WorldWideScience

Sample records for included high-temperature materials

  1. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  2. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  3. High temperature structural insulating material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  4. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  5. High temperature stability of materials and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomin, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    The problems of high temperature resistance of materials under the effect of mechanic and thermomechanic stresses are considered as well as the resistance of elements of constructions to high temperature inelastic deformation under loading. New experimental data on material properties are presented, the original technique for calculating inelastic deformation of particular bodies is presented [ru

  6. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions

  7. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  8. 1982 Annual status report: high-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, M.

    1983-01-01

    The High Temperature Materials Programme is executed at the JRC, Petten Establishment and has for the 1980/83 programme period the objective to promote within the European Community the development of high temperature materials required for future energy technologies. Materials and engineering studies include: corrosion with or without load, mechanical properties under static or dynamic loads, surface protection creep of tubular components in corrosive environments and high temperature materials data bank

  9. High-temperature materials and structural ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report gives a survey of research work in the area of high-temperature materials and structural ceramics of the KFA (Juelich Nuclear Research Center). The following topics are treated: (1) For energy facilities: ODS materials for gas turbine blades and heat exchangers; assessment of the remaining life of main steam pipes, material characterization and material stress limits for First-Wall components; metallic and graphitic materials for high-temperature reactors. (2) For process engineering plants: composites for reformer tubes and cracking tubes; ceramic/ceramic joints and metal/ceramic and metal/metal joints; Composites and alloys for rolling bearing and sliding systems up to application temperatures of 1000deg C; high-temperature corrosion of metal and ceramic material; porous ceramic high-temperature filters and moulding coat-mix techniques; electrically conducting ceramic material (superconductors, fuel cells, solid electrolytes); high-temperature light sources (high-temperature chemistry); oil vapor engines with caramic components; ODS materials for components in diesel engines and vehicle gas turbines. (MM) [de

  10. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  11. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Materials for intermediate temperature applications are considered, taking into account possibilities regarding the use of prealloyed powder processing to obtain superalloys with increased strength for turbine disk applications. Materials for high temperature application are also discussed. Attention is given to oxide dispersion strengthened alloys (ODS), ceramics, directionally solidified eutectics, ODS + gamma prime alloys, and composites. A description is presented of various approaches for providing environmental protection.

  12. High-temperature radiation embrittlement of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, V.F.; Kiryukhin, N.M.; Ozhigov, L.S.; Parkhomenko, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of literature data and the results obtained by the authors, main features and regularities of the high-temperature radiation embrittlement of materials (HTRE) are described. In important part of charged particle accelerator investigations for imitation and study of HTRE is pointed out. The existing HTRE models are analyzed and a new model taking into account the evolution of defect structure of matrix and grain boundaries under irradiation is suggested

  13. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  14. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  15. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  16. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  17. Progress in advanced high temperature turbine materials, coatings, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced materials, coatings, and cooling technology is assessed in terms of improved aircraft turbine engine performance. High cycle operating temperatures, lighter structural components, and adequate resistance to the various environmental factors associated with aircraft gas turbine engines are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on progress in development of high temperature materials for coating protection against oxidation, hot corrosion and erosion, and in turbine cooling technology. Specific topics discussed include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, and ceramics.

  18. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  19. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-15

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division.

  20. 1981 Annual status report. High-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature materials programme is executed at the JRC, Petten Establishment and has for the 1980/83 programme period the objective to promote within the European Community the development of high temperature materials required for future energy technologies. A range of engineering studies is being carried out. A data bank storing factual data on alloys for high temperature applications is being developed and has reached the operational phase

  1. High temperature fracture of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhorn, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented of fracture mechanisms and methods of lifetime prediction in ceramic materials. Techniques of lifetime prediction are based on the science of fracture mechanics. Application of these techniques to structural ceramics is limited by our incomplete understanding of fracture mechanisms in these materials, and by the occurrence of flaw generation in these materials at elevated temperatures. Research on flaw generation and fracture mechanisms is recommended as a way of improving the reliability of structural ceramics

  2. Ultra High Temperature Refractory Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Legacy refractory materials that have origins dating to the original Saturn program are commonly used in current launch facilities. Although they failure to meet the...

  3. Ultra High Temperature Refractory Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Legacy refractory materials that have origins dating to the original Saturn program are commonly used in current launch facilities. Although they fail to meet the...

  4. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    barrier is cost and this too is strongly related to the hot component materials. Nickel-chrome superalloys , and more significantly cobalt based...performed on Refel reaction silicon carbide , the material used for ceramic combustors. Statistical bend strength distributions were measured at room...Silicon Carbide 91 4.5 Nitriding of Reaction Bonded Silicon Nitride 9ft 4.6 Sialon Research 99 4.7 Isostatic Densification and Strengthening of

  5. Materials and coatings to resist high temperature oxidation and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Object of the given papers are the oxidation and corrosion behaviour of several materials (such as stainless steels, iron-, or nickel-, or cobalt-base alloys, Si-based ceramics) used at high temperatures and various investigations on high-temperature protective coatings. (IHoe) [de

  6. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  7. Joining and fabrication techniques for high temperature structures including the first wall in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Kim, K. B

    2003-09-01

    The materials for PFC's (Plasma Facing Components) in a fusion reactor are severely irradiated with fusion products in facing the high temperature plasma during the operation. The refractory materials can be maintained their excellent properties in severe operating condition by lowering surface temperature by bonding them to the high thermal conducting materials of heat sink. Hence, the joining and bonding techniques between dissimilar materials is considered to be important in case of the fusion reactor or nuclear reactor which is operated at high temperature. The first wall in the fusion reactor is heated to approximately 1000 .deg. C and irradiated severely by the plasma. In ITER, beryllium is expected as the primary armour candidate for the PFC's; other candidates including W, Mo, SiC, B4C, C/C and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Since the heat affected zones in the PFC's processed by conventional welding are reported to have embrittlement and degradation in the sever operation condition, both brazing and diffusion bonding are being considered as prime candidates for the joining technique. In this report, both the materials including ceramics and the fabrication techniques including joining technique between dissimilar materials for PFC's are described. The described joining technique between the refractory materials and the dissimilar materials may be applicable for the fusion reactor and Generation-4 future nuclear reactor which are operated at high temperature and high irradiation.

  8. Joining and fabrication techniques for high temperature structures including the first wall in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Kim, K. B.

    2003-09-01

    The materials for PFC's (Plasma Facing Components) in a fusion reactor are severely irradiated with fusion products in facing the high temperature plasma during the operation. The refractory materials can be maintained their excellent properties in severe operating condition by lowering surface temperature by bonding them to the high thermal conducting materials of heat sink. Hence, the joining and bonding techniques between dissimilar materials is considered to be important in case of the fusion reactor or nuclear reactor which is operated at high temperature. The first wall in the fusion reactor is heated to approximately 1000 .deg. C and irradiated severely by the plasma. In ITER, beryllium is expected as the primary armour candidate for the PFC's; other candidates including W, Mo, SiC, B4C, C/C and Si 3 N 4 . Since the heat affected zones in the PFC's processed by conventional welding are reported to have embrittlement and degradation in the sever operation condition, both brazing and diffusion bonding are being considered as prime candidates for the joining technique. In this report, both the materials including ceramics and the fabrication techniques including joining technique between dissimilar materials for PFC's are described. The described joining technique between the refractory materials and the dissimilar materials may be applicable for the fusion reactor and Generation-4 future nuclear reactor which are operated at high temperature and high irradiation

  9. Platform for high temperature materials (PHiTEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluc, N.; Hoffelner, W.; Michler, J.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced energy power systems like Generation IV fission reactors, thermonuclear fusion reactors, solar thermal/solar chemical reactors, gas turbines and coal gasification systems require materials that can operate at high temperatures in extreme environments: irradiation, corrosion, unidirectional and cyclic loads. On the path to development of new and adequate high temperature materials, understanding of damage formation and evolution and of damage effects is indispensable. Damage of materials in components takes place on different time and length scales. Component failure is usually a macroscopic event. Macroscopic material properties and their changes with time (e.g., hardening, creep embrittlement, corrosion) are determined by the micro- to nano-properties of the material. The multi scale is an ambitious and challenging attempt to take these facts into consideration by developing an unified model of the material behaviour. This requires, however, dedicated tools to test and analyse materials on different scales. The platform for high temperatures materials is being set up within the framework of collaboration between the EPFL, the PSI and the EMPA. It has three main goals: 1) Establish a platform that allows the multi scale characterization of relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties of advanced, high temperature materials, with a focus on irradiated, i.e. radioactive, materials, by combining the use of a focused ion beam and a nano indentation device with multi scale modelling and simulations. 2) Use the methods developed and the results gained for existing materials for developing improved high temperature materials to be used in advanced and sustainable future energy power plants. 3) Become an attractive partner for industry by providing a wide knowledge base, flexibility in answering technical questions and skills to better understand damage in already existing plants and to support development of new products at the industrial scale

  10. Creep behavior of materials for high-temperature reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Hartnagel, W.; Iischner, B.; Schepp, P.

    1984-01-01

    Materials for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) application are selected according to their creep behavior. For two alloys--Incoloy-800 used for the live steam tubing of the thorium high-temperature reactor and Inconel-617 evaluated for tubings in advanced HTGRs--creep curves are measured and described by equations. A microstructural interpretation is given. An essential result is that nonstable microstructures determine the creep behavior

  11. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage

    OpenAIRE

    David Perraudin; Selmar Binder; Ehsan Rezai; Alberto Ortona; Sophia Haussener

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. Th...

  12. Screening of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-sik E.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Along with major advancement of Stirling-based convertors, high temperature organics are needed to develop future higher temperature convertors for much improved efficiencies as well as to improve the margin of reliability for the current SOA (State-of-the-Art) convertors. The higher temperature capabilities would improve robustness of the convertors and also allow them to be used in additional missions, particularly ones that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Various organic materials have been employed as essential components in the convertor for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of every possible material structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, O-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This report presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection

  13. Controlled Chemistry Helium High Temperature Materials Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard N. WRight

    2005-08-01

    A system to test aging and environmental effects in flowing helium with impurity content representative of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) has been designed and assembled. The system will be used to expose microstructure analysis coupons and mechanical test specimens for up to 5,000 hours in helium containing potentially oxidizing or carburizing impurities controlled to parts per million levels. Impurity levels in the flowing helium are controlled through a feedback mechanism based on gas chromatography measurements of the gas chemistry at the inlet and exit from a high temperature retort containing the test materials. Initial testing will focus on determining the nature and extent of combined aging and environmental effects on microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical properties of alloys proposed for structural applications in the NGNP, including Inconel 617 and Haynes 230.

  14. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  15. High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers : Material Selection and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bruno, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The task of my two-months internship was to test different materials to be used to build an high temperature transducer, to develop some prototypes and to test their performance, to assess the reliability of commercial product rated for such a temperature, as well as to collaborate in developing the signal processing code to measure the condensed water levels.

  16. Novel High Temperature Materials for In-Situ Sensing Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian Solzbacher; Anil Virkar; Loren Rieth; Srinivasan Kannan; Xiaoxin Chen; Hannwelm Steinebach

    2009-12-31

    The overriding goal of this project was to develop gas sensor materials and systems compatible with operation at temperatures from 500 to 700 C. Gas sensors operating at these temperatures would be compatible with placement in fossil-energy exhaust streams close to the combustion chamber, and therefore have advantages for process regulation, and feedback for emissions controls. The three thrusts of our work included investigating thin film gas sensor materials based on metal oxide materials and electroceramic materials, and also development of microhotplate devices to support the gas sensing films. The metal oxide materials NiO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated for their sensitivity to H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, at high temperatures (T > 500 C), where the sensing properties of these materials have received little attention. New ground was broken in achieving excellent gas sensor responses (>10) for temperatures up to 600 C for NiO and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials. The gas sensitivity of these materials was decreasing as temperatures increased above 500 C, which indicates that achieving strong sensitivities with these materials at very high temperatures (T {ge} 650 C) will be a further challenge. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reliability of these materials were investigated across a wide range of deposition conditions, temperatures, film thickness, as using surface active promoter materials. We also proposed to study the electroceramic materials BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} and BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} for their ability to detect H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S, respectively. This report focuses on the properties and gas sensing characteristics of BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} (Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}), as significant difficulties were encounter in generating BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} sensors. Significant new results were achieved for Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including

  17. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  18. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)

    2011-08-30

    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  19. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin

    2017-08-01

    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  20. High temperature structural ceramic materials manufactured by the CNTD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiglich, J.J. Jr.; Bhat, D.G.; Holzl, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Controlled Nucleation Thermochemical Deposition (CNTD) has emerged from classical chemical deposition (CVD) technology. This paper describes the techniques of thermochemical grain refinement. The effects of such refinement on mechanical properties of materials at room temperature and at elevated temperatures are outlined. Emphasis is given to high temperature structural ceramic materials such as SiC, Si 3 N 4 , AlN, and TiB 2 and ZrB 2 . An example of grain refinement accompanied by improvements in mechanical properties is SiC. Grain sizes of 500 to 1000 A have been observed in CNTD SiC with room temperature MOR of 1380 to 2070 MPa (4 pt bending) and MOR of 3450 to 4140 MPa (4 pt bending) at 1350 0 C. Various applications of these materials to the solution of high temperature structural problems are described. (author)

  1. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs) offer important and unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing. And they are well suited to serve together synergistically. TEC and MFHPs operate through working-fluid vaporization, condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures. TEC and MFHPs have apparently simple, isolated performance mechanisms that are somewhat similar. And they also have obviously difficult, complected material problems that again are somewhat similar. Intensive investigation reveals that aspects of their operating cycles and material problems tend to merge: high-temperature material effects determine the level and lifetime of performance. Simplified equations verify the preceding statement for TEC and MFHPs. Material properties and interactions exert primary influences on operational effectiveness. And thermophysicochemical stabilities dictate operating temperatures which regulate the thermoemissive currents of TEC and the vaporization flow rates of MFHPs. Major high-temperature material problems of TEC and MFHPs have been solved. These solutions lead to productive, cost-effective applications of current TEC and MFHPs - and point to significant improvements with anticipated technological gains.

  2. Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: High-temperature microwave processing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Yu V.; Rybakov, K. I.; Semenov, V. E.

    2001-07-01

    This article reviews the physical aspects of a cross-disciplinary science and technology field: the microwave processing of materials. High-temperature microwave processing has a clear industrial perspective in such areas as the production of advanced ceramics, the deposition of thermal barrier coatings, the remediation of hazardous wastes etc. This review starts with the relevant fundamental notions regarding the absorption of electromagnetic waves, heat transfer and the electrodynamics of single- and multimode microwave cavities. Useful formulae, estimates, and interrelations between process variables are presented. This is followed by a review of process examples illustrating the specific features of microwave processing: reduction in energy consumption and process duration, rapid and controllable heating, peculiar temperature distribution, and selectivity of energy deposition. Much attention is given to the advantages of higher-frequency millimetre-wave processing, which include the enhanced absorption in many materials of industrial interest, improved uniformity of electromagnetic energy and temperature, and the possibility of surface treatment. The phenomenon of microwave process rate enhancement is addressed in connection with the problem of the non-thermal microwave effect on mass transport in solids. Both experimental and theoretical approaches to the identification of the mechanism responsible for this effect are illustrated. Finally, the physical and technical factors influencing microwave technology scaleup and transfer to industry are discussed.

  4. New Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzlarich, Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-02-03

    The scope of this proposal was to develop two new high ZT materials with enhanced properties for the n- and p-leg of a thermoelectric device capable of operating at a maximum temperature of 1275 K and to demonstrate the efficiency in a working device. Nanostructured composites and new materials based on n– and p–type nanostructured Si1-xGex (ZT1273K ~ 1) and the recently discovered p–type high temperature Zintl phase material, Yb14MnSb11 (ZT1273K ~1) were developed and tested in a working device.

  5. High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program: 19th Annual Report, October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, Arvid [ORNL

    2007-08-01

    Annual Report contains overview of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program and includes selected highlights of user activities for FY2006. Report is submitted to individuals within sponsoring DOE agency and to other interested individuals.

  6. Complex half-Heusler phases as high temperature thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Slade Roland

    The potential of n-type MNiSn and p-type MCoSb (M=Ti, Zr, Hf) half-Heusler phases, as thermoelectric elements, for high temperature power generation applications is explored. Chapter 1 describes the background and theory behind the thermoelectric effects and physical characteristics common to promising thermoelectric materials. Chapter 2 is a review of half-Heusler alloys and their value as thermoelectric materials. In chapter 3, a description of material synthesis and thermoelectric properties characterization techniques is given. The effects of compositional changes on the thermoelectric properties of MNiSn alloys are studied and analyzed in chapter 4. In this system, Sb doping at the Sn site is shown to partially mitigate the compensated behavior observed in these materials, resulting in an increase of both the figure of merit, ZT, and the temperature at which ZT is maximized. The effects of alloying at the M and Ni sites, which modifies the band structure, resulting in changes in the electronic transport properties, and introduces phonon scattering centers, thereby decreasing the lattice thermal conductivity, are reported. In addition to the benefits of increased alloying at the M site, on the thermal conductivity and thermoelectric transport properties, chapter 5 also presents an examination of Sn substitution on the Sb sublattice of MCoSb. This substitution is shown to transition these materials from semimetals to robust n-type and p-type thermoelectric materials. The significant lack of p-type thermoelectric materials, which operated at temperature above 700°C, make these materials appealing for study. In chapter 6, the effect of alloy and boundary scattering on the high temperature lattice thermal conductivity is also studied and analyzed. Alloy scattering at high temperature is analyzed using the Klemens-Callaway model, while a model for boundary scattering from grains, is adapted from the work of Sharp, Poon, and Goldsmid. These models are found to be

  7. Two-phase materials for high-temperature service

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available for high-temperature service F.R.N. Nabarro a,b,* aDivision of Manufacturing and Materials, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa bCondensed Matter Physics Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050, South... that ratcheting creep may present serious problems in the system TiA`/Ti3A`. 2. Summary of the plastic properties of the C13/C130 and TiAl/Ti3Al structures We summarize here some of the properties described in more detail in Ref. [1]. 2.1. Current superalloys...

  8. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...... proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). All samples were exposed to anodic polarisation in 85% phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Platinum and gold plates were tested for the valid comparison. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy...

  9. Ultra light weight refractory material for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, V.; Kern, H. [Rath GmbH, Meissen (Germany); Springer, M. [Aug. Rath jun. GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The requirements on companies running high temperature processes, i.e. at temperatures about 1000 C and above, have increased dramatically within the last few years. For technological, economical and ecological purposes each application has to be checked carefully. As well the political discussion regarding environmental pollution, greenhouse effect and emission trading and the guidelines for climate and environmental protection exert massive influence on thermal process technology and pose an appropriate challenge for the companies. Next to costs of labour and raw materials the costs for energy and environmental costs play a decisive role more and more. The pressure on the management thereby incurred may have a lasting effect on innovations regarding increase of energy efficiency, decrease of CO{sub 2}-emission and often on non negligible increase of productivity. Mainly against the background of the highly scheduled European aims for emission reduction and also in consideration of the still proceeding globalisation the usage of state-of-the-art refractory technics in thermal process technology is of particular importance for business success, for reducing of environmental impact and last but not least for conservation and safeguarding of jobs in Europe and Germany. The applications for products made from high-temperature insulation wool in high temperature applications have strongly increased during the last five years. Especially the production capacities of polycrystalline wool (aluminium oxide wool e.g. Altra B72) have been doubled within the last three years. Primarily ultra light weight products made from HTIW are used in industrial furnaces with application temperatures above 1000 C and / or with high thermo-mechanical (thermal shock) and chemical exposure. The outstanding and essential advantages of these materials are obviously: Ultra light weight material with high resilience and flexibility, Optimised energy consumption (energy saving up to 50% compared

  10. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuels and Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    At the third annual meeting of the technical working group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), held in Vienna, in 2004, it was suggested 'to develop manuals/handbooks and best practice documents for use in training and education in coated particle fuel technology' in the IAEA's Programme for the year 2006-2007. In the context of supporting interested Member States, the activity to develop a handbook for use in the 'education and training' of a new generation of scientists and engineers on coated particle fuel technology was undertaken. To make aware of the role of nuclear science education and training in all Member States to enhance their capacity to develop innovative technologies for sustainable nuclear energy is of paramount importance to the IAEA Significant efforts are underway in several Member States to develop high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR) based on either pebble bed or prismatic designs. All these reactors are primarily fuelled by TRISO (tri iso-structural) coated particles. The aim however is to build future nuclear fuel cycles in concert with the aim of the Generation IV International Forum and includes nuclear reactor applications for process heat, hydrogen production and electricity generation. Moreover, developmental work is ongoing and focuses on the burning of weapon-grade plutonium including civil plutonium and other transuranic elements using the 'deep-burn concept' or 'inert matrix fuels', especially in HTGR systems in the form of coated particle fuels. The document will serve as the primary resource materials for 'education and training' in the area of advanced fuels forming the building blocks for future development in the interested Member States. This document broadly covers several aspects of coated particle fuel technology, namely: manufacture of coated particles, compacts and elements; design-basis; quality assurance/quality control and characterization techniques; fuel irradiations; fuel

  11. Corrosion assessment of refractory materials for high temperature waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.C.; Congdon, J.W.; Kielpinski, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of vitrification technologies are being evaluated to immobilize radioactive and hazardous wastes following years of nuclear materials production throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The compositions and physical forms of these wastes are diverse ranging from inorganic sludges to organic liquids to heterogeneous debris. Melt and off-gas products can be very corrosive at the high temperatures required to melt many of these waste streams. Ensuring material durability is required to develop viable treatment processes. Corrosion testing of materials in some of the anticipated severe environments is an important aspect of the materials identification and selection process. Corrosion coupon tests on typical materials used in Joule heated melters were completed using glass compositions with high salt contents. The presence of chloride in the melts caused the most severe attack. In the metal alloys, oxidation was the predominant corrosion mechanism, while in the tested refractory material enhanced dissolution of the refractory into the glass was observed. Corrosion testing of numerous different refractory materials was performed in a plasma vitrification system using a surrogate heterogeneous debris waste. Extensive corrosion was observed in all tested materials

  12. High-temperature superconducting materials for power system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of High-Temperature Superconductivity (HTS), essential for power system applications, in 1986 there has been a rapid progress in developing superconducting materials, wires and applications. Especially for large-scale power applications like rotating machines, transformers, cables, fault current limiters and superconducting magnetic energy storage devices a number of recent successful prototypes underlined the feasibility and superior technical performance of superconductor technology. A key to a successful application is the HTS material and its main parameters like e.g. E-J-curve, AC loss, homogeneity and cost performance ratio. This extended abstract describes the state-of-the-art of HTS material development and the main requirements and future R and D topics. The so-called second generation HTS wire is the most promising material mainly due to its low cost perspectives. This material is commercially available since 2006 and present manufacturing lengths exceed 1000 meters. The critical currents in long lengths have reached levels of more than 300 Amps per cm width and the performance of short samples with more than 1000 amps per cm width underline the future potential to further increase the current density. For the first time since the discovery of HTS material 2G HTS material has a chance to beat the cost performance ratio of copper. (orig.)

  13. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high...... to corrosion under strong anodic polarisation. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance in the simulated PEM electrolyser medium. In particular, Inconel 625 was the most promising among the tested corrosion-resistant alloys for the anodic compartment in high temperature steam electrolysis....... Tantalum showed outstanding resistance to corrosion in selected media. On the contrary, passivation of titanium was weak, and the highest rate of corrosion among all tested materials was observed for titanium at 120 degrees C....

  14. High temperature metallic materials for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The Specialists' Meeting was organized in conjunction with an earlier meeting on this topic held in Vienna, Austria, 1981, which provided for a comprehensive review of the status of materials development and testing at that time and for a description of test facilities. This meeting provided an opportunity (1) to review and discuss the progress made since 1981 in the development, testing and qualification of high temperature metallic materials, (2) to critically assess results achieved, and (3) to give directions for future research and development programmes. In particular, the meeting provided a form for a close interaction between component designers and materials specialists. The meeting was attended by 48 participants from France, People's Republic of China, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Poland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USSR and USA presenting 22 papers. The technical part of the meeting was subdivided into four technical sessions: Components Design and Testing - Implications for Materials (4 papers); Microstructure and Environmental Compatibility (4 papers); Mechanical Properties (9 papers); New Alloys and Developments (6 papers). At the end of the meeting a round table discussion was organized in order to summarize the meeting and to make recommendations for future activities. This volume contains all papers presented at the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-03-17

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO{sub x} and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required.

  16. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO(sub x) and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required

  17. High temperature viscoplastic ratchetting: Material response or modeling artifact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Ratchetting, the net accumulation of strain over a loading cycle, is a deformation mechanism that leads to distortions in shape, often resulting in a loss of function that culminates in structural failure. Viscoplastic ratchetting is prevalent at high homologous temperatures where viscous characteristics are prominent in material response. This deformation mechanism is accentuated by the presence of a mean stress; a consequence of interaction between thermal gradients and structural constraints. Favorable conditions for viscoplastic ratchetting exist in the Stirling engines being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) for space and terrestrial power applications. To assess the potential for ratchetting and its effect on durability of high temperature structures requires a viscoplastic analysis of the design. But ratchetting is a very difficult phenomenon to accurately model. One must therefore ask whether the results from such an analysis are indicative of actual material behavior, or if they are artifacts of the theory being used in the analysis. There are several subtle aspects in a viscoplastic model that must be dealt with in order to accurately model ratchetting behavior, and therefore obtain meaningful predictions from it. In this paper, some of these subtlties and the necessary ratchet experiments needed to obtain an accurate viscoplastic representation of a material are discussed

  18. UV laser engraving of high temperature polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, D.; Laude, L.D.; Kolev, K.; Hanus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Among emerging technologies, those associated with laser sources as surface processing tools are quite promising. In the present work, a UV pulsed (excimer) laser source is experimented for engraving (or ablating) polymeric materials based on three high temperature polymers: polyethylene terephtalate (PET), polyethersulfone (PES) and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS). The ablation phenomenon is demonstrated on all these polymers and evaluated by stylus profilometry upon varying the laser fluence at impact. For each polymer, results give evidence for three characteristic quantities: an ablation threshold E sub 0, a maximum ablation depth per pulse z sub 0 and an initial rate of ablation α, just above threshold. A simple ablation model is presented which describes correctly the observed behaviours and associates closely the above quantities to the polymer formulation, thus providing for the first time a rational basis to polymer ablation. The model may be extended to parent plastic materials whenever containing the same polymers. It may also be used to predict the behaviours of other polymers when subjected to excimer laser irradiation

  19. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  20. New Oxide Materials for an Ultra High Temperature Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perepezko, John H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-11-13

    In this project, a new oxide material, Hf6Ta2O17 has been successfully synthesized by the controlled oxidization of Hf-Ta alloys. This oxide exhibits good oxidation resistance, high temperature phase stability up to more than 2000°C, low thermal conductivity and thus could serve as a component or a coating material in an ultrahigh temperature environment. We have examined the microstructure evolution and phase formation sequence during the oxidation exposure of Hf-Ta alloys at 1500°C and identified that the oxidation of a Hf-26.7atomic %Ta alloy leads to the formation of a single phase adherent Hf6Ta2O17 with a complex atomic structure i.e. superstructure. The overall reactive diffusion pathway is consistent with the calculated Hf-Ta-O ternary phase diagram. Besides the synthesis of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure by oxidizing Hf-Ta alloys, we have also developed a synthesis method based upon the reactive sintering of the correct ratios of mixed powders of HfO2 and Ta2O5 and verified the low thermal conductivity of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure on these samples. We have completed a preliminary analysis of the oxidation kinetics for Hf6Ta2O17, which shows an initial parabolic oxidation kinetics.

  1. Development of Environment and Irradiation Effects of High Temperature Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. W.; Kim, S. H.

    2009-11-01

    Proposed materials, Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel (32 mm thickness) and 9Cr-1Mo-1W (100 mm thickness), for the reactor vessel were procured, and welded by the qualified welding technologies. Welding soundness was conformed by NDT, and mechanical testings were done along to weld depth. Two new irradiation capsules for use in the OR test hole of HANARO were designed and fabricated. specimens was irradiated in the OR5 test hole of HANARO with a 30MW thermal power at 390±10 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 4.4x10 19 (n/cm 2 ) (E>1.0 MeV). The dpa was evaluated to be 0.034∼0.07. Base metals and weldments of both Mod.9Cr-1Mo and 9Cr-1Mo-1W steels were tested tensile and impact properties in order to evaluate the irradiation hardening effects due to neutron irradiation. DBTT of base metal and weldment of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel were -16 .deg. C and 1 .deg. C, respectively. After neutron irradiation, DBTT of weldment of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel increased to 25 . deg. C. Alloy 617 and several nickel-base superalloys were studied to evaluate high temperature degradation mechanisms. Helium loop was developed to evaluate the oxidation behaviors of materials in the VHTR environments. In addition, creep behaviors in air and He environments were compared, and oxidation layers formed outer surfaces were measured as a function of applied stress and these results were investigated to the creep life

  2. The Development of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Additive Manufactured Autoclave Tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, ORNL and Techmer investigated and screened different high temperature thermoplastic reinforced materials to fabricate composite molds for autoclave processes using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. This project directly led to the development and commercial release of two printable, high temperature composite materials available through Techmer PM. These new materials are targeted for high temperature tooling made via large scale additive manufacturing.

  3. Solid lubricant materials for high temperatures: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1985-01-01

    Solid lubricants that can be used above 300 C in air are discussed, including coatings and self-lubricating composite bearing materials. The lubricants considered are representative dichalcogenides, graphite, graphite fluoride, polyimides, soft oxides, oxidatively stable fluorides, and hard coating materials. A few general design considerations revelant to solid lubrication are interspersed.

  4. High Temperature Stable Nanocrystalline SiGe Thermoelectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sherwin (Inventor); Matejczyk, Daniel Edward (Inventor); Determan, William (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of forming a nanocomposite thermoelectric material having microstructural stability at temperatures greater than 1000 C. The method includes creating nanocrystalline powder by cryomilling. The method is particularly useful in forming SiGe alloy powder.

  5. An investigation of high-temperature irradiation test program of new ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Shiori; Terai, Takayuki; Oku, Tatsuo

    1999-08-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute entrusted the Atomic Energy Society of Japan with an investigation into the trend of irradiation processing/damage research on new ceramic materials. The present report describes the result of the investigation, which was aimed at effective execution of irradiation programs using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) by examining preferential research subjects and their concrete research methods. Objects of the investigation were currently on-going preliminary tests of functional materials (high-temperature oxide superconductor and high-temperature semiconductor) and structural materials (carbon/carbon and SiC/SiC composite materials), together with newly proposed subjects of, e.g., radiation effects on ceramics-coated materials and super-plastic ceramic materials as well as microscopic computer simulation of deformation and fracture of ceramics. These works have revealed 1) the background of each research subject, 2) its objective and significance from viewpoints of science and engineering, 3) research methodology in stages from preliminary tests to real HTTR irradiation, and 4) concrete HTTR-irradiation methods which include main specifications of test specimens, irradiation facilities and post-irradiation examination facilities and apparatuses. The present efforts have constructed the important fundamentals in the new ceramic materials field for further planning and execution of the innovative basic research on high-temperature engineering. (author)

  6. Prognostic service life assessment of high-strength metallic materials in high temperature environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzer, R.

    1988-01-01

    The empirical and theoretical methods for the prediction of service life of high-strength materials are presented. The major mechanisms of failure of metals in high temperatures are given, which include creep and fatigue. The microstructural mechanism of fracture are described, and fracture mechanics methods of analysis and evaluation are explained. (orig./MM) With 92 figs., 6 tabs [de

  7. Short-time, high temperature mechanical testing of electrically conductive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, R.H.; Karnes, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a system to obtain information on short-time high temperature properties of materials are described. Components of the system are described in sections on load application, specimen heating temperature measurement, longitudinal temperature gradient, and strain measurement. Results of tests using stainless steel and graphite specimens are included

  8. Magnetic sensor for high temperature using a laminate composite of magnetostrictive material and piezoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2005-05-01

    A high sensitive and heat-resistive magnetic sensor using a magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate composite is investigated. The sensing principle is based on the magnetostrictive- and piezoelectric effect, whereby a detected yoke displacement is transduced into a voltage on the piezoelectric materials. The sensor is intended to detect the displacement of a ferromagnetic object in a high temperature environment, where conventional magnetic sensors are not useful. Such applications include sensors in engine of automobile and machinery used in material processing. The sensor features combination of a laminate composite of magnetostrictive/piezoelectric materials with high Curie temperatures and an appropriate magnetic circuit to convert mechanical displacement to sensor voltages and suppress temperature fluctuation. This paper describes the sensing principle and shows experimental results using a composite of Terfenol-D and Lithium Niobate to assure high sensitivity of 50V/mm at bias gap of 0.1mm and a temperature operating range over 200 °C.

  9. Combustion and Plasma Synthesis of High-Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Z. A.; Holt, J. B.

    1997-04-01

    KEYNOTE ADDRESS. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis: Twenty Years of Search and Findings (A. Merzhanov). SOLID-STATE COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS. Recent Progress in Combustion Synthesis of High-Performance Materials in Japan (M. Koizumi & Y. Miyamoto). Modeling and Numerical Computation of a Nonsteady SHS Process (A. Bayliss & B. Matkowsky). New Models of Quasiperiodic Burning in Combustion Synthesis (S. Margolis, et al.). Modeling of SHS Operations (V. Hlavacek, et al.). Combustion Theory for Sandwiches of Alloyable Materials (R. Armstrong & M. Koszykowski). Observations on the Combustion Reaction Between Thin Foils of Ni and Al (U. Anselmi-Tamburini & Z. Munir). Combustion Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (Y. Kaieda, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Nickel Aluminides (B. Rabin, et al.). Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of NiTi Intermetallics (H. Yi & J. Moore). Shock-Induced Chemical Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (S. Work, et al.). Advanced Ceramics Via SHS (T. DeAngelis & D. Weiss). In-Situ Formation of SiC and SiC-C Blocked Solids by Self-Combustion Synthesis (S. Ikeda, et al.). Powder Purity and Morphology Effects in Combustion-Synthesis Reactions (L. Kecskes, et al.). Simultaneous Synthesis and Densification of Ceramic Components Under Gas Pressure by SHS (Y. Miyamoto & M. Koizumi). The Use of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of High-Density Titanium Diboride (P. Zavitsanos, et al.). Metal--Ceramic Composite Pipes Produced by a Centrifugal-Thermit Process (O. Odawara). Simultaneous Combustion Synthesis and Densification of AIN (S. Dunmead, et al.). Fabrication of a Functionally Gradient Material by Using a Self-Propagating Reaction Process (N. Sata, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Oxide-Carbide Composites (L. Wang, et al.). Heterogeneous Reaction Mechanisms in the Si-C System Under Conditions of Solid Combustion (R. Pampuch, et al.). Experimental Modeling of Particle-Particle Interactions During SHS of TiB2 -Al2O3 (K. Logan

  10. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, N. G.; Vogan, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic material systems are being considered for potential use as turbine blade tip gas path seals at temperatures up to 1370 1/4 C. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride structures were selected for study since an initial analysis of the problem gave these materials the greatest potential for development into a successful materials system. Segments of silicon nitride and silicon carbide materials over a range of densities, processed by various methods, a honeycomb structure of silicon nitride and ceramic blade tip inserts fabricated from both materials by hot pressing were tested singly and in combination. The evaluations included wear under simulated engine blade tip rub conditions, thermal stability, impact resistance, machinability, hot gas erosion and feasibility of fabrication into engine components. The silicon nitride honeycomb and low-density silicon carbide using a selected grain size distribution gave the most promising results as rub-tolerant shroud liners. Ceramic blade tip inserts made from hot-pressed silicon nitride gave excellent test results. Their behavior closely simulated metal tips. Wear was similar to that of metals but reduced by a factor of six.

  11. High temperature mass spectrometry for thermodynamic study of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattoret, Andre; Philippot, Joseph; Pesme, Olivier.

    1983-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and evaporation kinetics are essential data to evaluate the nuclear fuel behaviour under accidental conditions. High temperature mass spectrometry appears as a valuable method to set up a such assessment. However, because of size, complexity and radioactivity of the irradiated samples, important improvements of the classical method are required. The device built in CEN/FAR to overcome these problems is described; performances and possible applications out of the nuclear safety field are presented [fr

  12. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. The focus of this document will be the overall range of DOE's structural materials research activities being conducted to support VHTR development. By far, the largest portion of material's R&D supporting VHTR development is that being performed directly as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Supplementary VHTR materials R&D being performed in the DOE program, including university and international research programs and that being performed under direct contracts with the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, will also be described. Specific areas of high-priority materials research that will be needed to deploy the NGNP and provide a basis for subsequent VHTRs are described, including the following: (1) Graphite: (a) Extensive unirradiated materials characterization and assessment of irradiation effects on properties must be performed to qualify new grades of graphite for nuclear service, including thermo-physical and mechanical properties and their changes, statistical variations from billot-to-billot and lot-to-lot, creep, and especially, irradiation creep. (b) Predictive models, as well as codification of the requirements and design methods for graphite core supports, must be developed to provide a basis for licensing. (2) Ceramics: Both fibrous and load-bearing ceramics must be qualified for environmental and radiation service as insulating materials. (3) Ceramic Composites: Carbon-carbon and SiC-SiC composites must be qualified for specialized usage in selected high-temperature components, such as core stabilizers, control rods, and insulating covers and ducting. This will require development of component-specific designs and fabrication processes, materials characterization, assessment of environmental and irradiation effects, and establishment of codes and standards for materials testing and design

  13. Elaboration of high-temperature friction polymer material and study of its wear aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gventsadze, L.

    2009-01-01

    High-temperature friction composite material is elaborated and its physical, mechanical and tribologic features are studied. It is shown, that addition to the friction material composition of filling material having nanopores -diatomite-and its modification with polyethilensilan leads to friction materials friction coefficient stability and wear resistance increase at high temperatures (400-600 ℃). (author)

  14. Characteristics of heat transfer during quenching high temperature material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monde, Masaroni; Mitsutake, Yuhichi [Saga University (Japan). Inst. of Ocean Energy], e-mail: monde@me.saga-u.ac.jp

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of heat transfer during quenching high temperature body using liquid jet impingement. The temperature of body is initially kept higher than the Leidenfrost temperature. The flow pattern dramatically changes with a decrease in the surface temperature. At a moment of jet impingement, the liquid is randomly splashed away. After that, it seems to change a cone shape splashed flow, in which liquid is confirmed to be contact with the surface in an impinging zone. Finally, the liquid contact area where occurs rigorous boiling starts moving radially. Under such flow configuration, how surface temperature and heat flux change with time and homogenous nucleation for vapor generation are discussed. (author)

  15. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  16. Materials for high-temperature hydrogen fluorine environments. Final report, June 1976-December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.

    1981-03-01

    A determination has been made of the stability of 35 materials under high-temperature, fluorine rich, hydrogen fluoride torch testing. Refractory materials tested included 4 borides, 3 carbides, 3 nitrides, 12 oxides, 1 oxynitride, 1 sulfide, 10 metals, and carbon (10 types). Three materials distinctly performed better than nickel: lanthanum hexaboride, calcium hexaboride, and lanthanum silicon oxynitride. Of these, lanthanum hexaboride is the best candidate tested since it has an estimated upper use temperature > 1726 K, which is above the melting point and more than 300 K above the upper use temperature of nickel

  17. Elevated temperature erosion studies on some materials for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianren.

    1991-01-01

    The surface degradation of materials due to high temperature erosion or combined erosion corrosion is a serious problem in many industrial and aeronautical applications. As such, it has become an important design consideration in many situations. The materials investigated in the present studies are stainless steels, Ti-6Al-4V, alumina ceramics, with and without silicate glassy phase, and zirconia. These are some of the potential materials for use in the high temperature erosive-corrosive environments. The erosion or erosion-corrosion experiments were performed in a high temperature sand-blast type of test rig. The variables studied included the temperature, material composition, heat treatment condition, impingement velocity and angle, erodent concentration, etc. The morphological features of the eroded or eroded-corroded surfaces, substrate deformation, and oxide characteristics were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis. The scratch test, single ball impact, and indentation tests were used to understand the behavior of oxide film in particle impacts. Based on these studies, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the mechanical or combined mechanical and chemical actions in erosion was developed

  18. 500 C Electronic Packaging and Dielectric Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for exploring the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by these high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed. High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for probing the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and eventual applications of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high electronics and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed.

  19. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    on the electron and phonon transport was analyzed and discussed in detail. In order to solve the problems of high thermal conductivity without the deterioration of electrical conductivity by nanostructuring for conventional ZnO materials, the doped ZnCdO material was proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric...... material. The material is sintered in air in order to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid the stability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1:9 resulted in a significant reduction of thermal conductivity up to 7-fold at room temperature. By careful selection......O. Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...

  20. Proceedings of Prof. Brahm Prakash birth centenary workshop on high temperature materials and hot structures: souvenir and book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, monolithic ceramics and refractory metals were identified for use at high temperatures. Considerations such as higher operating temperatures, increased thermostructural loads, lower density, etc. brought exotic materials such as ceramic matrix composites, carbon based composites, ODS alloy, intermetallics and thermal barrier coatings to the horizon. Advent of ultra high temperature ceramics and functionally graded materials further pushed the threshold of applicability of high temperature materials and hot structures. Impressive progress in this area has been possible because of the fact that characterization tools along with design and simulation techniques have constantly kept pace with advancement occurring in the processing methods of these materials. The workshop scope includes: Thermal Protection Systems and Materials, Hot Structures, Ceramic and Carbon Matrix Composites, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Coating Technology, Simulation and Characterization. Articles relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Friction characteristics of hardfacing materials in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Syotaro; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Kohichi; Atsumo, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    Friction and self-welding test were conducted on several materials used for the contacting and sliding components of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. In the present study, the friction and self-welding characteristics of each material were evaluated through measuring the kinetic and breakaway friction coefficients. The influence of oscillating rotation and vertical reciprocating motion on the friction mode was also investigated. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Colmonoy No.6, the nickel base hardfacing alloy, indicated the lowest kinetic friction coefficient of all the materials in the present study. Also, Cr 3 C 2 /Ni-Cr material prepared by a detonation gun showed the most stable friction behavior. (2) The breakaway friction coefficient of each material was dependent upon dwelling time in a sodium environment. (3) The friction behavior of Cr 3 C 2 /Ni-Cr material was obviously related with the finishing roughness of the friction surface. It was anticipated that nichrome material as the binder of the chrome carbide diffused and exuded to the friction surface by sliding in sodium. (4) The friction coefficient in sliding mode of vertical reciprocating was lower than that of oscillating rotation. (author)

  2. Evaluation of MHD materials for use in high-temperature fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.

    1978-06-15

    The MHD and high-temperature fuel cell literature was surveyed for data pertaining to materials properties in order to identify materials used in MHD power generation which also might be suitable for component use in high-temperature fuel cells. Classes of MHD-electrode materials evaluated include carbides, nitrides, silicides, borides, composites, and oxides. Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/ used as a reference point to evaluate materials for use in the solid-oxide fuel cell. Physical and chemical properties such as electrical resistivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and thermodynamic stability toward oxidation were used to screen candidate materials. A number of the non-oxide ceramic MHD-electrode materials appear promising for use in the solid-electrolyte and molten-carbonate fuel cell as anodes or anode constituents. The MHD-insulator materials appear suitable candidates for electrolyte-support tiles in the molten-carbonate fuel cells. The merits and possible problem areas for these applications are discussed and additional needed areas of research are delineated.

  3. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy of High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Software and hardware updates to further extend the capability of the electron microscope were carried out. A range of materials such as intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, ceramic-matrix composites, ceramics and intermetallic compounds, based on refractory elements were examined under this research. Crystal structure, size, shape and volume fraction distribution of various phases which constitute the microstructures were examined. Deformed materials were studied to understand the effect of interfacial microstructure on the deformation and fracture behavior of these materials. Specimens tested for a range of mechanical property requirements, such as stress rupture, creep, low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, etc. were examined. Microstructural and microchemical stability of these materials exposed to simulated operating environments were investigated. The EOIM Shuttle post-flight samples were also examined to understand the influence of low gravity processing on microstructure. In addition, fractographic analyses of Nb-Zr-W, titanium aluminide, molybdenum silicide and silicon carbide samples were carried out. Extensive characterization of sapphire fibers in the fiber-reinforced composites made by powder cloth processing was made. Finally, pressure infiltration casting of metal-matrix composites was carried out.

  4. WS2 as an excellent high-temperature thermoelectric material

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala

    2014-11-25

    The potential of WS2 as a thermoelectric material is assessed. The electronic contribution to the thermoelectric properties is calculated within the constant relaxation time approximation from the electronic band structure, whereas the lattice contribution is evaluated using self-consistently calculated phonon lifetimes. In addition, the dependence of the lattice thermal conductivity on the mean free path of the phonons is determined.

