical Educators' Self-Efficacy Toward Including Students with Disabilities-Autism. A multisection survey form was administered to preservice physical educators in Mainland China (n = 205) and Hong Kong (n = 227). The results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the one-factor model of the scale in the total sample and each of the two samples. Invariance tests across the two samples supported configural and metric invariance but not scalar invariance. The scale scores showed good internal reliability and were correlated with theoretically relevant constructs (i.e., burnout and life satisfaction) in the total sample and subsamples. These findings generally support the utility of the scale for use among Chinese preservice physical educators.

  4. Research and pedagogy a history of quantum physics through its textbooks

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Historians of quantum physics and early quantum mechanics have seldom paid attention to the ways the new theory was integrated in physics textbooks, perhaps taking for granted that novelties in science can only be taught once they are fully understood and generally accepted. The essays in this volume challenge this view by studying some of the early books and textbooks in which quantum theory was first introduced. By so doing, the authors show the many ways books and textbooks embody pedagogical and research practices in certain local environments (geographical, disciplinary, in terms of expertise, etc.), as well as the circular feedback between research and pedagogy. Textbooks can become the subject of a history of early quantum physics since the very process of writing a textbook, (i.e., of trying to organise a new doctrine to the newcomer in an accessible way), together with its life as an object that is issued, used, changed, and abandoned, incorporates many of the tensions between research and pedagogy....

  5. Teaching the gravitational redshift: lessons from the history and philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.

    2015-04-01

    The equivalence principle and the notion of an ideal clock running independently of acceleration suggest that clocks are unaffected by gravity. The apparent contradiction with the gravitational redshift points to a subtlety in general relativity theory. Indeed, early attempts for a clear derivation of the gravitational redshift were fraught with errors and ambiguities, and much confusion endured for the next two decades. This suggests that the subject should be treated carefully in introductory textbooks on relativity theory. I analyze the weaknesses of the presentation in five otherwise excellent modern introductory general relativity books (by Rindler, Schutz, Hobson et al., Weinberg, and Carroll). I also present some analysis from an history and philosophy of physics article, which proves to be a great resource to learn about, anticipate, and clarify problems in teaching the redshift.

  6. Physics in the international arms control effort: a history and introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, William; Ganzer, Ann; Westling, Amy

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Government has regulations in place to control the international traffic in arms. The growth of science and engineering since the inception of this governmental effort has produced many remarkable military-related systems, some existing purely for information gathering and defensive purposes. Defense trade is now a multi-billion dollar multi-national industry. U.S. defense trade in particular is strongly influenced by national security and foreign policy rather than economic impact, unlike many of its competitors. A brief history of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations will be presented, followed by an overview of some of the categories on the United States Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex which have strong connections to physics in terms of theory, concepts, and measurement. Following this category overview, particular emphasis will be given to the existing radiation hardening standards for semiconductors, and the basic structure of night vision devices.

  7. Reliability and diagnostic accuracy of history and physical examination for diagnosing glenoid labral tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsworth, Matthew K; Doukas, William C; Murphy, Kevin P; Mielcarek, Billie J; Michener, Lori A

    2008-01-01

    Glenoid labral tears provide a diagnostic challenge. Combinations of items in the patient history and physical examination will provide stronger diagnostic accuracy to suggest the presence or absence of glenoid labral tear than will individual items. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 1. History and examination findings in patients with shoulder pain (N = 55) were compared with arthroscopic findings to determine diagnostic accuracy and intertester reliability. The intertester reliability of the crank, anterior slide, and active compression tests was 0.20 to 0.24. A combined history of popping or catching and positive crank or anterior slide results yielded specificities of 0.91 and 1.00 and positive likelihood ratios of 3.0 and infinity, respectively. A positive anterior slide result combined with either a positive active compression or crank result yielded specificities of 0.91 and positive likelihood ratio of 2.75 and 3.75, respectively. Requiring only a single positive finding in the combination of popping or catching and the anterior slide or crank yielded sensitivities of 0.82 and 0.89 and negative likelihood ratios of 0.31 and 0.33, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of individual tests in previous studies is quite variable, which may be explained in part by the modest reliability of these tests. The combination of popping or catching with a positive crank or anterior slide result or a positive anterior slide result with a positive active compression or crank test result suggests the presence of a labral tear. The combined absence of popping or catching and a negative anterior slide or crank result suggests the absence of a labral tear.

  8. A brief history of federal support for health physics education and training in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Since the formation of health physics as a profession following the end of World War II, the federal government of the United States has played an active role in the support of education and training of health physicists. The purpose of this paper is to review the types of federal support that have been available from the federal government in the past and to examine the current status of support. Individuals trained in health physics through the nuclear navy programs have not been included in this discussion. (author)

  9. Science and society the history of modern physical science in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Gordin, Michael; Kaiser, David

    2001-01-01

    Modern science has changed every aspect of life in ways that cannot be compared to developments of previous eras. This four volume set presents key developments within modern physical science and the effects of these discoveries on modern global life. The first two volumes explore the history of the concept of relativity, the cultural roots of science, the concept of time and gravity before, during, and after Einstein's theory, and the cultural reception of relativity. Volume three explores the impact of modern science upon global politics and the creation of a new kind of war, and Volume four details the old and new efforts surrounding the elucidation of the quantum world, as well as the cultural impact of particle physics. The collection also presents the historical and cultural context that made these scientific innovations possible. The transformation of everyday concepts of time and space for the individual and for society, the conduct of warfare, and the modern sense of mastering nature are all issues d...

  10. From the history of physics (Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 December 2012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    A scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 17 December 2012. The following reports were put on the session's agenda posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Dianov E M (Fiber Optics Research Center, RAS, Moscow) O n the threshold of a peta era ; (2) Zabrodskii A G (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) S cientists' contribution to the great victory in WWII using the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute ; (3) Ilkaev R I (Russian Federal Nuclear Center --- All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov) M ajor stages of the Soviet Atomic Project ; (4) Cherepashchuk A M (Sternberg State Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) H istory of the Astronomy history . Papers written on the basis of the reports are published below. . On the Threshold of Peta-era, E M Dianov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 486–492 . Scientists' contribution to the Great Victory in WWII on the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute, A G Zabrodskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 493–502 . Major stages of the Atomic Project, R I Ilkaev Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 502–509. History of the Universe History, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 509–530 (conferences and symposia)

  11. Physical activity interventions in Latin America: what value might be added by including conference abstracts in a literature review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine; Soares, Jesus; Parra, Diana C; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Pratt, Michael; Bracco, Mario; Hallal, Pedro C; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-07-01

    This review assessed whether conference abstracts yield useful information on the types and effectiveness of community-based physical activity (PA) interventions in Latin America, beyond that from interventions included in a recent systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. Abstracts from 9 conferences were searched for community-based interventions to promote PA in Latin America and summarized. Three reviewers classified and screened abstracts. Evaluated interventions that were not included in the previous review were assessed. Search of abstracts from 31 proceedings of 9 conferences identified 87 abstracts of studies on community-based interventions focused on increasing PA. Only 31 abstracts reported on studies with a control group and an outcome related to PA. Ten of these abstracts represented interventions that had not been included in the previous review of peer-reviewed literature, but the abstracts were insufficient in number or detail to make a practice recommendation for any single intervention. This review highlighted the challenges and low added value of including conference abstracts in a systematic review of community PA interventions in Latin America. Stronger evaluation design and execution and more published reports of evaluated interventions are needed to build an evidence base supporting interventions to increase PA in Latin America.

  12. Physical urticaria: Review on classification, triggers and management with special focus on prevalence including a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisonno, Jordan; Balram, Bhairavi; Netchiporouk, Elena; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2015-08-01

    Physical urticaria (PU) is a subset of chronic urticaria (CU) induced by physical stimuli. To date, there is no consensus in the literature on the prevalence of PU among patients with CU. Our objective was to review the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of PU and to estimate the prevalence of PU in CU patients. We performed a narrative review of PU and conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis to determine the pooled estimates of the prevalence of PU among patients with CU in the literature up to September 2014. We searched four databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE and Web of Science) of published work for which full text was available in English or French. Studies were eligible if they measured the prevalence of PU in adults or children with CU worldwide and ineligible if CU cases were not differentiated from total urticaria cases. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata, version 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). In addition, the quality and validity of the articles included in the meta-analysis was assessed. Ten studies were included in our meta-analysis. Sample sizes ranged from 202 to 4157 patients. The pooled prevalence estimate of PU including and excluding cholinergic forms among all cases of CU were 13.1% (95% CI: 12.5, 13.6) and 14.9% (95% CI: 14.3, 15.7), respectively. Our results must be viewed with circumspection because of the small number of eligible articles and heterogeneity among studies. Even so, the results suggest that PU is an important subset of CU and that physicians should be aware of this important condition in order to manage patients appropriately.

  13. Diagnostic utility of patient history and physical examination data to detect spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in athletes with low back pain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grødahl, Linn Helen J; Fawcett, Louise; Nazareth, Madeleine; Smith, Richard; Spencer, Simon; Heneghan, Nicola; Rushton, Alison

    2016-08-01

    In adolescent athletes, low back pain has a 1-year prevalence of 57% and causes include spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. An accurate diagnosis enables healing, prevention of progression and return to sport. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of patient history and physical examination data to identify spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis in athletes. Systematic review was undertaken according to published guidelines, and reported in line with PRISMA. Key databases were searched up to 13/11/15. athletic population with LBP, patient history and/or physical examination accuracy data for spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis, any study design including raw data. Two reviewers independently assessed risk of bias (ROB) using QUADAS-2. A data extraction sheet was pre-designed. Pooling of data and investigation for heterogeneity enabled a qualitative synthesis of data across studies. Of the eight included studies, two were assessed as low ROB, one of which also had no concerns regarding applicability. Age (spondylolysis. Difficulty falling asleep, waking up because of pain, pain worse with sitting and walking all have sensitivity >75% for spondylolisthesis. Step-deformity palpation demonstrated 60-88% sensitivity and 87-100% specificity for spondylolisthesis. The one-legged hyperextension test was not supported for spondylolysis (sensitivity 50-73%, specificity 0-87%). No recommendations can be made utilising patient history data. Based on one low ROB study, step deformity palpation may be useful in diagnosing spondylolisthesis. No physical tests demonstrated diagnostic utility for spondylolysis. Further research is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. History of Japan-U.S./High Pressure Mineral Physics Seminars: 1976 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, Robert Cooper

    2014-03-01

    Under the auspices of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Science Program between the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the first U.S.-Japan joint seminar on High Pressure Research Applications in Geophysics was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, 5-8 July 1976 and was attended by 47 scientists. Originated as bilateral U.S.-Japan seminars on high-pressure research applications in geophysics by Murli Manghnani and Syun-iti Akimoto, this series continued at 5-year intervals under those auspices from 1976 to 1996 [1981 in Hakone, Japan 1986 in Turtle Bay, Hawaii, 1991 in Ise, Japan, and 1996 in Maui, Hawaii], with venues alternating between Hawaii and Japan. In the 21st century, as a result of growing international interest in high-pressure mineral physics, the seminar series was re-envisioned with a broader focus “more international” focus than the original U.S.-Japan bilateral series. The first of the new meetings entitled “High Pressure Mineral Physics Seminars” [HPMP-6] took place in Verbania, Italy on August 26-31, 2002. More than 84 scientists from Asia, Australia, the Americas and Europe attended. HPMPS-7 took place in Matsushima, Japan on May 8-12, 2007 and was attended by 134 scientists from throughout the world. In this paper, we review this history culminating with the HPMPS-8 at Lake Tahoe, California in July 2012, which was held jointly with the Annual Meeting of COMPRES: Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences.

  15. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  16. The relationship between history and physical examination findings and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing in patients with sciatica referred to physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nathan J; Fritz, Julie M; Thackeray, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study. To investigate the relationship between history and physical examination findings and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing in patients with sciatica referred to physical therapy. Electrodiagnostic testing is routinely used to evaluate patients with sciatica. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of radiculopathy identified with electrodiagnostic testing may predict better functional outcomes in these patients. While some patient history and physical examination findings have been shown to predict the presence of disc herniation or neurological insult, little is known about their relationship to the results of electrodiagnostic testing. Electrodiagnostic testing was performed on 38 patients with sciatica who participated in a randomized trial that compared different physical therapy interventions. The diagnostic gold standard was the presence or absence of radiculopathy, based on the results of the needle electromyographic examination. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity values were calculated, along with corresponding likelihood ratios, for select patient history and physical examination variables. No significant relationship was found between select patient history and physical examination findings, analyzed individually or in combination, and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing. Diagnostic sensitivity values ranged from 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00, 0.24) to a high of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.99), and specificity values ranged from 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34) to a high of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.99). Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 0.15 (95% CI: 0.01, 2.87) to a high of 2.33 (95% CI: 0.71, 7.70), and negative likelihood ratios ranged from 2.00 (95% CI: 0.35, 11.48) to a low of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.03, 8.10). In this investigation, the relationship between patient history and physical examination findings and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing among patients with sciatica was not found to be

  17. Effects of Including Misidentified Sharks in Life History Analyses: A Case Study on the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan J; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Green, Madeline E; Appleyard, Sharon A; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; White, William T

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries observer programs are used around the world to collect crucial information and samples that inform fisheries management. However, observer error may misidentify similar-looking shark species. This raises questions about the level of error that species misidentifications could introduce to estimates of species' life history parameters. This study addressed these questions using the Grey Reef Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos as a case study. Observer misidentification rates were quantified by validating species identifications using diagnostic photographs taken on board supplemented with DNA barcoding. Length-at-age and maturity ogive analyses were then estimated and compared with and without the misidentified individuals. Vertebrae were retained from a total of 155 sharks identified by observers as C. amblyrhynchos. However, 22 (14%) of these were sharks were misidentified by the observers and were subsequently re-identified based on photographs and/or DNA barcoding. Of the 22 individuals misidentified as C. amblyrhynchos, 16 (73%) were detected using photographs and a further 6 via genetic validation. If misidentified individuals had been included, substantial error would have been introduced to both the length-at-age and the maturity estimates. Thus validating the species identification, increased the accuracy of estimated life history parameters for C. amblyrhynchos. From the corrected sample a multi-model inference approach was used to estimate growth for C. amblyrhynchos using three candidate models. The model averaged length-at-age parameters for C. amblyrhynchos with the sexes combined were L∞ = 159 cm TL and L0 = 72 cm TL. Females mature at a greater length (l50 = 136 cm TL) and older age (A50 = 9.1 years) than males (l50 = 123 cm TL; A50 = 5.9 years). The inclusion of techniques to reduce misidentification in observer programs will improve the results of life history studies and ultimately improve management through the use of more accurate data

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of history taking and physical examination for assessing anterior cruciate ligament lesions of the knee in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, H.P.; Luijsterburg, P.A.; Boks, S.S.; Heintjes, E.M.; Berger, M.Y.; Verhaar, J.A.; Koes, B.W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wagemakers HP, Luijsterburg PA, Boks SS, Heintjes EM, Berger MY, Verhaar JA, Koes BK, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Diagnostic accuracy of history taking and physical examination for assessing anterior cruciate ligament lesions of the knee in primary care. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1452-9. Objective: To

  19. Workshop Physics and Related Curricula: "A 25-Year History of Collaborative Learning Enhanced by Computer Tools for Observation and Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Sokoloff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the 25-year history of development of the activity-based Workshop Physics (WP) at Dickinson College, its adaptation for use at Gettysburg Area High School, and its synergistic influence on curricular materials developed at the University of Oregon and Tufts University and vice versa. WP and these related curricula: 1) are…

  20. Interactions between Mathematics and Physics: The History of the Concept of Function--Teaching with and about Nature of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Lützen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the history of the concept of function and emphasize in particular how problems in physics have led to essential changes in its definition and application in mathematical practices. Euler defined a function as an analytic expression, whereas Dirichlet defined it as a variable that depends in an arbitrary manner on another…

  1. Relationship among adverse childhood experiences, history of active military service, and adult outcomes: homelessness, mental health, and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Cutuli, J J; Evans-Chase, Michelle; Treglia, Dan; Culhane, Dennis P

    2013-12-01

    We determined whether a report of adverse childhood experiences predicts adult outcomes related to homelessness, mental health, and physical health and whether participation in active military service influences the relationship between childhood and adult adversity. Using data from the 2010 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we tested by means of logistic regression the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and 3 adult outcomes--homelessness, mental health, and physical health--as well as differences among those with a history of active military service. Adverse childhood experiences separately predicted increased odds of experiencing homelessness as an adult and mental health and physical health problems. Childhood adversity increased the likelihood of adult homelessness and poor physical health among individuals with no history of active military service and the likelihood of mental health problems among individuals with a history of active military service. The relationship between childhood adversity and adult adversity changes in degree when history of active military service is controlled, which has implications for Armed Forces recruitment strategies and postmilitary service risk assessment.

  2. The use of history of science in physics teaching: an application for electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrea Perea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present is a revision of different proposals that utilize History of Science in teaching. They have been grouped according to the purpose they pursue: to evoke discoveries, to highlight the human aspect of Science through the contributions of renamed scientists, to teach the processes of scientific construction, to detect students' preconceptions and teach concepts, and to highlight the socio-cultural basis of scientific ideas and research. We discuss why we consider that this last aspect includes the other ones, and elaborate general guidelines for the use of HC in a particular case dealing with electromagnetic field. Our proposal is focused on the controversy between "action-at-a-distance" and "field", and is elaborated on the basis of key experiments carried out by Heinrich Hertz.

  3. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  4. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  5. How to classify plantar plate injuries: parameters from history and physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Nery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To find the best clinical parameters for defining and classifying the degree of plantar plate injuries. METHOD: Sixty-eight patients (100 metatarsophalangeal joints were classified in accordance with the Arthroscopic Anatomical Classification for plantar plate injuries and were divided into five groups (0 to IV. Their medical files were reviewed and the incidence of each parameter for the respective group was correlated. These parameters were: use of high heels, sports, acute pain, local edema, Mulder's sign, widening of the interdigital space, pain in the head of the corresponding metatarsal, touching the ground, "drawer test", toe grip and toe deformities (in the sagittal, coronal and transversal planes. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant associations between the degree of injury and use of high-heel shoes, sports trauma, pain at the head of the metatarsal, Mulder's sign, deformity in pronation or displacement in the transversal and sagittal planes (although their combination, i.e. "cross toe", showed a statistically significant correlation. Positive correlations with the severity of the injuries were found in relation to initial acute pain, progressive widening of the interdigital space, loss of "touching the ground", positive results from the "drawer test" on the metatarsophalangeal joint, diminished grip strength and toe deformity in supination. CONCLUSIONS: The "drawer test" was seen to be the more reliable and precise tool for classifying the degree of plantar plate injury, followed by "touching the ground" and rotational deformities. It is possible to improve the precision of the diagnosis and the predictions of the anatomical classification for plantar plate injuries through combining the clinical history and data from the physical examination.

  6. Evaluation of forensic medical history taking from the child in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rachel; Gall, John A M

    2017-02-01

    Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation. This study examines the value derived by the medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history rather than relying on hearsay evidence when a child presents for an assessment. A retrospective review of paediatric cases seen by the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) between 2014 and 2015 was undertaken. 274 forensic case reports were reviewed and the data was entered into an Excel spread sheet and analysed using chi squared tests within STATA ® . With increasing age of the child, a forensic medical history is significantly more likely to be taken. Additional information is made available to the medical practitioner what would otherwise have been provided if the medical practitioner relied only on the interview conducted by the police. Discrepancies observed between the official third parties (police or child protection) report of what a child has said and what the child says to the medical practitioner decrease with age, as do discrepancies observed between the child's version of events and a third party's (eg. parents, caregivers, friends) version of events. The study showed that by taking a forensic medical history from the child additional information can be obtained. Further, that there is a value in the examining medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history from children in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. History of Science in the Physics Curriculum: A Directed Content Analysis of Historical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Hayati; Guney, Burcu G.

    2012-01-01

    Although history of science is a potential resource for instructional materials, teachers do not have a tendency to use historical materials in their lessons. Studies showed that instructional materials should be adaptable and consistent with curriculum. This study purports to examine the alignment between history of science and the curriculum in…

  8. MM 99.58 Physical modelling of Hammerhead forging, Vertical and Lateral load history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras

    1999-01-01

    The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions......The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions...

  9. High diagnostic yield and accuracy of history, physical examination, and ECG in patients with transient loss of consciousness in FAST: the Fainting Assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Nynke; Boer, Kimberly R; Colman, Nancy; Bakker, Annemieke; Stam, Jan; van Grieken, Johannes J M; Wilde, Arthur A M; Linzer, Mark; Reitsma, Johannes B; Wieling, Wouter

    2008-01-01

    Transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is a common clinical problem. The aim of this study was to assess the yield and accuracy of the initial evaluation, consisting of standardized history, physical examination, and ECG performed by attending physicians in patients with TLOC. Five hundred and three adult patients (mean age 53 +/- 19; 56% male) presenting with TLOC to the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam between February 2000 and May 2002 were included in this study. After initial evaluation, the physician made a certain, a highly likely (>80% certain), or no initial diagnosis. Initially undiagnosed patients received additional cardiological testing, additional history taking, and autonomic function tests. After 2 years of follow-up, an expert committee determined the final diagnoses. Two-year follow-up was obtained in 99% of the patients. The yield of certain diagnoses after the initial evaluation was 24%, increasing to 63% after including the highly likely diagnoses. The diagnostic accuracy of the initial certain diagnoses was 93% (95% CI 87-97%), decreasing to 88% (95% CI 84-91%) after inclusion of the initial highly likely diagnoses. Attending physicians can make a diagnosis based on initial evaluation in 63% of patients with TLOC, with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 88%. The use of additional testing, beyond history, physical examination, and ECG can be avoided in many patients with TLOC.

  10. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  11. Some reflections on the history of particle physics in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweber, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reflects on the differences in attitude, area of study and type of physicist between those attending the Solvay conferences in 1948 and 1961. These reflect wider historical and political changes which affected high-energy particle physics in the nineteen fifties. The growth of the field reflected post-war funding on a huge scale to ensure adequate scientific manpower for military purposes. Large synchrocyclotrons and proton-synchrotrons were built and high-energy installations became widespread in universities. Theoreticians worked closely with experimentalists using a pragmatic utilitarian approach. Later military needs began to dictate funding allocation and many theoreticians worked on military as well as their own projects. This pragmatic, group approach became accepted world-wide as the way to ''do'' big science. The funding system, including peer-review, tended only to reinforce the dominant view of theorists as valuable accessories of experimentalists. (UK)

  12. Quantum Mechanics at the Crossroads New Perspectives from History, Philosophy and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    2007-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is a beautiful, strange and successful theory that originated in the 1920s. The theory, which Niels Bohr regarded as finished and complete, has in the last few decades rapidly developed in unexpected directions. An intense new focus on the stranger aspects of the theory, including entanglement and nonlocality, has resulted in new perceptions of the foundations of quantum mechanics, as well as surprising new exploitations of quantum phenomena. Historians and philosophers of science have also renewed their attention to quantum mechanics, opening up its human dimensions and asking searching questions about its meaning. This volume brings together new insights from different vantage points: Historians of physics, such as J. L. Heilbron; philosophers of science, such as Abner Shimony and Michel Bitbol; and quantum physicists, such as Wolfgang Ketterle and Roland Omnès, join forces to tackle essential questions in quantum mechanics and its interpretation. All the authors have written for a broad ...