  5. Material problems in high temperature corrosive environments and their solution by surface technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Toshio; Shibata, Keiichi

    1992-01-01

    The materials for high temperature facilities are usually determined by the heat resistant strength except special corrosive environment. High temperature corrosion has been considered in the case of using low quality fuel which is avoided recently. Even though fuel is clean, high temperature corrosion occurs due to the rise of design temperature and the intake of sea salt particles. There is also one more high temperature corrosion problem on process side that consumes heat energy. The research on high temperature corrosion is important for realizing new energy system such as molten carbonate type fuel cell, pulverized coal-firing supercritical power generation and high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor. In this report, the examples experienced actually in a chemical plant are examined, and the possibility of material technology against high temperature corrosion is reviewed. Corrosion phenomena in high temperature environment, the examples of corrosion in the high temperature facilities in a chemical plant and the material technology as the countermeasures for corrosion prevention are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Production of advanced materials by methods of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavadze, Giorgi F

    2013-01-01

    This translation from the original Russian book outlines the production of a variety of materials by methods of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The types of materials discussed include: hard, refractory, corrosion and wear-resistant materials, as well as other advanced and speciality materials. The authors address the issue of optimal parameters for SHS reactions occurring during processes involving a preliminary metallothermic reduction stage, and they calculate this using thermodynamic approaches. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this approach, the authors describe experiments focussing on the synthesis of elemental crysalline boron, boron carbides and nitrides. Other parts of this brief include theoretical and experimental results on single-stage production of hard alloys on the basis of titanium and zirconium borides, as well as macrokinetics of degassing and compaciton of SHS-products.This brief is suitable for academics, as well as those working in industrial manufacturing com...

  7. Anharmonic Materials and Thermoelasticity at High Temperatures and Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    For large-scale constitutive strength models, the shear modulus is typically assumed to be linearly dependent on temperature. However, for materials compressed along or beyond the Hugoniot into high pressure and temperature regimes where there is no experimental measurement or very little, accurate and validated models must be used. To this end, we have investigated and compared, as a function of temperature (Steinberg-Guinan strength model. These results give an indication that anharmonic effects are negligible in tantalum but not in molybdenum for high pressures and temperatures up to melt. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  8. High temperature corrosion of separator materials for MCFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Tanimoto, Kazumi; Kojima, Toshikatsu [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is one of promising high efficiency power generation devices with low emission. Molten carbonate used for its electrolyte plays an important role in MCFC. It separates between anode and cathode gas environment and provides ionic conductivity on MCFC operation. Stainless steel is conventionally used as separator/current collector materials in MCFC cathode environment. As corrosion of the components of MCFC caused by the electrolyte proceeds with the electrolyte consumption, the corrosion in the MCFC is related to its performance and life. To understand and inhibit the corrosion in the MCFC is important to realize MCFC power generation system. We have studied the effect of alkaline earth carbonate addition into carbonate on corrosion of type 316L stainless steel. In this paper, we describe the effect of the temperature on corrosion behavior of type 316L stainless steel with carbonate mixture, (Li{sub 0.62}K{sub 0.38}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, under the cathode environment in out-of-cell test.

  9. High temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  10. High temperature corrosion of superheater materials for power production through biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthjaelp, K.; Broendsted, P. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Jansen, P. [FORCE Institute (Denmark); Montgomery, M.; Nielsen, K.; Maahn, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Corrosion and Surface Techn. Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering (Denmark)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures of selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sanvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo), investigated at 600 deg. C in time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200 ppm) and of SO{sub 2} (300 ppm) on the corrosion progress has been investigated. In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525 deg. C, 600 deg. C, and 700 deg. C. The ashes utilised are from a straw fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different analysis techniques to characterise the composition of the ash coatings have been investigated in order to judge the reliability and accuracy of the SEM-EDX method. The results are considered as an important step towards a better understanding of the high temperature corrosion under the conditions found in biomass fired power plants. One of the problems to solve in a suggested subsequent project is to combine the effect of the aggressive gases (SO{sub 2} and HCl) and the active ash coatings on high temperature corrosion of materials. (EG) 20 refs.

  11. Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titran, R.H.; Stephens, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72, and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper presents results of research that led to this conclusion

  12. Stress and Damage in Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Due to Material Degradation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Hugh L.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods for calculating stresses and damage caused by degradation of the matrix constituent in polymer matrix composite materials. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. The model is incorporated into an existing composite mechanics computer code. Stresses, strains, and deformations at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are calculated, and from these calculations it is determined if there is failure of any kind. The rationale for the model (based on published experimental work) is presented, its integration into the laminate analysis code is outlined, and example results are given, with comparisons to existing material and structural data. The mechanisms behind the changes in properties and in surface cracking during long-term aging of polyimide matrix composites are clarified. High-temperature-material test methods are also evaluated.

  13. Ten years of high temperature materials research at PSI - An overview paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchon, Manuel A.; Chen Jiachao

    2014-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute high temperature materials research for advanced nuclear systems is performed since a decade, formerly by the HT-Mat group and today the advanced nuclear materials (ANM) group. In this paper the activities being conducted in this time are summarized. This includes the study of three major materials classes, intermetallics with a titanium alluminide, nanostructured steel with different ODS candidates, and ceramics with silicon carbide composites. The studies being performed include experimental work, studying the mechanical behavior as function of irradiation exposure and temperature, including also in situ studies such as the creep under ion beam irradiation plus miniaturized samples such as pillars. The microstructure changes as function of these exposures, using electron microscopy on one hand and advanced beamline techniques on the other hand. Part of the finding lead to the development of new damage mechanism models. Complementary to the experimental approach, modelling activities were conducted to understand the basics of the damage mechanisms. The research lead to a consolidation of the candidate materials to the most promising ones, namely the oxide dispersion strengthened steels (ODS) and the silicon carbide based composite materials. The research lead to new, relevant data such as the creep behavior of material under extreme reactor conditions, the embitterment mechanism in advanced materials, and much more. A sketch of the research philosophy and an outline of the main results will be given. (author)

  14. Study on high temperature design methodology of heat-resistant materials for GEN-IV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. W.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, J. H.; Park, D. G.; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Hing, J. H

    2005-08-15

    Analysis of the existing high temperature design and assessment codes such as US(ASME-NH,Draft Code Case for Alloy 617), France(RCC-MR), UK(R5), Japan(BDS/DDS/FDS) for Gen IV reactor structure has been carried out. In addition the scope and fields for research and development is needed in the future have been defined. For assessing the high temperature creep cracks, time dependent fracture mechanics (TDFM) parameters of the C and Ct were analyzed. The creep propagation data were obtained from the creep crack growth tests for type 316LN stainless steels, and creep crack growth testing machine for Gen-IV system up to 950 .deg. C was set up. Damage mechanism and causes for creep-fatigue were investigated. The difference between prediction creep-fatigue life and experimental life were investigated. Material properties for analysis creep-fatigue damage were recommended. The assessment procedure (Draft) on creep-fatigue crack initiation has been developed based on the technical appendix A16 of French RCC-MR code. Ultrasonic wave signal against creep ruptured specimens of type 316LN stainless steel was obtained. It was identified that creep damage can be evaluated by ultrasonic method. The NDT techniques evaluated include Barkhausen noise, magnetic hysteresis parameters, positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering. Experimental procedure and evaluation method of material integrity were developed through the fracture toughness test of Cr-Mo steel.

  15. High-Temperature Material Lattice Combining Low Thermal Expansion, High Stiffness and Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    material with superior properties for the high-temperature 14 applications. Nickel- cobalt superalloys exhibit high strength and good creep resistance at...nickel- cobalt alloys showing yield strength vs temperature……30 Figure 10: Comparison chart of nickel- cobalt alloys showing coefficient of thermal...structures that experience high-temperatures reaching 1000oC that use niobium for the low thermal expansion constituent and a nickel- cobalt alloy for

  16. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  17. Recent Progress in Nanostructured Oxide TE Materials for Power Generation at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Linderoth, Søren

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials, which can convert waste heat into electricity, could play an important role in a global sustainable energy solution and environmental problems. Metal oxides have been considered as potential TE materials for power generation that can operate at high temperatures...

  18. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion crack

  19. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  20. Electronic and magnetic interactions in high temperature superconducting and high coercivity materials. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    The issue addressed in the research was how to understand what controls the competition between two types of phase transition (ordering) which may be present in a hybridizing correlated-electron system containing two transition-shell atomic species; and how the variation of behavior observed can be used to understand the mechanisms giving the observed ordered state. This is significant for understanding mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity and other states of highly correlated electron systems. Thus the research pertains to magnetic effects as related to interactions giving high temperature superconductivity; where the working hypothesis is that the essential feature governing the magnetic and superconducting behavior of copper-oxide-type systems is a cooperative valence fluctuation mechanism involving the copper ions, as mediated through hybridization effects dominated by the oxygen p electrons. (Substitution of praseodymium at the rare earth sites in the 1·2·3 material provides an interesting illustration of this mechanism since experimentally such substitution strongly suppresses and destroys the superconductivity; and, at 100% Pr, gives Pr f-electron magnetic ordering at a temperature above 16K). The research was theoretical and computational and involved use of techniques aimed at correlated-electron systems that can be described within the confines of model hamiltonians such as the Anderson lattice hamiltonian. Specific techniques used included slave boson methodology used to treat modification of electronic structure and the Mori projection operator (memory function) method used to treat magnetic response (dynamic susceptibility)

  1. Mechanical properties of structural materials for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. W.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, W. G.; Yoon, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    Structural materials for high temperature gas cooled reactor should have good properties such as mechanical properties (tensile, creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue), microstructural stability, interaction between metal and gas, friction and wear, hydrogen and tritium permeation, irradiation behavior, corrosion by impurity in He. Mechanical properties of major structural materials, such as pressure vessel, heat exchanger, control rod, were investigated. Effect of He and irradiation on these structural materials were investigated

  2. Materials and characterization techniques for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeis, Roswitha

    2015-01-01

    The performance of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFC) is critically dependent on the selection of materials and optimization of individual components. A conventional high-temperature membrane electrode assembly (HT-MEA) primarily consists of a polybenzimidazole (PBI)-type membrane containing phosphoric acid and two gas diffusion electrodes (GDE), the anode and the cathode, attached to the two surfaces of the membrane. This review article provides a survey on the materials implemented in state-of-the-art HT-MEAs. These materials must meet extremely demanding requirements because of the severe operating conditions of HT-PEMFCs. They need to be electrochemically and thermally stable in highly acidic environment. The polymer membranes should exhibit high proton conductivity in low-hydration and even anhydrous states. Of special concern for phosphoric-acid-doped PBI-type membranes is the acid loss and management during operation. The slow oxygen reduction reaction in HT-PEMFCs remains a challenge. Phosphoric acid tends to adsorb onto the surface of the platinum catalyst and therefore hampers the reaction kinetics. Additionally, the binder material plays a key role in regulating the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the catalyst layer. Subsequently, the binder controls the electrode-membrane interface that establishes the triple phase boundary between proton conductive electrolyte, electron conductive catalyst, and reactant gases. Moreover, the elevated operating temperatures promote carbon corrosion and therefore degrade the integrity of the catalyst support. These are only some examples how materials properties affect the stability and performance of HT-PEMFCs. For this reason, materials characterization techniques for HT-PEMFCs, either in situ or ex situ, are highly beneficial. Significant progress has recently been made in this field, which enables us to gain a better understanding of underlying processes occurring during fuel cell

  3. Neutron scattering study on iron based high-temperature superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Wei

    2011-01-01

    Our neutron scattering investigation on high-temperature Fe-based superconductor materials in the past three years is briefly reviewed. The sample composition, crystal structure, antiferromagnetic structure, structural and magnetic transition, phonon and magnetic excitations are determined. Some conclusions on microscopic physics process and physics mechanism can be drawn. (authors)

  4. Cyclic Plastic Response and Damage in Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Obrtlík, Karel; Petrenec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2014), s. 601-607 ISSN 0039-2316 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fatigue damage * cyclic plastic * high temperature * crack initiation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.376, year: 2014

  5. High-temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  6. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1987-08-27

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO/sub 3/ + RCHO ..-->.. Ag/sup 0/ + RCOOH and R/sub 3/M ..-->.. M/sup 0/ + 3R, where M = Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high- temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R/sub 3/M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone. 3 tabs.

  7. High Temperature Corrosion of Superheater Materials for Power Production through Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Nielsen, Karsten agersted

    plant boiler. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sandvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo)investigated at 600Cin time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200ppm) and of SO2 (300 ppm......The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures on selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. An experimental......) on the corrosion progress has been investigated.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525C, 600C and 700C. The ashes utilised are from a straw-fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed...

  8. Polymer-based composite material yield point identification in the conditions of high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артем Сергійович Арустамян

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and practical research of temperature influence on mechanical characteristics of the composite material «Multimetal Stahl 1018» («MM Stahl 1018» have been conducted. Both the laboratory equipment used to measure the mechanical properties, the technique of material preparation and the experimental procedure were described. The compressive tests were carried out on Zwick Roell Amsler HB 100, that can approximate the experiment to real conditions, as it has a special heat chamber in which the samples were heated up to 20°C, 40°C, 60°C and 80°C. The samples were subjected to the load of 15kN, 30KN to complete failure. The experimental values of conventional yield limit of «MM Stahl 1018» samples of various thicknesses for high temperatures have been got. On the strength of this experiment when repairing machinery and parts operating at high temperatures, it is recommended to use the material layer of no more than two millimeters and apply a little loaded nodes. The analysis of the results of the experiments showed that temperature increasing, the yield strength of the material decreases. The «MM Stahl 1018» basing on the best polymers that almost do not shrink at hardening, has good chemical resistance. The powders - fillers include high quality stainless steel, ceramics and additives for improving the surface tension and chemical resistance. Due to its perfect viscous consistency «MM Stahl 1018» can be easily applied with a spatula on wedges breechblocks or bridge supports and is evenly distributed in all directions at assembling. Thanks to «MM Stahl 1018» good forming properties the units may be fitted on the spot with the accuracy of 1/100 mm that is of 100% accuracy, no additional fitting is required, i.e., traditional fitting of wedges breechblocks and piers to the lower zone of the bridge. At assembling a bridge support must be adjusted in the final position with 100% accuracy. This material can work in real

  9. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim

  10. Cyanate Ester-Based Encapsulation Material for High-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Rong, Eric Phua Jian; Lip, Gan Chee; Daniel, Rhee Min Woo

    2013-09-01

    Cyanate ester resin-based composite materials have been proposed as potential encapsulants for high-temperature applications. The objective of this study is to develop a cyanate ester-based encapsulant, which can also serve as a flip-chip underfill as well as for traditional encapsulation. Two different materials, quartz and alumina fillers, have been studied. The impact of shapes and sizes of the fillers on the overall thermomechanical properties has been investigated. The adhesion strengths of the materials to the ceramic substrate, Kovar lid, and silicon die have also been characterized. The modulus of the resin and the shape of the fillers play a pivotal role in minimizing thermal stress, generated by coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches. Smaller filler particles were found to have better adhesion to the cyanate ester resin. The high-temperature performance of the cyanate ester-based encapsulants was evaluated by thermal aging at 300°C for up to 500 h.

  11. Analysis and description of high temperature alloy data and their representation in the high temperature materials data bank of the Joint Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krefeld, R.; Kroeckel, H.; Fattori, G.; Maurandy, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the frame of the high temperature materials programme the JRC has set up a pilot data bank for mechanical and corrosion properties of materials for high temperature application in energy conversion and chemical systems. The scope of the data bank content embraces mechanical properties and corrosion tests with emphasis on 600 to 1000 0 C test temperature and C-O-H type test environments. The basic information on materials properties obtained by test is analysed and the data items and their structure are described. The logical structure of the 250 data items involved and their organization in the data bank by file and record using ADABAS dbms is presented. The design is discussed with respect to its adaptability to changes in the scope of data content and to its versatile data access resulting in easy handling of complex structured queries which represent the interest of materials scientists and engineers as well as those of non-specialist users. (orig.)

  12. New techniques for high-temperature melting measurements in volatile refractory materials via laser surface heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, D; Sheindlin, M; Heinz, W; Ronchi, C

    2008-11-01

    An original technique for the measurement of high-temperature phase transitions was implemented based on a laser-heating method, enabling chemically unstable, refractory materials to be melted under controlled conditions. This technique includes two independent but correlated methods: In the first, fast multichannel pyrometry is employed to measure thermograms and spectral emissivity; in the second, a low-power probe laser beam is used for the detection of reflectivity changes induced by phase transitions on the sample surface. The experiments are carried out under medium ( approximately 10(2) kPa) or high ( approximately 10(2) MPa) inert-gas pressures in order to kinetically suppress evaporation in volatile or chemically instable samples. Two models for the simulation of the laser-heating pulses are as well introduced. Some results are presented about the successful application of this technique to the study of the melting behavior of oxides such as UO(2+x), ZrO(2), and their mixed oxides. The method can be extended to a broad class of refractory materials.

  13. State of art report for high temperature wear test of SMART MCP and CEDM bearing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Hu; Lee, Jae Seon; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Jong In

    2000-03-01

    Wear resistance properties of machine elements has been more critical in view of its significant effect on life extension, economics and material saving because it has been recognized that nearly 80 percent of damages of mechanical elements in the friction pairs are due to the material loss by wear. And wear properties have direct influence on the life of a machine in a great extend under extremely severe operating condition. Therefore highly improved wear properties of machine elements operating in such circumstances is heavily required. The purpose of this report is to survey current technology for high temperature wear test in order to establish the test plan for the life evaluation of SMART MCP and CEDM bearing materials. Friction and wear test will be done under high pressure (170 MPa) and high temperature (350 degree C) with water as lubricant to simulate the operating condition of the nuclear power reactor. Because pump type for MCP is selected as the caned motor pump which needs no mechanical sealing, the rotating shaft on which bearing is fully submerged by main coolant with high temperature. So MCP bearing operates without additional lubricant. CEDM is adopted as the ball-screw type with fine controllability. So the driving part is designed as the immersed-in type by main coolant. Therefore the anti-wear and reliability of driving parts are much consequent to guarantee the lifetime and the safety of the whole system. Tribometer adapted to high temperature and pressure circumstance is needed to execute bearing material testing. Test parameters are material, sliding speed, sliding distance and applied load. In order to identify the wear mechanism, optical microscope and surface roughness testers are required. The result of this report will provide an elementary data to develop bearing materials and to estimate bearing lifetime for the bearings of MCP and CEDM in SMART. (author)

  14. Material test machine for tension-compression tests at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Olisse C.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus providing a device for testing the properties of material specimens at high temperatures and pressures in controlled water chemistries includes, inter alia, an autoclave housing the specimen which is being tested. The specimen is connected to a pull rod which couples out of the autoclave to an external assembly which includes one or more transducers, a force balance chamber and a piston type actuator. The pull rod feeds through the force balance chamber and is compensated thereby for the pressure conditions existing within the autoclave and tending to eject the pull rod therefrom. The upper end of the push rod is connected to the actuator through elements containing a transducer comprising a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The housing and coil assembly of the LVDT is coupled to a tube which runs through a central bore of the pull rod into the autoclave where it is connected to one side of the specimen. The movable core of the LVDT is coupled to a stem which runs through the tube where it is then connected to the other side of the specimen through a coupling member. A transducer in the form of a load cell including one or more strain gages is located on a necked-down portion of the upper part of the pull rod intermediate the LVDT and force balance chamber.

  15. High Temperature Joining and Characterization of Joint Properties in Silicon Carbide-Based Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Advanced silicon carbide-based ceramics and composites are being developed for a wide variety of high temperature extreme environment applications. Robust high temperature joining and integration technologies are enabling for the fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped components. The development of a new joining approach called SET (Single-step Elevated Temperature) joining will be described along with the overview of previously developed joining approaches including high temperature brazing, ARCJoinT (Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology), diffusion bonding, and REABOND (Refractory Eutectic Assisted Bonding). Unlike other approaches, SET joining does not have any lower temperature phases and will therefore have a use temperature above 1315C. Optimization of the composition for full conversion to silicon carbide will be discussed. The goal is to find a composition with no remaining carbon or free silicon. Green tape interlayers were developed for joining. Microstructural analysis and preliminary mechanical tests of the joints will be presented.

  16. Heat treated 9 Cr-1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-08-21

    The invention relates to a composition and heat treatment for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The novel combination of composition and heat treatment produces a heat treated material containing both large primary titanium carbides and small secondary titanium carbides. The primary titanium carbides contribute to creep strength while the secondary titanium carbides act to maintain a higher level of chromium in the finished steel for increased oxidation resistance, and strengthen the steel by impeding the movement of dislocations through the crystal structure. The heat treated material provides improved performance at comparable cost to commonly used high-temperature steels such as ASTM P91 and ASTM P92, and requires heat treatment consisting solely of austenization, rapid cooling, tempering, and final cooling, avoiding the need for any hot-working in the austenite temperature range.

  17. An integrated approach to selecting materials for fuel cladding in advanced high-temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangacharyulu, C., E-mail: chary.r@usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Guzonas, D.A.; Pencer, J.; Nava-Dominguez, A.; Leung, L.K.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    An integrated approach has been developed for selection of fuel cladding materials for advanced high-temperature reactors. Reactor physics, thermalhydraulic and material analyses are being integrated in a systematic study comparing various candidate fuel-cladding alloys. The analyses established the axial and radial neutron fluxes, power distributions, axial and radial temperature distributions, rates of defect formation and helium production using AECL analytical toolsets and experimentally measured corrosion rates to optimize the material composition for fuel cladding. The project has just been initiated at University of Saskatchewan. Some preliminary results of the analyses are presented together with the path forward for the project. (author)

  18. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Spannhake, Jan; Schulz, Olaf; Helwig, Andreas; Krenkow, Angelika; M?ller, Gerhard; Doll, Theodor

    2006-01-01

    Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumption and high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report on investigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based infrared (IR) emitter devices heated by employing different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our results clearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semicon...

  19. Static and Dynamic Friction Behavior of Candidate High Temperature Airframe Seal Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, C.; Lukaszewicz, V.; Morris, D. E.; Steinetz, B. M.

    1994-01-01

    The following report describes a series of research tests to evaluate candidate high temperature materials for static to moderately dynamic hypersonic airframe seals. Pin-on-disk reciprocating sliding tests were conducted from 25 to 843 C in air and hydrogen containing inert atmospheres. Friction, both dynamic and static, was monitored and serves as the primary test measurement. In general, soft coatings lead to excessive static friction and temperature affected friction in air environments only.

  20. Thermo-Mechanical and Thermal behavior of High-Temperature Structural Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-31

    Thermomechanical Behavior of High-Temperature Materials. J. of Thermal Insulation (in press). 48. M. Bucknam, L. D. Bentsen and D. P. H. Hasselman, "The...alloying elements on the heat conduction behavior N ,of refractory oxides. Recently a method which produces a more uniform distribution of the alloying...could exhibit anisotropic behavior . In order to assure a valid comparison of the data, the cores from the refractory samples provided by manufacturer

  1. METHODS AND TECHNIQUE FOR THERMOPOWER AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Burkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The principles and methods of thermopower and electrical conductivity measurements at high temperatures (100 – 1000 K are reviewed. These two properties define the so-called power factor of thermoelect ric materials. Moreover, in combination with thermal conductivity they give the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion. In spite of a principal obtained by different groups and hinders a realistic estimate of the potential thermoelectric efficiency of new materials. The lack of a commonly accepted reference material for thermopower exaggerates the problem. Therefore, it is very important to have a clear understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the measuring methods and set-ups. The review article deals with the definitions of the thermoelectric parameters and principles of their experimental determination. The metrological characteristics of the state-of-the-art experimental set-ups for high temperature measurements are analyzed. simplicity of the measurement methods of these properties, their practical realization is rather complicated, especially at high temperatures. This leads to large uncertainties in determination of the properties, complicates comparison of the results

  2. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Thirteenth Annual Report: October 1999 Through September 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, AE

    2001-11-07

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 86 new projects and developing 50 new user agreements. The table on the following page presents the breakdown of these statistics. The figure on page 2 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You may note that our total number of proposals is nearing 1000, and we expect to achieve this number in our first proposal review meeting of FY 2001. The large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. A list of proposals to the HTML follows this section; at the end of the report, we present a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are discussed in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, the completion of a formal Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP), and finalization of a purchase agreement with JEOL for a new-generation electron microscope.

  3. Anisotropic deformation of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, R. W. L.

    2013-09-01

    Zr-2.5Nb alloy is used for the pressure tubes in CANDU® reactor fuel channels. In reactor, the pressure tube normally operates at 300 °C and experiences a primary coolant fluid internal pressure of approximately 10 MPa. Manufacturing and processing procedures generate an anisotropic state in the pressure tube which makes the tube stronger in the hoop (transverse) direction than in the axial (longitudinal) direction. This anisotropy condition is present for temperatures less than 500 °C. During postulated accident conditions where the material temperature could reach 1000 °C, it might be assumed that the high temperature and subsequent phase change would reduce the inherent anisotropy, and thus affect the deformation behaviour (ballooning) of the pressure tube. From constant-load, rapid-temperature-ramp, uniaxial deformation tests, the deformation rate in the longitudinal direction of the tube behaves differently than the deformation rate in the transverse direction of the tube. This anisotropic mechanical behaviour appears to persist at temperatures up to 1000 °C. This paper presents the results of high-temperature deformation tests using longitudinal and transverse specimens taken from as-received Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes. It is shown that the anisotropic deformation behaviour observed at high temperatures is largely due to the stable crystallographic texture of the α-Zr phase constituent in the material that was previously observed by neutron diffraction measurements during heating at temperatures up to 1050 °C. The deformation behaviour is also influenced by the phase transformation occurring at high temperatures during heating. The effects of texture and phase transformation on the anisotropic deformation of as-received Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material are discussed in the context of the tube ballooning behaviour. Because of the high temperatures in postulated accident scenarios, any irradiation damage will be annealed from the pressure tube material and

  4. Thermocyclic stability of candidate Seebeck coefficient standard reference materials at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joshua; Wong-Ng, Winnie; Caillat, Thierry; Yonenaga, I.; Green, Martin L.

    2014-05-01

    The Seebeck coefficient is the most widely measured property specific to thermoelectric materials. There is currently no consensus on measurement protocols, and researchers employ a variety of techniques to measure the Seebeck coefficient. The implementation of standardized measurement protocols and the use of reliable Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Materials (SRMs®) will allow the accurate interlaboratory comparison and validation of materials data, thereby accelerating the development and commercialization of more efficient thermoelectric materials and devices. To enable members of the thermoelectric materials community the means to calibrate Seebeck coefficient measurement equipment, NIST certified SRM® 3451 "Low Temperature Seebeck Coefficient Standard (10 K to 390 K)". Due to different practical requirements in instrumentation, sample contact methodology, and thermal stability, a complementary SRM® is required for the high temperature regime (300 K to 900 K). The principal requirement of a SRM® for the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature is thermocyclic stability. We therefore characterized the thermocyclic behavior of the Seebeck coefficient for a series of candidate materials: constantan, p-type single crystal SiGe, and p-type polycrystalline SiGe, by measuring the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of 10 sequential thermal cycles, between 300 K and 900 K. We employed multiple regression analysis to interpolate and analyze the thermocyclic variability in the measurement curves.

  5. Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Cowie; Edwin F. Brush, Jr.; Dale T. Peters; Stephen P. Midson; Darryl J. Van Son

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the study, Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency, was to support the Copper Development Association (CDA) in its effort to design, fabricate and demonstrate mold technologies designed to withstand the copper motor rotor die casting environment for an economically acceptable life. The anticipated result from the compiled data and tests were to: (1) identify materials suitable for die casting copper, (2) fabricate motor rotor molds and (3) supply copper rotor motors for testing in actual compressor systems. Compressor manufacturers can apply the results to assess the technical and economical viability of copper rotor motors.

  6. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Doll

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumptionand high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report oninvestigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI based infrared (IR emitter devices heated byemploying different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our resultsclearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semiconductor over metallicheater materials. Long-term stable emitter operation in the vicinity of 1300 K could beattained using heavily antimony-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Sb heater elements.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic high-temperature materials. Research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughrabi, H.; Gottstein, G.; Mecking, H.; Riedel, H.; Toboloski, J.

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 38 lectures of research studies performed in the course of the Priority Programme 'Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Metallic High-Temperature Materials' supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) over a period of six years from 1991 to 1997. The four materials selected were: 1. light metal PM-aluminium and titanium base alloys; 2. ferritic chromium and austenitic alloy 800 steels; 3. (monocrystalline) nickel-base superalloys; and 4. nickel- and iron-base oxide-dispersion-strengthened superalloys. All papers have been abstracted separately for the ENERGY database

  8. High temperature superconducting material: Bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development, fabrication, and analysis of a high temperature superconducting material based on bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper-oxides (Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O). Topics include the physical properties, structural and compositional analysis, magnetic field and pressure effects, and noble metal dopings of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O based systems. The highest transition temperature recorded to date for this material was 120 degrees Kelvin. Fabrication methods and properties of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O films and ceramics are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

  10. Survey report on high temperature irradiation experiment programs for new ceramic materials in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor). 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    A survey research on status of research activities on new ceramic materials in Japan was carried out under contract between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Atomic Energy Society of Japan. The purpose of the survey is to provide information to prioritize prospective experiments and tests in the HTTR. The HTTR as a high temperature gas cooled reactor has a unique and superior capability to irradiate large-volumed specimen at high temperature up to approximately 800degC. The survey was focused on mainly the activities of functional ceramics and heat resisting ceramics as a kind of structural ceramics. As the result, the report recommends that the irradiation experiment of functional ceramics is feasible to date. (K. Itami)

  11. Gas seal for installations for high-temperature treatment of carbon fibre materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherednichenko, P.I.; Kosenok, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A gas seal was developed in which the inlet and outlet openings of furnaces for high-temperature treatment of carbon fibre materials are hermetically sealed not only due to the energy of the jet but also due to directed eddy gas flows. A blocking effect is obtained in the seal with excess pressure of the gases in the working chamber of 100-200 Pa and a gas flow rate no greater than 1 m{sup 3}/h. The seal is distinguished by simplicity of construction, is compact, reliable, and easy to service.

  12. Evaluation of the high-temperature materials programme of the Joint Research Centre (1980-85)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenny, R.J.E.; Boehm, H.; Gellings, P.J.; Gobin, P.; Lanzavecchia, G.; Nicholaides, C.

    1986-01-01

    This report covers the findings of the external panel of experts set up to evaluate the results of the Community's programme in the field of high-temperature materials (1980-85), carried out at the Petten establishment of the Joint Research Centre. The evaluation covers the quality and relevance of the research, the usefulness of the results and the role played by the JRC in this field at the European level. The report describes and gives comments on the content, structure and management of the five projects constituting the current programme, outlines the methods and procedures used during the evaluation and gives a number of recommendations pertinent to future activities

  13. Effect of high temperatures on cement composite materials in concrete structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bodnárová, L.; Válek, J.; Sitek, Libor; Foldyna, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 173-180 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA ČR GAP104/12/1988 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high temperature * load resistance * concrete * reinforcing of mine works * fiber reinforcement Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_06_Bodnirovi_173-180.pdf

  14. Creep-fatigue of High Temperature Materials for VHTR: Effect of Cyclic Loading and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celine Cabet; L. Carroll; R. Wright; R. Madland

    2011-05-01

    Alloy 617 is the one of the leading candidate materials for Intermediate Heat eXchangers (IHX) of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). System start-ups and shut-downs as well as power transients will produce low cycle fatigue (LCF) loadings of components. Furthermore, the anticipated IHX operating temperature, up to 950°C, is in the range of creep so that creep-fatigue interaction, which can significantly increase the fatigue crack growth, may be one of the primary IHX damage modes. To address the needs for Alloy 617 codification and licensing, a significant creep-fatigue testing program is underway at Idaho National Laboratory. Strain controlled LCF tests including hold times up to 1800s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at total strain range of 0.3% and 0.6% in air at 950°C. Creep-fatigue testing was also performed in a simulated VHTR impure helium coolant for selected experimental conditions. The creep-fatigue tests resulted in failure times up to 1000 hrs. Fatigue resistance was significantly decreased when a hold time was added at peak stress and when the total strain was increased. The fracture mode also changed from transgranular to intergranular with introduction of a tensile hold. Changes in the microstructure were methodically characterized. A combined effect of temperature, cyclic and static loading and environment was evidenced in the targeted operating conditions of the IHX. This paper This paper reviews the data previously published by Carroll and co-workers in references 10 and 11 focusing on the role of inelastic strain accumulation and of oxidation in the initiation and propagation of surface fatigue cracks.

  15. Evaluation on materials performance of Hastelloy Alloy XR for the High Temperature Engineering Test reactor components. Weldability and high temperature strength properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Shindo, Masami; Nakajima, Hajime

    1996-01-01

    Weldability and high temperature strength properties of Hastelloy Alloy XR were investigated in order to evaluate the materials performance of base metal and filler metal for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) uses. The weldability was examined by means of the chemical analysis in the deposited metals, optical microscopy, FISCO test, hardness measurements and bend test. The high temperature strength properties were investigated through tensile tests at R.T., 800, 900 and 950degC in air, and creep and creep rupture tests at 900 and 950degC in air. The results obtained by each test showed favorable performance. In particular, the bend test which is considered to be critical pass demonstrated low susceptibility to weld cracking through the optimization of B and C contents in the filler metal and by narrowing the groove. Creep rupture strength was nearly equal or higher than those of Hastelloy Alloy XR master curve and was much higher than design creep rupture strength [SR]. Therefore, it is concluded that weldability, tensile and creep properties with these base metals and filler metals for the HTTR components are entirely satisfactory. (author)

  16. Real-time measurement of materials properties at high temperatures by laser produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong W.

    1990-01-01

    Determination of elemental composition and thermophysical properties of materials at high temperatures, as visualized in the context of containerless materials processing in a microgravity environment, presents a variety of unusual requirements owing to the thermal hazards and interferences from electromagnetic control fields. In addition, such information is intended for process control applications and thus the measurements must be real time in nature. A new technique is described which was developed for real time, in-situ determination of the elemental composition of molten metallic alloys such as specialty steel. The technique is based on time-resolved spectroscopy of a laser produced plasma (LPP) plume resulting from the interaction of a giant laser pulse with a material target. The sensitivity and precision were demonstrated to be comparable to, or better than, the conventional methods of analysis which are applicable only to post-mortem specimens sampled from a molten metal pool. The LPP technique can be applied widely to other materials composition analysis applications. The LPP technique is extremely information rich and therefore provides opportunities for extracting other physical properties in addition to the materials composition. The case in point is that it is possible to determine thermophysical properties of the target materials at high temperatures by monitoring generation and transport of acoustic pulses as well as a number of other fluid-dynamic processes triggered by the LPP event. By manipulation of the scaling properties of the laser-matter interaction, many different kinds of flow events, ranging from shock waves to surface waves to flow induced instabilities, can be generated in a controllable manner. Time-resolved detection of these events can lead to such thermophysical quantities as volume and shear viscosities, thermal conductivity, specific heat, mass density, and others.

  17. Thermal diffusivity measurements of liquid materials at high temperature with the ''laser flash'' method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, Claude; Vandevelde, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Two solutions, one analytical and the other numerical are proposed to solve the thermokinetic problem encountered when measuring the thermal diffusivity of liquid materials at very high temperature (T>3123K). The liquid material is contained in a parallel faced vessel. This liquid is traversed by a short thermal pulse from a relaxed laser. The temperature response of the back face of the measurement cell is analysed. The first model proposed which does not take thermal losses into consideration, is a mathematical model derived from the ''two layer model'' (Larson and Koyama, 1968) extended to ''three layers''. In order to take the possibility of thermal losses to the external environment at high temperature into consideration, a Crank-Nicolson (1947) type numerical model utilizing finite differences is employed. These thermokinetic studies were performed in order to interpret temperature response curves obtained from the back face of a tungsten-liquid UO 2 -tungsten thermal wall, the purpose of the measurements made being to determine the thermal properties of liquid uranium oxide [fr

  18. Direct Measurements of Infrared Normal Spectral Emissivity of Solid Materials for High-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzl, S.; Kirschner, M.; Lippig, V.; Sander, T.; Mundt, Ch.; Pfitzner, M.

    2013-11-01

    A new facility for the measurement of the normal spectral emissivity of solid materials for high-temperature applications in the thermal steady state was developed at the Bundeswehr University of Munich. The measurements are performed under atmospheric conditions. The facility covers the temperature range between and and wavelengths between and . The principle of operation involves the spectral comparison of a test sample with a reference blackbody and the sample surface temperature determination with a numerical spectral ratio calculation. The optical characteristics of the blackbody and the sample surface temperature determination are discussed in detail. Furthermore, measurement results of the quasi-reference material silicon-carbide under steady-state conditions are presented to validate the measurement method.

  19. Current status of studies on high temperature metallic materials for HTGR applications in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, H.; Nakajima, H.; Kondo, T.

    1989-01-01

    Progress made in the studies on high-temperature metallic materials for HTGR applications in JAERI conducted during the last several years is reviewed, and future direction of the studies is also mentioned. The items of research activities carried out are classified into three different categories, i.e. those for the near-term target structural alloys, for the long-term target heavy duty structural alloys and for the cladding material for the neutron absorber rods. As for near-term target alloys for applications in the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), comprehensive qualification tests such as creep, fatigue, corrosion resistance and other fracture-relevant properties on Hastelloy XR which is a modified version of Hastelloy X have been carried out to accumulate the data for structural design and safety evaluation. For further improvement of the performance and optimization of the specification of Hastelloy XR, a creep resistant version with control of boron content with 40 to 70 ppm has also been developed. Significance of the impurity content in the helium environment on creep behaviour is highlighted. The development of new heavy duty Ni-Cr-W superalloys as the next generation candidates has been promoted for extended use at service temperatures up to 1,000 deg. C, the basal composition of the experimental alloys had been already specified. The investigation on the effects of minor elements such as C, Nb, Fe, Mn, Si, Ti, B and Y is underway to determine the optimized chemical composition of selected candidate alloys. For the selection of cladding materials for neutron absorber rods of HTTR, the post-irradiation tensile and creep tests have been performed, and Alloy 800H has been tested as one of the currently most realistic candidate materials. (author). 18 refs, 18 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Corrosion of structural materials and electrochemistry in high temperature water of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke

    2008-01-01

    The latest experiences with corrosion in the cooling systems of nuclear power plants are reviewed. High temperature cooling water causes corrosion of structural materials, which often leads to adverse effects in the plants, e.g., increased shutdown radiation, generation of defects in materials of major components and fuel claddings, and increased volume of radwaste sources. Corrosion behavior is greatly affected by water quality and differs according to the water quality values and the materials themselves. In order to establish reliable operation, each plant requires its own unique optimal water chemistry control based on careful consideration of its system, materials and operational history. Electrochemistry is one of the key issues that determine corrosion-related problems, but it is not the only issue. Most corrosion-related phenomena, e.g., flow accelerated corrosion (FAC), intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) and thinning of fuel cladding materials, can be understood based on an electrochemical index, e.g., the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), conductivities and pH. The most important electrochemical index, the ECP, can be measured at elevated temperature and applied to in situ sensors of corrosion conditions to detect anomalous conditions of structural materials at their very early stages. (orig.)

  1. Corrosion of structural materials and electrochemistry in high temperature water of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    The latest experiences with corrosion in the cooling systems of nuclear power plants are reviewed. High temperature cooling water causes corrosion of structural materials, which often leads to adverse effects in the plants, e.g., generating defects in materials of major components and fuel claddings, increasing shutdown radiation and increasing the volume of radwaste sources. Corrosion behaviors are much affected by water qualities and differ according to the values of water qualities and the materials themselves. In order to establish reliable operation, each plant requires its own unique optimal water chemistry control based on careful consideration of its system, materials and operational history. Electrochemistry is one of key issues that determine corrosion related problems but it is not the only issue. Most phenomena for corrosion related problems, e.g., flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC), intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) and thinning of fuel cladding materials, can be understood based on an electrochemical index, e.g., electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP), conductivities and pH. The most important electrochemical index, ECP, can be measured at elevated temperature and applied to in situ sensors of corrosion conditions to detect anomalous conditions of structural materials at their very early stages. In the paper, theoretical models based on electrochemistry to estimate wall thinning rate of carbon steel piping due to flow-accelerated corrosion and corrosive conditions determining IGSCC crack initiation and growth rate are introduced. (author)

  2. The thermodynamic database COST MP0602 for materials for high-temperature lead-free soldering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupa A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of thermodynamic modelling in the field of high-temperature lead-free soldering is presented. A consistent thermodynamic database, containing 18 elements (Ag, Al, Au, Bi, Co, Cu, Ga, Ge, Mg, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Sb, Sn, Ti and Zn has been created. The thermodynamic data for the most of the important binary and selected ternary systems were checked and included into the database. The database was tested using major commercial software packages. Such reliable and sophisticated software coupled to reliable thermodynamic databases are necessary prerequisites for application of thermodynamics in advanced alloys design.

  3. Microstructure Based Material-Sand Particulate Interactions and Assessment of Coatings for High Temperature Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Muthuvel; Ghoshal, Anindya; Walock, Michael; Nieto, Andy; Bravo, Luis; Barnett, Blake; Pepi, Marc; Swab, Jeffrey; Pegg, Robert Tyler; Rowe, Chris; hide

    2017-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for military/commercial fixed-wing and rotary wing aircraft use thermal barrier coatings in the high-temperature sections of the engine for improved efficiency and power. The desire to further make improvements in gas turbine engine efficiency and high power-density is driving the research and development of thermal barrier coatings and the effort of improving their tolerance to fine foreign particulates that may be contained in the intake air. Both commercial and military aircraft engines often are required to operate over sandy regions such as in the Middle-East nations, as well as over volcanic zones. For rotorcraft gas turbine engines, the sand ingestion is adverse during take-off, hovering near ground, and landing conditions. Although, most of the rotorcraft gas turbine engines are fitted with inlet particle separators, they are not 100 percent efficient in filtering fine sand particles of size 75 microns or below. The presence of these fine solid particles in the working fluid medium has an adverse effect on the durability of turbine blade thermal barrier coatings and overall performance of the engine. Typical turbine blade damages include blade coating wear, sand glazing, Calcia-Magnesia-Alumina-Silicate (CMAS) attack, oxidation, plugged cooling holes, all of which can cause rapid performance deterioration including loss of aircraft. The objective of this research is to understand the fine particle interactions with typical ceramic coatings of turbine blades at the microstructure level. A finite-element based microstructure modeling and analysis has been performed to investigate particle-surface interactions, and restitution characteristics. Experimentally, a set of tailored thermal barrier coatings and surface treatments were down-selected through hot burner rig tests and then applied to first stage nozzle vanes of the Gas Generator Turbine of a typical rotorcraft gas turbine engine. Laser Doppler velocity measurements were performed

  4. Investigation of deterioration mechanism of electrical ceramic insulating materials under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Ito, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Kumazawa, Ryoji; Aizawa, Rie; Moriyama, Hideshige

    2000-01-01

    It is thought that ceramic insulator can be applied to electric power equipments that are under high temperature not to be able use organic materials. Our research has suggested components of mica-alumina combined insulation. As the results of and carried out temperature accelerating test, combined insulation life is expected long term over 40 years at over 500-Celsius degrees. However to construct high reliable insulating system, it is clarified deterioration mechanism on combined insulation and evaluates life of that. Therefore we carried out metal behavior test and voltage aging test using mica-sheet and alumina-cloth that are components of combined insulation under high temperature in nitrogen gas atmosphere. It is cleared two metal behavior mechanisms: One is that the opening of insulator are filled up with copper that is oxidized, the other is the metal diffuses in alumina-cloth through surface. And distance of metal behavior is able to be estimated at modulate temperature and in modulate time. It is also cleared that alumina-cloth is deteriorated by metal behavior into alumina-cloth. These results indicate that combined insulation is deteriorated from electrode side by metal behavior and is finally broken down through alumina-cloth. (author)

  5. First demonstration report on the high temperature materials data Bank of JRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The High Temperature Materials Programme of the Joint Research Centre has among its activities a project which has the objective to develop a computerised data bank containing mechanical property data of alloys for high temperature applications. The pilot phase of this project during the multiannual programme 1980-1983 is restricted to a few alloys and properties. The present scope comprises tensile, creep and fatigue test results with emphasis on 600-1000 0 C test temperature and C-O-H environments for alloys covered by the specifications of the ''Alloy 800'' group. The data bank is now operational. This report is the first presentation of the data bank characteristics, contents and some output illustrations. It contains a descriptive part on the system and its structure and on the characteristics and quantity of the present data, and an illustrative part showing examples of data bank processed output. The selected print-outs are generated by interactive on-line searches and subsequent numerical or graphical processing in the data bank facilities at Petten and Ispra which are linked by EURONET

  6. The high-temperature vaporization/decomposition of actinide materials: fundamental and technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The unique and variable chemistry exhibited across the actinide series offers a scientifically challenging group of elements. Investigations of their high-temperature materials science and thermodynamics can provide important insights into fundamental actinide science and generate critical information for technological applications. The wide variations in the physicochemical properties and the availability of the various actinide elements necessitates special experimental techniques be employed, even when investigating a single property (e.g., the enthalpy of vaporization). Experimental approaches range can from classical to novel methods to permit studies of the rarer and the more intensely radioactive members. We have developed special equipment and techniques to investigate the high-temperature, physicochemical properties of several actinides through Md, as well as the precursor elements, radium and actinium. These experimental approaches employed both alloys and solid solutions of compounds, in addition to the pure elements themselves. The vaporization/decomposition of compounds and the sublimation of the elements, together with the associated thermodynamics, are the main issues. Results for several of the actinide elements, some of the techniques employed and systematic comparisons of the thermochemical aspects of bonding are discussed to give a fuller understanding of the series as a whole. (orig.)

  7. Facility for assessing spectral normal emittance of solid materials at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercatelli, Luca; Meucci, Marco; Sani, Elisa

    2015-10-10

    Spectral emittance is a key topic in the study of new compositions, depositions, and mechanical machining of materials for solar absorption and for renewable energies in general. The present work reports on the realization and testing of a new experimental facility for the measurement of directional spectral emittance in the range of 2.5-20 μm. Our setup provides emittance spectral information in a completely controlled environment at medium-high temperatures up to 1200 K. We describe the layout and first tests on the device, comparing the results obtained for hafnium carbide and tantalum diboride ultrarefractory ceramic samples to previous quasi-monochromatic measurements carried out in the PROMES-CNRS (PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire- Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) solar furnace, obtaining a good agreement. Finally, to assess the reliability of the widely used approach of estimating the spectral emittance from room-temperature reflectance spectrum, we compared the calculation in the 2.5-17 μm spectral range to the experimental high-temperature spectral emittance, obtaining that the spectral trend of calculated and measured curves is similar but the calculated emittance underestimates the measured value.

  8. Microencapsulation of metal-based phase change material for high-temperature thermal energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takahiro; Zhu, Chunyu; Sheng, Nan; Saito, Genki; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2015-03-13

    Latent heat storage using alloys as phase change materials (PCMs) is an attractive option for high-temperature thermal energy storage. Encapsulation of these PCMs is essential for their successful use. However, so far, technology for producing microencapsulated PCMs (MEPCMs) that can be used above 500°C has not been established. Therefore, in this study, we developed Al-Si alloy microsphere MEPCMs covered by α-Al2O3 shells. The MEPCM was prepared in two steps: (1) the formation of an AlOOH shell on the PCM particles using a boehmite treatment, and (2) heat-oxidation treatment in an O2 atmosphere to form a stable α-Al2O3 shell. The MEPCM presented a melting point of 573°C and latent heat of 247 J g(-1). The cycling performance showed good durability. These results indicated the possibility of using MEPCM at high temperatures. The MEPCM developed in this study has great promise in future energy and chemical processes, such as exergy recuperation and process intensification.

  9. Material Control and Accounting Design Considerations for High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard; John Hockert

    2011-08-01

    The subject of this report is domestic safeguards and security by design (2SBD) for high-temperature gas reactors, focusing on material control and accountability (MC&A). The motivation for the report is to provide 2SBD support to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, which was launched by Congress in 2005. This introductory section will provide some background on the NGNP project and an overview of the 2SBD concept. The remaining chapters focus specifically on design aspects of the candidate high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) relevant to MC&A, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements, and proposed MC&A approaches for the two major HTGR reactor types: pebble bed and prismatic. Of the prismatic type, two candidates are under consideration: (1) GA's GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor), and (2) the Modular High-Temperature Reactor (M-HTR), a derivative of Areva's Antares reactor. The future of the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) for NGNP is uncertain, as the PBMR consortium partners (Westinghouse, PBMR [Pty] and The Shaw Group) were unable to agree on the path forward for NGNP during 2010. However, during the technology assessment of the conceptual design phase (Phase 1) of the NGNP project, AREVA provided design information and technology assessment of their pebble bed fueled plant design called the HTR-Module concept. AREVA does not intend to pursue this design for NGNP, preferring instead a modular reactor based on the prismatic Antares concept. Since MC&A relevant design information is available for both pebble concepts, the pebble-bed HTGRs considered in this report are: (1) Westinghouse PBMR; and (2) AREVA HTR-Module. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program (FCR&D), which contains an element specifically focused on the domestic (or state) aspects of SBD. This Material Protection, Control and Accountancy Technology (MPACT) program supports the present work

  10. Characterization of novel heterophasic powdered silicide-type material for high-temperature protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentieva, V.

    2001-01-01

    Novel multicomponent heterophasic powdered material of silicide-type is presented. The powdered material is intended for forming high-temperature protective multifunction coatings able to protect different hot-loaded structural elements of aerospace industry from refractory metals alloys under severe oxidizing conditions in high-enthalpy and super/hypersonic oxygen-containing gas flows. The powdered material base on complexly composition of Si-Ti-Mo system modified with B,Y,W. Technological conception of its obtaining and powder making process are examined. The powders were worked out in accordance with early performed functional structural model of special materials for coatings with the increased self-healing ability. The coatings can be deposited from the specially prepared abovementioned powders by plasma spraying processes or any one of other coating methods ensuring the conservation of morphological peculiarities of microstructure and phase composition of powdered material (detonation spraying technique, from slurry ...). Finally the results of some properties of novel heterophasic silicidetype powders and some properties of protective coating deposited on the niobium base alloys by means of plasma spraying technique are presented. (author)

  11. Biaxial experiments supporting the development of constitutive theories for advanced high-temperature materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Complex states of stress and strain are introduced into components during service in engineering applications. It follows that analysis of such components requires material descriptions, or constitutive theories, which reflect the tensorial nature of stress and strain. For applications involving stress levels above yield, the situation is more complex in that material response is both nonlinear and history dependent. This has led to the development of viscoplastic constitutive theories which introduce time by expressing the flow and evolutionary equation in the form of time derivatives. Models were developed here which can be used to analyze high temperature components manufactured from advanced composite materials. In parallel with these studies, effort was directed at developing multiaxial testing techniques to verify the various theories. Recent progress in the development of constitutive theories from both the theoretical and experimental viewpoints are outlined. One important aspect is that material descriptions for advanced composite materials which can be implemented in general purpose finite element codes and used for practical design are verified.

  12. Proceedings of the national symposium on materials and processing: functional glass/glass-ceramics, advanced ceramics and high temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Sahu, A.K.; Viswanadham, C.S.; Ramanathan, S.; Hubli, R.C.; Kothiyal, G.P.

    2012-10-01

    With the development of materials science it is becoming increasingly important to process some novel materials in the area of glass, advanced ceramics and high temperature metals/alloys, which play an important role in the realization of many new technologies. Such applications demand materials with tailored specifications. Glasses and glass-ceramics find exotic applications in areas like radioactive waste storage, optical communication, zero thermal expansion coefficient telescopic mirrors, human safety gadgets (radiation resistance windows, bullet proof apparels, heat resistance components etc), biomedical (implants, hyperthermia treatment, bone cement, bone grafting etc). Advanced ceramic materials have been beneficial in biomedical applications due to their strength, biocompatibility and wear resistance. Non-oxide ceramics such as carbides, borides, silicides, their composites, refractory metals and alloys are useful as structural and control rod components in high temperature fission/ fusion reactors. Over the years a number of novel processing techniques like selective laser melting, microwave heating, nano-ceramic processing etc have emerged. A detailed understanding of the various aspects of synthesis, processing and characterization of these materials provides the base for development of novel technologies for different applications. Keeping this in mind and realizing the need for taking stock of such developments a National Symposium on Materials and Processing -2012 (MAP-2012) was planned. The topics covered in the symposium are ceramics, glass/glass-ceramics and metals and materials. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. Grain-boundary engineering applied to grain growth in a high temperature material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Crystallography of grain boundaries are determined for a high temperature material, before and after grain growth processes, so as to study the induction of special properties useful for application in components of a gas-turbine engine. The philosophy of grain-boundary engineering is applied to grain growth in APK-6, a powder formed nickel-base superalloy so as to establish the possible structure/property relationships. The alloy in the as received condition is shown to possess a strong texture and contained coincident site lattices (CSL) boundaries with most boundaries having sigma values in the range of 3 > sigma > 25. A normal grain-growth heat treatment result in a good population of low angle grain boundaries, and drastically reduces the proportion of CSL boundaries. A strong [011] annealing texture is observed after an intermediate grain growth; most grain boundaries, here, tend to be high angle indicating a possibility of possessing special properties. (author)

  14. Performance of a Novel Hydrophobic Mesoporous Material for High Temperature Catalytic Oxidation of Naphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high surface area, hydrophobic mesoporous material, MFS, has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal synthesis method using a perfluorinated surfactant, SURFLON S-386, as the single template. N2 adsorption and TEM were employed to characterize the pore structure and morphology of MFS. Static water adsorption test indicates that the hydrophobicity of MFS is significantly higher than that of MCM-41. XPS and Py-GC/MS analysis confirmed the existence of perfluoroalkyl groups in MFS which led to its high hydrophobicity. MFS was used as a support for CuO in experiments of catalytic combustion of naphthalene, where it showed a significant advantage over MCM-41 and ZSM-5. SEM was helpful in understanding why CuO-MFS performed so well in the catalytic combustion of naphthalene. Experimental results indicated that MFS was a suitable support for catalytic combustion of large molecular organic compounds, especially for some high temperature catalytic reactions when water vapor was present.

  15. A steady-state high-temperature method for measuring thermal conductivity of refractory materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M.; Corradetti, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Ferrari, L.

    2013-05-01

    A new methodology and an instrumental setup for the thermal conductivity estimation of isotropic bulk graphite and different carbides at high temperatures are presented. The method proposed in this work is based on the direct measurement of temperature and emissivity on the top surface of a sample disc of known dimensions. Temperatures measured under steady-state thermal equilibrium are then used to estimate the thermal conductivity of the sample by making use of the inverse parameter estimation technique. Thermal conductivity values obtained in this way are then compared to the material data sheets and values found in literature. The reported work has been developed within the Research and Development framework of the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro).

  16. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fifth annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1992-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its fifth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy (DOE) User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 145 nonproprietary agreements (77 university and 68 industry) and 30 proprietary agreements (2 university, 28 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-six states are represented by these interactions. Eighty-one nonproprietary research proposals (44 from university, 36 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and six proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1992 are summarized.

  17. High Temperature Materials Laboratory sixth annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1993-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its sixth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 172 nonproprietary agreements (88 university and 84 industry) and 35 proprietary agreements, (2 university, 33 industry) are now in effect. Six other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-eight states are represented by these interactions. Ninety-four nonproprietary research proposals (44 from universities, 47 from industry, and 3 from other government facilities) and three proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1993 are summarized.

  18. Testing of the functional garments with microencapsulated phase-change material in simulated high temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dalibor B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic Phase Change Material (PCM possesses the ability to absorb and release large quantity of latent heat during a phase change process over a certain temperature range. This paper presents results related to thermo-physiological efficiency of special underwear with organic PCM integrated in textile through microencapsulation process. The efficiency of PCM underwear was tested through physiological examinations in simulated high-temperature conditions, where test-subjects were voluntarily exposed to heat stress tests wearing NBC protective suit with PCM underwear (option "THERM" and without it (option "NoTHERM". It can be concluded that wearing a PCM textile clothes under NBC protective suit, during physical activity in high-tempearture conditions, reduces sweating and alleviates heat stress manifested by increased core and skin temperature and heart rate values. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34034

  19. Management of graphite material: a key issue for High Temperature Gas Reactor system (HTGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdeloie, C.; Marimbeau, P.; Robin, J.C.; Cellier, F.

    2005-01-01

    Graphite material is used in nuclear High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR, Fig.1) as moderator, thermal absorber and also as structural components of the core (Fig.2). This type of reactor was selected by the Generation IV forum as a potential high temperature provider for supplying hydrogen production plants and is under development in France in the frame of the AREVA ANTARES program. In order to select graphite grades to be used in these future reactors, the requirements for mechanical, thermal, physical-chemical properties must match the internal environment of the nuclear core, especially with regard to irradiation effect. Another important aspect that must be addressed early in design is the waste issue. Indeed, it is necessary to reduce the amount of nuclear waste produced by operation of the reactor during its lifetime. Preliminary assessment of the nuclear waste output for an ANTARES type 280 MWe HTGR over 60 year-lifetime gives an estimated 6000 m 3 of activated graphite waste. Thus, reducing the graphite waste production is an important issue for any HTGR system. First, this paper presents a preliminary inventory of graphite waste fluxes coming from a HTGR, in mass and volume, with magnitudes of radiological activities based on activation calculations of graphite during its stay in the core of the reactor. Normalized data corresponding to an output of 1 GWe.year electricity allows comparison of the waste production with other nuclear reactor systems. Second, possible routes to manage irradiated graphite waste are addressed in both the context of French nuclear waste management rules and by comparison to other national regulations. Routes for graphite waste disposal studied in different countries (concerning existing irradiated graphite waste) will be discussed with regard to new issues of large graphite waste from HTGR. Alternative or complementary solutions aiming at lowering volume of graphite waste to be managed will be presented. For example

  20. Application of high temperature phase change materials for improved efficiency in waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Xu, Haoxin; Nardin, Gioacchino; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    This study reports the thermal analysis of a novel thermal energy storage based on high temperature phase change material (PCM) used to improve efficiency in waste-to-energy plants. Current waste-to-energy plants efficiency is limited by the steam generation cycle which is carried out with boilers composed by water-walls (i.e. radiant evaporators), evaporators, economizers and superheaters. Although being well established, this technology is subjected to limitations related with high temperature corrosion and fluctuation in steam production due to the non-homogenous composition of solid waste; this leads to increased maintenance costs and limited plants availability and electrical efficiency. The proposed solution in this paper consists of replacing the typical refractory brick installed in the combustion chamber with a PCM-based refractory brick capable of storing a variable heat flux and to release it on demand as a steady heat flux. By means of this technology it is possible to mitigate steam production fluctuation, to increase temperature of superheated steam over current corrosion limits (450°C) without using coated superheaters and to increase the electrical efficiency beyond 34%. In the current paper a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis has been carried out in order to compare the performance of the PCM-based refractory brick against the traditional alumina refractory bricks. The PCM considered in this paper is aluminium (and its alloys) whereas its container consists of high density ceramics (such as Al 2 O 3 , AlN and Si 3 N 4 ); the different coefficient of linear thermal expansion for the different materials requires a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis to be carried out to ascertain the feasibility of the proposed technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I

    2016-06-01

    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the starting materials on performance of high temperature oxide fuel cells devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Satoshi Miyamaru Seo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs offer an environmentally friendly technology to convert gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas or gasified coal into electricity at high efficiencies. Besides the efficiency, higher than those obtained from the traditional energy conversion systems, a fuel cell provides many other advantages like reliability, modularity, fuel flexibility and very low levels of NOx and SOx emissions. The high operating temperature (950-1000 °C used by the current generation of the solid oxide fuel cells imposes severe constraints on materials selection in order to improve the lifetime of the cell. Besides the good electrical, electrochemical, mechanical and thermal properties, the individual cell components must be stable under the fuel cell operating atmospheres. Each material has to perform not only in its own right but also in conjunction with other system components. For this reason, each cell component must fulfill several different criteria. This paper reviews the materials and the methods used to fabricate the different cell components, such as the cathode, the electrolyte, the anode and the interconnect. Some remarkable results, obtained at IPEN (Nuclear Energy Research Institute in São Paulo, have been presented.

  3. Some problems on materials tests in high temperature hydrogen base gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Fujitsuka, Masakazu; Yoshida, Heitaro; Watanabe, Ryoji

    1980-01-01

    Some problems have been examined on materials tests (creep rupture tests and corrosion tests) in high temperature mixture gas of hydrogen (80%H 2 + 15%CO + 5%CO 2 ) simulating the reducing gas for direct steel making. H 2 , CO, CO 2 and CH 4 in the reducing gas interact with each other at elevated temperature and produce water vapor (H 2 O) and carbon (soot). Carbon deposited on the walls of retorts and the water condensed at pipings of the lower temperature gas outlet causes blocking of gas flow. The gas reactions have been found to be catalyzed by the retort walls, and appropriate selection of the materials for retorts has been found to mitigate the problems caused by water condensation and carbon deposition. Quartz has been recognized to be one of the most promising materials for minimizing the gas reactions. And ceramic coating, namely, BN (born nitride) on the heat resistant superalloy, MO-RE II, has reduced the amounts of water vapor and deposited carbon (sooting) produced by gas reactions and has kept dew points of outlet gas below room temperature. The well known emf (thermo-electromotive force) deterioration of Alumel-Chromel thermocouples in the reducing gases at elevated temperatures has been also found to be prevented by the ceramic (BN) coating. (author)

  4. Recycling of hazardous solid waste material using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Meier, A.; Wuillemin, D.; Hoffelner, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2003-03-01

    A novel high-temperature solar chemical reactor is proposed for the thermal recycling of hazardous solid waste material using concentrated solar power. A 10 kW solar reactor prototype was designed and tested for the carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The reactor was subjected to mean solar flux intensities of 2000 kW/m2 and operated in both batch and continuous mode within the temperature range 1120-1400 K. Extraction of up to 99% and 90% of the Zn originally contained in the EAFD was achieved in the residue for the batch and continuous solar experiments, respectively. The condensed off-gas products consisted mainly of Zn, Pb, and Cl. No ZnO was detected when the O{sub 2} concentration remained below 2 vol.-%. The use of concentrated solar energy as the source of process heat offers the possibility of converting hazardous solid waste material into valuable commodities for processes in closed and sustainable material cycles. (author)

  5. Thermophysical characterization tools and numerical models for high temperature thermo-structural composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorrette, Ch.

    2007-04-01

    This work is an original contribution to the study of the thermo-structural composite materials thermal behaviour. It aims to develop a methodology with a new experimental device for thermal characterization adapted to this type of material and to model the heat transfer by conduction within these heterogeneous media. The first part deals with prediction of the thermal effective conductivity of stratified composite materials in the three space directions. For that, a multi scale model using a rigorous morphology analysis of the structure and the elementary properties is proposed and implemented. The second part deals with the thermal characterization at high temperature. It shows how to estimate simultaneously the thermal effusiveness and the thermal conductivity. The present method is based on the observation of the heating from a plane sample submitted to a continuous excitation generated by Joule Effect. Heat transfer is modelled with the quadrupole formalism, temperature is here measured on two sides of the sample. The development of both resistive probes for excitation and linear probes for temperature measurements enables the thermal properties measured up to 1000 C. Finally, some experimental and numerical application examples lead to review the obtained results. (author)

  6. FOREX-A Fiber Optics Diagnostic System For Study Of Materials At High Temperatures And Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Roeske, F.

    1983-03-01

    We have successfully fielded a Fiber Optics Radiation EXperiment system (FOREX) designed for measuring material properties at high temperatures and pressures on an underground nuclear test. The system collects light from radiating materials and transmits it through several hundred meters of optical fibers to a recording station consisting of a streak camera with film readout. The use of fiber optics provides a faster time response than can presently be obtained with equalized coaxial cables over comparable distances. Fibers also have significant cost and physical size advantages over coax cables. The streak camera achieves a much higher information density than an equivalent oscilloscope system, and it also serves as the light detector. The result is a wide bandwidth high capacity system that can be fielded at a relatively low cost in manpower, space, and materials. For this experiment, the streak camera had a 120 ns time window with a 1.2 ns time resolution. Dynamic range for the system was about 1000. Beam current statistical limitations were approximately 8% for a 0.3 ns wide data point at one decade above the threshold recording intensity.

  7. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  8. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  9. A new architecture for a factual materials database on coatings and high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streiff, R.; Vaugelade, S. [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (France); Komornicki, S. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland); Boone, D.H. [Boone and Associates, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    C and HTC-DATA a data bank on coatings and high temperature corrosion, has been created to help in choosing coatings for specific applications, knowing their fabrication process characteristics and their protectivity characteristics. This relational data bank will include five databases, viz. (1) a bibliographic reference data base, (2) a directory of addresses of companies and researchers involved in the field, (3) a numerical database on alloy composition, (4) a factual coatings database, and (5) a factual corrosion database. Building of these factual databases first followed the classical MERISE analytical treatment for data organisation. However, the variety of coating characteristics has resulted in a very complex database structure with a very large number of tables and fields. Therefore, a new approach for the architecture of the coating database based upon a thesaurus to describe the data has been perfected which is presented in this paper. (orig.) 13 refs.

  10. Homopolar dc motor and trapped flux brushless dc motor using high temperature superconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapo, Alan D.; Lloyd, Jerry D.

    1991-03-01

    Two motors have been designed and built for use with high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) materials. They are a homopolar dc motor that uses HTSC field windings and a brushless dc motor that uses bulk HTSC materials to trap flux in steel rotor poles. The HTSC field windings of the homopolar dc motor are designed to operate at 1000 A/sq cm in a 0.010-T field. In order to maximize torque in the homopolar dc motor, an iron magnetic circuit with small air gaps gives maximum flux for minimum Ampere turns in the field. A copper field winding version of the homopolar dc motor has been tested while waiting for 575 A turn HTSC coils. The trapped flux brushless dc motor has been built and is ready to test melt textured bulk HTSC rings that are currently being prepared. The stator of the trapped flux motor will impress a magnetic field in the steel rotor poles with warm HTSC bulk rings. The rings are then cooled to 77 K to trap the flux in the rotor. The motor can then operate as a brushless dc motor.

  11. Chemical and physical analysis of core materials for advanced high temperature reactors with process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1985-08-01

    Various chemical and physical methods for the analysis of structural materials have been developed in the research programmes for advanced high temperature reactors. These methods are discussed using as examples the structural materials of the reactor core - the fuel elements consisting of coated particles in a graphite matrix and the structural graphite. Emphasis is given to the methods of chemical analysis. The composition of fuel kernels is investigated using chemical analysis methods to determine the heavy metals content (uranium, plutonium, thorium and metallic impurity elements) and the amount of non-metallic constituents. The properties of the pyrocarbon and silicon carbide coatings of fuel elements are investigated using specially developed physiochemical methods. Regarding the irradiation behaviour of coated particles and fuel elements, methods have been developed for examining specimens in hot cells following exposures under reactor operating conditions, to supplement the measurements of in-reactor performance. For the structural graphite, the determination of impurities is important because certain impurities may cause pitting corrosion during irradiation. The localized analysis of very low impurity concentrations is carried out using spectrochemical d.c. arc excitation, local laser and inductively coupled plasma methods. (orig.)

  12. Influence of heat treatment and indenter tip material on depth sensing hardness tests at high temperatures of fusion relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredl, Julian; Dany, Manuel; Albinski, Bartlomiej; Schneider, Hans-Christian; Kraft, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation of a custom-made indentation device designed for test temperatures up to 650 °C and a remote handled operation in a Hot Cell. • Instrumented indentation and conventional hardness testing of unirradiated MANET II and EUROFER. • Comparison of diamond and sapphire as indenter tip materials. - Abstract: The instrumented indentation is a suitable method for testing of even small neutron-irradiated specimens. From the continuously recorded indentation depth and the indentation force, it is possible to deduce mechanical parameters of the tested material. In this paper, a brief description of the high temperature device is given and representative results are presented. In the study, unirradiated steels are investigated by instrumented indentation at temperatures up to 500 °C. It is shown that the hardness is highly depending on the testing-temperature and can be correlated to the results of conventional tensile testing experiments. A not negligible influence of the indenter tip material is observed. The results show the functionality of the high-temperature indentation device.

  13. Innovative anode materials and architectured cells for high temperature steam electrolysis operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogier, Tiphaine

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performances of cells for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), innovative oxygen electrode materials have been studied. The compounds Ln 2 NiO 4+δ (Ln = La, Pr or Nd), Pr 4 Ni 3 O 10±δ and La 0,6 S r 0 ,4 Fe 0,8 Co 0,2 O 3-δ have been selected for their mixed electronic and ionic conductivity. First, their physical and chemical properties have been investigated. Then, the electrodes were shaped on symmetrical half cells,adding a thin ceria-based interlayer between the electrode and the yttria doped zirconia-based electrolyte. These architectured cells lead to low polarization resistances (RP≤ 0.1 Ω.cm 2 at 800 C) as well as reduced anodic over potentials. An electrochemical model has been developed in order to describe and analyze the experimental polarization curves.The electrode with the lower overpotential, i.e. Pr 2 NiO 4+ δ, has been selected and characterized into complete cermet-supported cells. Under HTSE operation, at 800 C, a high current density was measured, close to i = -0.9 A.cm -2 for a cell voltage equals to 1.3 V, the conversion rate being about 60%. (author) [fr

  14. High Temperature Materials Laboratory seventh annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Teague, P.A.

    1994-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its seventh year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements since the HTML began operation in 1987. A total of 193 nonproprietary agreements (91 industry and 102 university) and 41 proprietary agreements (39 industry and two university) are now in effect. This represents an increase of 21 nonproprietary user agreements during FY 1994. Forty-one states are represented by these users. During FY 1994, the HTML User Program evaluated 106 nonproprietary proposals (46 from industry, 52 from universities, and 8 from other government facilities) and 8 proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about ninety-five percent of those evaluated proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the Committee. This annual report discusses FY 1994 activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users and their proposals and FY 1994 publications, and summarizes nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1994.

  15. Review of Mid- to High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the concentrating solar power (CSP) systems using solar absorbers to convert concentrated sunlight to thermal electric power. It is possible to achieve solar absorber surfaces for efficient photothermal conversion having high solar absorptance (a) for solar radiation and a low thermal emittance (e) at the operational temperature. A low reflectance (?'' 0) at wavelengths (?) 3 mm and a high reflectance (?'' 1) at l 3 mm characterize spectrally selective surfaces. The operational temperature ranges of these materials for solar applications can be categorized as low temperature (T< 100 C), mid-temperature (100 C< T< 400 C), and high-temperature (T> 400 C). High- and mid-temperature applications are needed for CSP applications. For CSP applications, the ideal spectrally selective surface would be low-cost and easy to manufacture, chemically and thermally stable in air at elevated operating temperatures (T= 500 C), and have a solar absorptance= 0.98 and a thermal emittance= 0.05 at 500 C.

  16. High Temperature Materials Laboratory, Eleventh Annual Report: October 1997 through September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    2000-03-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its eleventh year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation.A total of 522 agreements (351 industry,156 university,and 15 other federal agency) are now in effect (452 nonproprietary and 70 proprietary). This represents an increase of 75 user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1997). A state-by-state summary of the nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A. Forty-six states are represented. During FY 1998, the HTML User Program evaluated 80 nonproprietary proposals (32 from industry, 45 from universities, and 3 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. Appendix B provides a detailed breakdown of the nonproprietary proposals received during FY 1998. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1998.

  17. High Temperature Materials Laboratory eight and ninth annual reports, October 1994 through September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its ninth year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements, and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation. A total of 276 nonproprietary agreements (135 industry, 135 university, and 6 other federal agency) and 56 proprietary agreements are now in effect. This represents an increase of 70 nonproprietary user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1994). A state-by-state summary of these nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A, and an alphabetical listing is provided in Appendix B. Forty-four states are represented by these users. During FY 1995 and 1996, the HTML User Program evaluated 145 nonproprietary proposals (62 from industry, 82 from universities, and 1 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, frequently after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1995 and 1996.

  18. Novel composite materials synthesized by the high-temperature interaction of pyrrole with layered oxide matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Alexandru Cezar

    The initial goal of the research presented herein was to develop the very first synthetic metal---high-temperature superconductor ceramic composite material, in the specific form of a polypyrrole---Bi2Sr2CaCu 2O8+delta nanocomposite. In the course of scientific investigation, this scope was broadened to encompass structurally and compositionally similar layered bismuthates and simpler layered oxides. The latter substrates were prepared through novel experimental procedures that enhanced the chance of yielding nanostructured morphologies. The designed novel synthesis approaches yielded a harvest of interesting results that may be further developed upon their dissemination in the scientific community. High-temperature interaction of pyrrole with molybdenum trioxide substrates with different crystalline phases and morphologies led to the formation of the first members of a new class of heterogeneous microcomposites characterized by incomplete occupancy by the metal oxide core of the volume encapsulated by the rigid, amorphous permeable polymeric membrane that reproduces the volume of the initial grain of precursor substrate. The method may be applied for various heterogeneous catalyst substrates for the precise determination of the catalytically active crystallographic planes. In a different project, room-temperature, templateless impregnation of molybdenum trioxide substrates with different crystalline phases and morphologies by a large excess of silver (I) cations led to the formation of 1-D nanostructured novel Ag-Mo-O ternary phase in what may be the simplest experimental procedure available to date that has yielded a 1-D nanostructure, regardless the nature of the constituent material. Interaction of this novel ternary phase with pyrrole vapors at high reaction temperatures led to heterogeneous nanostructured composites that exhibited a silver nanorod core. Nanoscrolls of vanadium pentoxide xerogel were synthesized through a novel, facile reflux-based method that

  19. Joining and Integration of Silicon Carbide-Based Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2016-01-01

    Advanced joining and integration technologies of silicon carbide-based ceramics and ceramic matrix composites are enabling for their implementation into wide scale aerospace and ground-based applications. The robust joining and integration technologies allow for large and complex shapes to be fabricated and integrated with the larger system. Potential aerospace applications include lean-direct fuel injectors, thermal actuators, turbine vanes, blades, shrouds, combustor liners and other hot section components. Ground based applications include components for energy and environmental systems. Performance requirements and processing challenges are identified for the successful implementation different joining technologies. An overview will be provided of several joining approaches which have been developed for high temperature applications. In addition, various characterization approaches were pursued to provide an understanding of the processing-microstructure-property relationships. Microstructural analysis of the joint interfaces was conducted using optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy to identify phases and evaluate the bond quality. Mechanical testing results will be presented along with the need for new standardized test methods. The critical need for tailoring interlayer compositions for optimum joint properties will also be highlighted.

  20. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27

    Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites

  1. High Temperature Superconductors: From Delivery to Applications (Presentation from 2011 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award-winner, Dr. Amit Goyal, and including introduction by Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Amit Goyal, a high temperature superconductivity (HTS) researcher at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was named a 2011 winner of the Department of Energy's Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award honoring U.S. scientists and engineers for exceptional contributions in research and development supporting DOE and its mission. Winner of the award in the inaugural category of Energy Science and Innovation, Dr. Goyal was cited for his work in 'pioneering research and transformative contributions to the field of applied high temperature superconductivity, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations enabling large-scale applications of these novel materials.' Following his basic research in grain-to-grain supercurrent transport, Dr. Goyal focused his energy in transitioning this fundamental understanding into cutting-edge technologies. Under OE sponsorship, Dr. Goyal co-invented the Rolling Assisted Bi-Axially Textured Substrate technology (RABiTS) that is used as a substrate for second generation HTS wires. OE support also led to the invention of Structural Single Crystal Faceted Fiber Substrate (SSIFFS) and the 3-D Self Assembly of Nanodot Columns. These inventions and associated R and D resulted in 7 R and D 100 Awards including the 2010 R and D Magazine's Innovator of the Year Award, 3 Federal Laboratory Consortium Excellence in Technology Transfer National Awards, a DOE Energy100 Award and many others. As a world authority on HTS materials, Dr. Goyal has presented OE-sponsored results in more than 150 invited talks, co-authored more than 350 papers and is a fellow of 7 professional societies.

  2. New graphite/salt materials for high temperature energy storage. Phase change properties study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.

    2007-07-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of new graphite/salt composites dedicated to high temperature energy storage (≥200 C). The aim is to analyse and to understand the influence of both graphite and composite microstructure on the phase change properties of salts. This PhD is carried out within the framework of two projects: DISTOR (European) and HTPSTOCK (French). The major contributions of this work are threefold: 1) An important database (solid-liquid phase change properties) is provided from the DSC analysis of six salts and the corresponding composites. 2) Rigorous modeling of salts melting in confined media in several geometries are proposed to understand why, during the first melting of the compression elaborated composites, problems of salt leakage are observed. These models show that the materials morphology is responsible for these phenomena: the graphite matrix restrains the volume expansion due to salt melting: salt melts under pressure, which leads to a melting on a large temperature range and to a loss of energy density. Sensitivity analysis of parameters (geometric and physic) shows that matrix rigidity modulus is the parameter on which it is necessary to act during the composites elaboration to blur this phenomenon. 3) Finally, this work proposes a thermodynamic formulation of both surface/interface phenomena and the presence of dissolved impurities being able to explain a melting point lowering. It seems that the melting point lowering observed (∼ 5 C) are mainly due to the presence of dissolved impurities (brought by graphite) in the liquid, along with an additional Gibbs-Thomson effect (∼ 1 C, related to the size of the clusters crystals). (author)

  3. Material characterization of Inconel 718 from free bulging test at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Joon Tae; Yoon, Jong Hoon; Lee, Ho Sung [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Sung Kie [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Macroscopic superplastic behavior of metallic or non metallic materials is usually represented by the strain rate sensitivity, and it can be determined by tensile tests in uniaxial stress state and bulging tests in multi axial stress state, which is the actual hot forming process. And macroscopic behavior of Non SPF grade materials could be described in a similar way as that of superplastic materials, including strain hardening, cavity and so on. In this study, the material characterization of non SPF grade Inconel 718 has been carried out to determine the material parameters for flow stress throughout free bulging test under constant temperature. The measured height of bulged plate during the test was used for estimation of strain rate sensitivity, strain hardening index and cavity volume fraction with the help of numerical analysis. The bulged height obtained from the simulation showed good agreement with the experimental findings. The effects of strain hardening and cavity volume fraction factor for flow stress were also compared.

  4. High-Temperature Release of SO2 from Calcined Cement Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of alternative fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions may occur and cause reductive decomposition of sulfates from calcined cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentrat......During combustion of alternative fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions may occur and cause reductive decomposition of sulfates from calcined cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2...... concentration, which may cause deposit formation in the kiln system. In this study, the release of sulfur from calcined cement raw materials under both oxidizing and reducing conditions is investigated. The investigations include thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in the temperature interval of 800–1500 °C...

  5. 22. lecture meeting of the association for heat-resistant steels and the association for high temperature materials 'long-term performance of heat-resistant steels and high-temperature materials'. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings volume contains 14 full papers discussing the long-term performance of high-temperature resistant materials (creep, creep fatigue, crack growth). 13 papers have been analysed and processed for separate retrieval from the ENERGY database. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Material Solutions to Mitigate the Alkali Chloride-Induced High Temperature Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiamehr, Saeed

    High temperature corrosion induced by potassium chloride (KCl) is a major challenge for biomass-based power plants. The current study aims at identification or development of alloys or coatings that can yield a better performance at a target metal temperature of 600oC compared to austenitic...... of metals. This was aimed at identifying the constituent elements of a corrosion resistant alloy. Calculations suggested Al, Si, Cr, Ti, Y, Ce, Ta, Hf and Zr as suitable oxide-forming elements as well as Mo, Ni and Co as suitable matrix-forming elements. However, the presence of potassium in the environment...... further knowledge on the mechanism of high temperature corrosion induced by KCl, a wide range of commercial and model alloys were exposed under conditions relevant to high temperature corrosion in biomass-firing power plants. The exposures were conducted at 600oC for 168h in flowing N2(g)+5%O2(g)+15%H2O...

  7. An investigation on the effects of phase change material on material components used for high temperature thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeil; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan; Yua, Wenhua; France, David M.

    2016-05-01

    The latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants with advanced power cycle require high temperature phase change materials (PCMs), Graphite foams with high thermal conductivity to enhance the poor thermal conductivity of PCMs. Brazing of the graphite foams to the structural metals of the LHTES system could be a method to assemble the system and a method to protect the structural metals from the molten salts. In the present study, the LHTES prototype capsules using MgCl2-graphite foam composites were assembled by brazing and welding, and tested to investigate the corrosion attack of the PCM salt on the BNi-4 braze. The microstructural analysis showed that the BNi-4 braze alloy can be used not only for the joining of structure alloy to graphite foams but also for the protecting of structure alloy from the corrosion by PCM.

  8. Design and preliminary analysis of in-vessel core catcher made of high-temperature ceramics material in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong; Ma Li; Wang Junrong; Zhou Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    In order to protect the interior wall of pressure vessel from melting, as an additional way to external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC), a kind of in-vessel core catcher (IVCC) made of high-temperature ceramics material was designed. Through the high-temperature and thermal-resistance characteristic of IVCC, the distributing of heat flux was optimized. The results show that the downward average heat flux from melt in ceramic layer reduces obviously and the interior wall of pressure vessel doesn't melt, keeping its integrity perfectly. Increasing of upward heat flux from metallic layer makes the upper plenum structure's temperature ascend, but the temperature doesn't exceed its melting point. In conclusion, the results indicate the potential feasibility of IVCC made of high-temperature ceramics material. (authors)

  9. Materials and Process Design for High-Temperature Carburizing: Integrating Processing and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Apelian

    2007-07-23

    The objective of the project is to develop an integrated process for fast, high-temperature carburizing. The new process results in an order of magnitude reduction in cycle time compared to conventional carburizing and represents significant energy savings in addition to a corresponding reduction of scrap associated with distortion free carburizing steels.

  10. Study of a chromia-forming alloy behavior as interconnect material for High Temperature Vapor Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, S.

    2011-01-01

    In High Temperature Vapor Electrolysis (HTVE) system, the materials chosen for the inter-connectors should have a good corrosion behaviour in air and in H 2 -H 2 O mixtures at 800 C, and keep a high electronic conductivity over long durations as well. In this context, the first goal of this study was to evaluate a commercial ferritic alloy (the K41X alloy) as interconnect for HTVE application. Oxidation tests in furnace and in microbalance have therefore been carried out in order to determine oxidation kinetics. Meanwhile, the Area Specific Resistance (ASR) was evaluated by Contact Resistance measurements performed at 800 C. The second objective was to improve our comprehension of chromia-forming alloys oxidation mechanism, in particular in H 2 /H 2 O mixtures. For that purpose, some specific tests have been conducted: tracer experiments, coupled with the characterization of the oxide scale by PEC (Photo-Electro-Chemistry). This approach has also been applied to the study of a LaCrO 3 perovskite oxide coating on the K41X alloy. This phase is indeed of high interest for HTVE applications due to its high conductivity properties. This latter study leads to further understanding on the role of lanthanum as reactive element, which effect is still under discussion in literature.In both media at 800 C, the scale is composed of a Cr 2 O 3 /(Mn,Cr) 3 O 4 duplex scale, covered in the case of H 2 -H 2 O mixture by a thin scale made of Mn 2 TiO 4 spinel. In air, the growth mechanism is found to be cationic, in agreement with literature. The LaCrO 3 coating does not modify the direction of scale growth but lowers the growth kinetics during the first hundreds hours. Moreover, with the coating, the scale adherence is favored and the conductivity appears to be slightly higher. In the H 2 -H 2 O mixture, the growth mechanism is found to be anionic. The LaCrO 3 coating diminishes the oxidation kinetics. Although the scale thickness is about the same in both media, the ASR parameter

  11. Implementation Challenges for Sintered Silicon Carbide Fiber Bonded Ceramic Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, a number of fiber reinforced ceramic composites have been developed and tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. In addition to continuous fiber reinforced composites, other innovative materials have been developed including the fibrous monoliths and sintered fiber bonded ceramics. The sintered silicon carbide fiber bonded ceramics have been fabricated by the hot pressing and sintering of silicon carbide fibers. However, in this system reliable property database as well as various issues related to thermomechanical performance, integration, and fabrication of large and complex shape components has yet to be addressed. In this presentation, thermomechanical properties of sintered silicon carbide fiber bonded ceramics (as fabricated and joined) will be presented. In addition, critical need for manufacturing and integration technologies in successful implementation of these materials will be discussed.

  12. High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bletry, J.; Taverniere, P.; Senillou, C.; Desre, P.; Maret, M.; Chieux, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two similar high temperature furnaces (up to 2000 0 C) have been developed for large angle and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin tungsten foil heating element supplied by two tantalum leads, and shielded by thin tungsten foils maintained in a tantalum box. In a neutron beam, the furnaces produce a very low scattering level (without any Bragg peaks) due to the openings in the heating element, the shields and the tantalum box for the incident, unscattered beam and the scattered beam at low angles. Thus the furnace absorption correction is also much easier. A platinum thermocouple controls temperature, very high temperatures are measured optically. A vacuum chamber has been especially designed for SANS experiments with two windows in polished sapphire. The furnaces have been successfully used for the study of liquid alloys on the D4, D11 and D17 spectrometers at the ILL

  13. Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, High-Cycle and Low-Cycle Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Callie C.; Boyce, Lola

    1995-01-01

    The development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation is described. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes five effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing predictions of high-cycle mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects with experiments are presented. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported that material degradation can be represented by randomized multifactor interaction models.

  14. Novel Methods of Tritium Sequestration: High Temperature Gettering and Separation Membrane Materials Discovery for Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Franglin [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Sholl, David [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Brinkman, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lyer, Ratnasabapathy [Claflin Univ., Orangeburg, SC (United States); Iyer, Ratnasabapathy [Claflin Univ., Orangeburg, SC (United States); Reifsnider, Kenneth [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2015-01-22

    This project is aimed at addressing critical issues related to tritium sequestration in next generation nuclear energy systems. A technical hurdle to the use of high temperature heat from the exhaust produced in the next generation nuclear processes in commercial applications such as nuclear hydrogen production is the trace level of tritium present in the exhaust gas streams. This presents a significant challenge since the removal of tritium from the high temperature gas stream must be accomplished at elevated temperatures in order to subsequently make use of this heat in downstream processing. One aspect of the current project is to extend the techniques and knowledge base for metal hydride materials being developed for the ''hydrogen economy'' based on low temperature absorption/desorption of hydrogen to develop materials with adequate thermal stability and an affinity for hydrogen at elevated temperatures. The second focus area of this project is to evaluate high temperature proton conducting materials as hydrogen isotope separation membranes. Both computational and experimental approaches will be applied to enhance the knowledge base of hydrogen interactions with metal and metal oxide materials. The common theme between both branches of research is the emphasis on both composition and microstructure influence on the performance of sequestration materials.

  15. Evaluation of High-temperature Physicochemical Interactions Between the H282Alloy Melt and Ceramic Material of the Crucible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirowski Z.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel alloys belong to the group of most resistant materials when used under the extreme operating conditions, including chemically aggressive environment, high temperature, and high loads applied over a long period of time. Although in the global technology market one can find several standard cast nickel alloys, the vast majority of components operating in machines and equipment are made from alloys processed by the costly metalworking operations. Analysis of the available literature and own studies have shown that the use of casting technology in the manufacture of components from nickel alloys poses a lot of difficulty. This is due to the adverse technological properties of these alloys, like poor fluidity, high casting shrinkage, and above all, high reactivity of liquid metal with the atmospheric air over the bath and with the ceramic material of both the crucible and foundry mold. The scale of these problems increases with the expected growth of performance properties which these alloys should offer to the user.

  16. Development of an aluminum nitride-silicon carbide material set for high-temperature sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Benjamin A.; Habermehl, Scott D.; Clews, Peggy J.

    2014-06-01

    A number of important energy and defense-related applications would benefit from sensors capable of withstanding extreme temperatures (>300°C). Examples include sensors for automobile engines, gas turbines, nuclear and coal power plants, and petroleum and geothermal well drilling. Military applications, such as hypersonic flight research, would also benefit from sensors capable of 1000°C. Silicon carbide (SiC) has long been recognized as a promising material for harsh environment sensors and electronics because it has the highest mechanical strength of semiconductors with the exception of diamond and its upper temperature limit exceeds 2500°C, where it sublimates rather than melts. Yet today, many advanced SiC MEMS are limited to lower temperatures because they are made from SiC films deposited on silicon wafers. Other limitations arise from sensor transduction by measuring changes in capacitance or resistance, which require biasing or modulation schemes that can with- stand elevated temperatures. We are circumventing these issues by developing sensing structures directly on SiC wafers using SiC and piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films. SiC and AlN are a promising material combination due to their high thermal, electrical, and mechanical strength and closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion. AlN is also a non-ferroelectric piezoelectric material, enabling piezoelectric transduction at temperatures exceeding 1000°C. In this paper, the challenges of incorporating these two materials into a compatible MEMS fabrication process are presented. The current progress and initial measurements of the fabrication process are shown. The future direction and the need for further investigation of the material set are addressed.