  13. Evidence for shared genetic dominance between the general factor of personality, mental and physical health, and life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Rushton, J Philippe

    2009-12-01

    We reanalyze previously published data on 309 MZ and 333 DZ twin pairs aged 25 to 74 years from the MIDUS survey, a nationally representative archived sample, to examine how much of the genetic covariance between a general factor of personality (GFP), a lower-order life history factor, and a general physical and mental health factor, is of the nonadditive variety. We found nonadditive genetic effects (D) could not be ruled out as a contributor to the shared variance of these three latent factors to a Super-K Life History factor. We suggest these genetic correlations support the view that a slow (K-selected) life history strategy, good health, and the GFP coevolved and are mutually coadapted through directional selection.

  14. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: Education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Lian eTam; Gregory eBonn; Gregory eBonn; Si Han eYeoh; Chee Piau eWong

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3% to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviours. This was do...

  15. Investigating diet and physical activity in Malaysia: education and family history of diabetes relate to lower levels of physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Yeoh, Si Han; Wong, Chee Piau

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, 2011), estimates that the number of Malaysian adults suffering from type 2 diabetes has increased from 8.3 to 31.2% since 1996. This study is a preliminary investigation of possible factors contributing to this epidemic. Knowledge of diabetes, health locus of control, diet and exercise habits, as well as family history, education level and other demographic factors to better understand the correlates of risky and healthy behaviors. This was done...

  16. Association of inflammatory markers with physical activity, family history and other diabetic complications in patients of diabetic retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, A.; Rashif, A.; Waheed, P.; Ishaq, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of inflammatory markers with physical activity, family history and other complications among patients of diabetic retinopathy. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) and Military Hospital Laboratories, Rawalpindi from Jan 2016 to Jun 2016. Material and Methods: A total of 90 diagnosed patients of diabetic retinopathy of ages 40-70 years were enrolled from Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi. Their inflammatory markers (ESR and CRP) were assessed and their levels were compared with their physical activity, family history and other complications of diabetes already developed in them. These were then compared with those of 90 normal healthy controls enrolled from general population using independent student's t test and one way Anova test for scale variables and Chi square test for nominal variables. Results: Both patients and controls were age and gender matched with mean age of 60 +- 8.9 years in patients and 59 +- 13.02 years in controls. Among 90 patients enrolled 51(56.7 percent) were males and 39 (43.3) were females. And among 90 controls 49 (54.4 percent) were males and 41(45.6 percent) were females. An inverse association was observed between inflammatory markers and physical activity with ap-value of 0.001. On the contrary a strong positive association was observed between inflammatory markers and family history and complications of diabetes with a p-value 0.001. Conclusion: There is an inverse association of inflammatory markers with physical activity and a direct association of these with family history and complications of diabetes among patients of diabetic retinopathy. (author)

  17. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  18. Ab Initio Determinations of Photoelectron Spectra Including Vibronic Features: An Upper-Level Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Richard L.; Davis, Lisa; Millam, Evan L.; Brown, Eric; Offerman, Chad; Wray, Paul; Green, Susan M. E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a first-principles determination of the photoelectron spectra of water and hypochlorous acid as a laboratory exercise accessible to students in an undergraduate physical chemistry course. This paper demonstrates the robustness and user-friendliness of software developed for the Franck-Condon factor calculation. While the calculator is…

  19. Sitting Ballet: A Pilot Program Designed to Include Children with Physical Disabilities in the Private Studio Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzner, J.

    2015-01-01

    While recovering from a serious illness, the author looked for dance classes that would help in regaining flexibility, balance, and core strength. Finding no local dance classes that could accommodate the deconditioning experienced from almost two years of physical inactivity and disuse due to bedrest, the author wondered if there were other…

  20. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 18-20: Sound; Temperature, Heat, and Thermodynamics: First Law; and Kinetic Theory of Gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  1. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 21-23: Second Law and Entropy; Coulomb's Law and the Electric Field; and Flux and Gauss' Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  2. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 15-17: Gravitation; Simple Harmonic Motion; and Traveling Waves; plus a Partial Derivatives Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  3. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 11-14: Collisions; Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies; Rotational Dynamics; and Fluid Mechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  4. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 35-37: Reflection and Refraction; Electric Fields and Potentials from Continuous Charge Distributions; and Maxwell's Predictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  5. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  6. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 8-10: Conservation of Energy; Impulse and Momentum; and Rotational Motion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  7. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  8. Mouthguards in sport activities : history, physical properties and injury prevention effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Marshall, Stephen W; Lee, Robyn B; Darakjy, Salima S; Jones, Sarah B; Mitchener, Timothy A; delaCruz, Georgia G; Jones, Bruce H

    2007-01-01

    Three systematic reviews were conducted on: (i) the history of mouthguard use in sports; (ii) mouthguard material and construction; and (iii) the effectiveness of mouthguards in preventing orofacial injuries and concussions. Retrieval databases and bibliographies were explored to find studies using specific key words for each topic. The first recorded use of mouthguards was by boxers, and in the 1920s professional boxing became the first sport to require mouthguards. Advocacy by the American Dental Association led to the mandating of mouthguards for US high school football in the 1962 season. Currently, the US National Collegiate Athletic Association requires mouthguards for four sports (ice hockey, lacrosse, field hockey and football). However, the American Dental Association recommends the use of mouthguards in 29 sports/exercise activities. Mouthguard properties measured in various studies included shock-absorbing capability, hardness, stiffness (indicative of protective capability), tensile strength, tear strength (indicative of durability) and water absorption. Materials used for mouthguards included: (i) polyvinylacetate-polyethylene or ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer; (ii) polyvinylchloride; (iii) latex rubber; (iv) acrylic resin; and (v) polyurethane. Latex rubber was a popular material used in early mouthguards but it has lower shock absorbency, lower hardness and less tear and tensile strength than EVA or polyurethane. Among the more modern materials, none seems to stand out as superior to another since the characteristics of all the modern materials can be manipulated to provide a range of favourable characteristics. Impact studies have shown that compared with no mouthguard, mouthguards composed of many types of materials reduce the number of fractured teeth and head acceleration. In mouthguard design, consideration must be given to the nature of the collision (hard or soft objects) and characteristics of the mouth (e.g. brittle incisors, more

  9. PAR-Q & YOU Questionnaire and cardiovascular history of elderly patients on dialysis engaged in physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Moreno-Collazos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the last few years, physical activity has become a therapeutic tool and a protective mechanism for the elderly; it reduces cardiovascular risk in patients undergoing different types of dialysis and receiving palliative care. Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the inclusion criteria for a therapeutic physical activity program through the use of the PAR-Q & YOU Questionnaire with elderly patients treated with different types of hemodialysis, and to relate it with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Pearson's chi-squared test was used to determine the possible association among variables, considering the medical history and discomfort caused by physical activity against the results of PAR-Q & YOU. Binary logistic regression was used with the variables in the chi-squared test. Conclusions: Through logistic regression, we found that cardiovascular history was 10.44 times more significant to establish the relevance of the PAR-Q & YOU as a basic assessment instrument for the inclusion in a physical activity program which is part of a physiotherapy-led renal rehabilitation.

  10. History of Science in Physics Teaching: A Study About the Teaching of Gravitational Attraction Developed Among Prospective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Teodoro Gatti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here some outcomes of a research related to a didactical experience aiming to integrate the History of Science to the Physics Teaching, taking as background the historical development of the gravitational attraction. The research, of qualitative approach, is a case study and it was carried out in a sample of eleven students belonging to an undergraduate physics program (called licenciatura in Brazil designed to from High School physics teachers in a São Paulo State Public University. We tried initially to reveal prospective teachers’ conceptions in order to provide a prepare that was used to guide the activities from the reality’s diagnosis. The aim was to promote discussions on the existence and persistence of alternative conceptions, on the historical evolution of the subject gravitational attraction, through readings and debates of texts contemplating recent subjects on the Science Education research, in order to generate dissatisfaction with traditional teaching models. The future High School physics teachers were asked to construct their own teaching proposal, through the development, in real situations, in a High School, of a mini-course based on: debates and synthesis developed in University classroom, the History of the Science and the student’s alternative conceptions. In this paper we will analyze future teachers’ alternative conceptions, the development of the course proposed, and details of the mini-courses taught by the prospective teachers in real situations, among High School students, its coherence and the posture changes observed in them.

  11. Changing psychosocial determinants of physical activity and diet in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Smith, Ben J; Cinnadaio, Nancy; Bauman, Adrian; Tapsell, Linda; Cheung, N Wah; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2018-01-01

    To investigate how a behavioural lifestyle intervention influences psychosocial determinants of physical activity and dietary behaviours in a population at risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Fifty-nine women with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m 2 and a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) participated in a randomized controlled study. The intervention group (n = 29) received 2 face-to-face and 5 telephone lifestyle-counselling sessions with a health professional. The control group (n = 30) received care as usual. At baseline and 6 months, psychosocial determinants related to physical activity and diet were measured with a self-administrated questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were applied to test for intervention effects. The intervention was effective in improving social support (β = 3.5, P diet from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the intervention group compared with the control group. The intervention reduced the following barriers to a physically active lifestyle: lack of energy and lack of motivation. Physical activity barriers like lack of time and lack of childcare were unchanged. The intervention reduced the following barriers to a healthy diet: lack of time, costs, having unhealthy snacks at home, and having cravings for sweets. This lifestyle intervention influenced psychosocial determinants relevant for overweight women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in prevention of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  13. Introducing Labor History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, John Dale

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief overview for including labor history in the social studies curriculum. Notes the broad range of subjects (geography, history, economics, music, and art) and approaches (women's history, social history, oral history) that encompass labor history. (MJP)

  14. Physical inactivity and pain in older men and women with hip fracture history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpakoski, Anu; Portegijs, Erja; Kallinen, Mauri; Sihvonen, Sanna; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-01-01

    Hip fracture patients often suffer from pain for several months after surgery. This may lead to physical inactivity and subsequent mobility limitation and disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between severe musculoskeletal pain and the level of physical activity

  15. Physics Teachers' Challenges in Using History and Philosophy of Science in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andreas; Höttecke, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of the history and philosophy of science (HPS) in science teaching is widely accepted, but the actual state of implementation in schools is still poor. This article investigates possible reasons for this discrepancy. The demands science teachers associate with HPS-based teaching play an important role, since these determine teachers'…

  16. History and Objectives of LADY CATS (Women Physics Teachers in Japan) (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanemura, Masako; Okiharu, Fumiko; Ishii, Kyoko; Onishi, Haruka; Yokoee, Mika; Kawakatsu, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    LADY CATS (LADY Creators of Activities for Teaching Science) is an organization of predominantly female science teachers, from the primary school to university research level. We work to encourage students and teachers not already interested in physics. Many primary teachers feel uncomfortable as science-especially physics- educators because they have studied only general science. The majority of primary teachers are female, but females are less likely to study physics. The result is fewer women physics teachers in higher education. We formed LADY CATS in 2005 to change this situation through our activities. We are dedicated to presenting simple and inexpensive, yet beautiful, science experiments that demonstrate the principles of physics. We have presented experiments at international conferences, such as the International Commission on Physics Education meeting, sometimes with male teachers. The name, LADY CATS, is taken from the group, STRAY CATS. Members of this organization have demonstrated interesting experiments at numerous international conferences for over 20 years. We believe our activities and passion for physics will inspire others to pursue this field.

  17. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  18. A detailed physical map of the 6p reading disability locus, including new markers and confirmation of recombination suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jung; Won, Tae-Woong; Kaplan, Deborah E; Londin, Eric R; Kuzmic, Petr; Gelernter, Joel; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2002-10-01

    Loci for several complex disorders have been genetically linked to markers located telomeric of the HLA class I region of the major histocompatibility complex on 6p21.3-22. However, this same region has been characterized by a large interval of recombination suppression with the potential to greatly complicate precise localization of these risk loci. Furthermore, a paucity of markers and physical mapping data has confounded precise localization of the boundaries of linkage and recombination suppression. In order to create a more detailed marker map of this region and define these boundaries we generated a minimal tiling pathway of BACs, PACs, and cosmids and a multiplexed panel of 29 short tandem repeat markers spanning 10 Mb. In addition to providing precise marker order and distances, the pathway and marker panel frame an inversion of recombination frequency that has distorted the resolution of linkage studies for 6p loci such as reading disability and others, and that should be accounted for in the design of future studies.

  19. [Clinical and cost effectiveness of rehabilitation programs including physical exercises for patients with ischemic heart disease under conditions of resort and outpatient clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhova, E V; Guliaeva, S F; Tsarev, Iu K; Chervotkina, L A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate clinical and cost effectiveness of rehabilitation programs including long-term physical training of moderate intensity intended for the management of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who had undergone acute coronary events; the programs were adapted to the treatment under conditions of spa resorts, dispensaries, and outpatient clinics. It was shown that rehabilitation of patients presenting with CDH with the use of moderately intensive physical exercises during a long period enhances the effectiveness of application of the available funds due to improved clinical course of coronary heart disease, tolerance of physical load, and quality of life.

  20. 1990 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Lumbar spinal pathology in cadaveric material in relation to history of back pain, occupation, and physical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videman, T; Nurminen, M; Troup, J D

    1990-08-01

    The occurrence of symmetric disc degeneration, anular ruptures, end-plate defects, vertebral body osteophytosis, and facet joint osteoarthrosis was examined radiographically and osteologically in 86 male cadavers for whom occupational, physical loading, and back pain histories were obtained from the men's families. History of back pain and the parameters of spinal pathology were related to the highest and lowest degrees of physical loading. In multivariate analyses, history of back injury was related to the occurrence of symmetric disc degeneration, anular ruptures, and vertebral osteophytosis. Symmetric disc degeneration was associated with sedentary work, and vertebral osteophytosis was related to heavy work. History of back pain was related to occupational physical loading after control for the effects of the other covariates. The results indicate that the least pathology stemmed from moderate or mixed physical loading, but the least back pain was associated with sedentary work.

  1. The second physicist on the history of theoretical physics in germany

    CERN Document Server

    Jungnickel, Christa

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the rise of theoretical physics in 19th century Germany. The authors show how the junior second physicist in German universities over time became the theoretical physicist, of equal standing to the experimental physicist. Gustav Kirchhoff, Hermann von Helmholtz, and Max Planck are among the great German theoretical physicists whose work and career are examined in this book. Physics was then the only natural science in which theoretical work developed into a major teaching and research specialty in its own right. Readers will discover how German physicists arrived at a well-defined field of theoretical physics with well understood and generally accepted goals and needs. The authors explain the nature of the work of theoretical physics with many examples, taking care always to locate the research within the workplace. The book is a revised and shortened version of Intellectual Mastery of Nature: Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, a two-volume work by the same authors. This new edition ...

  2. Exploratory Study of the Clinical Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with a History of Physical or Sexual Abuse Consulting in a Mood Disorder Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Amelie; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Berthiaume, Claude; Balan, Bogdan; Huynh, Christophe; Guile, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal

    2017-07-01

    To examine the clinical characteristics of adolescent girls consulting in a mood disorder clinic with a history of physical or sexual abuse. A retrospective review was conducted of the charts of 55 adolescent girls consulting in a mood disorder clinic. An analysis grid was used to gather data on demographics, personal antecedents, symptoms and diagnoses. Girls with a history of physical or sexual abuse were compared with girls without such a history. Univariate analyses and a logistic regression analysis were performed. Adolescent girls with a history of physical or sexual abuse did not differ statistically from those without such a history in terms of depressive symptoms or type and number of diagnoses. However, proportionally more girls with a history of physical or sexual abuse presented self-harm and relational problems with their parents and peers. Both history of physical or sexual abuse and self-destructive behaviors are rooted in relational problems. The results show that these are related to one another among those adolescent girls. Clinically, these findings suggest that it is important for clinicians do a thorough exploration of self-destructive behaviors and family and peer relations when assessing depressed adolescent girls.

  3. Coupled physical/biogeochemical modeling including O2-dependent processes in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems: application in the Benguela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gutknecht

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS contribute to one fifth of the global catches in the ocean. Often associated with Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, EBUS represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N cycle. Important bioavailable N loss due to denitrification and anammox processes as well as greenhouse gas emissions (e.g, N2O occur also in these EBUS. However, their dynamics are currently crudely represented in global models. In the climate change context, improving our capability to properly represent these areas is crucial due to anticipated changes in the winds, productivity, and oxygen content. We developed a biogeochemical model (BioEBUS taking into account the main processes linked with EBUS and associated OMZs. We implemented this model in a 3-D realistic coupled physical/biogeochemical configuration in the Namibian upwelling system (northern Benguela using the high-resolution hydrodynamic ROMS model. We present here a validation using in situ and satellite data as well as diagnostic metrics and sensitivity analyses of key parameters and N2O parameterizations. The impact of parameter values on the OMZ off Namibia, on N loss, and on N2O concentrations and emissions is detailed. The model realistically reproduces the vertical distribution and seasonal cycle of observed oxygen, nitrate, and chlorophyll a concentrations, and the rates of microbial processes (e.g, NH4+ and NO2− oxidation, NO3− reduction, and anammox as well. Based on our sensitivity analyses, biogeochemical parameter values associated with organic matter decomposition, vertical sinking, and nitrification play a key role for the low-oxygen water content, N loss, and N2O concentrations in the OMZ. Moreover, the explicit parameterization of both steps of nitrification, ammonium oxidation to nitrate with nitrite as an explicit intermediate, is necessary to improve the representation of microbial activity linked with the OMZ. The simulated minimum oxygen

  4. Just One of the Boys? A Life History Case Study of a Male Physical Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedgwood, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    Studies of physical education teacher training have already established that hegemonic forms of masculinity are reinforced and reproduced both in the hidden curriculum (Flintoff, 1997) and the informal student culture (Skelton, 1993). Given this, an important feminist concern is whether male PE teachers whose own masculine identities are anchored…

  5. History of Science, Physics, and Art: A Complex Approach in Brazilian Syllabuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marco; Guerra, Andreia; Reis, José Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about new contents that can be introduced into science education. It is a description of an experience aimed at introducing a complex approach into the final grade of a Brazilian elementary school. The aim is to show the transformation of the conception of space and time from the Middle Ages with the physics of Aristotle to the 20th…

  6. Cardiovascular risk assessment in children: role of physical activity, family history and parental smoking on BMI and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, Marco; Antolini, Laura; Brambilla, Paolo; Pagani, Massimo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Valsecchi, Maria G; Lucini, Daniela; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2013-05-01

    Aim of the study was to assess the role of family history, physical activity and parental smoking in the prediction of BMI, SBP and hypertension risk in children. In a paediatric primary care setting, a sample of 1310 children aged 5-14 years was systematically selected by 48 family paediatricians in northern Italy. BMI, waist circumference-to-height ratio (WtHr), SBP and DBP were measured and the information on the presence of small birth weight for gestational age (SGA) and early adiposity rebound (EAR) was collected. Data concerning exercise, video time, family history for cardiovascular diseases and parental smoking were derived from parental interview. Data were collected using an 'ad hoc designed' electronic sheet available online. Multiple linear regression showed that the presence of EAR, low exercise (2  h/day TV/videogames/computer) and parental smoking were associated to higher BMI (z-score; P child health. Physical exercise plays a pivotal role in obesity prevention and protection from hypertension risk.

  7. Treatment history and outcome of 24 deliveries worldwide after autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue, including two new Danish deliveries years after autotransplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macklon, Kirsten T; Jensen, Annette Klüver; Loft, Anne

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report another two successful pregnancies and deliveries resulting from autotransplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissue several years after the autotransplantation procedure took place. Further, to review the literature on the treatment history, number of live births and their outcome so......'s lymphoma. Both suffered from premature ovarian insufficiency after treatment. Because of a pregnancy wish they later had pieces of thawed cortical tissue transplanted to the remaining ovary and the anterior abdominal wall. PubMed was searched for reports of deliveries resulting from cryopreserved ovarian...

  8. The Art of the Motorcycle and the History of Art (and Condensed Matter Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    Many topics in physics are such that they are difficult to present in ways that the general public finds engaging. In this talk I will discuss two topics I have worked on, directly related to my research in optical and condensed matter physics, that continue to have widespread appeal. In 1871 Louis Guillaume Perreaux installed a compact steam engine in a commercial bicycle and thus produced the world's first motorcycle. The 145 years since the Michaux-Perreaux have resulted in standard production motorcycles incorporating such materials as carbon-fiber composites, maraging steels, and ''exotic'' alloys of magnesium, titanium and aluminum that can exceed 190 mph straight from the show room floor. As a result of 'The Art of the Motorcycle' exhibition I co-curated at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum the public has learned the evolution of motorcycles is interwoven with developments in materials physics. In a second topic, discoveries I made with the renowned artist David Hockney convincingly demonstrated optical instruments were in use - by artists, not scientists - nearly 200 years earlier than commonly thought possible, and for the first time account for the remarkable transformation in the reality of portraits that occurred early in the 15th century. By learning a few principles of geometrical optics the public gains insight into the working process of artists such as van Eyck, Bellini and Caravaggio. Acknowledgement: Portions of this work done in collaboration with David Hockney.

  9. Cosmic X-ray Physics: Sounding rocket investigations of the diffuse X-ray background, including instrument development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Dan

    We propose an investigation to improve our understanding of the Galactic diffuse X-ray background. The ultimate purpose of this is to determine the role of hot phases of the interstellar medium in mediating stellar feedback in star formation, in transport of metals, and in determining the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. It directly addresses SMD's astrophysics goal No. 2, to explore the origin and evolution of the galaxies, stars and planets that make up our universe. This work will involve a flight of an existing payload with small modifications in Woomera, South Australia, to observe the Galactic soft X-ray bulge and attempt to determine its nature and emission mechanisms. This flight should also either confirm or put strict upper limits on the "sterile neutrino" model for the 3.5 keV signal observed near the Galactic Center by XMM-Newton. Our investigation includes the development of thermal detectors with superconducting transition edge thermometers capable of 1-2 eV FWHM energy resolution in the 100-400 eV range with the intent of obtaining a scientifically useful spectrum on a sounding rocket flight of the emission from one million degree gas in this energy range. This will require a total area of 1-2 square centimeters for the detector array. To enable routine testing of such detectors in the lab and for necessary in-flight gain and resolution monitoring, we are trying to develop a pulsed-UV laser calibration source. In collaboration with Goddard Space Flight Center, we are investigating the practicality of waveguide-below-cutoff filters to provide the necessary attenuation of infrared radiation for these detectors while still allowing good x-ray transmission below 150 eV. The detectors, calibration source, filters, optimal high-rate pulse analysis and flight experience with the detector readouts are all relevant to future NASA major missions. The detectors we're working on for a low-energy sounding rocket flight would be an excellent match to what is

  10. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  11. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Rozenblat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  12. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: S.I. Vavilov's manuscript letter to Stalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonosov, Yurii I.

    2000-09-01

    A letter from S I Vavilov, then President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, to Stalin has been discovered in the archives of the Science Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which is concerned with the problem of secrecy in physics and suggests criteria by which classified and nonclassified studies may be distinguished. The letter is not only of interest to physicists and science historians, but also is a telling document of the totalitarian times, when it took no less than the states's top leaders to resolve issues as this.

  13. Family history of hypertension is associated with exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to mental, but not to physical test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlas M. Jenie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate whether normotensive young adults with family history of hypertension demonstrate exaggerated cardiovascular responses to both mental and physical stimuli as compared to normotensive young adults withoutfamily history of hypertension.Methods Normotensive undergraduate students of normotensive parents (n = 40 and of hypertensive father/ mother/ both (n = 40, aged 20 – 30 years, performed serial subtraction test in a sitting position for three minutes. After taking a rest, subjects performed cold pressor test in ninety seconds. In each test, blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded in pre-test, during test, and post-test using an automated oscillometric device. Changes score rather than absolute scores were analyzed using independent t-test or Mann-Whitney.Results There were no significantly differences in age, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, and plasma creatinine between the two groups. Normotensives of hypertensive parents had significantly higher offi ce systolic blood pressure (108.33 ± 1.6 vs 103.00 ± 1.6 mmHg and delta change score of cardiovascular reactivity to serial subtraction test (MABP 19.13 ± 1.4 vs 15.5 ± 1.0 mmHg, P = 0.04, but not to cold pressor test (MABP 24.26 ± 1.7 vs 21.74 ± 1.7 mmHg than those of normotensive parents.Conclusion Normotensive young adults with family history of hypertension demonstrated exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to mental test but not to physical test. As compared to normotensive young adults without family history of hypertension However, this familial difference in cardiovascular reactivity to mental test is confused with office blood pressure. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:118-23Keywords: cardiovascular reactivity, cold pressor test, mental arithmetic test, of hypertension

  14. Is it possible to teach history taking and physical examination by training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopp, Veronika

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the criticism concerning traditional teaching methods, problem-based courses were introduced in the medical education of the University of Munich to foster the acquistion of action knowledge. One of these courses is the so-called MuSkel-course (course of musculosceletal diseases and injury. This course ends with a Triple Jump examination, the first step of which is an examination with a standardized patient in an OSCE-format (Objective Strutured Clinical Examination. In order to prepare the students for this exam, an OSCE-training was introduced with the fourth MuSkel-course. This study aimed at answering the question, to what extent this training exhibited a better knowledge. For that, the performance of students without training (control group was compared with that of students having received two training sessions (experimental group. The results demonstrated that the experimental group performed better than the control group in only a few but important tests (identification of important points in medical history taking and clinical examination, the attitude towards the patient, the call for further diagnostic tests.

  15. The physics of Wall Street a brief history of predicting the unpredictable

    CERN Document Server

    Weatherall, James Owen

    2013-01-01

    After the economic meltdown of 2008, Warren Buffett famously warned, “beware of geeks bearing formulas.” But as James Weatherall demonstrates, not all geeks are created equal. While many of the mathematicians and software engineers on Wall Street failed when their abstractions turned ugly in practice, a special breed of physicists has a much deeper history of revolutionizing finance. Taking us from fin-de-siècle Paris to Rat Pack-era Las Vegas, from wartime government labs to Yippie communes on the Pacific coast, Weatherall shows how physicists successfully brought their science to bear on some of the thorniest problems in economics, from options pricing to bubbles. The crisis was partly a failure of mathematical modeling. But even more, it was a failure of some very sophisticated financial institutions to think like physicists. Models—whether in science or finance—have limitations; they break down under certain conditions. And in 2008, sophisticated models fell into the hands of people who didn’t...

  16. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Talk: Henry Cavendish, John Michell, Weighing the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2010-03-01

    This talk is about an interaction between two 18th-century natural philosophers (physical scientists), Henry Cavendish and John Michell, and its most important outcome, the experiment of weighing the world (their name for it) using a torsion balance (our name for it). Michell was the most inventive of the 18th century English natural philosophers, and Cavendish was the first of his countrymen to possess abilities at all comparable with Newton's. By their interests and skills, they were drawn to one another. Both were universal natural philosophers, equally adept at building scientific instruments, performing experiments, constructing theory, and using mathematics; both had a penchant for exacting, quantitative work. Both also had fitful habits of publication, which did not begin to reveal the range of their work, to the mystification of later scientists and historians. Late in life, Cavendish and Michell turned their attention to the force that Newton had examined most completely, a singular triumph of his natural philosophy, the force of universal gravitation. Over the course of the 18th century, abundant evidence of attraction had been gathered from the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets, phenomena which span the intermediate range of masses, sizes, and distances. But in three domains of experience, involving the extreme upper and lower limits of masses and dimensions, the universality of gravitation remained an article of faith. These were the gravity of the ``fixed'' stars, the mutual attraction of terrestrial bodies, and the gravitation of light and other special substances. Michell took on himself the task of deducing observable consequences from each of these prospective instances of universal gravitation. Cavendish encouraged Michell, and he followed up the resulting observational and experimental questions. The experiment of weighing the world was the last experiment Mitchell planned and the last experiment Cavendish published. The capstone of

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of history and physical examination in bacterial acute rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Timo J; Koskenkorva, Timo; Närkiö, Mervi; Leino, Tuomo K; Koivunen, Petri; Alho, Olli-Pekka

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms, the symptom progression pattern, and clinical signs in identifying bacterial acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). We conducted an inception cohort study among 50 military recruits with ARS. We collected symptoms daily from the onset of symptoms to approximately 10 days. At 9 to 10 days, standardized data on symptoms and physical findings were gathered. A positive culture of maxillary sinus aspirate was considered to be the reference standard for bacterial ARS. At 9 to 10 days, the presence or deterioration after 5 days of any of the symptoms could not be used to diagnose bacterial ARS. Toothache had an adequate positive likelihood ratio (positive likelihood ratio [LR+] 4.4) but was too rare to be used for screening. In contrast, several physical findings at 9 to 10 days were of more diagnostic use and frequent enough for screening. Moderate or profuse (vs. none/minimal) amount of secretion in nasal passage seen in anterior rhinoscopy satisfactorily either ruled in, if present (LR+ 3.2), or ruled out, if absent (negative likelihood ratio 0.2), bacterial ARS. If any secretion was seen in the posterior pharynx or middle meatus, the probability of bacterial ARS increased markedly (LR+ 5.3 and LR+ 11.0, respectively). We found symptoms or their change to be of little use in identifying bacterial ARS. In contrast, we observed several clinical findings after 9 to 10 days of symptoms to predict bacterial ARS quite accurately. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. [Physical self-concept, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in children with cancer and healthy children without cancer history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragado, Carmen; Hernández-Lloreda, Ma José; Sánchez-Bernardos, Ma Luisa; Urbano, Susana

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to test if children with cancer receiving chemotherapy show a poorer physical self-concept, less self-esteem and more anxiety and depression than healthy children (with no cancer history) within the same age range (9-16 years old) and social condition. Furthermore, the capacity of self-concept and self-esteem to predict emotional distress is analyzed. The Spanish versions of PSDQ, CDI and STAIC were administered to 30 children with cancer and 90 healthy children. Except for the health and flexibility dimensions in the PSDQ, no significant differences between groups were found. Self-esteem was the best predictor of depression, whereas health and self-concept predicted anxiety.

  19. [Lumbar disc herniation: Natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, treatment options and conflicts of interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, Pedro David; Rodríguez-Salazar, Antonio; Martín-Alonso, Javier; Martín-Velasco, Vicente

    Indication for surgery in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) varies widely depending on the geographical area. A literature review is presented on the natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, evidence-based treatment, and conflicts of interests in LDH. Surgery is shown to provide significant faster relief of pain compared to conservative therapy, although the effect fades after a year. There is no treatment modality better than the rest in terms of pain control and neurological recovery, nor is there a surgical technique clearly superior to simple discectomy. The lack of sound scientific evidence on the surgical indication may contribute to its great geographical variability. Since LDH has a favourable natural history, neuroimaging and surgery should not be considered until after a 6-week period. It is necessary to specify and respect the surgical indications for LDH, avoiding conflicts of interests. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Emotional eating, marital status and history of physical abuse predict 2-year weight loss in weight loss surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Sharlene; Madan, Alok; Correll, Jennifer; Crowley, Nina; Malcolm, Robert; Karl Byrne, T; Borckardt, Jeffrey J

    2014-12-01

    Weight loss surgery (WLS) is an effective weight loss treatment for individuals with severe obesity. Psychosocial factors can affect short-term WLS outcomes. This study sought to identify psychosocial predictors of medium-term outcomes. In this prospective study, 250 consecutive WLS candidates were evaluated between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010. Each completed baseline medical, surgical, and psychological evaluations as part of standard of care. Two hundred and four patients had surgery (81.6%). Successful surgical outcome was defined as ≥50% excess weight loss two years post-surgery. Comparison of study sample (n=80) and those lost to follow-up (n=124) revealed negligible differences across baseline characteristics. At follow-up, 60% (n=48) of the sample was classified as a success with an average of 72.58% (std dev=13.01%) excess weight lost. The remaining 40% (n=32) was classified as a failure with an average of 33.98% (std dev=13.19%) excess weight lost. Logistic regression revealed that pre-surgical marital status, emotional eating, and history of physical abuse were independently associated with outcome variables, pemotionally driven disordered eating patterns are associated with 7.4 times increased odds of medium-term WLS success. A history of physical abuse is associated with an 84% decreased odds of successful medium-term outcomes. Further research that studies both the quality and impact of spousal support on weight loss as well as longer-term effects of emotional eating on outcomes is needed. Addressing longer-standing consequence of abuse may improve WLS outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior: examining lifetime sexual and physical abuse histories in relation to substance use and psychiatric problem severity among ex-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.

  2. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Talk: Shelter Island, Pocono, Oldstone, 1947-49, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweber, Silvan

    2011-04-01

    The historic June 1947 Shelter Island Conference was the first of three small conferences on theoretical physics sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences. It opened with a report of the results of Lamb and Retherford's and those of Nafe, Nelson and Rabi's experiments on the spectrum of hydrogen. The challenge to explain the accurate numbers they had obtained stimulated a renewed interest in quantum electrodynamics (QED) and became the point of departure for the post World War II developments in quantum field theory: effective Lorentz invariant computational methods, Feynman diagrams, renormalization theory. The recent discovery of Hans Bethe's extensive notes on the Shelter Island conference allows a reconsideration of the role played by Kramers, Oppenheimer and Weisskopf in these developments. The 1948 Pocono Conference at which Schwinger and Feynman presented their formulation of QED, and the 1949 Oldstone conference, at which Dyson summarized his researches and his views regarding renormalizability, give proof of the deep changes in the conceptualization, description and representation of nature that had been brought about by the work of Weisskopf, Schwinger, Feynman, and Dyson.

  3. Side-looking underground radar (SLUR): Physical modeling and case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Brower, J.

    1998-01-01

    A modification of conventional surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was conceived, tested, and successfully applied in the field at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to investigate waste pits. The modified GPR method consists of making measurements along a traverse line in a sloping trench with the radar's antenna oriented at an angle of up to 45 degree from the horizontal. The direction of propagation of the electromagnetic field for this configuration is not vertical, and the amount of energy scattered from objects that are oriented vertically relative to the energy scattered from horizontal layers is increased. This fundamental feature of side-looking underground radar (SLUR) measurements is illustrated by physical modeling. Measurements made along parallel trenches that are offset at different distances from a vertically oriented object provides GPR cross-sections with a primary plane of investigation that intersects the vertical feature at different depths. SLUR was used at BNL in conjunction with conventional surface GPR measurements (displayed as 3-D blocks and plan-view time slices) to enhance the vertical definition and improve the depth estimates of the waste pits

  4. From individuals to populations to communities: a dynamic energy budget model of marine ecosystem size-spectrum including life history diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Olivier; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

    2013-05-07

    Individual metabolism, predator-prey relationships, and the role of biodiversity are major factors underlying the dynamics of food webs and their response to environmental variability. Despite their crucial, complementary and interacting influences, they are usually not considered simultaneously in current marine ecosystem models. In an attempt to fill this gap and determine if these factors and their interaction are sufficient to allow realistic community structure and dynamics to emerge, we formulate a mathematical model of the size-structured dynamics of marine communities which integrates mechanistically individual, population and community levels. The model represents the transfer of energy generated in both time and size by an infinite number of interacting fish species spanning from very small to very large species. It is based on standard individual level assumptions of the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB) as well as important ecological processes such as opportunistic size-based predation and competition for food. Resting on the inter-specific body-size scaling relationships of the DEB theory, the diversity of life-history traits (i.e. biodiversity) is explicitly integrated. The stationary solutions of the model as well as the transient solutions arising when environmental signals (e.g. variability of primary production and temperature) propagate through the ecosystem are studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that in the absence of density-dependent feedback processes, the model exhibits unstable oscillations. Density-dependent schooling probability and schooling-dependent predatory and disease mortalities are proposed to be important stabilizing factors allowing stationary solutions to be reached. At the community level, the shape and slope of the obtained quasi-linear stationary spectrum matches well with empirical studies. When oscillations of primary production are simulated, the model predicts that the variability propagates along the

  5. Annama H chondrite-Mineralogy, physical properties, cosmic ray exposure, and parent body history

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Haloda, J.; Halodová, P.; Meiner, M. M. M.; Maden, C.; Busemann, H.; Laubenstein, M.; Caffee, M. W.; Welten, K.C.; Hopp, J.; Trieloff, M.; Mahajan, R. R.; Naik, S.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Maksimova, A. A.; Chukin, A. V.; Semionkin, V. A.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Felner, I.; Petrova, E. V.; Brusnitsyna, E. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I.; Yakovlev, G. A.; Gritsevich, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Moilanen, J.; Kruglikov, N. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 8 (2017), s. 1525-1541 ISSN 1086-9379 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Annama * chondrite * cosmic-ray exposure * radionuclide Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  6. Posterior, Lateral, and Anterior Hip Pain Due to Musculoskeletal Origin: A Narrative Literature Review of History, Physical Examination, and Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Patrick J; D'Angelo, Kevin; Kettner, Norman W

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a narrative review of the literature of musculoskeletal causes of adult hip pain, with special attention to history, physical examination, and diagnostic imaging. A narrative review of the English medical literature was performed by using the search terms "hip pain" AND "anterior," "lateral," and "posterior." Additionally, specific entities of hip pain or pain referral sources to the hip were searched for. We used the PubMed search engine through January 15, 2016. Musculoskeletal sources of adult hip pain can be divided into posterior, lateral, and anterior categories. For posterior hip pain, select considerations include lumbar spine and femoroacetabular joint referral, sacroiliac joint pathology, piriformis syndrome, and proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Gluteal tendinopathy and iliotibial band thickening are the most common causes of lateral hip pain. Anterior hip pain is further divided into causes that are intra-articular (ie, labral tear, osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis) and extra-articular (ie, snapping hip and inguinal disruption [athletic pubalgia]). Entrapment neuropathies and myofascial pain should also be considered in each compartment. A limited number of historical features and physical examination tests for evaluation of adult hip pain are supported by the literature and are discussed in this article. Depending on the clinical differential, the gamut of diagnostic imaging modalities recommended for accurate diagnosis include plain film radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, skeletal scintigraphy, and ultrasonography. The evaluation of adult hip pain is challenging. Clinicians should consider posterior, lateral, and anterior sources of pain while keeping in mind that these may overlap.

  7. Annona muricata: Is the natural therapy to most disease conditions including cancer growing in our backyard? A systematic review of its research history and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavamukulya, Yahaya; Wamunyokoli, Fred; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2017-09-01

    Annona muricata (A. muricata) is a tropical plant species belonging to family Annonaceae and known for its many medicinal uses. This review focuses on the research history of its traditional uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, toxicological aspects of the extracts and isolated compounds, as well as the in vitro propagation studies with the objective of stimulating further studies on this plant for human consumption and treatment. A. muricata extracts have been identified in tropical regions to traditionally treat diverse conditions ranging from fever to diabetes and cancer. More than 200 chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from this plant, the most important being alkaloids, phenols and acetogenins. Using in vitro studies, its extracts and phytochemicals have been characterized as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, larvicidal, and cytotoxic to cancer cells. In vivo studies have revealed anxiolytic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimalarial, antidepressant, gastro protective, wound healing, hepato-protective, hypoglycemic, anticancer and anti-tumoral activities. In silico studies have also been reported. In addition, clinical studies support the hypoglycemic as well as some anticancer activities. Mechanisms of action of some pharmacological activities have been elucidated. However, some phytochemical compounds isolated from A. muricata have shown a neurotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo, and therefore, these crude extracts and isolated compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, and mechanisms of action, long-term safety, and potential side effects. Additionally, more clinical studies are necessary to support the therapeutic potential of this plant. Some studies were also found to have successfully regenerated the plant in vitro, but with limited success. The reported toxicity notwithstanding, A. muricata extracts seem to be

  8. Historical Experiments and Physics Teaching: adding considerations from a Bibliographic Review and the Cultural History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, W. T.; Guerra, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a discussion about the purposes of historical experiments in science teaching found in the literature will be presented. As a starting point, we carried out a bibliographic review, on the websites of six relevant periodicals for the area of Science Teaching and, especially for Physics Teaching. The search was based, at first, on works published between the years 2001 and 2016, from terms like "historical experiments", "museums" and "experience". Thereon, due to the large number of publications found, a screening process was developed based on the analysis of titles, abstracts, keywords and, whether necessary, the whole text, aiming to identify which searches emphasize working with historical experiments in Physics teaching, from a theoretical perspective or based on manipulation of a replica of historical apparatus. The selected proposals were arranged in categories adapted from the work of Heering and Höttecke (2014) which allowed us to draw a parallel between the national and international publication that presented resembling scopes. Furthermore, the analysis of the results leads us to infer that, in general, extralab factors, inherent to science, when not neglected, are placed in a peripheral perspective. Thus, we draw theoretical considerations based on Historians of Science, which develop their researches based on the bias of the Cultural History of Science, seeking to add reflections to what has been developed about historical experiments in teaching up to now.

  9. Description of the physical environment an coal-mining history of West-Central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Crawford, Charles G.; Duwelius, Richard F.; Renn, Danny E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the physical and human environment and coal-mining history of west-central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds selected for study of the hydrologic effects of surface coal mining. The report summarizes information on the geology, geomorphology, soils, climate, hydrology, water use, land use, population, and coal-mining history of Clay, Owen, Sullivan, and Vigo Counties in Indiana. Site-specific information is given on the morphology, geology, soils, land use, coal-mining history, and hydrologic instrumentation of the six watersheds, which are each less than 3 square miles in area.

  10. Does a history of physical exposures at work affect hand-grip strength in midlife? A retrospective cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anne; Reventlow, Susanne; Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars L; Siersma, Volkert; Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Mortensen, Ole S

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to examine associations between physical exposures throughout working life and hand-grip strength (HGS) in midlife. The Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) provided data about employment and HGS for 3843 Danes. Individual job histories, including duration of employment in specific jobs, were assigned exposures from a job exposure matrix. Exposures were standardized to ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in one year), stand-years (standing/walking for six hours each day in one year) and kneel-years (kneeling for one hour each day in one year). The effects of exposure-years on HGS were analyzed as linear effects and cubic splines in multivariate regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Mean age was 59 years among both genders and HGS was 49.19 kg [standard deviation (SD) 8.42] and 30.61 kg (SD 5.49) among men and women, respectively. Among men, exposure to kneel-years was associated with higher HGS [>0.030 kg (P=0.007) per exposure-year]. Ton- and stand-years were not associated with HGS among either men or women in linear analyses. In spline regression analyses, associations between ton- and stand-years and HGS were non-linear and primarily positive among men. Among women, the associations were non-linear and, according to ton-years, primarily negatively associated with HGS but statistically insignificant. A history of physical exposures at work explained only a minor part of the variation in HGS, though exposure to kneeling throughout working life was associated with a slightly higher HGS among men. Exposure to lifting and standing/walking was not associated with HGS.

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  12. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, A.W.; Salter, T.L.; Zetterlund, D.

    1980-08-01

    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites.

  13. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.W.; Salter, T.L.; Zetterlund, D.

    1980-08-01

    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites

  14. Effects of progressive resistance training on physical disability among older community-dwelling people with history of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, Johanna; Rantanen, Taina; Heinonen, Ari; Portegijs, Erja; Alén, Markku; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Kallinen, Mauri; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2012-04-01

    Hip fracture is a common trauma in older people, and often leads to decreased muscle strength and increased physical disability. This randomized controlled trial examined whether three months of progressive resistance training (PRT) can reduce physical disability among older people with a history of hip fracture. A population-based sample of 60-85-year-old community- dwelling persons, with hip fractures sustained on average three years earlier, were enrolled in the study. Of 78 people participating in laboratory assessments, those without contraindications for participation in resistance training were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n=22) or a control group (CG, n=21). TG took part in resistance training for three months twice a week. Training focused on lower limb muscles. Disability was assessed by a validated questionnaire containing six questions on activities of daily living (ADL) and nine on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). A sum score was calculated separately for both items. High scores indicated more difficulties. Group differences were analysed with the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. The effects of PRT on disability were tested with the McNemar test and by covariance analysis (ANCOVA). TG and CG were comparable with respect to gender, age, chronic diseases, BMI, time since fracture, self-reported health, and level of physical activity at baseline. The ADL sum score in TG was 1.8 (2.0) at baseline and 1.1 (1.3) after follow-up; in CG values were 1.7 (1.8) and 1.5 (1.8) (ANCOVA p=0.034). IADL sum scores in TG were 3.9 (4.6) at baseline and 2.2 (3.8) after follow-up, and in CG 3.4 (3.6) and 2.4 (2.3) (ANCOVA p=0.529). Progressive resistance training reduced self-reported difficulties in ADL, even several years after fracture. More research is still needed on how to prevent physical disability among community-dwelling older people, especially after hip fracture.

  15. Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid gland: report of three cases including one case with breast cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Xi; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Johnstone, Marianne; Deng, Yuan; Ke, Yongqiang; Nunes, Quentin M; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yili; Zhang, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant tumor of the thyroid or adjacent neck soft tissues, whose histogenesis is still debated. It may resemble other primary or metastatic poorly differentiated tumors histologically and the differential diagnosis is crucial for CASTLE has a better prognosis. However, CASTLE as a second primary tumor has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of thyroid CASTLE, including a unique tumor following breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast invasive carcinoma. There were two female and one male. All three tumors were located in the right lobe of the thyroid, and one tumor showed extension into the surrounding soft tissue. Histologically, all tumors showed expansive growth and consisted of cords, nests or sheets of epithelial cells divided into irregularly shaped lobules by fibrous connective tissue with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Focal squamous differentiation resembling Hassall's corpuscles were observed. All cases stained positively for CD5, CD117, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin, P63, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Positive staining for Bcl-2 in two cases and chromogranin A in one case was noted. Ki-67 expression ranged from 15 to 25%. Thyroid transcription factor and CD3 were negative. There was no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease at following surgery. These features demonstrated CASTLE may arise from branchial pouch remnants, the thyroid solid cell nests. CASTLE is a rare entity, awareness of its occurrence as a second primary tumor is important to avoid overtreatment because it is associated with a favorable prognosis.