  17. The environment effect on creep fatigue strength for FBR high temperature structural material, Type 304 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Masaaki; Nitta, Akito

    1988-01-01

    In order to rationalize FBR high temperature structural design, the creep fatigue strength of Type 304 stainless steel for FBR main vessel was investigated in air and vacuum. The results obtained were as follows: Independent of strain wave forms, creep fatigue lives in vacuum were longer than those in air, and especially strain wave forms of fatigue damage type had noticeably longer lives. Also, a tendency to have too much longer lives at low strain level being important for real plant condition was shown. At last, it was confirmed that cyclic deformation behavior in vacuum was coincident with that in air. (author)

  18. ODS-materials for high temperature applications in advanced nuclear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Eiselt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A ferritic ODS-alloy (Fe-14Cr-1W-0.25Ti has been manufactured by application of the powder metallurgical production route involving at first mechanical alloying of ∼10kg pre-alloyed steel powder together with an Y2O3 addition for 12h in a high energy industrial ball mill under hydrogen atmosphere at the company ZOZ GmbH. As a next step, one part of the alloyed powder was hot extruded into rods while another portion was hot isostatically pressed into plates. Both materials were then heat treated. A characterization program on these ODS-alloy production forms included microstructural and mechanical investigations: SANS and TEM assume the existence of Y2Ti2O7 nano clusters and show a bimodal distribution of ODS-particle sizes in both ODS variants. EBSD maps showed a strong 〈110〉 texture corresponding to the α fiber for the hot extruded ODS and a slight 〈001〉 texture for the hipped ODS material. Fracture toughness tests in different specimen orientations (extruded ODS with mini 0.2T C(T specimens together with Charpy impact tests revealed anisotropic mechanical properties: Promising (fracture toughness levels were obtained in the specimen orientation perpendicular to the extrusion direction, while the toughness levels remained low in extrusion direction and generally for the hipped ODS material at all test temperatures. The fracture toughness tests were performed according to ASTM E 1921 and 1820 standards.

  19. Crystal structure and ionic conduction path of solid electrolytic materials by high temperature neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Masatomo; Nomura, Katsuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Research of the distribution of oxide ions and the ionic conduction path of bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ), cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) and lanthanum gallate ((La 0.8 Sr 0.2 )(Ga 0.8 Mg 0.15 Co 0.05 )O 3-δ ) is stated. The high temperature neutron diffraction method, analytical method such as Rietveld method, crystal structure analysis of ionic conductor and MEM (Maximum- Entropy Method) are explained. The nuclear density distribution of oxide ions in bismuth oxide showed so larger distribution in the direction of and than Bi ions that the oxide ions conducted these direction in the crystal. The nuclear density distribution of oxide ions of cerium oxide indicated larger distribution in the direction of than Ce ions and its tendency was remarkable at high temperature. Accordingly, the oxide ions conducted in the direction of and . The oxide ions distribution in lanthanum gallate compound was larger and complicated than positive ions. The oxide ions conducted to by describing an arc between the two stable positions. The nuclear density on the conduction path increased with increasing temperature. This above result corresponded to increase of oxide ion conductivity in the area. (S.Y.)

  20. Corrosion of metallic materials by uranium hexafluoride at high temperatures (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlois, G.

    1963-01-01

    The corrosion of the following metals or alloys by UF 6 : nickel, monel, Inconel, gold, platinum, stainless steel, is studied in the temperature range from 300 to 1000 deg. C. The test method, designed to avoid heating the apparatus containing the corrosive fluid to a high temperature, consists in using threadlike samples heated by the Joule effect, the rest of the apparatus being maintained close to room temperature. This technique makes it possible also to determine continuously the penetration of the corrosion by measuring the electrical resistance of the sample with a double Thomson bridge. A series of rapid comparison tests shows that stainless steel, precious metals and Inconel are attacked far too rapidly to be used above 500 deg. C; only monel and especially nickel appear capable of resisting at high temperatures. The detailed examination of the behaviour of nickel shows that the metallic fluoride is volatilized and that this influences the corrosion rate. It shows also the existence of a temperature zone situated between 550 and 700 deg. C in which occurs A strong intergranular corrosion the cause of which appears to be the presence of impurities in the metal. (author) [fr

  1. The materials programme for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany: Status of the development of high-temperature materials, integrity concept, and design codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Bodmann, E.; Seehafer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the last 15 years, the research and development of materials for high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) applications in the Federal Republic of Germany have been concentrated on the qualification of high-temperature structural alloys. Such materials are required for heat exchanger components of advanced HTGRs supplying nuclear process heat in the temperature range between 750 deg. and 950 deg. C. The suitability of the candidate alloys for service in the HTGR has been established, and continuing research is aimed at verification of the integrity of components over the envisaged service lifetimes. The special features of the HTGR which provide a high degree of safety are the use of ceramics for the core construction and the low power density of the core. The reactor integrity concept which has been developed is based on these two characteristics. Previously, technical guidelines and design codes for nuclear plants were tailored exclusively to light water reactor systems. An extensive research project was therefore initiated which led to the formulation of the basic principles on which a high temperature design code can be based. (author)

  2. Fractal Dimension of Fracture Surface in Rock Material after High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on granite specimens after different high temperature under uniaxial compression were conducted and the fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The fractal dimensions of the fracture surfaces with increasing temperature were calculated, respectively. The fractal dimension of fracture surface is between 1.44 and 1.63. Its value approximately goes up exponentially with the increase of temperature. There is a quadratic polynomial relationship between the rockburst tendency and fractal dimension of fracture surface; namely, a fractal dimension threshold can be obtained. Below the threshold value, a positive correlativity shows between rockburst tendency and fractal dimension; when the fractal dimension is greater than the threshold value, it shows an inverse correlativity.

  3. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  4. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600ÀC with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  5. In-situ high temperature irradiation setup for temperature dependent structural studies of materials under swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulriya, P.K.; Kumari, Renu; Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, V.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A.K.; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An in-situ high temperature (1000 K) setup is designed and installed in the materials science beam line of superconducting linear accelerator at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) for temperature dependent ion irradiation studies on the materials exposed with swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 pyrochlore is irradiated using 120 MeV Au ion at 1000 K using the high temperature irradiation facility and characterized by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Another set of Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 samples are irradiated with the same ion beam parameter at 300 K and simultaneously characterized using in-situ XRD available in same beam line. The XRD studies along with the Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that the structural modification induced by the ion irradiation is strongly dependent on the temperature of the sample. The Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 is readily amorphized at an ion fluence 6 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 on irradiation at 300 K, whereas it is transformed to a radiation-resistant anion-deficient fluorite structure on high temperature irradiation, that amorphized at ion fluence higher than 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The temperature dependent ion irradiation studies showed that the ion fluence required to cause amorphization at 1000 K irradiation is significantly higher than that required at room temperature irradiation. In addition to testing the efficiency of the in-situ high temperature irradiation facility, the present study establishes that the radiation stability of the pyrochlore is enhanced at higher temperatures

  6. Long-term creep behavior of high-temperature gas turbine materials under constant and variable stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granacher, J.; Preussler, T.

    1987-01-01

    Within the framework of the documented research project, extensive creep rupture tests were carried out with characteristic, high-temperature gas turbine materials for establishment of improved design data. In the range of the main application temperatures and in stress ranges down to application-relevant values the tests extended over a period of about 40,000 hours. In addition, long-term annealing tests were carried out in the most important temperature ranges for the measurement of the density-dependent straim, which almost always manifested itself as a material contraction. Furthermore, hot tensile tests were carried out for the description of the elastoplastic short-term behavior. Several creep curves were derived from the results of the different tests with a differentiated evaluation method. On the basis of these creep curves, creep equations were set up for a series of materials which are valid in the entire examined temperature range and stress range and up to the end of the secondary creep range. Also, equations for the time-temperature-dependent description of the material contraction behavior were derived. With these equations, the high-temperature deformation behavior of the examined materials under constant creep stress can be described simply and application-oriented. (orig.) With 109 figs., 19 tabs., 77 refs [de

  7. Brittle Materials Design High Temperature Gas Turbine Stator Vane Development and Static Rig Tests. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    of this analysis. Analogous to the practice of crowning steel rollers (blending large radii to taper the ends), 0.250 inch edge radii were introduced...Materials 59 A cursory review of low conductivity materials indicated that reaction sintered silicon nitride or high density stabilized zirconia would

  8. High Temperature Materials Laboratory 18th Annual Report October 1, 2004 Through September 30, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasto, Arvid E.; Russell, Billie J.

    2006-01-01

    HTML Annual Report for 10/1/04 - 9/30/05, assigned ORNL Technical Report - ORNL/TM-2006/41. Incorrect number appears in next field. The HTML User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting a record number (110) of new projects and developing 33 new user agreements. Table 1 presents the breakdown of these statistics. Figure 1 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. The total number of HTML proposals has now exceeded 1450. Also, the number of new agreements bodes well for the future. At the end of this report is a list of proposals to the HTML and a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are highlighted in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Guidance and Evaluation Panel, and continued progress in equipment and facilities development. For instance, this year beneficial operation of the aberration-corrected electron microscope (ACEM) was initiated. Also, the upgraded neutron residual stress beamline (NRSF2) on the HFIR was made operational on user projects, including one featuring Caterpillar. The beamline possesses a much-improved full width at half maximum (FWHM) peak performance (about one-third narrower than previously) and a factor-of-ten improvement in peak intensity. The beamline now has much improved capability because of improvements made to the reactor itself, the beamline, and the diffraction instruments. Funding was received this year for HTML's participation in construction and operation of the VULCAN beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The SNS, an extremely high flux pulsed neutron source, is in the final stages of construction at ORNL, and the VULCAN beamline is to be the 'materials' diffractometer. Our funding will provide for development of an off-line specimen alignment system, which will allow users to

  9. Friction behavior of cobalt base and nickel base hardfacing materials in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Syotaro; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Kohichi; Atsumo, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    A friction behavior of the hardfacing materials such as cobalt base alloy ''Stellite'' and nickel base alloy ''Colmonoy'' used in the sliding components of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor was investigated in various sodium environments. Also, friction tests on these materials were carried out in argon environment. And they were compared with those in sodium environment. The results obtained are as follows: (1) In argon, the cobalt base hardfacing alloy showed better friction behavior than the nickel base hardfacing alloy. In sodium, the latter was observed to have the better friction behavior being independent of the sodium temperature. (2) The friction coefficient of each material tends to become lower by pre-exposure in sodium. Particularly, this tendency was remarkable for the nickel base hardfacing alloy. (3) The friction coefficient between SUS 316 and one of these hardfacing materials was higher than that between latter materials. Also, some elements of hardfacing alloys were recognized to transfer on the friction surface of SUS 316 material. (4) It was observed that each tested material has a greater friction coefficient with a decrease of the oxygen content in sodium. (author)

  10. Identification and Characterization of New Materials for Construction of Heating Plates for High-Temperature Guarded Hot Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameury, J.; Koenen, A.; Hay, B.; Wu, J.; Hammerschmidt, U.; Rafeld, E. K.; Pennewitz, E.; Turzó-András, E.; Strnad, R.; Blahut, A.

    2018-01-01

    The selection of a material for making the hot and cold plates of high-temperature guarded hot plates (HTGHPs) working up to 800°C is still an issue. The material must be machinable, have a high mechanical stability to keep the high level of flatness of the plates and have a high thermal conductivity and a high resistance to oxidation when used in air. Nickel 201 alloy has been used in several instruments, but has shown, sometimes, problems of mechanical stability. The total hemispherical emissivity of the plates must be higher than 0.8 as recommended by the standards. Three ceramic materials, a silicon infiltrated silicon carbide (SiSiC), a machinable aluminum nitride and a sintered aluminum nitride (AlN) with high thermal conductivity claimed at ambient temperature, were selected for tests in thermal conductivity and opacity to thermal radiation. Three paints withstanding high temperatures were tested in total hemispherical emissivity and durability at high temperature. Above 600°C, Nickel 201 alloy has a higher thermal conductivity than the three ceramics. Below 600°C, the SiSiC and the sintered AlN have a thermal conductivity significantly higher than Nickel 201, but the sintered AlN shows a wide transparency spectral band at short wavelengths (below 6.5 μ m). Above 300°C, the three paints have a total hemispherical emissivity above 0.8. One of the paints has polluted the specimens of an insulation material tested in thermal conductivity up to 650°C. The other two can be recommended to coat the hot and cold plates of HTGHPs used up to 800°C.

  11. Lightweight High Temperature Non-Eroding Throat Materials for Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this proposed effort is the development of lightweight, non-eroding nozzle materials for use in propulsion systems. Lightweight structures are...

  12. Synthesis of Hafnium-Based Ceramic Materials for Ultra-High Temperature Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Feldman, Jay

    2004-01-01

    This project involved the synthesis of hafnium (Hf)-based ceramic powders and Hf-based precursor solutions that were suitable for preparation of Hf-based ceramics. The Hf-based ceramic materials of interest in this project were hafnium carbide (with nominal composition HE) and hafnium dioxide (HfO2). The materials were prepared at Georgia Institute of Technology and then supplied to research collaborators Dr. Sylvia Johnson and Dr. Jay Feldman) at NASA Ames Research Center.

  13. High temperature thermo-physical properties of SPS-ed W–Cu functional gradient materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatanu, Magdalena; Enculescu, Monica; Galatanu, Andrei

    2018-02-01

    The divertor of a fusion reactor like DEMO requires materials able to withstand high heat fluxes and neutron irradiation for several years. For the water cooling concept of this essential part of the reactor, the most likely plasma facing material will be W, while the heatsink material considered is CuCrZr or an improved version of such a Cu-based alloy. To realize W–Cu alloy joints able to withstand thousands of thermal cycles can be difficult due to the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of these materials. In this work we investigate the possibility to realize such joints by using W–Cu functional gradient materials (FGMs) produced from nanometric and micrometric metallic powders mixtures and consolidated by spark plasma sintering at about 900 °C. Morphological and thermal properties investigations, performed for typical compositions, shows that the best results are obtained using powders with micrometric dimensions. A resulting 1 mm thick, 3 layers W–Cu FGM produced by this simple method shows a remarkable almost constant thermal conductivity value of 200 W m‑1 K‑1, from room temperature up to 1000 °C.

  14. Study of surfaces and surface layers on high temperature materials after short-time thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1985-11-01

    Being part of the plasma-wall interaction during TOKAMAK operation, erosion- and redeposition processes of First Wall materials substantially influence plasma parameters as well as the properties of the First Wall. An important redeposition process of eroded material is the formation of thin films by atomic condensation. Examinations of First Wall components after TOKAMAK operation lead to the assumption that these thin metallic films tend to agglomerate to small particles under subsequent heat load. In laboratory experiments it is shown that thin metallic films on various substrates can agglomerate under short time high heat fluxes and also under longer lasting lower thermal loads, thus verifying the ''agglomeration hypothesis''. (orig.) [de

  15. Materials Properties Database for Selection of High-Temperature Alloys and Concepts of Alloy Design for SOFC Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z Gary; Paxton, Dean M.; Weil, K. Scott; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2002-11-24

    To serve as an interconnect / gas separator in an SOFC stack, an alloy should demonstrate the ability to provide (i) bulk and surface stability against oxidation and corrosion during prolonged exposure to the fuel cell environment, (ii) thermal expansion compatibility with the other stack components, (iii) chemical compatibility with adjacent stack components, (iv) high electrical conductivity of the surface reaction products, (v) mechanical reliability and durability at cell exposure conditions, (vii) good manufacturability, processability and fabricability, and (viii) cost effectiveness. As the first step of this approach, a composition and property database was compiled for high temperature alloys in order to assist in determining which alloys offer the most promise for SOFC interconnect applications in terms of oxidation and corrosion resistance. The high temperature alloys of interest included Ni-, Fe-, Co-base superal

  16. Protection Of TEG Module at High Temperature Transient Boundary Condition Using Phase Change Materials, an Experimental Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi Atouei,, Saeed; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Akbar Ranjbar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    phase change materials (PCM) in an aluminium box are placed between heat source and the thermoelectric module. The results show when the input heat flux is high, a fraction of the thermal energy is saved in the PCM during the melting process, and when the heat source is off, the saved energy in the PCM...... release slowly, causing a more stable electrical energy production by the TEM and lower the effect of the heat source temperature fluctuations. This study also shows by design of a proper geometry and selection of efficient PCMs, not only the high temperature pulse by the heat source is damped, also more...

  17. State of the art on high temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 1. Concepts, materials and modellization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Antoni; Medrano, Marc; Martorell, Ingrid; Cabeza, Luisa F. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001-Lleida (Spain); Lazaro, Ana; Dolado, Pablo; Zalba, Belen [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon, I3A, Grupo de Ingenieria Termica y Sistemas Energeticos (GITSE), Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus Politecnico Rio Ebro, Edificio ' Agustin de Betancourt' , Maria de Luna s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Concentrated solar thermal power generation is becoming a very attractive renewable energy production system among all the different renewable options, as it has have a better potential for dispatchability. This dispatchability is inevitably linked with an efficient and cost-effective thermal storage system. Thus, of all components, thermal storage is a key one. However, it is also one of the less developed. Only a few plants in the world have tested high temperature thermal energy storage systems. In this paper, the different storage concepts are reviewed and classified. All materials considered in literature or plants are listed. And finally, modellization of such systems is reviewed. (author)

  18. Computer-Aided Design of Materials for use under High Temperature Operating Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, K. R.; Rao, I. J.

    2010-01-31

    The procedures in place for producing materials in order to optimize their performance with respect to creep characteristics, oxidation resistance, elevation of melting point, thermal and electrical conductivity and other thermal and electrical properties are essentially trial and error experimentation that tend to be tremendously time consuming and expensive. A computational approach has been developed that can replace the trial and error procedures in order that one can efficiently design and engineer materials based on the application in question can lead to enhanced performance of the material, significant decrease in costs and cut down the time necessary to produce such materials. The work has relevance to the design and manufacture of turbine blades operating at high operating temperature, development of armor and missiles heads; corrosion resistant tanks and containers, better conductors of electricity, and the numerous other applications that are envisaged for specially structured nanocrystalline solids. A robust thermodynamic framework is developed within which the computational approach is developed. The procedure takes into account microstructural features such as the dislocation density, lattice mismatch, stacking faults, volume fractions of inclusions, interfacial area, etc. A robust model for single crystal superalloys that takes into account the microstructure of the alloy within the context of a continuum model is developed. Having developed the model, we then implement in a computational scheme using the software ABAQUS/STANDARD. The results of the simulation are compared against experimental data in realistic geometries.

  19. High-temperature mechanical and material design for SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced composites (FRC's) are strong potential candidate structural and high heat flux materials for fusion reactors. During this past decade, they have been vigorously developed for use in aerospace and transportation applications. Recent fusion reactor systems studies, such as ARIES, have concluded that further development of SiC composites will result in significant safety, operational, and waste disposal advantages for fusion systems. A concise discussion of the main material and design issues related to the use of SiC FRC's as structural materials in future fusion systems is given in this paper. The status of material processing of SiC/SiC composites is first reviewed. The advantages and shortcomings of the leading processing technology, known as Chemical Vapor Infiltration are particularly highlighted. A brief outline of the design-relevant physical, mechanical, and radiation data base is then presented. SiC/SiC FRC's possess the advantage of increased apparent toughness under mechanical loading conditions. This increased toughness, however, is associated with the nucleation and propagation of small crack patterns in the structure. Design approaches and failure criteria under these conditions are discussed

  20. Functionalisation of mesoporous materials for application as additives in high temperature PEM fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Monir

    2012-03-06

    The presented thesis contains six original research articles dedicated to the preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic mesoporous materials as additives for polymer electroly1e membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The mesoporous materials Si-MCM-41 and benzene-PMO (periodic mesoporous organosilica) were chosen for the investigations. These materials were modified with functional groups for enhanced proton conductivity and water-keeping properties. In order to improve these materials Broenstedt acidic groups were introduced in the framework of mesoporous Si-MCM-41. Therefore, some silicium atoms in the framework were substituted by aluminium using different aluminium sources. Here NaAlO{sub 2} exhibits clearly the best results because the entire aluminium incorporated within the framework is tetragonally coordinated as observed by {sup 2}7AI MAS NMR. The increase of the proton conductivities results from an improved hydrophilicity, a decreased particle size, and newly introduced Broenstedt acidity in the mesoporous Al-MCM-41. However, mesoporous Si-MCM-41 materials functionalised by co-condensation with sulphonic acid groups exhibit the best results concerning proton conductivity, compared to those prepared by grafting. Hence, these materials where characterized in more detail by SANS and by MAS NMR measurements. The first one indicated that by co-condensation the entire inner pore surface is altered by functional groups which are, thus, distributed much more homogeneously than samples functionalised by grafting. This result explains the improved proton conductivities. Additionally, {sup 2}9Si NMR spectra proved that samples prepared by co-condensation lead to a successful and almost complete incorporation of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilan (MPMS) into the mesoporous framework. Furthermore, it was shown by {sup 1}3C MAS NMR spectroscopy that the majority of the organic functional groups remained intact after H{sub 2}0{sub 2}-oxidation. However, proton

  1. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  2. DURIP95/Ultra High Precision Diagnostic High Temperature Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newaz, Golam M

    1997-01-01

    The DURIP grant was used to develop an efficient high temperature laboratory with high precision instruments to make deformation and load measurements in high temperature materials including advanced composites...

  3. A review of thermo-mechanical considerations of high temperature materials for synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The third generation synchrotron facilities such as the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) generate x-ray beams with very high heat load and heat flux levels. Certain front end and beamline components will be required to sustain total heat loads of 3.8 to 15 kW and heat flux levels exceeding 400 W/MM 2 even during the first phase of this project. Grazing geometry and enhanced heat transfer techniques used in the design of such components reduce the heat flux levels below the 30 W/MM 2 level, which is sustainable by the special copper materials routinely used in the component design. Although the resulting maximum surface temperatures are sustainable, the structural stresses and the fatigue issues remain viable concerns. Cyclic thermal loads have a propensity to cause spallation and thermal striping concerns. As such, the steady-state part of the problem is much easier to understand and handle than the time- dependent part. Ease of bonding as well as ultrahigh vacuum and radiation compatibility are additional constraints on material selection for these components. The two copper materials are the traditional OFHC and the newer sintered copper, Glidcop (a trademark product of the SCM Corporation of North Carolina), which are very commonly used in synchrotron components. New materials are also appearing in the form of heat sinks or heat spreaders that are bonded to the base copper in some fashion. These are either partially transparent to x-rays and have engineered volumetric heating and/or very conductive thermally to spread the thermal load in a preferred way. These materials are reviewed critically for high-heat-load or high-heat-flux applications in synchrotrons

  4. A Brief Description of High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell’s Operation, Materials, Design, Fabrication Technologies and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Irshad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world needs highly efficient systems that can fulfill the growing demand for energy. One of the promising solutions is the fuel cell. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is considered by many developed countries as an alternative solution of energy in near future. A lot of efforts have been made during last decade to make it commercial by reducing its cost and increasing its durability. Different materials, designs and fabrication technologies have been developed and tested to make it more cost effective and stable. This article is focused on the advancements made in the field of high temperature SOFC. High temperature SOFC does not need any precious catalyst for its operation, unlike in other types of fuel cell. Different conventional and innovative materials have been discussed along with properties and effects on the performance of SOFC’s components (electrolyte anode, cathode, interconnect and sealing materials. Advancements made in the field of cell and stack design are also explored along with hurdles coming in their fabrication and performance. This article also gives an overview of methods required for the fabrication of different components of SOFC. The flexibility of SOFC in terms fuel has also been discussed. Performance of the SOFC with varying combination of electrolyte, anode, cathode and fuel is also described in this article.

  5. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface...... different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cosθ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability...... contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability....

  6. Functionally graded ceramic materials for high temperature applications for space planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laux, T.; Auweter-Kurtz, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Space Syst.; Killinger, A.; Gadow, R.; Wilhelmi, H.

    1999-10-01

    Whether it is possible to develop a fully reusable space vehicle essentially depends, according to the current point of view, on the success of developing appropriate thermal protection materials. Functionally graded materials are being developed for this purpose. This paper presents first results of the manufacturing of graded coatings and their investigation under high enthalpy flow conditions. The materials were manufactured by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) at the Institute for Manufacturing Technologies of Ceramic Components and Composites (IFKB). The TPS is made up of principally three layers: a substrate, an intermediate layer and the appropriate thermal protection layer. The substrate is the high melting alloy Inconel 625. In addition to the improvement of the adhesive power between the top layer and the substrate the intermediate layer acts as an oxygen barrier. Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr, NiCrAlY and Mo-MoSi{sub 2} are investigated as intermediate layer materials. ZrO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} are used for the TPS surface. First investigations of the selection of surface and intermediate layers were carried out. The investigation of the erosion behaviour was performed within a plasma wind tunnel at the Institute for Space Systems (IRS). The circular samples are loaded by a high enthalpy flow produced by a magnetoplasmadynamic generator (MPG). The test conditions were determined by measurements of the heat flux and the Pitot pressure. The surface temperature of the test sample is measured by pyrometers. The effects of thermal and chemical loads on the sample are presented. (orig.) 15 refs.

  7. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Survey of Materials Research and Development Needs to Support Early Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; G. Baccaglini; S. Ball; T. Burchell; B. Corwin; T. Fewell; M. Labar; P. MacDonald; P. Rittenhouse; Russ Vollam; F. Southworth

    2003-01-01

    The VHTR reference concept is a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. It is expected that the VHTR will be purchased in the future as either an electricity producing plant with a direct cycle gas turbine or a hydrogen producing (or other process heat application) plant. The process heat version of the VHTR will require that an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and primary gas circulator be located in an adjoining power conversion vessel. A third VHTR mission - actinide burning - can be accomplished with either the hydrogen-production or gas turbine designs. The first ''demonstration'' VHTR will produce both electricity and hydrogen using the IHX to transfer the heat to either a hydrogen production plant or the gas turbine. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. The purpose of this report is to identify the materials research and development needs for the VHTR. To do this, we focused on the plant design described in Section 2, which is similar to the GT-MHR plant design (850 C core outlet temperature). For system or component designs that present significant material challenges (or far greater expense) there may be some viable design alternatives or options that can reduce development needs or allow use of available (cheaper) materials. Nevertheless, we were not able to assess those alternatives in the time allotted for this report and, to move forward with this material research and development assessment, the authors of this report felt that it was necessary to use a GT-MHR type design as the baseline design.

  8. Geopolymer encapsulation of a chloride salt phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rhys; Trout, Neil; Raud, Ralf; Clarke, Stephen; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank

    2016-05-01

    In an effort to reduce the cost and increase the material compatibility of encapsulated phase change materials (EPCMs) a new encapsulated system has been proposed. In the current study a molten salt eutectic of barium chloride (53% wt.), potassium chloride (28% wt.) and sodium chloride (19% wt.) has been identified as a promising candidate for low cost EPCM storage systems. The latent heat, melting point and thermal stability of the phase change material (PCM) was determined by DSC and was found to be in good agreement with results published in the literature. To cope with the corrosive nature of the PCM, it was decided that a fly-ash based geopolymer met the thermal and economic constraints for encapsulation. The thermal stability of the geopolymer shell was also tested with several formulations proving to form a stable shell for the chosen PCM at 200°C and/or 600°C. Lastly several capsules of the geopolymer shell with a chloride PCM were fabricated using a variety of methods with several samples remaining stable after exposure to 600°C testing.

  9. High-Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCM) Candidates for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    It is clearly understood that lower overall costs are a key factor to make renewable energy technologies competitive with traditional energy sources. Energy storage technology is one path to increase the value and reduce the cost of all renewable energy supplies. Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies have the ability to dispatch electrical output to match peak demand periods by employing thermal energy storage (TES). Energy storage technologies require efficient materials with high energy density. Latent heat TES systems using phase change material (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation like melting-solidification. PCM technology relies on the energy absorption/liberation of the latent heat during a physical transformation. The main objective of this report is to provide an assessment of molten salts and metallic alloys proposed as candidate PCMs for TES applications, particularly in solar parabolic trough electrical power plants at a temperature range from 300..deg..C to 500..deg.. C. The physical properties most relevant for PCMs service were reviewed from the candidate selection list. Some of the PCM candidates were characterized for: chemical stability with some container materials; phase change transformation temperatures; and latent heats.

  10. Evaluation of cermet materials suitable for lithium lubricated thrust bearings for high temperature operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J. H.; Hendrixson, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Cerment materials (HfC - 10 wt% W; HfC - 10 wt% TaC - 10 wt%W; HfC - 2 wt% CbC - 8 wt% Mo;Hfn - 10 wt% W; Hfn - 10 wt% TaN - 10 wt% W; and ZrC - 17 wt% W) were evaluated for possible use as lithium-lubricated bearings in the control system of a nuclear reactor. Tests of compatibility with lithium were made in T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) capsules at temperatures up to 1090 C. The tendencies of HfC-TaC-W, HfC-CbC-Mo, and HfN-W to bond to themselves and to the refractory alloys T-111 and TZM when enclosed in lithium-filled capsules under a pressure of 2000 psi at 980 and 1200 C for 1933 hours were evaluated. Thermal expansion characteristics were determined for the same three materials from room temperature to 1200 C. On the basis of these tests, HfC-10 TaC-10W and HfN-10W were selected as the best and second best candidates, respectively, of the materials tested for the bearing application.

  11. The European efforts in development of new high temperature rotor materials - COST536

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, T.U. [Siemens Energy, Muehlheim (Germany); Mayer, K.H. [Alstom Power, Nuernberg (Germany); Donth, B. [Saarschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany); Zeiler, G. [Boehler Schmiedetechnik, Kapfenberg (Austria); Di Gianfrancesco, A. [CSM, Roma (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Despite the ongoing efforts to increase the amount of available alternative energy sources, fossil fuels such as lignite and hard coal will remain important for the energy mix and sustainability of energy supply. Fossil-fuelled Steam Power Plants (SSP's) or Combined Cycle power plants (CCPP's) will also continue to supply a significant portion of our energy needs. Within the frame of European COST536, a new project was installed with the aim of Alloy development for Critical Components of Environmentally friendly Power planTs (ACCEPT) aiming for material solutions for steam conditions up to 650 C. Martensitic materials should be used for thick-walled components to maintain high operational flexibility of such large plants. Rotors, casings, bolts, tubes, pipes, and water walls, are the critical components under current investigation. The class of the 9-12%Cr steels offers the highest potential to meet the required property levels for critical components such as rotor forgings. Therefore a significant effort to increase the application temperature of these steels was and is the focus of studies within Europe. Although there are 600 C materials already being successfully utilised in a number of advanced European power plants, further improvement in creep strength is being achieved by the addition of Boron and a well balanced Co content. Full-size prototype components are now being tested. New ideas to improve the behaviour and increase the application temperatures are under investigation. Results are reported here. (orig.)

  12. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters. Topical report for part 1 of high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spear, K.E.; Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-11

    This program consists of two separate research areas. Part 1, for which this report is written, studied the high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic hot gas filters, while Part 2 studied the long-term durability of ceramic heat exchangers to coal combustion environments. The objectives of Part 1 were to select two candidate ceramic filter materials for flow-through hot corrosion studies and subsequent corrosion and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, a thermodynamic database was developed so that thermochemical modeling studies could be performed to simulate operating conditions of laboratory reactors and existing coal combustion power plants, and to predict the reactions of new filter materials with coal combustion environments. The latter would make it possible to gain insight into problems that could develop during actual operation of filters in coal combustion power plants so that potential problems could be addressed before they arise.

  13. High temperature refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator is described which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle the working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot

  14. High temperature refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  15. Lightweight High Temperature Non-Eroding Throat Materials for Propulsion Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation or passively cooled thrust chambers are used for a variety of chemical propulsion functions including apogee insertion, reaction control for launch...

  16. High temperature structural silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi 2 -based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi 2 single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi 2 possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi 2 -Si 3 N 4 composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi 2 -based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing

  17. Fire victim identification by post-mortem dental CT: Radiologic evaluation of restorative materials after exposure to high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woisetschlaeger, Mischa, E-mail: Mischa.woisetschlager@lio.se [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualisation (CMIV), University Hospital Linkoeping, Linkoeping University, 58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Lussi, Adrian, E-mail: anders.persson@cmiv.lio.se [Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 7, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Persson, Anders, E-mail: adrian.lussi@zmk.unibe.ch [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualisation (CMIV), University Hospital Linkoeping, Linkoeping University, 58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Jackowski, Christian, E-mail: christian.jackowski@irm.uzh.ch [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualisation (CMIV), University Hospital Linkoeping, Linkoeping University, 58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of high resolution CT to radiologically define teeth filling material properties in terms of Hounsfield units after high temperature exposure. Methods: 122 human molars with 10 different filling materials at defined filling diameters were examined. The teeth were CT scanned both before and after the exposure to different temperatures. After image reconstruction, the teeth and filling materials were analyzed regarding their morphology and Hounsfield units (HU) using an extended HU scale. Results: The majority of filling materials diminished in size at temperatures {>=}400 deg. C. HU values were stable for all materials up till 200 deg. C, and only slightly changed up to 600 deg. C. Cerec, Dyract and dentin showed only minor changes in HU at all temperatures. The other materials, inclusive enamel, showed specific patterns, either increasing or decreasing in HU with increasing temperatures over 600 deg. C. Conclusions: Over 600 deg. C the filling materials show specific patterns that can be used to discriminate filling materials. Ultra high resolution CT may improve the identification processes in fire victims. Existing 3D visualization presets for the dentition can be used until 600 deg. C and have to be optimized for bodies exposed to higher temperatures.

  18. Fire victim identification by post-mortem dental CT: Radiologic evaluation of restorative materials after exposure to high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woisetschlaeger, Mischa; Lussi, Adrian; Persson, Anders; Jackowski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of high resolution CT to radiologically define teeth filling material properties in terms of Hounsfield units after high temperature exposure. Methods: 122 human molars with 10 different filling materials at defined filling diameters were examined. The teeth were CT scanned both before and after the exposure to different temperatures. After image reconstruction, the teeth and filling materials were analyzed regarding their morphology and Hounsfield units (HU) using an extended HU scale. Results: The majority of filling materials diminished in size at temperatures ≥400 deg. C. HU values were stable for all materials up till 200 deg. C, and only slightly changed up to 600 deg. C. Cerec, Dyract and dentin showed only minor changes in HU at all temperatures. The other materials, inclusive enamel, showed specific patterns, either increasing or decreasing in HU with increasing temperatures over 600 deg. C. Conclusions: Over 600 deg. C the filling materials show specific patterns that can be used to discriminate filling materials. Ultra high resolution CT may improve the identification processes in fire victims. Existing 3D visualization presets for the dentition can be used until 600 deg. C and have to be optimized for bodies exposed to higher temperatures.

  19. High temperature packed bed thermal energy storage systems based on low cost materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Fernández, Iñigo

    2017-01-01

    294 p. Los sistemas de almacenamiento térmico basados en lecho fijo se presentan hoy en día como una alternativa de bajo coste que permite incrementar sustancialmente la eficiencia de numerosos procesos industriales. En esta tecnología, partículas de un material sólido apiladas formando un lecho son empleadas como medio de almacenamiento térmico. A través de este lecho se hace circular un fluido caloportador el cual cede o recibe el calor en función de si el sistema está en modo de carga o...

  20. Cladding material, tube including such cladding material and methods of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-layered cladding material including a ceramic matrix composite and a metallic material, and a tube formed from the cladding material. The metallic material forms an inner liner of the tube and enables hermetic sealing of thereof. The metallic material at ends of the tube may be exposed and have an increased thickness enabling end cap welding. The metallic material may, optionally, be formed to infiltrate voids in the ceramic matrix composite, the ceramic matrix composite encapsulated by the metallic material. The ceramic matrix composite includes a fiber reinforcement and provides increased mechanical strength, stiffness, thermal shock resistance and high temperature load capacity to the metallic material of the inner liner. The tube may be used as a containment vessel for nuclear fuel used in a nuclear power plant or other reactor. Methods for forming the tube comprising the ceramic matrix composite and the metallic material are also disclosed.

  1. Investigation of nanostructured Al-10 wt.% Zr material prepared by ball milling for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosviryakov, A.S.; Shcherbachev, K.D.; Tabachkova, N.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Ground chips of as-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) with 5 vol.% of nanodiamond addition in a high energy planetary ball-mill. The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure, phase transformation and mechanical properties of the material both after MA and after subsequent annealing. Optical and transmission electron microscopes were used for morphological and microstructural analysis. The effect of milling time on powder microhardness, Al lattice parameter, lattice microstrain and crystallite size was determined. It was shown that mechanical alloying of as-cast Al-10wt.%Zr alloy during 20 h leads to a complete dissolution of the primary tetragonal Al 3 Zr crystals in aluminum. At the same time, the powder microhardness increases to 370 HV. Metastable cubic Al 3 Zr phase nanoparticles precipitate from the Al solution due to its decomposition after annealing, however, the Al solid solution remains supersaturated and nanocrystalline. Compression tests at room temperature and at 300 °C showed that the strength values of the hot-pressed samples reach 822 MPa and 344 MPa, respectively. - Highlights: •As-cast Al-10 wt.% Zr alloy was mechanically alloyed with 5 vol.% nanodiamond. •The primary tetragonal Al 3 Zr crystals were completely dissolved in Al after 20 h. •Cubic Al 3 Zr phase nanoparticles precipitated from Al solution after aging. •The aged bulk material showed a high strength at room and elevated temperatures.

  2. Some studies on the behavior of W-RE thermocouple materials at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G. W.; Hurst, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    Bare 0.25 mm diameter W-Re alloy thermoelements (W, W-3% Re, W-5% Re and W-25%) and BeO-insulated W-3% Re and W-25% Re thermoelements were examined for metallurgical, chemical and thermal emf changes after testing for periods up to 1000 hours at temperatures principally in the range 2000 to 2400 K. Environments for the tests consisted of high purity argon, hydrogen, helium or nitrogen gases. Commercially obtained bare-wire thermoelements typically exhibited a shift in their emf-temperature relationship upon initial exposure. The shift was completed by thermally aging the W-3% Re thermoelement for 1 hour and the W-25% Re thermoelement for 2 minutes at 2400 K in argon or hydrogen. Aged thermoelements experienced no appreciable drift with subsequent exposure at 2400 K in the gaseous environments. The chemically doped W3% Re thermoelement retained a small-grained structure for exposure in excess of 50 hours at 2400 K. BeO-insulated thermoelement assemblies showed varied behavior that depended upon the method of exposure. However, when the assemblies were heated in a furnace, no serious material incompatibility problems were found if the materials were given prior thermal treatments. Thermocouples, assembled from aged W-3% Re and W-25% Re thermoelements and degassed sintered BeO insulators, exhibited a drift of only 2 to 3 K during exposure in argon at 2070 K for 1029 hours.

  3. Max Phase Materials And Coatings For High Temperature Heat Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Rodriguez, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Olson, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fuentes, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-19

    Molten salts have been used as heat transfer fluids in a variety of applications within proposed Gen IV nuclear designs and in advanced power system such as Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). However, operating at elevated temperatures can cause corrosion in many materials. This work developed coating technologies for MAX phase materials on Haynes-230 and characterized the corrosion of the coatings in the presence of commercial MgCl2-KCl molten salt. Cold spraying of Ti2AlC and physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Ti2AlC or Zr2AlC were tested to determine the most effective form of coating MAX phases on structural substrates. Corrosion testing at 850°C for 100 hrs showed that 3.9 μm Ti2AlC by PVD was slightly protective while 117 μm Ti2AlC by cold spray and 3.6 μm Zr2AlC by PVD were completely protective. None of the tests showed decomposition of the coating (Ti or Zr) into the salt

  4. Synthesis of Improved Catalytic Materials for High-Temperature Water-gas Shift Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara P. Cherkezova-Zheleva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, we report the preparation and characterization of Co-, Cu- and Mn-substituted iron oxide catalytic materials supported on activated carbon. Co-precipitation method and low temperature treatment were used for their synthesis. The influence of chemical composition, stoichiometry, particle size and dispersity on their catalytic activity was studied. Samples were characterized in all stages of their co-precipitation, heating and spend samples after catalytic tests. The obtained results from room and low temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy were combined with analysis of powder X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD. They revealed the preparation of nano-sized iron oxide materials supported on activated carbon. Relaxation phenomena were registered also for the supported phases. The catalytic performance in the water-gas shift reaction was studied. The activity order was as follows: Cu0.5Fe2.5O4 > Co0.5Fe2.5O4 > Mn0.5Fe2.5O4. Catalytic tests demonstrated very promising results and potential application of studied samples due to their cost-effective composition.

  5. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert

    1987-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  6. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. F.; Devan, J. H.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquid temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi2, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi2, are presented.

  7. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  8. Graphical assessment of the linear contact steel on composite material at high temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Dorin; Florescu, Virgil; Bausic, Florin; Ursache, Robert; Sasu, Anca

    2018-01-01

    In this article we have tried to present a graphical assessment of the dry linear contact for composite materials reinforced with glass fibers as well as of the influence of the sliding speed, load and friction coefficient. Perpendicular loads, the contact temperature and the wear of the metal surface were recorded. The wear volume was calculated using the Archard relationship. Using the Archard relationship, the width of trace can be calculated in 3 locations. Numerous experimental trials were performed in connection to the wear of the metal surface, the contact temperature and the value of the friction coefficient. A connection between the evolution of the wear process and the dependency on the contact temperature and friction coefficient can be observed.

  9. Fundamental Understanding of Ambient and High-Temperature Plasticity Phenomena in Structural Materials in Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, Chaitanya; Zhu, Ting; McDowell, David

    2013-11-17

    The goal of this research project is to develop the methods and tools necessary to link unit processes analyzed using atomistic simulations involving interaction of vacancies and interstitials with dislocations, as well as dislocation mediation at sessile junctions and interfaces as affected by radiation, with cooperative influence on higher-length scale behavior of polycrystals. These tools and methods are necessary to design and enhance radiation-induced damage-tolerant alloys. The project will achieve this goal by applying atomistic simulations to characterize unit processes of: 1. Dislocation nucleation, absorption, and desorption at interfaces 2. Vacancy production, radiation-induced segregation of substitutional Cr at defect clusters (point defect sinks) in BCC Fe-Cr ferritic/martensitic steels 3. Investigation of interaction of interstitials and vacancies with impurities (V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Al, Si, P, S) 4. Time evolution of swelling (cluster growth) phenomena of irradiated materials 5. Energetics and kinetics of dislocation bypass of defects formed by interstitial clustering and formation of prismatic loops, informing statistical models of continuum character with regard to processes of dislocation glide, vacancy agglomeration and swelling, climb and cross slip This project will consider the Fe, Fe-C, and Fe-Cr ferritic/martensitic material system, accounting for magnetism by choosing appropriate interatomic potentials and validating with first principles calculations. For these alloys, the rate of swelling and creep enhancement is considerably lower than that of face-centered cubic (FCC) alloys and of austenitic Fe-Cr-Mo alloys. The team will confirm mechanisms, validate simulations at various time and length scales, and improve the veracity of computational models. The proposed research?s feasibility is supported by recent modeling of radiation effects in metals and alloys, interfacial dislocation transfer reactions in nano-twinned copper, and dislocation

  10. Compatibility problems of canning materials with carbon dioxide at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.; Loriers, H.

    1964-01-01

    The adoption in France of carbon dioxide under pressure as a heat carrying fluid in advanced reactors of the gas-graphite and gas heavy water types has led to the necessity of finding a canning material capable of replacing magnesium alloys. Actually these latter can no longer be used above about 500 C, because of the proximity to their melting points and of their mechanical properties which become under these conditions insufficient, although their oxidation resistance in the presence of carbon dioxide is still acceptable. Beryllium which is particularly attractive because of its low neutron capture cross-section, has a very big disadvantage, amongst others: its use in the presence of carbon dioxide et 600 C is only possible if the gas is perfectly dry, the water-vapour partial pressure being the determining factor calling for a degree of drying which increases with increasing absolute pressure. In the opposite case after a short incubation period, the oxidation accelerates and leads to an intergranular corrosion which is rapidly destructive. Nevertheless, beryllium-calcium or beryllium-magnesium alloys containing 0,5 p 100 of the addition element make it possible to overcome this difficulty; they may be used in the presence of a few hundred vpm of water vapour up to at least 700 C. The metallurgical problems convected with the applicability of beryllium or its alloys have led however to the consideration of possibly using provisionally austenitic stainless steels These materials are intrinsically very resistant to oxidation, but, as only small thicknesses can be used because of their high capture cross-section, it is necessary to choose the grades which are least prone to oxidation. Above 300 C, the niobium stabilised grades, without addition of molybdenum are the most acceptable. Above 700 C, the 20 Cr - 25 Ni + Nb grade appears more suitable than the conventional 18 Cr - 10 Ni + Nb grade, especially as it is less liable to local oxide penetrations. Beryllium

  11. Bi2O2Se nanosheet: An excellent high-temperature n-type thermoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiabing; Sun, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the recent synthesis of an ultrathin film of layered Bi2O2Se [Wu et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 530 (2017); Wu et al., Nano Lett. 17, 3021 (2017)], we have systematically studied the thermoelectric properties of a Bi2O2Se nanosheet using first principles density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. The calculated results indicate that the Bi2O2Se nanosheet exhibits a figure of merit (ZT) of 3.35 for optimal n-type doping at 800 K, which is much larger than the ZT value of 2.6 at 923 K in SnSe known as the most efficient thermoelectric material [Zhao et al., Nature 508, 373 (2014)]. Equally important, the high ZT in the n-type doped Bi2O2Se nanosheet highlights the efficiency of the reduced dimension on improving thermoelectric performance as compared with strain engineering by which the ZT of n-type doped bulk Bi2O2Se cannot be effectively enhanced.