  16. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients: a prospective study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leensen, Monique C J; Groeneveld, Iris F; Heide, Iris van der; Rejda, Tomas; van Veldhoven, Peter L J; Berkel, Sietske van; Snoek, Aernout; Harten, Wim van; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2017-06-15

    To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to evaluate changes in work-related quality of life and physical outcomes. Longitudinal prospective intervention study using a one-group design. Two hospitals in the Netherlands. Of the eligible patients, 56% participated; 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of cancer receiving chemotherapy and on sick leave were included. Patients completed questionnaires on RTW, the importance of work, work ability (WAI), RTW self-efficacy, fatigue (MFI), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ C-30) at baseline and 6, 12 and 18 months follow-up. Before and after the exercise programme 1-repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) were assessed. Six months after the start of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme that combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme, 59% of the cancer patients returned to work, 86% at 12 months and 83% at 18 months. In addition, significant improvements (pfatigue levels were significantly reduced. After completing the exercise programme, 1RM muscle strength was significantly increased but there was no improvement in VO 2 peak level. RTW rates of cancer patients were high after completion of the multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme which combines occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme is likely to result in RTW, reduced fatigue and increased importance of work, work ability, and quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Adults with an epilepsy history fare significantly worse on positive mental and physical health than adults with other common chronic conditions-Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and Patient Reported Outcome Measurement System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M

    2017-07-01

    Healthy People 2020, a national health promotion initiative, calls for increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who self-report good or better health. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale (GHS) was identified as a reliable and valid set of items of self-reported physical and mental health to monitor these two domains across the decade. The purpose of this study was to examine the percentage of adults with an epilepsy history who met the Healthy People 2020 target for self-reported good or better health and to compare these percentages to adults with history of other common chronic conditions. Using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we compared and estimated the age-standardized prevalence of reporting good or better physical and mental health among adults with five selected chronic conditions including epilepsy, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and hypertension. We examined response patterns for physical and mental health scale among adults with these five conditions. The percentages of adults with epilepsy who reported good or better physical health (52%) or mental health (54%) were significantly below the Healthy People 2020 target estimate of 80% for both outcomes. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better physical health than adults with heart disease, cancer, or hypertension. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better mental health than adults with all other four conditions. Health and social service providers can implement and enhance existing evidence-based clinical interventions and public health programs and strategies shown to improve outcomes in epilepsy. These estimates can be used to assess improvements in the Healthy People 2020 Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Objective throughout the decade. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Lecture: Big, Bigger, Too Big? From Los Alamos to Fermilab and the SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddeson, Lillian

    2012-03-01

    The modern era of big science emerged during World War II. Oppenheimer's Los Alamos laboratory offered the quintessential model of a government-funded, mission-oriented facility directed by a strong charismatic leader. The postwar beneficiaries of this model included the increasingly ambitious large laboratories that participated in particle physics--in particular, Brookhaven, SLAC, and Fermilab. They carried the big science they practiced into a new realm where experiments eventually became as large and costly as entire laboratories had been. Meanwhile the available funding grew more limited causing the physics research to be concentrated into fewer and bigger experiments that appeared never to end. The next phase in American high-energy physics was the Superconducting Super Collider, the most costly pure physics project ever attempted. The SSC's termination was a tragedy for American science, but for historians it offers an opportunity to understand what made the success of earlier large high-energy physics laboratories possible, and what made the continuation of the SSC impossible. The most obvious reason for the SSC's failure was its enormous and escalating budget, which Congress would no longer support. Other factors need to be recognized however: no leader could be found with directing skills as strong as those of Wilson, Panofsky, Lederman, or Richter; the scale of the project subjected it to uncomfortable public and Congressional scrutiny; and the DOE's enforcement of management procedures of the military-industrial complex that clashed with those typical of the scientific community led to the alienation and withdrawal of many of the most creative scientists, and to the perception and the reality of poor management. These factors, exacerbated by negative pressure from scientists in other fields and a post-Cold War climate in which physicists had little of their earlier cultural prestige, discouraged efforts to gain international support. They made the SSC

  20. The early history of x-ray diagnosis with emphasis on the contributions of physics 1895-1915

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of physics to the development of X-ray diagnosis was vital in the early years of this century following Rontgen's discovery 1895-1915. The sections are presented in a logical order beginning with the discovery of X-rays, followed by X-ray tube technology to the advent of the hot cathode Coolidge tube, with the third and final section covering diagnostic radiology physics. It has been compiled from personal research over 35 years in libraries worldwide, drawing on textbooks, journals, popular magazines, newspapers, X-ray company catalogues and museum exhibits. I have included a certain amount of anecdotal information, because after all, much of the early commentaries were indeed anecdotal - and make very interesting reading. Finally it is commented that although this review is devoted to X-ray diagnosis, X-ray therapy should not be forgotten, and readers are referred to another review by the author on early therapeutic advances. (Author)

  1. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF RESEARCH IN HISTORY OF PHYSICAL CULTURE OF XX CENTURY IN THE TERRITORY OF FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slađana Mijatović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The entire XX century has passed in turbulent political and economic changes in the entire world, and especially in Europe. This was particularly expressed on the terri- tory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY, were a few independent states were created at the beginning of XX century. All these changes reflected also in the field of culture and science and created ob- stacles for many cultural events, and especially scientific researches of certain phenome- na in these territories at the beginning of the XXI century. These difficulties will continue to be present for many years because the SFRY was disintegrated in wars, violence and crimes resulting in impossibility to establish faster normal collaboration between the newly created states. This problem has not speared even the researches in history of physical culture of the XX century on the territory of former SFRY, because no normal communication bet- ween some of the newly formed states has been established, so the access to researches of primary historic resources, which is necessary in heurictc phase, is lacking. Therefore it is necessary to establish collaboration between colleagues-resear- chers from these territories, more that usually in order to create possibilities for valid researches with objective and worthy conclusions

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  4. Teaching Introductory Quantum Physics and Chemistry: Caveats from the History of Science and Science Teaching to the Training of Modern Chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana M.; Freire, Olival, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Finding the best ways to introduce quantum physics to undergraduate students in all scientific areas, in particular for chemistry students, is a pressing, but hardly a simple task. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of taking into account lessons from the history of the discipline and the ongoing controversy over its interpretations and…

  5. High diagnostic yield and accuracy of history, physical examination, and ECG in patients with transient loss of consciousness in FAST: The fainting assessment study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Nynke; Boer, Kimberly R.; Colman, Nancy; Bakker, Annemieke; Stam, Jan; van Grieken, Johannes J. M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Linzer, Mark; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Wieling, Wouter

    2008-01-01

    Yield and Accuracy of Diagnosing TLOC. Background: Transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) is a common clinical problem. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the yield and accuracy of the initial evaluation, consisting of standardized history, physical examination, and ECG performed by

  6. A Verbal and Graphic Model for Illustrating the Perspective of Religion in Relationship to those of the Physical and Human Sciences, History, and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Jeffrey Dean

    Designed as an instructional aid for college professors, this model is used to illustrate the broad relationship among the primary perspectives and concerns of the physical and human sciences, history, geography, and religion. Human knowledge is conceptual. Man's "real" objective knowledge consists of mental analogs that are concerned…

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  8. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  9. Orthopaedic manual physical therapy including thrust manipulation and exercise in the management of a patient with cervicogenic headache: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijn, Jacqueline; van Duijn, Arie J; Nitsch, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that in Western society as many as 16% of individuals experience cervicogenic headache, which can lead to significant amounts of pain and perceived disability. Cervicogenic headache is characterized by unilateral occipital-temporal pain that is increased by neck movement; it is accompanied by cervical hypomobility, postural changes, and/or increased cervical muscle tone. This case report describes the physical therapy differential diagnosis, management, and outcomes of a patient with cervicogenic headache. The patient was a 40-year-old woman referred by her physiatrist with complaints of cervical pain and ipsilateral temporal headache. The patient presented with increased muscle tone, multiple-level joint hypomobility in the cervical and thoracic spine, muscle weakness, and postural changes. Self-report outcome measures included the Visual Analog Scale for headache pain intensity and the Neck Disability Index. Management consisted of various thrust and non-thrust manipulations, soft tissue mobilizations, postural re-education, and exercise to address postural deficits and cervical and thoracic hypomobility and diminished strength. At discharge, the patient demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements with regard to pain, disability, and headache. This case report indicates that a multimodal physical therapy treatment program may be effective in the management of a patient diagnosed with cervicogenic headache.

  10. History of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, F.

    1980-01-01

    History of quantum theory from quantum representations (1900) to the formation of quantum mechanics is systematically stated in the monograph. A special attention is paid to the development of ideas of quantum physics, given are schemes of this development. Quantum theory is abstractly presented as the teaching about a role, which value h characterizing elementary quantum of action, plays in the nature: in statistics - as a unit for calculating the number of possible states; in corpuscular-wave dualism for light - as a value determining the interaction of light and substance and as a component of atom dynamics; in corpuscular-wave dualism for substance. Accordingly, history of the quantum theory development is considered in the following sequence: h discovery; history of quantum statistics, history of light quanta and initial atom dynamics; crysis of this dynamics and its settlement; substance waves and in conclusion - the completion of quantum mechanics including applications and its further development

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  12. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  13. The accretion history of dark matter haloes - III. A physical model for the concentration-mass relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Camila A.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Schaye, Joop; Duffy, Alan R.

    2015-09-01

    We present a semi-analytic, physically motivated model for dark matter halo concentration as a function of halo mass and redshift. The semi-analytic model combines an analytic model for the halo mass accretion history (MAH), based on extended Press-Schechter (EPS) theory, with an empirical relation between concentration and formation time obtained through fits to the results of numerical simulations. Because the semi-analytic model is based on EPS theory, it can be applied to wide ranges in mass, redshift and cosmology. The resulting concentration-mass (c-M) relations are found to agree with the simulations, and because the model applies only to relaxed haloes, they do not exhibit the upturn at high masses or high redshifts found by some recent works. We predict a change of slope in the z ˜ 0 c-M relation at a mass-scale of 1011 M⊙. We find that this is due to the change in the functional form of the halo MAH, which goes from being dominated by an exponential (for high-mass haloes) to a power law (for low-mass haloes). During the latter phase, the core radius remains approximately constant, and the concentration grows due to the drop of the background density. We also analyse how the c-M relation predicted by this work affects the power produced by dark matter annihilation, finding that at z = 0 the power is two orders of magnitude lower than that obtained from extrapolating best-fitting c-M relations. We provide fits to the c-M relations as well as numerical routines to compute concentrations and MAHs.†

  14. Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Describing the Diagnostic Accuracy of History, Physical Examination, Imaging, and Lumbar Puncture With an Exploration of Test Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Hussain, Adnan M; Ward, Michael J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Fowler, Susan; Pines, Jesse M; Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a rare, but serious etiology of headache. The diagnosis of SAH is especially challenging in alert, neurologically intact patients, as missed or delayed diagnosis can be catastrophic. The objective was to perform a diagnostic accuracy systematic review and meta-analysis of history, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, computed tomography (CT), and clinical decision rules for spontaneous SAH. A secondary objective was to delineate probability of disease thresholds for imaging and lumbar puncture (LP). PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and research meeting abstracts were searched up to June 2015 for studies of emergency department patients with acute headache clinically concerning for spontaneous SAH. QUADAS-2 was used to assess study quality and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using random effects models. Outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, and positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios. To identify test and treatment thresholds, we employed the Pauker-Kassirer method with Bernstein test indication curves using the summary estimates of diagnostic accuracy. A total of 5,022 publications were identified, of which 122 underwent full-text review; 22 studies were included (average SAH prevalence = 7.5%). Diagnostic studies differed in assessment of history and physical examination findings, CT technology, analytical techniques used to identify xanthochromia, and criterion standards for SAH. Study quality by QUADAS-2 was variable; however, most had a relatively low risk of biases. A history of neck pain (LR+ = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2 to 7.6) and neck stiffness on physical examination (LR+ = 6.6; 95% CI = 4.0 to 11.0) were the individual findings most strongly associated with SAH. Combinations of findings may rule out SAH, yet promising clinical decision rules await external validation. Noncontrast cranial CT within 6 hours of headache onset accurately ruled in (LR+ = 230; 95

  15. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  16. Utility of Postoperative Radiographs for Pediatric Scoliosis: Association Between History and Physical Examination Findings and Radiographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shau, David N; Bible, Jesse E; Gadomski, Stephen P; Samade, Richard; Armaghani, Sheyan; Mencio, Gregory A; Devin, Clinton J

    2014-07-02

    Postoperative radiographs are routinely obtained following surgery for the correction of scoliosis in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the utility of obtaining routine postoperative radiographs in the management of these patients. A total of 1969 clinic notes and corresponding radiographs regarding 451 consecutive patients with scoliosis (age range, ten to eighteen years) who had surgical correction over a ten-year period at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Curve etiology, preoperative curve characteristics, and surgical procedures performed were recorded. All postoperative clinic notes and radiographs were reviewed for abnormalities and changes in treatment course. It was then determined whether clinical signs and symptoms and/or abnormal radiographic findings led to a change in treatment course, which was defined as a therapeutic intervention or further diagnostic testing. Of the 451 patients in this study (average age [and standard deviation], 14.7 ± 2.4 years), 72.5% had adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, 23.3% had neuromuscular scoliosis, and 4.2% had other underlying causes of scoliosis. A change in treatment course occurred in the cases of forty-two patients, all of whom had symptomatic findings on postoperative history and physical examination and only fifteen of whom had supportive abnormal findings on postoperative radiographs. Curve etiology and surgical procedures performed had no impact on radiographic utility. A significant increase in utility was seen for radiographs obtained at visits one year or more following surgery compared with those obtained at visits less than one year following surgery (1.7% compared with 0.3%, p = 0.001). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of routine postoperative radiographs in guiding treatment course were 35.7%, 98.1%, 28.8%, and 98.6%, respectively. Routine radiographs provide low utility in guiding

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  18. Manual physical therapists' use of biopsychosocial history taking in the management of patients with back or neck pain in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostendorp, Rob A B; Elvers, Hans; Mikołajewska, Emilia; Laekeman, Marjan; van Trijffel, Emiel; Samwel, Han; Duquet, William

    2015-01-01

    To develop and evaluate process indicators relevant to biopsychosocial history taking in patients with chronic back and neck pain. The SCEBS method, covering the Somatic, Psychological (Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior), and Social dimensions of chronic pain, was used to evaluate biopsychosocial history taking by manual physical therapists (MPTs). In Phase I, process indicators were developed while in Phase II indicators were tested in practice. Literature-based recommendations were transformed into 51 process indicators. Twenty MTPs contributed 108 patient audio recordings. History taking was excellent (98.3%) for the Somatic dimension, very inadequate for Cognition (43.1%) and Behavior (38.3%), weak (27.8%) for Emotion, and low (18.2%) for the Social dimension. MTPs estimated their coverage of the Somatic dimension as excellent (100%), as adequate for Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior (60.1%), and as very inadequate for the Social dimension (39.8%). MTPs perform screening for musculoskeletal pain mainly through the use of somatic dimension of (chronic) pain. Psychological and social dimensions of chronic pain were inadequately covered by MPTs. Furthermore, a substantial discrepancy between actual and self-estimated use of biopsychosocial history taking was noted. We strongly recommend full implementation of the SCEBS method in educational programs in manual physical therapy.

  19. Manual Physical Therapists’ Use of Biopsychosocial History Taking in the Management of Patients with Back or Neck Pain in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob A. B. Oostendorp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop and evaluate process indicators relevant to biopsychosocial history taking in patients with chronic back and neck pain. Methods. The SCEBS method, covering the Somatic, Psychological (Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior, and Social dimensions of chronic pain, was used to evaluate biopsychosocial history taking by manual physical therapists (MPTs. In Phase I, process indicators were developed while in Phase II indicators were tested in practice. Results. Literature-based recommendations were transformed into 51 process indicators. Twenty MTPs contributed 108 patient audio recordings. History taking was excellent (98.3% for the Somatic dimension, very inadequate for Cognition (43.1% and Behavior (38.3%, weak (27.8% for Emotion, and low (18.2% for the Social dimension. MTPs estimated their coverage of the Somatic dimension as excellent (100%, as adequate for Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior (60.1%, and as very inadequate for the Social dimension (39.8%. Conclusion. MTPs perform screening for musculoskeletal pain mainly through the use of somatic dimension of (chronic pain. Psychological and social dimensions of chronic pain were inadequately covered by MPTs. Furthermore, a substantial discrepancy between actual and self-estimated use of biopsychosocial history taking was noted. We strongly recommend full implementation of the SCEBS method in educational programs in manual physical therapy.

  20. Comparing Women In Substance Abuse Treatment Who Report Sexual And/Or Physical Abuse With Women Who Do Not Report Abuse History

    OpenAIRE

    Boots, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    This descriptive study explored whether women in substance abuse treatment who report a history of sexual and/or physical abuse have different drug use profiles than women who do not report such abuse. The data originated from a NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) study designed to evaluate the effects of different treatment modalities in inpatient substance abuse treatment for women. The study compared the drug profiles of women in four areas: drug of choice, frequency of use, pr...

  1. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 27-30: Direct-Current Circuits; Magnetic Forces; Ampere's Law; and Faraday's Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules indlude study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of History, Physical Examination, Laboratory Tests, and Point-of-care Ultrasound for Pediatric Acute Appendicitis in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabbas, Roshanak; Hanna, Mark; Shah, Jay; Sinert, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common surgical emergency in children. Accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial but challenging due to atypical presentations and the inherent difficulty of obtaining a reliable history and physical examination in younger children. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of history, physical examination, laboratory tests, Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) and Emergency Department Point-of-Care Ultrasound (ED-POCUS) in the diagnosis of AA in ED pediatric patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis and used a test-treatment threshold model to identify diagnostic findings that could rule in/out AA and obviate the need for further imaging studies, specifically computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radiology department ultrasound (RUS). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS up to October 2016 for studies on ED pediatric patients with abdominal pain. Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) was used to evaluate the quality and applicability of included studies. Positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) for diagnostic modalities were calculated and when appropriate data was pooled using Meta-DiSc. Based on the available literature on the test characteristics of different imaging modalities and applying the Pauker-Kassirer method we developed a test-treatment threshold model. Twenty-one studies were included encompassing 8,605 patients with weighted AA prevalence of 39.2%. Studies had variable quality using the QUADAS-2 tool with most studies at high risk of partial verification bias. We divided studies based on their inclusion criteria into two groups of "undifferentiated abdominal pain" and abdominal pain "suspected of AA." In patients with undifferentiated abdominal pain, history of "pain migration to right lower quadrant (RLQ)" (LR+ = 4.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.59-6.44) and presence of "cough/hop pain" in the physical

  5. Understanding the physical and environmental consequences of dredged material disposal: history in New England and current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, T J; French, G T

    2004-07-01

    Thirty-five years of research in New England indicates that ocean disposal of dredged material has minimal environmental impacts when carefully managed. This paper summarizes research efforts and resulting conclusions by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, beginning with the Scientific Report Series and continuing with the Disposal Area Monitoring System (DAMOS). Using a tiered approach to monitoring and a wide range of tools, the DAMOS program has monitored short- and long-term physical and biological effects of disposal at designated disposal sites throughout New England waters. The DAMOS program has also helped develop new techniques for safe ocean disposal of contaminated sediments, including capping and confined aquatic disposal (CAD) cells. Monitoring conducted at many sites in New England and around the world has shown that impacts are typically near-field and short-term. Findings such as these need to be disseminated to the general public, whose perception of dredged material disposal is generally negative and is not strongly rooted in current science.

  6. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients: a prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C. J.; Groeneveld, Iris F.; van der Heide, Iris; Rejda, Tomas; van Veldhoven, Peter L. J.; van Berkel, Sietske; Snoek, Aernout; van Harten, Wim; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to

  7. Return to work of cancer patients after a multidisciplinary intervention including occupational counselling and physical exercise in cancer patients : A prospective study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C.J.; Groeneveld, Iris F.; Heide, Iris Van Der; Rejda, Tomas; Van Veldhoven, Peter L.J.; Berkel, Sietske Van; Snoek, Aernout; van Harten, Willem H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; Boer, Angela G.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To support return to work (RTW) among cancer patients, a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was developed which combined occupational counselling with a supervised physical exercise programme during chemotherapy. The aim was to investigate RTW rates of cancer patients and to

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  9. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer with a History of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Megan E; Steinberger, Julia; Ross, Julie A; Kelly, Aaron S; Chow, Eric J; Koves, Ildiko H; Hoffmeister, Paul; Sinaiko, Alan R; Petryk, Anna; Moran, Antoinette; Lee, Jill; Chow, Lisa S; Baker, K Scott

    2015-07-01

    Along with other childhood cancer survivors (CCS), hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at high risk of treatment-related late effects, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities may be exacerbated by inadequate physical activity (PA). Relationships between PA and cardiometabolic risk factors have not been well described in CCS with HCT. PA (self reported), mobility (timed up and go test), endurance (6-minute walk test), handgrip strength, and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured in 119 HCT survivors and 66 sibling controls ages ≥18 years. Adjusted comparisons between HCT survivors and controls and between categories of low and high PA, mobility, endurance, and strength were performed with linear regression. Among HCT survivors, the high PA group had lower waist circumference (WC) (81.9 ± 2.5 versus 88.6 ± 3.1 cm ± standard error (SE), P = .009) than the low PA group, whereas the high endurance group had lower WC (77.8 ± 2.6 versus 87.8 ± 2.5 cm ± SE, P = .0001) and percent fat mass (33.6 ± 1.8 versus 39.4 ± 1.7% ± SE, P = .0008) and greater insulin sensitivity (IS) (10.9 ± 1.0 versus 7.42 ± 1.14 mg/kg/min ± SE via euglycemic insulin clamp, P = .001) than the low endurance group. Differences were greater in HCT survivors than in controls for WC between low and high PA groups, triglycerides between low and high mobility groups, and WC, systolic blood pressure, and IS between low and high endurance groups (all Pinteraction <.05). Higher endurance was associated with a more favorable cardiometabolic profile in HCT survivors, suggesting that interventions directed to increase endurance in survivors may reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anomalous Features on Anomalous Rocks — Deciphering the Physical Weathering History of Iron Meteorites found on Mars using Terrestrial Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J.

    2015-12-01

    Non-indigenous rocks (meteorites) found on Mars by rover science teams offer insights into probable recent (mid- to late-Amazonian) weathering processes within 15° of the martian equator. While source materials are often in question for indigenous martian alteration scenarios, the starting materials for most meteorites are known as unweathered, curated falls in Earth-based collections. Both chemical and mechanical weathering processes have modified at least 21 confirmed and candidate exogenic rocks found at three rover landing sites. Such processes have been shown to include acidic corrosion, oxide production, and aeolian scouring. The unknown martian surface exposure duration of the meteorites makes separating physical from chemical weathering effects challenging: Saltating sand grains may accomplish alone what oxidation and rust removal by aeolian scouring may accomplish in a shorter time interval, for example. However, aeolian abrasion appears to dominate for at least some of the surface features in martian irons. Iron meteorites are resistant to wind-blown sand relative to silicate rocks, but are malleable and able to preserve aeolian abrasion effects. These include 1) regmaglypts enlarged into hollows with overhanging cornices; 2) surfaces scalloped or deeply fluted by straight-line groves, and/or 3) deep 'boreholes' present across many surfaces. The flutings, boreholes, and scallops have oriented symmetry and are therefore potentially useful as paleo-wind direction indicators. Boreholes tend to be clean-edged, elliptical to round, of varying diameter, and often occur independently of local topography. Ventifacted igneous rocks found at Garnet Hill, San Gorgonio Pass, California, present features that resemble many aspects of those found in the metal masses on Mars. Though of different petrologies and mineralogies, both rock types are massive, homogeneous and unfractured, which may conceivably account for some apparent similarities in mechanical weathering

  11. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors. A compact introduction to history, development, and theory of solid-state physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    The present book is a strongly revised and supplemented edition of the title: ''Kristalle: Spiefeld der Elektronen'', published scarcely ten years ago by the same author. Especially the physical contents are explained by the mathematically formulated foundations. The book appeals to students of natural sciences and especially of physics as well as to engineers as introduction to the wide field of solid-state physics, so to speak as motivating prestage to the established and very extensive textbooks. Beside the physical contents the book treats the important role of numerous important and often still very young scientists. By corresponding supplements in this book it is tried to present the fundamental developments in their wide environment.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  15. Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and family history and the risks of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Audrey H H; Boer, Jolanda M A; Schouten, Leo J; Feskens, Edith J M; Verschuren, W M Monique; Gorgels, Anton P M; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2011-03-24

    Few studies investigated the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity and the risk of unstable angina pectoris (UAP), while the strength of these associations may differ compared to other coronary diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Therefore, we investigated whether the associations of these lifestyle factors with UAP differed from those with AMI. Additionally, we investigated whether these effects differed between subjects with and without a family history of myocardial infarction (MI). The CAREMA study consists of 21,148 persons, aged 20-59 years at baseline and randomly sampled from the Maastricht region in 1987-1997. At baseline, all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. After follow-up of maximally 16.9 years, 420 AMI and 274 UAP incident cases were registered. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. For both diseases, smoking increased the risk while alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Associations with both risk factors were stronger for AMI than UAP, although this difference was only statistically significant for smoking. In men, an inverse association was found with physical activity during leisure time which seemed to be stronger for the risk of UAP than of AMI. On the contrary, physical activity during leisure time was associated with an increased risk of both AMI and UAP in women which seemed to be weaker for UAP than for AMI. Except for occupational physical activity in women, no significant interactions on a multiplicative scale were found between the lifestyle factors and family history of MI. Nevertheless, the highest risks were found in subjects with both a positive family history and the most unfavorable level of the lifestyle factors. The strength of the associations with the lifestyle factors did not differ between AMI and UAP, except for smoking. Furthermore, the effects of the lifestyle factors on the risk of

  16. Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and family history and the risks of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgels Anton PM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies investigated the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity and the risk of unstable angina pectoris (UAP, while the strength of these associations may differ compared to other coronary diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Therefore, we investigated whether the associations of these lifestyle factors with UAP differed from those with AMI. Additionally, we investigated whether these effects differed between subjects with and without a family history of myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The CAREMA study consists of 21,148 persons, aged 20-59 years at baseline and randomly sampled from the Maastricht region in 1987-1997. At baseline, all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. After follow-up of maximally 16.9 years, 420 AMI and 274 UAP incident cases were registered. Incidence rate ratios (RRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results For both diseases, smoking increased the risk while alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Associations with both risk factors were stronger for AMI than UAP, although this difference was only statistically significant for smoking. In men, an inverse association was found with physical activity during leisure time which seemed to be stronger for the risk of UAP than of AMI. On the contrary, physical activity during leisure time was associated with an increased risk of both AMI and UAP in women which seemed to be weaker for UAP than for AMI. Except for occupational physical activity in women, no significant interactions on a multiplicative scale were found between the lifestyle factors and family history of MI. Nevertheless, the highest risks were found in subjects with both a positive family history and the most unfavorable level of the lifestyle factors. Conclusions The strength of the associations with the lifestyle factors did not differ between AMI and UAP, except for smoking

  17. Notes on the History of Physical Education in the “Triângulo Mineiro” (Ituiutaba – 1934-1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉA AZEVEDO DE OLIVEIRA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned about the implementation of Physical Education in schools in the city Ituiutaba (Triângulo Mineiro between 1934 and 1971. The adoption of physical activities in school curriculums aimed to discipline and purify the local youth and children reflected the new pedagogical ideal directed to the control of the "insubordinate instincts", seeking to regulate behaviors and contributing to the new social organization which appeared with the urban and industrial society, especially after the Second World War. Such a context brought about the need for development of a high degree of productive efficiency, where schooling would be essential to achieve such purpose, beyond the contribution to the transmission of the idea which was necessary to ensure a "pure education" in the fight against large epidemic outbreaks. From this perspective, we highlight the specific practices of teachers and students in Physical Education classes in the schools of this city.

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  19. On the history of the Linear Accelerator Department at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, N. V.

    2006-01-01

    These memoirs are devoted to the Institute's anniversary and present the history of the Linear Accelerator Department at ITEP. Some studies are described in which I was involved. During more than 40 years. I worked with Professor I.M. Kapchinsky (1919-1993), a world-renowned scientist, the founder of the department. References are given to Kapchinsky's monographs and to some of the works that were performed under his supervision and were published in proceedings of accelerator conferences. Many active scientists, engineers, and technicians are mentioned who participate in the achievements of the department, which made a significant contribution to the development of accelerator science and engineering in Russia and worldwide

  20. Physical Fitness in the United States Marine Corps: History, Current Practices and Implications for Mission Accomplishment and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    for today’s Marine.49 Mr. Newton’s insights are accurate. Even amongst physically active Marines, bodybuilding protocols are a main (although...the individualistic nature of bodybuilding detracts from unit cohesion and group development. Additional data supports the theory that PT in the

  1. The Pendulum as a Vehicle for Transitioning from Classical to Quantum Physics: History, Quantum Concepts, and Educational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marianne B.; Garner, James; Reid, David

    2004-01-01

    In this article we use the pendulum as the vehicle for discussing the transition from classical to quantum physics. Since student knowledge of the classical pendulum can be generalized to all harmonic oscillators, we propose that a quantum analysis of the pendulum can lead students into the unanticipated consequences of quantum phenomena at the…

  2. Influence of a past history of Gambian sleeping sickness on physical growth, sexual maturity and academic performance of children in Fontem, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroke, A H; Asonganyi, T; Mbonda, E

    1998-12-01

    Little has been published on the long-term complications of Gambian sleeping sickness (GSS) following treatment. A case-control study to compare physical growth, sexual maturity and academic performance of children with and without a past history of GSS was therefore conducted. The study took place over a period of 6 months, in the 10 villages of the Fontem GSS focus, which is known to be very endemic for the disease. Overall, 100 young subjects (aged 6-20 years) with a past history of GSS were pair-matched for age (+/- 5 months), sex, place of residence, and socio-economic and cultural backgrounds with 100 other, control subjects who had no history of GSS and who were sero-negative for GSS when checked with a card agglutination test (Testryp-CATT). On average, the cases weighed 4.25 kg less, were 3 cm shorter and had 1.15-cm smaller mid-upper-arm circumferences than the controls (P growth and sexual maturity.

  3. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  4. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, KH; Wong, JHD

    2008-01-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong. The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations. SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7). In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled “Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning”. PMID:21614324

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  8. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  9. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  11. Natural histroy of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13: I. Growth, physical assessment, medical histories, survival, and recurrence risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, B.J.; Blackburn, B.L.; Carey, J.C. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1994-01-15

    The natural history of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 was investigated using data derived from parent questionnaires and medical records from 98 families with an index case of trisomy 18 and 32 families with an index case of trisomy 13. Data are presented on pregnancy, delivery, survival, medical complications, immunizations, growth, cause of death, cytogenetics, and recurrence risk. Half of the trisomy 18 babies were delivered by C-section. Fetal distress was a factor in half, and the only reason in a third of C-section deliveries. One minute Apgar scores were significantly lower in C-section and breech deliveries. There were more small-for-gestational-age babies than in the general population, but most of the low-birth-weight newborns were small for gestational age, unlike the general population. Survival in this group of children was better than in other studies due to ascertainment bias. There were more girls than boys at all ages for both conditions, and the sex ratio decreased with time. Growth curves for length, weight, head circumference, and weight vs height are provided. Long-term survival did not appear to be due to mosaicism. There were no adverse reactions attributable to immunizations. At age 1 year there was an average of approximately 2 operations per living child. The authors report the second case of successful major cardiac surgery in a trisomy 18 child. Almost 70% of deaths were attributed to cardiopulmonary arrest. The sibling recurrence risk for trisomy 18 or trisomy 13 was 0.55%. 86 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  16. Cosmic growth history and expansion history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The cosmic expansion history tests the dynamics of the global evolution of the universe and its energy density contents, while the cosmic growth history tests the evolution of the inhomogeneous part of the energy density. Precision comparison of the two histories can distinguish the nature of the physics responsible for the accelerating cosmic expansion: an additional smooth component--dark energy--or a modification of the gravitational field equations. With the aid of a new fitting formula for linear perturbation growth accurate to 0.05%-0.2%, we separate out the growth dependence on the expansion history and introduce a new growth index parameter γ that quantifies the gravitational modification

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  19. Physical Activity Frequency on the 10-Year Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Prognosis; The Interaction With Cardiovascular Disease History and Diabetes Mellitus: The GREECS Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papataxiarchis, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Notara, Venetia; Kouvari, Matina; Kogias, Yannis; Stravopodis, Petros; Papanagnou, George; Zombolos, Spyros; Mantas, Yannis; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    The association between physical activity, diabetes mellitus (DM), and long-term acute coronary syndrome (ACS) prognosis was evaluated. The GREECS study included 2,172 consecutive ACS patients from six Greek hospitals (2003-2004). In 2013-2014, a 10-year follow up was performed with 1,918 patients. Physical activity was categorized in never, rarely (monthly basis), 1-2 and ≥ 3 times/week. Multi-adjusted analysis revealed that 1-2 and ≥ 3 times/week vs. no physical activity had a protective effect on ACS incidence (OR = 0.63 95% CI 0.38, 1.05) and (OR = 0.63 95% CI 0.40, 0.99) respectively, only in patients without prior baseline CVD event. In a subgroup analysis, with DM as strata in these patients, engagement in physical activity (i.e., 1-2 times/week) had a significant protective effect among patients with diabetes (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.27, 0.96, p = .037). These findings revealed the beneficial role of exercise in secondary ACS prevention, even in DM patients. Public health-oriented policies should incorporate regular physical activity as a key protective factor in disease prognosis.

  20. Anniversary Paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-01-01

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists' goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists--as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation--focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous--from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects--collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the

  1. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times

  2. Prostate Can Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2006-01-01

    .... The most extensively studied risk factors for prostate cancer include age, race/ethnicity, family history, diet, androgen metabolism, alcohol consumption, obesity, physical activity and smoking...

  3. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  5. Physical Sources of Biblical History

    OpenAIRE

    Touber, Jetze

    2017-01-01

    The Reformation and the consequent divergence of religious cultures in Europe had profound consequences for intellectual regimes across the continent. Learned medicine was no exception in that respect. One area where we may gauge the effects of this development was in the field of medicina sacra: the application of medical knowledge to the interpretation of biblical passages touching upon the workings of the human body. The engagement of learned medicine with Scripture may be expected to have...

  6. How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.

  7. Let's Move Together: A Randomized Trial of the Impact of Family Health History on Encouragement and Co-Engagement in Physical Activity of Mexican-Origin Parents and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; de la Haye, Kayla; Skapinsky, Kaley; Goergen, Andrea F.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Due to shared health behaviors and disease risk, families may be more effective targets for health promotion. This study assessed whether providing family health history (FHH)-based risk information for heart disease and diabetes affected encouragement to engage in physical activity (PA) and healthy weight (HW) maintenance and…

  8. Insights on star-formation histories and physical properties of 1.2 ≤z ≲ 4 Herschel-detected galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklias, P.; Schaerer, D.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Schreiber, C.; Cava, A.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We aim to test the impact of using variable star-forming histories (SFHs) and the IR luminosity as a constrain on the physical parameters of high redshift dusty star-forming galaxies. We explore in particular the properties (SFHs, ages, timescales) of galaxies depending on their belonging to the "main sequence" of star-forming galaxies (MS). Methods: We performed spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of the UV-to-NIR and FIR emissions of a moderately large sample of GOODS-Herschel galaxies, for which rich multi-wavelength, optical to IR observations are available. We tested different SFHs and the impact of imposing energy conservation in the SED fitting process, to help with issues like the age-extinction degeneracy and produce SEDs consistent with observations. Results: Our simple models produce well constrained SEDs for the broad majority of the sample (84%), with the notable exception of the very high LIR end, for which we have indications that the energy conservation hypothesis cannot hold true for a single component population approach. We observe trends in the preferences in SFHs among our sources depending on stellar mass M⋆ and z. Trends also emerge in the characteristic timescales of the SED models depending on the location on the SFR - M⋆ diagram. We show that whilst using the same available observational data, we can produce galaxies less star-forming than classically inferred, if we allow rapidly declining SFHs, while properly reproducing their observables. These sources, representing 7% of the sample, can be post-starbursts undergoing quenching, and their SFRs are potentially overestimated if inferred from their LIR. Based on the trends observed in the rising SFH fits we explore a simple evolution model for stellar mass build-up over the considered time period. Conclusions: Our approach successfully breaks the age-extinction degeneracy, and enables to evaluate properly the SFRs of the sources in the SED fitting process. Fitting without

  9. Reviews Website: Online Graphing Calculator Video Clip: Learning From the News Phone App: Graphing Calculator Book: Challenge and Change: A History of the Nuffield A-Level Physics Project Book: SEP Sound Book: Reinventing Schools, Reforming Teaching Book: Physics and Technology for Future Presidents iPhone App: iSeismometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND Online Graphing Calculator Calculator plots online graphs Challenge and Change: A History of the Nuffield A-Level Physics Project Book delves deep into the history of Nuffield physics SEP Sound Booklet has ideas for teaching sound but lacks some basics Reinventing Schools, Reforming Teaching Fascinating book shows how politics impacts on the classroom Physics and Technology for Future Presidents A great book for teaching physics for the modern world iSeismometer iPhone app teaches students about seismic waves WORTH A LOOK Teachers TV Video Clip Lesson plan uses video clip to explore new galaxies Graphing Calculator App A phone app that handles formulae and graphs WEB WATCH Physics.org competition finds the best websites

  10. Do heart failure status and psychosocial variables moderate the relationship between leisure time physical activity and mortality risk among patients with a history of myocardial infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterom-Calo, Rony; Te Velde, Saskia J; Stut, Wim; Drory, Yaacov; Brug, Johannes; Gerber, Yariv

    2016-10-12

    Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is inversely related to mortality risk among patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI). The aims were to explore if heart failure (HF) status and psychosocial variables moderate the association. Participants (n = 1169) were from a multi-center prospective cohort study. Information on LTPA (none, irregular,1-150, 151-300 and >300 weekly minutes), depression, social support and other prognostic indicators were collected 10-13 years after index MI. Cox regressions were conducted, adjusting for potential confounders. In case of significant moderation by HF-status or psychosocial variables, stratified analyses were performed. During follow-up (M = 8.4 years), 25.6 % of the sample had died. LTPA was inversely associated with mortality (p for trend psychosocial variables did, moderate the association. In the LTPA category 1-150 weekly minutes, patients with a high level of depression had a lower mortality risk in comparison to those with a low level (hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) were 0.43 (0.25, 0.75) versus 0.69 (0.36, 1.32)), and patients with a low level of social support had a lower mortality risk in comparison to those with a high level (0.40 (0.21, 0.77) versus 0.71 (0.39, 1.27)). In the category >300 min, patients with a high level of social support had a lower mortality risk than those with a low level (0.38 (0.19, 0.79) versus 0.51 (0.30, 0.87)). LTPA was inversely related to mortality risk of post-MI patients. HF did not moderate the relationship; depression and social support partially did.

  11. THE AVERAGE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF THE UV-BRIGHTEST STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 3.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Glikman, Eilat; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Cooper, Michael C.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Cooray, Asantha

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the average physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 3.7. Our results are based on the average spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed from stacked optical-to-infrared photometry, of a sample of the 1913 most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies found in 5.3 deg 2 of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. We find that the shape of the average SED in the rest optical and infrared is fairly constant with UV luminosity, i.e., more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more luminous at longer wavelengths. In the rest UV, however, the spectral slope β (≡ dlogF λ /dlogλ; measured at 0.13 μm rest UV and thus star formation rates (SFRs) scale closely with stellar mass such that more UV-luminous galaxies are also more massive, (2) the median ages indicate that the stellar populations are relatively young (200-400 Myr) and show little correlation with UV luminosity, and (3) more UV-luminous galaxies are dustier than their less-luminous counterparts, such that L ∼ 4-5L* galaxies are extincted up to A(1600) = 2 mag while L ∼ L* galaxies have A(1600) = 0.7-1.5 mag. We argue that the average SFHs of UV-luminous galaxies are better described by models in which SFR increases with time in order to simultaneously reproduce the tight correlation between the UV-derived SFR and stellar mass and their universally young ages. We demonstrate the potential of measurements of the SFR-M * relation at multiple redshifts to discriminate between simple models of SFHs. Finally, we discuss the fate of these UV-brightest galaxies in the next 1-2 Gyr and their possible connection to the most massive galaxies at z ∼ 2.

  12. Obesity History and Daily Patterns of Physical Activity at Age 60-64 Years: Findings From the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel; Huang, Lei; Hardy, Rebecca; Crainiceanu, Adina; Harris, Tamara; Schrack, Jennifer A; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Kuh, Diana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of current body mass index (BMI) and obesity history with daily patterns of physical activity. At age 60-64, participants from a British birth cohort study wore accelerometers for 5 days. Accelerometry counts were log-transformed and mean log-counts were used to derive a summary variable indicating total daily log-activity counts. Among those with complete data (n = 1,388) the associations of current BMI and age of first obesity were examined with: (a) total daily log-activity counts and (b) total log-activity counts in four segments of the day. Higher current BMI and younger age at obesity were strongly associated with lower levels of total daily activity at age 60-64 even after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic factors, and health status. The fully-adjusted mean difference in total daily log-activity counts was -581.7 (95% confidence interval: -757.2, -406.3) when comparing BMI ≥35 kg/m2 with <25 kg/m2, representing an 18.4% difference. Participants who had been obese since early adulthood had the lowest levels of activity (mean difference in total daily log-activity counts was -413.1 (-638.1, -188.2) when comparing those who were obese by age 26 or 36 with those who were never obese, representing a 13.1% difference). Obese older adults may require targeted interventions and additional support to improve their daily activity levels. As younger generations with greater lifetime exposure to obesity reach old age the proportion of adults achieving sufficient levels of activity to realize its associated health benefits is likely to decline. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  13. Conceptual history and History of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad VILANOU I TORRANO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available After noting the importance of linguistic turn in the field of historiography, the two leading currents in the field of conceptual history are identi- fied, the Cambridge school and Reinhart Koselleck’s Begriffsgeschichte. The paper focuses on the analysis of the latter trend in conceptual history, linked to the phi- losophical (Heidegger, Gadamer, political (Schmitt and historical (Dilthey tradi- tion within the German academic community. The paper then reviews the origin and nature of the History of Pedagogy, which arose as part of the classic History of Ideas and later gave rise, after the Second World War, to a Social History of Education. Finally, a conceptual History of Education is proposed that, in addi- tion to addressing the various conceptual strata included in the different terms, also takes into account the intellectual and cultural aspects through a return to discourses and pedadogic narratives.

  14. Physics 1963-1970

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Physics: 1963-1970 focuses on the history, developments, and trends in physics, including the applications of lasers, semiconductors, and electrodynamics. The book first offers information on events, laws of nature, and invariance principles and the shell model. Topics include magic numbers, atomic analogue, individual orbits in the nucleus, and the use of invariance principles and approximate invariances. The text also ponders on the production of coherent radiation by atoms and molecules, including basic maser principles, maser clocks and amplifiers, and application of lasers. The

  15. Physics of photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Shun Lien

    2009-01-01

    The most up-to-date book available on the physics of photonic devices This new edition of Physics of Photonic Devices incorporates significant advancements in the field of photonics that have occurred since publication of the first edition (Physics of Optoelectronic Devices). New topics covered include a brief history of the invention of semiconductor lasers, the Lorentz dipole method and metal plasmas, matrix optics, surface plasma waveguides, optical ring resonators, integrated electroabsorption modulator-lasers, and solar cells. It also introduces exciting new fields of research such as:

  16. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  17. Valeriu Bologa's studies on the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    History of science is a vast and complex domain, comprising many sub-domains, such as: the history of medicine, history of chemistry, history of physics etc. Different specialists in these sub-domains, trying to reach the general and integrative understanding of the history of science, succeeded only after they acquired a rich scientific experience in their fields of activity. One of the scientists who had interesting papers on the history of science was Valeriu Bologa (1892-1971). He was the first Romanian professor of history of medicine. Our paper presents some milestones regarding his preoccupations on the history of science. The aim of our study is to prove that, although he was primarily a historian of medicine, he surpassed this framework, proving to be a skillful historian of science. The topics of his works on the history of science included: the value of the unity of science, the ethical aspects of science during centuries, the interferences between the history of science and the history of medicine etc.

  18. Valeriu Bologa’s studies on the history of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    BÂRSU, CRISTIAN

    2016-01-01

    History of science is a vast and complex domain, comprising many sub-domains, such as: the history of medicine, history of chemistry, history of physics etc. Different specialists in these sub-domains, trying to reach the general and integrative understanding of the history of science, succeeded only after they acquired a rich scientific experience in their fields of activity. One of the scientists who had interesting papers on the history of science was Valeriu Bologa (1892–1971). He was the first Romanian professor of history of medicine. Our paper presents some milestones regarding his preoccupations on the history of science. The aim of our study is to prove that, although he was primarily a historian of medicine, he surpassed this framework, proving to be a skillful historian of science. The topics of his works on the history of science included: the value of the unity of science, the ethical aspects of science during centuries, the interferences between the history of science and the history of medicine etc. PMID:27547069

  19. História clínica e exame físico em SAOS: clinical history and physical examination Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleison Marinho Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Embora SAOS seja uma patologia comum, é frequentemente subdiagnosticada. Seus sinais e sintomas são, na sua maioria, subjetivos e, portanto, deve haver suspeição diagnóstica quando existir roncos, sonolência diurna, cansaço, desânimo e alteração de humor. Escalas e tabelas com boa sensibilidade, que incluem os sintomas clínicos mais relevantes e dados do exame físico, podem indicar o diagnóstico de SAOS. A confirmação diagnóstica é realizada através de polissonografia, considerada o método padrão ouro.Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common disease, it often goes undiagnosed. The signs and symptoms of the syndrome are mostly subjective. Therefore, snoring, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, dejection and mood changes should raise the suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Scales and tables that have good sensitivity and include the most relevant clinical symptoms and physical examination results can suggest a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The diagnosis is confirmed by polysomnography, which is considered the gold standard method.

  20. History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  1. The ISR and accelerator physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, K.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews the development of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), Cern, over the 12 years and 11 months of operation. The early history and some features of its construction are outlined. The accelerator physics at the ISR includes: studies to improve the performance of the facility, accelerator studies associated with technology eg lifetime of bunched beams, and resulting ISR performance. (U.K.)

  2. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  3. Manual physical therapists' use of biopsychosocial history taking in the management of patients with back or neck pain in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Elvers, H.; Mikolajewska, E.; Laekeman, M.; Trijffel, E. van; Samwel, H.; Duquet, W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop and evaluate process indicators relevant to biopsychosocial history taking in patients with chronic back and neck pain. Methods. The SCEBS method, covering the Somatic, Psychological (Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior), and Social dimensions of chronic pain, was used to evaluate

  4. History of Physics as a Tool to Detect the Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Students: The Case of Simple Electric Circuits in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The present paper advocates the use of History of Science into the teaching of science in primary education through a case study in the field of electricity. In this study, which provides both historical and experimental evidence, a number of conceptual difficulties faced by early nineteenth century physicists are shown to be a useful tool to…

  5. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  6. Arquivo de Antropologia Física do Museu Nacional: fontes para a história da eugenia no Brasil The National Museum's physical anthropology archive: sources on the history of eugenics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta um conjunto de fontes documentais que integram o Arquivo de Antropologia Física, de responsabilidade do Setor de Antropologia Biológica do Museu Nacional/UFRJ. O arquivo contém importante documentação sobre o Primeiro Congresso Brasileiro de Eugenia, realizado em 1929, no Rio de Janeiro, em comemoração ao centenário da Academia Nacional de Medicina. Além de originais dos trabalhos apresentados no evento - alguns inéditos -, constam também nesse arquivo documentos reunidos pela secretaria do Congresso, como convocações para a sua realização, ficha dos inscritos, correspondências, recortes de jornais e revistas com artigos sobre eugenia, bem como moções, relatórios e atas finais, constituindo acervo fundamental para a compreensão da história da eugenia no Brasil.The article presents a set of documental sources that are part of the physical anthropology archive administered by the National Museum's biological anthropology sector (UFRJ. The archive holds important documentation on the first Brazilian congress of eugenics, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1929, in celebration of the National Academy of Medicine centennial. In addition to the originals of papers presented at the event (some unpublished, the archive also contains a series of documents compiled by the congress organizers, including announcements of the event, attendee registrations, correspondence, newspaper and magazine clippings of articles on eugenics, as well as motions, reports, and final minutes, all of which makes this collection invaluable in understanding the history of eugenics in Brazil.