  12. The problems of material pairs under the specific conditions of high-temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, J.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation gives a detailed descirption of the problems of friction and solid lubrication of slide and ball bearings under HTR conditions. The first part is concerned with an analysis of established approaches for determining the friction factor and the development of a mathematical model on this basis, taking particular account of the following parameters. (1) Surface characteristics (peak-to-valley height, pressure angles of roughness elevations) and, (2) material properties of the friction partner (ductility, brittleness, crystal structure). The formula for friction factor thus arrived at incorporates the microscopic and sub-microscopic influence of the surface grain structure. In addition, the effects of elastic and plastic properties at the region of contact was studied. The derived equation is used to characterise frictional properties and enables a suitable and economic friction pair to be selected. The second part deals with the application of solid lubrication and the effect of the solid lubricant film on the mechanicsm and kinematics of ball bearings. In the final part of this investigation an evaluation of experimental results is carried out on the basis of the preceding theoretical studies in order to confirm the theoretical approach and to provide information of practical use on limits of application, cost details and aids to construction. (orig./IHOE) [de

  13. Modified T-history method for measuring thermophysical properties of phase change materials at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaraa, Ehsan; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank; Liu, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to store large amounts of energy in a narrow temperature difference during phase transition. The thermophysical properties of PCMs such as latent heat, specific heat and melting and solidification temperature need to be defined at high precision for the design and estimating the cost of latent heat storage systems. The existing laboratory standard methods, such as differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), use a small sample size (1-10 mg) to measure thermophysical properties, which makes these methods suitable for homogeneous elements. In addition, this small amount of sample has different thermophysical properties when compared with the bulk sample and may have limitations for evaluating the properties of mixtures. To avoid the drawbacks in existing methods, the temperature - history (T-history) method can be used with bulk quantities of PCM salt mixtures to characterize PCMs. This paper presents a modified T-history setup, which was designed and built at the University of South Australia to measure the melting point, heat of fusion, specific heat, degree of supercooling and phase separation of salt mixtures for a temperature range between 200 °C and 400 °C. Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) was used to verify the accuracy of the new setup.

  14. A Study of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials at High Temperature Using an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jony, Mahfuzur Rahman

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising energy conversion devices, but their economic viability depends on long term stability of the SOFC materials at the high operating temperatures. The in-situ study of materials degradation faces a great challenge because of the unavailability of analytical methods at those high temperatures. The traditional analytical techniques for degradation measurements are widely based on post-mortem studies. The cells or cell materials are cooled down to room temperature and are then subjected to microscopy-based methods. Combining post-mortem analyses with cell modelling, several studies have reported the following microstructural degradations: (a) Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM) particles, one of the most widely used cathode material, 'melt' or 'spread' at temperatures as low 850 °C without the presence of a current flow on Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) surface, (b) the Ni particle shapes change during oxidation of nickel to NiO and as a result of reduction of NiO to Ni during redox cycling, (c) the formation of nickel phosphide particles on the Ni/YSZ anode surface due to the presence of PH3 in coal syngas. However, these reports are limited due to the fact that analyses were done at room temperature rather at their high operating temperature. In this current study, cell materials were examined in-situ at high temperature using an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope installed with a heating stage. High temperature images were collected for different cell materials such as silver paste, LSM particles, nickel oxide particles and secondary nickel phosphide phase formed on YSZ substrate. The images were analyzed by using ImageJ, an open source image processing software. An image analysis protocol was developed to analyze the cell materials images taken from 500 °C to 1080 °C. The image analysis provides both qualitative and quantitative insight of electrode/electrolyte interface. This novel approach of the SOFC

  15. High Temperature Steam Oxidation Testing of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parkison, Adam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels in order to overcome the inherent shortcomings of light water reactor (LWR) fuels when exposed to beyond design basis accident conditions. The campaign has invested in development of experimental infrastructure within the Department of Energy complex capable of chronicling the performance of a wide range of concepts under prototypic accident conditions. This report summarizes progress made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in FY13 toward these goals. Alternative fuel cladding materials to Zircaloy for accident tolerance and a significantly extended safety margin requires oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥1200°C for short times. At ORNL, prior work focused attention on SiC, FeCr and FeCrAl as the most promising candidates for further development. Also, it was observed that elevated pressure and H2 additions had minor effects on alloy steam oxidation resistance, thus, 1 bar steam was adequate for screening potential candidates. Commercial Fe-20Cr-5Al alloys remain protective up to 1475°C in steam and CVD SiC up to 1700°C in steam. Alloy development has focused on Fe-Cr-Mn-Si-Y and Fe-Cr-Al-Y alloys with the aluminaforming alloys showing more promise. At 1200°C, ferritic binary Fe-Cr alloys required ≥25% Cr to be protective for this application. With minor alloy additions to Fe-Cr, more than 20%Cr was still required, which makes the alloy susceptible to α’ embrittlement. Based on current results, a Fe-15Cr-5Al-Y composition was selected for initial tube fabrication and welding for irradiation experiments in FY14. Evaluations of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were conducted up to 1700°C in steam. The reaction of H2O with the alumina reaction tube at 1700°C resulted in Al(OH)3

  16. TAOI B- Computational Microstructural Optimization Design Tool for High Temperature Structural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Rajiv [Univ. Of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Charit, Indrajit [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2015-02-28

    The objectives of this research were two-fold: (a) develop a methodology for microstructural optimization of alloys - genetic algorithm approach for alloy microstructural optimization using theoretical models based on fundamental micro-mechanisms, and (b) develop a new computationally designed Ni-Cr alloy for coal-fired power plant applications. The broader outcome of these objectives is expected to be creation of an integrated approach for ‘structural materials by microstructural design’. Three alloy systems were considered for computational optimization and validation, (i) Ni-20Cr (wt.%) base alloy using only solid solution strengthening, (ii) nano-Y2O3 containing Ni-20Cr-1.2Y2O3 (wt.%) alloy for dispersion strengthening and (iii) a sub-micron Al2O3 for composite strengthening, Ni-20Cr-1.2Y2O3-5.0Al2O3 (wt.%). The specimens were synthesized by mechanical alloying and consolidated using spark plasma sintering. Detailed microstructural characterization was done along with initial mechanical properties to validate the computational prediction. A key target property is to have creep rate of 1x10-9 s-1 at 100 MPa and 800oC. The initial results were quite promising and require additional quantification of strengthening contributions from dislocation-particle attractive interaction and load transfer. The observed creep rate was in order of 10-9 s-1 for longer time creep test of Ni-20Cr -1.2Y2O3-5Al2O3, lending support to the overall approach pursued in this project.

  17. In situ studies of materials for high temperature CO2 capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Matthew T; Maugeri, Serena A; Liu, Wen; Tucker, Matthew G; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O; Gonzalez, Belen; Allan, Phoebe K; Gaultois, Michael W; Shearing, Paul R; Keen, David A; Phillips, Anthony E; Dove, Martin T; Scott, Stuart A; Dennis, John S; Grey, Clare P

    2016-10-20

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) offers a possible solution to curb the CO 2 emissions from stationary sources in the coming decades, considering the delays in shifting energy generation to carbon neutral sources such as wind, solar and biomass. The most mature technology for post-combustion capture uses a liquid sorbent, amine scrubbing. However, with the existing technology, a large amount of heat is required for the regeneration of the liquid sorbent, which introduces a substantial energy penalty. The use of alternative sorbents for CO 2 capture, such as the CaO-CaCO 3 system, has been investigated extensively in recent years. However there are significant problems associated with the use of CaO based sorbents, the most challenging one being the deactivation of the sorbent material. When sorbents such as natural limestone are used, the capture capacity of the solid sorbent can fall by as much as 90 mol% after the first 20 carbonation-regeneration cycles. In this study a variety of techniques were employed to understand better the cause of this deterioration from both a structural and morphological standpoint. X-ray and neutron PDF studies were employed to understand better the local surface and interfacial structures formed upon reaction, finding that after carbonation the surface roughness is decreased for CaO. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies showed that carbonation with added steam leads to a faster and more complete conversion of CaO than under conditions without steam, as evidenced by the phases seen at different depths within the sample. Finally, in situ X-ray tomography experiments were employed to track the morphological changes in the sorbents during carbonation, observing directly the reduction in porosity and increase in tortuosity of the pore network over multiple calcination reactions.

  18. Synthesis and analysis of Mo-Si-B based coatings for high temperature oxidation protection of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Patrick J.

    The use of Ni-based superalloys in turbine engines has all but been exhausted, with operating temperatures nearing the melting point of these materials. The use of ceramics in turbine engines, particularly ceramic matrix composites such as SiC/C and SiC/SiC, is of interest due to their low density and attractive mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The same materials are also in consideration for leading edges on hypersonic vehicles. However, SiC-based composites degrade in high temperature environments with low partial pressures of oxygen due to active oxidation, as well as high temperature environments containing water or sand. The need for a protective external coating for SiC-based composites in service is obvious. To date, no coating investigated for SiC/C or SiC/SiC has been proven to be resistant to oxidation and corrosion at intermediate and high temperatures, as well as in environments deficient in oxygen. The Mo-Si-B coating shows great promise in this area, having been proven resistant to attack from oxidation at extreme temperatures, from water vapor and from calcia-magnesia-aluminosilicate (CMAS). The adaptation of the Mo-Si-B coating for ceramic materials is presented in detail here. Evaluation of the coating under a range of oxidation conditions as well as simulated re-entry conditions confirms the efficacy of the Mo-Si-B based coating as protection from catastrophic failure. The key to the oxidation and corrosion resistance is a robust external aluminoborosilica glass layer that forms and flows quickly to cover the substrate, even under the extreme simulated re-entry conditions. Suppression of active oxidation of SiC, which may occur during atmospheric re-entry and hypersonic flight trajectories, has also been examined. In order to adapt the Mo-Si-B based coating to low partial pressures of oxygen and elevated temperatures, controlled amounts of Al were added to the Mo-Si-B based coating. The resulting coating decreased the inward

  19. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Fourteenth Annual Report: October 2000 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.

    2002-05-16

    The HTML User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 92 new projects and developing 48 new user agreements. Table 1 presents the breakdown of these statistics. Figure 1 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You will note that the total number of HTML proposals has now exceeded 1000. Also, the large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. At the end of the report, we present a list of proposals to the HTML and a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are highlighted in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, and approval by ORNL for the construction of a building to house our new aberration-corrected electron microscope (ACEM) and several other sensitive electron and optical instruments.

  20. Influence of metal lattice vacancies on the oxidation of high temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, G.B.; Hales, R.

    1977-01-01

    When an oxide scale grows on a metal by the outward diffusion of cations, it is anticipated theoretically that lattice vacancies will be injected into the metal substrate. There is a large body of evidence supporting this proposition including electron microscope observations on the climb of secondary defects, the optical microscopy of voids, and some tracer diffusion effects. The influence of a vacancy supersaturation on the kinetics of oxidation is considered in detail and an analogy is drawn between the effect of vacancy concentrations and variations in oxygen potential on scale growth rates. However, for most practical situations the effects are shown to be small. Injected lattice vacancies are annihilated at various internal sinks such as the scale/metal interface or defects within the matrix. Factors which determine where vacancies are likely to be annihilated are discussed. Vacancy annihilation produces dimensional changes in the metal substrate which favour the eventual breakdown of the scale/metal interface and loss of scale adhesion. Thus a compact scale growing by the outward diffusion of vacancies has inherent long-term instability. Previously compact scale overlying an interfacial void is able to dissociate to produce microchannels which allow gas access to the underlying metal. this does not necessarily result in a loss of corrosion protection; an inner layer of oxide can form at a parabolic rate in the vacancy condensation zone made available by the outward diffusion of cations. Oxidation by CO 2 , H 2 0 and CO-CO 2 mixtures is discussed, and the preferential oxidation of one metal in an alloy. (author)

  1. Study of high temperature oxidation of duplex and functionally graded materials of thermal barrier coating (FGM TBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeedi, B.; Sabour, A. R.; Khodami, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Although the number and the severity of thermal barrier coatings applications on hot section components have dramatically increased in the past decade, premature spallation failure of thermal barrier coatings , due to mismatch of thermal expansion at the metal/ceramic interface of the two coating layers, during service is still an overriding concern. Therefore, functionally graded materials with a gradual compositional variation have been introduced. In this study, comparison of properties of two different types of thermal barrier coatings was made to improve the surface characteristics on high temperature components. These thermal barrier coatings consisted of a duplex thermal barrier coatings and a five layered functionally graded thermal barrier coatings . In both coatings, Yttria partially stabilized Zirconia topcoat was deposited by air plasma spraying and Ni Cr Al Y bond coat was deposited by high velocity oxy fuel spraying. In functionally graded materials coating, functionally graded layer was sprayed by air plasma process by varying the feeding ratio of YSZ/Ni Cr Al Y powders using two separate powder feeders. Then, isothermal oxidation was carried out at 950 d eg C in atmosphere to obtain the plot of mass change vs. time to study oxidation kinetic. Microstructural and compositional changes of coating, oxides formed during service were examined by optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy with EDS. functionally graded materials coating failed after 2100 h and duplex coating failed after 1700 h. Finally, it was found that functionally graded materials coating is more qualified than duplex thermal barrier coatings and stands for a longer time

  2. High temperature alloys and ceramic heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masaharu

    1984-04-01

    From the standpoint of energy saving, the future operating temperatures of process heat and gas turbine plants will become higher. For this purpose, ceramics is the most promissing candidate material in strength for application to high-temperature heat exchangers. This report deals with a servey of characteristics of several high-temperature metallic materials and ceramics as temperature-resistant materials; including a servey of the state-of-the-art of ceramic heat exchanger technologies developed outside of Japan, and a study of their application to the intermediate heat exchanger of VHTR (a very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor). (author)

  3. Material Science for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics: From Advanced Optical Coatings to Cell Design for High-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Emmett Edward

    Solar cells based on III-V compound semiconductors are ideally suited to convert solar energy into electricity. The highest efficiency single-junction solar cells are made of gallium arsenide, and have attained an efficiency of 28.8%. Multiple III-V materials can be combined to construct multijunction solar cells, which have reached record efficiencies greater than 45% under concentration. III-V solar cells are also well suited to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures, due in large part to their high material quality. These properties make III-V solar cells an excellent choice for use in concentrator systems. Concentrator photovoltaic systems have attained module efficiencies that exceed 40%, and have the potential to reach the lowest levelized cost of electricity in sunny places like the desert southwest. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar energy systems can utilize high-temperature III-V solar cells to simultaneously achieve dispatchability and a high sunlight-to-electricity efficiency. This dissertation explores material science to advance the state of III-V multijunction solar cells for use in concentrator photovoltaic and hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar energy systems. The first half of this dissertation describes work on advanced optical designs to improve the efficiency of multijunction solar cells. As multijunction solar cells move to configurations with four or more subcells, they utilize a larger portion of the solar spectrum. Broadband antireflection coatings are essential to realizing efficiency gains for these state-of-the-art cells. A hybrid design consisting of antireflective nanostructures placed on top of multilayer interference-based optical coatings is developed. Antireflection coatings that utilize this hybrid approach yield unparalleled performance, minimizing reflection losses to just 0.2% on sapphire and 0.6% on gallium nitride for 300-1800nm light. Dichroic mirrors are developed for bonded 5-junction solar cells that utilize InGaN as

  4. A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys based on nonlocal damage and viscoplastic material behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, B. T.; Hackl, K.

    2014-07-01

    A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys is developed, which includes constitutive laws for nonlocal damage and viscoplasticity. It is based on a variational formulation, employing potentials for free energy, and dissipation originating from plasticity and damage. Evolution equations for plastic strain and damage variables are derived from the well-established minimum principle for the dissipation potential. The model is capable of describing the different stages of creep in a unified way. Plastic deformation in superalloys incorporates the evolution of dislocation densities of the different phases present. It results in a time dependence of the creep rate in primary and secondary creep. Tertiary creep is taken into account by introducing local and nonlocal damage. Herein, the nonlocal one is included in order to model strain localization as well as to remove mesh dependence of finite element calculations. Numerical results and comparisons with experimental data of the single crystal superalloy LEK94 are shown.

  5. Materials process and applications of single grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Beizhan; Zhou Difan; Xu Kun; Hara, Shogo; Tsuzuki, Keita; Miki, Motohiro; Felder, Brice; Deng Zigang [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT), 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Izumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: izumi@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT), 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2012-11-20

    This paper reviews recent advances in the melt process of (RE)-Ba-Cu-O [(RE)BCO, where RE represents a rare earth element] single grain high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), bulks and its applications. The efforts on the improvement of the magnetic flux pinning with employing the top-seeded melt-growth process technique and using a seeded infiltration and growth process are discussed. Which including various chemical doping strategies and controlled pushing effect based on the peritectic reaction of (RE)BCO. The typical experiment results, such as the largest single domain bulk, the clear TEM observations and the significant critical current density, are summarized together with the magnetization techniques. Finally, we highlight the recent prominent progress of HTS bulk applications, including Maglev, flywheel, power device, magnetic drug delivery system and magnetic resonance devices.

  6. Materials process and applications of single grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beizhan; Zhou, Difan; Xu, Kun; Hara, Shogo; Tsuzuki, Keita; Miki, Motohiro; Felder, Brice; Deng, Zigang; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the melt process of (RE)-Ba-Cu-O [(RE)BCO, where RE represents a rare earth element] single grain high-temperature superconductors (HTSs), bulks and its applications. The efforts on the improvement of the magnetic flux pinning with employing the top-seeded melt-growth process technique and using a seeded infiltration and growth process are discussed. Which including various chemical doping strategies and controlled pushing effect based on the peritectic reaction of (RE)BCO. The typical experiment results, such as the largest single domain bulk, the clear TEM observations and the significant critical current density, are summarized together with the magnetization techniques. Finally, we highlight the recent prominent progress of HTS bulk applications, including Maglev, flywheel, power device, magnetic drug delivery system and magnetic resonance devices.

  7. Thermal Degradation Kinetics Modeling of Benzophenones and Xanthones during High-Temperature Oxidation of Cyclopia genistoides (L.) Vent. Plant Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelders, Theresa; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2015-06-10

    Degradation of the major benzophenones, iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside-4-O-glucoside and iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside, and the major xanthones, mangiferin and isomangiferin, of Cyclopia genistoides followed first-order reaction kinetics during high-temperature oxidation of the plant material at 80 and 90 °C. Iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside-4-O-glucoside was shown to be the most thermally stable compound. Isomangiferin was the second most stable compound at 80 °C, while its degradation rate constant was influenced the most by increased temperature. Mangiferin and iriflophenone-3-C-glucoside had comparable degradation rate constants at 80 °C. The thermal degradation kinetic model was subsequently evaluated by subjecting different batches of plant material to oxidative conditions (90 °C/16 h). The model accurately predicted the individual contents of three of the compounds in aqueous extracts prepared from oxidized plant material. The impact of benzophenone and xanthone degradation was reflected in the decreased total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts, as determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and DPPH(•) scavenging assays.

  8. Innovative Health Monitoring Techniques for High Temperature Composites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature composite materials, which include ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), carbon-carbon and polyimide composites, will be essential for future space...

  9. Method and apparatus for studying high-temperature properties of conductive materials in the interests of nuclear power engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvatimskiy, A. I., E-mail: savva@iht.mpei.ac.ru; Onufriev, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Physical processes during a rapid (microsecond) heating of metals, carbon, and their compounds by a single pulse of electric current are discussed. Effects arising in such short-term heating near the melting point are noted: the electron emission and heat capacity anomalies and the possible occurrence of Frenkel pair (interstitial atom and vacancy). The problem of measuring the temperature using optical methods under pulse heating is considered, including the use of a specimen in the form of a blackbody model. The melting temperature of carbon (4800–4900 K) is measured at increased pulse pressure. The results of studying the properties of metals (by example of zirconium and hafnium) and of zirconium carbide at high temperatures are discussed. The schematics of the pulse setups and the instrumentation, as well as specimens for a pulse experiment, are presented.

  10. Structure and Properties of High-Temperature Multilayer Hybrid Material Based on Vanadium Alloy and Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaykina, Tatyana A.; Nikulin, Sergey A.; Rozhnov, Andrey B.; Khatkevich, Vladimir M.; Rogachev, Stanislav O.

    2017-03-01

    The present work is devoted to the development of new structural composite material having the unique complex of properties for operating in ultrahard conditions that combine high temperatures, radiation, and aggressive environments. A new three-layer composite tube material based on vanadium alloy (V-4Ti-4Cr) protected by stainless steel (Fe-0.2C-13Cr) has been obtained by co-extrusion. Mechanism and kinetics of formation as well as structure, composition, and mechanical properties of "transition" area between vanadium alloy and stainless steel have been studied. The transition area (13- to 22- µm thick) of the diffusion interaction between vanadium alloy and steel was formed after co-extrusion. The microstructure in the transition area was rather complicated comprising different grain sizes in components, but having no defects or brittle phases. Tensile strength of the composite was an average 493 ± 22 MPa, and the elongation was 26 ± 3 pct. Annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) increased the thickness of transition area up to 1.2 times, homogenized microstructure, and slightly changed mechanical properties. Annealing at 1273 K (1000 °C) further increased the thickness of transition area and also lead to intensive grain growth in steel and sometimes to separation between composite components during tensile tests. Annealing at 1073 K (800 °C) is proposed as appropriate heat treatment after co-extrusion of composite providing balance between diffusion interaction thickness and microstructure and monolithic-like behavior of composite during tensile tests.

  11. Di- and tri-carboxylic-acid-based etches for processing high temperature superconducting thin films and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginley, D.S.; Barr, L.; Ashby, C.I.H.; Plut, T.A.; Urea, D.; Siegal, M.P.; Martens, J.S.; Johansson, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The development of passive and active electronics from high-temperature superconducting thin films depends on the development of process technology capable of producing appropriate feature sizes without degrading the key superconducting properties. We present a new class of chelating etches based on di- and tri-carboxylic acids that are compatible with positive photoresists and can produce sub-micron feature sizes while typically producing increases the microwave surface resistance at 94 GHz by less than 10%. This simple etching process works well for both the Y--Ba--Cu--O and Tl--Ba--Ca--Cu--O systems. In addition, we demonstrate that the use of chelating etches with an activator such as HF allows the etching of related oxides such as LaAlO 3 , which is a key substrate material, and Pb(Zr 0.53 Ti 0.47 )O 3 (PZT) which is a key ferroelectric material for HTS and other applications such as nonvolatile memories

  12. Analysis and description of the long-term creep behaviour of high-temperature gas turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    On a series of standard high-temperature gas turbine materials, creep tests were accomplished with the aim to obtain improved data on the long-term creep behaviour. The tests were carried out in the range of the main application temperatures of the materials and in the range of low stresses and elongations similar to operation conditions. They lasted about 5000 to 16000 h at maximum. At all important temperatures additional annealing tests lasting up to about 10000 h were carried out for the determination of a material-induced structure contraction. Thermal tension tests were effected for the description of elastoplastic short-time behaviour. As typical selection of materials the nickel investment casting alloys IN-738 LC, IN-939 and Udimet 500 for industrial turbine blades, IN-100 for aviation turbine blades and IN-713 C for integrally cast wheels of exhaust gas turbochargers were investigated, and also the nickel forge alloy Inconel 718 for industrial and aviation turbine disks and Nimonic 101 for industrial turbine blades and finally the cobalt alloy FSC 414 for guide blades and heat accumulation segments of industrial gas turbines. The creep tests were started on long-period individual creep testing machines with high strain measuring accuracy and economically continued on long-period multispecimen creep testing machines with long duration of test. The test results of this mixed test method were first subjected to a conventional evaluation in logarithmic time yield and creep diagrams which besides creep strength curves provided creep stress limit curves down to 0.2% residual strain. (orig./MM) [de

  13. Analyse of the potential of the high temperature reactor with respect to the use of fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, F.

    2001-01-01

    The high temperature reactors fuel is made of micro-particles dispersed in a graphite matrix. This configuration makes it possible to reach high burnup, higher than 700 GWj/t. Thanks to the decoupling between the thermal and the neutronic behaviors in the core many types of fuels can be used. These characteristics give to HTR reactor very good capacities to burn fissile materials. This work was done in the frame of the evaluation of HTR capacities to enhance the value of the plutonium stocks. These stocks are currently composed of the irradiated fuels discharged from classical PWR or the dismantling of the nuclear weapons and represent a significant energy potential. These studies concluded that high cycles length can be reached whatever the plutonium quality is (from 50 % to 94 % of fissile plutonium). In addition, it was demonstrated that the moderator temperature coefficient becomes locally positive for highly burn fuel while the core global moderator temperature coefficient remained negative in the operation range of the reactor. A significant share of this work was first devoted to the setting of a modeling of the fuel element but also of the reactor's core with the codes of system SAPHYR. The whole of modeling was validated by reference calculations. This work of code assessment is justified by a preliminary work that showed that the classical calculation scheme used for PWR could not be transposed directly to HTR core. (author)

  14. Review: Potential Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste with Substitution of Local Waste Materials with High-Temperature Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, S.; Bayuaji, R.; Darmawan, M. S.; Husin, N. A.; Wibowo, B.; Anugraha, B.; Irawan, S.; Dibiantara, D.

    2017-11-01

    This research provided an overview of the potential fly ash based geopolymer paste for application in building construction. Geopolymer paste with various variations of fly ash substitution with local waste material and high-temperature influence exploited with the fresh and hardened condition. The local waste material which utilized for this study were sandblasting waste, carbide waste, shell powder, bagasse ash, rice husk and bottom ash. The findings of this study indicated that fly-based geopolymer paste with local waste material substitution which had high-temperature influence ash showed a similar nature of OPC binders potentially used in civil engineering applications.

  15. Armor systems including coated core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  16. HIGH TEMPERATURE BRAZING ALLOY FOR JOINT Fe-Cr-Al MATERIALS AND AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost, R.C.

    1958-07-15

    A new high temperature brazing alloy is described that is particularly suitable for brazing iron-chromiumaluminum alloys. It consists of approximately 20% Cr, 6% Al, 10% Si, and from 1.5 to 5% phosphorus, the balance being iron.

  17. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  18. Aeronautical applications of high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, George E.; Luidens, Roger W.; Uherka, Kenneth; Hull, John

    1989-01-01

    The successful development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. A preliminary examination of the potential application of HTS for aeronautics indicates that significant benefits may be realized through the development and implementation of these newly discovered materials. Applications of high-temperature superconductors (currently substantiated at 95 k) were envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft, and solar, microwave and laser powered aircraft. Introduced and described are the particular applications and potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors as related to aeronautics and/or aeronautical systems.

  19. Influence of Crucible Materials on High-temperature Properties of Vacuum-melted Nickel-chromium-cobalt Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R F; Rowe, John P; Freeman, J W

    1957-01-01

    A study of the effect of induction-vacuum-melting procedure on the high-temperature properties of a titanium-and-aluminum-hardened nickel-base alloy revealed that a major variable was the type of ceramic used as a crucible. Reactions between the melt and magnesia or zirconia crucibles apparently increased high-temperature properties by introducing small amounts of boron or zirconium into the melts. Heats melted in alumina crucibles had relatively low rupture life and ductility at 1,600 F and cracked during hot-working as a result of deriving no boron or zirconium from the crucible.

  20. High temperature superconductivity: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedell, K.S.; Coffey, D.; Meltzer, D.E.; Pines, D.; Schrieffer, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the result of a symposium at Los Alamos in 1989 on High Temperature Superconductivity. The topics covered include: phenomenology, quantum spin liquids, spin space fluctuations in the insulating and metallic phases, normal state properties, and numerical studies and simulations. (JF)

  1. Effect of dissolved gas on mechanical property of sheath material of mineral insulated cables under high temperature and pressure water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Takeuchi

    2016-12-01

    The similar brittle behavior was observed by replacing nitrogen by argon bubbling. The results implied the possibility of embrittlement phenomena of the stainless steels in high-temperature and pressure water even with very low dissolved oxygen resulting in high susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement.

  2. Possibilities of observation of behaviour of concrete- and cement-based composite materials exposed to high temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bodnárová, L.; Horák, D.; Válek, J.; Hela, R.; Sitek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2015), s. 936-940 ISSN 1432-8917 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : concrete * high temperature * thermal load Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1179/1432891714Z.0000000001225?scroll=top&needAccess=true

  3. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for delta O-18 versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Böhlke, J.K.; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Jansen, Henk G.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Soergel, Karin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Weise, Stephan M.; Werner, Roland A.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally distributed organic and inorganic oxygen isotopic reference materials have been calibrated by six laboratories carrying out more than 5300 measurements using a variety of high-temperature conversion techniques (HTC)a in an evaluation sponsored by the International Union of Pure and

  4. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  5. [Determination of high temperature compressive strength and refractory degree of die material compatible with slip casting core of sintered titanium powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, X; Liao, Y; Chao, Y; Meng, Y

    1999-05-01

    The refractory die is the precondition for developing slip casting core of sintered powder. This study is to determine the high temperature properties of the refractory die material compatible with slip casting core. To prepare three cylindrical specimens (phi 10 x 15 mm) and determine their compressive strength at 1000 degrees C: to make four specimens in flat-topped cone for determining the practical refractory degree by decreasing the pressing temperatures in a sequence of 1420, 1400, 1350 and 1100 degrees C. The compressive strength of this material was 17.8 MPa at 1000 degrees C. Its practical refractory degree was higher than 1100 degrees C. The high temperature properties of the refractory die material that we developed meet the demand of slip casting core of sintered powder.

  6. Apparatus for the investigation of high-temperature, high-pressure gas-phase heterogeneous catalytic and photo-catalytic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvino, Jason F; Bennett, Trystan; Kler, Rantej; Hudson, Rohan J; Aupoil, Julien; Nann, Thomas; Golovko, Vladimir B; Andersson, Gunther G; Metha, Gregory F

    2017-05-01

    A high-temperature, high-pressure, pulsed-gas sampling and detection system has been developed for testing new catalytic and photocatalytic materials for the production of solar fuels. The reactor is fitted with a sapphire window to allow the irradiation of photocatalytic samples from a lamp or solar simulator light source. The reactor has a volume of only 3.80 ml allowing for the investigation of very small quantities of a catalytic material, down to 1 mg. The stainless steel construction allows the cell to be heated to 350 °C and can withstand pressures up to 27 bar, limited only by the sapphire window. High-pressure sampling is made possible by a computer controlled pulsed valve that delivers precise gas flow, enabling catalytic reactions to be monitored across a wide range of pressures. A residual gas analyser mass spectrometer forms a part of the detection system, which is able to provide a rapid, real-time analysis of the gas composition within the photocatalytic reaction chamber. This apparatus is ideal for investigating a number of industrially relevant reactions including photocatalytic water splitting and CO 2 reduction. Initial catalytic results using Pt-doped and Ru nanoparticle-doped TiO 2 as benchmark experiments are presented.

  7. Apparatus for the investigation of high-temperature, high-pressure gas-phase heterogeneous catalytic and photo-catalytic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvino, Jason F.; Bennett, Trystan; Kler, Rantej; Hudson, Rohan J.; Aupoil, Julien; Nann, Thomas; Golovko, Vladimir B.; Andersson, Gunther G.; Metha, Gregory F.

    2017-05-01

    A high-temperature, high-pressure, pulsed-gas sampling and detection system has been developed for testing new catalytic and photocatalytic materials for the production of solar fuels. The reactor is fitted with a sapphire window to allow the irradiation of photocatalytic samples from a lamp or solar simulator light source. The reactor has a volume of only 3.80 ml allowing for the investigation of very small quantities of a catalytic material, down to 1 mg. The stainless steel construction allows the cell to be heated to 350 °C and can withstand pressures up to 27 bar, limited only by the sapphire window. High-pressure sampling is made possible by a computer controlled pulsed valve that delivers precise gas flow, enabling catalytic reactions to be monitored across a wide range of pressures. A residual gas analyser mass spectrometer forms a part of the detection system, which is able to provide a rapid, real-time analysis of the gas composition within the photocatalytic reaction chamber. This apparatus is ideal for investigating a number of industrially relevant reactions including photocatalytic water splitting and CO2 reduction. Initial catalytic results using Pt-doped and Ru nanoparticle-doped TiO2 as benchmark experiments are presented.

  8. Colloquium 3: Thermal insulation materials in construction and in high-temperature plants. Lectures; Kolloquium 3: Waermedaemmstoffe im Bauwesen und in Hochtemperaturanlagen. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, E.; Gross, U.; Walter, G. [comps.

    1999-07-01

    Colloquium 3, ''Thermal insulation materials in construction and in high-temperature plants'' focused, for one thing, on the inter-relationships between the development of thermal insulation materials for construction and high-temperature applications and the development of processes and plants and, for another, on the standards of and amendments to the thermal protection ordinance. Calcium silicate and Silcapor as a thermal protection material and a high-temperature thermal insulant, respectively, are dealt with inter alia. The use of thermal insulants in industrial furnaces and different methods for measuring thermal conductivity are described. Further topics are the elements of the energy conservation ordinance being drafted, and thermal-insulation construction materials such as bricks and foam mortar. Ten papers are individually listed in the Energy database. (orig.) [German] Im Mittelpunkt des Kolloquium 3 ''Waermedaemmstoffe im Bauwesen und in Hochtemperaturanlagen'' stehen die wechselseitigen Zusammenhaenge zwischen der Entwicklung von Waermedaemmstoffen fuer das Bauwesen und die Hochtemperaturanwendung einerseits und der Prozess-und Anlagenentwicklung anderseits sowie die Normung und die Novellierung der Waermeschutzverordnung. Es wird u.a. auf den Waermedaemmstoff Calciumsilicat eingegangen ebensowie auf Silcapor als Hochtemperaturd ammstoff. Der Einsatz von Waermedaemmstoffen in Industrieoefen sowie die unterschiedlichen Messmethoden der Waermeleitfaehigkeit werden beschrieben. Weitere Themen sind die Grundlagen der kuenftigen Energiesparverordnung sowie waermedaemmende Baustoffe wie Ziegel und Porenbeton. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden zehn Arbeiten separat aufgenommen.

  9. Thermal fatigue life prediction based on crack propagation behaviors in high-temperature materials for power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Akihito; Ogata, Takashi; Kuwabara, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    For reducing an electric power supply cost, it is desired to extend the life of thermal power plant being still supplying the greater part of electric power in Japan. It is, therefore, becoming more and more important for the remaining life control of long-operated thermal power plants to exactly estimate the thermal fatigue damage accumulating in high temperature components. In this report, a discussion was made on thermal fatigue life laws derived from the crack propagation laws. As a result, the life laws were found to be effective for the evaluation of thermal fatigue life as well as isothermal fatigue life. Based on the concept of the life laws, the thermal and isothermal fatigue lives were also predicted as a propagation period of a crack with initial length equal to grain size from the characteristics of high temperature fatigue crack propagation. In addition to them, the rapid straining method was found to be required for more accurate estimation of creep strain in in-phase thermal fatigue. (author)

  10. Nuclear fuels for very high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The success of the development of nuclear thermal propulsion devices and thermionic space nuclear power generation systems depends on the successful utilization of nuclear fuel materials at temperatures in the range 2000 to 3500 K. Problems associated with the utilization of uranium bearing fuel materials at these very high temperatures while maintaining them in the solid state for the required operating times are addressed. The critical issues addressed include evaporation, melting, reactor neutron spectrum, high temperature chemical stability, fabrication, fission induced swelling, fission product release, high temperature creep, thermal shock resistance, and fuel density, both mass and fissile atom. Candidate fuel materials for this temperature range are based on UO 2 or uranium carbides. Evaporation suppression, such as a sealed cladding, is required for either fuel base. Nuclear performance data needed for design are sparse for all candidate fuel forms in this temperature range, especially at the higher temperatures

  11. Development of Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM (Register Trademark)) Eddy Current Sensors for the Health Monitoring, Modeling and Damage Detection of High Temperature Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Washabaugh, Andy; Sheiretov, Yanko; Martin, Christopher; Goldfine, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The increased use of high-temperature composite materials in modern and next generation aircraft and spacecraft have led to the need for improved nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring techniques. Such technologies are desirable to improve quality control, damage detection, stress evaluation and temperature measurement capabilities. Novel eddy current sensors and sensor arrays, such as Meandering Winding Magnetometers (MWMs) have provided alternate or complimentary techniques to ultrasound and thermography for both nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). This includes imaging of composite material quality, damage detection and .the monitoring of fiber temperatures and multidirectional stresses. Historically, implementation of MWM technology for the inspection of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Composite (RCC) leading edge panels was developed by JENTEK Sensors and was subsequently transitioned by NASA as an operational pre and post flight in-situ inspection at the Kennedy Space Center. A manual scanner, which conformed'automatically to the curvature of the RCC panels was developed and used as a secondary technique if a defect was found during an infrared thermography screening, During a recent proof of concept study on composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV's), three different MWM sensors were tested at three orientations to demonstrate the ability of the technology to measure stresses at various fiber orientations and depths. These results showed excellent correlation with actual surface strain gage measurements. Recent advancements of this technology have been made applying MWM sensor technology for scanning COPVs for mechanical damage. This presentation will outline the recent advance in the MWM.technology and the development of MWM techniques for NDE and SHM of carbon wraped composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) including the measurement of internal stresses via a surface mounted sensor

  12. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  13. High temperature probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  14. Reactor physics and reactor strategy investigations into the fissionable material economy of the thorium and uranium cycle in fast breeder reactors and high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikorr, W.M.

    In this work the properties governing the fissionable material economy of the uranium and thorium cycles are investigated for the advanced reactor types currently under development - the fast breeder reactor (FBR) and the high temperature reactor (HTR) - from the point of view of the optimum utilization of the available nuclear fuel reserves and the continuance of supply of these reserves. For this purpose, the two reactor types are first of all considered individually and are subsequently discussed as a complementary overall system

  15. Mechanical characterization of metallic materials for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors in air and in helium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainfort, G.; Cappelaere, M.; Gregoire, J.; Sannier, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the French R and D program for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), three metallic alloys were studied: steel Chromesco-3 with 2.25% chromium, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy-X. The Chromesco-3 and alloy 800H creep behavior is the same in air and in HTGR atmosphere (helium). The tensile tests of Hastelloy-X specimens reveal that aging has embrittlement and hardening effects up to 700 0 C, but the creep tests at 800 0 C show opposite effects. This particular behavior could be due to induced precipitation by aging and the depletion of hardening elements from the matrix. Tests show a low influence of cobalt content on mechanical properties of Hastelloy-X

  16. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    The maximum electrostatic energy density of a capacitor is a function of the relative permittivity (epsilonr) and the square of the dielectric breakdown strength (Eb). Currently, state-of-the art high temperature (>200 °C), SiC-based power electronics utilize CaZrO3-rich NP0/C0G-type capacitors, which have low relative permittivities of epsilonr ˜ 30-40, high breakdown strengths (> 1.0 MV/cm), and are chosen for their minimal change in energy storage with temperature. However, with operating temperatures exceeding the rated temperatures for such capacitors, there is an opportunity to develop new dielectric ceramics having higher energy densities and volumetric efficiencies at high temperatures (>200 °C) by utilizing higher permittivity dielectrics while maintaining high breakdown strengths via doping. The solid solution behavior of was characterized in order to determine the optimal composition for balancing permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength to obtain high energy densities at elevated temperatures. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed Vegard's law behavior across the solid solution with minimal 2nd phases. To determine a Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 composition that will also minimize electronic or band conduction, the optical properties of the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 solid solution were investigated to identify a composition on the CaTiO3 - rich end of the solid solution with a large band gap. Both ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry were utilized to determine the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 band gaps and optical properties. The resistivity at 250 °C scaled with the band gap energy across the solid solution. Comparing the current-voltage (I--V) behavior at 250 °C for Ca(Tix-yMnyZr0.2)O3 (CTZ + Mn) where x = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and y = 0.005, it was found that the Ca(Ti 0.795Mn0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition showed the lowest current density and a decrease in current density of 5 orders of magnitude compared to the un

  17. The Setup Design for Selective Laser Sintering of High-Temperature Polymer Materials with the Alignment Control System of Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Nazarov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of an additive setup for the selective laser sintering (SLS of high-temperature polymeric materials, which is distinguished by an original control system for aligning the device for depositing layers of polyether ether ketone (PEEK powder. The kinematic and laser-optical schemes are given. The main cooling circuits are described. The proposed technical and design solutions enable conducting the SLS process in different types of high-temperature polymer powders. The principles of the device adjustment for depositing powder layers based on an integral thermal analysis are disclosed. The PEEK sinterability was shown on the designed installation. The physic-mechanical properties of the tested 3D parts were evaluated in comparison with the known data and showed an acceptable quality.

  18. Development of an Accelerated Methodology to Study Degradation of Materials in Supercritical Water for Application in High Temperature Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, David

    The decreasing supply of fossil fuel sources, coupled with the increasing concentration of green house gases has placed enormous pressure to maximize the efficiency of power generation. Increasing the outlet temperature of these power plants will result in an increase in operating efficiency. By employing supercritical water as the coolant in thermal power plants (nuclear reactors and coal power plants), the plant efficiency can be increased to 50%, compared to traditional reactors which currently operate at 33%. The goal of this dissertation is to establish techniques to characterize the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of materials exposed to supercritical water. Traditionally, these tests have been long term exposure tests spanning months. The specific goal of this dissertation is to develop a methodology for accelerated estimation of corrosion rates in supercritical water that can be sued as a screening tool to select materials for long term testing. In this study, traditional methods were used to understand the degradation of materials in supercritical water and establish a point of comparison to the first electrochemical studies performed in supercritical water. Materials studied included austenitic steels (stainless steel 304, stainless steel 316 and Nitronic 50) and nickel based alloys (Inconel 625 and 718). Surface chemistry of the oxide layer was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Stainless steel 304 was subjected to constant tensile load creep tests in water at a pressure of 27 MPa and at temperatures of 200 °C, 315 °C and supercritical water at 450 °C for 24 hours. It was determined that the creep rate for stainless steel 304 exposed to supercritical water would be unacceptable for use in service. It was observed that the formation of hematite was favored in subcritical temperatures, while magnetite was formed in the supercritical region. Corrosion of

  19. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  20. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  1. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; Nathan Jerred; Dr. Indrajit Charit; James Cole

    2012-03-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  2. Comparison of electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process for high temperature turbine component materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kirka, Michael M [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines, Inc.

    2016-04-01

    The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayed significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.

  3. A new test facility for evaluation of high temperature materials properties associating a solar radiation concentrator to a microwave generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, M.; Czerniak, M.; Flamant, G.; Lebrun, M. [IMP-CNRS, 66 - Font-Romeu (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the MESOX (Moyen d`Essai Solaire d`OXydation) test bench which associates a solar radiation concentrator and a microwave generator to partially reproduce the atmospheric reentry conditions for testing heat shield protection materials of space vehicles. First, theoretical and experimental results for the determination of the active to passive transition in the oxidation of silicon-based ceramic materials under standard and microwave-excited air are presented. Second, the catalytic activity of these materials under different pressure and temperature conditions is valued, using both thermal and chemical approaches by the determination of respectively the catalytic recombination flux density {beta}q{sub rec} and the recombination coefficient {gamma}. The experimental results lead to the determination of a catalycity scale and the evaluation of the physico-chemical behaviour of ceramics under atomspheric reentry conditions. (orig.)

  4. Modelling of the material flow of Nd-Fe-B magnets under high temperature deformation via finite element simulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Yen-I; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen; You, Jr-Shian; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wei, Chia-Min

    2017-01-01

    Hot deformation of Nd-Fe-B magnets has been studied for more than three decades. With a good combination of forming processing parameters, the remanence and (BH) max values of Nd-Fe-B magnets could be greatly increased due to the formation of anisotropic microstructures during hot deformation. In this work, a methodology is proposed for visualizing the material flow in hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets via finite element simulation. Material flow in hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets could be predicted by simulation, which fitted with experimental results. By utilizing this methodology, the correlation between strain distribution and magnetic properties enhancement could be better understood.