  7. Conceptual History, Cultural History, Social History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zhivov (†

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available V. M. Zhivov’s introduction to Studies in Historical Semantics of the Russian Language in the Early Modern Period (2009, translated here for the first time, offers a critical survey of the historiography on Begriffsgeschichte, the German school of conceptual history associated with the work of Reinhart Koselleck, as well as of its application to the study of Russian culture.  By situating Begriffsgeschichte in the context of late-nineteenth and early twentieth-century European philosophy, particularly hermeneutics and phenomenology, the author points out the important, and as yet unacknowledged, role that Russian linguists have played in the development of a native school of conceptual history.  In the process of outlining this alternative history of the discipline, Zhivov provides some specific examples of the way in which the study of “historical semantics” can be used to analyze the development of Russian modernity.

  8. Safeguards methodology development history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.; Bennett, H.A.; Engi, D.; Grady, L.M.; Hulme, B.L.; Sasser, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The development of models for the evaluation and design of fixed-site nuclear facility, physical protection systems was under way in 1974 at Sandia Laboratories and has continued to the present. A history of the evolution of these models and the model descriptions are presented. Several models have been and are continuing to be applied to evaluate and design facility protection systems

  9. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  10. Singing American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  11. Wolf prize in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    The Wolf Foundation began its activities in 1976, with an initial endowment donated by the Wolf family. Within a very short period of time after its initiation, the Wolf prize has become one of the major signs for recognition of scientific achievements and excellence. This volume is devoted to a selection of Wolf Prize laureates in Physics and each has included two respective major publications as well as a commentary written by the laureate describing his scientific career. Readers around the world are provided a unique opportunity to get a glimpse of how scientific processes work in physics, and to comprehend how these laureates have left an indelible imprint on scientific history.

  12. The cold wars a history of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Matricon, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Among the most peculiar of matter¡¦s behaviors is superconductivity„oelectric current without resistance. Since the 1986 discovery that superconductivity is possible at temperatures well above absolute zero, research into practical applications has flourished. The Cold Wars tells the history of superconductivity, providing perspective on the development of the field and its relationship with the rest of physics. Superconductivity offers an excellent example of the evolution of physics in the twentieth century: the science itself, its foundations, and its social context. The authors also introduce the reader to the fascinating scientific personalities, including 2003 Nobel Prize winners Alexei Alexeievich Abrikosov and Vitali Ginzburg, and political struggles behind this research.

  13. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  14. Physical physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  15. Hidden worlds in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...

  16. Nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear and Particle Physics provides an introductory course on nuclear and particle physics for undergraduate and early-graduate students, which the author has taught for several years at the University of Zurich. It contains fundamentals on both nuclear and particle physics, giving emphasis to the discovery and history of developments in the field, and is experimentally/phenomenologically oriented. It contains detailed derivations of formulae such as 2–3 body phase space, the Weinberg-Salam model, and neutrino scattering. Originally published in German as Kern- und Teilchenphysik, several sections have been added to this new English version to cover modern topics, including updates on neutrinos, the Higgs boson, the top quark and bottom quark physics.

  17. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  18. Mild Depressive Symptoms Among Americans in Relation to Physical Activity, Current Overweight/Obesity, and Self-Reported History of Overweight/Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankel, Scott J; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    Overweight/obese individuals are at an increased risk for depression with some evidence of a bidirectional association. The preventative effects of physical activity among overweight/obese individuals have been well documented; however, less is known on how the duration of overweight/obesity alters the association with negative health outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine how the classification, and more specifically duration, of overweight/obesity alters the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms. The 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data were used (n = 764), and individuals were divided into six mutually exclusive groups based on physical activity status, weight classification (measured BMI), and duration of weight classification (assessed via recall). Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were computed to examine odds of depressive symptoms (patient health questionnaire (PHQ)-9) among groups. After adjusting for covariates, only individuals who were inactive and overweight/obese at the examination and 10 years prior were at an increased odds of depressive symptoms in comparison to those who were active and normal weight (odds ratio (OR) = 2.40; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 5.61; p = 0.04). Physical activity appeared to ameliorate the association with depressive symptoms independent of overweight/obesity classification or duration. The cyclic nature of overweight/obesity and depression (i.e., bidirectional association) appears to increase the odds of depression as the length of overweight/obesity is increased. These results provide support for clinicians to assess not only their clients' current BMI but also the duration in which they have been at a certain weight classification and to further promote physical activity as a preventative measure against depressive symptoms.

  19. The Course of Physical Geography of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804 : the contribution for the geographical science history and the epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Domingues Ribas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a relative weakness about our knowledge concerning Kant philosophy and the constitution of the modern geography and, consequently, the scientific one. That relation, whenever studied, happens – many times – in an oblique or tangential way, this means that it lies almost exclusively confined in the act of notifying that Kant offered, for approximately four decades, “Physical Geography” courses  in Konigsberg, or, that he was the first philosopher teaching the subject at any College, even before the creation of Geography chair in Berlin, in 1820, by Karl Ritter. Not overcoming the early spread of that act itself only made us throw a curtain over the absence of a major understanding about Kant’s tribute to epistemic justification of modern and scientific geography. To open a breach in this curtain indicates, necessarily, to lighten the role and place of “Physical Geography Course” inside Kantian transcendental philosophy. So, we began from the conjecture that “Physical Geography” has always shown for Kant as a knowledge carrier of an unmeasured philosophic sense, once it showed the possibility of empiricization of his philosophy. Therefore, a “Physical Geography” would be, for Kant, the empiric basis of his philosophic thoughts, because it communicates the empirics of the world invention; it made him to build metaphysically the “Earth’s surface”. In the same way Geography, in its general surface, has given a particular tribute to the empiric validation of Modernity (since the XVI century, the “Physical Geography” introduced itself as an empiric basis to Kantian philosophical reflection about “nature’s metaphysics” and the “world metaphysics” as well.

  20. The Effect of Adolescent Sex Offender Abuse History on Counselor Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Stacia S.; LaFleur, N. Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Examines judgment of counseling students, with history of sexual or physical abuse, about their attitudes towards counseling adolescent sex offenders. Reports sexually abused counselors desired to see physically abused offenders as clients over sexually abused offenders. Presents implications for counseling, including ways in which nonabused…

  1. Transnational Journeys and Domestic Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    This essay considers the potential of histories of transnational movements of people, and the erosion of boundaries between British domestic and imperial history, to expand and revise the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century British domestic life and work. Literatures on migration demonstrate how far the history of home involves transnational themes, including the recruitment of migrants and refugees who crossed national borders to do domestic work—in Britain and empire—and their deve...

  2. History of mathematics and history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tony

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident.

  3. School of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ukolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current international processes and events, world politics at the beginning of the 21 century have once again clearly demonstrated that their meaning often emerges through the historical context without which the understanding of what is happening is hardly possible. Rector of MGIMO A.V. Torkunov in his talk on International relations as an educational discipline remarked that "as for sciences the basis of professionalism is mathematical skills and competencies, for international relations such a basis is history". Historical disciplines are taught at MGIMO from the very start of education process. MGIMO is one of the leading centers of research in the fields of history, political sciences and humanities. Here, in different years academics E.V. Tarle, L.N. Ivanov, V.G. Trukhanovskiy, A.L. Narochnitskiy and other prominent scholars and historians taught. Historical School of MGIMO has united important areas of historical science: the history of political processes in the twentieth century, modern history, the history of international relations and diplomacy, historical regional studies and cultural studies, oriental, philosophy and theory of history. The best traditions of the MGIMO historical school incorporated by its founders, make the foundation of its development at present. In 1992, the Department of MGIMO world and national history was established. The principle innovation was the combination of two components - historical education and historical science. This made it possible to present the story of Russia as an important part of the world history, opened up prospects for the implementation of comparative history, the synthesis of specific historical approaches and generalized global vision of civilization and human development. The historical school has realised a number of research projects, including "Alexander Nevsky" and the multi-volume "Great Victory", the work continues on a research project "Russia in the Modern World", and

  4. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers Geor...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on.......Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  7. Description of the physical environment and coal-mining history of west-central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Crawford, Charles G.; Duwelius, R.F.; Renn, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Information on the geology, geomorphology, soils, climate, hydrology, water use, land use, population, and coal mining history of Clay, Owen, Sullivan, and Vigo Counties in Indiana is summarized. Site-specific information is given on the morphology , geology, soils, land use, coal mining history, and hydrologic instrumentation of the six watersheds which are each less than 3 sq mi in area. The Wabash, White, and Eel Rivers are the major drainages in west-central Indiana. Average annual precipitation is about 39.5 in/yr and average annual runoff is about 13 in/yr. The most productive aquifers are confined or unconfined outwash aquifers located along the major rivers. Bedrock aquifers are regionally insignificant but are the sole source of groundwater for areas that lack outwash, alluvium, or sand and gravel lenses in till. Indiana has more than 17 billion short tons of recoverable coal reserves; about 11% can be mined by surface methods. Almost half of Indiana 's surface reserves are in Clay, Owen, Sullivan, and Vigo Counties. More than 50,000 acres in west-central Indiana have been disturbed by surface coal mining from 1941 through 1980. Big Slough and Hooker Creek are streams that drain unmined, agricultural watersheds. Row-crop corn and soybeans are the principal crops. Soils are moderately well drained silt loams, and the watersheds well developed dendritic drainage systems. Unnamed tributaries drain mined and reclaimed watersheds. Ridges of mine spoil have been graded to a gently rolling topography. Soils are well drained and consist of 6 to 12 inches of silt-loam topsoil that was stockpiled and then replaced over shale and sandstone fragments of the graded mine spoil. Grasses and legumes form the vegetative cover in each watershed. Pond Creek and an unnamed tributary to Big Branch are streams that drain mined and unreclaimed watersheds. Soils are very well drained shaly silty loams that have formed on steeply sloping banks. Both watersheds contain numerous

  8. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  9. Association between history and physical examination factors and change in lumbar multifidus muscle thickness after spinal manipulation in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhaver, Shane L; Fritz, Julie M; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Kawchuk, Greg N; Parent, Eric C; Gill, Norman W; Childs, John D; Teyhen, Deydre S

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the clinical characteristics of patients with low back pain (LBP) who display improved lumbar multifidus (LM) muscle function after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) may provide insight into a potentially synergistic interaction between SMT and exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the baseline historical and physical examination factors associated with increased contracted LM muscle thickness one week after SMT. Eighty-one participants with LBP underwent a baseline physical examination and ultrasound imaging assessment of the LM muscle during submaximal contraction before and one week after SMT. The relationship between baseline examination variables and 1-week change in contracted LM thickness was assessed using correlation analysis and hierarchical multiple linear regression. Four variables best predicted the magnitude of increases in contracted LM muscle thickness after SMT. When combined, these variables suggest that patients with LBP, (1) that are fairly acute, (2) have at least a moderately good prognosis without focal and irritable symptoms, and (3) exhibit signs of spinal instability, may be the best candidates for a combined SMT and lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE) treatment approach. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...

  11. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  12. Physics matters

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of essays on physics topics. It is written as a textbook for non-physics science and arts students, at the undergraduate level. Topics covered include cellphone radiation, lasers, the twin paradox, and more.

  13. IUTAM a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Juhasz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents extensive information related to the history of IUTAM. The initial chapters focus on IUTAM’s history and selected organizational aspects. Subsequent chapters provide extensive data and statistics, while the closing section showcases photos from all periods of the Union’s history. The history of IUTAM, the International Union on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, began at a conference in 1922 in Innsbruck, Austria, where von Kármán put forward the idea of an international congress including the whole domain of applied mechanics. In 1946 IUTAM was then formally launched in Paris/France. IUTAM has since time organized more than 24 world congresses and 380 symposia, representing all fields of mechanics and highlighting advances by prominent international researchers. The efforts of IUTAM and its about 50 member countries serve to promote the mechanical sciences and the advancement of human society, addressing many key challenges. In this context, IUTAM preserves important traditions while...

  14. 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 64th Annual Meeting of the Austrian physical society, including a special topical Energy Day. was held at the Echophysics – European Centre for the History of Physics, Schloss Pöllau 1, 8225 Pöllau, Austria. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in quantum mechanics, particle physics and solid state physics.The topical sessions were dedicated to: nuclear and particle physics; atoms, molecules, quantum optics and plasmas; solid state physics and research with neutron and synchrotron radiation; history of physics; surfaces, interfaces and thin films; nanostructures; fundamental interactions; gravity, quantum chromodynamics; particle theory and collider physics; detectors and methods. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually

  15. PHYSICS TODAY--INTRODUCTORY PHYSICS EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967

    THIS SPECIAL ISSUE OF "PHYSICS TODAY" REVIEWS THE STATUS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICS, AS WELL AS COLLEGE PHYSICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. SECONDARY LEVEL PROJECTS INCLUDE PHYSICAL SCIENCE STUDY COMMITTEE PHYSICS, HARVARD PROJECT PHYSICS, THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT, AND THE NUFFIELD PROJECT. THOSE AT THE COLLEGE LEVEL…

  16. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  17. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Summer holiday is a pleasure which did not become available to many people until the 20th Century. The article describes the early mountain rambles of the bourgeoisie and their holidays in seaside boarding houses. Outdoor pursuits and stays in boarding houses at bathing resorts also became...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  18. River history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  19. Physical health status of female veterans: contributions of sex partnership and in-military rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M; Davis, Teri D; Cheney, Ann M; Mengeling, Michelle A; Torner, James C; Sadler, Anne G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether current physical health status in female veterans is associated with rape during military service and same-sex partnership. Retrospective computer-assisted telephone interviews of 1004 Midwestern US female veterans identified from Veterans Affairs electronic records were conducted. Data included rape history including rape in military, sex partnership history, demographics, and medical history including chronic pain, mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), and the physical health component of the Short-Form 12-item interview (PCS-12). Physical health in this sample was lower than norm values [PCS-12: mean (standard deviation) = 43 [12]; norm: mean (standard deviation) = 50 [10]). Fifty-one percent of the participants reported rape in their lifetime, 25% reported rape in military, 11% reported history of women as sex partners, and 71% reported history of chronic pain. Multiple regression analysis indicated that physical health (PCS-12) was associated with chronic pain history (β = -.40, p rape in military (β = -.09, p = .002), and current PTSD (β = .07, p = .03), adjusting for demographic data. Mediational analysis indicated that chronic pain history significantly mediated relationships of women who have sex with women, childhood rape, PTSD, depression, and current substance use disorder with PCS-12. Both rape and sex partnership are adversely associated with lower physical functioning in female veterans. Clinicians evaluating the physical health of this population should therefore consider obtaining detailed sexual histories, and a multidisciplinary team is needed to address mental health issues in female veterans.

  20. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM.

  1. Physics revelations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Christine

    1994-01-01

    Erice must be not only one of the most picturesque settings for a conference on history, but also one of the most appropriate, founded so the legends say more than 3000 years ago. Particle physics, by contrast, is strikingly modern, but the Ettore Majorana Centre at Erice was a fitting location for physicists to gather and discuss their subject in the International Conference on the History of Original Ideas and Basic Discoveries in Particle Physics, from 29 July to 3 August. Particle physics can probably be said to have begun during the 1930s, a decade that saw Pauli's invention of the neutrino and Fermi's theory of beta-decay, as well as the discovery of the neutron, antimatter (the positron) and the first heavy lepton (the muon). In the relatively short time since then the subject has grown enormously, with many more disoveries, many new theoretical concepts, and many new experimental techniques

  2. The Physics Force presents The Physics Circus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2015-03-01

    The Physics Force of the University of Minnesota is an outreach program developed with the goal to show students and the public Science is Fun, Science is Interesting, and Science is Understandable. The program grew from a rather small effort by three high school physics teachers and two University of Minnesota staff members. In the almost three decades since its humble beginnings of 100 attendees in a year, it has grown to an average attendance of over 36,000 annually. In the last three years alone, about 110,000 Minnesotans have seen a performance of The Physics Circus which is roughly 2% of the population of the state. In addition to the performances in Minnesota, The Force performed two years at Disney's Epcot Center, was featured on Newton's Apple, and made appearances on the very successful German TV science show, the Knoff-Hoff Show. I will begin the talk with some of our motivation to develop The Physics Force arising from the current ``scientific state'' of our society and then provide more information on The Force including both some history and examples taken from our Physics Circus.

  3. Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose

    2018-02-01

    Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new

  4. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  5. The history of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lyth, David H

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an accessible account of the history of the Universe; not only what happened, but why it happened. An author of textbooks on the early Universe and inflation, David Lyth now explains both cosmology and the underlying physics to the general reader. The book includes a detailed account of the almost imperceptible structure in the early Universe, and its probable origin as a quantum fluctuation during an early epoch known as the epoch of inflation. It also explains how that early structure is visible now in the cosmic microwave radiation which is our main source of information about the early Universe, and how it gave rise to galaxies and stars. The main text of the book assumes no knowledge of mathematics or physics so that it is accessible to everybody, while an appendix contains more advanced material. As a result the book will be useful for a wide spectrum of readers, including high-school students, undergraduates, postgraduates and professional physicists working in areas other than cosmolo...

  6. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  7. Astroparticle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; J. Carr

    2001-01-01

    The lectures will introduce the emerging field of Astroparticle Physics which links particle physics and astrophysics. Starting from the Big Bang, the course will describe how particle physics explains certain features of the natural world and the features remainning to be understood. The subjects covered will include dark matter, gamma and neutrino astronomy, cosmic rays and gravity waves.

  8. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  9. What Is World History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, survey courses in world history have been staples of school programs for almost a century. But no consensus has emerged on the exact goals toward which these courses should be directed. Nor is there agreement on what topics to include or in what order topics should be studied. This article introduces some of the reasons for…

  10. Changing times at the Rocky Mountain Forest & Range Experiment Station: Station history from 1976 to 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. H. Hamre

    2005-01-01

    Changing Times includes a review of early Station history, touches on changing societal perspectives and how things are now done differently, how the Station has changed physically and organizationally, technology transfer, a sampling of major characters, how some Station research has been applied, and a timeline of significant and/or interesting events. It includes...

  11. BRS symmetry, prehistory and history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, Carlo M.

    2012-01-01

    Prehistory - Starting from 't Hooft's (1971) we have a short look at Taylor's and Slavnov's works (1971-72) and at the lectures given by Rouet and Stora in Lausanne (1973) which determine the transition from pre-history to history. History - We give a brief account of the main analyses and results of the BRS collaboration concerning the renormalized gauge theories, in particular the method of the regularization-independent, algebraic renormalization, the algebraic proof of S-matrix unitarity and that of gauge choice independence of the renormalized physics. We conclude this report with a suggestion to the crucial question: what could remain of BRS invariance beyond perturbation theory. (author)

  12. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  13. My brief history

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking’s improbable journey, from his postwar London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty, and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him Einstein; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a particular black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of physics and cosmology. Writing with characteristic humility and humor, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of ALS at age twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onward through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece A Brief History of Time—one of the iconic books of the twentieth century.

  14. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  15. Physical Fitness & Sports Medicine. Specialized Bibliography Series No. 1988-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrias, Karen, Comp.; And Others

    The subjects covered in this bibliogaphy (1,406 citations) include the history of sports and sports medicine, sports injuries, physical fitness throughout various stages of life, and the current status of physical fitness in the United States. The first section includes journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers in three areas: history…

  16. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...... internally and made little communication to stakeholders. After a silent period in the 1970s, the 1980s and 1990s saw an increase in methodological development and international collaboration and coordination in the scientific community and method development increasingly took place in universities....... With the consolidation of the methodological basis, application of LCA widened to encompass a rapidly increasing range of products and systems with studies commissioned or performed by both industry and governments, and results were increasingly communicated through academic papers and industry and government reports...

  17. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  18. Cygnus History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, David J.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Good, Douglas E.; Hansen, Mark D.; Mitton, Charles V.; Nelson, Daniel S.; Ormond, Eugene C.; Cordova, Steve R.; Molina, Isidro; Smith, John R.; Rose, Evan A.

    2009-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders)

  19. ORCODE. 77: a computer routine to control a nuclear physics experiment by a PDP-15 + CAMAC system, written in assembler language and including many new routines of general interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.; McConnell, J.W.

    1977-03-29

    ORCODE.77 is a versatile data-handling computer routine written in MACRO (assembler) language for a PDP-15 computer with EAE (extended arithmetic capability) connected to a CAMAC interface. The Interrupt feature of the computer is utilized. Although the code is oriented for a specific experimental problem, there are many routines of general interest, including a CAMAC Scaler handler, an executive routine to interpret and act upon three-character teletype commands, concise routines to type out double-precision integers (both octal and decimal) and floating-point numbers and to read in integers and floating-point numbers, a routine to convert to and from PDP-15 FORTRAN-IV floating-point format, a routine to handle clock interrupts, and our own DECTAPE handling routine. Routines having specific applications which are applicable to other very similar applications include a display routine using CAMAC instructions, control of external mechanical equipment using CAMAC instructions, storage of data from an Analog-to-digital Converter, analysis of stored data into time-dependent pulse-height spectra, and a routine to read the contents of a Nuclear Data 5050 Analyzer and to prepare DECTAPE output of these data for subsequent analysis by a code written in PDP-15-compiled FORTRAN-IV.

  20. ORCODE.77: a computer routine to control a nuclear physics experiment by a PDP-15 + CAMAC system, written in assembler language and including many new routines of general interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; McConnell, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    ORCODE.77 is a versatile data-handling computer routine written in MACRO (assembler) language for a PDP-15 computer with EAE (extended arithmetic capability) connected to a CAMAC interface. The Interrupt feature of the computer is utilized. Although the code is oriented for a specific experimental problem, there are many routines of general interest, including a CAMAC Scaler handler, an executive routine to interpret and act upon three-character teletype commands, concise routines to type out double-precision integers (both octal and decimal) and floating-point numbers and to read in integers and floating-point numbers, a routine to convert to and from PDP-15 FORTRAN-IV floating-point format, a routine to handle clock interrupts, and our own DECTAPE handling routine. Routines having specific applications which are applicable to other very similar applications include a display routine using CAMAC instructions, control of external mechanical equipment using CAMAC instructions, storage of data from an Analog-to-digital Converter, analysis of stored data into time-dependent pulse-height spectra, and a routine to read the contents of a Nuclear Data 5050 Analyzer and to prepare DECTAPE output of these data for subsequent analysis by a code written in PDP-15-compiled FORTRAN-IV

  1. Factory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hopp, Wallace J.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introductory chapter, "Factory Physics 3/e" is divided into three parts: I - The Lessons of History; II - Factory Physics; and III - Principles in Practice. The scientific approach to manufacturing and supply chain management, developed in Part II, is unique to this text. No other text or professional book provides a rigorous, principles-based foundation for manufacturing management. The Third Edition offers tighter connections between Lean Manufacturing, MRP/ERP, Six Sigma, Supply Chain Management, and Factory Physics. In addition to enhancing the historical overview of how these systems evolved, the authors show explicitly how users can achieve Lean Manufacturing objectives (faster response, less inventory) using the integration aspects of MRP/ERP/SCM systems along with the variance analysis methods of Six Sigma. Factory Physics provides the overarching framework that coordinates all of these initiatives into a single-focused strategy.

  2. The art of history taking in patient with pain: An ignored but very important component in making diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Gurumoorthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available History taking in patient suffering from pain is dealt like an art by emphasizing the multimodal experience of pain which is ignored in modern sophisticated investigations era. For clinical diagnosis, we need proper history, targeted clinical examination and support by investigation with or without diagnostic intervention. Ignoring history part in clinical assessment can lead to wrong diagnosis and unnecessary experience and expenses for patient. History part of patient evaluation can be divided into present pain as chief complaint, ruling out red flags or warning signals, past history, personnel history including sleep and bladder and bowel history, treatment history and family history. Present pain history can be divided into quantity assessment, quality assessment, mode of onset and location, duration and chronicity, provocative and relieving factors, special characters, timing of pain, relation to posture and associated features. Quantity and quality of pain can be assessed by different tools with different sensitivity and specificity. These tools give idea about the multimodal experience of pain which cannot be assessed by any physical examination and investigation. This helps us in diagnosing and planning for multimodal approach of pain management. We can conclude that proper history with adequate tools which is supported by physical examination and investigation with or without diagnostic intervention helps in diagnosing exact nature of pain.

  3. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  4. The Swedes and Their History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Hans; Samuelsson, Johan; Stolare, Martin; Wendell, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse adolescents' views of Swedish history. A small number of adults were also included in the study. The analysis shows that, regardless of the age of the informants, Sweden is portrayed as an exception from the world through its legacy of a long peace (in spite of a war-torn distant history) and through its…

  5. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  6. The history and science of the Manhatten project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Bruce Cameron

    2014-01-01

    This is the only popular-level history of the Project prepared by a writer who is a physicist and who has broad knowledge of the relevant scientific details. Ideal for readers who have no specialized scientific background but who want to learn more about how atomic bombs came to be. Relevant scientific concepts are explained in the text as they are needed. For readers who do possess some scientific background (high-school physics), this book will provide a deeper understanding of some of the technical issues involved in developing atomic bombs. An ideal text for a college-level ''general education'' history or science class. Based on years of research by the author into the physics of nuclear weapons, augmented by familiarity with relevant official archival documentation. The development of atomic bombs under the auspices of the U. S. Army's Manhattan Project during World War II is considered to be the outstanding news story of the twentieth century. In this book, a physicist and expert on the history of the Project presents a comprehensive overview of this momentous achievement. The first three chapters cover the history of nuclear physics from the discovery of radioactivity to the discovery of fission, and would be ideal for instructors of a sophomore-level ''Modern Physics'' course. Student-level exercises at the ends of the chapters are accompanied by answers. Chapter 7 covers the physics of first-generation fission weapons at a similar level, again accompanied by exercises and answers. For the interested layman and for non-science students and instructors, the book includes extensive qualitative material on the history, organization, implementation, and results of the Manhattan Project and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing missions. The reader also learns about the legacy of the Project as reflected in the current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons.

  7. The history and science of the Manhatten project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Bruce Cameron [Alma College, Alma, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2014-03-01

    This is the only popular-level history of the Project prepared by a writer who is a physicist and who has broad knowledge of the relevant scientific details. Ideal for readers who have no specialized scientific background but who want to learn more about how atomic bombs came to be. Relevant scientific concepts are explained in the text as they are needed. For readers who do possess some scientific background (high-school physics), this book will provide a deeper understanding of some of the technical issues involved in developing atomic bombs. An ideal text for a college-level ''general education'' history or science class. Based on years of research by the author into the physics of nuclear weapons, augmented by familiarity with relevant official archival documentation. The development of atomic bombs under the auspices of the U. S. Army's Manhattan Project during World War II is considered to be the outstanding news story of the twentieth century. In this book, a physicist and expert on the history of the Project presents a comprehensive overview of this momentous achievement. The first three chapters cover the history of nuclear physics from the discovery of radioactivity to the discovery of fission, and would be ideal for instructors of a sophomore-level ''Modern Physics'' course. Student-level exercises at the ends of the chapters are accompanied by answers. Chapter 7 covers the physics of first-generation fission weapons at a similar level, again accompanied by exercises and answers. For the interested layman and for non-science students and instructors, the book includes extensive qualitative material on the history, organization, implementation, and results of the Manhattan Project and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing missions. The reader also learns about the legacy of the Project as reflected in the current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons.

  8. An ADS perspective on history and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable development of nuclear energy implies that nuclear breeding is absolutely necessary. The best spectrum for breeding is the fast one but the safety features in fast reactors degrade as the content of minor actinides increases in the core (particularly in the reduction of delayed neutrons fraction, which is essential for reactor control) and this trend is the one followed by the fuel as burn-up increases. A creative solution for this problem could lie in accelerator-driven systems, where proton-induced spallation reactions contribute to the complementary neutrons to keep a subcritical reactor in a steady state. A subcritical core is needed, but it should be noted that the stabilising and controlling functions can be provided by the accelerator-driven systems, which is a fast reacting device that can adjust its beam intensity to the core state (in reactivity, temperature, etc.)

  9. A Brief History of Physics in China,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-29

    been glass. Chang Hua did write that fire could also be started by using rounded ice cubes and transparent peals - a method of making fire with a convex...saying that magnets could be demagnetized by rubbing with garlic and could be remagnetized again by rubbing with goat blood. A similar belief by the

  10. History of physical terms: ‘pressure’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontali, Clara

    2013-07-01

    Scientific terms drawn from common language are often charged with suggestions that may even be inconsistent with their restricted scientific meaning, thus posing didactic problems. The (non-linear) historical journey of the word ‘pressure’ is illustrated here through original quotations from Stevinus, Torricelli, Pascal, Boyle, Magalotti, Bernoulli and Dalton, in an attempt to follow the shift from the idea of a force to the modern understanding of the term as a state variable. The latter appears to have prevailed as a consequence of technological advances of the industrial revolution (Watt’s steam engine and indicator diagram) in their 19th century re-elaboration.

  11. Impact of a multi-faceted training intervention on the improvement of hand hygiene and gloving practices in four healthcare settings including nursing homes, acute-care geriatric wards and physical rehabilitation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveillard, Matthieu; Raymond, Françoise; Guilloteau, Véronique; Pradelle, Marie-Thérèse; Kempf, Marie; Zilli-Dewaele, Marina; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Brunel, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    To assess the impact of a multi-faceted training program on the compliance with hand hygiene and gloving practices. Hand hygiene is considered as the cornerstone of the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Several studies have enhanced the poor effectiveness of training programs in improving hand hygiene compliance. A before-after evaluation study. The study was conducted in four healthcare settings before and after an intervention program which included the performance feedback of the first evaluation phase, three six-h training sessions, the assessment of hand hygiene performance with teaching boxes and the organisation of one full-day session devoted to institutional communication around hand hygiene in each setting. Hand hygiene compliance and quality of hand rubbing were evaluated. Hand hygiene opportunities were differentiated into extra-series opportunities (before or after a single contact and before the first contact or after the last contact of a series of consecutive contacts) and intra-series opportunities (from the opportunity following the first contact to the opportunity preceding the last in the same series). Overall, 969 contacts corresponding to 1,470 hand hygiene opportunities (760 during the first phase and 710 during the second) were observed. A significant improvement of observed practices was recorded for the hand hygiene compliance in intra-series opportunities (39·0% vs. 19·0%; p < 10(-5) ), the proportion of gloves worn if indicated (71·4% vs. 52·0%; p < 0·001) and the quality of hand rubbing (85·0% vs. 71·9%; p < 10(-5) ). Some of the performances measured for both hand hygiene and gloving practices were improved. We plan to extend this investigation by performing a qualitative study with experts in behavioural sciences to try improving practices for which adherence was still weak after the training program such as hand hygiene in intra-series opportunities. This study underscored the usefulness of implementing

  12. Physical and chemical characteristics including total and geochemical forms of phosphorus in sediment from the top 30 centimeters of cores collected in October 2006 at 26 sites in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nancy S.; Ingle, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    μThis study of phosphorus (P) cycling in eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Lakebed sediments from the upper 30 centimeters (cm) of cores collected from 26 sites were characterized. Cores were sampled at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm. Prior to freezing, water content and sediment pH were determined. After being freeze-dried, all samples were separated into greater than 63-micron (μm) particle-size (coarse) and less than 63-μm particle-size (fine) fractions. In the surface samples (0.5 to 4.5 cm below the sediment water interface), approximately three-fourths of the particles were larger than 63-μm. The ratios of the coarse particle-size fraction (>63 μm) and the fine particle-size fraction (determination of total concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), carbon (C), iron (Fe), poorly crystalline Fe, nitrogen (N), P, and titanium (Ti). Total Fe concentrations were the largest in sediment from the northern portion of UKL, Howard Bay, and the southern portion of the lake. Concentrations of total Al, Ca, and Ti were largest in sediment from the northern, central, and southernmost portions of the lake and in sediment from Howard Bay. Concentrations of total C and N were largest in sediment from the embayments and in sediment from the northern arm and southern portion of the lake in the general region of Buck Island. Concentrations of total C were larger in the greater than 63-μm particle-size fraction than in the less than 63-μm particle-size fraction. Sediments were sequentially extracted to determine concentrations of inorganic forms of P, including loosely sorbed P, P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and P associated with mineral phases. The difference between the concentration of total P and sum of the concentrations of inorganic forms of P is referred to as residual P. Residual P was the largest fraction of P in all

  13. Joint impact of physical activity and family history on the development of diabetes among urban adults in Mainland China: a pooled analysis of community-based prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa; Ware, Robert S; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Hong, Xin; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville

    2015-03-01

    To examine the joint influences of physical activity (PA) and family history (FH) of diabetes on subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2D), the authors pooled and analyzed data from 2 community-based urban adult prospective cohort studies in 2011 in Nanjing, China. Among 4550 urban participants, the 3-year cumulative incidence of T2D was 5.1%. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with those with FH+ and insufficient PA, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing T2D was 0.42 (0.18, 0.98) for participants with sufficient PA and FH+, 0.32 (0.22, 0.46) for participants with insufficient PA and FH-, and 0.15 (0.08, 0.28) for participants with sufficient PA and FH-. Such significant graduated associations between PA/FH and risk of developing T2D were also identified in either men or women, separately. Sufficient PA and FH- may jointly reduce the risk of developing T2D in urban Chinese adults. © 2012 APJPH.

  14. Body dysmorphic disorder: history and curiosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Katlein; Roccia, Maria Grazia; Castillo, David; ALHarbi, Mana; Tchernev, Georgi; Chokoeva, Anastasia; Lotti, Torello; Fioranelli, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with an absent or minimal physical deformity. It causes severe distress and impairs normal functioning. In the last centuries, this disorder has been mentioned in the medical literature by important mental health practitioners by different names, such as "dysmorphophobia" or "dermatologic hypochondriasis". However, not until the last century was it included among the obsessive-compulsive disorders, although its classification has changed over time.Patients with body dysmorphic disorder constantly seek cosmetic treatments in order to improve their physical appearance, which more often deteriorates their mental condition. The high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in cosmetic medical practice has led in this field of study to the new science "cosmetic psychodermatology". This paper presents a summary of important facts about body dysmorphic disorder and its description throughout the history of medicine.

  15. History, Medicine, and Culture: History for Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, C. Edward

    1980-01-01

    Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Topics include Greek medicine and Hippocrates, Galen of Pergamum, Islamic and Roman culture, medieval medicine, the Renaissance, Harvey, Pasteur, Lister, and Mendel. (KC)

  16. What history tells us XXIV.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 2. What history tells us XXIV. The attempt of Nikolai Koltzoff (Koltsov) to link genetics, embryology and physical chemistry. Michel Morange. Series Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 211-214 ...

  17. Israel physical society 1993 annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The publication includes abstracts from several fields of physics: particle and fields, medical physics, astrophysics, condensed matter, plasma, computational physics, statistical physics, nuclear physics, lasers and optics

  18. Israel Physical Society annual meeting 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The publication includes abstracts from several fields of physics: particle and fields, medical physics, astrophysics, condensed matter, plasma, computational physics, statistical physics, nuclear physics, lasers and optics

  19. Climate History and the Modern World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebsame, William E.

    H. H. Lamb's latest book on the earth's changing climate is a carefully crafted work covering four areas: the physical basis of climate and climate change, the methods of climate reconstruction, the history of climate since the height of the last glaciation, and the impact of climate on human affairs. The book will be of particular interest to three groups. Atmospheric scientists interested in the long history of climate behavior (but perhaps overwhelmed by Lamb's all-encompassing work on the topic, Climate: Past, Present and Future, vol. II, Methuen, New York), will find Climate History and the Modern World to be a good titration of the fuller work. Scientists in other fields, including social scientists grappling with issues of climate-society interaction, will find the book a good entree into the field. Finally, Lamb himself suggests that the book will be useful to resource managers and other decision makers trying to avoid negative climate impacts. With this last audience in mind, no doubt, Lamb has chosen a style that eschews extensive footnoting and references (though sufficient citations are included to lead to further information). This works quite well and seems reasonable in view of his carefully documented previous writings.

  20. 100 History-Making Ethnic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    A list of hundred history-making ethnic women who have created history in their respective fields and become successful writers is presented. The list includes Alma Flor Ada, Julia Alvarez and Oprah Winfrey.

  1. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  2. Deaf History in K-12 DHH Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Allison H

    2015-01-01

    Deaf children, like all children, deserve a quality education; one that includes the history of their own culture and people. Unfortunately, Deaf history curriculum for Deaf students is seriously lacking in availability. The goal of this thesis is simple; to provide D/deaf students with a quality Deaf history curriculum, from which they can learn about themselves, thus helping them to develop their Deaf identities.The curriculum included in Deaf History in K-12 Classrooms consists of two unit...

  3. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  4. Z historie výuky fyziky pro mediky na pražských univerzitách

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšínská, Emilie; Hlaváčková, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2012), s. 11-57 ISSN 0323-0562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : history of physics * history of medicine * history of the Charles University Subject RIV: AB - History

  5. Ultrasonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, E G

    1962-01-01

    Ultrasonic Physics, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of ultrasonic physics. The book opens with a discussion of the sources of ultrasound. This is followed by separate chapters on the properties and detection of ultrasonic radiation; measurement of propagation constants, i.e., the velocity and absorption, of ultrasound; ultrasound propagation in gases, liquids, and solids; and ultrasound propagation in aerosols, suspensions, and emulsions. The final chapter covers miscellaneous physical and physico-chemical actions, including dispersion and coagulation of

  6. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  7. Radiotherapy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Lyman, J.T.; Pitluck, S.

    1982-01-01

    The Radiotherapy Physics Group works on the physical and biophysical aspects of charged particle radiotherapy. Our activities include the development of isosurvival beams (beams of uniform biological effect), computerized treatment planning development for charged particle radiotherapy, design of compensation to shape dose distributions, and development of dosimetry techniques to verify planned irradiations in both phantoms and patients

  8. A Brief History of the Most Remarkable Numbers "e," "i" and "?" in Mathematical Sciences with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a brief history of the most remarkable Euler numbers "e,"?"i"?and?"?" in mathematical sciences. Included are many properties of the constants "e,"?"i"?and?"?" and their applications in algebra, geometry, physics, chemistry, ecology, business and industry. Special…

  9. The History the Evolution and Diffusion of Sports and Games in Different Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, Roland, Ed.; And Others

    This is a compilation of papers presented at an international seminar on the subject of the status of the history of sport and physical education. It is divided into four major sections. In part one the topic of sports, games, and culture is discussed including the anthropological and ethnological aspects of sports, sports and games in antiquity,…

  10. Comparative Physical Education and Sport. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bruce L.; And Others

    Educational theories and practice in the field of physical education and sport in various countries are discussed and compared. Chapters address: (1) comparative physical education and sport; (2) history and methodology of comparative education; (3) history and methodolog of comparative physical education and sport; (4) physical education in the…

  11. Relocating the history of science essays in honor of Kostas Gavroglu

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jurgen; Simoes, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This volume is put together in honor of a distinguished historian of science, Kostas Gavroglu, whose work has won international acclaim, and has been pivotal in establishing the discipline of history of science in Greece, its consolidation in other countries of the European Periphery, and the constructive dialogue of these emerging communities with an extended community of international scholars. The papers in the volume reflect Gavroglu’s broad range of intellectual interests and touch upon significant themes in recent history and philosophy of science. They include topics in the history of modern physical sciences, science and technology in the European periphery, integrated history and philosophy of science, historiographical considerations, and intersections with the history of mathematics, technology and contemporary issues. They are authored by eminent scholars whose academic and personal trajectories crossed with Gavroglu’s. The book will interest historians and philosophers of science and techno...

  12. Celebrate Women's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  13. Art History in Discipline-Based Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbauer, W. Eugene

    1987-01-01

    Offers a rationale for teaching art history as an integral part of the K-12 curriculum. Maintains that art history instruction should begin in kindergarten. Includes sections on the relationship between art history, art production, art criticism, and aesthetics. (JDH)

  14. Supercollider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1985-03-01

    The physics that can be explored with multi-TeV supercolliders is reviewed, including parton distributions, hadron jet production, the standard electroweak theory and minimal extensions to it, technicolor, supersymmetry, and compositeness. 19 refs., 11 figs

  15. Contest Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehnke, Randy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of contests to keep physics interesting and exciting for the students. Includes: balloon car, egg drop, tennis ball catapult, bridge building, mousetrap vehicle, musical instrument, slide photo, electric junk dissection, windmill generator, and solar heater. (MVL)

  16. Physics Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents activities, experiments, demonstrations, and equipment for physics instruction, including computer applications of sports biomechanics, vibrating magnetometer, alternative uses for an environmental comparator, CMOS integrated circuit logic tutor, and an activity demonstrating positive and negative leakage. (JN)

  17. Tranquebar - Whose History?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    -preserved townscape from the Indo-Danish colonial period in 1620-1845, the town has for decades been subject to both Danish and Indian attempts at preserving and promoting it as a destination of heritage tourism. In this process claims are made on the town as an expression of cross-cultural heritage; but whose...... in which the townscape of Tranquebar has become subject to promotion as amaterial embodiment of transnational history, and thereby to explore the negotiations of historicity that come into play amongst the many stakeholders in this process, including residents, heritage and tourism developers, public......)colonial history. The thesis is structured in three thematic chapters which each deal with different aspects of the multifaceted process of negotiation which encompasses the townscape of Tranquebar as well as the experiences and narrations of historicity amongst the many agents who engage in the contemporary...

  18. TEACHING PHYSICS: Teaching particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Phil

    2000-09-01

    Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students.

  19. 16 CFR 1702.14 - Marketing history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing history. 1702.14 Section 1702.14... REQUIREMENTS § 1702.14 Marketing history. Each petition for an exemption under this part shall include a statement of the marketing history of the substance for which an exemption is requested. The marketing...

  20. European Television History Online: History And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja de Leeuw

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly television heritage is being digitized and made accessible to non- industry user, enabling ‘the archival turn’: the study of online archives so as to revisit the dominant discourses in television historiography. This article discusses both conceptual and practical perspectives on online television heritage within a broader European frame- work. It starts from the notion of connectivity, pointing to the development of the archive as a network of connections and continues to address the dynamics involved in the trans- formation of the television archive into an online presentation including the most relevant actors. With the help of examples from Dutch and European television heritage projects the article discusses how the new archive is capable of mediating between the past and present, between history and memory, between curatorial perspectives and popular uses. It concludes on the challenges that (European online television heritage offers in the field of television historiography and theory.

  1. Hadron therapy physics and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an in-depth overview of the physics of hadron therapy, ranging from the history to the latest contributions to the subject. It covers the mechanisms of protons and carbon ions at the molecular level (DNA breaks and proteins 53BP1 and RPA), the physics and mathematics of accelerators (Cyclotron and Synchrotron), microdosimetry measurements (with new results so far achieved), and Monte Carlo simulations in hadron therapy using FLUKA (CERN) and MCHIT (FIAS) software. The text also includes information about proton therapy centers and carbon ion centers (PTCOG), as well as a comparison and discussion of both techniques in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. This brief is suitable for newcomers to medical physics as well as seasoned specialists in radiation oncology.

  2. Range of motion and ankle injury history association with sex in pediatric and adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; McCartney, Ronald E; Parisien, Robert L; Dashe, Jesse; Borg, Dennis R; Meehan, William P

    2018-02-01

    Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries among young athletes, and there remains a gap in the literature regarding susceptibility to such injuries among physically active youth. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the associations between sex, a history of ankle sprain, and ankle range of motion (ROM) in pediatric and adolescent athletes. Athletes under the age of 18 years old who presented to a sports injury prevention center underwent ankle ROM measurements including plantarflexion (PF), inversion (IV), and eversion (EV). A two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to examine effect of sex and a history of ankle sprain on ROMs. Also, a binary logistic regression was performed to investigate variables that are associated with a history of ankle injury. Among 452 pediatric and adolescent athletes [268 females (13.6 ± 2.3 years old) and 184 males (13.3 ± 2.5 years old)], 128 reported a history of previous ankle sprain. Females demonstrated significantly increased ROMs (PF and IV bilaterally, and right EV) compared to males while there was no effect of a history of ankle sprain on ROMs. Female sex was independently associated with a history of ankle sprain. There was a strong effect of female sex on ROMs rather than a history of ankle injury history. Additionally, pediatric and adolescent females have greater odds of a history of ankle sprain when compared to their male counterparts.

  3. High energy physics advisory panel's subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report's own origins and development

  4. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. History of psychiatry in Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Gautam Kumar; Ghoshal, Malay; Saha, Gautam; Singh, Om Prakash

    2018-02-01

    The history of psychiatry in Bengal mirrors the history of psychiatry in India. With Bengal being an important location for the East India Company, it became the locus for much infrastructure development, including the setting up of lunatic asylums. This article traces the development of psychiatric care in Bengal, from the early time of private asylums exclusively for Europeans, to psychiatric care in the present time.

  6. The Date and Structure of Prokopios’ Secret History and His Projected Work on Church History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kaldellis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Procopius finished the Secret History, which includes an addendum, in 550/1, and his system of cross-references suggests the scope of an Ecclesiastical History that he never completed.

  7. Combined role of childhood maltreatment, family history, and gender in the risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, M C; Geier, T; Keyes, K; Skodol, A E; Grant, B F; Hasin, D S

    2013-05-01

    Studies of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol dependence have not controlled comprehensively for potential confounding by co-occurring maltreatments and other childhood trauma, or determined whether parental history of alcohol disorders operates synergistically with gender and maltreatment to produce alcohol dependence. We addressed these issues using national data. Method Face-to-face surveys of 27 712 adult participants in a national survey. Childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse, and physical neglect were associated with alcohol dependence (prelationships for physical abuse in the entire sample, and for sexual abuse and emotional neglect in women (APs, 0.21, 0.31, 0.26 respectively), indicating that the odds of alcohol dependence given both parental history and these maltreatments were significantly higher than the additive effect of each alone (pdependence. Importantly, results suggest a synergistic role of parental alcoholism: the effect of physical abuse on alcohol dependence may depend on parental history, while the effects of sexual abuse and emotional neglect may depend on parental history among women. Findings underscore the importance of early identification and prevention, particularly among those with a family history, and could guide genetic research and intervention development, e.g. programs to reduce the burden of childhood maltreatment may benefit from addressing the negative long-term effects of maltreatments, including potential alcohol problems, across a broad range of childhood environments.