  5. Rare earth permanent-magnet alloys’ high temperature phase transformation in situ and dynamic observation and its application in material design

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Shuming

    2013-01-01

    The process of high temperature phase transition of rare earth permanent-magnet alloys is revealed by photographs taken by high voltage TEM. The relationship between the formation of nanocrystal and magnetic properties is discussed in detail, which effects alloys composition and preparation process. The experiment results verified some presumptions, and were valuable for subsequent scientific research and creating new permanent-magnet alloys. The publication is intended for researchers, engineers and managers in the field of material science, metallurgy, and physics. Prof. Shuming Pan is senior engineer of Beijing General Research Institute of Non-ferrous Metal.

  6. Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillpot, Simon; Tulenko, James

    2011-09-08

    The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

  7. METC ceramic corrosion/erosion studies: turbine-material screening tests in high-temperature, low-Btu, coal-derived-gas combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Waltermire, D.M.; Hawkins, L.W.; Jarrett, T.L.

    1982-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center, through its Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies, has participated in the United States Department of Energy's High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Ceramic Technology Readiness. The program's overall objective is to advance the turbine firing temperature to a range of 2600/sup 0/ to 3000/sup 0/F (1700 to 1922K) with a reasonable service life using coal or coal-derived fuel. The Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies' major objective was to conduct a screening test for several ceramic materials to assess their probability of survival in turbine applications. The materials were exposed to combustion products from low heating value coal-derived gas and air at several high temperatures and velocities. The combustion product composition and temperatures simulated actual environment that may be found in stationary power generating gas turbines except for the pressure levels. The results of approximately 1000 hours of accumulative exposure time of material at the specific test conditions are presented in this report.

  8. Development of SSRT facility with ability of in-situ observation during SCC test in high temperature water for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, J.; Tsukada, T.; Kikuchi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the key issues for the life management of light water reactor (LWR) core components as well as one of the possible degradation phenomena of structural materials of international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). For understanding IASCC phenomenon, development of slow stain rate test (SSRT) facility with ability of in-situ observation during SSRT in high temperature water for irradiated materials was initiated. The SSRT facility, which has already been installed in a hot cell, consists of a water make-up system, a pressurized high temperature water circulation system, a tensile testing system with an autoclave, a monitoring/purification system, a hydrogen peroxide injection system, and an observation/recording system. The autoclave has a sapphire window for in-situ observation of the specimen. Images through the window can be recorded using the CCD camera system. Since the SSRT facility is designed for irradiated materials under boiling water reactor (BWR) condition, the maximum operational parameters are as follows; temperature: 573 K, pressure: 10 MPa and flow rate: 30 l/h. To simulate the normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) under BWR environment, dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations (DO and DH) can be controlled within the range of 10 ppb - 32 ppm and 10 ppb - 2.8 ppm, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide can be injected into the autoclave to simulate influence of hydrogen peroxide produced from radiolysis of water in the reactor core. (author)

  9. Numerical study of finned heat pipe-assisted thermal energy storage system with high temperature phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang; Mahdavi, Mahboobe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A finned heat pipe-assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system is studied. • The effects of heat pipes spacing and fins geometrical features are investigated. • Smaller heat pipes spacing and longer fins improve the melting rate. • The optimal heat pipe and fin arrangements are determined. - Abstract: In the present study, the thermal characteristics of a finned heat pipe-assisted latent heat thermal energy storage system are investigated numerically. A transient two-dimensional finite volume based model employing enthalpy-porosity technique is implemented to analyze the performance of a thermal energy storage unit with square container and high melting temperature phase change material. The effects of heat pipe spacing, fin length and numbers and the influence of natural convection on the thermal response of the thermal energy storage unit have been studied. The obtained results reveal that the natural convection has considerable effect on the melting process of the phase change material. Increasing the number of heat pipes (decreasing the heat pipe spacing) leads to the increase of melting rate and the decrease of base wall temperature. Also, the increase of fin length results in the decrease of temperature difference within the phase change material in the container, providing more uniform temperature distribution. It was also shown that number of the fins does not have a significant effect on the performance of the system

  10. Laboratory Investigations of the High Temperature Corrosion of Various Materials in Simulated oxy-fuel and Conventional Coal Firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkeson, N.; Pettersson, J.; Svensson, J.E.; Hjornhede, A.; Montgomery, M.; Bjurman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory exposures in horizontal tube furnaces were conducted to test various materials for corrosion resistance in simulated oxy-fuel firing and conventional coal firing environments. Two different exposures were done at 630 C for 672 hours. The reaction atmosphere, consisting of CO 2 , H 2 O, O 2 , N 2 and SO 2 , was mixed to resemble that of oxy-fuel firing in the first exposure and that of conventional coal firing in the second exposure (N 2 was added during the second exposure only). Four different materials were tested in the first exposure; Sanicro 63, Alloy 800HT, 304L and 304HCu. In the second exposure four different materials were tested; 304L, Alloy 800HT, Kanthal APMT and NiCrAl. Apart from cleaned sample coupons, some samples pre-exposed in a test rig under oxy-fuel conditions with lignite as fuel and some pre-exposed with bituminous coal as fuel were investigated in the first exposure. In the second exposure some samples were pre-exposed in a rig under conventional firing conditions with lignite as fuel. The corrosion attack on the investigated samples was analysed by gravimetry, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis was made on both the sample envelope and metallographic cross sections of the samples. The results show that there is small difference in the corrosion attack between the two environments. There was also little difference in oxide morphology and composition between cleaned samples and pre-exposed samples of the same material. The austenitic chromia former 304HCu suffered the most extensive corrosion attack in the oxy-fuel environment. In the conventional air firing environment 304L showed the highest mass gain. Chromia formers with higher chromium concentrations performed better, especially the super austenitic Alloy 800HT, with its high chromium concentration, formed a thin and protective corundum type oxide. The nickel based Sanicro 63 showed very low

  11. Some peculiarities of structural material corroding behaviour in the flow of gaseous nitrogen tetroxide at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'tsev, V.P.; Kamenev, A.Ya.; Klimova, L.A.; Fedyushin, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Is investigated corroding behaviour of structural materials in the flow of gaseous nitrogen tetroxide with the pressure 8.0-9.0 MPa in the temperature range 520-890 K. The estimation of corrosion intensity has been conducted upon the weight decrease with utilization of the sodium-ammoniacal method of oxide formation. It is shown that in the temperature range 670-770 K nickel-chromium steels are subjected to minimum corrosion of uniform nature. The phenomenon of corrosion product transfer is discovered

  12. Probing Amorphous Components in High Temperature TE Materials by in situ Total Scattering and the Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reardon, Hazel; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    to heating cycles, then we are closer to distinguishing how we may generate materials that do not undergo specific structure reorientation processes, and/or how we may mitigate them before they occur. Here, we will present a total scattering and PDF study that probes the local structure of the Type......-I clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30. This suggests that local structure reorientations in the cage are likely to be the root cause of the degradation of the structure. This deepens our understanding of disordered clathrates, and provides evidence that the PDF technique is an effective method for probing local structure...

  13. Estimating Seebeck Coefficient of a p-Type High Temperature Thermoelectric Material Using Bee Algorithm Multi-layer Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Fatih; Kilinc, Enes; Kurt, Huseyin; Celik, Erdal; Dugenci, Muharrem; Sagiroglu, Selami

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) convert heat into electrical energy. These energy-conversion systems do not involve any moving parts and are made of thermoelectric (TE) elements connected electrically in a series and thermally in parallel; however, they are currently not suitable for use in regular operations due to their low efficiency levels. In order to produce high-efficiency TEGs, there is a need for highly heat-resistant thermoelectric materials (TEMs) with an improved figure of merit ( ZT). Production and test methods used for TEMs today are highly expensive. This study attempts to estimate the Seebeck coefficient of TEMs by using the values of existing materials in the literature. The estimation is made within an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the amount of doping and production methods. Results of the estimations show that the Seebeck coefficient can approximate the real values with an average accuracy of 94.4%. In addition, ANN has detected that any change in production methods is followed by a change in the Seebeck coefficient.

  14. Comparison of Reactive and Non-Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering Routes for the Fabrication of Monolithic and Composite Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Orrù

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A wider utilization of ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC materials strongly depends on the availability of efficient techniques for their fabrication as dense bodies. Based on recent results reported in the literature, it is possible to state that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS technology offers a useful contribution in this direction. Along these lines, the use of two different SPS-based processing routes for the preparation of massive UHTCs is examined in this work. One method, the so-called reactive SPS (R-SPS, consists of the synthesis and densification of the material in a single step. Alternatively, the ceramic powders are first synthesized by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS and then sintered by SPS. The obtained results evidenced that R-SPS method is preferable for the preparation of dense monolithic products, while the sintering of SHS powders requires relatively milder conditions when considering binary composites. The different kinetic mechanisms involved during R-SPS of the monolithic and composite systems, i.e., combustion-like or gradual solid-diffusion, respectively, provides a possible explanation. An important role is also played by the SHS process, particularly for the preparation of composite powders, since stronger interfaces are established between the ceramic constituents formed in situ, thus favoring diffusion processes during the subsequent SPS step.

  15. Creep-fatigue life property of FBR high-temperature structural materials under tension-torsion loading and life evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Takashi; Nitta, Akito

    1994-01-01

    Creep-fatigue damage in high temperature structural components in a FBR progress under multiaxial stress condition depending on their operating conditions and configuration. Therefore, multiaxial stress effects on creep-fatigue damage evolution must be clarified to make precise creep-fatigue damage evaluation of these components. In this study, creep-fatigue tests in FBR high temperature materials such as SUS304, 316FR stainless steels and a modified 9Cr steel were conducted under biaxial stress subjecting tension-compression and torsion loading, in order to examine biaxial stress effects on failure mechanism and life property, and to discuss creep-fatigue life evaluation methods under biaxial stress. Main results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: 1. The main cracks under cyclic torsion loading propagated by shear mode in three materials. But intergranular failure was occurred in SUS304 and 316FR, and transgranular failure was observed in Mod.9Cr steel. 2. Nonlinear damage accumulation model proposed based on uniaxial creep-fatigue test results was extended to apply for creep-fatigue damage evaluation under biaxial stress state by considering the biaxial stress effects on fatigue and creep damage evolution. 3. It was confirmed that creep-fatigue life under biaxial stress could be predicted by the extended evaluation method with higher accuracy than existing methods. (author)

  16. Mathematical modelling of powder material motion and transportation in high-temperature flow core during plasma coatings application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, V. I.; Giorbelidze, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    A problem of mathematical modelling of powder material motion and transportation in gas thermal flow core has been addressed. Undertaken studies indicate significant impact on dynamics of motion of sprayed particles of phenomenological law for drag coefficient and accounting momentum loss of a plasma jet upon acceleration of these particles and their diameter. It is determined that at great dispersion of spraying particles, they reach detail surface at different velocity and significant particles separation takes place at spraying spot. According to the results of mathematical modelling, requirements for admissible dispersion of diameters of particles used for spraying have been formulated. Research has also allowed reducing separation of particles at the spraying spot due to the selection of the method of powder feed to the anode channel of the plasma torch.

  17. Pulsed-laser heating: a tool for studying degradation of materials subjected to repeated high-temperature excursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, A.; Cornell, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The use of pulsed-laser heating was evaluated as a means to obtain high cyclic peak temperatures with short rise times. A two-stage neodymium glass laser was used which produces a 600-μs pulse with energy outputs of up to 100 J. Small disk-shaped samples of AISI 4340 steel served as targets. Some of these were coated with a tungsten deposit. The rear face of some of the targets was instrumented for evaluation of temperature, strain, and stress response. Post-shot metallographic evaluations were made on a number of targets. We saw evidence of surface melting, cracking, and phase transformation. Surface damage was related to differences in the number of pulse cycles and input energy level, variables in the target materials, and the extent of strain-induced stresses. These experiments were performed in air at 1 atm and ambient laboratory temperature. 36 figures

  18. High temperature oxidation of carbide-carbon materials of NbC-C, NbC-TiC-C systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, Yu.D.; Shalaginov, V.N.; Beketov, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of titanium carbide additions on the oxidation of carbide - carbon composition NbC-TiC-C in oxygen under the pressure of 10 mm Hg and in the air at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range 800-1300 deg is studied. It is shown that the region of negative temperature coefficient during oxidation in the system NbC+C is determined by the processes of sintering and polymorphous transformation. The specific character of the oxide film, formed during oxidation of Nbsub(x)Tisub(y)C+C composites is connected with non-equilibrium nature of carbide grain in its composition. Carbon gasification takes place with the formation of carbon dioxide. Composite materials, containing titanium carbide in complex carbide up to 50-83 mol. %, are the most corrosion resisting ones [ru

  19. Standard Test Method for Testing Polymeric Seal Materials for Geothermal and/or High Temperature Service Under Sealing Stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the initial evaluation of (screening) polymeric materials for seals under static sealing stress and at elevated temperatures. 1.2 This test method applies to geothermal service only if used in conjunction with Test Method E 1068. 1.3 The test fluid is distilled water. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Pulsed-laser heating: a tool for studying degradation of materials subjected to repeated high-temperature excursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A.; Cornell, R.H.

    1980-08-21

    The use of pulsed-laser heating was evaluated as a means to obtain high cyclic peak temperatures with short rise times. A two-stage neodymium glass laser was used which produces a 600-..mu..s pulse with energy outputs of up to 100 J. Small disk-shaped samples of AISI 4340 steel served as targets. Some of these were coated with a tungsten deposit. The rear face of some of the targets was instrumented for evaluation of temperature, strain, and stress response. Post-shot metallographic evaluations were made on a number of targets. We saw evidence of surface melting, cracking, and phase transformation. Surface damage was related to differences in the number of pulse cycles and input energy level, variables in the target materials, and the extent of strain-induced stresses. These experiments were performed in air at 1 atm and ambient laboratory temperature. 36 figures.

  1. Discharging process of a finned heat pipe–assisted thermal energy storage system with high temperature phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang; Mahdavi, Mahboobe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The discharging process of a latent heat thermal energy storage system is studied. • The thermal energy storage system is assisted by finned heat pipes. • The influences of heat pipe spacing and fins geometrical features are studied. • Smaller heat pipe spacing enhances the solidification rate. • Better heat pipe and fin arrangements are determined. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a numerical study conducted to investigate the discharging process of a latent heat thermal energy storage system assisted by finned heat pipes. A two-dimensional finite volume based numerical model along with enthalpy-porosity technique is employed to simulate the phase change of storage media during the discharging mode. The thermal energy storage system in this study consists of a square container, finned heat pipes, and potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) as the phase change material. The charging process of the same thermal energy storage system was reported in an early paper by the authors. This paper reports the results of discharging process of the thermal energy storage system. The influences of heat pipe spacing, fin geometry and quantities as well as the effects of natural convection heat transfer on the thermal performance of the storage system were studied. The results indicate that the phase change material solidification process is hardly affected by the natural convection. Decreasing the heat pipe spacing results in faster discharging process and higher container base wall temperature. Increasing the fins length does not change the discharging time but yields higher base wall temperature. Using more fins also accelerates the discharging process and increases the container base wall temperature.

  2. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of

  3. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Wate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  4. Thermal expansion and density measurements of molten and solid materials at high temperatures by the gamma attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.D.

    1979-05-01

    An apparatus is described for the measurement of the density and thermal expansion of molten materials to 3200 0 K using the gamma attenuation technique. The precision of the experimental technique was analytically examined for both absolute and relative density determinations. Three analytical expressions used to reduce data for liquid density determinations were evaluated for their precision. Each allows use of a different set of input data parameters, which can be chosen based on experimental considerations. Using experimentally reasonable values for the precision of the parameters yields a similar resultant density precision from the three methods, on the order of 0.2%. The analytical method for measurements of the linear thermal expansion of solids by the gamma method is also described. To demonstrate the use of the technique on reasonably well-characterized systems, data are presented for (1) the density and thermal expansion of molten tin, lead, and aluminum to 1300 0 K, (2) the thermal expansion of solid aluminum to the melting point, and (3) the thermal expansion of a low melting point glass through the transition temperature and melting region. The data agree very well with published results using other methods where such published data exist

  5. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Alderman, O. L. G. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tamalonis, A.; Sendelbach, S. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004 (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  6. Aerodynamic levitator for in situ x-ray structure measurements on high temperature and molten nuclear fuel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Benmore, C. J.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Sendelbach, S.; Hebden, A.; Williamson, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    An aerodynamic levitator with carbon dioxide laser beam heating was integrated with a hermetically sealed controlled atmosphere chamber and sample handling mechanism. The system enabled containment of radioactive samples and control of the process atmosphere chemistry. The chamber was typically operated at a pressure of approximately 0.9 bars to ensure containment of the materials being processed. Samples 2.5-3 mm in diameter were levitated in flowing gas to achieve containerless conditions. Levitated samples were heated to temperatures of up to 3500 °C with a partially focused carbon dioxide laser beam. Sample temperature was measured using an optical pyrometer. The sample environment was integrated with a high energy (100 keV) x-ray synchrotron beamline to enable in situ structure measurements to be made on levitated samples as they were heated, melted, and supercooled. The system was controlled from outside the x-ray beamline hutch by using a LabVIEW program. Measurements have been made on hot solid and molten uranium dioxide and binary uranium dioxide-zirconium dioxide compositions.

  7. Crack initiation and crack growth in high temperature materials under cyclic thermal stresses; Rissinitiierung und Risswachstum in Hochtemperaturwerkstoffen unter zyklisch thermischer Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, C.

    1996-12-01

    The high temperatures of use in drive units, such as the combustion chamber or the hot gas turbine, for example, usually cause high temperature changes. Great temperature differences occur for short periods in the components, and thermal shock is produced. In this work, theoretical and experimental investigations are introduced on crack initiation and crack growth in high temperature materials under cyclic thermal stresses. The experiments were carried out with the inter-metallic phase Ni{sub 3}Al, the nickel-based alloy Nimonic 80A and the iron-based alloy PM 2000 strengthened by oxide dispersion (ODS). A characteristic crack appearance picture was found for each material, which was examined more closely. The stresses occurring in the sample during one cycle were calculated with the aid of the finite element program ABAQUS, knowing the specific material parameters. Based on the linear-elastic fracture mechanics, stress intensity factors were calculated on the superimposition principle. Using the material data from isothermal crack propagation experiments, the prediction of fatigue crack spread with cyclic thermal stresses is compared with the experimental findings. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die hohen Einsatztemperaturen in Antriebsaggregaten wie z.B. der Brennkammer oder der Heissgasturbine bedingen in der Regel hohe Temperaturwechsel. Dabei treten kurzzeitig grosse Temperaturunterschiede in den Bauteilen auf, ein Thermoschock wird erzeugt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Rissinitiierung und zum Risswachstum in Hochtemperaturwerkstoffen unter zyklisch thermischer Belastung vorgestellt. Die Experimente wurden mit der intermetallischen Phase Ni{sub 3}Al, der Nickelbasislegierung Nimonic 80A und der oxid-dispersionsverfestigten (ODS) Eisenbasislegierung PM2000 durchgefuehrt. Fuer jeden Werkstoff stellte sich ein charakteristisches Risserscheinungsbild dar, das naeher untersucht wurde. Die in der Probe auftretenden

  8. Tungsten as a Chemically-Stable Electrode Material on Ga-Containing Piezoelectric Substrates Langasite and Catangasite for High-Temperature SAW Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri K. Rane

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tungsten on piezoelectric substrates La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS and Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS have been investigated as a potential new electrode material for interdigital transducers for surface acoustic wave-based sensor devices operating at high temperatures up to 800 °C under vacuum conditions. Although LGS is considered to be suitable for high-temperature applications, it undergoes chemical and structural transformation upon vacuum annealing due to diffusion of gallium and oxygen. This can alter the device properties depending on the electrode nature, the annealing temperature, and the duration of the application. Our studies present evidence for the chemical stability of W on these substrates against the diffusion of Ga/O from the substrate into the film, even upon annealing up to 800 °C under vacuum conditions using Auger electron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, along with local studies using transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, the use of CTGS as a more stable substrate for such applications is indicated.

  9. High-Temperature Electrochemical Performance of FeF3/C Nanocomposite as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengyun; Zhang, Zhengfu; Wang, Zi; Liu, Jingfeng; Yan, Hongge; Peng, Jinhui

    2018-02-01

    Iron trifluoride has been studied as a cathode material due to its cost-effectiveness, low toxicity, and high theoretical capacities of 712 mA h g-1. However, FeF3 has serious shortcomings of poor electronic conductivity and a slow diffusion rate of lithium ions, leading to a lower reversible specific capacity. In this work, FeF3/C nanocomposite has been synthesized successfully via a high-energy ball-milling method, and acetylene black is used as the conductive agent to improve the conductivity of FeF3. The FeF3/C nanocomposite shows a high initial discharge capacity of 346.25 and 161.58 mA h g-1 after 40th cycle at 50 mA g-1. It exhibits good cycle performance and rate performance. The high-temperature discharge capacities decreased with increase in the temperature. The initial high-temperature discharge capacities are found to be 254.17, 300.01, 281.25 and 125.16, and 216.875, 156, 141.67, 150, and 64.98 mA h g-1 at 20th cycles at the 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C, respectively.

  10. Study on coated layer material performance of coated particle fuel FBR (2). High temperature property and capability of coating to thick layer of TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganuma, Masayuki; Mizuno, Tomoyasu

    2002-08-01

    'Helium Gas Cooled Coated Particle Fuel FBR' is one of attractive core concepts in the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System in Japan, and the design study is presently proceeded. As one of key technologies of this concept, the coated layer material is important, and ceramics is considered to be a candidate material because of the superior refractory. Based on existing knowledge, TiN is regarded to be a possible candidate material, to which some property tests and evaluations have been conducted. In this study, preliminary tests about the high temperature property and the capability of thick layer coating of TiN have been conducted. Results of these tests come to the following conclusions. Heating tests of two kinds of TiN layer specimens coated by PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) and CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) were conducted. As a result, as for CVD coating specimens, remarkable charge was not observed on the layer up to 2,000degC, therefore we concluded that the layer by CVD had applicability up to high temperature of actual operation level. On the other hand, as for PVD coating specimens, an unstable behavior that the layer changed to a mesh like texture was observed on a 2,000degC heated specimen, therefore the applied PVD method is not considered to be promising as the coating technique. The surface conditions of some parts inside CVD device were investigated in order to evaluate possibility of TiN thick coating (∼100 μm). As a result, around 500 μm of TiN coating layer was observed on the condition of multilayer. Therefore, we conclude that CVD has capability of coating up to thick layer in actual coated particle fuel fabrication. (author)

  11. The metallurgy of high temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, J. K.; Purushothaman, S.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel-base, cobalt-base, and high nickel and chromium iron-base alloys are dissected, and their microstructural and chemical components are assessed with respect to the various functions expected of high temperature structural materials. These functions include the maintenance of mechanical integrity over the strain-rate spectrum from creep resistance through fatigue crack growth resistance, and such alloy stability expectations as microstructural coarsening resistance, phase instability resistance and oxidation and corrosion resistance. Special attention will be given to the perennial conflict and trade-off between strength, ductility and corrosion and oxidation resistance. The newest developments in the constitution of high temperature alloys will also be discussed, including aspects relating to materials conservation.

  12. High temperature energy harvester for wireless sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E Köhler, J; Heijl, R; Staaf, L G H; Palmqvist, A E C; Enoksson, P; Zenkic, S; Svenman, E; Lindblom, A

    2014-01-01

    Implementing energy harvesters and wireless sensors in jet engines will simplify development and decrease costs by reducing the need for cables. Such a device could include a small thermoelectric generator placed in the cooling channels of the jet engine where the temperature is between 500–900 °C. This paper covers the synthesis of suitable thermoelectric materials, design of module and proof of concept tests of a thermoelectric module. The materials and other design variables were chosen based on an analytic model and numerical analysis. The module was optimized for 600–800 °C with the thermoelectric materials n-type Ba 8 Ga 16 Ge 30 and p-type La-doped Yb 14 MnSb 11 , both with among the highest reported figure-of-merit values, zT, for bulk materials in this region. The materials were synthesized and their structures confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Proof of concept modules containing only two thermoelectric legs were built and tested at high temperatures and under high temperature gradients. The modules were designed to survive an ambient temperature gradient of up to 200 °C. The first measurements at low temperature showed that the thermoelectric legs could withstand a temperature gradient of 123 °C and still be functional. The high temperature measurement with 800 °C on the hot side showed that the module remained functional at this temperature. (paper)

  13. High temperature energy harvester for wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, J. E.; Heijl, R.; Staaf, L. G. H.; Zenkic, S.; Svenman, E.; Lindblom, A.; Palmqvist, A. E. C.; Enoksson, P.

    2014-09-01

    Implementing energy harvesters and wireless sensors in jet engines will simplify development and decrease costs by reducing the need for cables. Such a device could include a small thermoelectric generator placed in the cooling channels of the jet engine where the temperature is between 500-900 °C. This paper covers the synthesis of suitable thermoelectric materials, design of module and proof of concept tests of a thermoelectric module. The materials and other design variables were chosen based on an analytic model and numerical analysis. The module was optimized for 600-800 °C with the thermoelectric materials n-type Ba8Ga16Ge30 and p-type La-doped Yb14MnSb11, both with among the highest reported figure-of-merit values, zT, for bulk materials in this region. The materials were synthesized and their structures confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Proof of concept modules containing only two thermoelectric legs were built and tested at high temperatures and under high temperature gradients. The modules were designed to survive an ambient temperature gradient of up to 200 °C. The first measurements at low temperature showed that the thermoelectric legs could withstand a temperature gradient of 123 °C and still be functional. The high temperature measurement with 800 °C on the hot side showed that the module remained functional at this temperature.

  14. High temperature solid lubricants: When and where to use them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F) is reviewed. Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include the layer lattice compounds: MoS2, WS2, graphite and graphite fluoride, the high temperature polyimide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coating and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearing, and journal bearings.

  15. High temperature solid lubricants - When and where to use them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of solid lubrication for moderate to extremely high temperature lubrication (to 1600 F). Lubricating characteristics, stability in various environments, and relevant machine design considerations are discussed. Lubricating materials discussed include MoS2, WS2, graphite, graphite fluoride, the high temperature polymide polymer, and calcium fluoride based coatings and composites. The scope of the information includes results from wear testers, ball bearings, and journal bearings.

  16. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Standards 2306/A2 siI1/ 1 C’enter for Chemical Physics 2306/Ki Gaithersburg, MD 20899 _____________ It CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT...DATE AFSRNE13. NUMIBER OF PAGES Bolling, AFB DC 20332 7 114 MONITORING AGENCY NAME A ADORESS(fI different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS...R. Righini, A. Cibrarlo and A. Rosso, Rapporto Interno 5/173, Instituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti", (1979). [2] A. Cezairliyan, Proceedings of the

  17. Development of a structure-dependent material model for complex, high-temperature environments and stresses. Example: turbine blades, turbine discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, F.

    1988-01-01

    For the optimum use of new high-temperature superalloys for turbine discs and blades, it is necessary to develop new design concepts which, on the one hand, permit a quantitative allocation of the structural characteristics to the deformation behaviour and damage mechanisms and, on the other hand, take into account the real course of stress. It is planned to use PM-Udinet 700 as material for turbine discs and IN 738 LC with supplementary tests of IN 100 for turbine blades. For turbine discs, a probabilistic model is developed, for turbine blades, cooled at the interior, first a deterministic model is developed and then a probabilistic model is prepared. The concept for the development of the models is dealt with in detail. The project started in April 1987, therefore only first investigation results can be reported. (orig.) [de

  18. A novel pulse technique for thermal diffusivity determination of high-temperature levitated materials - Inverse analysis and experimental set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, F.; Khodadadi, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the thermal diffusivity of materials at high temperatures, a two-step extended flash technique, which is applicable to levitated spherical samples, is proposed. The containerless flash method is modeled as an axisymmetric transient conduction heat transfer problem within the sphere subjected to a radiative boundary condition on its surface. The problem of nonlinearity which arises from the radiative heat transfer boundary condition is solved by replacing it with the measured time-dependent surface temperature data, thus giving rise to an 'Inverse Analysis'. Upon obtaining the analytic solution for the temperature field, the determination of the thermal diffusivity turns into a minimization problem, whereby the difference between the actual surface boundary condition and the analytic solution is minimized. In performing the proposed experiments, there is a need to undertake a cool-down experiment which should be governed by the lumped parameter analysis.

  19. High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Angelo; Drewniany, Edward

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

  20. HIGH TEMPERATURE VACUUM MIXER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the creation of a new type of mixer to produce homogeneous mixtures of dissimilar materials applied to recycling of housing and communal services waste. The article describes the design of a dual-chamber device of the original high-temperature vacuum mixer, there investigated the processes occurring in the chambers of such devices. The results of theoretical and experimental research of the process of mixing recycled polyethylene with a mixture of "grinded food waste – Eco wool” are presented. The problem of the optimum choice of bending the curvilinear blades in the working volume of the seal, which is achieved by setting their profile in the form of involute arc of several circles of different radii, is examined . The dependences, allowing to define the limits of the changes of the main mode parameters the angular velocity of rotation of the working body of the mixer using two ways of setting the profile of the curvilinear blade mixer are obtained. Represented design of the mixer is proposed to use for a wide range of tasks associated with the mixing of the components with a strongly pronounced difference of physic al chemical properties and, in particular, in the production of composites out of housing and communal services waste.

  1. High temperature control rod assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Russell E.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  2. High temperature corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Ennis, P.J.

    1988-08-01

    This paper covers three main topics: 1. high temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, 2. corrosion in sulfur containing environments and 3. structural changes caused by corrosion. The following 21 subjects are discussed: Influence of implanted yttrium and lanthanum on the oxidation behaviour of beta-NiA1; influence of reactive elements on the adherence and protective properties of alumina scales; problems related to the application of very fine markers in studying the mechanism of thin scale formation; oxidation behaviour of chromia forming Co-Cr-Al alloys with or without reactive element additions; growth and properties of chromia-scales on high-temperature alloys; quantification of the depletion zone in high temperature alloys after oxidation in process gas; effects of HC1 and of N2 in the oxidation of Fe-20Cr; investigation under nuclear safety aspects of Zircaloy-4 oxidation kinetics at high temperatures in air; on the sulfide corrosion of metallic materials; high temperature sulfide corrosion of Mn, Nb and Nb-Si alloys; corrosion behaviour or NiCrAl-based alloys in air and air-SO2 gas mixtures; sulfidation of cobalt at high temperatures; preoxidation for sulfidation protection; fireside corrosion and application of additives in electric utility boilers; transport properties of scales with complex defect structures; observations of whiskers and pyramids during high temperature corrosion of iron in SO2; corrosion and creep of alloy 800H under simulated coal gasification conditions; microstructural changes of HK 40 cast alloy caused by exploitation in tubes in steam reformer installation; microstructural changes during exposure in corrosive environments and their effect on mechanical properties; coatings against carburization; mathematical modeling of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in Ni-Cr-based alloys. (MM)

  3. Effects of electron beam irradiation on mechanical properties at low and high temperature of fiber reinforced composites using PEEK as matrix material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao; Sakai, Hideo; Odajima, Toshikazu; Nakakura, Toshiyuki; Masutani, Masahiro.

    1987-11-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced composite (PEEK-CF) using polyarylether-ether-ketone (PEEK) as a matrix material was prepared and the electron beam radiation effects on the mechanical properties at low and high temperature and the effects of annealing after irradiation were studied. Cooling down to 77 K, the flexural strength of PEEK-CF increased to about 20 % than that at room temperature. The data of flexural strength for the irradiated specimens showed some scattering, but the strength and modulus at 77 K were changed scarcely up to 120 MGy. The flexural strength and modulus in the unirradiated specimen decreased with increasing of measurement temperature, and the strength at 140 deg C, which is the just below temperature of the glass transition of PEEK, was to 70 % of the value at room temperature. For the irradiated specimens, the strength and modulus increased with dose and the values at 140 deg C for the specimen irradiated with 120 MGy were nearly the same with the unirradiated specimen measured at room temperature. The improvement of mechanical properties at high temperature by irradiation was supported by a viscoelastic measurement in which the glass transition shifted to the higher temperature by the radiation-induced crosslinking. A glass fiber reinforced PEEK composite (PEEK-GF) was prepared and its irradiation effects by electron beam was studied. Unirradiated PEEK-GF showed the same performance with that for GFRP of epoxide resin as matrix material, but by irradiation the flexual strength and modulus decreased with dose. It was revealed that this composite was destroyed by delamination because inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) decreased with dose and analysis of the profile of S-S curve showed typical delamination. Fractoglaphy by electron microscopy supported the delamination which is caused by the lowering of adhesion on interface between the fiber and matrix with increase of dose. (author)

  4. High temperature pressure gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  5. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, Jason C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Howard University, 2013 Lewis K. Downing Hall, 2300 6th Street NW, Washington, DC 20059 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    This paper describes experimental work involving the direct-current electrolysis of highly concentrated potassium hydroxide solutions at high temperatures (up to 400 C) and under various pressures. A high-temperature alkaline electrolysis cell resistant to chemical attack from the highly corrosive electrolyte solution and capable of high-pressure operation was designed and tested. The cell was constructed with a Monel {sup registered} alloy housing and cathode, while various anode materials were compared. The anode materials tested included nickel, Monel alloy, lithiated nickel, and cobalt-plated nickel. The advantages of operating an alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures include increasing the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and enhancing the rates of electrochemical reactions at the electrode surfaces. Cell operation with increasing steam partial pressure over the solution is also shown to enhance cell performance. The prudent selection of anode material also impacts the required terminal potential for a given current density, and consequently the cell's electric power efficiency. The best cell performance was achieved using a cobalt-plated nickel anode at a temperature of 400 C and a steam partial pressure of 8.7 MPa. (author)

  6. Thermophysical characterization tools and numerical models for high temperature thermo-structural composite materials; Outils de caracterisation thermophysique et modeles numeriques pour les composites thermostructuraux a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorrette, Ch

    2007-04-15

    This work is an original contribution to the study of the thermo-structural composite materials thermal behaviour. It aims to develop a methodology with a new experimental device for thermal characterization adapted to this type of material and to model the heat transfer by conduction within these heterogeneous media. The first part deals with prediction of the thermal effective conductivity of stratified composite materials in the three space directions. For that, a multi scale model using a rigorous morphology analysis of the structure and the elementary properties is proposed and implemented. The second part deals with the thermal characterization at high temperature. It shows how to estimate simultaneously the thermal effusiveness and the thermal conductivity. The present method is based on the observation of the heating from a plane sample submitted to a continuous excitation generated by Joule Effect. Heat transfer is modelled with the quadrupole formalism, temperature is here measured on two sides of the sample. The development of both resistive probes for excitation and linear probes for temperature measurements enables the thermal properties measured up to 1000 C. Finally, some experimental and numerical application examples lead to review the obtained results. (author)

  7. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for δ18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Bohlke, John Karl; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groning, Manfred; Jansen, Henk G.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Soergel, Karin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Weise, Stephan M.; Werner, Roland A.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally distributed organic and inorganic oxygen isotopic reference materials have been calibrated by six laboratories carrying out more than 5300 measurements using a variety of high-temperature conversion techniques (HTC) in an evaluation sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). To aid in the calibration of these reference materials, which span more than 125‰, an artificially enriched reference water (δ18O of +78.91‰) and two barium sulfates (one depleted and one enriched in 18O) were prepared and calibrated relative to VSMOW2 and SLAP reference waters. These materials were used to calibrate the other isotopic reference materials in this study, which yielded:Reference materialδ18O and estimated combined uncertainty IAEA-602 benzoic acid+71.28 ± 0.36‰USGS35 sodium nitrate+56.81 ± 0.31‰IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate+25.32 ± 0.29‰IAEA-601 benzoic acid+23.14 ± 0.19‰IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate+12.13 ± 0.33‰NBS 127 barium sulfate+8.59 ± 0.26‰VSMOW2 water0‰IAEA-600 caffeine−3.48 ± 0.53‰IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate−11.35 ± 0.31‰USGS34 potassium nitrate−27.78 ± 0.37‰SLAP water−55.5‰The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for δ18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (δ18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the δ18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA

  8. Development of a microstructural-related description for the high temperature stress-strain behaviour of the turbine blade material IN 738 LC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londschien, B.; Penkalla, H.J.; Schubert, F.; Nickel, H.

    1991-04-01

    Since more than 15 years, the nickel-base alloy IN 738 LC is used for stationary gas-turbine blades because of its good high temperature strength coupled with acceptable hot corrosion resistance. The high strength in the temperature range 700deg C to 1000deg C results primarily from the intermetallic phase γ' = Ni 3 (Al,Ti). The γ' precipitates restrict the motion of the dislocations. The high temperature deformation behaviour has been correlated with the morphology of the γ' precipitates. It was found that the deformation rate in short term creep experiments (up to 1000 hours) depended on the initial microstructure of the cast alloy. The microstructure could be characterized by γ' particle size and distribution in the matrix. A heat treatment was applied with the aim of producing a more stable microstructure, so that the long time creep behaviour does not depend so strongly on the initial microstructure. The structure development in the experiments could be described by the growth of the γ' precipitates, calculated from the diffusion rates of aluminium and titanium in the nickel matrix. During operation, the turbine blade is loaded with a multi axial stress comprising the centrifugal force, the thermally induced stationary and instationary stresses, and the bending stresses from the gas flow. It was shown in strain-rate controlled tension-torsion tests on hollow round samples, that the multiaxial stress-strain behaviour could be calculated using the invariant theory for isotropic materials with a comparative stress value from the uniaxial creep experiment, applying the von Mises theory. This mathematical model is useful for calculating the life time for a turbine blade which is multiaxially loaded. (orig.) [de

  9. Recent advances in design procedures for high temperature plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen papers cover several aspects of design for high temperature plant. These include design codes, computerized structural analysis and mechanical properties of materials at high temperatures. Seven papers are relevant for fast reactors and these are indexed separately. These cover shakedown design, design codes for thin shells subjected to cyclic thermal loading, the inelastic behaviour of stainless steels and creep and crack propagation in reactor structures under stresses caused by thermal cycling loading. (author)

  10. High temperature pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenslade, J.G. [Colt Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada). Pipelines Dept.; Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dyck, D.W. [Stress Tech Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is impractical to transport bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines at ambient temperature unless diluents are added to reduce the viscosity. A diluted bitumen pipeline is commonly referred to as a dilbit pipeline. The diluent routinely used is natural gas condensate. Since natural gas condensate is limited in supply, it must be recovered and reused at high cost. This paper presented an alternative to the use of diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen. The following two basic design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline were presented: (1) modelling the restart problem, and, (2) establishing the maximum practical operating temperature. The transient behaviour during restart of a high temperature pipeline carrying viscous fluids was modelled using the concept of flow capacity. Although the design conditions were hypothetical, they could be encountered in the Athabasca oilsands. It was shown that environmental disturbances occur when the fluid is cooled during shut down because the ground temperature near the pipeline rises. This can change growing conditions, even near deeply buried insulated pipelines. Axial thermal loads also constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. As such, strain based design provides the opportunity to design for higher operating temperature than allowable stress based design methods. Expansion loops can partially relieve the thermal stress at a given temperature. As the design temperature increase, there is a point at which above grade pipelines become attractive options, although the materials and welding procedures must be suitable for low temperature service. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  11. KNO3/NaNO3 - Graphite materials for thermal energy storage at high temperature: Part I. - Elaboration methods and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acem, Zoubir; Lopez, Jerome; Palomo Del Barrio, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Composites graphite/salt for thermal energy storage at high temperature (∼200 deg. C) have been developed and tested. As at low temperature in the past, graphite has been used to enhance the thermal conductivity of the eutectic system KNO 3 /NaNO 3 . A new elaboration method has been proposed as an alternative to graphite foams infiltration. It consists of cold-compression of a physical mixing of expanded natural graphite particles and salt powder. Two different compression routes have been investigated: uni-axial compression and isostatic compression. The first part of the paper has been devoted to the analysis of the thermal properties of these new graphite/salt composites. It is proven that cold-compression is a simple and efficient technique for improving the salt thermal conductivity. For instance, graphite amounts between 15 and 20%wt lead to apparent thermal conductivities close to 20 W/m/K (20 times greater than the thermal conductivity of the salt). Furthermore, some advantages in terms of cost and safety are expected because materials elaboration is carried out at room temperature. The second part of the paper is focused on the analyses of the phase transition properties of these graphite/salt composites materials.

  12. Influences of Cr content and PWHT on microstructure and oxidation behavior of stainless steel weld overlay cladding materials in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X.Y.; Ding, X.F. [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Lu, Y.H., E-mail: lu_yonghao@mater.ustb.edu.cn [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Zhu, P. [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., 1788 Xihuan Road, 215004 Suzhou (China); Shoji, T. [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai City 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Influences of Cr content and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on microstructure and oxidation behavior of stainless steel cladding materials in high temperature water were investigated. The amounts of metal oxidized and dissolved were estimated to compare the oxidation behaviors of cladding materials with different Cr contents and PWHT. The results indicated that higher Cr content led to formation of more ferrite content, and carbides were found along δ/γ phase interface after PWHT. Higher Cr content enhanced the pitting resistance and compactness of the oxide film to reduce metal amount oxidized and dissolved, which mitigated the weight changes and the formation of Fe-rich oxides. PWHT promoted more and deeper pitting holes along the δ/γ phase interface due to formation of carbides, which resulted in an increase in metal amount oxidized and dissolved, and were also responsible for more Fe-rich oxides and higher weight changes. - Highlights: • The amounts of metal oxidized and metal dissolved were estimated. • Higher Cr content increased ferrite content and PWHT led to formation of carbides. • PWHT promoted more and deeper pitting holes along the δ/γ phase interface. • Lower Cr content and PWHT promoted the metal amounts oxidized and dissolved. • Lower Cr content and PWHT increased weight changes and Fe-rich film formation.

  13. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  14. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...... number of biomass and refuse fired combined heat and power plant boilers, b) Laboratory exposures and metallurgical examinations of material specimens with ash deposits in well-defined gas environments with HCl and SO2 in a furnace....

  15. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  16. Moire interferometry at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jau-Je

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an optical technique allowing full-field in-plane deformation measurements at high temperature by using high-sensitivity moire interferometry. This was achieved by a new approach of performing deformation measurements at high temperatures in a vacuum oven using an achromatic interferometer. The moire system setup was designed with particular consideration for the stability, compactness, flexibility, and ease of control. A vacuum testing environment was provided to minimize the instability of the patterns by protecting the optical instruments from the thermal convection currents. Also, a preparation procedure for the high-temperature specimen grating was developed with the use of the plasma-etched technique. Gold was used as a metallic layer in this procedure. This method was demonstrated on a ceramic block, metal/matrix composite, and quartz. Thermal deformation of a quartz specimen was successfully measured in vacuum at 980 degrees Celsius, with the sensitivity of 417 nm per fringe. The stable and well-defined interference patterns confirmed the feasibility of the developments, including the high-temperature moire system and high-temperature specimen grating. The moire system was demonstrated to be vibration-insensitive. Also, the contrast of interference fringes at high temperature was enhanced by means of a spatial filter and a narrow band interference filter to minimize the background noise from the flow of the specimen and heater. The system was verified by a free thermal expansion test of an aluminum block. Good agreement demonstrated the validity of the optical design. The measurements of thermal deformation mismatch were performed on a graphite/epoxy composite, a metal/matrix composite equipped with an optical fiber, and a cutting tool bit. A high-resolution data-reduction technique was used to measure the strain distribution of the cutting tool bit.

  17. Life at High Temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. Life at High Temperatures. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 23-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/09/0023-0036. Keywords.

  18. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also i...

  19. Tungsten as a plasma-facing material in fusion devices: impact of helium high-temperature irradiation on hydrogen retention and damages in the material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E.; Sakamoto, R.; Kreter, A.; Barthe, M. F.; Autissier, E.; Desgardin, P.; Yamada, H.; Garcia-Argote, S.; Pieters, G.; Chêne, J.; Rousseau, B.; Grisolia, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma-facing materials for next generation fusion devices, like ITER and DEMO, have to withstand intense fluxes of light elements (notably helium and hydrogen isotopes). For tungsten (W), helium (He) irradiation leads to major changes in the material morphology, rising concerns about properties such as material structure conservation and hydrogen (H) retention. The impact of preceeding He irradiation conditions (temperature, flux and fluence) on H trapping were investigated on a set of W samples exposed to the linear plasma device PSI-2. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) was carried out to probe the free volume of defects created by the He exposure in the W structure at the atomic scale. In parallel, tritium (T) inventory after exposure was evaluated through T gas loading and desorption at the Saclay Tritium Lab. First, we observed that the material preparation prior to He irradiation was crucial, with a major reduction of the T trapping when W was annealed at 1773 K for 2 h compared to the as-received material. PAS study confirms the presence of He in the bubbles created in the material surface layer, whose dimensions were previously characterized by transmission electron microscopy and grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering, and demonstrates that even below the minimal energy for displacement of He in W, defects are created in almost all He irradiation conditions. The T loading study highlights that increasing the He fluence leads to higher T inventory. Also, for a given fluence, increasing the He flux reduces the T trapping. The very first steps of a parametric study were set to understand the mechanisms at stake in those observed material modifications, confirming the need to pursue the study with a more complete set of surface and irradiation conditions.