  8. WE-G-213-00: History Symposium: Radiological Physics Pioneers: Roentgen and the AAPM Award Eponyms - William Coolidge, Edith Quimby, and Marvin Williams - Who Were They and What Did They Do?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Roentgen and the Birth of Modern Medical Physics – Perry Sprawls Wilhelm Roentgen is well known for his discovery of x-radiation. What is less known and appreciated is his intensive research following the discovery to determine the characteristics of the “new kind of radiation” and demonstrate its great value for medical purposes. In this presentation we will imagine ourselves in Roentgen’s mind and follow his thinking, including questions and doubts, as he designs and conducts a series of innovative experiments that provided the foundation for the rapid growth of medical physics. Learning Objectives: Become familiar with the personal characteristics and work of Prof. Roentgen that establishes him as an inspiring model for the medical physics profession. Observe the thought process and experiments that determined and demonstrated the comprehensive characteristics of x-radiation. The AAPM Award Eponyms: William D. Coolidge, Edith H. Quimby, and Marvin M.D. Williams - Who were they and what did they do? – Lawrence N. Rothenberg William David Coolidge (1873–1975) William Coolidge was born in Hudson, NY in 1873. He obtained his BS at the Massacusetts Institute of Technology in 1896. Coolidge then went to the University of Leipzig, Germany for graduate study with physicists Paul Drude and Gustave Wiedemann and received a Ph.D. in 1899. While in Germany he met Wilhelm Roentgen. Coolidge returned to the US to teach at MIT where he was associated with Arthur A. Noyes of the Chemistry Department, working on the electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions. Willis R. Whitney, under whom Coolidge had worked before going to Germany, became head of the newly formed General Electric Research Laboratory and he invited Coolidge to work with him. In 1905, Coolidge joined the staff of the GE laboratory and was associated with it for the remainder of his life. He developed ductile tungsten filaments to replace fragile carbon filaments as the material for electric light

  9. WE-G-213-00: History Symposium: Radiological Physics Pioneers: Roentgen and the AAPM Award Eponyms - William Coolidge, Edith Quimby, and Marvin Williams - Who Were They and What Did They Do?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Roentgen and the Birth of Modern Medical Physics – Perry Sprawls Wilhelm Roentgen is well known for his discovery of x-radiation. What is less known and appreciated is his intensive research following the discovery to determine the characteristics of the “new kind of radiation” and demonstrate its great value for medical purposes. In this presentation we will imagine ourselves in Roentgen’s mind and follow his thinking, including questions and doubts, as he designs and conducts a series of innovative experiments that provided the foundation for the rapid growth of medical physics. Learning Objectives: Become familiar with the personal characteristics and work of Prof. Roentgen that establishes him as an inspiring model for the medical physics profession. Observe the thought process and experiments that determined and demonstrated the comprehensive characteristics of x-radiation. The AAPM Award Eponyms: William D. Coolidge, Edith H. Quimby, and Marvin M.D. Williams - Who were they and what did they do? – Lawrence N. Rothenberg William David Coolidge (1873–1975) William Coolidge was born in Hudson, NY in 1873. He obtained his BS at the Massacusetts Institute of Technology in 1896. Coolidge then went to the University of Leipzig, Germany for graduate study with physicists Paul Drude and Gustave Wiedemann and received a Ph.D. in 1899. While in Germany he met Wilhelm Roentgen. Coolidge returned to the US to teach at MIT where he was associated with Arthur A. Noyes of the Chemistry Department, working on the electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions. Willis R. Whitney, under whom Coolidge had worked before going to Germany, became head of the newly formed General Electric Research Laboratory and he invited Coolidge to work with him. In 1905, Coolidge joined the staff of the GE laboratory and was associated with it for the remainder of his life. He developed ductile tungsten filaments to replace fragile carbon filaments as the material for electric light

  10. Brief History of Agricultural Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W.; Antle, John M.; Basso, Bruno O.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conant, Richard T.; Foster, Ian; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Herrrero, Mario; Howitt, Richard E.; Janssen, Sandor; hide

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural systems science generates knowledge that allows researchers to consider complex problems or take informed agricultural decisions. The rich history of this science exemplifies the diversity of systems and scales over which they operate and have been studied. Modeling, an essential tool in agricultural systems science, has been accomplished by scientists from a wide range of disciplines, who have contributed concepts and tools over more than six decades. As agricultural scientists now consider the next generation models, data, and knowledge products needed to meet the increasingly complex systems problems faced by society, it is important to take stock of this history and its lessons to ensure that we avoid re-invention and strive to consider all dimensions of associated challenges. To this end, we summarize here the history of agricultural systems modeling and identify lessons learned that can help guide the design and development of next generation of agricultural system tools and methods. A number of past events combined with overall technological progress in other fields have strongly contributed to the evolution of agricultural system modeling, including development of process-based bio-physical models of crops and livestock, statistical models based on historical observations, and economic optimization and simulation models at household and regional to global scales. Characteristics of agricultural systems models have varied widely depending on the systems involved, their scales, and the wide range of purposes that motivated their development and use by researchers in different disciplines. Recent trends in broader collaboration across institutions, across disciplines, and between the public and private sectors suggest that the stage is set for the major advances in agricultural systems science that are needed for the next generation of models, databases, knowledge products and decision support systems. The lessons from history should be considered

  11. Vol. 6: Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceeding are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to plasma physics

  12. Quantum Physics for Beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

  13. Climate in Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  14. Physical properties of Aten, Apollo and Amor asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, Lucy-Ann; Tholen, David J.; Veeder, Glenn J.

    1989-01-01

    Data available on the physical properties of a group of planet-crossing asteroids, the Aten, Apollo, and Amor objects (AAAO) (include data on the taxonomy, mineralogical surface composition, diameter, rotation rate, shape, and surface texture) are presented together with the type of observations used for obtaining these data. These data show that the population of the AAAO is diverse in all of their physical characteristics. This diversity implies that the AAAO come from multiple sources and had different evolutionary histories.

  15. History of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    At the 'Jackfest' marking the 65th birthday of Jack Steinberger (see July/August 1986 issue, page 29), T.D. Lee gave an account of the history of the weak interactions. This edited version omits some of Lee's tributes to Steinberger, but retains the impressive insight into the subtleties of a key area of modern physics by one who played a vital role in its development. (orig./HSI).

  16. Kiropraktikkens historie i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA.......Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA....

  17. Reinventing Entrepreneurial History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadhwani, R. Daniel; Lubinski, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship remains fragmented in business history. A lack of conceptual clarity inhibits comparisons between studies and dialogue among scholars. To address these issues, we propose to reinvent entrepreneurial history as a research field. We define “new entrepreneurial history...... and reconfiguring resources, and legitimizing novelty. The article elaborates on the historiography, premises, and potential contributions of new entrepreneurial history....

  18. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics. Policy Statement No. 7.1: The roles, responsibilities and status of the medical physicist including the criteria for the staffing levels in a Medical Physics Department approved by EFOMP Council on 5th February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen; Christofides, Stelios; Brambilla, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an amalgamation and an update of the EFOMP Policy Statements No. 2, 4 and 7. It presents guidelines for the roles, responsibilities and status of the medical physicist together with recommended minimum staffing levels. These recommendations take into account the ever-increasing demands for competence, patient safety, specialisation and cost effectiveness of modern healthcare services, the requirements of the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, the European Commission's Radiation Protection Report No. 174: "Guidelines on medical physics expert", as well as the relevant publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The provided recommendations on minimum staffing levels are in very good agreement with those provided by both the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Large facilities in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.; Schopper, H.

    1995-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference dealt with the following topics: particle physics, computing and data transmission, nuclear and atomic physics and their new facets, condensed matter physics, fusion and plasma physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics. The proceedings include the review talks, a report on the OECD Megascience Forum and summaries of the round-table discussions. figs., tabs., refs

  20. Progress report - physics and health sciences - physics section 1990 January 01 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.C.

    1990-10-01

    This is the ninth semi-annual report on the Physics section of Physics and Health Sciences. Major areas of discussion include: nuclear physics, accelerator physics, general physics, neutron's solid state physics, theoretical physics and fusion

  1. The History of Melancholia Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghfard, Abbas; Bozorgi, Ali Reza; Ahmadi, Shaghayegh; Shojaei, Masoumeh

    2016-05-01

    Melancholia is a kind of depression with the most common symptoms of evident mental disorder, slimness, lack of enjoyment, feeling guilty and having no appetite. In modern medicine, the word "melancholia" only refers to mental and affective symptoms of depression. However, historically, it could have physical symptoms as well as mental symptoms and the atrabilious situations were categorized according to their common reasons rather than their specific characteristics. This study aimed to enlighten the history of this disease. This is a review article concerned with cerebral diseases by collecting data from medical electronic databases including PUBMED and SID, historical psychiatry books and traditional medicine manuscripts. The first known physician to have scientifically looked at the mental diseases was Hippocrates (370-460 B.C), who should be accredited as the father of medicine. While physicians in the time of Hippocrates seriously believed in the metaphysics power in health and diseases, Hippocrates believed in natural laws. Plato (348-428 B.C) believed that human behavior is affected by his physical needs and instincts. In the course of Hippocrates's theory about bodily humors, Aristotle considered a range of mental characteristics for each. Finally, Galen believed that cerebral disease causes mental diseases or disorders based on his own theories of anatomy. Persian physicians involved in this area were Rabban al-Tabari (838-870 A.D), Razes (865-925 A.D), Ali-Ibn Abbas Ahvazi (944-982 A.D), Al-ikhwan al bukhari the physician of the ninth century, Ibn Sina (980-1037 A.D), Gorgani (1040-1136 A.D) and Khaje Nasireddin Tousi (1201-1274 A.D). They considered cerebral diseases and health as a part of equality process; different organs accommodate a physical system and mutual dependence with the society and environment. Mental health has been reviewed from various aspects in view of ancient physicians. Feeble mindedness and behavioral disorder complications had

  2. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  3. Neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the writeup of the lectures on neutrino physics delivered at various schools: TASI and Trieste in 2013 and the CERN-Latin American School in 2015. The topics discussed in this lecture include: general properties of neutrinos in the SM, the theory of neutrino masses and mixings (Dirac and Majorana), neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter, as well as an overview of the experimental evidence for neutrino masses and of the prospects in neutrino oscillation physics. We also briefly review the relevance of neutri- nos in leptogenesis and in beyond-the-Standard-Model physics.

  4. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a simple and direct introduction to the tools of modern nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. Emphasizes physical intuition and illuminating analogies, rather than formal mathematics. Topics covered include particle accelerators, radioactive series, types of nuclear reactions, detection of the neutrino, nuclear isomerism, binding energy of nuclei, fission chain reactions, and predictions of the shell model. Each chapter contains problems and illustrative examples. Pre-requisites are calculus and elementary vector analysis

  5. Statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadovskii, Michael V

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.

  6. Mathematics and art a cultural history

    CERN Document Server

    Gamwell, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This is a cultural history of mathematics and art, from antiquity to the present. Mathematicians and artists have long been on a quest to understand the physical world they see before them and the abstract objects they know by thought alone. Taking readers on a tour of the practice of mathematics and the philosophical ideas that drive the discipline, Lynn Gamwell points out the important ways mathematical concepts have been expressed by artists. Sumptuous illustrations of artworks and cogent math diagrams are featured in Gamwell’s comprehensive exploration. Gamwell begins by describing mathematics from antiquity to the Enlightenment, including Greek, Islamic, and Asian mathematics. Then focusing on modern culture, Gamwell traces mathematicians’ search for the foundations of their science, such as David Hilbert’s conception of mathematics as an arrangement of meaning-free signs, as well as artists’ search for the essence of their craft, such as Aleksandr Rodchenko’s monochrome paintings. She shows t...

  7. A history of the Federation of European Societies of Plant Physiology FESPP since its foundation in 1978--including notes on events preceding the foundation and following re-naming as the Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology (FESPB) in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthaler, Hartmut

    2004-06-01

    After several years of close contacts and extensive discussion between various plant physiologists of different European countries, the Federation of European Societies of Plant Physiology (FESPP) was established in 1978 in Edinburgh. The aim of the FESPP was and remains to promote up-to-date plant physiology research in all European countries and to stimulate scientific cooperation and the exchange of scientists between the different member societies by organizing congresses and workshops as well as editing four (recently five) Federation-affiliated journals. The short History of FESPP presented here covers the preparatory years of the 1970s that led to its actual foundation in 1978, and then its further development up to and following the Federation's reconstitution in 2002 as the Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology (FESPB).

  8. Health Physics Society: origins and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1978-08-01

    Events leading up to the birth of the Health Physics Society in June, 1955, are reviewed. Membership requirements, chapters, and sections are discussed. An international organization, International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), founded in 1963, was the outgrowth of the Health Physics Society. Other events in the history of the organization, such as the initiation of publishing of a society journal in 1957, the employment of the first Executive Secretary in 1965, and the establishment of awards, are reviewed. The two appendixes include lists of the officers of the society and award recipients

  9. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  10. Eating disorders and trauma history in women with perinatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Zerwas, Stephanie; Leserman, Jane; Holle, Ann Von; Regis, Taylor; Bulik, Cynthia

    2011-06-01

    Although the prevalence of perinatal depression (depression occurring during pregnancy and postpartum) is 10%, little is known about psychiatric comorbidity in these women. We examined the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders (ED) and trauma history in women with perinatal depression. A research questionnaire was administered to 158 consecutive patients seen in a perinatal psychiatry clinic during pregnancy (n=99) or postpartum (n=59). Measures included Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) IV-based questions for lifetime eating psychopathology and assessments of comorbid psychiatric illness including the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Trauma Inventory. In this cohort, 37.1% reported a putative lifetime ED history; 10.1% reported anorexia nervosa (AN), 10.1% reported bulimia nervosa (BN), 10.1% reported ED not otherwise specified-purging subtype (EDNOS-P), and 7.0% reported binge eating disorder (BED). Women with BN reported more severe depression (EPDS score, 19.1, standard deviation [SD 4.3], p=0.02; PHQ-severity 14.5, SD 7.4, p=0.02) than the referent group of women with perinatal depression and no ED history (EPDS 13.3, SD=6.1; PHQ 9.0, SD=6.2). Women with AN were more likely to report sexual trauma history than the referent group (62.5% vs. 29.3%, pdepression and histories of physical and sexual trauma. Screening for histories of eating psychopathology is important in women with perinatal depression.

  11. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  12. Abstracts of the 81. national meeting on physics of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are presented at the 81 Annual meeting of the Argentine Physics Association (AFA). The papers can be grouped under the following main topics: teaching, history and philosophy of physics; classical and quantum physics: particles and fields; statistical physics and thermodynamics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; optic; fluid dynamics and plasmas; condensed matter; instrumentation; geophysics and astrophysics. refs., ills

  13. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  14. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  15. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  17. History and Epic Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Thomas N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of epic poetry in a combined English/history humanities class. Concludes that epic poetry, the combination of history and verse, helps students understand the continuity and meaning of the Western tradition. (CFR)

  18. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  19. - History, Technology, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    This paper begins with the history of electrochromism, first discovered in the 1880's. The physics, electrochemistry, device design and materials are covered. The science of electrochromism involves the coloration of a variety of metal oxides, organics and polymers. Dual ion and electron intercalation is used to color and bleach electrochromic materials. Considerable science has been undertaken to make devices that resemble thin film transparent batteries in their structure. A number of materials have been developed to make layers for electrochromic devices. Applications for electrochromics include low information content displays, such as banner displays, smart windows and mirrors for automotive applications. Several companies throughout the world are developing dynamic glazing. Switchable glazing for building and vehicle application is very attractive for energy and light management. From the standpoint of materials much research and development in electrochromics focuses on the development or improvement of materials with ionic and electronic properties. Much of the work on electrochromics draws on the vast knowledge developed for advanced batteries. National Laboratory and university groups are researching new materials and processes to improve electrochromic materials. Also, much industrial work is directed towards deposition and fabrication processes for glass and possibly plastic that can make electrochromics cost effective. Plastic can yield both flexibility and weight savings for many applications. Although plastics are permeable, outgas and require lower processing temperatures, they can be more universally applied. Some developments in plastics may come from OLED sealing technology. Comparisons are made between the properties of electrochromics and other switchable technologies. Technology comparisons are made between suspended particles, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, themotropics and gas-chromics.

  20. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  1. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  2. Towards a European History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dijk (Henk)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAlthough historical writing is a profession with a long tradition, history as an academic discipline is strongly related to the development of the nation state in the nineteenth century. Notwithstanding specialisations like e.g. cultural history and social and economic history put less

  3. Mellem historie- og krigsvidenskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Schøning, Anna Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates how military history was taught as part of the Danish higher officer education from 1830 to 1920 and how the subject was affected by developments in academic history and the science of war. It argues that military history, as it was taught in the formal officer education...

  4. Mistral Supercomputer Job History Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zasadziński, Michał; Muntés-Mulero, Victor; Solé, Marc; Ludwig, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this technical report, we show insights and results of operational data analysis from petascale supercomputer Mistral, which is ranked as 42nd most powerful in the world as of January 2018. Data sources include hardware monitoring data, job scheduler history, topology, and hardware information. We explore job state sequences, spatial distribution, and electric power patterns.

  5. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  6. History Microcomputer Simulations: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    This article summarizes seven currently available microcomputer simulations for history. The seven included are: Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1984), Nomination (Brady Company, 1984), Tigers in the Snow (Strategic Simulations, 1981), Lincoln's Decisions (Educational Activities, 1982), Watergate Simulation (Social Science Research and…

  7. Export Controls: A Contemporary History

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Provides highlights of my recently published book Export Controls: A Contemporary History. Describes the roles played by multiple U.S. Government agencies and congressional oversight committees in this policymaking arena including the Commerce, Defense, State, and Treasury Departments. It also reviews the roles played by international government organizations such as the Missile Technology Control Regime, export oriented businesses, and research intensive universities.

  8. Language and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with teaching physics in English and students' native languages. Reviews studies on the topic, including Whorf's linguistic relativity. Includes suggestions for further research. (SK)

  9. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  10. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated. PMID:25032228

  11. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, Christine; Winslow, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  12. Star-Formation Histories of MUSCEL Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Xuesong Wang, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    The MUSCEL program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies) uses combined ground-based/space-based data to determine the spatially resolved star-formation histories of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. LSB galaxies are paradoxical in that they are gas rich but have low star-formation rates. Here we present our observations and fitting technique, and the derived histories for select MUSCEL galaxies. It is our aim to use these histories in tandem with velocity fields and metallicity profiles to determine the physical mechanism(s) that give these faint galaxies low star-formation rates despite ample gas supplies.

  13. Physics of the stoics

    CERN Document Server

    Sambursky, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Stoic physics, based entirely on the continuum concept, is one of the great original contributions in the history of physical systems. Building on The Physical World of the Greeks, the author describes the main aspects of the Stoic continuum theory, traces its origins back to pre-Stoic science and philosophy, and shows the attempts of the Stoics to work out a coherent system of thought that would explain the essential phenomena of the physical world by a few basic assumptions. Originally published in 1987. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make av

  14. The history and science of the Manhattan project

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Bruce Cameron

    2014-01-01

    The development of atomic bombs under the auspices of the U. S. Army’s Manhattan Project during World War II is considered to be the outstanding news story of the twentieth century. In this book, a physicist and expert on the history of the Project presents a comprehensive overview of this momentous achievement. The first three chapters cover the history of nuclear physics from the discovery of radioactivity to the discovery of fission, and would be ideal for instructors of a sophomore-level “Modern Physics” course. Student-level exercises at the ends of the chapters are accompanied by answers. Chapter 7 covers the physics of first-generation fission weapons at a similar level, again accompanied by exercises and answers. For the interested layman and for non-science students and instructors, the book includes extensive qualitative material on the history, organization, implementation, and results of the Manhattan Project and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing missions. The reader also learns about the l...

  15. Physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities into the physical properties of metals and ceramics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are reported. Topics covered include: high field superconductivity; microstructure and mechanical behavior of ceramics, glass-metal, and ceramic-metal systems; high temperature reactions; relation of microstructure to properties in ceramics; and structure and properties of carbon materials and composite materials

  16. History and science of knots

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J C

    1996-01-01

    This book brings together twenty essays on diverse topics in the history and science of knots. It is divided into five parts, which deal respectively with knots in prehistory and antiquity, non-European traditions, working knots, the developing science of knots, and decorative and other aspects of knots.Its authors include archaeologists who write on knots found in digs of ancient sites (one describes the knots used by the recently discovered Ice Man); practical knotters who have studied the history and uses of knots at sea, for fishing and for various life support activities; a historian of l

  17. Buffering effects of safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships among women with childhood histories of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, S R; Takizawa, R; Arseneault, L

    2017-11-01

    Adults who were victims of childhood maltreatment tend to have poorer health compared with adults who did not experience abuse. However, many are in good health. We tested whether safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships buffer women with a history of childhood maltreatment from poor health outcomes in later life. Participants included women from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study who were involved in an intimate relationship at some point by the time their twin children were 10 years old. Women were initially interviewed in 1999-2000 (mean age = 33 years) and 2, 5, and 7 years later. They reported on their physical and mental health, and their health-risk behaviours. Compared with women who did not experience abuse in childhood, women with histories of maltreatment were at elevated risk for mental, physical, and health-risk behaviours, including major depressive disorder, sleep, and substance use problems. Cumulatively, safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships characterized by a lack of violence, emotional intimacy, and social support buffered women with a history of maltreatment from poor health outcomes. Our findings emphasize that negative social determinants of health - such as a childhood history of maltreatment - confer risk for psychopathology and other physical health problems. If, however, a woman's current social circumstances are sufficiently positive, they can promote good health, particularly in the face of past adversity.

  18. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors. A compact introduction to history, development, and theory of solid-state physics. 2. ed.; Leiter, Halbleiter, Supraleiter. Eine kompakte Einfuehrung in Geschichte, Entwicklung und Theorie der Festkoerperphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebener, Rudolf [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik

    2017-05-01

    The present book is a strongly revised and supplemented edition of the title: ''Kristalle: Spiefeld der Elektronen'', published scarcely ten years ago by the same author. Especially the physical contents are explained by the mathematically formulated foundations. The book appeals to students of natural sciences and especially of physics as well as to engineers as introduction to the wide field of solid-state physics, so to speak as motivating prestage to the established and very extensive textbooks. Beside the physical contents the book treats the important role of numerous important and often still very young scientists. By corresponding supplements in this book it is tried to present the fundamental developments in their wide environment.

  19. Physical resources and infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the main physical characteristics as well as the main physical and social infrastructure features of Kenya's coastal region. Physical resources include relief, soils, rainfall, agro-ecological zones and natural resources. Aspects of the physical infrastructure discussed are

  20. The physics companion

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Updated and expanded with new topics, The Physics Companion, 2nd Edition offers a unique and educational approach to learning physics at a level suitable for first-year science students. This new edition expands the presentation to include senior topics, such as statistical mechanics, quantum physics, and nuclear physics.