  20. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  1. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  2. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-08-08

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  3. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies has developed several new dielectrics for high temperature applications including signal conditioning, filtering and energy...

  4. Encapsulation of high temperature molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, James D.; Mathur, Anoop Kumar

    2017-05-16

    The present disclosure relates to a method of encapsulating microcapsules containing relatively high temperature phase change materials and the microcapsules so produced. The microcapsules are coated with an inorganic binder, film former and an inorganic filler. The microcapsules may include a sacrificial layer that is disposed between the particle and the coating. The microcapsules may also include an inner coating layer, sacrificial layer and outer coating layer. The microcapsules are particularly useful for thermal energy storage in connection with, e.g., heat collected from concentrating solar collectors.

  5. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  6. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  7. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  8. High-temperature diffraction experiments with mirror furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysen, H.; Frey, F.

    1999-01-01

    The design and performances of the mirror furnace of neutron scattering experiments at high temperatures are described and illustrated by examples. Neutron diffraction is an invaluable tool for investigating the structure of solids at high temperatures. In materials science there is an increasing interest in high temperature physical properties both from a technological and a scientific point of view, including e.g. ceramics, refractories, fuel cells. Most interesting high-temperature compounds are oxides, for which conventional resistance furnaces operating in vacuum cannot be used because of possible oxygen loss and/or decomposition processes. The mirror furnace is the ideal alternative as it is operated in air or any other desired atmosphere and experiments can be performed in situ, i.e. under real working conditions. For example, additional attachments like electrodes on the sample raise no problems. Here, we give a review of the recent investigations using the mirror furnace. (authors)

  9. High temperature reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Beno, M.F.; Mulac, W.A.; Bartels, D.

    1985-01-01

    During the last year the dependence of the apparent rate of OD + CO on water pressure was measured at 305, 570, 865 and 1223 K. An explanation was found and tested for the H 2 O dependence of the apparent rate of OH(OD) + CO at high temperatures. The isotope effect for OH(D) with CO was determined over the temperature range 330 K to 1225 K. The reason for the water dependence of the rate of OH(OD) + CO near room temperatures has been investigated but no clear explanation has been found. 1 figure

  10. Ion Based High-Temperature Pressure Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zdenek, Jeffrey S; Anthenien, Ralph A

    2004-01-01

    .... The environment encountered in such engines necessitates high temperature and durable (vibration resistant) devices. Traditional pressure sensors can be used, however thermal insulating materials must be used to protect the diaphragm...

  11. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  12. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  13. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  14. "Green" High-Temperature Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    PMR-15 is a processable, high-temperature polymer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center in the 1970's principally for aeropropulsion applications. Use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in these applications can lead to substantial weight savings, thereby leading to improved fuel economy, increased passenger and payload capacity, and better maneuverability. PMR-15 is used fairly extensively in military and commercial aircraft engines components seeing service temperatures as high as 500 F (260 C), such as the outer bypass duct for the F-404 engine. The current world-wide market for PMR-15 materials (resins, adhesives, and composites) is on the order of $6 to 10 million annually.

  15. AMSAHTS 󈨞: Advances in Materials Science and Applications of High Temperature Superconductors Held in Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD on April 2-6, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    XES STUDIES OF DENSITY OF STATES OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS Gabriel Jasiolek Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Sciences 02-668 Warszawa...Lett. 54 (26), 2719-2721, 1989. 8. R. Adem, L. Martinez, J. Rickards, E. Orozco , J. Fuentes-Maya, J.L. Albarran, A. Mendoza, E. Carrillo, L. Cota, J

  16. High-temperature properties of (La,Ca)(Fe,Mg,Mo)O3-δ perovskites as prospective electrode materials for symmetrical SOFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, S. Ya.; Morozov, A. V.; Abdullayev, M. M.; Batuk, M.; Hadermann, J.; Kazakov, S. M.; Sobolev, A. V.; Presniakov, I. A.; Antipov, E. V.

    2018-02-01

    La1-yCayFe0.5+x(Mg,Mo)0.5-xO3-δ oxides with the orthorhombic GdFeO3-type perovskite structure have been synthesized at 1573 K. Transmission electron microscopy study for selected samples shows the coexistence of domains of perovskite phases with ordered and disordered B-cations. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies performed at 300 K and 573 K show that while compositions with low Ca-content (La0.55Ca0.45Fe0.5Mg0.2625Mo0.2375O3-δ and La0.5Ca0.5Fe0.6Mg0.175Mo0.225O3-δ) are nearly oxygen stoichiometric, La0.2Ca0.8Fe0.5Mg0.2625Mo0.2375O3-δ is oxygen deficient with δ ≈ 0.15. Oxides are stable in reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2, 8%) at 1173 K for 12 h. No additional phases have been observed at XRPD patterns of all studied perovskites and Ce1-xGdxO2-x/2 electrolyte mixtures treated at 1173-1373K, while Fe-rich compositions (x≥0.1) react with Zr1-xYxO2-x/2 electrolyte above 1273 K. Dilatometry studies reveal that all samples show rather low thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) in air of 11.4-12.7 ppm K-1. In reducing atmosphere their TECs were found to increase up to 12.1-15.4 ppm K-1 due to chemical expansion effect. High-temperature electrical conductivity measurements in air and Ar/H2 atmosphere show that the highest conductivity is observed for Fe- and Ca-rich compositions. Moderate values of electrical conductivity and TEC together with stability towards chemical interaction with typical SOFC electrolytes make novel Fe-containing perovskites promising electrode materials for symmetrical solid oxide fuel cell.

  17. GAS LUBRICATION RESEARCH FOR 1900 F NON-ISOTHERMAL OPERATION. PART I. BEARING DISTORTION EFFECTS ON PERFORMANCE, AND HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIAL INVESTIGATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    journal bearing misalignments, out-of-roundness and shaft taper as well as hydrostatic thrust bearing performance under crowning and dishing type distortions. Also included are the results of static and dynamic material and coating tests at temperatures to 1400 F.

  18. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  19. High temperature metallic recuperator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. E.; Solmon, N. G.; Smeltzer, C. E.

    1981-06-01

    An industrial 4.5 MM Btu/hr axial counterflow recuperator, fabricated to deliver 1600 F combustion air, was designed to handle rapid cyclic loading, a long life, acceptable costs, and a low maintenance requirement. A cost benefit anlysis of a high temperature waste heat recovery system utilizing the recurperator and components capable of 1600 F combustion air preheat shows that this system would have a payback period of less than two years. Fifteen companies and industrial associations were interviewed and expressed great interest in recuperation in large energy consuming industries. Determination of long term environmental effects on candidate recuperator tubing alloys was completed. Alloys found to be acceptable in the 2200 F flue gas environment of a steel billet reheat furnace, were identified.

  20. High temperature measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  1. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  2. TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR: High Temperature Superconductors: Progress and Issues

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    Monday 24 June from 14:30 to 15:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593-11 High Temperature Superconductors: Progress and Issues Prof. Jan Evetts / UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, UK Grappling with grain boundaries: Current transport processes in granular High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) The development of High Temperature Superconductors, seen from a materials scientist's point of view, is relevant to the superconductivity community at CERN: their possible high current applications can include high performance magnets for future accelerators. There is an urgent need to develop a quantitative description of HTS conductors in terms of their complex anisotropy, inhomogeneity and dimensionality. This is essential both for the practical specification of a conductor and for charting routes to conductor optimisation. The critical current, the n-value, dissipation and quenching characteristics are amongst most important parameters that make up an engineering specifi...

  3. Mechanical Proprieties of Steel at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Diana Ancaş

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental test results obtained in the study of steel mechanical proprieties variation in case of high temperatures (fire are presented. The proprieties are referring to: Young’s modulus, E, the elastic limit, σe, and the characteristic diagram of the material (the rotation stress-strain. Theoretical laws that the model the steel behaviour at high temperature have been elaborated based on the most significant studies presented in the literature.

  4. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, R. A.; Walker, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques for containerless study of high temperature processes and material properties was studied. Gas jet and electromagnetic levitation and electromagnetic and laser heating techniques are used with LIF in earth-based containerless high temperature experiments. Included are the development of an apparatus and its use in the studies of (1) chemical reactions on Al2O3, molybdenum, tungsten and LaB6 specimens, (2) methods for noncontact specimen temperature measurement, (3) levitation jet properties and (4) radiative lifetime and collisional energy transfer rates for electronically excited atoms.

  5. Advantages of MgAlOx over gamma-Al2O3 as a support material for potassium-based high temperature lean NOx traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jinyong; Gao, Feng; Karim, Ayman M.; Xu, Pinghong; Browning, Nigel D.; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-08-07

    MgAlOx mixed oxides were employed as supports for potassium-based lean NOx traps (LNTs) targeted for high temperature applications. Effects of support compositions, K/Pt loadings, thermal aging and catalyst regeneration on NOx storage capacity were systematically investigated. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, NOx-TPD, TEM, STEM-HAADF and in-situ XAFS. The results indicate that MgAlOx mixed oxides have significant advantages over conventional gamma-Al2O3-supports for LNT catalysts, in terms of high temperature NOx trapping capacity and thermal stability. First, as a basic support, MgAlOx stabilizes stored nitrates (in the form of KNO3) to much higher temperatures than mildly acidic gamma-Al2O3. Second, MgAlOx minimizes Pt sintering during thermal aging, which is not possible for gamma-Al2O3 supports. Notably, combined XRD, in-situ XAFS and STEM-HAADF results indicate that Pt species in the thermally aged Pt/MgAlOx samples are finely dispersed in the oxide matrix as isolated atoms. This strong metal-support interaction stabilizes Pt and minimizes the extent of sintering. However, such strong interactions result in Pt oxidation via coordination with the support so that NO oxidation activity can be adversely affected after aging which, in turn, decreases NOx trapping ability for these catalysts. Interestingly, a high-temperature reduction treatment regenerates essentially full NOx trapping performance. In fact, regenerated Pt/K/MgAlOx catalyst exhibits much better NOx trapping performance than fresh Pt/K/Al2O3 LNTs over the entire temperature range investigated here. In addition to thermal aging, Pt/K loading effects were systemically studied over the fresh samples. The results indicate that NOx trapping is kinetically limited at low temperatures, while thermodynamically limited at high temperatures. A simple conceptual model was developed to explain the Pt and K loading effects on NOx storage. An optimized K loading, which allows balancing between the

  6. Development of a high temperature electric resistance measuring apparatus and the applications to measurements for carbon materials. Koon denki teiko sokutei sochi no shisaku to tansokei zairyo eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.; Kurumada, A.; Kawamata, K. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sasaki, T.; Shibano, M. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1990-12-20

    A trial fabrication was done to build a vertical type high temperature electric resistance measuring apparatus utilizing an ultra high temperature electric furnace using graphite as a heater for the purpose of studying application of carbon materials under ultra high temperatures. Electric specific resistance was measured on carbon materials to a temperature of up to 2,400 {degree}C. The test pieces are of composite material composed of fine grain isotropic graphite, electrode graphite for steel furnace made by Arc, and C/C. The electric resistance was obtained using a voltage drop method at a reference current of 100 mA, and the specific resistance was calculated using the test piece diameter and the distance between electrodes. The temperature was raised at a rate of 550-600 {degree}C/h. All the graphite materials have their own individual values of electric specific resistance at the room temperature. As the temperature is raised, the specific resistance decreases, shows a minimum value, and then increases gradually showing a nearly constant increase rate until the temperature approaches the graphitization temperature of 3000 {degree}C. At low temperatures, the current carrier mobility is constant, but at higher than the normal temperature, mobility reducing speed becomes dominant because of heat excitation scattering, which is believed to increase the electric specific resistance. 5 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. The Effects of Substrate Material and Thermal Processing Atmosphere on the Strength of PS304: A High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    PS304, a plasma spray deposited solid lubricant coating developed for high temperature sliding contacts was deposited on nine different substrate metals, heat treated at 650C in either air or argon and subsequently tested for strength using a commercially available pull-off adhesion test. Some samples were examined metallographically to help elucidate and explain the results. As deposited coatings exhibit pull-off strengths typically between 16 and 20 MPa with failure occuring (cohesively) within the coating. Heat treatment in argon at 650 C results in a slight increase in coating (cohesive) strength of about 30 percent to 21 to 27 MPa. Heat treatment in air at 650 C results in a dramatic increase in strength to over 30 MPa, exceeding the strength of the epoxy used in the pull test. Cross section metallographic analyses show that no microstructural coating changes occur following the argon heat treatments, however, exposure to air at 650C gives rise to the formation of a second chromium-rich phase precipitate within the PS304 NiCr constituent which provides a strengthening effect and a slight (approximately 5 percent) coating thickness increase. Subsequent heat treatments do not result in any further coating changes. Based upon these studies, PS304 is a suitable coating for use on a wide variety of high temperature substrates and must be heat treated following deposition to enhance strength and ensure dimensional stability.

  8. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  9. Panel report on high temperature ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, T C [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental research is reported concerning high temperature ceramics for application in turbines, engines, batteries, gasifiers, MHD, fuel cells, heat exchangers, and hot wall combustors. Ceramics microstructure and behavior are included. (FS)

  10. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  11. Comparison study of inelastic analysis codes for high temperature structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. K.; Geon, G. P.; Lee, J. H

    2004-02-01

    LMR high temperature structures subjected to operating and transient loadings may exhibit very complex deformation behaviors due to the use of ductile material such as 316SS and the systematic analysis technology of high temperature structure for reliable safety assessment is essential. In this project, comparative study with developed inelastic analysis program NONSTA and the existing analysis codes was performed applying various types of loading including non-proportional loading. The performance of NONSTA was confirmed and the effect of inelastic constants on the analysis result was analyzed. Also, the applicability of the inelastic analysis was enlarged as a result of applying both the developed program and the existing codes to the analyses of the enhanced creep behavior and the elastic follow-up behavior of high temperature structures and the necessary items for improvements were deduced. Further studies on the improvement of NONSTA program and the decision of the proper values of inelastic constants are necessary.

  12. New Nuclear Materials Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    One of the major aims of the International Atomic Energy Agency in furthering the peaceful uses of atomic energy is to encourage the development of economical nuclear power. Certainly, one of the more obvious methods of producing economical nuclear power is the development of economical fuels that can be used at high temperatures for long periods of time, and which have sufficient strength and integrity to operate under these conditions without permitting the release of fission products. In addition it is desirable that after irradiation these new fuels be economically reprocessed to reduce further the cost of the fuel cycle. As nuclear power becomes more and more competitive with conventional power the interest in new and more efficient higher-temperature fuels naturally increases rapidly. For these reasons, the Agency organized a Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non-Metallic Fuel Elements, which was held from 1 to 5 July 1963 at the International Hotel, Prague, with the assistance and co-operation of the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. A total of 151 scientists attended, from 23 countries and 4 international organizations. The participants heard and discussed more than 60 scientific papers. The Agency wishes to thank the scientists who attended this Conference for their papers and for many spirited discussions that truly mark a successful meeting. The Agency wishes also to record its gratitude for the assistance and generous hospitality accorded the Conference, the participants and the Agency's staff by the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and by the people of Prague. The scientific information contained in these Proceedings should help to quicken the pace of progress in the fabrication of new and m ore economical fuels, and it is hoped that these proceedings will be found useful to all workers in this and related fields

  13. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, B.; Kugel, H.W.; Goranson, P.; Kaita, R.

    1999-01-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed

  14. Results of high-temperature processing of high-carbon materials from the lower cambrian period of the Earth's history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, O.D.

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on the observation of spontaneous fission of nuclides, concentrated in fly ash during the combustion of high-carbon (graphite) material, chemogenic siliceous-carbonaceous rocks and carbonaceous shale in the mixture with brown coal. In the samples obtained, the spontaneous fission was measured by track method. The zones of precipitation of spontaneous fission of nuclides and their lighter homologues on thermochromatographic column were determined. A nuclide with a half-life of 62 d was detected in the alkaline trap. The chemical treatment procedure included co-precipitation with iron hydroxide, dissolution in NH 4 OH + H 2 O 2 solution and distillation by heating up to 100°C followed by AgI co-precipitation. Based on the chemical behavior it can be concluded that the detected radionuclide belongs to the halides. The content of the parent nuclide in high-carbon (graphite) material and chemogenic siliceous-carbonaceous rock corresponds to 10 -14 g/g. [ru

  15. Strain sensing technology for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W. Dan

    1993-01-01

    This review discusses the status of strain sensing technology for high temperature applications. Technologies covered are those supported by NASA such as required for applications in hypersonic vehicles and engines, advanced subsonic engines, as well as material and structure development. The applications may be at temperatures of 540 C (1000 F) to temperatures in excess of 1400 C (2500 F). The most promising technologies at present are the resistance strain gage and remote sensing schemes. Resistance strain gages discussed include the BCL gage, the LaRC compensated gage, and the PdCr gage. Remote sensing schemes such as laser based speckle strain measurement, phase-shifling interferometry, and x-ray extensometry are discussed. Present status and limitations of these technologies are presented.

  16. Operator manual: high temperature heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.; Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.

    1980-03-04

    Experimental data is being obtained from operating a high temperature heat pump system. The use of methanol as a working fluid will necessitate careful monitoring of refrigerant temperatures and pressures with chemical analysis performed on the working fluid during scheduled down time. Materials sent to vendors by Auburn University and quotes received by Auburn concerning equipment (compressor, evaporator, condensor, air heater, dryer, two accumulator tanks, and three expansion valves) are discussed. The simulated dryer and two accumulator tanks were designed by Auburn. The detailed design and pricing estimates are included. Additional information is presented on layout and construction; start-up; testing; shut down; scheduled maintenance and inspection; safety precautions; control system; and trouble shooting.

  17. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) infrared detectors were studied for years but never matured sufficiently for infusion into instruments. Several recent...

  18. Reaction behaviour of reactor materials, including concrete during core meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Hofmann, P.; Skokan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The problems dealt with in the studies on the material behaviour of core meltdowns are sketched, and an outline is given on the experimental investigations now in progress. These studies aim at establishing a model which is as realistic as possible, and the paper tries to show that knowledge on the reaction behaviour is a basic prerequisite for this. (orig./TK) [de

  19. Thermal and Electrical Properties of Nanocomposites, Including Material Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochetov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is part of a state-funded IOP-EMVT project in cooperation with industrial companies, aiming at the design, assessment and implementation of new, environmental friendly (e.g. oil and SF6 - free) solid dielectric materials. A large disadvantage of solid polymer

  20. A high temperature testing system for ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemann, John

    1994-01-01

    Ceramic composites are presently being developed for high temperature use in heat engine and space power system applications. The operating temperature range is expected to be 1090 to 1650 C (2000 F to 3000 F). Very little material data is available at these temperatures and, therefore, it is desirable to thoroughly characterize the basic unidirectional fiber reinforced ceramic composite. This includes testing mainly for mechanical material properties at high temperatures. The proper conduct of such characterization tests requires the development of a tensile testing system includes unique gripping, heating, and strain measuring devices which require special considerations. The system also requires an optimized specimen shape. The purpose of this paper is to review various techniques for measuring displacements or strains, preferably at elevated temperatures. Due to current equipment limitations it is assumed that the specimen is to be tested at a temperature of 1430 C (2600F) in an oxidizing atmosphere. For the most part, previous high temperature material characterization tests, such as flexure and tensile tests, have been performed in inert atmospheres. Due to the harsh environment in which the ceramic specimen is to be tested, many conventional strain measuring techniques can not be applied. Initially a brief description of the more commonly used mechanical strain measuring techniques is given. Major advantages and disadvantages with their application to high temperature tensile testing of ceramic composites are discussed. Next, a general overview is given for various optical techniques. Advantages and disadvantages which are common to these techniques are noted. The optical methods for measuring strain or displacement are categorized into two sections. These include real-time techniques. Finally, an optical technique which offers optimum performance with the high temperature tensile testing of ceramic composites is recommended.

  1. A review of high temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2to produce sustainable fuels using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs): advanced materials and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yun; Wang, Jianchen; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Wenqiang; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2017-03-06

    High-temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices with high conversion/energy efficiencies. They offer attractive high-temperature co-electrolysis routes that reduce extra CO 2 emissions, enable large-scale energy storage/conversion and facilitate the integration of renewable energies into the electric grid. Exciting new research has focused on CO 2 electrochemical activation/conversion through a co-electrolysis process based on the assumption that difficult C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bonds can be activated effectively through this electrochemical method. Based on existing investigations, this paper puts forth a comprehensive overview of recent and past developments in co-electrolysis with SOECs for CO 2 conversion and utilization. Here, we discuss in detail the approaches of CO 2 conversion, the developmental history, the basic principles, the economic feasibility of CO 2 /H 2 O co-electrolysis, and the diverse range of fuel electrodes as well as oxygen electrode materials. SOEC performance measurements, characterization and simulations are classified and presented in this paper. SOEC cell and stack designs, fabrications and scale-ups are also summarized and described. In particular, insights into CO 2 electrochemical conversions, solid oxide cell material behaviors and degradation mechanisms are highlighted to obtain a better understanding of the high temperature electrolysis process in SOECs. Proposed research directions are also outlined to provide guidelines for future research.

  2. High temperature industrial heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. (Louvain Univ., Heverlee (Belgium). Inst. Mechanica)

    1990-01-01

    The present report intends to describe the state of the art of high temperature industrial heat pumps. A description is given of present systems on the market. In addition the research and development efforts on this subject are described. Compression (open as well as closed cycle) systems, as well as absorption heat pumps (including transformers), are considered. This state of the art description is based upon literature studies performed by a team of researchers from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The research team also analysed the economics of heat pumps of different types under the present economic conditions. The heat pumps are compared with conventional heating systems. This analysis was performed in order to evaluate the present condition of the heat pump in the European industry.

  3. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  4. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs

  5. Basic research for alloy design of Nb-base alloys as ultra high temperature structural materials; Chokoon kozoyo niobuki gokin no gokin sekkei no tame no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, E. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an influence of additional elements on the high temperature deformation behavior of Nb-base solid solution alloys. Highly concentrated solid solution single crystals of Nb-Ta and Nb-Mo alloys were prepared. Compression test and strain rate sudden change test were conducted in the vacuum at temperatures ranging from 77 to 1773 K, to determine the strain rate sensitivity index. Yield stress of the Nb-Ta alloy was similar to that of Nb alloy at temperatures over 0.3{times}T{sub M}, where T{sub M} is fusing point of Nb. While, the yield stress increased with increasing the impurity oxygen concentration at temperatures below 0.3{times}T{sub M}. The yield stress became much higher than that of Nb alloy. The strain rate sensitivity index showed positive values in the whole temperature range. On the other hand, the yield stress of Nb-Mo alloy was higher than that of Nb alloy in the whole temperature range, and increased with increasing the Mo concentration. The strain rate sensitivity index showed negative values at the temperature range from 0.3{times}T{sub M} to 0.4{times}T{sub M}. It was found that serration occurred often for Nb-40Mo alloys. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. METC/3M Cooperative Agreement CRADA 94-024 high temperature high pressure filter materials exposure test program. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-06-01

    This report is a summary of the results of activities of the particulate monitoring group in support of the METC/3M CRADA 94024. Online particulate monitoring began in June 1994 and ended in October, 1994. The particulate monitoring group participated in four MGCR runs (No. 7 through No. 10). The instrument used in measuring the particle loadings (particle counts and size distribution) is the Particle Measuring Systems Classical Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe High Temperature and High Pressure (PMS Model CSASP-100-HTHP). This PMS unit is rated to operate at temperatures up to 540{degree}C and gage pressures up to 2.0 MPa. Gas stream conditions, temperature at 540{degree}C, gage pressure at 2.93 MPa, and gas flowrate at 0.0157 SCM per second, precluded the direct measurement of particulate loadings in the gas stream with the PMS unit. A side stream was extracted from the gas stream after it came over to the MGCR, Modular Gas Cleanup Rig, from the FBG, pressurized Fluidized-Bed Gasifier, but before it entered the filter testing vessel. A sampling probe of 0.635 cm O.D. thin wall stainless steel tubing was used for extracting the sample gas isokinetically based on the expected flowrate. The sample gas stream was further split into two streams; one was directed to the PMS unit and the other to the alkali monitor unit. The alkali monitor unit was not used during runs No. 7 through No. 10.

  7. 1998 Annual Study Report. Research and development of power storage by high-temperature superconducting flywheels. Research and development of high-temperature superconducting materials; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Koon chodendo flywheel denryoku chozo kenkyu kaihatsu (koon chodendozai no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This R and D program is aimed at optimization of superconductors for improved levitation force of the superconducting magnetic bearings which support a 10 MWh power storage system by high-temperature superconducting flywheel (FW), to clarify possibility of sizing up the FW body and R and D themes for the commercialization. The processes are screened to simultaneously solve the conflicting targets of sizing up the sample of the Y-based bulk superconducting material and improved crystal orientation of the whole bearing, leading to selection of multi-seeding. The sample made on a trial basis improves levitation force by approximately 30%. It is considered that the OCMG-processed rare-earth-based superconducting material can generate very strong electromagnetic force, when combined with a permanent magnet. The Ag-doped Sm-based bulk material shows a reduced creep-caused loss of loading force, and a lower loss of Jc resulting from increased temperature than the Y-based one, decreasing AC loss and controlling temperature rise. The running characteristics and mechanical strength of the FW, and causes for temporal changes are investigated, in order to evaluate the superconducting material characteristics. (NEDO)

  8. Fatigue strength of welds and welded materials of high-temperature steels resistant to pressurized hydrogen of the type 2.25% Cr/1% Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlat, J.; Cheviet, A.; Million, A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine systematically the creep strength of welded joints (base material, heat influence zone and welded seam) and of pure welding materials of the type 2 1/4-3% Cr/1% Mo. According to the AD standard rules, the rule which stipulates that the creep strength of welded seams under full stress be calculated with the strength characteristic value reduced by 20% applies to all heat-resistant steels, if no rupture stress values for the welded joints are available. Manufacturers of steel and weld fillers together with the Union of Technical Control Associations (VdTUeV) have prepared a test programme according to which on the one hand welded joints are tested at right angles to their seams, and on the other pure welding material is tested with respect to its creep strength. The development of the testes and their results have been described. The first results are available as VdTUeV material performance sheets, for 2 materials, and as provisional VdTUeV specification sheets, for 3 weld fillers. With the tested materials, it becomes practically feasible to reduce the creep strength of longitudinally welded pressure-bearing components by about 20% of wall thickness. (orig.) [de

  9. Phase Change Material Selection for Thermal Energy Storage at High Temperature Range between 210 °C and 270 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Maldonado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of thermal energy storage systems implemented in solar technologies increases not only their performance but also their dispatchability and competitiveness in the energy market. Latent heat thermal energy storage systems are one of those storing methods. Therefore, the need of finding the best materials for each application becomes an appealing research subject. The main goal of this paper is to find suitable and economically viable materials able to work as phase change material (PCM within the temperature range of 210–270 °C and endure daily loading and unloading processes in a system with Fresnel collector and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC. Twenty-six materials have been tested and characterized in terms of their thermophysical conditions, thermal and cycling stability, and health hazard. Two materials out of the 26 candidates achieved the last stage of the selection process. However, one of the two finalists would require an inert working atmosphere, which would highly increase the cost for the real scale application. This leads to a unique suitable material, solar salt (40 wt % KNO3/60 wt % NaNO3.

  10. Fusion blanket high-temperature heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Deep penetration of 14 MeV neutrons makes two-temperature region blankets feasible. A relatively low-temperature (approx. 300 0 C) metallic structure is the vacuum/coolant pressure boundary, while the interior of the blanket, which is a simple packed bed of nonstructural material, operates at very high temperatures (>1000 0 C). The water-cooled shell structure is thermally insulated from the steam-cooled interior. High-temperature steam can dramatically increase the efficiency of electric power generation, as well as produce hydrogen and oxygen-based synthetic fuels at high-efficiency

  11. Brazing, high temperature brazing and diffusion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Brazing and high temperature brazing is a major joining technology within the economically important fields of energy technology, aerospace and automotive engineering, that play a leading role for technical development everywhere in the world. Moreover diffusion welding has gained a strong position especially in advanced technologies due to its specific advantages. Topics of the conference are: 1. high-temperature brazing in application; 2. basis of brazing technology; 3. brazing of light metals; 4. nondestructive testing; 5. diffusion welding; 6. brazing of hard metals and other hard materials; and 7. ceramic-metal brazing. 28 of 20 lectures and 20 posters were recorded separately for the database ENERGY. (orig./MM) [de

  12. High temperature crystalline superconductors from crystallized glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Donglu

    1992-01-01

    A method of preparing a high temperature superconductor from an amorphous phase. The method involves preparing a starting material of a composition of Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 Ox or Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.4 Cu.sub.5 Ox, forming an amorphous phase of the composition and heat treating the amorphous phase for particular time and temperature ranges to achieve a single phase high temperature superconductor.

  13. Characterization of the Materials Synthesized by High Pressure-High Temperature Treatment of a Polymer Derived t-BC2N Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk B-C-N materials were synthesized under static high thermobaric conditions (20 GPa and 2,000 °C in a multianvil apparatus from a polymer derived t-BC1.97N ceramic. The bulk samples were characterised using X-ray synchrotron radiation and analytical transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Polycrystalline B-C-N materials with a cubic type structure were formed under the applied reaction conditions, but the formation of a ternary cubic diamond-like c-BC2N compound, could not be unambiguously confirmed.

  14. Characterization of the Materials Synthesized by High Pressure-High Temperature Treatment of a Polymer Derived t-BC2N Ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Matizamhuka, Wallace R.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Herrmann, Mathias; Dubronvinsky, Leonid; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Mera, Gabriela; Riedel, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Bulk B-C-N materials were synthesized under static high thermobaric conditions (20 GPa and 2,000 ?C) in a multianvil apparatus from a polymer derived t-BC1.97N ceramic. The bulk samples were characterised using X-ray synchrotron radiation and analytical transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Polycrystalline B-C-N materials with a cubic type structure were formed under the applied reaction conditions, but the formation of a ternary cubic diamond...

  15. Characterization of the Materials Synthesized by High Pressure-High Temperature Treatment of a Polymer Derived t-BC₂N Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matizamhuka, Wallace R; Sigalas, Iakovos; Herrmann, Mathias; Dubronvinsky, Leonid; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Mera, Gabriela; Riedel, Ralf

    2011-11-29

    Bulk B-C-N materials were synthesized under static high thermobaric conditions (20 GPa and 2,000 °C) in a multianvil apparatus from a polymer derived t-BC 1.97 N ceramic. The bulk samples were characterised using X-ray synchrotron radiation and analytical transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Polycrystalline B-C-N materials with a cubic type structure were formed under the applied reaction conditions, but the formation of a ternary cubic diamond-like c-BC₂N compound, could not be unambiguously confirmed.

  16. Corrosion resistance of materials of construction for high temperature sulfuric acid service in thermochemical IS process. Alloy 800, Alloy 600, SUSXM15J1 and SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo; Yamaguchi, Akihisa

    2006-01-01

    Exposure tests of candidate materials were carried out up to 1000 hr in the sulfuric acid environments of thermochemical hydrogen production IS process, focusing on the corrosion of welded portion and of crevice area. In the gas phase sulfuric acid decomposition condition at 850degC, welded samples of Alloy 800 and of Alloy 600 showed the same good corrosion resistance as the base materials. In the boiling condition of 95 wt% sulfuric acid solution, test sample of SiC showed the same good corrosion resistance. Also negligible corrosion was observed in crevice corrosion. (author)

  17. Plasma induced material defects and threshold values for thermal loads in high temperature resistant alloys and in refractory metals for first wall application in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Kny, E.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1986-10-01

    Materials for the application in the first wall of fusion reactors of the tokamak type are subjected to pulsed heat fluxes which range from some 0.5 MW m -2 to 10 MW m -2 during normal plasma operation, and which can exceed 1000 MW m -2 during total plasma disruptions. The structural defects and material fatigue caused by this types of plasma wall interaction are investigated and the results are plotted in threshold loading curves. Additionally, the results are, as far as possible, compared with quantitative, theoretical calculations. These procedures allow a semiquantitative evaluation of the applicability of the mentioned metals in the first wall of fusion reactors. (orig.) [de

  18. Development of high strength, high temperature ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    Improvement in the high-pressure turbopumps, both fuel and oxidizer, in the Space Shuttle main engine were considered. The operation of these pumps is limited by temperature restrictions of the metallic components used in these pumps. Ceramic materials that retain strength at high temperatures and appear to be promising candidates for use as turbine blades and impellers are discussed. These high strength materials are sensitive to many related processing parameters such as impurities, sintering aids, reaction aids, particle size, processing temperature, and post thermal treatment. The specific objectives of the study were to: (1) identify and define the processing parameters that affect the properties of Si3N4 ceramic materials, (2) design and assembly equipment required for processing high strength ceramics, (3) design and assemble test apparatus for evaluating the high temperature properties of Si3N4, and (4) conduct a research program of manufacturing and evaluating Si3N4 materials as applicable to rocket engine applications.

  19. The kinetics of reaction of the by-products of ablative materials at high temperatures and the rate of heat transfer between hot surfaces and reactive gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokes, G. N.; Beadle, P. C.; Gac, N. A.; Golden, D. M.; King, K. D.; Benson, S. W.

    1971-01-01

    Research has been conducted by means of laboratory experiments to enhance understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions taking place during ablative processes that accompany the reentry or manned space vehicles into planetary atmospheres. Fundamental mechanisms of those chemical reactions believed to be important in the thermal degradation of ablative plastic heat shield materials, and the gases evolved, are described.

  20. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  1. High Performance, High Temperature Thermoelectrics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address this technology need, it is proposed to develop an enhanced thermoelectric material with advantages that include ease of manufacture, low cost, low...

  2. Research and development of construction at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shigeru

    1974-01-01

    The contents and present situation of the researches on the construction of a multipurpose high temperature gas reactor are reported. The researches have been divided into five research blocks. The first block deals with the development of analytical codes required for the evaluation of construction in accordance with MITI Notification No.501, ASME section III, and case interpretation 1331-4-8. The codes for the analysis of two dimensional construction named FINEHEAT, AXINCRE and DYNSHL, those for three dimensional construction named STEREO and PINOSE, and for aseismatic analysis DYNAP were completed. The second block deals with the method for evaluating high temperature construction in accordance with ASME section III, case interpretation 133-5-8 and the evaluation of analytical codes. This block is related to a new technological field including a variety of unsolved problems. The third block deals with basic performance data on construction materials used at high temperature. There is very few basic data concerning material performance. The heretofore reported data are confirmed to enable the evaluation of construction. The fourth block deals with the application of construction evaluation method. The object of this block is to grasp the behavior of stress by experimental means, and to enable evaluation and to simultaneously establish stress index. The fifth block deals with the research for the determination of construction, including measuring technique, the effect of radiation heat on heat transfer efficiency, the prevention of metallic adhesion and the welding performance of seven materials by TIC, electron beam and plasma welding. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  4. Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, M.C.; Rosenblatt, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy (largely because of advances in laser and detector technology) is assuming a rapidly expanding role in many areas of research. This paper reviews the contribution of Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry including molecular spectroscopy on static systems and gas diagnostic measurements on reactive systems. An important aspect of high temperature chemistry has been the identification and study of the new, and often unusual, gaseous molecules which form at high temperatures. Particularly important is the investigation of vibrational-rotational energy levels and electronic states which determine thermodynamic properties and describe chemical bonding. Some advantages and disadvantages of high temperature Raman spectrosocpy for molecular studies on static systems are compared: (1) Raman vs infrared; (2) gas-phase vs condensed in matries; and (3) atmospheric pressure Raman vs low pressure techniques, including mass spectroscopy, matrix isolation, and molecular beams. Raman studies on molecular properties of gases, melts, and surfaces are presented with emphasis on work not covered in previous reviews of high temperature and matrix isolation Raman spectroscopy

  5. High temperature and high pressure oxidation behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material – Effect of β phase composition and surface machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouduru, S.K., E-mail: nouduru@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, M. Kiran; Kain, Vivekanand [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Khanna, A.S. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Saibaba, N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, ECILPost, Hyderabad 500062 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Pressure tube material, Zr-2.5Nb, of pressurized heavy water reactors was given selective heat-treatments. The objective was to generate microstructures with different compositions of the second phase β namely, Νb depleted β{sub Zr} phase and Nb rich β{sub Nb} phase. The material with β{sub Zr} was then subjected to surface machining. The presence of phases after different heat-treatments was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and the resultant microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction. The Nb content in the β phase after heat-treatments and residual stresses before and after surface machining were measured using X-ray diffraction. Oxidation was carried out in steam at 400 °C and 10 MPa up to 30 days and the oxides were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of Nb rich β{sub Nb} in the microstructure and faster diffusion of Nb into β phase brought about by surface machining resulted in an enhanced oxidation resistance. - Highlights: • Effect of heat treatments in formation of Nb rich/depleted phases established. • Microstructure with β{sub Nb} and Nb depleted α shown to have high oxidation resistance. • Surface machining resulted in grain refinement, strain and tensile residual stress. • Surface machining improved oxidation resistance and its extent increased with time. • Machined specimen showed higher fraction of tetragonal zirconia.

  6. High temperature and high pressure oxidation behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material – Effect of β phase composition and surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouduru, S.K.; Kumar, M. Kiran; Kain, Vivekanand; Khanna, A.S.; Saibaba, N.; Dey, G.K.

    2016-01-01

    Pressure tube material, Zr-2.5Nb, of pressurized heavy water reactors was given selective heat-treatments. The objective was to generate microstructures with different compositions of the second phase β namely, Νb depleted β Zr phase and Nb rich β Nb phase. The material with β Zr was then subjected to surface machining. The presence of phases after different heat-treatments was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and the resultant microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction. The Nb content in the β phase after heat-treatments and residual stresses before and after surface machining were measured using X-ray diffraction. Oxidation was carried out in steam at 400 °C and 10 MPa up to 30 days and the oxides were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of Nb rich β Nb in the microstructure and faster diffusion of Nb into β phase brought about by surface machining resulted in an enhanced oxidation resistance. - Highlights: • Effect of heat treatments in formation of Nb rich/depleted phases established. • Microstructure with β Nb and Nb depleted α shown to have high oxidation resistance. • Surface machining resulted in grain refinement, strain and tensile residual stress. • Surface machining improved oxidation resistance and its extent increased with time. • Machined specimen showed higher fraction of tetragonal zirconia.

  7. Chemical Stability between NiCr2O4 Material and Molten Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available NiCr2O4 as a potential protection for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs against the attack of molten calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate (CMAS was studied by a CMAS-contacting experiment. Atmospheric plasma sprayed coatings and sintered bulk materials were fabricated, covered with CMAS deposits, and exposed to 1200 °C for 24 h. Nano-sized CMAS-NiCr2O4 mixed powder was manufactured by ball milling and then conducted heat treatment under the same condition. The results show that no reacting product was found at the border between molten CMAS and NiCr2O4 and no element transportation occurred. It can be inferred that NiCr2O4 has outstanding chemical stability with the molten CMAS.

  8. Core-shelled mesoporous CoFe2O4-SiO2 material with good adsorption and high-temperature magnetic recycling capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi'ang; Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Min; Chen, Tong; Chen, Jifang; Ge, Wen; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin

    2018-04-01

    Residues of organic dye in industrial effluents cause severe water system pollution. Although several methods, such as biodegradation and activated carbon adsorption, are available for treating these effluents before their discharge into waterbodies, secondary pollution by adsorbents and degrading products remains an issue. Therefore, new materials should be identified to solve this problem. In this work, CoFe2O4-SiO2 core-shell structures were synthesized using an improved Stöber method by coating mesoporous silica onto CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The specific surface areas of the synthesized particles range from 30 m2/g to 150 m2/g and vary according to the dosage amount of tetraethoxysilane. Such core-shelled nanoparticles have the following advantages for treating industrial effluents mixed with dye: good adsorption capability, above-room-temperature magnetic recycling capability, and heat-enduring stability. Through adsorption of methylene blue, a typical dyeing material, the core-shell-structured particles show a good adsorption capability of approximately 33 mg/L. The particles are easily and completely collected by magnets, which is possible due to the magnetic property of core CoFe2O4. Heat treatment can burn out the adsorbed dyes and good adsorption performance is sustained even after several heat-treating loops. This property overcomes the common problem of particles with Fe3O4 as a core, by which Fe3O4 is oxidized to nonmagnetic α-Fe2O3 at the burning temperature. We also designed a miniature of effluent-treating pipeline, which demonstrates the potential of the application.

  9. Assessment of very high-temperature reactors in process applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Gambill, W.R.; Fox, E.C.

    1976-11-01

    An overview is presented of the technical and economic feasibility for the development of a very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) and associated processes. A critical evaluation of VHTR technology for process temperatures of 1400 and 2000 0 F is made. Additionally, an assessment of potential market impact is made to determine the commercial viability of the reactor system. It is concluded that VHTR process heat in the range of 1400 to 1500 0 F is attainable with near-term technology. However, process heat in excess of 1600 0 F would require considerably more materials development. The potential for the VHTR could include a major contribution to synthetic fuel, hydrogen, steel, and fertilizer production and to systems for transport and storage of high-temperature heat. A recommended development program including projected costs is presented

  10. Sandia_HighTemperatureComponentEvaluation_2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, Avery T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform independent evaluation of high temperature components to determine their suitability for use in high temperature geothermal tools. Development of high temperature components has been increasing rapidly due to demand from the high temperature oil and gas exploration and aerospace industries. Many of these new components are at the late prototype or first production stage of development and could benefit from third party evaluation of functionality and lifetime at elevated temperatures. In addition to independent testing of new components, this project recognizes that there is a paucity of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components rated for geothermal temperatures. As such, high-temperature circuit designers often must dedicate considerable time and resources to determine if a component exists that they may be able to knead performance out of to meet their requirements. This project aids tool developers by characterization of select COTS component performances beyond published temperature specifications. The process for selecting components includes public announcements of project intent (e.g., FedBizOps), direct discussions with candidate manufacturers,and coordination with other DOE funded programs.

  11. High temperature oxidation behavior of TiAl-based intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, M.F.; Sunderkoetter, J.D.; Haanappel, V.A.C.

    1996-01-01

    TiAl-based intermetallic compounds have attracted considerable interest as structural materials for high-temperature applications due to their low density and substantial mechanical strength at high temperatures. However, one major drawback hindering industrial application arises from the insufficient oxidation resistance at temperatures beyond 700 C. In the present contribution some general aspects of high temperature oxidation of TiAl-based intermetallics will be presented. This will be followed by a discussion of the influence of alloying elements, in particular niobium, and of the effect of nitrogen in the oxidizing environment on the high temperature oxidation behavior of such materials

  12. Substitution of wastes for fuels and raw materials in high-temperature processes; Substitution von Brennstoffen und Rohstoffen durch Abfaelle in Hochtemperaturprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik; Beckmann, M. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The physical recycling and energy conversion of wastes has for a long time been a topic of discussion. Some of the most interesting questions in this connection concern specific applications such as the co-combustion of sewage sludge in power plants, substitution of plastic wastes for primary fuels in burning processes in the cement industry etc. This paper also undertakes a comparative study of different applications, giving additional consideration to the state of the art in thermal waste treatment. Different processes can of course only be compared by taking the entirety of expenditures on additives and auxiliary energy into account and assuming equal side constraints for all processes. A further requirement is that the waste materials` specific properties that are relevant to the application in question have to be taken into account. This concerns in particular the effects of the substitution of waste-derived fuels (secondary fuels) for primary fuels on, for example, heat transfer conditions during the combustion process, flow conditions, and the resultant temperature distribution, transport of feedstock, and specific energy expenditure. Secondary fuels must be suited for substitution in various respects, e.g. in their material properties, and their combustion and thermal behaviour. The present paper deals in particular with the requirements on wastes as substitutes for primary fuels with regard to combustion and thermal behaviour. For this purpose it briefly discusses some important aspects of heat transfer in firing plants and industrial furnaces. An important criterion in assessing fuel substitution is the energy exchange ratio, which expresses value of the substitute fuel relative to that of the primary fuel and should be duly considered when making comparative studies. Focussing on aspects of process engineering the paper also deals exemplarily with the influence of fuel substitution on, e.g. furnace temperature, exhaust gas quantities etc. in clinker

  13. High temperature turbine engine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, W.D.; Boyd, G.L.

    1993-07-20

    A hybrid ceramic/metallic gas turbine is described comprising; a housing defining an inlet, an outlet, and a flow path communicating the inlet with the outlet for conveying a flow of fluid through the housing, a rotor member journaled by the housing in the flow path, the rotor member including a compressor rotor portion rotatively inducting ambient air via the inlet and delivering this air pressurized to the flow path downstream of the compressor rotor, a combustor disposed in the flow path downstream of the compressor receiving the pressurized air along with a supply of fuel to maintain combustion providing a flow of high temperature pressurized combustion products in the flow path downstream thereof, the rotor member including a turbine rotor portion disposed in the flow path downstream of the combustor and rotatively expanding the combustion products toward ambient for flow from the turbine engine via the outlet, the turbine rotor portion providing shaft power driving the compressor rotor portion and an output shaft portion of the rotor member, a disk-like metallic housing portion journaling the rotor member to define a rotational axis therefore, and a disk-like annular ceramic turbine shroud member bounding the flow path downstream of the combustor and circumscribing the turbine rotor portion to define a running clearance therewith, the disk-like ceramic turbine shroud member having a reference axis coaxial with the rotational axis and being spaced axially from the metallic housing portion in mutually parallel concentric relation therewith and a plurality of spacers disposed between ceramic disk-like shroud member and the metallic disk-like housing portion and circumferentially spaced apart, each of the spacers having a first and second end portion having an end surface adjacent the shroud member and the housing portion respectively, the end surfaces having a cylindrical curvature extending transversely relative to the shroud member and the housing portion.

  14. High-temperature sapphire optical sensor fiber coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desu, Seshu B.; Claus, Richard O.; Raheem, Ruby; Murphy, Kent A.

    1990-10-01

    Advanced coal-fired power generation systems, such as pressurized fluidized-bed combustors and integrated gasifier-combined cycles, may provide cost effective future alternatives for power generation, improve our utilization of coal resources, and decrease our dependence upon oil and gas. When coal is burned or converted to combustible gas to produce energy, mineral matter and chemical compounds are released as solid and gaseous contaminants. The control of contaminants is mandatory to prevent pollution as well as degradation of equipment in advanced power generation. To eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment and to avoid efficiency losses it is desirable to develop a technology capable of cleaning the hot gas. For this technology the removal of particle contaminants is of major concern. Several prototype high temperature particle filters have been developed, including ceramic candle filters, ceramic bag filters, and ceramic cross-flow (CXF) filters. Ceramic candle filters are rigid, tubular filters typically made by bonding silicon carbide or alumina-silica grains with clay bonding materials and perhaps including alumina-silica fibers. Ceramic bag filters are flexible and are made from long ceramic fibers such as alumina-silica. CXF filters are rigid filters made of stacks of individual lamina through which the dirty and clean gases flow in cross-wise directions. CXF filters are advantageous for hot gas cleanup applications since they offer a large effective filter surface per unit volume. The relatively small size of the filters allows the pressurized vessel containing them to be small, thus reducing potential equipment costs. CXF filters have shown promise but have experienced degradation at normal operational high temperatures (close to 1173K) and high pressures (up to 24 bars). Observed degradation modes include delamination of the individual tile layers, cracking at either the tile-torid interface or at the mounting flange, or plugging of

  15. Changes of microstructures and high temperature properties during high temperature service of Niobium added ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuhiro; Ohmura, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Akio

    2003-01-01

    To improve the fuel economy and clean the exhaust gas of automobiles, the temperature of exhaust gas is getting higher and higher. Niobium added ferritic stainless steels are often being used in automotive exhaust systems, because of their excellent heat resistant properties, especially thermal fatigue resistance, which is very important for materials of exhaust manifold. However, coarse precipitates containing niobium, which cause degradation in high temperature strength and thermal fatigue resistance, are unavoidable during high temperature service. In this study, changes of microstructures and high temperature properties in high temperature aging were investigated using several Nb added ferritic stainless steels. It has been found that the microstructure stability of Nb-Ti-Mo alloyed steels in high temperature aging is superior to that of Nb added steels. The microstructure stability leads to less degradation in high temperature strength during high temperature aging and to longer thermal fatigue lives of Nb-Ti-Mo alloyed steels than in Nb added steels

  16. High temperature ceramic/metal joint structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  17. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.

  18. Technology development for high temperature logging tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F.; Coquat, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A set of prototype, high temperature logging tools (temperature, pressure and flow) were tested successfully to temperatures up to 275/sup 0/C in a Union geothermal well during November 1978 as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program. This program is being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy's Division of Geothermal Energy. The progress and plans of this industry based program to develop and apply the high temperature instrumentation technology needed to make reliable geothermal borehole measurements are described. Specifically, this program is upgrading existing sondes for improved high temperature performance, as well as applying new materials (elastomers, polymers, metals and ceramics) and developing component technology such as high temperature cables, cableheads and electronics to make borehole measurements such as formation temperature, flow rate, high resolution pressure and fracture mapping. In order to satisfy critical existing needs, the near term goal is for operation up to 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi by the end of FY80. The long term goal is for operation up to 350/sup 0/C and 20,000 psi by the end of FY84.

  19. The Evolution of High Temperature Gas Sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, F. H. (Fernando H.); Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Mukundan, R. (Rangachary)

    2001-01-01

    Gas sensor technology based on high temperature solid electrolytes is maturing rapidly. Recent advances in metal oxide catalysis and thin film materials science has enabled the design of new electrochemical sensors. We have demonstrated prototype amperometric oxygen sensors, nernstian potentiometric oxygen sensors that operate in high sulfur environments, and hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide sensing mixed potentials sensors. Many of these devices exhibit part per million sensitivities, response times on the order of seconds and excellent long-term stability.

  20. Study of super high temperature ceramics-based and Mo-based materials for the heat exchanger of coal combustion gas; Sekitan nensho gas netsu kokankiyo no ceramic kei oyobi molybdenum kei chokoon zairyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Materials for the heat exchanger were studied which can bear the high temperature corrosion environment represented by the high efficiency coal-fired power generation system. From the literature search, were selected the Cr2O3-based ceramics with relatively high corrosion resistance, and the Mo-based materials of which corrosion resistance would be improved by the MoSi2 coating among the metals. For the Cr2O3-based ceramics, materials were fabricated by the hot press process, and their corrosion resistance against the molten coal ash was examined. As a result, the simple Cr2O3 showed remarkably poor degree of sintering, but significantly dense test specimens were obtained from the Cr2O3-Al2O3-based materials. It was provided that a part of these has excellent corrosion resistance. However, further investigation would be still required to determine the optimum composition and the fabrication process. For the Mo-based metal materials, Mo(Al-Si)2 coatings with excellent corrosion resistance were fabricated by dipping them in the Al-Si melting solution, which is called the dip coating method. It was found that the amorphous SiO2, which has excellent resistance to oxidation, became very stable by the presence of aluminum. 18 refs., 73 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Crystals for Acoustic Wave Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Hongfei; Wu, Huiyan; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2016-03-01

    In this review paper, nine different types of high-temperature piezoelectric crystals and their sensor applications are overviewed. The important materials' properties of these piezoelectric crystals including dielectric constant, elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, electromechanical coupling coefficients, and mechanical quality factor are discussed in detail. The determination methods of these physical properties are also presented. Moreover, the growth methods, structures, and properties of these piezoelectric crystals are summarized and compared. Of particular interest are langasite and oxyborate crystals, which exhibit no phase transitions prior to their melting points ∼ 1500 °C and possess high electrical resistivity, piezoelectric coefficients, and mechanical quality factor at ultrahigh temperature ( ∼ 1000 °C). Finally, some research results on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors developed using this high-temperature piezoelectric crystals are discussed.

  2. FEM Modeling of the Relationship between the High-Temperature Hardness and High-Temperature, Quasi-Static Compression Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Feng; Yan, Lan; Xu, Xipeng

    2017-12-26

    The high-temperature hardness test has a wide range of applications, but lacks test standards. The purpose of this study is to develop a finite element method (FEM) model of the relationship between the high-temperature hardness and high-temperature, quasi-static compression experiment, which is a mature test technology with test standards. A high-temperature, quasi-static compression test and a high-temperature hardness test were carried out. The relationship between the high-temperature, quasi-static compression test results and the high-temperature hardness test results was built by the development of a high-temperature indentation finite element (FE) simulation. The simulated and experimental results of high-temperature hardness have been compared, verifying the accuracy of the high-temperature indentation FE simulation.The simulated results show that the high temperature hardness basically does not change with the change of load when the pile-up of material during indentation is ignored. The simulated and experimental results show that the decrease in hardness and thermal softening are consistent. The strain and stress of indentation were analyzed from the simulated contour. It was found that the strain increases with the increase of the test temperature, and the stress decreases with the increase of the test temperature.

  3. FEM Modeling of the Relationship between the High-Temperature Hardness and High-Temperature, Quasi-Static Compression Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The high-temperature hardness test has a wide range of applications, but lacks test standards. The purpose of this study is to develop a finite element method (FEM model of the relationship between the high-temperature hardness and high-temperature, quasi-static compression experiment, which is a mature test technology with test standards. A high-temperature, quasi-static compression test and a high-temperature hardness test were carried out. The relationship between the high-temperature, quasi-static compression test results and the high-temperature hardness test results was built by the development of a high-temperature indentation finite element (FE simulation. The simulated and experimental results of high-temperature hardness have been compared, verifying the accuracy of the high-temperature indentation FE simulation.The simulated results show that the high temperature hardness basically does not change with the change of load when the pile-up of material during indentation is ignored. The simulated and experimental results show that the decrease in hardness and thermal softening are consistent. The strain and stress of indentation were analyzed from the simulated contour. It was found that the strain increases with the increase of the test temperature, and the stress decreases with the increase of the test temperature.

  4. Laser Brazing of High Temperature Braze Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. P.; Seaman, R. F.; McQuillan, T. J.; Martiens, R. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) consists of 1080 conical tubes, which are furnace brazed themselves, manifolds, and surrounding structural jacket making almost four miles of braze joints. Subsequent furnace braze cycles are performed due to localized braze voids between the coolant tubes. SSME nozzle experiences extremely high heat flux (180 mW/sq m) during hot fire. Braze voids between coolant tubes may result in hot combustion gas escape causing jacket bulges. The nozzle can be disqualified for flight or result in mission failure if the braze voids exceed the limits. Localized braze processes were considered to eliminate braze voids, however, damage to the parent materials often prohibited use of such process. Being the only manned flight reusable rocket engine, it has stringent requirement on the braze process. Poor braze quality or damage to the parent materials limits the nozzle service life. The objective of this study was to develop a laser brazing process to provide quality, localized braze joints without adverse affect on the parent materials. Gold (Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Mn) based high temperature braze alloys were used in both powder and wire form. Thin section iron base superalloy A286 tube was used as substrate materials. Different Laser Systems including CO2 (10.6 micrometers, 1kW), ND:YAG (1.06 micrometers, 4kW). and direct diode laser (808nm. 150W) were investigated for brazing process. The laser process variables including wavelength. laser power, travel speed and angle of inclination were optimized according to bead geometry and braze alloy wetting at minimum heat input level, The properties of laser brazing were compared to that of furnace brazing. Microhardness profiles were used for braze joint property comparison between laser and furnace brazing. The cooling rate of laser brazing was compared to furnace brazing based on secondary dendritic arm spacing, Both optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructures of

  5. High temperature electronic gain device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Depp, S.W.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments is described. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube

  6. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  7. High temperature component life assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this book is to investigate and explain the rapid advances in the characterization of high temperature crack growth behaviour which have been made in recent years, with reference to industrial applications. Complicated mathematics has been minimized with the emphasis placed instead on finding solutions using simplified procedures without the need for complex numerical analysis.

  8. Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

  9. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    60.5 11350 2B3 RT .2516 .1278 63.4 11800 2B4 1200oF .2512 .1244 60.2 11850 2B5 1200oF .2494 .1280 58.4 10950 2B6 .2510 .1285 2B7 1500 oF .2524...Rupture Testing (3) A standard tensile creep specimen ’ was set up in a lever arm creep machine and loaded to 10,000 psi at 2100oF using TD Nickel

  10. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    aspect which calls out "rules of thumb" of ceramic design comprising such items as: generous radii, no sharp corners, crown fitting diameters, etc. The...early work on this approach was spent on mold development.(2,3) Two types of molds were selected for evaluation. Ont. ype was a silica- zirconia ceramic

  11. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    temperature (659»10). A g: -^up of 31.2. 7 gm/cm3 density injection molded Sig ^ test bars, maoe using the best current nitriding cycle and an...2150oF) % Nitrided Phase Composition a Si^N^ Ratio % a % |3 % Si ß Sig ^ 0 Hours 19.2 1 1 98 1.0 24 Hours 60.8 62 15 23 4.13 72...Paul F. Jahn, Vice President, Broadway and Main Street, Graniteville, Massachusetts 01829 Garrett Corporation Mr. H. R. Schelp, 9851 Sepulveda

  12. NGNP High Temperature Materials White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew Lommers; George Honma

    2012-08-01

    This white paper is one in a series of white papers that address key generic issues of the combined construction and operating license (COL) pre-application program key generic issues for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant reactor using the prismatic block fuel technology. The purpose of the pre-application program interactions with the NRC staff is to reduce the time required for COL application review by identifying and addressing key regulatory issues and, if possible, obtaining agreements for their resolution

  13. High temperature superconductors in electromagnetic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Richens, P E

    2000-01-01

    powder-in-tube and dip-coated, have been made using a novel single loop tensometer that enables the insertion of a reasonably long length of conductor into the bore of a high-field magnet. The design, construction, and characterization of a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is described. The design stage has involved the development of computer software for the calculation of the critical current of a solenoid wound from anisotropic HTS conductor. This calculation can be performed for a variety of problems including those involving magnetic materials such as iron by the incorporation of finite element electromagnetic analysis software. This has enabled the optimization of the magnet's performance. The HTS magnet is wound from 190 m of silver-matrix Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 1 sub 0 powder-in-tube tape conductor supplied by Intermagnetics General Corporation. The dimensions are 70 mm bore and 70 mm length, and it consists of 728 turns. Iron end-plates were utilized in order to reduc...

  14. Demonstration of capabilities of high temperature composites analyzer code HITCAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Surendra N.; Lackney, Joseph J.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities a high temperature composites analyzer code, HITCAN which predicts global structural and local stress-strain response of multilayered metal matrix composite structures, are demonstrated. The response can be determined both at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) and the structure level and includes the fabrication process effects. The thermo-mechanical properties of the constituents are considered to be nonlinearly dependent on several parameters including temperature, stress, and stress rate. The computational procedure employs an incremental iterative nonlinear approach utilizing a multifactor-interactive constituent material behavior model. Various features of the code are demonstrated through example problems for typical structures.

  15. Multifunctional, High-Temperature Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Working, Dennis C.; Criss, Jim M.; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Ghose, Sayata

    2007-01-01

    In experiments conducted as part of a continuing effort to incorporate multifunctionality into advanced composite materials, blends of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a resin denoted gPETI-330 h (wherein gPETI h is an abbreviation for gphenylethynyl-terminated imide h) were prepared, characterized, and fabricated into moldings. PETI-330 was selected as the matrix resin in these experiments because of its low melt viscosity (2 hours at 280 C), and high temperature performance (>1,000 hours at 288 C). The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), obtained from the University of Kentucky, were selected because of their electrical and thermal conductivity and their small diameters. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the combination of thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties achievable while still maintaining melt processability. The PETI-330/MWCNT mixtures were prepared at concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 weight-percent of MWCNTs by dry mixing of the constituents in a ball mill using zirconia beads. The resulting powders were characterized for degree of mixing and thermal and rheological properties. The neat resin was found to have melt viscosity between 5 and 10 poise. At 280 C and a fixed strain rate, the viscosity was found to increase with time. At this temperature, the phenylethynyl groups do not readily react and so no significant curing of the resin occurred. For MWCNT-filled samples, melt viscosity was reasonably steady at 280 C and was greater in samples containing greater proportions of MWCNTs. The melt viscosity for 20 weightpercent of MWCNTs was found to be .28,000 poise, which is lower than the initial estimated allowable maximum value of 60,000 poise for injection molding. Hence, MWCNT loadings of as much as 20 percent were deemed to be suitable compositions for scale-up. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed the MWCNTs to be well dispersed in the polymer matrices, while high-resolution transmission electron

  16. High-temperature granulites and supercontinents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.R. Touret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of continents involves a combination of magmatic and metamorphic processes. These processes become indistinguishable at the crust-mantle interface, where the pressure-temperature (P-T conditions of (ultra high-temperature granulites and magmatic rocks are similar. Continents grow laterally, by magmatic activity above oceanic subduction zones (high-pressure metamorphic setting, and vertically by accumulation of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the crust (high-temperature metamorphic setting. Both events are separated from each other in time; the vertical accretion postdating lateral growth by several tens of millions of years. Fluid inclusion data indicate that during the high-temperature metamorphic episode the granulite lower crust is invaded by large amounts of low H2O-activity fluids including high-density CO2 and concentrated saline solutions (brines. These fluids are expelled from the lower crust to higher crustal levels at the end of the high-grade metamorphic event. The final amalgamation of supercontinents corresponds to episodes of ultra-high temperature metamorphism involving large-scale accumulation of these low-water activity fluids in the lower crust. This accumulation causes tectonic instability, which together with the heat input from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, leads to the disruption of supercontinents. Thus, the fragmentation of a supercontinent is already programmed at the time of its amalgamation.

  17. Motor for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  18. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  19. High temperature electrical energy storage: advances, challenges, and frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinrong; Salari, Maryam; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-24

    With the ongoing global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emission and dependence on oil, electrical energy storage (EES) devices such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become ubiquitous. Today, EES devices are entering the broader energy use arena and playing key roles in energy storage, transfer, and delivery within, for example, electric vehicles, large-scale grid storage, and sensors located in harsh environmental conditions, where performance at temperatures greater than 25 °C are required. The safety and high temperature durability are as critical or more so than other essential characteristics (e.g., capacity, energy and power density) for safe power output and long lifespan. Consequently, significant efforts are underway to design, fabricate, and evaluate EES devices along with characterization of device performance limitations such as thermal runaway and aging. Energy storage under extreme conditions is limited by the material properties of electrolytes, electrodes, and their synergetic interactions, and thus significant opportunities exist for chemical advancements and technological improvements. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of different applications associated with high temperature use (40-200 °C), recent advances in the development of reformulated or novel materials (including ionic liquids, solid polymer electrolytes, ceramics, and Si, LiFePO 4 , and LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes) with high thermal stability, and their demonstrative use in EES devices. Finally, we present a critical overview of the limitations of current high temperature systems and evaluate the future outlook of high temperature batteries with well-controlled safety, high energy/power density, and operation over a wide temperature range.

  20. On supersymmetry at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajc, B.; Senjanovic, G.; Melfo, A.

    1996-08-01

    While it is possible to find examples of field theories with a spontaneously broken symmetry at high temperature, in renormalizable supersymmetric models any internal symmetry always get restored. Recently, a counterexample was suggested in the context of nonrenormalizable supersymmetric theories. We show that non negligible higher loop effects actually restore the symmetry, without compromising the validity of perturbation theory. We give some arguments as to why the proposed mechanism should not work in general. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  1. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  2. Articles for high temperature service and methods for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafi-Nour, Reza; Meschter, Peter Joel; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Luthra, Krishan Lal; Rosenzweig, Larry Steven

    2016-06-14

    An article for use in aggressive environments is presented. In one embodiment, the article comprises a substrate and a self-sealing and substantially hermetic sealing layer comprising an alkaline-earth aluminosilicate disposed over the bondcoat. The substrate may be any high-temperature material, including, for instance, silicon-bearing ceramics and ceramic matrix composites. A method for making such articles is also presented. The method comprises providing a substrate; disposing a self-sealing alkaline-earth aluminosilicate layer over the substrate; and heating the sealing layer to a sealing temperature at which at least a portion of the sealing layer will flow.

  3. NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Jun-ichi Ida

    2001-01-01

    This project is aimed at demonstrating technical feasibility for a lithium zirconate based dense ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperature. The research work conducted in this reporting period was focused on several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate important to the development of the dense inorganic membrane. These fundamental issues include material synthesis of lithium zirconate, phases and microstructure of lithium zirconate and structure change of lithium zirconate during sorption/desorption process. The results show difficulty to prepare the dense ceramic membrane from pure lithium zirconate, but indicate a possibility to prepare the dense inorganic membrane for carbon dioxide separation from a composite lithium zirconate

  4. Passivation Of High-Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Surfaces of high-temperature superconductors passivated with native iodides, sulfides, or sulfates formed by chemical treatments after superconductors grown. Passivating compounds nearly insoluble in and unreactive with water and protect underlying superconductors from effects of moisture. Layers of cuprous iodide and of barium sulfate grown. Other candidate passivating surface films: iodides and sulfides of bismuth, strontium, and thallium. Other proposed techniques for formation of passivating layers include deposition and gas-phase reaction.

  5. Viscoelastic creep of high-temperature concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Marchertas, A.H.; Bazant, Z.P.

    1985-01-01

    Presented in this report is the analytical model for analysis of high temperature creep response of concrete. The creep law used is linear (viscoelastic), the temperature and moisture effects on the creep rate and also aging are included. Both constant and transient temperature as well as constant and transient moisture conditions are considered. Examples are presented to correlate experimental data with parameters of the analytical model by the use of a finite element scheme

  6. Experience with high-temperature filtration of incinerator flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.; de Tassigny, C.

    1990-01-01

    It is always preferable to filter incinerator flue gases as close as possible to their origin, i.e. in a high-temperature zone, and means must be provided to destroy the other organic parts of the flyash resulting from these gases by in-filter combustion. The filter also traps a mineral part of the flyash, which eventually causes clogging and requires replacement or regeneration. Such filtration systems are available and can be operated on an industrial scale. They include candles made of micro-expanded refractory alloys supporting filtering media, porous ceramic candles and other devices. Research and subsequent pilot facility testing have enabled development of alumina fiber filter cartridges that offer more advantages than other equipment employed to date. Specifically, these advantages are: ultralight weight, which enables construction of systems that are relatively unaffected by creep and high-temperature deformations; excellent refractory qualities, which permit a use above 1000 degrees C; insensitivity to thermal shocks and in-situ carbon fines combustion capability; anti-acid quality of the material, which enables high-temperature filtration of acidic flue gases (chlorine and hydrochloric acid, SO x , etc.); low initial pressure drop of the cartridges; dimensional stability of the cartridges, which can be machined to a given tolerance with specific contours after casting and drying. This paper reports the results obtained during the last filtration system test campaign. Details are given for operating conditions, grain sizes and real-time monitoring of various parameters

  7. The Status of the US High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kadak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the US passed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 mandating the construction and operation of a high-temperature gas reactor (HTGR by 2021. This law was passed after a multiyear study by national experts on what future nuclear technologies should be developed. As a result of the Act, the US Congress chose to develop the so-called Next-Generation Nuclear Plant, which was to be an HTGR designed to produce process heat for hydrogen production. Despite high hopes and expectations, the current status is that high temperature reactors have been relegated to completing research programs on advanced fuels, graphite and materials with no plans to build a demonstration plant as required by the US Congress in 2005. There are many reasons behind this diminution of HTGR development, including but not limited to insufficient government funding requirements for research, unrealistically high temperature requirements for the reactor, the delay in the need for a “hydrogen” economy, competition from light water small modular light water reactors, little utility interest in new technologies, very low natural gas prices in the US, and a challenging licensing process in the US for non-water reactors.

  8. High temperature strain of metals and alloys. Physical fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitin, V. [National Technical Univ., Zaporozhye (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    The author shows how new in-situ X-ray investigations and transmission electron microscope studies lead to novel explanations of high-temperature deformation and creep in pure metals, solid solutions and super alloys. This approach is the first to find unequivocal and quantitative expressions for the macroscopic deformation rate by means of three groups of parameters: substructural characteristics, physical material constants and external conditions. Creep strength of the studied uptodate single crystal super alloys is greatly increased over conventional polycrystalline super alloys. The contents of this book include: macroscopic characteristics of strain at high temperatures; experimental equipment and technique of in situ X-ray investigations; experimental data and structural parameters in deformed metals; sub-boundaries as dislocation sources and obstacles; the physical mechanism of creep and the quantitative structural model; simulation of the parameters evolution; system of differential equations; high-temperature deformation of industrial super alloys; single crystals of super alloys; effect of composition, orientation and temperature on properties; and creep of some refractory metals.

  9. Design of high temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Sudo, Yukio

    1994-09-01

    Construction of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is now underway to establish and upgrade basic technologies for HTGRs and to conduct innovative basic research at high temperatures. The HTTR is a graphite-moderated and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30 MW in thermal output and outlet coolant temperature of 850degC for rated operation and 950degC for high temperature test operation. It is planned to conduct various irradiation tests for fuels and materials, safety demonstration tests and nuclear heat application tests. JAERI received construction permit of HTTR reactor facility in February 1990 after 22 months of safety review. This report summarizes evaluation of nuclear and thermal-hydraulic characteristics, design outline of major systems and components, and also includes relating R and D result and safety evaluation. Criteria for judgment, selection of postulated events, major analytical conditions for anticipated operational occurrences and accidents, computer codes used in safety analysis and evaluation of each event are presented in the safety evaluation. (author)

  10. High temperature superconductors in electromagnetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richens, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    The design, construction, and characterization of a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is described. The design stage has involved the development of computer software for the calculation of the critical current of a solenoid wound from anisotropic HTS conductor. This calculation can be performed for a variety of problems including those involving magnetic materials such as iron by the incorporation of finite element electromagnetic analysis software. This has enabled the optimization of the magnet's performance. The HTS magnet is wound from 190 m of silver-matrix Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 powder-in-tube tape conductor supplied by Intermagnetics General Corporation. The dimensions are 70 mm bore and 70 mm length, and it consists of 728 turns. Iron end-plates were utilized in order to reduce the radial magnetic field, and consequently increase the performance by ∼ 20%. The magnet has been operated in liquid cryogens and has achieved engineering current densities of 900 A cm -2 at 77 K and 6680 A cm -2 at 4.2 K. The HTS magnet has been operated by conduction-cooling on a mechanical refrigerator at various temperatures in the range 12 to 50 K. The thermal stability in this relatively low cooling-power system has been assessed. An engineering current density of 5600 A cm -2 was achieved at 12 K. Measurements of the strain dependence of the critical current in a variety of HTS conductors, including powder-in-tube and dip-coated, have been made using a novel single loop tensometer that enables the insertion of a reasonably long length of conductor into the bore of a high-field magnet. (author)

  11. Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangcheng; Liu, Yixin; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Puxian; Lei, Yu

    2014-08-01

    A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs) thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO nanoparticles film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF) output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors.

  12. Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangcheng eSun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f. magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO nanoparticles film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors.

  13. High Temperature Particle Filtration Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    High temperature filtration can serve to improve the economic, environmental, and energy performance of chemical processes. This project was designed to evaluate the stability of filtration materials in the environments of the production of dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS). In cooperation with Dow Corning, chemical environments for the fluidized bed reactor where silicon is converted to DDS and the incinerator where vents are cornbusted were characterized. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) an exposure system was developed that could simulate these two environments. Filter samples obtained from third parties were exposed to the environments for periods up to 1000 hours. Mechanical properties before and after exposure were determined by burst-testing rings of filter material. The results indicated that several types of filter materials would likely perform well in the fluid bed environment, and two materials would be good candidates for the incinerator environment

  14. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable

  15. Confinement of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.; Fletcher, H.J.; Gardner, J.H.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature plasma is confined in the shape of a topological torus by a topologically stable magnetic field which is everywhere constant on and tangent to the surface of the torus. There are exactly an even finite number of closed magnetic field lines on the plasma surface and all other magnetic field lines on the surface are asymptotic to the closed field lines. This magnetic field configuration is achieved by a set of current carrying conductors appropriately arranged with respect to the plasma and carrying suitably selected currents

  16. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...... electrolysis using SOECs is competitive to H-2 production from fossil fuels at electricity prices below 0.02-0.03 is an element of per kWh. Though promising SOEC results on H-2 production have been reported a substantial R&D is still required to obtain inexpensive, high performing and long-term stable...

  17. High temperature divertor plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi.

    1991-02-01

    High temperature divertor plasma operation has been proposed, which is expected to enhance the core energy confinement and eliminates the heat removal problem. In this approach, the heat flux is guided through divertor channel to a remote area with a large target surface, resulting in low heat load on the target plate. This allows pumping of the particles escaping from the core and hence maintaining of the high divertor temperature, which is comparable to the core temperature. The energy confinement is then determined by the diffusion coefficient of the core plasma, which has been observed to be much lower than the thermal diffusivity. (author)

  18. Novel SICN Ceramics for Health Monitoring of High Temperature Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raj, Rishi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this MEANS program was to develop new methodologies for quantifying the variability in the performance of high temperature systems by coupling basic concepts from materials science...

  19. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  20. Studies of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.

    1989-01-01

    The high temperature superconductors (HTSCs) discovered are from the family of ceramic oxides. Their large scale utilization in electrical utilities and in microelectronic devices are the frontal challenges which can perhaps be effectively met only through consolidated efforts and expertise of a multidisciplinary nature. During the last two years the growth of the new field has occurred on an international scale and perhaps has been more rapid than in most other fields. There has been an extraordinary rush of data and results which are continually being published as short texts dispersed in many excellent journals, some of which were started to ensure rapid publication exclusively in this field. As a result, the literature on HTSCs has indeed become so massive and so diffuse that it is becoming increasingly difficult to keep abreast with the important and reliable facets of this fast-growing field. This provided the motivation to evolve a process whereby both professional investigators and students can have ready access to up-to- date in-depth accounts of major technical advances happening in this field. The present series Studies of High Temperature Superconductors has been launched to, at least in part, fulfill this need

  1. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  2. Reactor core design of Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Yan Xing; Tsuji, Nobumasa

    2004-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been designing Japan's original gas turbine high temperature reactor, Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300 (GTHTR300). The greatly simplified design based on salient features of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) with a closed helium gas turbine enables the GTHTR300 a highly efficient and economically competitive reactor to be deployed in early 2010s. Also, the GTHTR300 fully taking advantage of various experiences accumulated in design, construction and operation of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and existing fossil fired gas turbine systems reduces technological development concerning a reactor system and electric generation system. Original design features of this system are the reactor core design based on a newly proposed refueling scheme named sandwich shuffling, conventional steel material usage for a reactor pressure vessel (RPV), an innovative coolant flow scheme and a horizontally installed gas turbine unit. The GTHTR300 can be continuously operated without the refueling for 2 years. Due to these salient features, the capital cost of the GTHTR300 is less than a target cost of 200,000 yen (1667 US$)/kW e, and the electric generation cost is close to a target cost of 4 yen (3.3 US cents)/kW h. This paper describes the original design features focusing on the reactor core design and the in-core structure design, including the innovative coolant flow scheme for cooling the RPV. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan

  3. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  4. High temperature deformation mechanisms of cemented carbides and cermets

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    The motivation of this work derives from the need of the cutting tool industry to improve its products in order to support harder and harder working conditions, namely increasing cutting speeds and working on stronger modern materials. The lifetime of the tools is limited by plastic deformation that occurs at the cutting edge under working conditions, which involve high temperatures and stresses. The high temperature deformation of the materials that are used for the production of cutting too...

  5. Fracture Studies of High Temperature Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    silicon nitride materials containing HgO, CeO2 or ZrO2 sinterinS aids showed a decrease in 1ZC as the temperature exceeded 13000 C. Hlot- pressed silicon...merization of the furfuryl alcohol was subsequently allowed to proceed at 150°C. Alternatively, slurries of 30 volt SiC were cast, polymerized and pyrolized...shown that the densifying agent (MgO, Y2 03 , CeO2 , A120 3 , etc.) used in hot-pressing dramatically affects the high temperature strength proper

  6. Experimental needs of high temperature concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chern, J.C.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The needs of experimental data on concrete structures under high temperature, ranging up to about 370 0 C for operating reactor conditions and to about 900 0 C and beyond for hypothetical accident conditions, are described. This information is required to supplement analytical methods which are being implemented into the finite element code TEMP-STRESS to treat reinforced concrete structures. Recommended research ranges from material properties of reinforced/prestressed concrete, direct testing of analytical models used in the computer codes, to investigations of certain aspects of concrete behavior, the phenomenology of which is not well understood. 10 refs

  7. Permanent magnets composed of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Roy; Chen, In-Gann; Liu, Jay; Lau, Kwong

    1991-01-01

    A study of persistent, trapped magnetic field has been pursued with high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The main effort is to study the feasibility of utilization of HTS to fabricate magnets for various devices. The trapped field, when not in saturation, is proportional to the applied field. Thus, it should be possible to replicate complicated field configurations with melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7 (MT-Y123) material, bypassing the need for HTS wires. Presently, materials have been developed from which magnets of 1.5 T, at 77 K, can be fabricated. Much higher field is available at lower operating temperature. Stability of a few percent per year is readily attainable. Results of studies on prototype motors and minimagnets are reported.

  8. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...... materials as candidates for robust oxygen sensor electrodes. The present work focuses on characterising the electrochemical properties of a few electrode materials to understand which oxygen electrode processes are limiting for the response time of the sensor electrode. Three types of porous platinum......-Dansensor. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the structures were characterised by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. At an oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 bar, the response time of the sensor electrode was determined by oxygen...

  9. Analyse of the potential of the high temperature reactor with respect to the use of fissile materials; Analyse des capacites des reacteurs a haute temperature sous l'aspect de l'utilisation des matieres fissiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, F

    2001-07-01

    The high temperature reactors fuel is made of micro-particles dispersed in a graphite matrix. This configuration makes it possible to reach high burnup, higher than 700 GWj/t. Thanks to the decoupling between the thermal and the neutronic behaviors in the core many types of fuels can be used. These characteristics give to HTR reactor very good capacities to burn fissile materials. This work was done in the frame of the evaluation of HTR capacities to enhance the value of the plutonium stocks. These stocks are currently composed of the irradiated fuels discharged from classical PWR or the dismantling of the nuclear weapons and represent a significant energy potential. These studies concluded that high cycles length can be reached whatever the plutonium quality is (from 50 % to 94 % of fissile plutonium). In addition, it was demonstrated that the moderator temperature coefficient becomes locally positive for highly burn fuel while the core global moderator temperature coefficient remained negative in the operation range of the reactor. A significant share of this work was first devoted to the setting of a modeling of the fuel element but also of the reactor's core with the codes of system SAPHYR. The whole of modeling was validated by reference calculations. This work of code assessment is justified by a preliminary work that showed that the classical calculation scheme used for PWR could not be transposed directly to HTR core. (author)

  10. Observation of microcracks due to high temperature creep in unidirectionally reinforced AS4/PEEK laminate 90-degree material. Ichihoko kyoka AS4/PEEK sekisoban 90deg zai no koon creep ni okeru bisho kiretsu no kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, R.; Kitamura, T.; Tada, N.; Ejima, T.; Sakurai, H. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)); Koizumi, T. (Toho Gas Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan))

    1998-05-21

    A flat strip specimen of an AS4/PEEK (polyetheretherketone) 90-degree material is subjected to a high temperature creep test, the test being interrupted at specified intervals for the detailed observation of the initiation and growth of microcracks. The specimen for the experiment is taken out of a CFRP laminate board in which a thermoplastic resin PEEK is unidirectionally reinforced by the carbon fiber AS4. The creep test is conducted in the atmosphere of 473K with the stress kept at 20MPa, and is interrupted every 4th hour for the observation of microcracks. Some findings are obtained as the result of the test, which are mentioned below. A general observation of the polished specimen surface identifies one approximately 100[mu]m-long crack, and a detailed observation detects a multiplicity of 2-14[mu]m-long interfacial cracks constituting the said crack. The crack growth rate is quite variable but a tendency exists for it to grow higher as the crack grows up. It is supposed that a crack grows when it merges with smaller cracks in presence in front of the crack tip. Among the cracks, there are many that halt at a matrix-rich region and fail to restart growing, this indicating that a matrix-rich region is highly resistant to crack growth. 6 figs.

  11. Hydrogen production from high temperature electrolysis and fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, J.F.; Issacs, H.S.; Lazareth, O.; Powell, J.R.; Salzano, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from high temperature electrolysis of steam coupled with a fusion reactor is studied. The process includes three major components: the fusion reactor, the high temperature electrolyzer and the power conversion cycle each of which is discussed in the paper. Detailed process design and analysis of the system is examined. A parametric study on the effect of process efficiency is presented

  12. High temperature incineration. Densification of granules from high temperature incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorde, N. van de; Claes, J.; Taeymans, A.; Hennart, D.; Gijbels, J.; Balleux, W.; Geenen, G.; Vangeel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The incineration system of radioactive waste discussed in this report, is an ''integral'' system, which directly transforms a definite mixture of burnable and unburnable radioactive waste in a final product with a sufficient insolubility to be safely disposed of. At the same time, a significant volume reduction occurs by this treatment. The essential part of the system is a high temperature incinerator. The construction of this oven started in 1974, and while different tests with simulated inactive or very low-level active waste were carried out, the whole system was progressively and continuously extended and adapted, ending finally in an installation with completely remote control, enclosed in an alpha-tight room. In this report, a whole description of the plant and of its auxiliary installations will be given; then the already gained experimental results will be summarized. Finally, the planning for industrial operation will be briefly outlined. An extended test with radioactive waste, which was carried out in March 1981, will be discussed in the appendix

  13. High-temperature superconductors make major progress

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    This month's Nature Materials featured an important breakthrough for high-temperature superconductors. A new method has been found for processing Bi-2212 high-temperature superconducting round wire in order to drastically increase its critical current density. The result confirms that this conductor is a serious candidate for future very-high-field magnets.   This image shows the cross-section of two Bi-2212 wires. The bottom wire has less leakage and void porosity due to a heat treatment done at an overpressure of 100 bar - about 100 times the pressure used to produce the top wire (image from [Nature Materials, Vol. 13 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3887]). The workhorse for building superconducting accelerator magnets has been, so far, the Niobium-Titanium (Nb-Ti) alloy superconductor. But with Nb-Ti having reached its full potential, other conductors must be used to operate in higher magnetic fields beyond those reached with the LHC magnets. Today, the intermetallic Niobium-Tin (Nb3Sn) is th...

  14. Non-graphite crucible for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-piece crucible for high temperature applications comprises a tubular side wall member having a lip on the inside surface and a bottom member or members forming a container for containing a melt of a material during a high temperature melt-casting operations. The multi-piece design prevents cracking of the crucible or leakage of the melt from the crucible during the melt-casting operation. The lip of the tubular member supports the bottom member. The contacting surfaces where the lip of the tubular side wall member contacts the bottom member of the multi-piece crucible contains a ceramic sealing material. The ceramic sealing material forms a seal sufficient to prevent the melt of the material from leaking out of the multi-piece crucible during the melt-casting process. The multi-piece crucible is made of a material which is chemically inert to the melt and has structural integrity at the melting point temperature of the melt, or of a material coated with such a material. The multi-piece crucible is contained in a thermal can assembly of a high temperature induction furnace during a high temperature melt-casting operation. One embodiment of the multi-piece crucible comprises a tubular member having a vertical slot filled with a ceramic sealing material to provide expansion of the tubular member without cracking during the high temperature melt-casting operation.

  15. A Review of TiNiPdCu Alloy System for High Temperature Shape Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Imran; Kim, Hee Young; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    High temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) are important smart materials and possess a significant potential to improve many engineering systems. Many TiNi-based high temperature ternary alloy systems have been reported in literature including TiNiPd, TiNiPt, TiNiZr, TiNiAu, TiNiHf, etc. Some quaternary additions of certain elements in the above systems have been successful to further improve many important shape memory and mechanical properties. The success criteria for an HTSMA become strict in terms of its cyclic stability, maximum recoverable strain, creep resistance, and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. TiNiPdCu alloy system has been recently proposed as a promising HTSMA. Unique nanoscaled precipitates formed in TiNiPdCu-based HTSMAs are found to be stable at temperatures above 773 K, while keeping the benefits of ease of fabrication. It is expected that this alloy system possesses significant potential especially for the high temperature shape memory applications. Till now many research reports have been published on this alloy system. In the present work, a comprehensive review of the TiNiPdCu system is presented in terms of thermomechanical behavior, nanoscale precipitation mechanism, microstructural features, high temperature shape memory and mechanical properties, and the important parameters to control the high temperature performance of these alloys.

  16. High temperature facility TS-3000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, M.; Padureanu, I.; Mateescu, G.; Radulescu, G.

    1998-01-01

    The high temperature facility TS-3000 K is designed for inelastic and quasielastic slow neutron scattering and neutron diffraction experiments in condensed matter studies over a very large temperature range. A large class of materials is proposed for such kind of investigations: 1. Investigation of oxygen disorder, thermal parameters, lattice vibrations and elastic constants of nuclear fuel oxides as UO 2 , ThO 2 , PuO 2 at temperatures up to 3000 K; 2. Large and small angle neutron scattering experiments on disordered materials; 3. Investigation of the fast ion conductor lattice dynamics (superionic) using neutron scattering techniques; 4. Structure and dynamics of the liquid metals and alloys both in high purity state and with various impurities; 5. Investigation of the materials for fusion reactors at temperatures up to 3000 K; 6. Neutron - dynamics studies of the carbon lattice, its modifications, as well as fullerenes, at high temperature; 7. High temperature mass spectrometric measurements; 8. High purity materials. The facility TS-3000 is running under high internal vacuum conditions (under 10 -6 mbar), water cooled, automatically controlled and stabilized within a very large temperature range (Tmax = 3000 K) for samples of 80 x 80 mm size for inelastic neutron scattering or of a smaller size for diffraction investigation. The temperature is measured either by a wolfram - 5% Rh thermocouple or by direct viewing IR electronic thermometer. First investigations are planned at high intensity and resolution spectrometric complex DIN-2PI setup at the fast pulsed reactor IBR-2 of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna. The main parts of the TS-3000 K facility are: - The furnace with tungsten heater, tungsten, niobium or tantalum shields positioned in an accurate geometry depending of the temperature range and neutron optics (Tmax=3000 K); - The power supply assembly, data acquisition and storage, automatic or manual control; - The power three

  17. Thermomechanics of composite structures under high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yu I

    2016-01-01

    This pioneering book presents new models for the thermomechanical behavior of composite materials and structures taking into account internal physico-chemical transformations such as thermodecomposition, sublimation and melting at high temperatures (up to 3000 K). It is of great importance for the design of new thermostable materials and for the investigation of reliability and fire safety of composite structures. It also supports the investigation of interaction of composites with laser irradiation and the design of heat-shield systems. Structural methods are presented for calculating the effective mechanical and thermal properties of matrices, fibres and unidirectional, reinforced by dispersed particles and textile composites, in terms of properties of their constituent phases. Useful calculation methods are developed for characteristics such as the rate of thermomechanical erosion of composites under high-speed flow and the heat deformation of composites with account of chemical shrinkage. The author expan...

  18. FY16 ASME High Temperature Code Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, M. J. [Chromtech Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, R. I. [R. I Jetter Consulting, Pebble Beach, CA (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    One of the objectives of the ASME high temperature Code activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to be used to assess whether or not a specific component under specified loading conditions will satisfy the elevated temperature design requirements for Class A components in Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this task is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the program will be structured for eventual incorporation all the features and permitted materials of HBB. Since this task has recently been initiated, this report focuses on the description of the initial path forward and an overall description of the approach to computer program development.

  19. Electronic Structure of the Bismuth Family of High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Lisa

    2002-03-07

    High temperature superconductivity remains the central intellectual problem in condensed matter physics fifteen years after its discovery. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) directly probes the electronic structure, and has played an important role in the field of high temperature superconductors. With the recent advances in sample growth and the photoemission technique, we are able to study the electronic structure in great detail, and address regimes that were previously inaccessible. This thesis work contains systematic photoemission studies of the electronic structure of the Bi-family of high temperature superconductors, which include the single-layer system (Bi2201), the bi-layer system (Bi2212), and the tri-layer system (Bi2223). We show that, unlike conventional BCS superconductors, phase coherence information emerges in the single particle excitation spectrum of high temperature superconductors as the superconducting peak in Bi2212. The universality and various properties of this superconducting peak are studied in various systems. We argue that the origin of the superconducting peak may provide the key to understanding the mechanism of High-Tc superconductors. In addition, we identified a new experimental energy scale in the bilayer material, the anisotropic intra-bilayer coupling energy. For a long time, it was predicted that this energy scale would cause bilayer band splitting. We observe this phenomenon, for the first time, in heavily overdoped Bi2212. This new observation requires the revision of the previous picture of the electronic excitation in the Brillouin zone boundary. As the first ARPES study of a trilayer system, various detailed electronic proper- ties of Bi2223 are examined. We show that, comparing with Bi2212, both superconducting gap and relative superconducting peak intensity become larger in Bi2223, however, the strength of the interlayer coupling within each unit cell is possibly weaker. These results suggest that the

  20. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified