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Sample records for included follicular sccs

  1. Follicular mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Lewars

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder that characteristically presents as follicular papules and/or indurated plaques. The face, neck, and scalp are the most frequently affected sites, although lesions may occur on any site of the body. Histologically, the disorder is characterized by mucin deposition in the follicular epithelium. The condition is frequently divided into primary and secondary forms, with the latter form frequently associated with mycosis fungoides. In this case report, we describe a child with follicular mucinosis of the back and trunk and discuss the clinical variants, histopathological pattern, and treatment options.

  2. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Revision of the opinion on the safety of the use of Silica, Hydrated Silica, and Silica Surface Modified with Alkyl Silylates (nano form) in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sccs; Hoet, P H M

    2016-02-01

    The SCCS has concluded that the evidence, both provided in the submission and that available in scientific literature, is inadequate and insufficient to allow drawing any firm conclusion either for or against the safety of any of the individual SAS material, or any of the SAS categories that are intended for use in cosmetic products. As the SCCS has not been able to conclude on the safety of the synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) materials included in the current submission, the Applicant is advised to follow the SCCS Guidance on Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials (SCCS/1484/12). A brief summary is provided to enable/facilitate future evaluation of the SAS materials in cosmetic products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Follicular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.H.; Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is considered as a disease of the elderly with a higher incidence in females as compared to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Some studies have reported its occurrence at an early age, which may be attributed to early diagnosis because of the availability of advanced techniques. The prognosis of the disease is considered poor as compared to that of PTC. The conclusions drawn in this review are based on 663 cases in whom adequate data was available for meaningful analysis followed for a mean period of 9.2 years, median, 7.8 years; range, 1-32 years

  4. Follicular lipidosis in a dachshund dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodel, Marcia M; Pietroluongo, Bruno; Lucas, Ronaldo; Gomes, Kenia B; Grandi, Fabrizio

    2017-08-01

    Follicular lipidosis is a rare disease, having only been reported in six Rottweiler dogs. The diagnosis of follicular lipidosis is confirmed by histopathological examination of the affected skin. To report a case of follicular lipidosis in a dachshund dog. A 13-month-old female dachshund dog, with hypotrichosis on the head and cervical region from 10 months of age. Histological examination of skin biopsy specimens. Histological examination revealed basket weave orthokeratosis, ballooning of matrix cells and external root sheath keratinocytes. This case report highlights the importance of including follicular lipidosis among the differential diagnoses of noninflammatory and nonhormonal cutaneous lesions in dachshund presented with hair loss. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. The use of non-animal alternatives in the safety evaluations of cosmetics ingredients by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinardell, M P

    2015-03-01

    In Europe, the safety evaluation of cosmetics is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient. Article 3 of the Cosmetics Regulation specifies that a cosmetic product made available on the market is to be safe for human health when used normally or under reasonably foreseeable conditions. For substances that cause some concern with respect to human health (e.g., colourants, preservatives, UV-filters), safety is evaluated at the Commission level by a scientific committee, presently called the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). According to the Cosmetics Regulations, in the EU, the marketing of cosmetics products and their ingredients that have been tested on animals for most of their human health effects, including acute toxicity, is prohibited. Nevertheless, any study dating from before this prohibition took effect is accepted for the safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The in vitro methods reported in the dossiers submitted to the SCCS are here evaluated from the published reports issued by the scientific committee of the Directorate General of Health and Consumers (DG SANCO); responsible for the safety of cosmetics ingredients. The number of studies submitted to the SCCS that do not involve animals is still low and in general the safety of cosmetics ingredients is based on in vivo studies performed before the prohibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteomics of follicular fluid from women with polycystic ovary syndrome suggests molecular defects in follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambekar, Aditi S; Kelkar, Dhanashree S; Pinto, Sneha M; Sharma, Rakesh; Hinduja, Indira; Zaveri, Kusum; Pandey, Akhilesh; Prasad, T S Keshava; Gowda, Harsha; Mukherjee, Srabani

    2015-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a major cause of anovulatory infertility, is characterized by arrested follicular growth. Altered protein levels in the follicular fluid surrounding the ovum may reflect the molecular defects of folliculogenesis in these women. To identify differentially regulated proteins in PCOS by comparing the follicular fluid protein repertoire of PCOS with healthy women. The follicular fluid samples were collected from PCOS and normo-ovulatory women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Follicular fluid proteins were subjected to digestion using trypsin, and resultant peptides were labeled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification reagents and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Differential abundance of selected proteins was confirmed by ELISA. A total of 770 proteins were identified, of which 186 showed differential abundance between controls and women with PCOS. Proteins involved in various processes of follicular development including amphiregulin; heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2; tumor necrosis factor, α-induced protein 6; plasminogen; and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 were found to be deregulated in PCOS. We also identified a number of new proteins from follicular fluid, whose function in the ovary is not yet clearly established. These include suprabasin; S100 calcium binding protein A7; and helicase with zinc finger 2, transcriptional coactivator. Proteins indispensable for follicular growth were found to be differentially expressed in follicular fluid of women with PCOS, which may in part explain the aberrant folliculogenesis observed in these women.

  7. Monitoring and controlling follicular activity in camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibary, Ahmed

    2018-03-15

    This paper reviews that state of our knowledge concerning follicular wave dynamics, monitoring and manipulation. All camelids have overlapping follicular waves in absence of ovulation which is induced by a seminal plasma factor (βNGF). The interval between follicular waves varies. The size of the ovulatory follicle varies between 11 and 25 mm in camels and between in 6 and 13 mm in South American Camelids. The interval between induction of ovulation and next ovulatory follicle is 15 ± 1 day for all camelids. Follicular activity is best monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. Progesterone therapy for 7-15 days seems to suppress follicular dominance but does not completely inhibit follicular recruitment. Combination of estradiol and progesterone seems to provide better control of follicular activity. Both methods have provided variable results in the synchronization of follicular waves. Combination of induction of ovulation with GnRH and luteolysis at predetermined times shows some promise in synchronization of follicular dominance. These synchronization protocols require further investigation in order to provide practical approaches for fixed-time breeding. Ovarian superstimulation with FSH and eCG alone or in combination is somewhat successful. The best results are obtained when treatment is initiated at the emergence of a new follicular wave after induction of ovulation or following treatment with progesterone for 7-14 days. However, response remains extremely variable particularly in terms of ovulation rate and number of recovered embryos. Sources of this variability need to be studied including the effects of season, nutrition, doses and frequency of administration of gonadotropin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The clinical features of the follicular subtype of ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) have not been previously evaluated in a large cohort. OBJECTIVE To characterize the clinical features of follicular OAL. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed a retrospective multicenter study tha...

  9. Uremic follicular hyperkeratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaisas Makrand

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged male patient with diabetic nephropathy and chronic renal failure developed hyperkeratotic, hyperpigmented papular lesions with central cone-shaped core. They were dis-tributed bilaterally over extensor surfaces of the knees and legs. Histopathological examination revealed perforation of the epidermis at the base of follicular invagination with a granulomatous infiltrate around the perforation.

  10. Rare behavior of follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Helmi, Hadeel; Idrees, Hend; Alshehri, Ameen; Alsaif, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer typically favors nodal spread. We report a case with hematogenous spread including multi‐organ involvement and describe our staged management approach. This is the first case to report follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with simultaneous adrenal and renal involvement.

  11. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Reema; Mohanty, Sambit K; Khan, Ashraf; Fischer, Andrew H

    2009-01-19

    Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA) and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101), follicular adenoma (47), or follicular carcinoma (17). Papillary thyroid carcinomas and Hürthle cell neoplasms were excluded from the cohort, because these categories are known to show cystic change and hemosiderin. FNAs were reviewed blindly with the most cellular slide scored for the presence of macrophages and/or hemosiderin. Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101) of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64) of follicular neoplasms (Phemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas. Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically. None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages (Phemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17%) but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas. Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101) of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin (Phemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

  12. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar Reema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. Methods: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine needle aspiration (FNA and histologic follow-up of either goiter (101, follicular adenoma (47, or follicular carcinoma (17. Papillary thyroid carcinomas and Hürthle cell neoplasms were excluded from the cohort, because these categories are known to show cystic change and hemosiderin. FNAs were reviewed blindly with the most cellular slide scored for the presence of macrophages and/or hemosiderin. Results: Hemosiderin within macrophages were seen in 67% (68 of 101 of the goiters and only 6% (four of 64 of follicular neoplasms ( P < .0001. All four follicular neoplasms with hemosiderin in macrophages were adenomas. Three of these four had equivocal features of a benign colloid nodule histologically. None of the 17 follicular carcinomas had hemosiderin in macrophages ( P < .12. Macrophages without hemosiderin also strongly distinguished goiters from neoplasms (83% vs 17% but appears less useful as a criterion since macrophages were present within 3 of 17 follicular carcinomas. Hemosiderin within follicular epithelial cells was present in 18% (18 of 101 of goiters, whereas none of the 64 follicular neoplasms had intraepithelial hemosiderin ( P < .0003. Conclusions: If papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasm are ruled out, our findings indicate that the presence of hemosiderin virtually excludes a clinically significant follicular neoplasm.

  13. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Familial Follicular-Cell Derived Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju eSon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancer, papillary (PTC and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC compose 95% of all thyroid malignancies. Familial follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancers contribute to 5% of those cases. These familial follicular cell derived carcinomas or non-medullary thyroid carcinomas (NMTC divide into two clinical-pathological groups. One group, syndromic-associated, composed by predominately non-thyroidal tumors, is comprised of Pendred syndrome, Warner syndrome, Carney complex type 1, PTEN-hamartoma tumor syndrome (Cowden disease; PHTS, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP/Gardner syndrome. Additionally other less established links correlated to the development of follicular cell-derived tumors have also included Ataxia-teleangiectasia syndrome, McCune Albright syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subsequent group encompasses syndromes typified by non-medullary thyroid carcinomas or NMTC, as well as, pure familial (f PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with multinodular goiter and fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma. This heterogeneous group of diseases has not a established genotype-phenotype correlation as the well-known genetic events identified in the familial C-cell-derived tumors or medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC. Clinicians should be have the knowledge to identify the likelihood of a patient presenting with thyroid cancer having an additional underlying familial syndrome stemming from characteristics through morphological findings that would alert the pathologist to have the patient undergo subsequent molecular genetics evaluations. This review will discuss the clinical and pathological findings of the patients with familial papillary thyroid carcinoma, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, Carney complex, Werner syndrome, and Pendred syndrome and the heterogeneous group of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  15. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. ► Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. ► Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-β and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial–mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  16. Combined inhibition of p38 and Akt signaling pathways abrogates cyclosporine A-mediated pathogenesis of aggressive skin SCCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Aadithya; Walsh, Stephanie B.; Xu, Jianmin; Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p38 and Akt are the crucial molecular targets in the pathogenesis of SCCs in OTRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined inhibition of these targets diminished tumor growth by 90%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of these targets act through downregulating mTOR signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common neoplasm in organ transplant recipients (OTRs). These cancers are more invasive and metastatic as compared to those developed in normal cohorts. Previously, we have shown that immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporine A (CsA) directly alters tumor phenotype of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by activating TGF-{beta} and TAK1/TAB1 signaling pathways. Here, we identified novel molecular targets for the therapeutic intervention of these SCCs. We observed that combined blockade of Akt and p38 kinases-dependent signaling pathways in CsA-promoted human epidermoid carcinoma A431 xenograft tumors abrogated their growth by more than 90%. This diminution in tumor growth was accompanied by a significant decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. The residual tumors following the combined treatment with Akt inhibitor triciribine and p38 inhibitors SB-203580 showed significantly diminished expression of phosphorylated Akt and p38 and these tumors were less invasive and highly differentiated. Diminished tumor invasiveness was associated with the reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition as ascertained by the enhanced E-cadherin and reduced vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Consistently, these tumors also manifested reduced MMP-2/9. The decreased p-Akt expression was accompanied by a significant reduction in p-mTOR. These data provide first important combinatorial pharmacological approach to block the pathogenesis of CsA-induced highly aggressive cutaneous neoplasm in OTRs.

  17. Hemosiderin laden macrophages and hemosiderin within follicular cells distinguish benign follicular lesions from follicular neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffar, Reema; Mohanty, Sambit K.; Khan, Ashraf; Fischer, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Published criteria to distinguish benign colloid nodules from follicular neoplasms emphasize only three interdependent features: size of follicles, amount of colloid, and cellularity. There is a need for the validation of other independent criteria. Methods: This study quantified the significance of cystic change, defined as presence of macrophages, and the presence of hemosiderin in either the macrophages or follicular cells. The cohort consisted of 165 patients with fine need...

  18. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with follicular mucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular mucinosis occurring along with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils (ALHE has been described in a 54-year-old female. The patient presented with pruritic erythematous papules on the left frontoparietal scalp. Histopathological examination showed prominent blood vessels in the dermis lined by plump histiocytoid endothelial cells that were surrounded by a dense lymphoid infiltrate with numerous eosinophils; these findings are typical of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophils. Features of follicular mucinosis were observed in the same section with several hyperplastic follicular infundibula containing pools of mucin in the infundibular epithelium. The concurrent occurrence of these two distinct histopathological patterns in the same biopsy specimen has been described in only three cases to date.

  19. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

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    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  20. Growth Performance of Cockerels Administered Crude Follicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This Study was conducted to assess the performance of cockerels administered crude follicular and testicular fluids. Two hundred (200) day old Hyaline white cockerel chicks were randomly assigned to five different treatments namely control (T1), 0.5mls follicular fluid (T2), 25% testicular fluid (T3), 0.25ml follicular fluid (T4) ...

  1. Individualized management of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Huang, Hui-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent non-hodgkin lymphoma. Most patients with FL are diagnosed with advanced disease and are considered incurable. The classical prognostic index in FL is the FL international prognostic index (FLIPI). The management of FL is mainly determined by histologic grading, clinical stage, and tumor burden. For patients with stage I and II disease, an involved-site radiation therapy (ISRT) is recommended and may be potentially curative approach with 60% to 80% of 10-year overall survival (OS) rates, while patients with stage III and IV should be treated with systemic therapy. The watchful waiting is still an option for patients without symptoms or/and low tumor burden. Induction of immuno-chemotherapy combined with consolidation of rituximab maintenance (MR) is standard care for patients with symptomatic disease or with high tumor burden when treatment indicated. The major indication for systemic therapy is including candidate for clinical trials, threatened end organ function, cytopenia secondary to lymphoma bulky disease and steady progress etc. at present time. Routine baseline and regular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) testing is strongly recommended for all patients before the initiation of immuno-chemotherapy in order to minimize the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation which has been observed approximately 20% to 50% of patients with positive HBsAg and 3% to 45% of patients with positive HBcAb. Prophylactic antiviral treatment in patients who are HBsAg-positive or HBcAb-positive is indicated before immuno-chemotherapy. The management for elderly patients should be carefully selected to avoid overtreatment and severe toxicities. Individualized dose adjustment for chemotherapy and an adequate supportive treatment are essential for this special population. Novel agents such as lenalidomide, ibrutinib and idelalisib are promising. In conclusion, individualized management

  2. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Opinion on the fragrance ingredients Tagetes minuta and Tagetes patula extracts and essential oils (phototoxicity only) in cosmetic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    Conclusion of the opinion: The SCCS considers a maximum level of 0.01% Tagetes minuta and Tagetes patula extracts and essential oils in leave-on products (except sunscreen cosmetic products) as safe, provided that the alpha terthienyl (terthiophene) content of the Tagetes extracts and oils does not

  3. Prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma.

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    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Ferri, Belén; Martínez-Barba, Enrique; Torregrosa, Núria M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Most prognostic studies in differentiated carcinoma have included a high number of papillary carcinomas and few follicular carcinomas, and not all of their conclusions therefore apply to the latter. To analyze the prognostic factors of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Patients with histological diagnosis of follicular carcinoma who had undergone potentially curative surgery, had no disseminated disease at diagnosis, and had been followed up for at least 5 years. Tumor recurrence was defined as: 1) tumor lesions with cytological analysis suggesting malignancy and/or 2) patients with total thyroidectomy with thyroglobulin levels >2 ng/mL. Clinical, therapeutic, and histological parameters were analyzed to assess prognostic factors. Recurrence was found in 25 (38%) of the 66 study patients during a follow-up period of 99 ± 38 months. Most patients with recurrence (n=20) had increased Tg levels without anatomical location, and were initially treated with radioactive I131. In the remaining 5 cases, surgical excision of the lesion was performed, and three patients required surgery during the follow-up period. Two patients died due to the disease (3%), and two other patients (3%) currently have distant metastases. Mean disease-free interval was 154 ± 14 months, and rates of disease-free patients at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years were 71, 58, 58, and 58% respectively. Clinical factors influencing recurrence included 1) age (p=0.0035); 2) sex (p=0.0114); and 3) cervical pain (p=0.0026). Histological/surgical factors associated with recurrence included 1) infiltration into neighboring structures (p=0.0000); 2) type of carcinoma (p=0.0000); 3) size (p=0.0162); 4) vascular invasion (p=0.0085); and 5) adenopathies (p=0.046). In the multivariate study, cervical pain (p=0.018) and extrathyroid invasion (p=0.045) continued to be significant factors. In follicular carcinoma, rates of disease-free patients are 71% at 5 years and 58% at 10 years, and the main predictive factors are presence

  4. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  5. Follicular vitiligo: the present clinical status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa E. Sharquie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a common autoimmune inflammatory disease where there is damage to the basal melanocytes of the epidermis. Hair follicles are the main reservoir of the melanocytes, and melanocytes stem cells, and these cells will supply the melanocytes for the basal layer of the epidermis when these cells are lost. But when these follicular melanocytes are damaged, this will cause follicular vitiligo either in a form gray/white hair or in form of follicular leukoderma. Although follicular vitiligo is not uncommon variant of vitiligo but rarely discussed and classified.

  6. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, R.; Rossing, M.; Henao, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid...... a mechanism for cancer progression, which is why we exploited the results in order to generate a molecular classifier that could identify 95% of all carcinomas. Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules...... and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC. Endocrine-Related Cancer (2010) 17 691-708...

  7. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients with ocu......Purpose To characterize the clinicopathological features of follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region. Methods Retrospective nation-based study of Danish patients with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma from January 1st 1980 through December 31st 2009. Results Twenty-four patients...

  8. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Opinion on the fragrance ingredients Tagetes minuta and Tagetes patula extracts and essential oils (phototoxicity only) in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2016-04-01

    The SCCS considers a maximum level of 0.01% Tagetes minuta and Tagetes patula extracts and essential oils in leave-on products (except sunscreen cosmetic products) as safe, provided that the alpha terthienyl (terthiophene) content of the Tagetes extracts and oils does not exceed 0.35%. The Tagetes extracts and oils should not be used as ingredients of sunscreen products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Prakash Pasupula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors are of great significance since few cases may represent the only symptom of an undiscovered underlying malignancy. Metastatic tumors rarely metastasize to the oral region despite the fact that many common primary neoplasms frequently metastasize to bone. The true incidence of metastatic tumors in the bones of the jaw is unknown, as jaws are not always included in radiographic skeletal surveys for metastasis. Sometimes oral metastasis may be the first evidence of metastasis from its primary site. A case of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the mandible is presented here, along with the discussion of clinical and histological features. The present case not only emphasizes the importance of considering metastasis in the differential diagnosis of a radiolucent lesion in the mandible, but also emphasizes in the improvement of the overall survival rate and treatment results by an early detection of metastatic disease.

  10. Crowding and Follicular Fate: Spatial Determinants of Follicular Reserve and Activation of Follicular Growth in the Mammalian Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gaytan

    Full Text Available Initiation of growth of resting ovarian follicles is a key phenomenon for providing an adequate number of mature oocytes in each ovulation, while preventing premature exhaustion of primordial follicle reserve during the reproductive lifespan. Resting follicle dynamics strongly suggest that primordial follicles are under constant inhibitory influences, by mechanisms and factors whose nature remains ill defined. In this work, we aimed to assess the influence of spatial determinants, with special attention to clustering patterns and crowding, on the fate of early follicles in the adult mouse and human ovary. To this end, detailed histological and morphometric analyses, targeting resting and early growing follicles, were conducted in ovaries from mice, either wild type (WT or genetically modified to lack kisspeptin receptor expression (Kiss1r KO, and healthy adult women. Kiss1r KO mice were studied as model of persistent hypogonadotropism and anovulation. Different qualitative and quantitative indices of the patterns of spatial distribution of resting and early growing follicles in the mouse and human ovary, including the Morisita's index of clustering, were obtained. Our results show that resting primordial follicles display a clear-cut clustered pattern of spatial distribution in adult mouse and human ovaries, and that resting follicle aggrupation is inversely correlated with the proportion of follicles initiating growth and entering into the growing pool. As a whole, our data suggest that resting follicle crowding, defined by changes in density and clustered pattern of distribution, is a major determinant of follicular activation and the fate of ovarian reserve. Uneven follicle crowding would constitute the structural counterpart of the major humoral regulators of early follicular growth, with potential implications in ovarian ageing and pathophysiology.

  11. Artificial neural network model to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma on fine needle aspiration of thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savala, Rajiv; Dey, Pranab; Gupta, Nalini

    2018-03-01

    To distinguish follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC) of thyroid in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a challenging problem. In this article, we attempted to build an artificial neural network (ANN) model from the cytological and morphometric features of the FNAC smears of thyroid to distinguish FA from FC. The cytological features and morphometric analysis were done on the FNAC smears of histology proven cases of FA (26) and FC (31). The cytological features were analysed semi-quantitatively by two independent observers (RS and PD). These data were used to make an ANN model to differentiate FA versus FC on FNAC material. The performance of this ANN model was assessed by analysing the confusion matrix and receiving operator curve. There were 39 cases in training set, 9 cases each in validation and test sets. In the test group, ANN model successfully distinguished all cases (9/9) of FA and FC. The area under receiver operating curve was 1. The present ANN model is efficient to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on cytology smears without any error. In future, this ANN model will be able to diagnose follicular adenoma and carcinoma cases on thyroid aspirate. This study has immense potential in future. This is an open ended ANN model and more parameters and more cases can be included to make the model much stronger. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rituximab With or Without Yttrium Y-90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan in Treating Patients With Untreated Follicular Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma

  13. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Manning, David A. [Children' s Hospital of New Orleans, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Liptzin, Deborah R. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Aurora, CO (United States); Krausert, Amanda J. [New Orleans Forensic Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  14. Primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma mimicking chronic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Velandia, S; García Lagarto, E; Saornil, M A; García Álvarez, C; Cuello, R; Diezhandino, P

    2016-02-01

    The case is presented of a 43 year-old male patient with chronic follicular conjunctivitis, negative bacterial serology, and refractory to local treatment. The incisional biopsy performed showed to be consistent with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A year later, a new incisional biopsy showed follicular lymphoma, with no systemic involvement, and he was treated with local radiotherapy. When a chronic follicular conjunctivitis is refractory to treatment, it is essential to perform an incisional biopsy to establish the histopathological diagnosis that can range from chronic inflammation, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to lymphoma. Follicular lymphoma is rare among conjunctival lymphomas, and the staging is indispensable for the correct therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Rough hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta with follicular hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, E; Cohen, M; Altini, M

    1992-07-01

    This report documents a unique case of rough hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta with apparent anterior oligodontia and multiple anomalies of the associated mesenchymally derived tissues. Multiple unerupted teeth showed hypercementosis, distorted roots with aberrant dentin formation, and marked follicular hyperplasia. The hyperplastic follicles had a complex histopathologic appearance that recapitulated some features of the WHO-type odontogenic fibroma. The features of these teeth, the nature of the associated follicular lesions, and their relationship to the unerupted teeth are discussed.

  16. Genetics of Follicular Lymphoma Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pasqualucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent disease, but 30%–40% of cases undergo histologic transformation to an aggressive malignancy, typically represented by diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. The pathogenesis of this process remains largely unknown. Using whole-exome sequencing and copy-number analysis, we show here that the dominant clone of FL and transformed FL (tFL arise by divergent evolution from a common mutated precursor through the acquisition of distinct genetic events. Mutations in epigenetic modifiers and antiapoptotic genes are introduced early in the common precursor, whereas tFL is specifically associated with alterations deregulating cell-cycle progression and DNA damage responses (CDKN2A/B, MYC, and TP53 as well as aberrant somatic hypermutation. The genomic profile of tFL shares similarities with that of germinal center B cell-type de novo DLBCL but also displays unique combinations of altered genes with diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  17. MicroRNA Mediating Networks in Granulosa Cells Associated with Ovarian Follicular Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovaries, which provide a place for follicular development and oocyte maturation, are important organs in female mammals. Follicular development is complicated physiological progress mediated by various regulatory factors including microRNAs (miRNAs. To demonstrate the role of miRNAs in follicular development, this study analyzed the expression patterns of miRNAs in granulosa cells through investigating three previous datasets generated by Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. Furthermore, via bioinformatic analyses, we dissected the associated functional networks of the observed significant miRNAs, in terms of interacting with signal pathways and transcription factors. During the growth and selection of dominant follicles, 15 dysregulated miRNAs and 139 associated pathways were screened out. In comparison of different styles of follicles, 7 commonly abundant miRNAs and 195 pathways, as well as 10 differentially expressed miRNAs and 117 pathways in dominant follicles in comparison with subordinate follicles, were collected. Furthermore, SMAD2 was identified as a hub factor in regulating follicular development. The regulation of miR-26a/b on smad2 messenger RNA has been further testified by real time PCR. In conclusion, we established functional networks which play critical roles in follicular development including pivotal miRNAs, pathways, and transcription factors, which contributed to the further investigation about miRNAs associated with mammalian follicular development.

  18. Follicular dynamics around the recruitment of the first follicular wave in the cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.J.M.; Gadella, B.M.; Vos, P.; Mullaart, E.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Dieleman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the generally accepted view that a follicular wave starts with follicles newly recruited from the population smaller than 3 mm, which later compete for dominance. According to this view, subordinate follicles are expected to be too atretic to join the next follicular

  19. Microbial colonization of follicular fluid: alterations in cytokine expression and adverse assisted reproduction technology outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Elise S; Allan, John A; Cunningham, Kelly; Mengersen, Kerrie; Allan, Janet M; Launchbury, Tara; Beagley, Kenneth; Knox, Christine L

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have measured cytokines expressed within follicular fluid and compared the profiles with the aetiology of infertility and/or successful or unsuccessful assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes. In this study, 71 paired follicular fluid and vaginal secretions collected from ART patients were cultured to detect microorganisms and tested for the presence of cytokines. Patient specimens were selected for assay based on two criteria: whether the follicular fluid specimen was colonized (with microorganisms prior to oocyte retrieval) or contaminated by vaginal flora and; the aetiology of infertility. Patients included fertile women (with infertile male partners; n = 18), women with endometriosis (n = 16) or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, n = 14), or couples with a history of genital tract infection (n = 9) or idiopathic infertility (n = 14). Microorganisms and cytokines were detected within all tested specimens. Colonizing microorganisms in follicular fluid were associated with: decreased fertilization rates for fertile women (P = 0.005), women with endometriosis (P = 0.0002) or PCOS (P = 0.002) compared with women whose follicular fluid was contaminated at the time of oocyte retrieval and with decreased pregnancy rates for couples with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.001). A single cytokine was discriminatory for women with an idiopathic aetiology of infertility (follicular fluid interleukin (IL)-18). Unique cytokine profiles were also associated with successful fertilization (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18 and vascular endothelial growth factor). Follicular fluid is not sterile. Microorganisms colonizing follicular fluid and the ensuing cytokine response could be a further as yet unrecognized cause and/or predictor of adverse ART outcomes and infertility.

  20. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  1. [Follicular cyst. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellet Dalmau, L

    1991-03-01

    When there's a diagnosis of follicular cyst. In front of lesions of advanced decay in deciduoud teeth about which is possible to presume chronical apical infection, we have to evaluate carefully the choice of treatment: pulpectomy or exodontia and the placement of a space maintainer. In this article there's a case in which a non-indicated pulpectomy was practised and caused a follicular cyst which is a menace to the formation and position of the unerupted permanent teeth. After the surgery we proceeded to exodontia and subsequently to place a space maintainer.

  2. Ovarian follicular dynamics in purebred and crossbred Boran cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... observed and IOI was shorter (P<0.001) for cows with two follicular waves per estrous cycle (n=27; 19.5. ± 0.9 days) than ... Key words: Boran, estrous cycle length, follicular dynamics, follicular waves, dominant follicle. INTRODUCTION ..... advanced reproductive biotechnologies (especially embryo transfer ...

  3. Follicular vitiligo: A report of 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Emily Yiping; Cario-André, Muriel; Pain, Catherine; Goussot, Jean-Francois; Taïeb, Alain; Seneschal, Julien; Ezzedine, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Follicular vitiligo, a recently proposed new subtype of vitiligo, has primary involvement of the hair follicle melanocytic reservoir. We sought to characterize follicular vitiligo through a case series of 8 patients. Patients with features of follicular vitiligo who were seen at the vitiligo clinic in the National Center for Rare Skin Disorders in Bordeaux, France, were recruited. A retrospective review of case records and clinical photographs was carried out. There were 8 male patients with a mean age of 48 years. All patients reported significant whitening of their body and, in some, scalp hairs before cutaneous depigmentation. Examination revealed classic generalized depigmented lesions of vitiligo and an impressive presence of leukotrichia, not only in the vitiliginous areas, but also in areas with clinically normal-appearing skin. Punch biopsy specimen of the leukotrichia and vitiligo lesions demonstrated loss of melanocytes and precursors in the basal epidermis and hair follicle. This was a cross-sectional study based on a single-center experience. Follicular vitiligo is a distinct entity within the spectrum of vitiligo. This entity may serve as the missing link between alopecia areata and vitiligo, with probable physiopathological similarities between these conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  5. Follicular lymphoma: 2011 update on diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Arnold

    2011-09-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is generally an indolent B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. FL is characterized by diffuse lymphoadenopathy, bone marrow involvement, splenomegaly, and less commonly other extranodal sites of involvement. In general, cytopenias can occur but constitutional symptoms of fever, nightsweats, and weight loss are uncommon. Diagnosis is based on histology of preferably biopsy of a lymph node. Immunohistochemical staining is positive in virtually all cases for cell surface CD19, CD20, CD10 and monoclonal immunoglobulin, as well as cytoplasmic expression of bcl-2 protein. The overwhelming majority of cases have the characteristic t(14;18) translocation involving the IgH/bcl-2 genes. The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index prognostic model for FL uses five independent predictors of inferior survival: age > 60 years, hemoglobin normal, Ann Arbor stage III/IV, number of involved nodal areas > 4. The presence of 0-1, 2, and ≥3 adverse factors defines low, intermediate, and high-risk disease with median 10 year survivals in the pre-rituximab era of approximately 71, 51, and 36 months, respectively. With the use of more modern therapies, specifically anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, the outcome has improved. Observation continues to be adequate for asymptomatic patients with low bulk disease and no cytopenias. For patients needing therapy, most patients are treated with chemotherapy plus rituximab, which has improved response rates, duration of response, and overall survival. Randomized studies have shown additional benefit for maintenance rituximab both following chemotherapy-rituximab and single agent rituximab. Autologous stem cell transplantation has not shown a survival benefit in first remission patients. Stem cell transplantation (SCT) including both autologous and allogeneic SCT or experimental agent therapy is considered for recurrent disease. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. [Follicular bronchiolitis: a pediatric case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, A; Déchelotte, P; Creveaux, I; Poitrineau, P; Gaulme, J

    1992-01-01

    A case of bronchiolitis of insidious evolution appearing in an unweened infant aged six months is reported. Initially an acute episode of bronchial obstruction was followed by respiratory failure with failure to thrive. The total inefficacy of conventional treatment (corticosteroids, nebulised and oral bronchodilators) led to assisted ventilation for three weeks, four months after the onset of symptoms. All investigations aimed at achieving a diagnosis were negative and this led to an open lung biopsy. This showed characteristic lesions of bronchiolitis and follicular bronchitis without other parenchymatous disease. With continuous antibiotics and physiotherapy the respiratory status improved, both clinically and radiologically. Amongst the explanations of the pathophysiology of follicular bronchitis they also discussed the existence of heterozygous delta F 508 in their observation to explain the chronicity of the problems. They stress the need to look for a mutation of delta F 508 in infants who present with unexplained obstructive bronchial pathology.

  7. Metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Caliaperoumal Santhosh; Shanmugam, Devakumari; Venkatapathy, Ramesh; Munshi, Meer Ahmed Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis to the oral region is very rare and accounts for less than 1% of oral malignant tumors. Breast, lung, kidney, adrenal, gastro intestinal tract and prostates are most common primary tumors from which metastasis to oral region occur frequently. Metastasis from thyroid gland is extremely rare to oral region. We present an unusual case of metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla. The significance of this report is that the secondary lesion was the only symptom of the prima...

  8. Immunotherapy with rituximab in follicular lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguna, Carmen; Mut, Ileana Delia; Lupu, Anca Roxana; Tevet, Mihaela; Bumbea, Horia; Dragan, Cornel

    2011-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) represent a recent and fascinating domain of hemato-oncology, in which remarkable progress has been made. The conventional treatments of indolent lymphomas do not extend the survival rate, nor do they cure. Recent directions are centered on using several new drugs that are capable of overcoming the mechanisms that are resistant to recovery. The initiation of immunotherapy (Rituximab in 1997) seems to have changed the natural evolution of follicular lymphomas (FL). It is possible that resistance to healing in follicular lymphomas may be neutralized with Rituximab by suppressing STAT-1 positive macrophages that are present in the cellular microenvironment.Thereinafter, the re-evaluation of recent models of prognostic and therapeutic paradigmas that were used in FL became compulsory.The purpose of the paper is to compare the evolution of patients with follicular lymphoma and the period of response, according to the treatments. The study group consisted of the 71 patients diagnosed with follicular lymphoma, out of a total of 767 malignant lymphatic proliferations with B cells, for a period of 7 years (2002-2008), at the Hematology Department, Hospital Coltea, Bucharest and Hematology Department, Universitary Hospital, BucharestResults and conclusions: Combining chemotherapy with Rituximab had better results compared to the same chemotherapy, administered alone, both in induction and in case of relapse. The overall response rate in our study group was 74.7%, out of which 42.3% complete remissions. The overall response rate was 84.61% in the Rituximab group, compared to 68.88% in patients without Rituximab.

  9. The association between coenzyme Q10 concentrations in follicular fluid with embryo morphokinetics and pregnancy rate in assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Süleyman; Gode, Funda; Isik, Ahmet Zeki; Dikmen, Zeliha Günnur; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

    2017-05-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the association between follicular fluid (FF) coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels, embryo morphokinetics, and pregnancy rate. Sixty infertile patients who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were included in the study. For each patient, CoQ10 level of the follicular fluid was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography system. After the ICSI of each oocyte, the relationship between the level of CoQ10 content of each follicular fluid, the subsequent embryo quality, and embryo morphokinetics was investigated. The relationship between the level of CoQ10 content of each follicle and optimal time-lapse parameters for the embryos of these follicles including t5, s2, and cc2 was also analyzed. The embryos were further classified into four categories, namely, grades A, B, C, and D, according to morphokinetic parameters using t5-t2 and t5-t3 (cc3). Each follicular fluid analysis was performed for a single oocyte of a single embryo which was transferred to the patients. Additionally, follicular fluid CoQ10 levels and pregnancy rates were evaluated. Follicular fluid CoQ10 levels were significantly higher in grades A and B than grades C and D embryos (p < 0.05). The concentration of CoQ10 levels was significantly higher in the pregnant group (p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between optimal t5 and s2 morphokinetic parameters and CoQ10 levels. However, CoQ10 levels were significantly higher in follicular fluid of embryos which had optimal cc2 (p < 0.05). High follicular fluid CoQ10 level is associated with optimal embryo morphokinetic parameters and higher pregnancy rates.

  10. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Missmer, Stacey A; Altshul, Larisa; Vitonis, Allison F; Ryan, Louise; Cramer, Daniel W; Hauser, Russ

    2009-07-14

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid), as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of ART outcomes in relation to organochlorine exposure.

  11. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (p,p'-DDT, the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend Conclusion Our results support the use of a single serum sample to adequately represent a more biologically relevant dose (concentrations in follicular fluid, as well as exposure levels over time, in epidemiological studies of

  12. HRCT features in a 5-year-old child with follicular bronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, P.; Fotter, R.; Lindbichler, F.; Tillich, M. [Department of Radiology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A-8036 Graz (Austria); Varga, E.M.; Zach, M. [Department of Pediatrics, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria); Popper, H. [Department of Pathology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria)

    1997-11-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) is the most sensitive radiographic method to image small airways disease. We discuss the HRCT features of follicular bronchiolitis in a 5-year-old boy and correlate them with the histopathological findings. The changes described include centrilobular nodules, bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis, branching opacities and areas of reduced lung attenuation. (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 refs.

  13. Differential diagnosis of follicular tumor by expert systems based on a set of quantitative features of thyrocyte nuclei and aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, Vladimir; Emeliyanova, Olga

    2012-04-01

    To develop expert systems for classification of follicular thyroid tumor at a preoperative stage. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland with a histologic conclusion of follicular cancer and follicular adenoma were the object of the morphometric study. General sample size was 4500 nuclei and 3000 aggregates. Quantitative regularities of pathologic changes in thyrocyte nuclei and aggregates in follicular cancer and follicular adenoma were revealed. Threshold values and weighting coefficients of quantitative features of thyrocyte nuclei and aggregates characterizing cancer made the basis of the two expert systems. Expert systems included standard 2-D S-matrix containing threshold values of nuclei and aggregates in cancer and their weighting coefficients as well as 1-D scientific X-matrix designed for filling with quantitative features of the studied object. The diagnosis was verified by the value of a diagnostic index by means of comparing feature values in the corresponding elements of S- and X-matrices. After that, a diagnostic index was calculated taking into account the features' weighting coefficient. The developed expert systems based on a set of quantitative features of thyrocyte nuclei and aggregates will allow assessing the malignant potential of a follicular thyroid tumor at a preoperative stage.

  14. Endocrine and follicular studies in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M G; Biggs, C; Faillace, L S

    1993-01-01

    The enhanced early embryonic survival in Chinese Meishan compared with Large-White gilts may be due, in part, to differences in ovarian and endocrine function, particularly during the periovulatory period. The overall patterns of oestradiol, LH and FSH secretion were not different between Meishan and Large-White hybrid controls during this period, although circulating inhibin concentrations were higher in Meishan gilts. Thus, there appeared to be a decreased sensitivity to inhibin feedback on FSH secretion in Meishan gilts. Behavioural oestrus was exhibited earlier relative to the LH surge in Meishan gilts than in Large-White hybrid gilts, but the time interval from the oestradiol peak until the LH surge was similar in both breeds. This finding suggests that Meishan gilts are more sensitive in terms of initiating a behavioural response, but not in terms of positive feedback. Although preovulatory follicular characteristics were as variable in Meishan as in Large-White hybrid gilts, follicles from Meishan gilts were smaller, but contained a higher concentration of oestradiol in the follicular fluid. This was probably due to increased aromatase activity in both granulosa and theca cells of Meishan follicles. The enhanced maturation of the intrafollicular environment in Meishan gilts was reflected in the oocyte population which was at a more advanced stage of development in the period preceding ovulation. In addition to decreasing the time between onset of oestrus and ovulation, advancing the LH surge to coincide with onset of oestrus (via hCG administration) decreased embryo survival at day 30 of gestation. It is concluded that both endocrine and follicular mechanisms have a role in ensuring the prolificacy in the Meishan breed.

  15. Screening of repeated dose toxicity data present in SCC(NF)P/SCCS safety evaluations of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Mathieu; Pauwels, Marleen; Ates, Gamze; Vivier, Manon; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2012-03-01

    Alternative methods, replacing animal testing, are urgently needed in view of the European regulatory changes in the field of cosmetic products and their ingredients. In this context, a joint research initiative called SEURAT was recently raised by the European Commission and COLIPA, representing the European cosmetics industry, with the overall goal of developing an animal-free repeated dose toxicity testing strategy for human safety assessment purposes. Although cosmetic ingredients are usually harmless for the consumer, one of the initial tasks of this research consortium included the identification of organs that could potentially be affected by cosmetic ingredients upon systemic exposure. The strategy that was followed hereof is described in the present paper and relies on the systematic evaluation, by using a self-generated electronic databank, of published reports issued by the scientific committee of DG SANCO responsible for the safety of cosmetic ingredients. By screening of the repeated dose toxicity studies present in these reports, it was found that the liver is potentially the most frequently targeted organ by cosmetic ingredients when orally administered to experimental animals, followed by the kidney and the spleen. Combined listing of altered morphological, histopathological, and biochemical parameters subsequently indicated the possible occurrence of hepatotoxicity, including steatosis and cholestasis, triggered by a limited number of cosmetic compounds. These findings are not only of relevance for the in vitro modeling efforts and choice of compounds to be tested in the SEURAT project cluster, but also demonstrate the importance of using previously generated toxicological data through an electronic databank for addressing specific questions regarding the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients.

  16. Metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliaperoumal Santhosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the oral region is very rare and accounts for less than 1% of oral malignant tumors. Breast, lung, kidney, adrenal, gastro intestinal tract and prostates are most common primary tumors from which metastasis to oral region occur frequently. Metastasis from thyroid gland is extremely rare to oral region. We present an unusual case of metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla. The significance of this report is that the secondary lesion was the only symptom of the primary tumor and helped us in diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  17. Metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Caliaperoumal Santhosh; Shanmugam, Devakumari; Venkatapathy, Ramesh; Munshi, Meer Ahmed Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Metastasis to the oral region is very rare and accounts for less than 1% of oral malignant tumors. Breast, lung, kidney, adrenal, gastro intestinal tract and prostates are most common primary tumors from which metastasis to oral region occur frequently. Metastasis from thyroid gland is extremely rare to oral region. We present an unusual case of metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in maxilla. The significance of this report is that the secondary lesion was the only symptom of the primary tumor and helped us in diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  18. Exosomal and Non-Exosomal Transport of Extra-Cellular microRNAs in Follicular Fluid: Implications for Bovine Oocyte Developmental Competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mahmodul Hasan Sohel

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication within the follicle involves many signaling molecules, and this process may be mediated by secretion and uptake of exosomes that contain several bioactive molecules including extra-cellular miRNAs. Follicular fluid and cells from individual follicles of cattle were grouped based on Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB staining of the corresponding oocytes. Both Exoquick precipitation and differential ultracentrifugation were used to separate the exosome and non-exosomal fraction of follicular fluid. Following miRNA isolation from both fractions, the human miRCURY LNA™ Universal RT miRNA PCR array system was used to profile miRNA expression. This analysis found that miRNAs were present in both exosomal and non-exosomal fraction of bovine follicular fluid. We found 25 miRNAs differentially expressed (16 up and 9 down in exosomes and 30 miRNAs differentially expressed (21 up and 9 down in non-exosomal fraction of follicular fluid in comparison of BCB- versus BCB+ oocyte groups. Expression of selected miRNAs was detected in theca, granulosa and cumulus oocyte complex. To further explore the potential roles of these follicular fluid derived extra-cellular miRNAs, the potential target genes were predicted, and functional annotation and pathway analysis revealed most of these pathways are known regulators of follicular development and oocyte growth. In order to validate exosome mediated cell-cell communication within follicular microenvironment, we demonstrated uptake of exosomes and resulting increase of endogenous miRNA level and subsequent alteration of mRNA levels in follicular cells in vitro. This study demonstrates for the first time, the presence of exosome or non-exosome mediated transfer of miRNA in the bovine follicular fluid, and oocyte growth dependent variation in extra-cellular miRNA signatures in the follicular environment.

  19. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  20. Ovarian follicular dynamics during the interovulatory interval in Najdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated the presence of either four (n = 2 estrus cycles) or five (n = 3 estrus cycles) waves of follicular growth during the interovulatory interval. Each wave was characterized by the development of at least 1 large follicle (dominant) and a variable number of small follicles (subordinate). The mean number of follicular ...

  1. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Massive Skull Metastasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasizing to the skull, metastases occurred long after the diagnosis and institution of treatment for primary cancer. Very few cases have been reported with occult follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as skull metastasis. A 48-year-old female patient presented with massive swelling in the ...

  2. [A transportation vehicle for laparoscopically obtained follicular specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, F R; Sudik, R

    1984-01-01

    Structure, function and first results with a vehicle for transportation were described. This apparatus allows to store laparoscopic harvested follicular fluids for a while in constant temperature and in air condition with 5% CO2 in compressed air. Simultaneously the follicular fluids were transported in this vehicle from operating theatre to the laboratory.

  3. Prognostic factors in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Jørgensen, K E

    1998-01-01

    To identify clinical and histologic prognostic factors and to investigate whether immunohistochemical detection of p53 expression might contain prognostic information, a retrospective study of patient and tumor characteristics was performed in 225 cases of papillary and follicular thyroid...... prognostic indicator, which might be of value in the treatment planning in patients with papillary or follicular thyroid carcinomas....

  4. Isolated Spinal Metastasis with Spinal Cord Compression Leads to a Diagnosis of a Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshkezi, Gentian; Galgano, Michael; Libohova, Silva; Marawar, Satya

    2015-10-12

    Thyroid carcinoma initially presents with clinical symptoms due to metastatic lesions in less than 5% of cases. Spinal cord compression from an epidural metastatic lesion as a first symptom is extremely rare. One would expect such a presentation to occur much later in the course of the disease. We are presenting a case report of a follicular thyroid carcinoma that presented with spinal cord compression from a thoracic epidural metastatic lesion in a previously healthy 55-year-old male. A single metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting with posterior spinal cord compression is rare. In this particular case, our management included a mid-thoracic laminectomy, followed by resection of the epidural lesion. Once the surgical pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a follicular thyroid carcinoma, the general surgery team performed a near total thyroidectomy, after which he received radioactive iodine therapy. The patient is symptom-free at his three-year follow-up. Initial presentation of follicular thyroid carcinoma with symptomatic thoracic myelopathy from an epidural metastasis is very uncommon. An early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention provided an excellent outcome.

  5. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Metastatic to the Kidney: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a case of a 45-year-old female who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer and presented 20 years later with a left renal mass. CT-guided core biopsy was performed, and imprints and histologic sections of the biopsy showed cells resembling thyroid follicular cells with a background containing colloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1, consistent with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC. The patient later underwent radical nephrectomy; histologic sections of the resected tumor revealed an encapsulated lesion morphologically similar to the biopsy specimen. Thyroid metastases to the kidney are extremely rare and are often detected during postthyroidectomy surveillance by elevation in thyroid hormone levels, 131I scintigraphy, or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in positron emission tomography studies. Treatment involves total thyroidectomy, resection of the metastatic foci, and 131I therapy. The differential diagnoses of renal metastasis of FTC include the encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, which possesses some of the nuclear features seen in conventional PTC but may occasionally be indistinguishable from FTC in cytologic preparations, and renal lesions such as benign thyroidization of the kidney and thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney, which mimic FTC in histologic appearance but do not stain with thyroid markers.

  6. Proteome Profile and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis Follicular Fluid during Follicle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Follicular fluid (FF accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle and provides the microenvironment for oocyte development. FF plays an important role in follicle growth and oocyte maturation. The FF provides a unique window to investigate the processes occurring during buffalo follicular development. The observed low quality of buffalo oocytes may arise from the poor follicular microenvironment. Investigating proteins found in buffalo FF (BFF should provide insight into follicular development processes and provide further understanding of intra-follicular maturation and oocytes quality. Here, a proteomic-based approach was used to analyze the proteome of BFF. SDS-PAGE separation combined with mass spectrometry was used to generate the proteomic dataset. In total, 363 proteins were identified and classified by Gene Ontology terms. The proteins were assigned to 153 pathways, including signaling pathways. To evaluate difference in proteins expressed between BFF with different follicle size (small, <4 mm; and large, >8 mm, a quantitative proteomic analysis based on multi-dimensional liquid chromatography pre-fractionation tandem Orbitrap mass spectrometry identification was performed. Eleven differentially expressed proteins (six downregulated and five upregulated in large BFF were identified and assigned to a variety of functional processes, including serine protease inhibition, oxidation protection and the complement cascade system. Three differentially expressed proteins, Vimentin, Peroxiredoxin-1 and SERPIND1, were verified by Western blotting, consistent with the quantitative proteomics results. Our datasets offers new information about proteins present in BFF and should facilitate the development of new biomarkers. These differentially expressed proteins illuminate the size-dependent protein changes in follicle microenvironment.

  7. Proteome Profile and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Follicular Fluid during Follicle Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Huang, Yulin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Fumei; Huang, Delun; Lu, Yangqing; Liang, Xianwei; Zhang, Ming

    2016-04-29

    Follicular fluid (FF) accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle and provides the microenvironment for oocyte development. FF plays an important role in follicle growth and oocyte maturation. The FF provides a unique window to investigate the processes occurring during buffalo follicular development. The observed low quality of buffalo oocytes may arise from the poor follicular microenvironment. Investigating proteins found in buffalo FF (BFF) should provide insight into follicular development processes and provide further understanding of intra-follicular maturation and oocytes quality. Here, a proteomic-based approach was used to analyze the proteome of BFF. SDS-PAGE separation combined with mass spectrometry was used to generate the proteomic dataset. In total, 363 proteins were identified and classified by Gene Ontology terms. The proteins were assigned to 153 pathways, including signaling pathways. To evaluate difference in proteins expressed between BFF with different follicle size (small, 8 mm), a quantitative proteomic analysis based on multi-dimensional liquid chromatography pre-fractionation tandem Orbitrap mass spectrometry identification was performed. Eleven differentially expressed proteins (six downregulated and five upregulated in large BFF) were identified and assigned to a variety of functional processes, including serine protease inhibition, oxidation protection and the complement cascade system. Three differentially expressed proteins, Vimentin, Peroxiredoxin-1 and SERPIND1, were verified by Western blotting, consistent with the quantitative proteomics results. Our datasets offers new information about proteins present in BFF and should facilitate the development of new biomarkers. These differentially expressed proteins illuminate the size-dependent protein changes in follicle microenvironment.

  8. Histomorphological changes in follicular apparatus of ewe ovaries following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.; Stanikova, A.

    1985-01-01

    Histological changes in primary follicles of ewes after a five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays were studied by qualitative and micrometric methods. The experiment was carried out in the anoestrous period with 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, divided into three groups. The first control group (five ewes) was not irradiated. The second and third groups (each included eight ewes) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays for a period of five days to the total dose of 4.8 Gy. All ewes including the control ones were given Ampicillin Spofa 250 mg per head/day during the period of ten days after irradiation. The third group was administered apart from this a mixture of vitamins, Roboran H, at the dose of 10 g per head/day. The animals were slaughtered on the fifth day of irradiation and on the tenth day after the end of irradiation. The ovaries processed by a routine histological method were cut in 7 μm slices in a series of 70 μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosine. By qualitative histomorphological analysis of the oocytes of primary follicles, chromatin aggregation, pycnosis of nuclei, pronounced acidophilia of oocyte cytoplasm, their shrinking and disintegration were determined. In intact primary follicles, mitotic division of follicular cells stopped and the proportion of follicular cells with pycnotic nuclei increased after irradiation. The results show that the five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays to the total dose of 4.8 Gy caused pronounced degenerative changes in the anoestrous period. Administration of antibiotics or vitamins had no significant effect on the stated histomorphological changes. (author)

  9. Follicular lymphoma: 2012 update on diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Arnold

    2012-10-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is generally an indolent B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. FL is characterized by diffuse lymphoadenopathy, involvement of bone marrow, splenomegaly, and less commonly other extranodal sites of involvement. In general, cytopenias can occur but constitutional symptoms of fever, night sweats, and weight loss are uncommon. Diagnosis is based on histology of preferably a biopsy of a lymph node. Immunohistochemical staining is positive in virtually all cases for cell surface CD19, CD20, CD10, and monoclonal immunoglobulin, as well as cytoplasmic expression of bcl-2 protein. The overwhelming majority of cases have the characteristic t(14;18) translocation involving the IgH/bcl-2 genes. The FL International Prognostic Index prognostic model for FL uses five independent predictors of inferior survival: age > 60 years, hemoglobin normal, Ann Arbor stage III/IV, number of involved nodal areas > 4. The presence of 0, 1, 2, and ≥ 3 adverse factors defines low, intermediate, and high-risk disease with median 10-year survivals in the pre-rituximab era of ~71, 51, and 36 months, respectively. With the use of more modern therapies, specifically anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, the outcome has improved. Observation continues to be adequate for asymptomatic patients with low bulk disease and no cytopenias. For patients needing therapy, most patients are treated with chemotherapy plus rituximab, which has improved response rates, duration of response, and overall survival. Randomized studies have shown additional benefit for maintenance rituximab both following chemotherapy-rituximab and single-agent rituximab. Autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) has not shown a survival benefit in first remission patients. SCT including both autologous and allogeneic SCT or experimental agent therapy is considered for recurrent disease. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Scalp Surgery: Quantitative Analysis of Follicular Unit Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the years, different kinds of hair transplantation have been compared in an attempt to overcome male pattern alopecia and, at the same time, maximize both the survival and growth rate of grafted hair. In this study, we have assessed the survival and growth rate of follicular units (FU) in an in vitro model, as compared with that of conventional hair micrografts, to experimentally evaluate and elaborate on the differences between these 2 approaches in hair transplantation procedures. Methods: Group A (control; n = 100 follicles) was composed of hair micrografts, whereas FUs were assigned to Group B (experimental; n = 100 follicles, n = 35 FUs). Each group was cultured for a period of 10 days; the total stretch of follicles was measured soon after the harvest and 10 days later. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance on ranks test was used to perform statistical analysis. Results: The growth rate of follicles from Group A (mean 10-day shaft growth rate = 0.30 mm) proved to be statistically different compared with that of Group B (mean 10-day shaft growth rate = 0.23 mm). Conversely, our data did not show any significant difference between the survival rate of hair grafts from these 2 groups. Conclusions: Our data highlighted a reduced FU shaft growth compared with that of hair micrografts, corroborating, to a certain extent, the hypothesis that a significant amount of adipose tissue surrounding the follicle included in the graft may result in an inadequate nourishment supply to follicular cells. PMID:26579345

  11. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...

  12. Podoplanin (D2-40): A New Immunohistochemical Marker for Reactive Follicular Dendritic Cells and Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingmei; Chen, Lugen; Fu, Kai; Harter, Josephine; Young, Ken H; Sunkara, Jaya; Novak, Deborah; Villanueva-Siles, Esperanza; Ratech, Howard

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma can be challenging because of its morphologic overlaps with many other spindle cell neoplasms and, therefore, new phenotypic markers will be helpful in its differential diagnosis. Podoplanin is a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein that has recently been detected in reactive FDCs. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of podoplanin using a new mouse monoclonal antibody D2-40, and compared them with CD21, a well-established FDC marker, in a comprehensive panel of cases. The panel included 4 FDC sarcomas, 38 spindle cell neoplasms of other types, 25 reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, and 117 lymphoid and 5 myeloid malignant hematopoietic neoplasms. Our study revealed that D2-40 strongly stained 3 of 4 FDC sarcomas. In contrast, D2-40 stained only 2/38 other spindle cell neoplasms tested. Furthermore, we observed that D2-40 highlighted more FDC meshworks than CD21 in Castleman's disease, follicular lymphoma, nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin lymphoma, and residual reactive germinal centers in a variety of lymphoma types. D2-40 and CD21 stained an equal number of cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, progressively transformed germinal centers and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. No expression of podoplanin was detected in normal or neoplastic lymphoid and myeloid cells. We conclude that podoplanin (D2-40) is a sensitive and specific FDC marker, which is superior or equal to CD21 in evaluating both reactive and neoplastic FDCs. In addition, our results suggest that podoplanin (D2-40) can be used to support the diagnosis of FDC sarcoma. PMID:18784810

  13. Follicular unit extraction as a therapeutic option for Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sacchidanand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular unit extraction (FUE is a surgical procedure, which can be used to transplant follicular units into vitiliginous areas. Such follicular unit transplant has been recently used to repigment stable vitiligo patches. FUE was done for a 12-year-old female with a stable vitiligo patch with leukotrichia on the eyebrow. Repigmentation was noted in 6 weeks and complete pigmentation seen at 12 weeks. Leukotrichia resolved over a period of 6 months. No recurrence was noted at the end of 6 months follow-up with excellent colour match. This case is presented to highlight the simplicity, safety and effectiveness of FUE in stable vitiligo patches with leukotrichia.

  14. Follicular Lymphoma Tregs Have a Distinct Transcription Profile Impacting Their Migration and Retention in the Malignant Lymph Node.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Nedelkovska

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs infiltrating follicular lymphoma lymph nodes are quantitatively and qualitatively different than those infiltrating normal and reactive nodes. To gain insight into how such Treg populations differ, we performed RNA sequence (RNAseq analyses on flow sorted Tregs from all three sources. We identify several molecules that could contribute to the observed increased suppressive capacity of follicular lymphoma nodal tregs, including upregulation of CTLA-4, IL-10, and GITR, all confirmed by protein expression. In addition, we identify, and confirm functionally, a novel mechanism by which Tregs target to and accumulate within a human tumor microenvironment, through the down regulation of S1PR1, SELL (L-selectin and CCR7, potentially resulting in greater lymph node retention. In addition we identify and confirm functionally the upregulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR5 as well as the secretion of the chemokines CXCL13 and IL-16 demonstrating the unique ability of the follicular derived Tregs to localize and accumulate within not only the malignant lymph node, but also localize and accumulate within the malignant B cell follicle itself. Such findings offer significant new insights into how follicular lymphoma nodal Tregs may contribute to the biology of follicular lymphoma and identify several novel therapeutic targets.

  15. Trends in the formation of the ovarian follicular reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Denisenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes folliculogenesis from the formation of a primordial follicle around the oocyte during the diplotene stage of prophase of meiosis I to that of a preovulatory follicle, maturation of an oocyte, and transformation of its chromosomal nucleolus complex into the karyosphere. It briefly highlights literature disagreements on the terminology of ovarian follicular reserve and folliculogenesis. The possibilities of evaluating the ovarian follicular system are given.

  16. Let-7a down-regulation plays a role in thyroid neoplasias of follicular histotype affecting cell adhesion and migration through its ability to target the FXYD5 (Dysadherin) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colamaio, Marianna; Calì, Gaetano; Sarnataro, Daniela; Borbone, Eleonora; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Nitsch, Lucio; Croce, Carlo Maria; Battista, Sabrina; Fusco, Alfredo

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid neoplasias of the follicular histotype include the benign follicular adenomas and the malignant follicular carcinomas. Although several genetic lesions have already been described in human thyroid follicular neoplasias, the mechanisms underlying their development are still far from being completely elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs or miRNAs) have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, also playing a key role in the process of carcinogenesis. The aim of our work has been to identify the miRNAs differentially expressed in human thyroid follicular neoplasias and define their role in thyroid carcinogenesis. The miRNA expression profile of 10 human thyroid follicular adenomas was compared to that of 10 normal thyroid tissues. The miRNA expression profiles revealed the down-regulation of let-7a in thyroid follicular adenomas compared to normal thyroid. Then, quantitative RT-PCR analyses validated the microarray data and showed a significantly higher decrease in let-7a expression in follicular carcinomas. Enforced let-7a expression in the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line WRO induces an epithelial-like phenotype, increases cell adhesion, and decreases cell migration. Conversely, silencing of let-7a in the normal rat thyroid cell line PC Cl 3 has opposite effects. We identified dysadherin (FXYD5), a cell membrane glycoprotein, correlated with tumor progression and invasiveness, as a target of let-7a. Consistently, an inverse correlation between dysadherin and let-7a expression levels was found in human thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas. These results suggest a role of let-7a down-regulation in the development of thyroid neoplasias of the follicular histotype, likely regulating dysadherin protein expression levels.

  17. Follicular Thyroid Cancer Metastasis to the Urinary Bladder: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grivas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer metastasis to the urinary bladder is a very rear condition. To the authors’ knowledge there have been only 2 cases reported in the literature. Herein a case is reported of a metastatic bladder tumor in a 73-year-old woman with history of thyroid and breast cancer. Gross hematuria was the initial symptom of her metastatic disease. Pathology of the resected mass revealed a follicular thyroid cancer metastasis. This case illustrates that follicular carcinoma of the thyroid may have a variable presentation, including hematuria.

  18. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  19. NONINVASIVE FOLLICULAR TUMOR WITH PAPILLARY-LIKE NUCLEAR FEATURES: NOT A TEMPEST IN A TEAPOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Abbott, Collette E; Liu, Cheng; Kang, Stella; Tipton, Laura; Patel, Kepal; Persky, Mark; King, Lizabeth; Deng, Fang-Ming; Bannan, Michael; Ogilvie, Jennifer B; Heller, Keith; Hodak, Steven P

    2017-04-02

    Encapsulated non-invasive follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer (ENIFVPTC) has recently been retermed noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). This designation specifically omits the word "cancer" to encourage conservative treatment since patients with NIFTP tumors have been shown to derive no benefit from completion thyroidectomy or adjuvant radio-active iodine (RAI) therapy. This was a retrospective study of consecutive cases of tumors from 2007 to 2015 that met pathologic criteria for NIFTP. The conservative management (CM) group included patients managed with lobectomy alone or appropriately indicated total thyroidectomy. Those included in the aggressive management (AM) group received either completion thyroidectomy or RAI or both. From 100 consecutive cases of ENIFVPTC reviewed, 40 NIFTP were included for the final analysis. Of these, 10 (27%) patients treated with initial lobectomy received completion thyroidectomy and 6 of 40 (16%) also received postsurgical adjuvant RAI. The mean per-patient cost of care in the AM group was $17,629 ± 2,865, nearly twice the $8,637 ± 309 costs in the CM group, and was largely driven by the cost of completion thyroidectomy and RAI. The term NIFTP has been recently promulgated to identify a type of thyroid neoplasm, formerly identified as a low-grade cancer, for which initial surgery represents adequate treatment. We believe that since the new NIFTP nomenclature intentionally omits the word "cancer," the clinical indolence of these tumors will be better appreciated, and cost savings will result from more conservative and appropriate clinical management. AM = aggressive management CM = conservative management ENIFVPTC = encapsulated noninvasive form of FVPTC FVPTC = follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma NIFTP = noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features PTC = papillary thyroid carcinoma PTMC = papillary thyroid microcarcinoma RAI

  20. Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System features of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma: a single-center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Dong Hyun; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) features for distinguishing follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). From January 2013 to July 2016, 46 follicular neoplasms in 45 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US) and thyroid surgery were included. The US features of each thyroid nodule were retrospectively evaluated by a single radiologist using a picture archiving and communication system. The diagnostic indices of K-TIRADS for follicular neoplasms were calculated according to whether K-TIRADS category 4 lesions were excluded or classified as benign or malignant. Of the 46 follicular neoplasms (mean size, 3.1±1.6 cm), 37 were FTAs (mean size, 3.1±1.7 cm) and nine were FTCs (mean size, 3.0±1.5 cm). A statistically significant difference was found between FTAs and FTCs regarding the margin (P=0.035), while no significant differences were observed in the composition, echogenicity, shape, orientation, calcification, or vascularity of the lesions (P<0.05). The FTAs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=22) and 4 (n=15), while the FTCs belonged to K-TIRADS categories 3 (n=4), 4 (n=4), and 5 (n=1). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of K-TIRADS categories between FTAs and FTCs (P=0.184).K-TIRADS features were not helpful for distinguishing FTA from FTC, although follicular neoplasms showed a high prevalence of K-TIRADS categories 3 and 4.

  1. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Lipids and Gene Expression Reveals Differences in Fatty Acid Metabolism between Follicular Compartments in Porcine Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Uzbekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, oocytes develop inside the ovarian follicles; this process is strongly supported by the surrounding follicular environment consisting of cumulus, granulosa and theca cells, and follicular fluid. In the antral follicle, the final stages of oogenesis require large amounts of energy that is produced by follicular cells from substrates including glucose, amino acids and fatty acids (FAs. Since lipid metabolism plays an important role in acquiring oocyte developmental competence, the aim of this study was to investigate site-specificity of lipid metabolism in ovaries by comparing lipid profiles and expression of FA metabolism-related genes in different ovarian compartments. Using MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging, images of porcine ovary sections were reconstructed from lipid ion signals for the first time. Cluster analysis of ion spectra revealed differences in spatial distribution of lipid species among ovarian compartments, notably between the follicles and interstitial tissue. Inside the follicles analysis differentiated follicular fluid, granulosa, theca and the oocyte-cumulus complex. Moreover, by transcript quantification using real time PCR, we showed that expression of five key genes in FA metabolism significantly varied between somatic follicular cells (theca, granulosa and cumulus and the oocyte. In conclusion, lipid metabolism differs between ovarian and follicular compartments.

  2. Computerized microscopic image analysis of follicular lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Olcay; Kong, Jun; Lozanski, Gerard; Catalyurek, Umit; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2008-03-01

    Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is a cancer arising from the lymphatic system. Originating from follicle center B cells, FL is mainly comprised of centrocytes (usually middle-to-small sized cells) and centroblasts (relatively large malignant cells). According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, there are three histological grades of FL characterized by the number of centroblasts per high-power field (hpf) of area 0.159 mm2. In current practice, these cells are manually counted from ten representative fields of follicles after visual examination of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides by pathologists. Several studies clearly demonstrate the poor reproducibility of this grading system with very low inter-reader agreement. In this study, we are developing a computerized system to assist pathologists with this process. A hybrid approach that combines information from several slides with different stains has been developed. Thus, follicles are first detected from digitized microscopy images with immunohistochemistry (IHC) stains, (i.e., CD10 and CD20). The average sensitivity and specificity of the follicle detection tested on 30 images at 2×, 4× and 8× magnifications are 85.5+/-9.8% and 92.5+/-4.0%, respectively. Since the centroblasts detection is carried out in the H&E-stained slides, the follicles in the IHC-stained images are mapped to H&E-stained counterparts. To evaluate the centroblast differentiation capabilities of the system, 11 hpf images have been marked by an experienced pathologist who identified 41 centroblast cells and 53 non-centroblast cells. A non-supervised clustering process differentiates the centroblast cells from noncentroblast cells, resulting in 92.68% sensitivity and 90.57% specificity.

  3. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: Characteristics of preoperative ultrasonography and cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to validate the ultrasonography (US) and cytopathological features that are used in the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and to characterize the role of BRAFV600E mutation analysis in the diagnosis of FVPTC. From May 2012 to February 2014, 40 thyroid nodules from 40 patients (mean age, 56.2 years; range, 26 to 81 years) diagnosed with FVPTC were included in this study. The US features of the nodules were analyzed and the nodules were classified as probably benign or suspicious for malignancy. Twenty-three thyroid nodules (57.5%) underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis. Clinical information and histopathologic results were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the patients. Thirty nodules (75.0%) were classified as suspicious for malignancy, while 10 (25.0%) were classified as probably benign. Seven of the eight nodules (87.5%) with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) cytology showed suspicious US features, while one of the two nodules (50.0%) with follicular neoplasm cytology presented suspicious US features. Five of the 23 nodules (21.7%) that underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis had positive results, all of which were diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy or malignant based on cytology. None of the nodules with benign, AUS/FLUS, or follicular neoplasm cytology were positive for the BRAFV600E mutation. US features allow nodules to be classified as suspicious for malignancy, and the presence of suspicious US features in nodules with ambiguous cytology may aid in the diagnosis of FVPTC. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is of limited value in the diagnosis of FVPTC.

  4. Pubic Hair Restorative Surgery Using Grafts Harvested by the Nonshaven Follicular Unit Extraction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, NaRae; Park, Jae Hyun

    2018-02-15

    Pubic atrichosis or hypotrichosis is quite common among Korean women. Although Korean people are increasingly opening up to Western culture, pubic hair transplantation is still pursued for cultural reasons. However, many hesitate to undergo restorative surgery because follicular unit strip surgery would leave a linear donor scar, preventing patients from hiding their surgical history. Thus, follicle harvesting using nonshaven follicular unit extraction (NS-FUE), aside from many other strengths, is very useful when performing pubic restorative surgery. There has been no previous report concerning the effectiveness of NS-FUE for treating pubic atrichosis or hypotrichosis. To investigate the effectiveness of NS-FUE when performing pubic restorative surgery. The 50 patients who were included in the study underwent pubic hair restoration using NS-FUE between March 2014 and June 2016 at Dana Plastic Surgery Clinic (Seoul, Korea), and were followed for at least 10 months afterward. Patients and the surgeon completed a survey about donor and recipient site surgical results using a 5-point Likert scale. The average satisfaction scores of patients and surgeon were 4.5 and 4.6, respectively. Nonshaven follicular unit extraction is one of the most effective harvesting methods when performing restorative surgery for patients with pubic atrichosis or hypotrichosis.

  5. Accurate diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions from nuclear morphology using supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolek, John A; Tosun, Akif Burak; Wang, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Kolouri, Soheil; Basu, Saurav; Huang, Hu; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2014-07-01

    Follicular lesions of the thyroid remain significant diagnostic challenges in surgical pathology and cytology. The diagnosis often requires considerable resources and ancillary tests including immunohistochemistry, molecular studies, and expert consultation. Visual analyses of nuclear morphological features, generally speaking, have not been helpful in distinguishing this group of lesions. Here we describe a method for distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid based on nuclear morphology. The method utilizes an optimal transport-based linear embedding for segmented nuclei, together with an adaptation of existing classification methods. We show the method outputs assignments (classification results) which are near perfectly correlated with the clinical diagnosis of several lesion types' lesions utilizing a database of 94 patients in total. Experimental comparisons also show the new method can significantly outperform standard numerical feature-type methods in terms of agreement with the clinical diagnosis gold standard. In addition, the new method could potentially be used to derive insights into biologically meaningful nuclear morphology differences in these lesions. Our methods could be incorporated into a tool for pathologists to aid in distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid. In addition, these results could potentially provide nuclear morphological correlates of biological behavior and reduce health care costs by decreasing histotechnician and pathologist time and obviating the need for ancillary testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemimandibulectomy with full angular mandibular plate reconstruction follicular Ameloblastoma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti Bulan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction :Ameloblastoma is an aggressive benign of odontogenic origin tumor; cystic shape, slowly growth; no pain; local invasive; infiltrate muscle; and bone destruction. Based on histopathology ameloblastomas are classified: Follicular, acanthomatous, granular cell, basal cell, and plexiform. Follicular and plexiformameloblastomas are the most common, with incidence rates 27.7% and 21.1%. Follicular ameloblastoma is characterized by recurrence rate (29.5%; plexiformameloblastoma (16.7%; and acanthomatousameloblastoma (4.5%. Early diagnosis with prompt and adequate management decrease recurrence and get good prognosis. Objective : to evaluate recurrence of follicular ameloblastoma after surgery; to evaluate  stomatognatic function and aesthetic problems. Case report : a 55 y.o. female patient with lump at left cheek since 1 year before admission; initially was small in size; gradually increased, no history of trauma, pain, febrile, and discharge. Based on clinical, histopathological, radiological, CT scan, it was diagnosed follicular ameloblastoma. The treatment was left hemimandibulectomy with full angular mandibular plate reconstruction. Discussion :Ameloblastoma is a locally destructive tumor with recurrence if not entirely excised. The goal of treatment ameloblastoma is wide excision and reconstruction of surgical defect. Then, it is followed up to evaluate recurrence, stomatognatic function, and aesthetic problems. Conclusion : Prognosis is good if an early diagnosis of the lesion is made with prompt and adequate surgical intervention.

  7. Concurrent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Milene A; Demaula, Christopher D; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Senter, David A; Myers, Sherry

    2003-06-01

    Recurrent or persistent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis are described in nine Boxers. Data on age, sex, seasonality of alopecia and histopathological features of the follicular dysplasia in these nine Boxers are comparable with those described in previous reports. The interface dermatitis was characterized by multifocal annular crusted lesions confined to the areas of follicular dysplasia. The inflammatory lesions were neither pruritic nor painful and affected dogs were otherwise healthy. Histopathologically the clinically inflammatory lesions were characterized as an interface dermatitis. Immunohistochemical studies failed to demonstrate immunoglobulins or complement at the basement membrane zone or within blood vessel walls. In dogs with recurrent or persistent disease, the follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis ran identical, concurrent courses of spontaneous remission and recurrence, or persistence, respectively. One dog with persistent disease was treated successfully with tetracycline and niacinamide for the interface dermatitis, and melatonin for the follicular dysplasia. Although the aetiopathogenesis of this newly described condition and the relationship between the two histological reaction patterns are not known, photoperiod and genetic predisposition appear to play a role.

  8. Follicular dynamics in synchronized Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Francillo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the length and the characteristics of the oestrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows, undergone synchronization of ovulation. The trial was performed on 32 buffaloes synchronized by the Ovsynch Program, which consists of an injection of GnRH on day 0, PGF2α on day 7 and GnRH on day 9. Starting on day 10 (Day 0 of the new cycle. Buffaloes undergone ultrasound examination of the ovaries on alternate days until the following heat. Follicular growth and corpus luteum formation and dimensions were recorded as well as the number of follicular waves. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Four animals (12.5% did not show signs of oestrous and were excluded from the trial. The mean length of the oestrous cycle was 23.7±3.4 days. In particular, 1 animal (3.6% showed an oestrous cycle characterized by 1 follicular wave with a length of 16 days, 17 subjects (60.7% showed 2 follicular waves with a cycle length of 22.4±2.3 days and 10 buffaloes (35.7% showed 3 follicular waves with a cycle of 26.8±2.0 days. These results confirm previous reports performed in buffalo species, although the cycle resulted longer in the 3-waves group.

  9. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vlčková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P<0.05 with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum.

  10. Extracellular vesicles in human follicular fluid do not promote coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Cordula; Böing, Anita N; Montag, Markus; Strowitzki, Thomas; Markert, Udo R; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Nieuwland, Rienk; Toth, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Body fluids contain extracellular vesicles expressing tissue factor on their surface and serve as an additional trigger for coagulation. During the menstrual cycle ovarian tissue restoration is mandatory and it is unknown whether follicular fluid might provide procoagulant substances. Within an observational study, follicular fluid from women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), electron microscopy, resistive pulse sensing (RPS), nanoparticle-tracking analysis (NTA) and fibrin generation tests (FGT). The presence of extracellular vesicles, especially CD9-positive extracellular vesicles in follicular fluid, was proven. However, clotting tests revealed no procoagulant properties of the detected extracellular vesicles. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ovarian follicular dynamics of five-eighths Girolando cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, A; Oliveira, M A; Caldas, J G; Lima, P F; Donato, I V

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the follicular dynamics of five-eighths Girolando cows by observing the number of follicular development waves, days of emergence of those waves, diameters of the dominant and largest subordinate follicles and the processes of follicular selection and dominance. Ovarian follicle dynamics were monitored for 24 oestrous cycles in 12 cows, of 4 to 10 years of age, presenting regular oestrous cycles and with body scores between 3 and 4. Ovaries were observed daily for two consecutive oestrous cycles and follicles were measured with ultrasonographic equipment. The dominant follicle was considered to be that which presented a diameter > or = 10 mm for three consecutive days and on the day of wave emergence, when a group of follicles measuring 3-5 mm in diameter would appear. Of the 24 cycles monitored, 62.5% presented two waves of follicular development and 37.5% presented three waves. The cycles presenting two waves had an average duration of 20 days, with the emergence of the waves on days 1 and 9, whereas the cycles presenting three waves had an average duration of 22 days, with emergences on days 1, 10 and 16. For cycles with two waves, both the first and second dominant follicles reached an average size of 13.8 mm, with the first regressing on day 10 and the second ovulating around day 20. For cycles with three waves, the dominant follicles of the first and second waves reached maximum diameters of 11.8 and 12 mm, respectively, with the first regressing on day 11 and the second regressing on day 17. The third dominant follicle reached a maximum diameter of 12.4 mm on day 20, and ovulated on day 22. These results lead to the conclusion that the follicular dynamics of five-eighths Girolando cows are characterized by the presence of two to three waves of follicular growth.

  12. The effects of serum concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 in early follicular phase on follicular growth parameters and pregnancy rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Raoofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many studies have showed the role of androgens on the follicular maturation. The present study investigated the effect of serum concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 in the early follicular phase on the results of the ovulation induction (I/O and intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles. Materials and methods: This prospective observational cross-sectional study was carried out in the infertility department of a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. The case’s selection was based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and was nonrandomized. 59 patients under the age of 45 who were candidate for induction ovulation (I/O or intrauterine insemination were included. The inclusion criteria consist of infertility for at least one year and at least one open tube in HSG. Patients were excluded if they had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis. The serum concentration of androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, LH and IGF1 was measured on the third day of menstruation. Clomiphene and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG were drugs of induction ovulation. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG was injected when there was at least one follicle with the size of (18 mm. IUI was done 36 h later for eligible patients and the relation of concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 with follicular growth parameters and pregnancy rate was analyzed. Results: There was not any statistical significant link between the number and size of follicles with levels of free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, IGF1 and LH. There was not any statistical significant link between the number of follicles in the ovaries and levels of testosterone (P = 0.090 and r = 0.223, dehydroepiandrosterone (P = 0.642 and r = 0.062 and androstenedione (P = 0.526 and r = 0.084, IGF1 (P = 0.470 and r = 0.096 and LH (P = 0.446 and r = 0.102. There was not any statistical significant link between the mean follicular

  13. Pegfilgrastim and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Untreated, Relapsed, or Refractory Follicular Lymphoma, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, or Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  14. Pediatric Type Follicular Lymphoma: A Rare Entity with Excellent Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and FISH interpretation. .-~ ••• ! Histopathology The lymph node was a 2.6 x 1.9 x 0.9 cm tan and pink tissue fragment with...rt • g 0 - ’ · r · ·· · * · · · · from follicular hyperplasia can be based off of total or extensive replacement of nodal structure, even...positivity also suggests neoplasia versus follicular hyperplasia. Differentiation from marginal zone lymphoma can be based of CD23 positivity and presence

  15. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  16. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchang; Liu, Jin; Sun, Yan; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

  17. Concentrations of AMH and inhibin-B in relation to follicular diameter in normal human small antral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Byskov, Anne Grete; Ernst, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B and steroids in normal human small antral follicles and to relate them to follicular size. A group of 103 women having one ovary removed for fertility preservation by cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment served as a source of a total of 272 human small antral follicles. Prior to cryopreservation of the ovarian cortex, fluid from small antral follicles were collected. On the basis of the follicular volume, the diameter was calculated and follicles with diameters from 3 to 12 mm were included. Concentrations of AMH decreased significantly (P younger than 10 years showed the same range of AMH concentrations as those from older girls or women. The intrafollicular concentrations of AMH become progressively lower with increasing follicle diameters. In contrast, concentrations of inhibin-B increased with increasing follicle diameter with peak values at around 9 mm in diameter. This suggests that AMH and inhibin-B undertake important intrafollicular functions around the time of normal follicular selection in the mid-follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.

  18. Opinion of the scientific committee on consumer safety (SCCS)--2nd Revision of the safety of the use of poly(hexamethylene) biguanide hydrochloride or polyaminopropyl biguanide (PHMB) in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion of the opinion: On the basis of the data available, the SCCS concludes that Polyaminopropyl Biguanide (PHMB) is not safe for consumers when used as a preservative in cosmetic spray formulations and in all cosmetic products up to the maximum concentration of 0.3%. The safe use could be based on a lower use concentration and/or restrictions with regard to cosmetic products' categories. Dermal absorption studies on additional representative cosmetic formulations are needed. PHMB is used in a variety of applications other than cosmetics. General exposure data from sources others than cosmetics should be submitted for the assessment of the aggregate exposure of PHMB. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Hypoxia induces miR-210, leading to anti-apoptosis in ovarian follicular cells of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tse, Anna Chung-Kwan [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Hong Kong SAR (China); Li, Jing-Woei; Chan, Ting-Fung [School of Life Sciences, Hong Kong Bioinformatics Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wu, Rudolf Shiu-Sun [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lai, Keng-Po, E-mail: balllai@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate hypoxia induced miR-210 in ovarian follicular cells. • We show anti-apoptotic roles of miR-210 in ovarian follicular cells under hypoxia. • Apoptotic genes (DLC1, SLK, TNFRSF10B, RBM25, and USP7) are target of miR-210. • MiR-210 is vital for ovarian follicular cells proliferation in response to hypoxia. - Abstract: Hypoxia is a major global problem that impairs reproductive functions and reduces the quality and quantity of gametes and the fertilization success of marine fish. Nevertheless, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced female reproductive impairment remains largely unknown. There is increasing evidence that miRNA is vital in regulating ovarian functions and is closely associated with female fertility in humans. Certain miRNAs that regulate apoptotic genes can be induced by hypoxia, resulting in cell apoptosis. Using primary ovarian follicular cells of the marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma, as a model, we investigated the response of miR-210 to hypoxic stress in ovarian tissues to see if it would interrupt reproductive functions. A significant induction of miR-210 was found in primary ovarian follicular cells exposed to hypoxia, and gene ontology analysis further highlighted the potential roles of miR-210 in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell apoptosis. A number of miR-210 target apoptotic genes, including Deleted in liver cancer 1 protein (DLC1), STE20-like serine/threonine-protein kinase (SLK), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10B), RNA binding motif protein 25 (RBM25), and Ubiquitin-specific-processing protease 7 (USP7), were identified. We further showed that ectopic expression of miR-210 would result in down-regulation of these apoptotic genes. On the other hand, the inhibition of miR-210 promoted apoptotic cell death and the expression of apoptotic marker – caspase 3 in follicular cells under hypoxic treatment, supporting the regulatory role of mi

  20. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Yak Follicular Fluid during Estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The breeding of yaks is highly seasonal, there are many crucial proteins involved in the reproduction control program, especially in follicular development. In order to isolate differential proteins between mature and immature follicular fluid (FF of yak, the FF from yak follicles with different sizes were sampled respectively, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of the proteins was carried out. After silver staining, the Image Master 2D platinum software was used for protein analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS was performed for differential protein identification. The expression level of transferrin and enolase superfamily member 1 (ENOSF1 was determined by Western blotting for verification analysis. The results showed that 2-DE obtained an electrophoresis map of proteins from mature and immature yak FF with high resolution and repeatability. A comparison of protein profiles identified 12 differently expressed proteins, out of which 10 of them were upregulated while 2 were downregulated. Western blotting showed that the expression of transferrin and ENOSF1 was enhanced with follicular development. Both the obtained protein profiles and the differently expressed proteins identified in this study provided experimental data related to follicular development during yak breeding seasons. This study also laid the foundation for understanding the microenvironment during oocyte development.

  1. A fine romance: T follicular helper cells and B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cecile

    2011-06-24

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells help B cells to generate affinity-matured antibodies. Three papers in this issue of Immunity (Choi et al., 2011; Kerfoot et al., 2011; Kitano et al., 2011) provide information about the reciprocal relationship between B cells and Tfh cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Histological exploration of follicular population of the Moroccan bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Follicular population and repartition in the ovarian cortex was investigated in the ovaries of the Oulmès- ... baths for 4 h each in alcohol at 70, 95 and 100%. The last step of dehydration is the incubation of the sample for 16 hours in toluol or butylic alcohol. .... similarity of this distribution between human and bovine has been ...

  3. Histological exploration of follicular population of the Moroccan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Follicular population and repartition in the ovarian cortex was investigated in the ovaries of the Oulmès-Zaers cattle breed and its crosses. A total of 30 ovaries were collected at slaughterhouse in Casablanca and Rabat from Oulmes-Zaers breed and its crosses (2 genotypes) of 3 age groups (5 years).

  4. Extracellular vesicles in human follicular fluid do not promote coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, Cordula; Böing, Anita N.; Montag, Markus; Strowitzki, Thomas; Markert, Udo R.; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Nieuwland, Rienk; Toth, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Body fluids contain extracellular vesicles expressing tissue factor on their surface and serve as an additional trigger for coagulation. During the menstrual cycle ovarian tissue restoration is mandatory and it is unknown whether follicular fluid might provide procoagulant substances. Within an

  5. Follicular and percutaneous penetration pathways of topically applied minoxidil foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Massoudy, Lida; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Dietz, Ekkehart; Rasulev, Utkur; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2010-11-01

    In the past, it was assumed that the intercellular route was the only relevant penetration pathway for topically applied substances. Recent results on follicular penetration emphasize that the hair follicles represent a highly relevant and efficient penetration pathway and reservoir for topically applied substances. This study investigates a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo assessing interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of topical minoxidil foam in humans. In delimited skin area, single hair orifices or interfollicular skin were blocked with a microdrop of special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Minoxidil foam (5%) was topically applied, and transcutaneous absorption was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry technique in serum. Different settings (open, closed or none of both) enabled to clearly distinguish between interfollicular and follicular penetration of the topically applied minoxidil foam. Five minutes after topical application, minoxidil was detected in blood samples when follicles remained open, whereas with closed follicles 30 min were needed. Highest levels were found first when both pathways were open, followed by open follicles and subsequently by closed follicles. These results demonstrate the high importance of the follicular penetration pathway. Hair follicles are surrounded by a dense network of blood capillaries and dendritic cells and have stem cells in their immediate vicinity, making them ideal targets for drug delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol amplifies ovarian follicular defects induced by fetal exposure to excess testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Wurst, A K; Steckler, T L; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-04-01

    Excess of prenatal testosterone (T) induces reproductive defects including follicular persistence. Comparative studies with T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have suggested that follicular persistence is programmed via estrogenic actions of T. This study addresses the androgenic and estrogenic contributions in programming follicular persistence. Because humans are exposed to estrogenic environmental steroids from various sources throughout their life span and postnatal insults may also induce organizational and/or activational changes, we tested whether continuous postnatal exposure to estradiol (E) will amplify effects of prenatal steroids on ovarian function. Pregnant sheep were treated with T, DHT, E, or ED (E and DHT) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Postnatally, a subset of the vehicle (C), T, and DHT females received an E implant. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed in the first breeding season during a synchronized cycle to monitor ovarian follicular dynamics. As expected, number of ≥8 mm follicles was higher in the T versus C group. Postnatal E reduced the number of 4 to 8 mm follicles in the DHT group. Percentage of females bearing luteinized follicles and the number of luteinized follicles differed among prenatal groups. Postnatal E increased the incidence of subluteal cycles in the prenatal T-treated females. Findings from this study confirm previous findings of divergences in programming effects of prenatal androgens and estrogens. They also indicate that some aspects of follicular dynamics are subject to postnatal modulation as well as support the existence of an extended organizational period or the need for a second insult to uncover the previously programmed event.

  7. [DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT STRATEGY IN FOLLICULAR TUMOR OF THYROID GLAND].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlova, M V; Zubarovskiĭ, I N; Osipenko, S K

    2015-01-01

    The article is based on the treatment results of 44 patients with follicular tunor of thyroid gland. A staged morphological assessment of thyroid nodes was performed for all patients: in case of preoperative fine-needle biopsy, urgent intraoperative study and according to results of final histological research. The urgent histological study of surgical material was conducted for 44 patients with diagnosis "follicular tumor" according to fine-needle biopsy. The data of final histological study were matched with findings of intraoperative research. A micro-follicular adenoma was detected in 22 patients (50%) and 6 (13,6%) patients had this diagnosis combined with autoimmune thyroiditis. The general part of patients didn't changed in final study, but the rate of diagnosis "micro-follicular adenoma against the background of autoimmune thyroiditis" increased. Papillary carcinoma was revealed in 5 (11,4%) patients and follicular cancer had 4 (9,1%) patients detected in intraoperative study and 3 (6,8%) more patients according to data of final research. The histopathologic feature of colloid goiter was observed in 7 (15,9%) cases and a part of such patients reduced to 6,8% during final study. One of the patients (2,3%) had final diagnosis "oncocytoma". In case of thyroid nodules detection the needle biopsy should be carried out regardless to the size of nodule. The authors recommended performing the surgery with the urgent histological study in case of undetermined histological report. The following surgical strategy was specified by the results of the urgent histological report.

  8. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J M; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2017-03-16

    There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The objective of the present study is to examine the consequences of chronic hypothyroidism, induced in adulthood, for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. In order to investigate this, adult female rats were provided either a control or an iodide deficient diet in combination with perchlorate supplementation to inhibit iodide uptake by the thyroid. Sixteen weeks later animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for hormone analyses and ovaries were evaluated histologically. At the time of sacrifice, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were 20- to 40-fold increased, thyroxine concentrations were negligible while tri-iothyronin concentrations were decreased by 40% in the hypothyroid group, confirming that the animals were hypothyroid. Primordial, primary and preantral follicle numbers were significantly lower in the hypothyroid ovaries compared to the euthyroid controls, while a downward trend in antral follicle and corpora lutea numbers was observed. Surprisingly the percentage of atretic follicles was not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the reduced preantral and antral follicle numbers were presumably not the consequence of increased degeneration of these follicle types in the hypothyroid group. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels showed a significant correlation with the growing follicle population represented by the total ovarian number of primary, preantral and antral follicles, suggesting that also under hypothyroid conditions AMH can serve as a surrogate marker to assess the growing ovarian follicle population. The induction of a chronic hypothyroid condition in adult female rats negatively affects the ovarian follicular

  9. Prospective evaluation of automated follicle monitoring in 58 in vitro fertilization cycles: follicular volume as a new indicator of oocyte maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Adela; Hernández, Jairo; García-Guzman, Rocío; Chinea, Elena; Iaconianni, Laura; Palumbo, Angela

    2010-02-01

    To assess the practical use of SonoAVC in an IVF program, and to establish new criteria for hCG administration based on follicular volume. Prospective clinical study. Private IVF Center. Fifty-eight women with infertility undergoing IVF. Two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) scanning on the day of hCG administration. Image quality, mean follicular diameter obtained by 2D and 3D sonography, follicular volume, number of oocytes retrieved, number of mature oocytes, time needed for each examination. Approximately 60% of the patients included in this study had good image quality and could be monitored by 3D scans with subsequent application of the SonoAVC software. When image quality is good, measurements obtained by the automated mode are comparable to those obtained manually in 62% of cases. Automated monitoring is significantly quicker than conventional manual monitoring. Follicles with a measured volume >/=0.6 cc on the day of hCG administration are associated with the finding of mature oocytes at the time of egg retrieval. SonoAVC allows reliable evaluation of stimulated ovaries, and may help us establish new criteria for timing hCG administration based on follicular volume estimation rather than follicular size. Software improvements are needed to improve universal patient use. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bcl-2 and CD10 expression in the differential diagnosis of trichoblastoma, basal cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma with follicular differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Alicia; Guerrero, David; Larrinaga, Begoña; Iglesias, Maria Eugenia; Arrechea, Maria Asunción; Yanguas, Juan Ignacio

    2009-07-01

    Both trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin are characterized morphologically by the proliferation of basaloid cells; however, BCCs are clinically associated with a more aggressive behavior. An accurate diagnosis of these lesions is essential for effective, timely treatment and appropriate therapeutic decisions. This study includes 40 lesions. Bcl-2 and CD10 immunohistochemistry were performed in all cases and the patterns of expression were analyzed. Bcl-2 is useful for the detection of BCC with diffuse expression in nests of basaloid cells, but cannot distinguish between BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoblastoma, as both lesions show the same pattern with positive and negative areas. Conversely, CD10 expression can distinguish between trichoblastomas with peritumoral stromal staining and BCCs with epithelial staining. If both stromal and epithelial areas are stained, these cases are classified as BCC with follicular differentiation. CD10 is useful for distinguishing between BCC with widespread follicular differentiation and trichoblastomas.

  11. Follicular unit grafting in chronic nonhealing leg ulcers: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelavathy Budamakuntla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: The restoration of the epithelium after injury takes place by migration of epithelial cells adjoining a wound or by centrifugal migration from hair follicles. To evaluate the feasibility and potential healing capacity of scalp follicular unit grafts transplanted into the wound bed of chronic leg ulcers. Materials and Methods: Patients with chronic nonhealing ulcers of more than 6 weeks duration were selected for the study. Those with infected ulcers and uncontrolled diabetes were excluded from the study. Fifteen patients were included in the study. Follicular unit grafts were harvested under local anesthesia using small-diameter (1 mm circular punches. A density of 5 follicular grafts/cm2 was implanted into the ulcer bed. The ulcer was dressed with Vaseline gauze and elastic bandage for 24 h. The wound area and volume were calculated by length × width × 0.7854 and length × width × depth × 0.7854, respectively. The treatment outcome was defined as the percentage in change of area and volume of the ulcer, 18 weeks after intervention. Results: A total of 15 patients with 17 ulcers were treated with the above method. Of these 17 ulcers, 11 were venous ulcers, 2 were pyoderma gangrenosum associated with varicose veins, 2 were traumatic ulcers, and 2 were trophic ulcers. The baseline mean area of the ulcer was 6.72 cm2 (SD 5.65 and baseline volume was 2.87 cm3 (SD 2.9. The final area of the ulcer at the end of 18 weeks after the procedure was 3.84 cm2 (SD 5.43 and the final volume was 1.21 cm3 (SD 2.45, which was statistically significant. The mean percentage improvement in the area and volume of the ulcer was 48.8% and 71.98%, respectively. Two patients did not respond to the treatment. There were no adverse events after the procedure. Conclusion: We conclude that follicular unit grafting into wound beds is feasible and represents a promising therapeutic alternative for managing nonhealing chronic leg

  12. Follicular lymphoma: 2014 update on diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Arnold

    2014-04-01

    Follicular lymphoma is generally an indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by diffuse lymphoadenopathy, bone marrow involvement, splenomegaly, and less commonly other extranodal sites of involvement. In general cytopenias can occur but constitutional symptoms of fever, nightsweats, and weight loss are uncommon. Diagnosis is based on histology of preferably a biopsy of a lymph node. Immunohistochemical staining is positive in virtually all cases for cell surface CD19, CD20, CD10, and monoclonal immunoglobulin, as well as cytoplasmic expression of bcl-2 protein. The overwhelming majority of cases have the characteristic t(14;18) translocation involving the IgH/bcl-2 genes. The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index prognostic model for FL uses five independent predictors of inferior survival: age >60 years, hemoglobin  normal, Ann Arbor stage III/IV, number of involved nodal areas > 4. The presence of 0, 1, 2, and  ≥ 3 adverse factors defines low, intermediate, and high-risk disease. With the use of more modern therapies, outcomes have improved. Observation continues to be adequate for asymptomatic patients with low bulk disease and no cytopenias. For patients needing therapy, most patients are treated with chemotherapy plus rituximab, which has improved response rates, duration of response and overall survival. Randomized studies have shown additional benefit for maintenance rituximab both following chemotherapy-rituximab and single agent rituximab. Experimental therapies as well as stem cell transplantation (SCT) are considered for recurrent disease. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Follicular lymphoma: 2018 update on diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Arnold

    2018-02-01

    Follicular lymphoma is generally an indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by diffuse lymphadenopathy, bone marrow involvement, splenomegaly and less commonly other extranodal sites of involvement. In general, cytopenias can occur but constitutional symptoms of fever, nightsweats, and weight loss are uncommon. Diagnosis is based on histology of preferably a biopsy of a lymph node. Immunohistochemical staining is positive in virtually all cases for cell surface CD19, CD20, CD10, and monoclonal immunoglobulin, as well as cytoplasmic expression of bcl-2 protein. The overwhelming majority of cases have the characteristic t(14;18) translocation involving the IgH/bcl-2 genes. The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index prognostic model for FL uses five independent predictors of inferior survival: age >60 years, hemoglobin  normal, Ann Arbor stage III/IV, number of involved nodal areas > 4. The presence of 0, 1, 2, and ≥ 3 adverse factors defines low, intermediate, and high-risk disease. With the use of more modern therapies, outcomes have improved. Observation continues to be adequate for asymptomatic patients with low bulk disease and no cytopenias, with no survival advantage for early treatment with either chemotherapy or rituximab alone. For patients needing therapy, most patients are treated with chemotherapy plus rituximab, which has improved response rates, duration of response and overall survival. Randomized studies have shown additional benefit for maintenance rituximab both following chemotherapy-rituximab and single agent rituximab. Experimental therapies as well as stem cell transplantation (SCT) are considered for recurrent disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Follicular lymphoma: 2015 update on diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Arnold

    2015-12-01

    Follicular lymphoma is generally an indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by diffuse lymphoadenopathy, bone marrow involvement, splenomegaly, and less commonly other extranodal sites of involvement. In general, cytopenias can occur but constitutional symptoms of fever, night sweats, and weight loss are uncommon. Diagnosis is based on histology of preferably a biopsy of a lymph node. Immunohistochemical staining is positive in virtually all cases for cell surface CD19, CD20, CD10, and monoclonal immunoglobulin, as well as cytoplasmic expression of bcl-2 protein. The overwhelming majority of cases have the characteristic t(14;18) translocation involving the IgH/bcl-2 genes. The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index prognostic model for FL uses five independent predictors of inferior survival: age >60 years, hemoglobin  normal, Ann Arbor stage III/IV, number of involved nodal areas > 4. The presence of 0, 1, 2, and ≥ 3 adverse factors defines low, intermediate, and high-risk disease. With the use of more modern therapies, outcomes have improved. Observation continues to be adequate for asymptomatic patients with low bulk disease and no cytopenias, with no survival advantage for early treatment with either chemotherapy or rituximab alone. For patients needing therapy, most patients are treated with chemotherapy plus rituximab, which has improved response rates, duration of response and overall survival. Randomized studies have shown additional benefit for maintenance rituximab both following chemotherapy-rituximab and single agent rituximab. Experimental therapies as well as stem cell transplantation (SCT) are considered for recurrent disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. "Nodule in Nodule" on Thyroid Ultrasonography: Possibility of Follicular Carcinoma Transformed from Benign Thyroid Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Ota, Hisashi; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Yabuta, Tomonori; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Masuoka, Hiroo; Higashiyama, Takuya; Kihara, Minoru; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miya, Akihiro; Miyauchi, Akira

    2017-04-01

    It is generally considered impossible to differentiate follicular carcinomas from follicular adenomas by means of ultrasonography or cytology before surgery. Therefore, follicular carcinoma is histopathologically diagnosed by verifying capsular and/or vascular invasion after surgery. However, ultrasonography may play an important role in diagnosing follicular carcinoma preoperatively in a small number of cases. Four cases of follicular carcinoma or follicular neoplasm that transformed from a benign thyroid tumor and demonstrated a "nodule in nodule" appearance on ultrasonography are presented in this report. Characteristic ultrasound features of such patients are: (1) a "nodule in nodule" appearance, (2) a well-defined boundary line between the nodules, and (3) separate distribution of blood signals within each nodule. A small number of patients with follicular carcinomas or follicular neoplasms may present with a "nodule in nodule" appearance on ultrasonography. It was suggested a long time ago that follicular carcinomas may develop from benign thyroid tumors. The fact that follicular carcinomas appear within benign tumors may be evidence of thyroid tumorigenesis.

  16. Shear-Wave Elastography for the Preoperative Risk Stratification of Follicular-patterned Lesions of the Thyroid: Diagnostic Accuracy and Optimal Measurement Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Anthony E; Dhyani, Manish; Anvari, Arash; Prescott, Jason; Halpern, Elkan F; Faquin, William C; Stephen, Antonia

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for the diagnosis of malignancy in follicular lesions and to identify the optimal SWE measurement plane. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant, single-institution, prospective pilot study. Subjects scheduled for surgery after a previous fine-needle aspiration report of "atypia of undetermined significance" or "follicular lesion of undetermined significance," "suspicion for follicular neoplasm," or "suspicion for Hurthle cell neoplasm," were enrolled after obtaining informed consent. Subjects underwent conventional ultrasonography (US), Doppler evaluation, and SWE preoperatively, and their predictive value for thyroid malignancy was evaluated relative to the reference standard of surgical pathologic findings. Thirty-five patients (12 men, 23 women) with a mean age of 55 years (range, 23-85 years) and a fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (n = 16), suspicion for follicular neoplasm (n = 14), and suspicion for Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 5) were enrolled in the study. Male sex was a statistically significant (P = .02) predictor of malignancy, but age was not. No sonographic morphologic parameter, including nodule size, microcalcification, macrocalcification, halo sign, taller than wide dimension, or hypoechogenicity, was associated with malignancy. Similarly, no Doppler feature, including intranodular vascularity, pulsatility index, resistive index, or peak-systolic velocity, was associated with malignancy. Higher median SWE tissue Young modulus estimates from the transverse insonation plane were associated with malignancy, yielding an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.62, 1.00) for differentiation of malignant from benign nodules. At a cutoff value of 22.3 kPa, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive

  17. Nutritional and lactational effects on follicular development in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, H

    2009-01-01

    In sows, follicular development is inhibited during lactation, and weaning the piglets allows recruitment and selection of follicles that will undergo preovulatory maturation and ovulate. Lactation inhibits GnRH secretion, and in turn LH secretion, through neuroendocrine stimuli induced by suckling. Pituitary response to GnRH and the sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary unit to oestradiol positive feedback are also reduced. The impact of lactation on the reproductive axis is further complicated by the physiological and metabolic adaptations that are developed for milk production and that depend on nutrient intake, nutrient needs and body reserves. A strongly catabolic state during lactation amplifies the inhibition of LH secretion, thereby inducing a delay of oestrus and ovulation after weaning. Nevertheless, post-weaning ovulation is less delayed nowadays than in the 1970's or 80's. Nutritional deficiency has also deleterious effects on embryo survival, which are likely related to alterations in follicular growth and maturation. The physiological mechanisms by which information on the metabolic changes is transmitted to the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis are not fully understood in the sow. Glucose, insulin and leptin are the most likely signals informing the hypothalamus of the metabolic state, yet their roles have not been definitely established. At the ovarian level, folliculogenesis is likely to be altered by the reduction in insulin and IGF-I concentrations induced by nutritional deficiency. More knowledge is needed at the intrafollicular level to better understand nutritional effects on follicular development, and also on occyte quality and embryo development.

  18. Functional expression of CD137 (4-1BB) on T helper follicular cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Carlos; Echeveste, Jose I; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria E; Solorzano, Jose L; Perez-Gracia, Jose L; Idoate, Miguel A; Lopez-Picazo, Jose M; Sanchez-Paulete, Alfonso R; Labiano, Sara; Rouzaut, Ana; Oñate, Carmen; Aznar, Angela; Lozano, Maria D; Melero, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    CD137 (4-1BB) is a surface protein initially discovered to mark activated T lymphocytes. However, its broader expression pattern also encompasses activated NK cells, B cells and myeloid cells, including mature dendritic cells. In this study, we have immunostained for CD137 on paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissues including tonsils, lymph nodes, ectopic tertiary lymphoid tissue in Hashimoto thyroiditis and cancer. Surprisingly, immunostaining mainly decorated intrafollicular lymphocytes in the tissues analyzed, with only scattered staining in interfollicular areas. Moreover, pathologic lymphoid follicles in follicular lymphoma and tertiary lymphoid tissue associated with non-small cell lung cancer showed a similar pattern of immunostaining. Multispectral fluorescence cytometry demonstrated that CD137 expression was restricted to CD4+ CXCR5+ follicular T helper lymphocytes (TFH cells) in tonsils and lymph nodes. Short-term culture of lymph node cell suspensions in the presence of either an agonistic anti-CD137 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or CD137-ligand stimulated the functional upregulation of TFH cells in 3 out of 6 cases, as indicated by CD40L surface expression and cytokine production. As a consequence, immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies targeting CD137 (such as urelumab and PF-05082566) should be expected to primarily act on this lymphocyte subset, thus modifying ongoing humoral immune responses in patients with autoimmune disease and cancer. PMID:26587331

  19. Follicular lymphoma patients with a high FLIPI score and a high tumor burden: A risk stratification model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Boško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The widely accepted Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI divides patients into three risk groups based on the score of adverse prognostic factors. The estimated 5-year survival in patients with a high FLIPI score is around 50%. The aim of this study was to analyse the prognostic value of clinical and laboratory parameters that are not included in the FLIPI and the New Prognostic Index for Follicular Lymphoma developed by the International Follicular Lymphoma Prognostic Factor Project (FLIPI2 indices, in follicular lymphoma (FL patients with a high FLIPI score and high tumor burden. Methods. The retrospective analysis included 57 newly diagnosed patients with FL, a high FLIPI score and a high tumor burden. All the patients were diagnosed and treated between April 2000 and June 2007 at the Clinic for Hematology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade. Results. The patients with a histological grade > 1, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR ± 45 mm/h and hypoalbuminemia had a significantly worse overall survival (p = 0.015; p = 0.001; p = 0.008, respectively, while there was a tendency toward worse overall survival in the patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG > 1 (p = 0.075. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a histological grade > 1, ESR ± 45 mm/h and hypoalbuminemia as independent risk factors for a poor outcome. Based on a cumulative score of unfavourable prognostic factors, patients who had 0 or 1 unfavourable factors had a significantly better 5-year overall survival compared to patients with 2 or 3 risk factors (75% vs 24.1%, p = 0.000. Conclusion. The obtained results suggest that from the examined prognostic parameters histological grade > 1, ESR ± 45 mm/h and hypoalbuminemia can contribute in defining patients who need more aggressive initial treatment approach, if two or three of these parameters are present on presentation.

  20. Detection and partial purification of a potent mitogenic factor for human thyroid follicular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J A; Graham, G J; Freshney, M; Dawson, T; Sawhney, N; Williams, E D; Wynford-Thomas, D

    1992-03-01

    Normal adult human thyroid follicular cells have an extremely limited proliferative capacity in vitro. No previously studied mitogen, including thyrotropin (TSH) or epidermal growth factor (EGF), has in our hands resulted in a significant improvement over the 3-4% nuclear [3H]thymidine pulse-labelling index (LI) obtainable with 10% fetal calf serum. Here we report the detection in the conditioned medium from a sub-clone of NIH3T3 fibroblasts of a mitogenic activity capable of increasing this response up to 10-fold, to an LI of over 20%, together with an even greater relative stimulation of mitotic activity. Preliminary characterisation has excluded EGF and TGF alpha, and demonstrated that the activity is bound reversibly by heparin-Sepharose, thus pointing to a member of the heparin-binding fibroblast- or hepatocyte-growth factor families. This material should have wide practical application in facilitating primary culture of follicular cells, and may reveal new mechanisms of stromal-epithelial interaction regulating normal and neoplastic thyroid growth in vivo.

  1. Thyroid Dysfunction Associated With Follicular Cell Steatosis in Obese Male Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Jung Uee; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kim, Yong Kyung; Ryu, Min Jeong; Lee, Seong Eun; Kim, Soung Jung; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Choi, Min Jeong; Chang, Joon Young; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Seong-Min; Jo, Young Suk; Park, Jeongwon; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2015-01-01

    Adult thyroid dysfunction is a common endocrine disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. A recent epidemiologic study revealed a link between obesity and increased prevalence of hypothyroidism. It is conceivable that excessive adiposity in obesity might lead to expansion of the interfollicular adipose (IFA) depot or steatosis in thyroid follicular cells (thyroid steatosis, TS). In this study, we investigated the morphological and functional changes in thyroid glands of obese humans and animal models, diet-induced obese (DIO), ob/ob, and db/db mice. Expanded IFA depot and TS were observed in obese patients. Furthermore, DIO mice showed increased expression of lipogenesis-regulation genes, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthetase (FASN) in the thyroid gland. Steatosis and ultrastructural changes, including distension of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial distortion in thyroid follicular cells, were uniformly observed in DIO mice and genetically obese mouse models, ob/ob and db/db mice. Obese mice displayed a variable degree of primary thyroid hypofunction, which was not corrected by PPARγ agonist administration. We propose that systemically increased adiposity is associated with characteristic IFA depots and TS and may cause or influence the development of primary thyroid failure. PMID:25555091

  2. Characterization and Small RNA Content of Extracellular Vesicles in Follicular Fluid of Developing Bovine Antral Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakanitworakul, Raphatphorn; Hung, Wei-Ting; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Davis, John S; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Christenson, Lane K

    2016-05-09

    Exosomes and microvesicles (i.e., extracellular vesicles: EVs) have been identified within ovarian follicular fluid and recent evidence suggests that EVs are able to elicit profound effects on ovarian cell function. While existence of miRNA within EVs has been reported, whether EV size and concentration as well as their cargos (i.e., proteins and RNA) change during antral follicle growth remains unknown. Extracellular vesicles isolated from follicular fluid of small, medium and large bovine follicles were similar in size, while concentration of EVs decreased progressively as follicle size increased. Electron microscopy indicated a highly purified population of the lipid bilayer enclosed vesicles that were enriched in exosome biomarkers including CD81 and Alix. Small RNA sequencing identified a large number of known and novel miRNAs that changed in the EVs of different size follicles. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that miRNA abundant in small follicle EV preparations were associated with cell proliferation pathways, while those miRNA abundant in large follicle preparations were related to inflammatory response pathways. These studies are the first to demonstrate that EVs change in their levels and makeup during antral follicle development and point to the potential for a unique vesicle-mediated cell-to-cell communication network within the ovarian follicle.

  3. Frontal bone metastasis from an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: Diagnosed by FNAC

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Rajnish; Pawar, Richa; Hasija, Sonia; Chandna, Abha; Sankla, Manoj; Malhotra, Chanchal

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic deposits in skull bones from follicular thyroid carcinoma is rare, and metastatic disease in skull being the presenting symptom without obvious thyroid lesion (occult primary) is even rarer. A 60-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the frontal region of the skull. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done which revealed an adenocarcinoma with repeated follicular pattern, reminiscent of follicular neoplasm of thyroid, which on immunocytochemistry revealed positivity for ...

  4. Follicular lymphoma in the palate with clinical appearance similar to salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marina de Deus Moura; Artico, Gabriela; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Alves, Fabio Abreu

    2010-09-01

    Intraoral presentation of follicular lymphoma is rare, and only three cases in the palate have been reported to date. The present case report describes an uncommon case of follicular lymphoma affecting the palate. The clinical aspect was similar to salivary gland neoplasm, and an incisional biopsy was important to establish the correct diagnosis and consequently to plan the treatment. Also discussed is the differential diagnosis among follicular lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and follicular lymphoid hyperplasia with regard to the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features.

  5. Ovarian follicular dynamics in buffaloes during different estrus synchronization protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M.B. Noseir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out on 26 normal cycling buffaloes. Animals were divided into 4 groups according to the hormonal treatment regime. Group 1 included 11 buffaloes without hormonal treatment. Group 2: five buffaloes injected with one dose of 25 mg prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2α after ultrasound diagnosis of a mature corpus luteaum in one ovary. Group 3: five buffaloes injected blindly with two doses of 25 mg PGF2α 11-days interval. Group 4: five buffaloes treated with ovsynch protocol. The pattern of follicular growth (FG and the corpus luteum (CL regression were monitored by transrectal ultrasound scanning. Estradiol 17β and progesterone profiles were estimated by radioimmunoassay for all groups. Buffaloes in Group 1 showed two (72.7% or three (27.3% waves-like patterns of follicular development. The average length of the estrous cycle was 21.75±0.53 and 27.0±0.58 days in 2- and 3- wave cycle respectively. The duration of the CL was 16.63±0.53 and 22.3±0.88 days in 2- and 3- wave cycles. One buffalo in Group 2 did not respond to injection of a single dose of PGF2α, while the other 4 responded. On the day of injection the diameter of the CL was 1.90±0.11 cm and that of dominant follicle was 0.97±0.07 cm. On day 2 after injection the follicle diameter was 1.4±0.09 cm and the preovulatory follicle on days 3-4 was 1.5±0.03 cm. The regressing CL diameter was 1.3±0.07 cm and progesterone level decreased from 6.27±0.82 ng/mL on day 0, to 0.13±0.06 ng/mL on days 3-4 post injection. Estradiol levels were increased from 5.40±1.2 pg/mL on day 0, to 15.09±1.97 pg/mL on day 3-4 post injection. After injection of the first dose of PGF2α, in group 3 the maximum follicle diameter was 1.10±0.04 cm on day 6, then started to regress (0.60±0.04 cm on days 13-17 after injection. In the 2nd wave, the ovulatory follicle showed marked increase from day 2 (0.34±0.01 cm till days 13-17 (1.33±0.08 cm. The diameter of CL increased from 1.53

  6. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Follicular Lymphoma, or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-23

    Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3b Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma

  7. Expression of 14-3-3 protein isoforms in mouse oocytes, eggs and ovarian follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Santanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-3-3 (YWHA proteins are a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed family of proteins. Seven mammalian isoforms of 14-3-3 are known (β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ and, σ. These proteins associate with many intracellular proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes including regulation of the cell cycle, metabolism and protein trafficking. We are particularly interested in the role of 14-3-3 in meiosis in mammalian eggs and the role 14-3-3 proteins may play in ovarian function. Therefore, we examined the expression of 14-3-3 proteins in mouse oocyte and egg extracts by Western blotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viewed fixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence, and examined mouse ovarian cells by immunohistochemical staining to study the expression of the different 14-3-3 isoforms. Results We have determined that all of the mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in mouse eggs and ovarian follicular cells including oocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of isolated oocytes and eggs confirmed the presence of all of the isoforms with characteristic differences in some of their intracellular localizations. For example, some isoforms (β, ε, γ, and ζ are expressed more prominently in peripheral cytoplasm compared to the germinal vesicles in oocytes, but are uniformly dispersed within eggs. On the other hand, 14-3-3η is diffusely dispersed in the oocyte, but attains a uniform punctate distribution in the egg with marked accumulation in the region of the meiotic spindle apparatus. Immunohistochemical staining detected all isoforms within ovarian follicles, with some similarities as well as notable differences in relative amounts, localizations and patterns of expression in multiple cell types at various stages of follicular development. Conclusions We found that mouse oocytes, eggs and follicular cells within the ovary express all seven isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein. Examination of the

  8. Brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland

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    Yodonawa, Masahiko; Tanaka, Sohkichi; Kohno, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Zenichiro; Tamura, Masaru; Ohye, Chihiro.

    1987-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman had been operated on for a tumor of the thyroid gland in December of 1976, and was admitted to Saku Central Hospital in April of 1983 because of pulmonary and ovarian metastases. She underwent surgical removal of the metastatic ovarian tumor and chemotherapy, but developed headaches in June of 1983. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a well-defined, homogeneously enhanced mass in the right occipital region. Angiography showed a homogeneous, well-defined tumor stain supplied by the right posterior cerebral artery, the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, and the meningeal branch of the occipital artery. The tumor was removed in July of 1983. It was situated in the right occipital lobe and was supplied by numerous small meningeal vessels. Histologically, it was composed of small, oval-shaped cells, some with mitotic figures, and giant cells, occasionally forming a follicular structure. Three months later, the headaches reappeared, and a recurrence of brain metastasis was demonstrated by CT. In October of 1983, the second metastatic brain tumor and the dural bed were removed and local radiation therapy was administered. In this case, meningioma-like features were demonstrated by CT scan and angiography, and these findings may be characteristic of brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  9. Surgical Management of Bulky Mediastinal Metastases in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Zainal Adwin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma are very common. Benign and malignant lesions are usually indistinguishable from cytology alone and often require confirmatory resection. The spread of follicular carcinoma is usually hematogenous and is treated with surgery and adjuvant radioactive iodine. Very rarely, metastases occur in the mediastinum. Patients usually present with severe compressive symptoms. With proper treatment and follow-up, the prognosis for these type of thyroid malignancies is excellent. In the case presented here, our patient presented to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center with a progressively enlarging anterior neck swelling. The swelling had started 10 years before his presentation. We diagnosed him with an advanced thyroid malignancy with bulky mediastinal metastases. After extensive investigations and counseling, we chose to treat the patient with tumor excision and mediastinal metastases resection. Typically, mediastinal resection involves the removal of the sternum and use of an acrylic implant to recreate the sternum. In this case, the sternum and ribs were removed with subsequent myocutaneous flap coverage for the wound defect. Our experience represents an alternative treatment option in cases where implant use is unsuitable.

  10. BRAFV600E Mutation, RET/PTC1 and PAX8-PPAR Gamma Rearrangements in Follicular Epithelium Derived Thyroid Lesions - Institutional Experience and Literature Review

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    Ahmet Şahpaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid cancers are the most frequently occurring endocrine malignancy worldwide. In Turkey, thyroid cancers are ranked 2nd on the incidence list in women, with a rate of 16.2%, but they are not included among the top 10 cancer types in men. Aims: To identify the contribution of the BRAFV600E mutation, and the RET/PTC1 and PAX8-PPARγ rearrangements in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of follicular epithelial-derived thyroid lesions. Study Design: Retrospective clinical and molecular genetic study. Methods: A total of 86 thyroid cases diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 at the Department of Pathology were included in the retrospective study group. Samples best representing the lesion and comprising capsules were chosen in the selection of paraffin blocks pertaining to the cases. The BRAFV600E mutation, and the RET/PTC1 and PAX8-PPARγ rearrangements were investigated in all cases. Results: The BRAFV600E mutation was observed in 12 out of 37 papillary carcinoma cases (32.4%, in 1 out of 15 follicular carcinoma cases (6.6%, and in 1 out of 7 undifferentiated carcinoma cases (14.3%. No mutation was detected in benign lesions. The RET/PTC1 rearrangement was detected in 2 out of 7 undifferentiated carcinoma cases (28.6%, and in 1 out of 15 follicular carcinoma cases (6.6%. No gene rearrangement was detected in benign lesions. The PAX8-PPARγ rearrangement was detected in 5 out of 15 follicular thyroid carcinoma cases (33.3% and in 1 out of 15 follicular adenoma cases (6.6%. Conclusion: The BRAFV600E mutation and RET/PTC1 rearrangement were effective in distinguishing the follicular epithelium-derived benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid in the resection materials. The BRAFV600E mutation was rather specific to papillary carcinoma in the thyroid, and in cases where the BRAFV600E mutation was detected, multi-centricity, lymph node metastasis and capsular invasion findings were observed more frequently compared to cases in which no

  11. Functional Thyroid Follicular Cells Differentiation from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Suspension Culture

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    Ayumi Arauchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of regenerated thyroid follicular cells (TFCs is a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with hypothyroidism. Here, we have succeeded in inducing functional TFCs from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in scalable suspension culture. Differentiation of iPSCs with Activin A treatment produced Sox17- and FoxA2-expressing definitive endodermal cells that also expressed thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and Nkx2-1. Further treatment with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH induced TFCs expressing various types of thyroid proteins including TSH receptor, sodium–iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase. Interestingly, differentiated cells secreted free thyroxine in vitro. These results indicate successful differentiation of human iPSCs to functional TFCs that may enable us to fabricate thyroid tissues for regenerative medicine and disease models.

  12. The shifted balance between circulating follicular regulatory T cells and follicular helper T cells in patients with ulcerative colitis.

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    Wang, Xinrui; Zhu, Yonggang; Zhang, Manli; Hou, Jie; Wang, Hongjuan; Jiang, Yanfang; Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Pujun

    2017-12-15

    B-cell immunity participates in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). The immune balance between follicular regulatory T (TFR) cells and follicular helper T (TFH) cells is important in regulating B-cell responses. However, the alteration of TFR/TFH balance in UC remains unclear. Peripheral blood from 25 UC patients and 15 healthy controls was examined for the frequencies of circulating TFR, TFH, and regulatory T (Treg) cells by flow cytometry. Levels of serum cytokines were measured using cytometric bead array (CBA). Disease activity was evaluated by the Mayo Clinic Score. Compared with controls, UC patients exhibited significant reductions in circulating Foxp3 + CXCR5 + TFR cells, the subset interleukin (IL)-10 + Foxp3 + CXCR5 + cells, and Treg cells, but significant expansions in Foxp3 - CXCR5 + TFH cells and IL-21 + Foxp3 - CXCR5 + cells. UC patients also had reduced levels of serum IL-10 and elevated levels of serum IL-21. The values of Mayo Clinic Score, C-reactive protein (CRP), or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in UC patients were negatively correlated with circulating TFR cells, serum IL-10 level, and TFR/TFH ratio, while positively correlated with circulating TFH cells and serum IL-21 level. Alterations in circulating TFR and TFH cells shift the balance from immune tolerance to immune responsive state, contributing to dysregulated B-cell immunity and the pathogenesis of UC. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. The effect of radioactive irradiation on endocrine and follicular activity of ovaries of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Maracek, I.; Stanikova, A.; Pastorova, B.

    2006-01-01

    Histological changes in primary follicles of ewes after the five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays were studied by qualitative and micrometric methods. The experiment was carried out in the anoestrous period with 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, divided into three groups. The first control group (five ewes) was not irradiated. The second and third groups (each included eight ewes) were irradiated by gamma rays 60 Co during the period of five days by the total dose of 4.8 Gy. All ewes, included the control ones, were given Ampicillin Spofa 250 mg per head/day during the period of ten days after irradiation. The third group was administered, apart from this treatment a mixture of vitamins Roboran H at the dose of 10 g per head/day. The animals were slauhgtered on the fifth day of irradiation and on the tenth day after the end of irradiation. The ovaries, processed by a routine histological method, were cut in 7 cm slices in the series of 70 cm and stained with hematoxylin-eosine. By a qualitative histomorphological analysis of the oocytes of primary follicles chromatin aggregation, pycnosis of nuclei, pronounced acidophilia of oocyte cytoplasm, their shrinking and disintegration were determined. In intact primary follicles, mitotic division of follicular cells stopped and the proportion of follicular cells with pycnotic nuclei increased after irradiation. The results show that the five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays at the total dose of 4.8 Gy causes pronounced degenerative changes in the anoestrous period. Administration of antibiotics or vitamins has no significant effect on the stated histomorphological changes. (authors)

  14. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: a report of six cases and a review of the Chinese literature

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    Wen Jifang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Goals The main purpose of this study is to broaden the clinicopathological spectrum and increase recognition of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS through analysis of the clinical and pathological features of 50 cases. Methods The clinicopathological features of total 50 cases of FDCS were analyzed including a review of 44 cases reported in Chinese literature before October 2009 and six original cases from the pathology files conducted by the authors. Results The youngest patient came under observation in this study is only seven years old. Including the cases contributed by the authors, our literary review indicated that male dominated the tumor cases (M: F = 3: 2. 28 cases (56% present with this disease in extranodal sites. Tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for the follicular dendritic cell markers CD21 (47/49, CD35 (43/45, CD23 (20/23 and CD68 (23/25. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA was performed in 10 cases. Nevertheless, EBV expression was absent in all these cases. The follow-up analysis of all cases shows that 26 (81.2% patients were alive and disease free; 6 (18.8% patients were alive with recurrent disease or metastasis; and nobody had died of this disease at the time of last follow-up. Conclusions The diagnosis of the FDCS is based on the findings of morphology and immunohistochemistry. The FDCS occurred in China should be viewed and treated as a low-grade sarcoma, and the role of the EBV in the pathogenesis of this tumor is still uncertain. There is a possibility that the tumor might be racial or geographic correlated, because most cases were reported from Eastern Asia area; it's particular the case of the liver or spleen tumor.

  15. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: a report of six cases and a review of the Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiwei; Su, Zhansan; Hu, Zhongliang; Wen, Jifang; Liu, Baoan

    2010-10-11

    The main purpose of this study is to broaden the clinicopathological spectrum and increase recognition of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) through analysis of the clinical and pathological features of 50 cases. The clinicopathological features of total 50 cases of FDCS were analyzed including a review of 44 cases reported in Chinese literature before October 2009 and six original cases from the pathology files conducted by the authors. The youngest patient came under observation in this study is only seven years old. Including the cases contributed by the authors, our literary review indicated that male dominated the tumor cases (M: F = 3: 2). 28 cases (56%) present with this disease in extranodal sites. Tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for the follicular dendritic cell markers CD21 (47/49), CD35 (43/45), CD23 (20/23) and CD68 (23/25). In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA was performed in 10 cases. Nevertheless, EBV expression was absent in all these cases. The follow-up analysis of all cases shows that 26 (81.2%) patients were alive and disease free; 6 (18.8%) patients were alive with recurrent disease or metastasis; and nobody had died of this disease at the time of last follow-up. The diagnosis of the FDCS is based on the findings of morphology and immunohistochemistry. The FDCS occurred in China should be viewed and treated as a low-grade sarcoma, and the role of the EBV in the pathogenesis of this tumor is still uncertain. There is a possibility that the tumor might be racial or geographic correlated, because most cases were reported from Eastern Asia area; it's particular the case of the liver or spleen tumor.

  16. Gonadotrophin stimulation in IVF alters the immune cell profile in follicular fluid and the cytokine concentrations in follicular fluid and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Z; Schneider, S; Fux, M; Bersinger, N A; von Wolff, M

    2017-04-01

    Are the immune cell profiles and the cytokine concentrations in follicular fluid (FF) and serum at the preovulatory stage different in conventional exogenous gonadotrophin stimulated IVF (c-IVF) compared with natural cycle IVF (NC-IVF)? The cell counts of CD45+ leucocytes and T cell subpopulations and the cytokine concentrations in FF and serum are different in c-IVF compared to NC-IVF. FF-derived cells are heterogeneous. Immune cells are involved in intra-ovarian processes and cytokines are required for normal follicular development. Gonadotrophins stimulate the regulatory intrafollicular system and influence the local distribution of immune cells and the intrafollicular release of cytokines. Administration of exogenous gonadotrophins may have a significant effect on this local regulatory system, which then in turn could influence oocyte quality. The study included 105 patients, 69 undergoing c-IVF and 36 undergoing NC-IVF. c-IVF was performed by exogenous ovarian stimulation with hMG and GnRH antagonists. FF samples were collected from the first dominant follicle in c-IVF without pooling and from single leading preovulatory follicles in NC-IVF. Three different approaches were used to analyze FF samples: (i) microscopic investigation of CD45+ leucocytes, (ii) fluorescence-activated cell sorting to determine CD19+ B cells and CD3+ T cells including T cell subpopulations (CD4+, CD8+), and (iii) evaluation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (INF-γ), interleukins (IL)-2, -6, -8, -10 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in matched FF and serum samples using the Bio-Plex® platform. FF obtained from c-IVF contained proportionally more CD45+ leucocytes (P = 0.0384), but fewer CD8+ cytotoxic T cells than FF from NC-IVF. CD3+ T lymphocytes were the most common type of lymphocytes, and the number thereof was comparable in the two study groups. In c-IVF, serum VEGF levels were higher (P = 0.007) than in NC-IVF while FF contained

  17. Marcadores de riesgo de neoplasia folicular en nódulos tiroideos Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules

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    Marcelo Monteros Alvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los nódulos tiroideos de origen folicular abarcan procesos no neoplásicos y neoplásicos. No existen métodos de diagnóstico ni rasgos citológicos por punción con aguja fina (PAF que los delimiten, constituyendo un dilema su diagnóstico diferencial. Analizamos la asociación existente entre variables clínicas y métodos de diagnóstico prequirúrgicos en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular, con el objetivo de definir riesgo de neoplasia.Se estudiaron 92 pacientes con bocios nodulares de estirpe folicular por citología, tratados con tiroidectomía. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, tamaño del nódulo, características ecográficas, diagnóstico citológico, nivel de TSH y resultados del centellograma. De los 92 casos, 74 fueron neoplásicos (56 adenomas y 18 carcinomas diferenciados y 18 nódulos no neoplásicos, hiperplásicos o adenomatosos. Los marcadores que se relacionaron con alto riesgo de neoplasia folicular correspondieron al diagnóstico citológico de proliferación folicular de alto grado, en nódulos iso o hipoecogénicos, e hipocaptantes con I131. Los carcinomas presentaron citología de proliferación folicular de alto grado en nódulos hipoecogénicos, de bordes irregulares con microcalcificaciones e hipocaptantes, en pacientes varones o menores de 20 años. La presencia de macrocalcificaciones e hipercaptación estarían a favor de nódulo de origen benigno.La correlación de los métodos de diagnóstico y variables clínicas en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular nos permitirían delimitar el riesgo de neoplasia y carcinoma para planificar un tratamiento quirúrgico selectivo.Thyroid nodules of follicular origin include neoplastic and non neoplastic processes. No methods of diagnosis or cytological features (obtained by fine-needle aspiration, FNA may differentiate both types, and therefore differential diagnosis still constitutes a dilemma.We analyzed the existing association between clinical

  18. Use of Follicular Output Rate to Predict Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Outcome

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    Rehman Rehana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The measurement of follicular output rate (FORT has been proposed as a good indicator for evaluating follicular response to the exogenous recombinant folliclestimulating hormone (rFSH. This places FORT as a promising qualitative marker for ovarian function. The objective of the study was to determine FORT as a predictor of oocyte competence, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out on a group of infer- tile females (n=282 at Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples, Islamabad, Pakistan, from June 2010 till August 2013. Downregulated females were stimulated in injection gonadotropins and on ovulation induction day, pre-ovulatory follicle count (PFC was determined using transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVUS, and FORT was determined as a ratio of PFC to antral follicle count (AFC×100. Group I consisted of females with a negative pregnancy test, while group II had a positive pregnancy test that was confirmed with the appearance of fetal cardiac activity. Linear regression analyses of categorical variables of clinical pregnancy along with other independent variables, including FORT, were performed using SPSS version 15.0. Results Pregnancy occurred in 101/282 women who were tested, recording a clinical pregnancy rate of about 35.8%. FORT values were higher in group II as compared to group I females (P=0.0001. In multiple regression analysis, 97.7, 87.1, 78.2, and 83.4% variations were explained based on the number of retrieved oocytes per patients, number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved, number of fertilized oocytes, and number of cleaved embryos, respectively, indicating FORT as an independent predictor. Conclusion FORT is a predictor of oocyte competence in terms of a number of retrieved, mature and fertilized oocytes. It also gives information about the number of cleaved embryos and clinical pregnancy rate.

  19. Critical appraisal of rituximab in the maintenance treatment of advanced follicular lymphoma

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    Aguiar-Bujanda D

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available David Aguiar-Bujanda, María Jesús Blanco-Sánchez, María Hernández-Sosa, Saray Galván-Ruíz, Samuel Hernández-Sarmiento Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Abstract: Rituximab is an IgG1, chimeric monoclonal antibody specifically designed to recognize the CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of normal and malignant B-lymphocytes, from the B-cell precursor to the mature B-cells of the germinal center, and by most neoplasms derived from B-cells. After 2 decades of use, rituximab is firmly positioned in the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL, both in the front line and in the relapsing disease, improving previous results by including it in classical chemotherapy regimens. However, the pharmacology of rituximab continues to generate controversial issues especially regarding the mechanisms of action in vivo. The contribution of rituximab as a maintenance treatment in FL has been significant progress in the management of this disease without an increase in side effects or a decrease in the quality of life of patients. With the widespread use of rituximab, there are new security alerts and side effects not previously detected in the pivotal trials that clinicians should learn to recognize and manage. In this article, we will review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rituximab, the management issues in the treatment of advanced FL focusing on maintenance rituximab, its long-term efficacy and safety profile, and its effect on the quality of life. Keywords: follicular lymphoma, long-term efficacy, maintenance, rituximab, toxicity

  20. Rituximab in the treatment of follicular lymphoma: the future of biosimilars in the evolving therapeutic landscape

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    Subramanian J

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Janakiraman Subramanian,1 Jamie Cavenagh,2 Bhardwaj Desai,3 Ira Jacobs4 1Division of Medical Oncology, Saint Luke’s Cancer Institute, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2Department of Haematology, St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, UK; 3Prospect Heights, IL, 4Global Established Pharma, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA Abstract: Follicular lymphoma (FL is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. FL is an incurable disease with treatment options ranging from a “watch-and-wait” approach to localized therapy with radiation or systemic therapy with rituximab in combination with chemotherapy regimens. This review summarizes the role of rituximab across the spectrum of FL treatment and the evolving therapeutic landscape with the emergence of novel agents currently in clinical development. Despite the prospect of new agents on the horizon, it is widely accepted that rituximab will remain as the cornerstone of therapy because of its established long-term efficacy. Many biologics, including rituximab, have lost exclusivity of composition-of-matter patent or will do so in the next few years, which is a concern for patients and physicians alike. Moreover, access to rituximab is challenging, particularly in countries with restricted resources. Together, these concerns have fueled the development of safe and effective biosimilars. The term “biosimilar” refers to a biologic product that is highly similar to an approved reference (or originator product, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components, and for which there are no clinically meaningful differences in purity, potency, or safety. Biosimilars are developed to treat the same condition(s using the same treatment regimens as an approved reference biologic, and have the potential to increase access to more affordable treatment of FL. Herein, we also discuss the potential benefits of eagerly awaited rituximab biosimilars, which may mitigate the impact of the lack of

  1. Peritoneal and mediastinal highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Kathleen; Jain, Manoj; Krishna, Murli; Accurso, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old female patient presented to her primary care doctor with persistent elevated alkaline phosphatase of suspected metastatic etiology. Computed tomography demonstrated epicardial and peritoneal nodules. Biopsy of one of the peritoneal nodules revealed thyroid tissue and extraovarian struma ovarii was considered. The patient had a history of remote total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 31 years prior for endometriosis with no available pathology from that surgery. The patient recalls being told that she had a left ovarian cyst. A thyroid ultrasound was performed that demonstrated multiple nodules without concerning features; however, due to high clinical suspicion, a total thyroidectomy was performed. Upon full histological evaluation a 0.5 cm papillary microcarcinoma was found. Given the rarity of metastatic papillary cancer to the peritoneum and the small size and grade of the tumor, a diagnosis of highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin was favored. The patient was subsequently treated with radioiodine therapy

  2. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

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    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  3. Intralesional rituximab in primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma relapsed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Villa, S; Ruiz Rodríguez, M J; Vargas Pabón, M

    2017-07-01

    A 49-year-old woman experienced a local relapse of a primary follicular lymphoma (FL) of the conjunctiva. She received 4 weekly intra-lesional injections followed by 6 monthly injections of rituximab (6mg/ml). A clinical response was achieved after first injection. No adverse ocular event or signs of lymphoma relapse were seen after 10 months of follow-up. Intralesional administration of rituximab for treating primary FL of the conjunctiva was an effective and safe therapeutic option; therefore it could be an alternative to other conventional treatments, such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic factors in follicular lymphoma: new tools to personalize risk.

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    Casulo, Carla

    2016-12-02

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent lymphoma, and it has a long median overall survival (OS). However, the recent discovery of clinical and biological prognostic biomarkers in FL is shedding light on FL heterogeneity and the need for a precise and risk-stratified individual approach at diagnosis and relapse. Many FL patients who are asymptomatic with indolent disease can be vulnerable to the toxicity, emotional distress, and financial burden of overtreatment. Yet a subset of FL patients develop chemoresistance to standard chemoimmunotherapy, experience transformation to aggressive lymphoma and rapid progression, and represent the population most in need of novel therapies and curative approaches. Novel biomarkers that incorporate both clinical and genetic determinants of poor risk are being developed with the hope of identifying high-risk patients at diagnosis in order to offer biologically rational targeted therapies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  5. Extending the Impact of RAC1b Overexpression to Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas

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    Márcia Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 known to be a relevant molecular player in different cancers. Previous studies from our group lead to the evidence that its overexpression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In the present study, we intended to extend the analysis of RAC1b expression to thyroid follicular neoplasms and to seek for clinical correlations. RAC1b expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in thyroid follicular tumor samples comprising 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs and 33 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs. RAC1b was found to be overexpressed in 33% of carcinomas while no RAC1b overexpression was documented among follicular adenomas. Patients with a diagnosis of FTC were divided into two groups based on longitudinal evolution and final outcome. RAC1b overexpression was significantly associated with both the presence of distant metastases (P = 0.01 and poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.01 suggesting that, similarly to that previously found in PTCs, RAC1b overexpression in FTCs is also associated with worse outcomes. Furthermore, the absence of RAC1b overexpression in follicular adenomas hints its potential as a molecular marker likely to contribute, in conjunction with other putative markers, to the preoperative differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.

  6. The impact of thyroid nodule size on the risk of malignancy in follicular neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Yasin; Mohamed, Salah Eldin H; Deniwar, Ahmed; Al-Qurayshi, Zaid H; Khan, Amna N; Moroz, Krzysztof; Friedlander, Paul; Kandil, Emad

    2015-03-01

    Studies have shown that the risk of malignancy in follicular neoplasms is as high as 30%. Often, surgery is recommended for such lesions, not for therapeutic purposes but as a diagnostic method, leading to increased hospital costs and related morbidities. Recent studies have suggested that tumor size predicts malignant potential of these follicular neoplasms. Our aim was to identify the impact of nodule size on the risk of malignancy for such lesions. A retrospective medical chart review was undertaken for patients who underwent thyroid surgery at a single academic North American Institution. A total of 120 follicular lesions, follicular neoplasms (Bethesda category IV) or follicular lesions of undetermined significance (Bethesda category III) in 110 patients undergoing thyroid surgery were evaluated. Nodule size as measured by ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytological results, and final histopathology reports were reviewed. Analysis was performed by classification according to nodule size: malignant on final pathological examination. The malignancy rate in nodulesmalignancy rate for follicular neoplasms. Hence, we recommend against routine total thyroidectomy for patients with follicular neoplasms based on the size criteria. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Androgens as double-edged swords: Induction and suppression of follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Ke, Zhang-Hong; Wang, Fang-Fang; Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Qu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Androgens, which are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), play important roles in normal follicular development and female fertility. However, just like a double-edged sword, besides the positive effects of androgen on follicular development, abnormal androgen levels, especially as in hyperandrogenism, seriously suppress normal follicular development. A crucial balance exists between the importance of androgens in follicular development and their negative effects when in excess. As the first meiotic division and epigenetic reprogramming are two critical events in oogenesis, abnormal androgen levels or deficiency in androgen/AR signaling in the ovary may affect these vital events. Oocytes have a tendency to develop genomic instability, thus resulting in an increasing incidence of unpredictable adult diseases. Although many studies have explored the effects of androgens and AR on follicular development, the conclusions are controversial and there has been no thorough review of this topic. This review focuses on the roles of androgens in the physiological process of follicular development, summarizes new insights into the roles of androgens in the arrested development of follicles, and discusses the potential risk of adult diseases originating from abnormal follicular androgen levels or androgen receptor signals, which may determine areas for future studies.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of the Follicular Fluid of Tianzhu White Yak during Diestrus

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    Jinzhong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the follicular fluid of Tianzhu white yak during diestrus. Follicles obtained from female yak were divided into four groups according to their diameter: 0–2, 2–4, 4–6 mm, and greater than 6 mm. The follicular fluid was directly aspirated from the follicles and mixed according to follicular size, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was carried out on the crude follicular fluid samples. Thirty-four differentially expressed spots were generated from these four sizes of follicles. Fourteen of these spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and identified as: AS3MT, VDP, ANKRD6, C10orf107 protein, MRP4, MAPKAP1, AGO3, profilin-β-actin, SPT2 homolog, AGP, AR, RNF20, obscurin-like-1, and one unnamed protein. These proteins were first reported in follicular fluid, in addition to VDP and AGP. Based on existing knowledge of their function and patterns of expression, we hypothesize that most of these differentially expressed proteins play a role in ovarian follicular growth and development, dominant follicle selection, or follicular atresia and development of oocytes; however, the function of the other differentially expressed proteins in reproduction remains ambiguous.

  9. Frontal bone metastasis from an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: Diagnosed by FNAC

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    Rajnish Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic deposits in skull bones from follicular thyroid carcinoma is rare, and metastatic disease in skull being the presenting symptom without obvious thyroid lesion (occult primary is even rarer. A 60-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the frontal region of the skull. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done which revealed an adenocarcinoma with repeated follicular pattern, reminiscent of follicular neoplasm of thyroid, which on immunocytochemistry revealed positivity for thyroglobulin. Patient was investigated further for primary thyroid malignancy, and imaging revealed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid. Neuroimaging showed osteolytic lesion involving the cranium.

  10. Frontal bone metastasis from an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: Diagnosed by FNAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Rajnish; Pawar, Richa; Hasija, Sonia; Chandna, Abha; Sankla, Manoj; Malhotra, Chanchal

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic deposits in skull bones from follicular thyroid carcinoma is rare, and metastatic disease in skull being the presenting symptom without obvious thyroid lesion (occult primary) is even rarer. A 60-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the frontal region of the skull. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done which revealed an adenocarcinoma with repeated follicular pattern, reminiscent of follicular neoplasm of thyroid, which on immunocytochemistry revealed positivity for thyroglobulin. Patient was investigated further for primary thyroid malignancy, and imaging revealed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid. Neuroimaging showed osteolytic lesion involving the cranium.

  11. Follicular thyroid carcinoma with metastasis to skin diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology

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    Agarwal Shweta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In April 2006, a 55-year-old female presented with a thyroid mass and multiple skin nodules on scalp, forehead and neck. Fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid mass and multiple skin nodules show tumor cells clusters in a repetitive microfollicular pattern on May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain suggestive of follicular thyroid carcinoma with metastasis to skin. Although follicular carcinoma have a propensity for vascular invasion and hematogenous dissemination, skin is not commonly involved. Only a few cases of cutaneous metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma are reported in the English language literature.

  12. Pattern of follicular development in sheep subjected to ovarian superstimulation after follicular ablation by laparoscopic ovum pick-up

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    Renan Denadai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of follicular development in ewes following ablation of all follicles associated with ovarian superstimulatory treatment. After confirmation of reproductive cyclicity using ultrasonography and progesterone levels, five adult ewes of undetermined breed received a vaginal pessary containing 60mg of medroxyprogesterone, maintained for 10 days, with the application of 100μg cloprostenol on the fourth day. On the tenth day, 300UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG was applied together with 80mg FSH, and all visible follicles were aspirated by laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU. Following LOPU, ovarian structures were assessed using sonography every 8 hours for a period of 64 hours, and the number and diameter of small (4.5mm follicles were recorded. The average diameter of small follicles reduced from 5.6±1.5mm initially to 0.8±1.3mm by 56 hours. Population size of the medium-sized follicles during the observation period followed a parabolic distribution wherein the theoretical maximum size emerged at 34.6 hours with no difference at (P>0.05 24 (4.6±1.5 and 48 hours (4.8±2.3. It was concluded that in ewes subjected to ovarian superstimulation immediately following LOPU, follicular development is characterized by a new wave of follicle growth with a predominance of medium-sized follicles (2.5-4.5mm between 24 and 48 hours, and a theoretical population maximum occured at 34.6 hours.

  13. Mother's menopausal age is associated with her daughter's early follicular phase urinary follicle-stimulating hormone level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Anne Z; Baird, Donna D; Kesner, James S

    2008-01-01

    Early follicular phase follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a marker of ovarian reserve, has been used to predict time to menopause. A mother's age at menopause is related to her daughter's age at menopause, possibly because of genetic factors. In this study we sought to determine the relationship between maternal age at menopause and early follicular phase FSH of premenopausal daughters. The Uterine Fibroid Study enrolled women randomly selected from a prepaid health plan, collected questionnaire data, and obtained early follicular phase urine samples for a subset of participants. For this secondary analysis, premenopausal women between the ages of 35 and 46 years, who provided a urine sample on cycle day 2, 3, 4, or 5 and their mother's age at natural menopause (n = 182) were selected from the original cohort. Initially bivariate analysis and subsequently regression modeling were performed to assess the independent relationship between maternal age at menopause and urinary creatinine-corrected FSH. Unadjusted analyses and those adjusting for age (mean +/- SD, 40.5 +/- 3.2 y), smoking status (16% current smokers), and body mass index (26.8 +/- 6.9 kg/m) showed a significant association between maternal age at menopause and daughter's urinary FSH level (P menopause had higher urinary FSH levels. The significantly increased FSH values among women whose mothers experienced early menopause is consistent with previously reported associations between mother's and daughter's age of menopause. FSH, a marker of ovarian reserve, is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Future epidemiologic studies on FSH should include collection of information on maternal age at menopause.

  14. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of TGF-ß Isoforms in Cases with Ovarian Endometriosis and Follicular Cyst

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    Abdulmuttalip Şentaş

    2007-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Ovarian tissue TGF-ß1 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in endometriosis cases when compared with follicular cyst. There are needed further studies to elucidate the importance of this finding in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

  15. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts

    OpenAIRE

    TANEMURA, Kouichi; OHTAKI, Tadatoshi; KUWAHARA, Yasushi; TSUMAGARI, Shigehisa

    2016-01-01

    Uridine 5?-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17? as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (P

  16. Effect of follicular wave synchronization on superovulatory response of Girolando embryo donors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Joaquim Esquerdo; Mello,Marco Roberto Bourg de; Alves,Pedro Afonso de Preaulx Moreira; Mello,Raquel Rodrigues Costa; Palhano,Helcimar Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the follicular wave synchronization method on the superovulatory response of Girolando embryo donors. Seven cows and five heifers were divided into three treatments according to the method of the follicular wave synchronization prior to superovulation. The donors were superovulated with eight FSH decreasing doses, adding 133 mg per animal. The superovulatory response was evaluated using an ultrasound device to quantify the number of co...

  17. Castleman's disease in association with follicular dendritic cell sarcoma presenting as a neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Suhaimi, Y.; Baharudin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Castleman's disease is a condition which usually occurs in the mediasternum. Very few cases have been reported to present as a neck swelling. Castleman's disease is rarely associated with follicular dendritic sarcoma. We report a case of 65 years old male with painless and slowly progressive right neck swelling who was initially suspected to be schwannoma but proved to be a Castleman's disease with associated follicular dendritic sarcoma. (author)

  18. Follicular variant of seborrheic dermatitis: is it identical to Malassezia folliculitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Mark C

    2011-01-01

    Follicular accentuation in some patients with seborrheic dermatitis of the back and chest has been recognized for more than a century. The recognition of Malassezia folliculitis in recent decades has led to some confusion regarding categorization of these cases. The author proposes that there is sufficient clinical variation between the typical case of Malassezia folliculitis and patients with follicular seborrheic dermatitis to justify continued separation of these entities until further study provides more clarification.

  19. The relations between dietary antioxidant vitamins intake and oxidative stress in follicular fluid and ART outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) in the follicular environment may affect on oocyte competence and antioxidant vitamins may modify its effects. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary intake of vitamin A, C and E on OS in follicular environment and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this obsevationalprospective study, the intake levels of vitamin A, C, and E were matured by validated food frequency questionnaire and ...

  20. Follicular B Cell Lymphoma with Accompanying Ischemic Gastritis Completely Resolved by Rituximab

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Anam; Mehta, Neal; Peroutka, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 89 Final Diagnosis: Follicular B-cell lymphoma with accompanying ischemic gastritis completely resolved by rituximab Symptoms: Nausea ? vomiting Medication: ? Clinical Procedure: ? Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Follicular B cell lymphomas account for a significant portion of all newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin?s lymphomas. While involvement can be varied, the most common extranodal presentation is within the gastrointestinal tract beyond the stomach. In ...

  1. Comparison of PUFA profiles in the blood and in follicular fluid and its association with follicular dynamics after PGF2α induced luteolysis in dairy cows

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    Branko Atanasov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to examine the fatty acid (FA profiles in serum and in the follicular fluid (FF and the association between polyunsaturated fatty acid level (PUFA and follicular growth dynamics following induced luteolysis in dairy cows. A total of 29 dairy cows (CL>25mm, follicle≈15mm at d0 (start of the experiment were submitted to ultrasound guided transvaginal follicular aspiration for FF collection from the largest follicle and were injected with 500 μg of cloprostenol. The cows were subdivided into Group A1 (n=11 and Group A2 (n=8 resuming follicular growth either from a secondary follicle less than or larger than 8.5mm, respectively, present at the moment of aspiration and Group A0 (n=10 not resuming follicular growth. Follicular development was monitored daily by ultrasonography until the next dominant follicle reached ≈15mm and was subsequently punctured in Group A1 and A2 (d1. Serum and FF samples for FA determination were taken at d0 from all cows and at d1 in Group A1 and A2. No differences were observed between the FA profile in serum nor in FF between sampling days. Regarding the PUFA levels, the serum linoleic acid (C18:2n6 levels at d0 and d1 were significantly higher than in FF, while alpha linolenic acid (C18:3n3 was lower in the serum than in FF, both at d0 and d1. At d0, a tendency for negative correlation between serum and the FF C18:2n6 with subsequent daily follicular growth rate was observed, while, at d1 there was a strong negative correlation between the serum C18:2n6 and daily growth rate (r=-0.71; p=0.0006. The present study revealed similarities of the FA profiles in the serum and in the FF and association between serum and FF PUFA content with the follicular dynamics after induced luteolysis.

  2. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics, Ovarian Follicular Growth, Oocyte Yield, Embryo Production and Repeated Oocyte Pick Up in Thai Native Heifers Undergoing Superstimulation

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    J. Chasombat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the protocols for superstimulation of follicular growth in Thai native heifers. Heifers (n = 20 were randomly divided into four groups of five heifers/group. Heifers were given a single dose by i.m. administration of 100 mg Follicle Stimulating Hormone dissolved in polyvinylpyrrolidone (FSHp at 24 h. Ovum pick up (OPU occurred at 72 h (F24O72 protocol; Group 1 or 96 h (F24O96 protocol; Group 2, and at 36 h and OPU at 72 h (F36O72 protocol; Group 3 or 96 h (F36O96 protocol; Group 4 after follicular ablation. The dynamics of ovarian follicular growth were monitored by twice-daily ultrasonographic examinations. Blood sample collections were performed every 12 h after initiation of treatment for assessment of FSH, E2 and P4 profiles. All heifers were subjected to eight repeated sequential sessions of OPU. The follicular deviation commenced 24±5.32 h after follicular ablation in all groups. The circulatory FSH surged quickly from 24 to 36 h (>0.8 ng/ml after follicular ablation and circulatory estrogen levels steadily increased from 36 h until OPU in all groups. At the end of the OPU sessions, the mean number of aspirated follicles/heifer/session in F36O72 protocol (Group 3 and F36O96 protocol (Group 4 were higher than in the two other groups (p<0.05. The number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs, cleaved and day 8 blastocysts rates in the F36O72 protocol (Group 3 were higher than in the other groups (p<0.05. It can be concluded that a single dose i.m. administration of 100 mg FSHp at 36 h and OPU at 72 h after follicular ablation (F36O72 protocol; Group 3 was the most effective protocol for superstimulation of follicular growth for repeated OPU and subsequent in vitro embryo production in Thai native heifers.

  3. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanemura, Kouichi; Ohtaki, Tadatoshi; Kuwahara, Yasushi; Tsumagari, Shigehisa

    2017-01-20

    Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17β as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (Pcows with follicular cysts, and liver UGT activity was lower than that in cows with normal estrus cycles. In addition, the liver UGT activity was significantly lower in dairy cows with follicular cysts without liver disorders than in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles. Therefore, the cows were divided into those with low, middle and high liver UGT activities, and liver disorder complication rates were investigated. The complication rate was significantly higher in the low- (78.1%) than in the middle- (22.2%) and high-level (8.3%) groups, suggesting that liver disorders are closely associated with the development of follicular cysts in dairy cows and that steroid hormone metabolism is delayed because of reduced liver UGT activity, resulting in follicular cyst formation. We conclude that reduced estradiol-17β glucuronidation in the liver and liver disorders are associated with follicular cyst occurrence in dairy cows.

  4. Decoding the Proteome of In-Vitro Fertilization Ovarian Follicular Fluid for Women Over 35 Years

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    Mohamed Sabry

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study of follicular fluid using proteomic techniques could provide a useful tool for understanding follicular fluid components and their effect on pregnancy outcome. The aim of the study is to identify and catalog follicular fluid proteins in women 35 years of age or older. Material and Method: Follicular fluid was collected from 21 couples, of which 11 couples achieved successful pregnancy and 10 couples failed to get pregnant. Samples were analyzed by multidimensional chromatography coupled with in-line nano-spray ionization mass spectrometry on an LTQ XL ion trap mass spectrometer. We used the Biomarker Analysis Program from PDQuest software to identify protein constituents in pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Results: In total, 1024 protein specimens were identified. The proteins identified were consistent throughout the experiment and within each of the analyzed specimens. Discussion: A compiled listing of follicular fluid proteins could be a potential starting point for the identification and evaluation of important proteins involved in the development of oocytes; the results of our study may fill a noticeable knowledge-gap in the understanding of follicular fluid proteome.

  5. Use of color Doppler ultrasonography for the prediction of malignancy in follicular thyroid neoplasms: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iared, Wagner; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Cristófoli, Júlio Cesar; Andriolo, Regis; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron; Valente, Orsine

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to obtain summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) in predicting malignancy in thyroid follicular neoplasms (FNs). We searched Medical Subject Headings together with the search terms "follicular," "thyroid," and "Doppler" in the MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Excerpta Medica databases as well as the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, after which we performed manual searches of the reference lists to locate additional studies. There were no language restrictions. We included studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of CDU in identifying malignancy in thyroid FNs. The assessments of the quality and extraction of data were performed by 3 independent reviewers. We included 4 studies, which collectively evaluated 457 thyroid FNs, 67 of which had been classified as malignant based on the evaluation of surgical biopsy samples. Moderate, rich, predominant, or exclusive internal flow on CDU of thyroid FNs was considered indicative of malignancy. The overall sensitivity of CDU was 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74%-93%), with an overall specificity of 86% (95% CI, 82%-89%). The overall prevalence was 14.7%, and the positive and negative predictive values were 51% and 97%, respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 6.07, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.18. Predominant internal flow seen on CDU is associated with malignancy of thyroid FNs. Absence of internal flow or predominantly peripheral flow indicates a low probability of thyroid FN malignancy.

  6. Data on endogenous bovine ovarian follicular cells peptides and small proteins obtained through Top-down High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

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    Valérie Labas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous peptides and small proteins extracted from bovine ovarian follicular cells (oocytes, cumulus and granulosa cells were identified by Top-down High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (TD-HR-MS/MS in order to annotate peptido- and proteoforms detected using qualitative and quantitative profiling method based on ICM-MS (Intact Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. The description and analysis of these Top-down MS data in the context of oocyte quality biomarkers research are available in the original research article of Labas et al. (2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2017.03.027 [1]. Raw data derived from this peptidomic/proteomic analysis have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (dataset identifier PXD004892. Here, we described the inventory of all identified peptido- and proteoforms including their biochemical and structural features, and functional annotation of correspondent proteins. This peptide/protein inventory revealed that TD-HR-MS/MS was appropriate method for both global and targeted proteomic analysis of ovarian tissues, and it can be further employed as a reference for other studies on follicular cells including single oocytes.

  7. Breast systemic follicular lymphoma in a man: a case report

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    La Mantia Elvira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma is particularly rare in men. We describe the case of a patient with a rapidly growing, painless gynecomastia-like nodule in the left breast. On ultrasonography, the nodule was suspicious for breast carcinoma. Case presentation A breast biopsy from a 54-year-old Caucasian man showed the morphoimmunophenotypical features of grade 3 follicular lymphoma. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed a t(14,18 translocation suggesting breast involvement by a systemic lymphoma rather than a primary breast lymphoma. The histological diagnosis was subsequently confirmed after nodule excision. Mediastinal and abdominal node involvement was then identified on computed tomography and positron emission tomography scans during staging examinations. Our patient was treated with chemotherapy. After three years our patient experienced a right retro-areolar relapse. He then received two further cycles of chemotherapy but developed a myeloid acute leukemia and, as a result of this, he subsequently died. Conclusions The rarity of breast lymphomas, especially in men, and the problems related to the therapeutic choices with these tumors require molecular techniques in association with classical histological diagnosis.

  8. Follicular thyroid carcinoma mimicking meningioma: A case report

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    Krishnalatha Buandasan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC is a well-differentiated tumor which resembles the normal microscopic pattern of the thyroid. Although intracranial metastasis to the brain is frequent in adults, metastasis from FTC is very rare. Dural metastases mimicking meningioma have been documented in the literature now and then. However, cases arising from a FTC are again very rare. We report the case of a middle-aged lady who presented with progressive, painless left eye proptosis. She was noted to have a non-axial proptosis with dystopia, compressive optic neuropathy and exposure keratitis. She also had a painless swelling over the occipital region. She was initially misdiagnosed to have multiple foci of meningioma based on magnetic resonance imaging findings. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed presence of FTC. She was euthyroid but was found to have multiple small thyroid nodules by ultrasonography. Hence, the definite diagnosis of all dural masses must be histological wherever possible and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary tumour in such presentations.

  9. INFECTIONS AND FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA: IS THERE A LINK?

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    Francesco Zallio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several infectious agents appear to provide a proliferative signal -- “antigen-drive” – that  could be implicated in the pathogenesis of various type of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL. A classical model of infection-driven lymphoprolipherative disorder is Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric MALT lymphoma, where antibiotic therapy allows eradication of both the infectious agent and the clonal B-cell expansion;  following the footsteps of these example, several retrospective studies have found a correlation with other pathogens and B-cell Lymphomas, adding new important informations about pathogenesis and laying the groundwork for chemotherapy-free treatments. Although no clear association with infectious agents has yet been identified for Follicular Lymphoma (FL, a growing number of biological and clinical observations suggests that interaction with physiological and pathological microbial populations might play a role also in this subtype of lymphoma: in the last years epidemiological studies investigating the association of known risk factors and FL found a potential correlation with viral or bacterial infections; moreover recent findings about the stimulation of FL clones support the importance of microbial exposure to lymphomagenesis and disease progression. In the following review we make an attempt to find tangible evidences in favor of a role of either physiological and pathological exogenous microbial species in the pathogenesis of FL, and try to integrate the findings coming from epidemiological, biological and interventional studies to define future  novel treatment and prevention strategies for FL.

  10. X-ray and radioiodine dose to thyroid follicular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faw, R.E. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Radiation doses to the epithelial cells of thyroid follicles have been calculated for internal exposure by radionuclides of iodine and by secondary radiations created as a result of interactions of externally administered x rays with iodine naturally occurring in the thyroid. Calculations were performed for the thyroids of subjects ranging from the newborn to the adult male. Results for internal radionuclides are reported as the dose rate to follicular-cell nuclei per unit specific activity of the radionuclide in the thyroid as a whole, i.e., as the specific S value'' as used in the MIRD method for internal dosimetry. Results for x rays are reported as the response function, i.e., the absorbed dose per unit fluence of primary x rays. Dose rates are subdivided into internal and external components, the former from radiations emitted within the colloid volume of any one follicle, and the latter from radiations emitted throughout the thyroid in follicles surrounding that one follicle. 37 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

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    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  12. Effect of Lactation Yield on First Follicular Wave Surge After Calving of Crossbred Dairy Cattle

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    R.C.A Berber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed  to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle.  Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk  production  lower  than  average,  n  =  4.  From  calving  (Day  0  until  divergence  of  first follicular wave, ovaries  was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence,  growth  rate,  maximum  follicular  diameter,  day  of  follicular  divergence  and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth  rate of first follicular surge was higher  in  Group  2  than  Group  1  (2.0  + 0.0  mm/day  vs  1.2  + 0.6  mm/day,  P<  0.05.  The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6  + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5  + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier  in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2  + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle

  13. High clinical and molecular response rates with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone in previously untreated patients with advanced stage follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoto, Silvia; Moreno, Carol; Domingo-Doménech, Eva; Estany, Cristina; Oriol, Albert; Altés, Albert; Besalduch, Joan; Pedro, Carme; Gardella, Santiago; Escoda, Lourdes; Asensio, Antoni; Vivancos, Pilar; Galán, Pilar; de Sevilla, Alberto Fernández; Ribera, Josep M; Briones, Javier; Colomer, Dolors; Campo, Elías; Montserrat, Emili; López-Guillermo, Armando

    2008-02-01

    Purine analogs have demonstrated significant activity in patients with follicular lymphoma. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy and toxicity of a fludarabine combination as first-line treatment in patients with advanced-stage disease. This is a phase II trial including 120 patients ( or =2), > or =2 extranodal sites and high beta2-microglobulin. Sixteen episodes of grade 3-4 infections were observed. Two patients died during therapy (of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and bronchoaspiration respectively). No late toxicity has been observed. Twelve patients died during follow-up (9 after relapse, 2 during chemotherapy, 1 in complete remission after surgery for meningioma). The overall survival at 5 years was 89%. ECOG > or =2 and high beta2-microglobulin were associated with a shorter survival. FCM results in high complete and molecular response rates, with prolonged response duration in younger patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma. The combination of FCM with rituximab as front-line treatment warrants further investigation.

  14. The endocrine and follicular growth dynamics throughout the menstrual cycle in women with consistently or variably elevated early follicular phase FSH compared with controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H. de Koning; J. McDonnell (Joseph); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); F.H. de Jong (Frank); R. Homburg; C.B. Lambalk (Cornelius)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Elevated early follicular phase (EFP) FSH is frequently observed in subfertile patients. In these women, temporary normalization of FSH concentrations is known to occur. We studied the complete endocrine cycle profile of subfertile young women with elevated basal FSH compared

  15. Dissecting Molecular Events in Thyroid Neoplasia Provides Evidence for Distinct Evolution of Follicular Thyroid Adenoma and Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Kerstin; Prawitt, Susanne; Eszlinger, Markus; Ihling, Christian; Sinz, Andrea; Schierle, Katrin; Gimm, Oliver; Dralle, Henning; Steinert, Frank; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Schmid, Kurt W.; Fuhrer, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Benign hypofunctional cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) are a frequent scintiscan finding and need to be distinguished from thyroid carcinomas. The origin of CTNs with follicular morphologic features is unresolved. The DNA damage response might act as a physiologic barrier, inhibiting the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. We investigated the following in hypofunctional follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC): i) the mutation rate of frequently activated oncogene...

  16. Identification of some unknown transcripts from SSH cDNA library of buffalo follicular oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, S K; Kumar, P; Roy, B; Verma, A; Pandey, H P; Singh, D; De, S; Datta, T K

    2013-03-01

    A buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library was constructed to identify exclusively or preferentially oocyte-expressed genes. The library represented an enriched population of transcripts obtained from oocytes of diverse ovarian follicular origin and at different stages of in vitro maturation. A total of 1173 high-quality sequences of oocyte-specific genes were clustered into 645 unique sequences, out of which 65.76% were represented as singlets and 34.26% as contig expressed sequence tags (ESTs; clusters). Analysis of sequences revealed that 498 of these sequences were identified as a known sequence in mammalian species including buffalo, 103 as uncharacterized ESTs and 44 unknown sequences including 1 novel EST, so far not reported in any species. Gene ontology annotation classified these sequences into functional categories of cellular events and biological processes associated with oocyte competence. Expression status of the isolated unknown ESTs confirmed that many of these are expressed in oocytes exclusively and in others preferentially, some in excess of 80-fold greater in comparison with a variety of somatic tissues. The isolated novel EST was detected to be expressed exclusively in oocytes and testicular cells only. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving a detailed transcriptome account of oocyte-expressed genes in buffalo. This study will provide important information on the physiological control of oocyte development, as well as many questions yet to be addressed on the reproductive process of buffalo.

  17. Cytological image of the endometrium in cows in follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and in cows with follicular and luteal ovarian cysts

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    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48 were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75 were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26. When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11. In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71, and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium

  18. PET/CT before autologous stem cell transplantation predicts outcome in refractory/relapsed follicular lymphoma

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    Alcantara, Marion; Tilly, Herve [Universite de Rouen, Service d' Hematologie, Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen (France); Dupuis, Jehan; Haioun, Corinne [CHU Henri Mondor et Universite Paris-Est, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Unite Hemopathies Lymphoides, Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny (France); Mareschal, Sylvain; Dubois, Sydney [Centre Henri Becquerel, IRIB, Unite Inserm U918, Rouen (France); Julian, Anne [CHU Purpan, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Toulouse (France); Cottereau, Anne Segolene; Becker, Stephanie [Centre Henri Becquerel, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rouen (France); Oberic, Lucie; Huynh, Anne; Laurent, Guy; Ysebaert, Loic [IUCT-Oncopole, Departement d' Hematologie, Toulouse (France); Meignan, Michel [CHU Henri-Mondor, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France)

    2014-09-20

    Salvage of young patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) after R-CHOP includes salvage immunochemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Previous studies dealing with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma have shown the prognostic value of PET/CT prior to ASCT. We retrospectively analysed 59 patients with refractory/relapsed FL after first-line R-CHOP who were chemosensitive (as evaluated by CT) to the salvage treatment and who proceeded to ASCT. The role of PET/CT in this setting to define chemosensitivity is not definitely established. So we focused on the prognostic value of PET/CT performed after salvage treatment, before ASCT. The estimated 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 63.1 % (50.9-78.3 %) and 90.5 % (82.8 - 98.8 %), respectively, and did not differ significantly according to their Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index at relapse, conditioning regimen, or type of salvage. PFS was significantly lower in PET/CT-positive patients, according to the International Harmonization Project revised response criteria, with a 3-year PFS of 45.5 % (26.6 - 77.8 %) versus 72.6 % (58.5 - 90.0 %; p = 0.039). To better refine prognosis, we applied two types of thresholds: a Deauville five-point scale positive threshold of ≥3 (3-year PFS of 74.9 %, range 61.0 - 92.1 % %, versus 42.8 %, range 24.7 - 74.4 %; p = 0.02), and a ≥70 % ∇SUV{sub max} threshold between presalvage and pre-ASCT PET/CT (3-year PFS of 72.4 %, range 57.5 - 91.3 % versus 13.3 %, 2.2 - 81.7 %; p < 10{sup -3}). The PET/CT findings before ASCT were independently correlated with PFS in our series. PET/CT negativity before ASCT is a desirable and achievable goal in the management of chemosensitive FL relapsing after first-line R-CHOP. (orig.)

  19. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype association with the risk of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Said I; Ababneh, Nida A; Khader, Yousef; Abu-Khader, Ahmad A; Awidi, Abdullah

    2009-12-01

    The metabolism of folate is essential in DNA synthesis, and polymorphisms of genes involved in such metabolism have been implicated in many types of cancer. Among these, the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) encodes an enzyme that converts folate to a methyl donor used for DNA methylation. We studied the association between the different genotypes of the two most common MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, and the risk of follicular lymphoma (FL). For this purpose, 55 previously diagnosed FL patients and 170 normal control subjects were examined using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequency of the A1298C CC homozygous mutant genotype was significantly higher in patients with FL than in control subjects (OR = 3.51, 95% CI = 1.39-8.86, P = 0.008). No such association was found for the heterozygous A1298C AC genotype (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.55-2.12, P = 0.83). On the other hand, no significant association was found for either the C677T CT heterozygous genotype (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.42-1.51, P = 0.49) or the C677T TT homozygous mutant genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.12-2.65, P = 0.46). The present findings add to the very few reports suggesting a link between the A1298C CC homozygous MTHFR genotype and a higher risk of developing FL, and the first such in a Jordanian population.

  20. Memory T follicular helper CD4 T cells

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    J. Scott eHale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available T follicular helper (Tfh cells are the subset of CD4 T helper cells that are required for generation and maintenance of germinal center reactions and the generation of long-lived humoral immunity. This specialized T helper subset provides help to cognate B cells via their expression of CD40 ligand, IL-21, IL-4, and other molecules. Tfh cells are characterized by their expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR5, expression of the transcriptional repressor Bcl6, and their capacity to migrate to the follicle and promote germinal center B cell responses. Until recently, it remained unclear whether Tfh cells differentiated into memory cells and whether they maintain their Tfh commitment at the memory phase. This review will highlight several recent studies that support the idea of Tfh-committed CD4 T cells at the memory stage of the immune response. The implication of these findings is that memory Tfh cells retain their capacity to recall their Tfh-specific effector functions upon reactivation to provide help for B cell responses and play an important role in prime and boost vaccination or during recall responses to infection. The markers that are useful for distinguishing Tfh effector and memory cells, as well as the limitations of using these markers will be discussed. Tfh effector and memory generation, lineage maintenance, and plasticity relative to other T helper lineages (Th1, Th2, Th17, etc will also be discussed. Ongoing discoveries regarding the maintenance and lineage stability versus plasticity of memory Tfh cells will improve strategies that utilize CD4 T cell memory to modulate antibody responses during prime and boost vaccination.

  1. THE ROLE OF FOLLICULAR UNIT GRAFTING IN TREATMENT ALOPECIA

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    Duhita Ayuningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Alopecia is usually treatable and self-limited, but it may be permanent. Careful diagnosis of the type of hair loss will aid in selecting effective treatment. Many drugs used to treat alopecia, but in many people not satisfied with the result. One of the treatment currently used to treat alopecia is hair transplantation with follicular unit grafting (FUG. The advantages of hair transplantation is to create a natural appearance, one that mimics natural hair growth both in terms of numbers and pattern /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Immunoexpression of TTF-1 and Ki-67 in a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid cancer with rare long-life surviving.

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    Jerzy Sowinski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the immunohistochemical diagnosis, including TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1 and Ki-67, of a rare mixed thyroid neoplasm composed of minimally invasive well differentiated follicular areas and highly aggressive undifferentiated anaplastic areas. A 75 old female presented to our clinic with a rapidly growing neck mass. Considering the dynamics of the disease and the multiple challenges presented by the patient: advanced age, tumor size, history of a longstanding goiter we decided to transfer her to the department of surgery. The intraoperative findings were an enlarged right lobe with tracheal and surrounding tissues infiltration. Total thyroidectomy, radical neck lymph nodes dissection and tracheostomy were performed. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a coexistent anaplastic and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The proliferation index Ki-67, a cell proliferation marker, was found to be significantly higher in the anaplastic areas (30 +/- 5% in the comparison with the follicular areas (2 +/- 1%. The evaluation of the thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 expression revealed a correlation with the tumor cells aggressiveness accordingly to the cancer areas. After a radical surgery an external adjuvant radiation was applied. The patient is alive and more than five years after diagnosis she presented an increase of the serum thyroglobulin level suggesting, probably, a recurrence of the follicular form of the cancer. According to our survey we suggest that in thyroid cancers TTF-1 and Ki-67 could provides useful information on the differentiation activities of thyroid tumor cells and may be helpful to distinguish well differentiated and undifferentiated areas in a mixed thyroid cancer.

  3. Influence of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 on embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gode, Funda; Gulekli, Bulent; Dogan, Erbil; Korhan, Peyda; Dogan, Seda; Bige, Ozgur; Cimrin, Dilek; Atabey, Nese

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the association between follicular fluid levels of propeptide and mature forms of growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 with subsequent oocyte and embryo quality. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Eighty-one infertile patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The expression levels of the propeptide and mature forms of follicular fluid GDF9 and BMP15 were determined by western blot analysis. The levels of follicular fluid hormones (FSH, E2, and P) were measured with automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays. The relationships between the levels of GDF9 and BMP15, hormones, oocyte maturation, and embryo quality. Mature GDF9 levels were significantly correlated with the nuclear maturation of oocytes. The mean mature GDF9 level was 4.87±0.60 in the high-embryo-quality group and 1.45±0.81 in the low-embryo-quality group. There were no statistically significant differences in embryo quality among the patients regarding propeptide GDF9 and BMP15 expression status. There was a negative correlation between follicular fluid levels of P and the mature form of GDF9. Higher mature GDF9 levels in the follicular fluid were significantly correlated with oocyte nuclear maturation and embryo quality. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MicroRNAs: New Insight in Modulating Follicular Atresia: A Review

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    Tesfaye Worku

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in follicular atresia is limited; however, an important development has been made in understanding the biological regulatory networks responsible for mediating follicular atresia. MicroRNAs have come to be seen as a key regulatory actor in determining cell fate in a wide range of tissues in normal and pathological processes. Profiling studies of miRNAs during follicular atresia and development have identified several putative miRNAs enriched in apoptosis signaling pathways. Subsequent in vitro and/or in vivo studies of granulosa cells have elucidated the functional role of some miRNAs along with their molecular pathways. In particular, the regulatory roles of some miRNAs have been consistently observed during studies of follicular cellular apoptosis. Continued work should gradually lead to better understanding of the role of miRNAs in this field. Ultimately, we expect this understanding will have substantial benefits for fertility management at both the in vivo or/and in vitro levels. The stable nature of miRNA holds remarkable promise in clinical use as a diagnostic tool and in reproductive medicine to solve the ever-increasing fertility problem. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the involvement of miRNAs in follicular atresia, discuss the challenges for further work and pinpoint areas for future research.

  5. Microorganisms inhabiting follicular contents of facial acne are not only Propionibacterium but also Malassezia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the relationship between major cutaneous microorganisms (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Malassezia spp.) and acne vulgaris (acne), we examined the microbiota quantitatively in the follicular contents of inflammatory acne and on the facial skin of patients with acne. Fifteen Japanese untreated acne outpatients were studied. The follicular contents from inflammatory acne lesions of the face were collected using a comedo extractor. The skin surface samples were obtained by the swab method from 10 cm(2) of facial skin. The microbiota was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. The microbiota in follicular contents was similar to that on the skin surface, namely, there were large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. Moreover, the number of Malassezia spp. on the skin surface was correlated with that of inflammatory acne and that in follicular contents. This study clarified that there are large populations of Propionibacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Malassezia spp. in follicular contents. These results suggest the possibility that not only Propionibacterium acnes but also other cutaneous resident microorganisms are related to acne. Particularly, we considered that Malassezia spp. is closely related. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Follicular Neoplasms within the Same Thyroid Gland

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    Şefika Burçak Polat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Neoplasms of the thyroid gland are classified according to the cells they originate from and commonly develop from cells of follicular origin. The most common differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC are papillary and follicular carcinomas. Coexistence of two different histological types of primary follicular thyroid neoplasm is a rare condition. There are previous reports of concomitant medullary and papillary thyroid cancers. However, there is scarce data about the simultaneous occurrence of the two different histological types of primary follicular thyroid tumors and this is the first study on that subject. Material and Method: From January 2007 to September 2014, our institutional database was reviewed for patients who underwent thyroid surgery for various indications. Medical records and cytopathology reports of those patients were examined retrospectively. Simultaneous neoplasms of follicular origin were noted. Results: A total of 3.700 patients were operated. Histopathological examination revealed a benign pattern in 2.686 (73% patients and a malignant pattern in 1.014 (27% patients. Among the patients with the diagnosis of DTC, only 20 (1.9% had a concomitant neoplasm within the same thyroid gland. Discussion: Such simultaneous tumors may be a part of a familial tumor syndrome or an unidentified novel gene mutation playing role in the pathogenesis of more than one type of tumor. Based on the current evidence, the synchronous occurrence of those neoplasms in a given patient is likely coincidental in the literature. Further studies on larger patient population with standardized genetic characterization are needed.

  7. Immunohistochemical Detection of p75 Neurotrophin Receptor (p75-NTR) in Follicular and Plexiform Ameloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Nirmal Ramadas; Mohan, Sunil Paramel; Kumar, Srichinthu Kenniyan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ameloblastoma holds a unique position among benign tumours by its locally destructive and invasive nature. Recently improvised molecular techniques helped researchers to unravel the myth behind such biologic behaviour. Though interesting findings have been delivered, the rhythmic correlation regarding the exact mechanism still remains lacking. Neurotrophins and their receptor mediated pathways play a crucial role in survival, death and differentiation of many neuroectoderm derived cells. With this background, the study has been aimed to investigate the expression of p75-NTR (Neurotrophin Receptor) in follicular and plexiform ameloblastoma. Aim To analyze the immunohistochemical expression pattern of p75-NTR in ameloblastoma and to compare the immunohistochemical expression pattern of p75-NTR among the histological types of ameloblastoma, follicular and plexiform patterns. Materials and Methods Total 22 ameloblastomas (12 follicular, 10 plexiform) were immuno-stained with anti-human p75-NTR mouse IgG monoclonal antibody and the pattern of staining is statistically analyzed. Results Only 11 (10 follicular, 1 plexiform) out of 22 ameloblastomas showed immuno-reactivity to p75-NTR. In ameloblastoma, only the peripheral pre-ameloblast like tall columnar cells showed reactivity whereas the stellate reticulum-like cells were immuno-negative. The staining pattern was membranous in the immuno-reactive cells. The results were studied with the downstream pathways from the literature and a possible mechanism has been proposed. Conclusion The expression pattern of p75-NTR was found to be more in follicular ameloblastoma than plexiform. PMID:27656566

  8. MicroRNAs: New Insight in Modulating Follicular Atresia: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Tesfaye; Rehman, Zia Ur; Talpur, Hira Sajjad; Bhattarai, Dinesh; Ullah, Farman; Malobi, Ngabu; Kebede, Tesfaye; Yang, Liguo

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in follicular atresia is limited; however, an important development has been made in understanding the biological regulatory networks responsible for mediating follicular atresia. MicroRNAs have come to be seen as a key regulatory actor in determining cell fate in a wide range of tissues in normal and pathological processes. Profiling studies of miRNAs during follicular atresia and development have identified several putative miRNAs enriched in apoptosis signaling pathways. Subsequent in vitro and/or in vivo studies of granulosa cells have elucidated the functional role of some miRNAs along with their molecular pathways. In particular, the regulatory roles of some miRNAs have been consistently observed during studies of follicular cellular apoptosis. Continued work should gradually lead to better understanding of the role of miRNAs in this field. Ultimately, we expect this understanding will have substantial benefits for fertility management at both the in vivo or/and in vitro levels. The stable nature of miRNA holds remarkable promise in clinical use as a diagnostic tool and in reproductive medicine to solve the ever-increasing fertility problem. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the involvement of miRNAs in follicular atresia, discuss the challenges for further work and pinpoint areas for future research. PMID:28208755

  9. [Relationships among human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction, sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-ping; Zhong, Ying; Wu, Dong; Ai, Ling; Wang, Sheng; Tan, Chao; Zeng, Wei-qian; Liu, Jing; Ma, Guang-ping

    2006-07-01

    To assess the relationships among human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction, sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates. The relationships among human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction, sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates were investigated by Spearman rank correlation in 79 infertile couples. And the sperm morphology analysis was performed by crystal violet staining and based on strict criteria. A significant positive correlation was found between the percentage of human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction and that of normal sperm morphology (n = 49, r = 0.3763, P reaction and in vitro fertilization rates or between that of normal sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates (n = 21, r = 0.2666, P > 0.05 and n = 50, r = 0.0018, P > 0.05, respectively). There is a significant positive correlation between the percentage of human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction and that of normal sperm morphology, but no such correlation either between the percentage of human follicular fluid-induced acrosome reaction and in vitro fertilization rates or between that of normal sperm morphology and in vitro fertilization rates.

  10. Fatty acid composition of human follicular fluid phospholipids and fertilization rate in assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaker, Maghsod; Rahimipour, Ali; Nouri, Mohammad; Khanaki, Korosh; Darabi, Masoud; Farzadi, Laya; Shahnazi, Vahideh; Mehdizadeh, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acids are known to be critically important in multiple biological functions. Phospholipid fatty acids of follicular fluid, an important microenvironment for the development of oocytes, may contribute to the women's fertility and the efficacy of assisted reproduction techniques. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition of follicular fluid phospholipids on women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques. Follicular fluid samples were obtained from 100 patients, referred to Tabriz Alzahra Hospital. Seventy-nine subjects underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and the remaining 21 underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Total lipid of follicular fluid was extracted and fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Saturated fatty acids (SFA, P = 0.002) and the ratio of SFA to polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.001) were correlated negatively with a number of mature oocytes after age adjustment. Linoleic acid (P = 0.006) was positively correlated, while the level of arachidonic acid was negatively correlated with fertility percentage after adjustment for body mass index, sperm count, sperm motility. Since phospholipids are one of the major components of lipid metabolism, the results of this study highlight the importance of this component in follicular fluid lipid metabolism. Consequently, it is proposed as an index in determination of the rate of success in assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF/ICSI.

  11. T Follicular Helper Cells and B Cell Dysfunction in Aging and HIV-1 Infection.

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    Pallikkuth, Suresh; de Armas, Lesley; Rinaldi, Stefano; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4 T cells that provide critical signals to antigen-primed B cells in germinal centers to undergo proliferation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation to generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells during an immune response. The quantity and quality of Tfh cells therefore must be tightly controlled to prevent immune dysfunction in the form of autoimmunity and, on the other hand, immune deficiency. Both Tfh and B cell perturbations appear during HIV infection resulting in impaired antibody responses to vaccines such as seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine, also seen in biologic aging. Although many of the HIV-associated defects improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART), excess immune activation and antigen-specific B and T cell responses including Tfh function are still impaired in virologically controlled HIV-infected persons on ART. Interestingly, HIV infected individuals experience increased risk of age-associated pathologies. This review will discuss Tfh and B cell dysfunction in HIV infection and highlight the impact of chronic HIV infection and aging on Tfh-B cell interactions.

  12. T Follicular Helper Cells and B Cell Dysfunction in Aging and HIV-1 Infection

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    Suresh Pallikkuth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available T follicular helper (Tfh cells are a subset of CD4 T cells that provide critical signals to antigen-primed B cells in germinal centers to undergo proliferation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation to generate long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells during an immune response. The quantity and quality of Tfh cells therefore must be tightly controlled to prevent immune dysfunction in the form of autoimmunity and, on the other hand, immune deficiency. Both Tfh and B cell perturbations appear during HIV infection resulting in impaired antibody responses to vaccines such as seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine, also seen in biologic aging. Although many of the HIV-associated defects improve with antiretroviral therapy (ART, excess immune activation and antigen-specific B and T cell responses including Tfh function are still impaired in virologically controlled HIV-infected persons on ART. Interestingly, HIV infected individuals experience increased risk of age-associated pathologies. This review will discuss Tfh and B cell dysfunction in HIV infection and highlight the impact of chronic HIV infection and aging on Tfh–B cell interactions.

  13. Body Hair Transplant by Follicular Unit Extraction: My Experience With 122 Patients.

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    Umar, Sanusi

    2016-11-01

    Body hair shafts from the beard, trunk, and extremities can be used to treat baldness when patients have inadequate amounts of scalp donor hair, but reports in the literature concerning use of body hair to treat baldness are confined to case reports. This study aimed to assess the outcome of body hair transplanted to bald areas of the scalp in selected patients. From 2005 through 2011, 122 patients preselected for adequate body hair had donor hair transplanted from the beard, trunk, and the extremities to the scalp by follicular unit extraction (FUE) by the author at a single center. All patients were emailed surveys to assess surgical outcomes and overall satisfaction. Seventy-nine patients (64.8%) responded with a mean time of 2.9 years between date of last surgery and time of survey. Patients were generally very satisfied with results of their procedure, giving mean scores of at least a 7.8 on a Likert-like scale of 0 to 10 for their healing status, hair growth in recipient areas, and overall satisfaction with their surgeries. These scores were comparable to mean scores provided by patients whose transplants included scalp donor sources. FUE using body hair can be an effective hair transplantation method for a select patient population of hirsute individuals who suffer from severe baldness or have inadequate scalp donor reserve. 4 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  14. Helminth Protein Vaccine Induced Follicular T Helper Cell for Enhancement of Humoral Immunity against Schistosoma japonicum

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    Jingyao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein vaccines combined with adjuvants have been widely used to induce immune responses, especially the humoral immune response, against molecular targets including parasites. Follicular T helper (Tfh cells are the specialized providers of B-cell help, however, the induction of Tfh cells in protein vaccination has been rarely studied. Here, we report that the Schistosoma japonicum recombinant protein (SjGST-32 combined with tacrolimus (FK506 augmented the induction of Tfh cells, which expressed the canonical markers CXCR5, BCL6, and IL-21, and enhanced the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, the expression of IL-21R on germinal center (GC B cells and memory B cells increased in immunized mice, which indicated that IL-21 from the induced Tfh cells interacted with IL-21R for activation of B cells and maintenance of long-lived humoral immunity. Our results suggest that helminth protein vaccine combined with FK506 induces Tfh cell for stimulating humoral immune responses and inducing long-lived humoral immunity.

  15. Increased circulating follicular helper T cells with decreased programmed death-1 in chronic renal allograft rejection.

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    Shi, Jian; Luo, Fengbao; Shi, Qianqian; Xu, Xianlin; He, Xiaozhou; Xia, Ying

    2015-11-03

    Chronic antibody-mediated rejection is a major issue that affects long-term renal allograft survival. Since follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promote the development of antigen-specific B cells in alloimmune responses, we investigated the potential roles of Tfh cells, B cells and their alloimmune-regulating molecules in the pathogenesis of chronic renal allograft rejection in this study. The frequency of Tfh, B cells and the levels of their alloimmune-regulating molecules including chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5), inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS), programmed death-1 (PD-1), ICOSL, PDL-1 and interleukin-21 (IL-21), of peripheral blood were comparatively measured in 42 primary renal allograft recipients within 1-3 years after transplantation. Among them, 24 patients had definite chronic rejection, while other 18 patients had normal renal function. Tfh-cell ratio was significantly increased with PD-1 down-regulation in the patients with chronic renal allograft rejection, while B cells and the alloimmune-regulating molecules studied did not show any appreciable change in parallel. The patients with chronic renal allograft rejection have a characteristic increase in circulating Tfh cells with a decrease in PD-1 expression. These pathological changes may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic renal allograft rejection and can be useful as a clinical index for monitoring conditions of renal transplant.

  16. Cytokeratin 20 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma and infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma.

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    Honarpisheh, Hedieh; Glusac, Earl J; Ko, Christine J

    2014-12-01

    Tumors with similar or identical histopathologic features have been termed basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) or infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). BCC typically lacks immunoreactivity with cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 protein (PHLDA1). A series of BFH and infundibulocystic BCC were investigated to determine the pattern of CK20 and PHLDA1 labeling in these lesions. Thirty-six samples of BFH (n = 14) and infundibulocystic BCC (n = 22) were collected. CK20 and PHLDA1 staining was performed and evaluated. All the lesions were small (average of 3 mm), well circumscribed, and composed of basaloid to squamoid cells arranged in islands resembling ramifying rootlets with interspersed horn cysts. CK20-positive cells were present in all 36 cases (average, 22/mm(2)), throughout the tumor, including deeper portions, irrespective of original diagnosis. Six of thirty cases (20%; 5 infundibulocystic BCC, 1 BFH) were focally PHLDA1 positive. Findings on hematoxylin and eosin staining and those of CK20 staining in BFH and infundibulocystic BCC were similar, and in most cases were indistinguishable. The CK20 labeling was similar to that of trichoepithelioma. The findings add a degree of support to the argument that BFH and infundibulocystic BCC represent the same lesion and, further, a benign one. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Impact of Exogenous Gonadotropin Stimulation on Circulatory and Follicular Fluid Cytokine Profiles

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    N. Ellissa Baskind

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The natural cycle is the prototype to which we aspire to emulate in assisted reproduction techniques. Increasing evidence is emerging that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH with exogenous gonadotropins may be detrimental to oogenesis, embryo quality, and endometrial receptivity. This research aimed at assessing the impact of COH on the intrafollicular milieu by comparing follicular fluid (FF cytokine profiles during stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF and modified natural cycle (MNC IVF. Methods. Ten women undergoing COH IVF and 10 matched women undergoing MNC IVF were recruited for this pilot study. 40 FF cytokine concentrations from individual follicles and plasma were measured by fluid-phase multiplex immunoassay. Demographic/cycle/cytokine data were compared and correlations between cytokines were computed. Results. No significant differences were found between COH and MNC groups for patient and cycle demographics, including outcome. Overall mean FF cytokine levels were higher in the MNC group for 29/40 cytokines, significantly so for leukaemia inhibitory factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Furthermore, FF MNC cytokine correlations were significantly stronger than for COH data. Conclusions. These findings suggest that COH perturbs intrafollicular cytokine networks, in terms of both cytokine levels and their interrelationships. This may impact oocyte maturation/fertilization and embryo developmental competence.

  18. Applications and limitations of lipid nanoparticles in dermal and transdermal drug delivery via the follicular route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Andreas; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-11-01

    Lipid nanoparticles (LN) such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanolipid carriers (NLC) feature several claimed benefits for topical drug therapy including biocompatible ingredients, drug release modification, adhesion to the skin, and film formation with subsequent hydration of the superficial skin layers. However, penetration and permeation into and across deeper skin layers are restricted due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC). As different kinds of nanoparticles provide the potential for penetration into hair follicles (HF) LN are applicable drug delivery systems (DDS) for this route in order to enhance the dermal and transdermal bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Therefore, this review addresses the HF as application site, published formulations of LN which showed follicular penetration (FP), and characterization methods in order to identify and quantify the accumulation of API delivered by the LN in the HF. Since LN are based on lipids that appear in human sebum which is the predominant medium in HF an increased localization of the colloidal carriers as well as a promoted drug release may be assumed. Therefore, sebum-like lipid material and a size of less or equal 640 nm are appropriate specifications for FP of particulate formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance on the rate of malignancy in thyroid fine-needle aspiration: evaluation of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, James T; Solorzano, Carmen C

    2011-12-01

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) was developed to refine definitions and improve clinical communication and management. This study evaluates the impact of the BSRTC in a large cohort of patients undergoing thyroidectomy before and after its adoption at a single institution. The records from 469 patients in the pre-BSRTC (n = 187) and post-BSRTC (n = 282) periods were reviewed. Cytologic categories in group 1 included nondiagnostic, benign, follicular/Hürthle neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant. Atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) was included in group 2. The percentage of each fine-needle aspiration (FNA) category, malignancy rate per category, and rate of AUS/FLUS utilization were calculated. Group 1 FNA results included 3% (n = 6) nondiagnostic, 48% (n = 89) benign, 17% (n = 32) follicular/Hürthle, 13% (n = 25) suspicious for malignancy, and 19% (n = 35) malignant. Group 2 results included 4% (n = 11) nondiagnostic, 34% (n = 96) benign, 29% (n = 82) AUS/FLUS, 12% (n = 33) follicular/Hürthle, 10% (n = 29) suspicious for malignancy, and 11% (n = 31) malignant. The rate of cancer changed from 25% to 36% for follicular/Hürthle lesions. AUS/FLUS was utilized in 154 of 1095(14%) FNAs reviewed with a malignancy rate of 20%. The new AUS/FLUS category was used more often than recommended (14%) with a higher than expected rate of malignancy (20%). Rigorous cytopathology to histopathology correlation is needed to accurately reflect the malignancy rates of the different BSRTC categories at each individual institution. Clinical management should be tailored based on such institutional findings. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A rear case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia; Radiologic and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Cha, Eun Jung [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose.

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of MMP-14 and MMP-2, and MMP-2 activity during human ovarian follicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.C.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Last, J.T.; Boed, E.A. de; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of MMP-14 and MMP-2 during human ovarian follicular development using immunohistochemistry, and the activity of MMP-2 in follicular fluid using zymography. METHODS: Ovarian tissue collected from the archives of the Department of

  2. An unusual case presentation of follicular odontogenic keratocyst with an impacted mesiodens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil; Verma, Ajay; Sheorain, Anil; Sharma, Arun

    2013-05-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is one of the most aggressive odontogenic cysts known for its high recurrence rate and its tendency to invade adjacent tissues. Radiographically, OKCs can be of different varieties-follicular, envelopmental, replacemental, extraneous, and collateral. Its characteristic clinical and biological behavior, therapeutic approaches, prognosis, and recurrence vary in different studies. Generally, OKCs are found to be associated with impacted lower third molar. Here we present an unusual case of follicular OKC associated with an impacted mesiodens (supernumerary tooth) in a 21-year-old male patient.

  3. Use of MR imaging in following follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus, C.L.; Gendal, E.S.; Wyczyk, H.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Laufer, N.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging in monitoring follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle. MR images, US scans, and hormonal levels of estradiol and progesterone were obtained in six ovulatory volunteers on six designated days of the cycle. As illustrated in this exhibit, MR imaging demonstrated more secondary smaller follicles and better follicular detail than US and surpassed US in demonstrating endometrial and myometrial changes. The finer details observed on MR imaging during the normal cycle have practical implications for women undergoing stimulated cycles and in vitro fertilization

  4. Evaluation of survival rate after follicular unit transplantation using the KNU implanter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S J; Lee, H J; Hwang, S J; Kim, D W; Jun, J B; Chung, S L; Kim, J C

    2001-08-01

    Many hair transplant surgeons have advocated the use of micrograft megasessions for the purpose of a more natural looking end result, especially in the Oriental with higher skin/hair color contrast and darker, coarse, straight hairs. But it also has some fundamental limitations. Most important are a low graft yield and a low density after transplantation. There are several reports about the survival rate of micrografts in Caucasians, though the results are variable, but few reports about the survival rate and fate of micrografts in Orientals. To compare the survival rate of one-hair follicular units with that of two-hair follicular units using the KNU implanter, to ascertain the average survival rate of micrografts (one- and two-hair follicular units), and to evaluate the fate of grafted hair according to time. Two templates of 1.5 cm2 were made by tattooing on both sides of the frontoparietal recess areas in 11 patients with male pattern baldness (beyond Norwood type IIIa). The authors planted one-hair unit micrografts in the left template and two-hair unit micrografts in the right template, which were prepared by the concept of follicular unit, and counted the surviving number of follicular units at 1 and 3 months and total hairs at 6 and 12 months after transplantation. The mean survival rate by the number of follicular units was 47.3 and 57.4% at 1 and 3 months after transplantation, respectively. The mean survival rate by the total number of hairs was 92.0 and 90.4% at 6 and 12 months after transplantation, respectively. About 50% of the transplanted hairs fell out in 1 month, but at 6 months the survival rate of follicular unit transplantation using the KNU implanter showed a good result (92%), and there were no significant differences in the mean survival rate of follicular unit and total hairs between one-hair and two-hair units at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after transplantation.

  5. Myelopathy associated with cervical epidural spinal metastasis of follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma in two dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Tochetto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in two dogs with myelopathy associated with metastasis of follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma. Microscopically, both primary neoplasms were characterized by polygonal cells arranged in follicles (occasionally filled with eosinophilic colloid-like material or in sheets. The neoplastic cells had a moderately eosinophilic cytoplasm and there was moderate anisokaryosis and anisocytosis. Additionally, the neoplastic cells were positive for thyroglobulin on immunohistochemistry, confirming the follicular origin of both tumors. This is a very uncommon presentation of this pathological condition.

  6. Aberrant effects of altrenogest and exposure to exogenous gonadotropins on follicular cysts appearance in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziecik, A J; Klos, J; Przygrodzka, E; Milewski, R; Jana, B

    2017-02-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effect of altrenogest and exposure to exogenous gonadotropins on ovarian function in prepubertal and mature gilts. Crossbred, presumably sexually mature gilts (n = 51), were fed with altrenogest for 18 consecutive days and the day after the last feeding with altrenogest, gilts were treated with eCG and 72 hours later challenged with hCG. Animals were slaughtered on Days 10 to 13 of their gonadotropins synchronized estrous cycle. Ovaries were examined for the number of CL, number of follicular cysts, and presence of corpora albicantia. Gilts were divided into two groups: those possessing corpora albicantia (group A-mature; n = 36) and those without corpora albicantia (Group W-prepubertal; n = 15) on their ovaries. In addition, each group was divided into two subgroups depending on the presence of follicular cysts (AC and WC) or their absence (AO and WO). There was no difference between the number of CL in group A and group W. Presence of corpora albicantia determined percentage of gilts possessing follicular cysts (13.9% group A vs. 66.7% group W). Gilts without follicular cysts (AO plus WO; n = 36) had higher number of CL (P gilts bearing cysts (AC plus WC; n = 15). Comparison AO-AC did not show significant difference (P = 0.075) between CL number in mature cyst-free and cysts bearing gilts. A prepubertal gilts not bearing follicular cysts (WO) had higher (P gilts bearing cysts. A significant negative correlation between the number of CL and number of follicular cysts was found (r = -0.664; P = 0.007). There were no differences in blood plasma progesterone and estradiol concentration between cyst-free and cyst-bearing gilts. These results indicate: (1) a higher follicular cysts appearance in prepubertal than mature gilts challenged with altrenogest and exposed to exogenous gonadotropins and (2) a negative effect of follicular cysts on the number of CL (ovulations) in prepubertal gilts. Copyright © 2016

  7. Classification of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer by global RNA profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide and thyroid nodules are a frequent clinical finding. Diagnosing follicular cell-derived cancers is, however, challenging both histopathologically and especially cytopathologically. The advent of high-throughput molecular technologies has...... profiling of follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers....... classification will not only contribute to our biological insight but also improve clinical and pathological examinations, thus advancing thyroid tumour diagnosis and ultimately preventing superfluous surgery. This review evaluates the status of classification and biological insights gained from molecular...

  8. The transcription factor Runx3 guards cytotoxic CD8+effector T cells against deviation towards follicular helper T cell lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qiang; Zeng, Zhouhao; Xing, Shaojun; Li, Fengyin; Hartwig, Stacey M; Gullicksrud, Jodi A; Kurup, Samarchith P; Van Braeckel-Budimir, Natalija; Su, Yao; Martin, Matthew D; Varga, Steven M; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Harty, John T; Peng, Weiqun; Badovinac, Vladimir P; Xue, Hai-Hui

    2017-08-01

    Activated CD8 + T cells differentiate into cytotoxic effector (T EFF ) cells that eliminate target cells. How T EFF cell identity is established and maintained is not fully understood. We found that Runx3 deficiency limited clonal expansion and impaired upregulation of cytotoxic molecules in T EFF cells. Runx3-deficient CD8 + T EFF cells aberrantly upregulated genes characteristic of follicular helper T (T FH ) cell lineage, including Bcl6, Tcf7 and Cxcr5. Mechanistically, the Runx3-CBFβ transcription factor complex deployed H3K27me3 to Bcl6 and Tcf7 genes to suppress the T FH program. Ablating Tcf7 in Runx3-deficient CD8 + T EFF cells prevented the upregulation of T FH genes and ameliorated their defective induction of cytotoxic genes. As such, Runx3-mediated Tcf7 repression coordinately enforced acquisition of cytotoxic functions and protected the cytotoxic lineage integrity by preventing T FH -lineage deviation.

  9. Alterations in transcript abundance of bovine oocytes recovered at growth and dominance phases of the first follicular wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanitz Wilhelm

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte developmental competence is highly affected by the phase of ovarian follicular wave. Previous studies have shown that oocytes from subordinate follicles recovered at growth phase (day 3 after estrus are developmentally more competent than those recovered at dominance phase (day 7 after estrus. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these differences are not well elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate transcript abundance of bovine oocytes retrieved from small follicles at growth and dominance phases of the first follicular wave and to identify candidate genes related to oocyte developmental competence using cDNA microarray. Results Comparative gene expression analysis of oocytes from growth and dominance phases and subsequent data analysis using Significant Analysis of Microarray (SAM revealed a total of 51 differentially regulated genes, including 36 with known function, 6 with unknown function and 9 novel transcripts. Real-time PCR has validated 10 transcripts revealed by microarray analysis and quantified 5 genes in cumulus cells derived from oocytes of both phases. The expression profile of 8 (80% transcripts (ANAXA2, FL396, S100A10, RPL24, PP, PTTG1, MSX1 and BMP15 was in agreement with microarray data. Transcript abundance of five candidate genes in relation to oocyte developmental competence was validated using Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB staining as an independent model. Furthermore, localization of mRNA and protein product of the candidate gene MSX1 in sections of ovarian follicles at days 0, 1, 3 and 7 of estrous cycle showed a clear fluorescent signal in both oocytes and cumulus cells with higher intensity in the former. Moreover, the protein product was detected in bovine oocytes and early cleavage embryos after fertilization with higher intensity around the nucleus. Conclusion This study has identified distinct sets of differentially regulated transcripts between

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-α regulates human follicular dendritic cell-secreted protein gene transcription in gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Yasunobu; Noda, Keisuke; Yamazaki, Mizuho; Kato, Ayako; Mezawa, Masaru; Takai, Hideki; Nakayama, Yohei; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2018-01-22

    Follicular dendritic cell-secreted protein (FDC-SP) is a secreted protein expressed in follicular dendritic cells, periodontal ligament and junctional epithelium. To elucidate the transcriptional regulation of the human FDC-SP gene by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), we conducted real-time PCR, Western blotting, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the FDC-SP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene, gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using Ca9-22 gingival epithelial cells. TNF-α (10 ng/ml) induced FDC-SP mRNA and protein levels at 3 hr and reached maximum at 12 hr. In transient transfection assays, TNF-α (12 hr) increased the LUC activities of constructs between -116FDCSP and -948FDCSP including the human FDC-SP gene promoter. Transcriptional stimulations by TNF-α were partially inhibited in the -345FDCSP constructs that included 3-bp mutations in the YY1, GATA, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein 2 (C/EBP2) and C/EBP3. Transcriptional activities induced by TNF-α were inhibited by tyrosine kinase, MEK1/2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. The results of ChIP assays showed that YY1, GATA and C/EBPβ transcription factors interacted with the YY1, GATA, C/EBP2 and C/EBP3 elements that were increased by TNF-α. These studies show that TNF-α stimulates human FDC-SP gene transcription by targeting YY1, GATA, C/EBP2 and C/EBP3 in the FDC-SP gene promoter. © 2018 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Five Susceptibility Loci for Follicular Lymphoma outside the HLA Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibola, Christine F.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Conde, Lucia; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Foo, Jia-Nee; Bracci, Paige M.; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Slager, Susan L.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Wang, Sophia S.; Linet, Martha S.; Salles, Gilles; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Lightfoot, Tracy; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Ghesquieres, Herve; Link, Brian K.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Alex; Tinker, Lesley F.; Teras, Lauren R.; Kricker, Anne; Becker, Nikolaus; Purdue, Mark P.; Spinelli, John J.; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G.; Vineis, Paolo; Monnereau, Alain; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Gabbas, Attilio; Chung, Charles C.; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Liang, Liming; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Liu, Jianjun; Adami, Hans-Olov; Glimelius, Bengt; Ye, Yuanqing; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Dogan, Ahmet; Thompson, Carrie A.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Novak, Anne J.; Liebow, Mark; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cozen, Wendy; Zhi, Degui; Akers, Nicholas K.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Lacher, Mortimer; Villano, Danylo J.; Maria, Ann; Roman, Eve; Kane, Eleanor; Jackson, Rebecca D.; North, Kari E.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Jenny; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; McKay, James; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Chamosa, Saioa; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kelly, Rachel S.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Travis, Ruth C.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Clave, Jacqueline; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Virtamo, Jarmo; Mazza, Patrizio; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Fraumeni, Joseph R.; Nieters, Alexandra; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; Cerhan, James R.; Smedby, Karin E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European

  12. Post-treatment sequential ultrasound imaging of follicular cyst in a crossbred dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Khan, Muqtaza Manzoor; Prasad, Shiv

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in dairy cattle have investigated the final outcome of different treatment regimens in follicular cyst condition. However, sequential monitoring of the response of follicular cysts to these treatments is rather scanty. In this paper, we present the response of a large follicular cyst in a pluriparous crossbred dairy cow with prolonged conception failure to human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG (3,000 IU; day 0) and cloprostenol (500 μg; day 9) treatment. Using transrectal ultrasonography (USG), reproductive tract was imaged daily beginning day 0 until day 11. The follicular cyst showed a consistent regression to a very small anechoic area on day 7 and was undetectable thereafter. Concurrently, there was development of a new dominant follicle that was first detected on day 4 and showed progressive growth to preovulatory stage. The cow was inseminated and ovulation occurred, as diagnosed by the presence of a corpus luteum (CL) 7 days later, but conception did not occur. The animal was re-inseminated after estrus detection in the estrous cycle that immediately followed. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on 30 and 60 days post-insemination (DPI) and the cow was confirmed to be pregnant. This paper underscores the importance of diagnostic ultrasound in veterinary medicine, especially in the management of reproductive problems.

  13. Effect of follicular wave synchronization on superovulatory response of Girolando embryo donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Esquerdo Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the follicular wave synchronization method on the superovulatory response of Girolando embryo donors. Seven cows and five heifers were divided into three treatments according to the method of the follicular wave synchronization prior to superovulation. The donors were superovulated with eight FSH decreasing doses, adding 133 mg per animal. The superovulatory response was evaluated using an ultrasound device to quantify the number of corpora lutea. The number and quality of recovered structures were also evaluated. Animal category (cow or heifer and genetic group influenced the superovulatory response, in which heifers showed a greater response (100% in all treatments compared with cows, which showed 85.7%, 57.1% and 57.1% superovulatory response for standing estrus, GnRH and P4 + BE groups, respectively. The genetic group also showed influence on superovulatory response, in which the 3/8 animals had an average of 10.3 corpora lutea per donor compared with the 3/4 animals, which showed 4.9. The follicular wave synchronization treatments did not show differences in superovulatory response, recovered structures and viable structures. The treatment of follicular wave synchronization with GnRH or with P4 + BE can be used in Girolando donors with the same efficiency as the standing estrus group, and 3/8 Girolando heifers respond better to the superovulatory treatment.

  14. Acute paraparesis as presentation of an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Baião

    Full Text Available Introduction: Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most frequent type of well differentiated thyroid tumours. It is usually confined to the thyroid gland, however it can metastasize in a later stage of the disease. Signs and symptoms associated with bone metastasis are rare as first clinical manifestations. Case report: An 84-year-old female complained with acute paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive intraosseous infiltrating lesion compatible with a bone metastasis from an occult tumour. Biopsy samples were compatible with bone metastasis from a follicular thyroid carcinoma. The patient was submitted to total thyroidectomy followed by iodine ablative therapy. Discussion: Follicular thyroid carcinoma presentation with symptoms related to bone metastasis is rare. Patients with bone lesions, such as pathological fractures or compressive symptoms should be studied since they may have clinically unapparent lesions from an unknown tumour. Patients with FTC should be submitted to total thyroidectomy. Bone lesions may be addressed to improve quality of life however this decision depends on disease extent. Conclusion: Acute paraparesis is a rare form of presentation of thyroid carcinoma. These neoplasms must be taken into account when investigating metastasis to the bone from unknown neoplasms. Keywords: Acute paraparesis, Follicular thyroid carcinoma, Bone metastasis, Case report

  15. Characterization of OAZ1 and its potential functions in goose follicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kang

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The goose OAZ1 structure confirms that OAZ1 plays an important role in ornithine decarboxylase-mediated regulation of polyamine homeostasis. Our findings provide an evidence for a potential function of OAZ1 in follicular development, ovulation and regression.

  16. The effects of synthetic salmon calcitonin on thyroid C and follicular cells in adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulić, M; Sosić-Jurjević, B; Filipović, B; Milosević, V; Nestorović, N; Manojlović-Stojanoski, M

    2005-01-01

    Structural and morphometric features of thyroid C and follicular cells were studied in adult rat females after treatment with synthetic salmon calcitonin (CT). The animals were chronically treated with either a low (10 IU/kg b.w) or a high (100 IU/kg b.w) dose of CT. A stereological method was applied to determine the volume density and the number of immunoreactive C cells. The height and volume density of follicular epithelium, colloid, interstitium and the follicles (epithelium plus colloid), as well as the index of activation rate were calculated. A significant decrease in body weight, as well as the volume density of immunoreactive C cells and the number of C cells per mm2, was observed in rats treated with both doses of CT. The height and volume density of follicular epithelium and follicles, as well as the index of activation rate were significantly increased in the animals given the high CT dose, while the volume densities of colloid and interstitium were reduced. No significant changes in the examined morphometric parameters were detected after treatment with the low CT dose. According to these results it can be concluded that the structural features of thyroid C and follicular cells were affected by the high dose CT treatment in the opposite manner, while the low dose CT treatment influenced only C cells.

  17. The effects of synthetic salmon calcitonin on thyroid C and follicular cells in adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manojlovic-Stojanoski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural and morphometric features of thyroid C and follicular cells were studied in adult rat females after treatment with synthetic salmon calcitonin (CT. The animals were chronically treated with either a low (10 IU/kg b.w or a high (100 IU/kg b.w dose of CT. A stereological method was applied to determine the volume density and the number of immunoreactive C cells. The height and volume density of follicular epithelium, colloid, interstitium and the follicles (epithelium plus colloid, as well as the index of activation rate were calculated. A significant decrease in body weight, as well as the volume density of immunoreactive C cells and the number of C cells per mm2, was observed in rats treated with both doses of CT. The height and volume density of follicular epithelium and follicles, as well as the index of activation rate were significantly increased in the animals given the high CT dose, while the volume densities of colloid and interstitium were reduced. No significant changes in the examined morphometric parameters were detected after treatment with the low CT dose. According to these results it can be concluded that the structural features of thyroid C and follicular cells were affected by the high dose CT treatment in the opposite manner, while the low dose CT treatment influenced only C cells.

  18. Effects of neonatal litter size and age on ovarian gene expression and follicular development in gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilts raised in small litters have greater ovulation rate, stay in the herd longer and produce more pigs. The objective was to understand how neonatal litter size affects gilt development. The hypothesis is that gilts reared in smaller litters have greater ovarian follicular development. Within 24 h...

  19. Rituximab purging and/or maintenance in patients undergoing autologous transplantation for relapsed follicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettengell, Ruth; Schmitz, Norbert; Gisselbrecht, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this randomized trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of rituximab as in vivo purging before transplantation and as maintenance treatment immediately after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDC-ASCT) in patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma...

  20. The effect of follicle size and homogeneity of follicular development on the morphokinetics of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Semra; Cetinkaya, Caroline Pirkevi; Cetinkaya, Murat; Yelke, Hakan; Colakoglu, Yesim Kumtepe; Aygun, Melih; Montag, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate follicular size (large, ≥17 mm and small, development (homogenous development: follicles being present in a homogenous spread of all sizes; heterogeneous: a predominance of small and large follicles) by analysing the morphokinetics of embryo development. In this prospective cohort study, 2526 COCs belonging to 187 patients were cultured to day 5. Embryos were evaluated morphokinetically. Four subgroups were defined: large follicles from heterogeneous cycles (LHet) and homogenous cycles (LHom) and small follicles from heterogeneous cycles (SHet) and homogenous cycles (SHom). Rates of fertilization, blastocyst formation and top and good quality blastocysts were found to be significantly higher in embryos from the LHom group (p Embryos from SHet had significantly more direct cleavages (p = 0.011). Time to reach blastocyst was shorter in SHom than LHet and LHom (p = 0.002; p = 0.027, respectively). However, once the blastocyst stage was achieved, implantation rates were not significantly different between subgroups, the highest rate being observed in the LHom group. Multivariable analysis revealed that homogeneity of follicular development and follicular size had a significant effect on blastocyst development and quality (p = 0.049; p development, influence early human embryo development. Patterns of follicular growth have an impact on embryo quality and viability which is reflected in morphokinetic variables.

  1. Stem cell antigen 1-positive mesenchymal cells are the origin of follicular cells during thyroid regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Minoru; Hayase, Suguru; Miyakoshi, Masaaki; Murata, Tsubasa; Kimura, Shioko

    2013-01-01

    Many tissues are thought to contain adult stem/progenitor cells that are responsible for repair of the tissue where they reside upon damage and/or carcinogenesis, conditions when cellular homeostasis becomes uncontrolled. While the presence of stem/progenitor cells of the thyroid has been suggested, how these cells contribute to thyroid regeneration remains unclear. Here we show the origin of thyroid follicular cells and the process of their maturation to become follicular cells during regeneration. By using β-galactosidase (β-gal) reporter mice in conjunction with partial thyroidectomy as a model for thyroid regeneration, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) long label-retaining cell analysis, we demonstrated that stem cell antigen 1 (Sca1) and BrdU-positive, but β-gal and NKX2-1 negative cells were found in the non-follicular mesenchymal area 7 days after partial thyroidectomy. They temporarily co-expressed cytokeratin 14, and were observed in part of follicles by day 35 post-partial thyroidectomy. Sca1, BrdU, β-gal, and NKX2-1-positive cells were found 120 days post-partial thyroidectomy. These results suggested that Sca1 and BrdU positive cells may participate in the formation of new thyroid follicles after partial thyroidectomy. The process of thyroid follicular cell regeneration was recapitulated in ex vivo thyroid slice collagen gel culture studies. These studies will facilitate research on thyroid stem/progenitor cells and their roles in thyroid diseases, particularly thyroid carcinomas.

  2. Primary Thyroid-Like Follicular Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Emerging Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney is a rare but newly emerging histological variant of renal cell carcinoma RCC, with only nine cases reported in the literature to date. We present a further case of this unique condition, discuss the workup and typical histological findings, and review the literature regarding this rare histological variant.

  3. MYC expression and translocation analyses in low-grade and transformed follicular lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, Sietse M.; van Pel, Roel; Nagel, Inga; Bens, Susanne; Siebert, Reiner; Rosati, Stefano; van den Berg, Eva; Bosga-Bouwer, Anneke G.; Kibbelaar, Robby E.; Hoogendoorn, Mels; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Kluin, Philip M.; Nijland, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    AimsLow-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) (grade 1/2, FL1/2) has an annual risk of transformation of approximate to 3%, which is associated with aberrations in CDKN2A/B, TP53, and MYC. As in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, high MYC expression in transformed FL (tFL) might predict a MYC breakpoint.

  4. Common Effects on Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells Exerted by Simulated Microgravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejgaard, Benjamin; Grimm, Daniela; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on gravity-sensitive proteins of two human follicular cancer cell lines (ML-1; RO82-W-1), which were exposed to simulated microgravity (s-μg) on two different machines. Changes in protein cytoskeletal structure, growth patterns and protein expression in response to s-μg were...

  5. Altered distribution of NK and NKT cells in follicular fluid is associated with IVF outcome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křižan, Jiří; Cuchalová, Lucie; Šíma, Petr; Králíčková, M.; Madar, J.; Větvička, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2009), s. 84-88 ISSN 0165-0378 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : nk * nkt * follicular fluid Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2009

  6. Increased circulating follicular regulatory T cells are associated with lower auto-antibodies in stable remission rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Dongwei; Lu, Songsong; Xu, Qinzhu; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Jingzhong; Song, Ying; Wang, Hui

    2018-01-30

    To examine expression and function changes of circulating CD4 + CXCR5 + FoxP3 + Follicular regulatory T (TFR) cells in active and stable remission rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to clarify the role of TFR cells in the pathogenesis of RA. TFR and follicular helper T cells (TFH) levels in peripheral blood of 39 active RA patients, 39 stable remission RA patients and 33 healthy controls were detected by flow cytometry. The function of TFR cells was measured by co-culturing with TFH and B cells. The activated CD45RA - FoxP3 hi TFR cells were analyzed as well. Clinical indicators including serum levels of Ig and auto-antibodies were tested and correlations with TFR cells were systematically analyzed. DAS28 scores were further calculated and correlation analysis with TFR was conducted as well. The level of CD4 + CXCR5 + FOXP3 + TFR cells and the ratio of TFR/TFH in peripheral blood of stable remission RA patients were significantly increased compared with active RA patients and healthy controls. The function of TFR was enhanced and the activated CD45RA - FoxP3 hi TFR subset was increased in stable remission RA patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, TFR cells in RA patients were inversely correlated with Ig G, RF, anti-CCP, as well as DAS28 scores. Circulating TFR cells were increased as RA patients develop to a stable state and increased TFR cells could suppress autoimmunity of RA patients to stabilize their condition. Our results provide novel insight into the pathogenesis process of RA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonanaplastic follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma: mitosis and necrosis in long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skansing, Daniel Bräuner; Londero, Stefano Christian; Asschenfeldt, Pia; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Nonanaplastic follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma (NAFCTC) includes differentiated- (DTC) and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC). DTC has an excellent prognosis, while PDTC is situated between DTC and anaplastic carcinomas. Short-term studies suggest that PDTC patients diagnosed only on tumor necrosis and/or mitosis have a prognosis similar to those diagnosed according to the TURIN proposal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognosis for NAFCTC based on long-term follow-up illuminating the significance of tumor necrosis and mitosis. A cohort of 225 patients with NAFCTC was followed more than 20 years. Age, sex, distant metastasis, histology, tumor size, extrathyroidal invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor necrosis and mitosis were examined as possible prognostic factors. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 28 years (range 20-43 years). Age, distant metastasis, extrathyroidal invasion, tumor size, tumor necrosis and mitosis were independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis for overall survival (OS). In disease specific survival (DSS) age was not significant. Using only necrosis and/or mitosis as criteria for PDTC the 5-, 10- and 20-year OS for DTC was 87, 79 and 69%, respectively. In DSS it was 95, 92 and 90%. For PDTC the 5-, 10- and 20-year OS was 57, 40 and 25%, respectively. In DSS it was 71, 55 and 48%. Tumor necrosis and mitosis are highly significant prognostic indicators in analysis of long time survival of nonanaplastic follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinoma indicating that a simplification of the actually used criteria for poorly differentiated carcinomas may be justified.

  8. Decreased levels of sRAGE in follicular fluid from patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, BiJun; Li, Jing; Yang, QingLing; Zhang, FuLi; Hao, MengMeng; Guo, YiHong

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) levels in follicular fluid and the number of oocytes retrieved and to evaluate the effect of sRAGE on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in granulosa cells in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Two sets of experiments were performed in this study. In part one, sRAGE and VEGF protein levels in follicular fluid samples from 39 patients with PCOS and 35 non-PCOS patients were measured by ELISA. In part two, ovarian granulosa cells were isolated from an additional 10 patients with PCOS and cultured. VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as pAKT levels, were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting after cultured cells were treated with different concentrations of sRAGE. Compared with the non-PCOS patients, patients with PCOS had lower sRAGE levels in follicular fluid. Multi-adjusted regression analysis showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose, more oocytes retrieved, and a better IVF outcome in the non-PCOS group. Logistic regression analysis showed that higher sRAGE levels predicted favorably IVF outcomes in the non-PCOS group. Multi-adjusted regression analysis also showed that high sRAGE levels in follicular fluid predicted a lower Gn dose in the PCOS group. Treating granulosa cells isolated from patients with PCOS with recombinant sRAGE decreased VEGF and SP1 mRNA and protein expression and pAKT levels in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  9. Scrapie affects the maturation cycle and immune complex trapping by follicular dendritic cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are infectious neurological disorders of man and animals, characterised by abnormal disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d accumulations in the brain and lymphoreticular system (LRS. Prior to neuroinvasion, TSE agents often accumulate to high levels within the LRS, apparently without affecting immune function. However, our analysis of scrapie-affected sheep shows that PrP(d accumulations within the LRS are associated with morphological changes to follicular dendritic cells (FDCs and tingible body macrophages (TBMs. Here we examined FDCs and TBMs in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of scrapie-affected mice by light and electron microscopy. In MLNs from uninfected mice, FDCs could be morphologically categorised into immature, mature and regressing forms. However, in scrapie-affected MLNs this maturation cycle was adversely affected. FDCs characteristically trap and retain immune complexes on their surfaces, which they display to B-lymphocytes. In scrapie-affected MLNs, some FDCs were found where areas of normal and abnormal immune complex retention occurred side by side. The latter co-localised with PrP(d plasmalemmal accumulations. Our data suggest this previously unrecognised morphology represents the initial stage of an abnormal FDC maturation cycle. Alterations to the FDCs included PrP(d accumulation, abnormal cell membrane ubiquitin and excess immunoglobulin accumulation. Regressing FDCs, in contrast, appeared to lose their membrane-attached PrP(d. Together, these data suggest that TSE infection adversely affects the maturation and regression cycle of FDCs, and that PrP(d accumulation is causally linked to the abnormal pathology observed. We therefore support the hypothesis that TSEs cause an abnormality in immune function.

  10. STUDIES ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF OVARIAN FOLLICULAR FLUID AND PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Arshad, N. Ahmad, Zia-ur-Rahman1, H. A. Samad, N. Akhtar and S. Ali

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to study some biochemical constituents of ovarian follicular fluid (FF and peripheral blood in buffaloes. For this purpose, ovaries were collected from adult buffaloes immediately after slaughter, FF was aspirated and stored at -4°C. Blood samples were also collected from these buffaloes before slaughter, plasma was separated and stored for further analysis. Samples were classified into two groups according to the follicle diameter i.e. small (3-10 mm and large (11-20 mm. The FF and plasma samples were analyzed for various biochemical constituents, including glucose, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, globulin, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, triiodothyronine and thyroxine contents, using commercial kits.The results showed that small follicles had significantly lower (P<0.05 glucose contents than large follicles, while blood plasma had significantly higher (P<0.05 glucose contents than fluid from both classes of follicles. The differences in concentrations of cholesterol, total proteins, albumin and globulin between small and large follicles were non-significant. The concentrations of these compounds were higher in the blood than in FF, except albumin, which was higher in FF than in the blood. Contents of electrolytes and trace elements did not vary between the two follicle classes. However, the plasma levels of these electrolytes and trace elements, except potassium and zinc, were significantly higher (p<0.05 than their levels in FF. The level of potassium was significantly higher (P<0.05 in FF than in the plasma, while serum zinc level did not differ from FF. The differences in concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine in fluid from small and large sized follicles were non-significant. Likewise, the levels of these hormones were non-significantly higher in blood plasma than in FF. It was concluded that FF levels of glucose differed between small and large follicle groups, while blood levels of

  11. Prognostic markers in well differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancer (WDTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, S L; O'Neill, J P

    2018-03-01

    WDTC (papillary and follicular thyroid cancer) make up around 90% of all thyroid tumours. Overall, the prognosis in patients with WDTC is excellent. However, there are small cohorts of patients who experience a more aggressive form of disease which is often associated with certain poor prognostic factors. Identifying these patients at an early stage is imperative for guiding treatment decisions. With recent developments in this area we plan to discuss the current evidence surrounding prognostic markers. The literature regarding prognostic factors in WDTC was reviewed using an electronic database Medline - Pubmed. Using the MeSH search engine specific prognostic factors including age, size, grade, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, extension/invasion, ethnic background, radioactive iodine avidity, and thyroglobulin level and their association with WDTC were evaluated. A broader search of prognostic markers in thyroid cancer was also carried out to avoid missing other pertinent markers. Multiple clinical and pathologic variables have been shown to be poor prognostic factors in WDTC with statistical significance. Extensive extrathyroidal extension and age may be the most important factors when predicting clinical outcomes in WDTC, although the age threshold may be increased from 45 to 55 years in due course. Management of WDTC has changed considerably over the last two years as reflected in evolving British and American Thyroid Guidelines. In all cases a combined multi-disciplinary approach, with consideration of the available guidelines and stratification systems should be utilised when planning an individualised treatment program to offer the best contemporary care to WDTC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  12. Follicular Helper T (Tfh) Cells Mediate IgE Antibody Response to Airborne Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao; Iijima, Koji; Dent, Alexander L.; Kita, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 helper T (Th2) cells have long been believed to play a pivotal role in allergic immune responses, including IgE antibody production and type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammation and pathology. A new T cell subset, T follicular helper cells (Tfh) cells, is specialized in supporting B cell maturation and antibody production. Objective To investigate the roles of Tfh cells in allergic immune responses. Methods Naïve mice were exposed to cytokines or natural allergens through the airways. Development of allergic immune responses was analyzed by collecting draining lymph nodes (LNs) and sera and by challenging the animals. Cytokine reporter mice and gene-deficient mice were used to dissect the immunologic mechanisms. Results We observed the development of IL-4-producing Tfh cells and Th2 cells in draining LNs following airway exposure to IL-1 family cytokines or natural allergens. Tfh cells and Th2 cells demonstrated unique phenotypes, tissue localization, and cytokine responses. Tfh cells supported the sustained production of IgE antibody in vivo in the absence of other T cell subsets or even when Th2 cell functions were severely compromised. Conversely, conditional deficiency of the master regulator Bcl6 in CD4+ T cells resulted in a marked reduction in Tfh cells and IgE antibody levels, but type 2 cytokine responses and eosinophilic inflammation in the airways remained unaffected. Conclusion Tfh cells play critical roles in the regulation of IgE antibody production. Allergic immune responses to airborne allergens likely involve two distinct subsets of IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells, namely Tfh cells and Th2 cells. PMID:27325434

  13. Follicular helper T cells mediate IgE antibody response to airborne allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao; Iijima, Koji; Dent, Alexander L; Kita, Hirohito

    2017-01-01

    T H 2 cells have long been believed to play a pivotal role in allergic immune responses, including IgE antibody production and type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammation and pathology. A new T-cell subset, follicular helper T (T FH ) cells, is specialized in supporting B-cell maturation and antibody production. We sought to investigate the roles of T FH cells in allergic immune responses. Naive mice were exposed to cytokines or natural allergens through the airways. Development of allergic immune responses was analyzed by collecting draining lymph nodes and sera and by challenging the animals. Cytokine reporter mice and gene-deficient mice were used to dissect the immunologic mechanisms. We observed the development of IL-4-producing T FH cells and T H 2 cells in draining lymph nodes after airway exposure to IL-1 family cytokines or natural allergens. T FH and T H 2 cells demonstrated unique phenotypes, tissue localization, and cytokine responses. T FH cells supported the sustained production of IgE antibody in vivo in the absence of other T-cell subsets or even when T H 2 cell functions were severely compromised. Conversely, conditional deficiency of the master regulator Bcl6 in CD4 + T cells resulted in a marked reduction in T FH cell numbers and IgE antibody levels, but type 2 cytokine responses and eosinophilic inflammation in the airways remained unaffected. T FH cells play critical roles in the regulation of IgE antibody production. Allergic immune responses to airborne allergens likely involve 2 distinct subsets of IL-4-producing CD4 + T cells, namely T FH and Th2 cells. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced-stage III/IV follicular lymphoma. Treatment strategies for individual patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, Frank; Bamberg, Michael; Weinmann, Martin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, Hellmut [Dept. of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Engelhard, Marianne [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Soekler, Martin [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Background: in patients with advanced-stage III/IV follicular lymphoma (FL), there are many treatment options available. The current challenge is to choose the optimal strategy for the individual patient. Methods: the literature was reviewed with respect to treatment strategies in patients with advanced FL by screening the PubMed databank. Results: in advanced-stage III/IV FL, median survival may approach 8-10 years. Treatment strategies include a watch-and-wait strategy, chemoimmunotherapy, monotherapy with rituximab, and - as an experimental approach so far - radioimmunotherapy. The use of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for patients in first remission or chemosensitive relapse prolongs progression-free survival while the effect on overall survival remains unclear compared to standard chemotherapy. However, long-term results are flawed by high relapse rates and risk of secondary malignancies. In patients with relapsed/chemoresistant disease, allogeneic HSCT constitutes the only curative approach but is associated with high treatment-related mortality. In the palliative setting, low-dose involved-field irradiation constitutes an effective treatment option in order to control local symptoms with potential long-lasting response. Conclusion: in case of advanced-disease FL, asymptomatic patients can be managed expectantly. In symptomatic patients, chemoimmunotherapy is regarded as standard therapy. In symptomatic elderly patients with relevant comorbidities, rituximab {+-} single-agent chemotherapy, or low-dose involved-field radiotherapy might be appropriate. For younger patients with chemoresistant/relapsed disease, allogeneic HSCT might be considered, since advances in supportive care and better patient selection have resulted in improved outcomes. (orig.)

  15. Successive annual influenza vaccination induces a recurrent oligoclonotypic memory response in circulating T follicular helper cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Muselman, Alexander; Vella, Laura; Bengsch, Bertram; Parkhouse, Kaela; Del Alcazar, Daniel; Kotzin, Jonathan; Doyle, Susan A.; Tebas, Pablo; Hensley, Scott E.; Su, Laura F.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Wherry, E. John

    2017-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) CD4 cells are crucial providers of B cell help during adaptive immune responses. A circulating population of CD4 T cells, termed cTfh, have similarity to lymphoid Tfh, can provide B cell help, and responded to influenza vaccination. However, it is unclear whether human vaccination-induced cTfh respond in an antigen-specific manner and whether they form long-lasting memory. Here, we identified a cTfh population that expressed multiple T cell activation markers and could be readily identified by coexpression of ICOS and CD38. This subset expressed more Bcl-6, c-Maf, and IL-21 than other blood CD4 subsets. Influenza vaccination induced a strong response in the ICOS+CD38+ cTfh at day 7, and this population included hemagglutinin-specific cells by tetramer staining and antigen-stimulated Activation Induced Marker (AIM) expression. Moreover, TCRB sequencing identified a clonal response in ICOS+CD38+ cTfh that correlated strongly with the increased circulating ICOS+CD38+ cTfh frequency and the circulating plasmablast response. In subjects who received successive annual vaccinations, a recurrent oligoclonal response was identified in the ICOS+CD38+ cTfh subset at 7 days after every vaccination. These oligoclonal responses in ICOS+CD38+ cTfh after vaccination persisted in the ICOS−CD38− cTfh repertoire in subsequent years, suggesting clonal maintenance in a memory reservoir in the more-stable ICOS−CD38− cTfh subset. These data highlight the antigen-specificity, lineage relationships and memory properties of human cTfh responses to vaccination, providing new avenues for tracking and monitoring cTfh responses during infection and vaccination in humans. PMID:28620653

  16. Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Hanaa A; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major flavor enhancer used as a food additive. The present study investigates the effects of different doses of MSG on the morphometric and histological changes of the thyroid gland. 28 male albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: group I control, group II, III and IV treated with MSG (0.25 g/kg, 3 g/kg, 6 g/kg daily for one month) respectively. The thyroid glands were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland of group II revealed increase in follicular epithelial height. Groups III & IV showed decrease in the follicular diameter and irregularity in the shape of some follicles with discontinuity of basement membrane. Follicular hyperplasia was detected in some follicles with appearance of multiple pyknotic nuclei in follicular and interfollicular cells and multiple exfoliated cells in the colloid. In addition, areas of loss of follicular pattern were appeared in group IV. Immunohistochemical examination of BCL2 immunoexpression of the thyroid glands of groups III & IV reveals weak positive reaction in the follicular cells cytoplasm. Ultrathin sections examination of groups III & IV revealed follicular cells with irregular hyperchromatic nuclei, marked dilatation of rER and increased lysosomes with areas of short or lost apical microvilli. In addition, vacuolation of mitochondria was detected in group IV. The results displayed that MSG even at low doses is capable of producing alterations in the body weights and thyroid tissue function and histology.

  17. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  18. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics

  19. Ketoconazole Inhibits Ovulation as a Result of Arrest of Follicular Steroidogenesis in the Rat Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ketoconazole (KCZ is a known inhibitor of steroidogenic P450 enzymes in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. Previous studies examined the potential clinical use of KCZ for attenuation of ovarian response to gonadotropin treatments. This study aimed to use the superovuating rat model to explore the effect of KCZ on ovarian steroidogenesis, follicular function, and development toward ovulation. Methods Prepubertal rats were treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG/human CG (hCG resulting in multiple follicular development and ovulation. The effect of KCZ on this model was examined by administration of KCZ-gel formula and subsequent analyses of ovarian steroidogenesis, rate of ovulation, morphometric assessments of follicular parameters, and cell-specific steroidogenic maturation of the treated ovaries. Results When applied shortly before gonadotropin stimulation, KCZ markedly reduced ovarian progesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol levels down to 18.7, 36.5, and 19.0%, respectively ( P < 0.001. A single KCZ-gel administration of 6, 12, and 24 mg/rat resulted in reduction of ovulated ova/ovary down to 8.6 ± 4.9, 5.1 ± 4.3, and 2.4 ± 3.2, respectively, as compared to 13.6 ± 4.4 ova found in the oviduct of control-gel-injected animals ( P < 0.001. An alternative protocol made use of small KCZ doses injected in non-gel formula (5 mg/dose/8 hours, commenced with the eCG administration and terminated 24 hours later; this treatment readily inhibited the ovulation rates to 6.6 ± 6.6 as compared to 16.5 ± 4.1 ova/ovary in the control group ( P < 0.01. By contrast, KCZ failed to inhibit ovulation if administered 24 hours after eCG injection. Anovulation by KCZ resulted from arrest of follicular development at the stage of 800-840 μm Graafian follicles as compared to 920 μm of peri-ovulatory follicles (OFs observed in the control group, P = 0.029. In addition, absence of CYP11A1 expression was evident in the granulosa cell layers

  20. Update on treatment of follicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: focus on potential of bortezomib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brander DM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Danielle M Brander, Anne W BeavenDuke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Follicular lymphoma is predominantly managed as a chronic disease, with intermittent chemo/immunotherapy reserved for symptomatic progression. It is considered incurable with conventional treatments, and current therapeutic options are associated with significant toxicities that are especially limiting in older patients. Bortezomib (PS-341; Velcade®, a first-in-class drug targeting the proteolytic core subunit of the 26S proteasome, has emerged as a therapeutic alternative in follicular lymphoma, with promising preclinical data and efficacy in patients with other hematological malignancies. Several clinical trials were conducted with bortezomib for the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. As a single agent, overall responses in follicular lymphoma varied greatly (16%–41%, with weekly bortezomib showing less neurotoxicity than twice-weekly regimens, but with concern about decreased responses. Combination with rituximab was projected to improve the efficacy of bortezomib, but this resulted in increased toxicities and questionable added benefit. Although the largest Phase III study in follicular lymphoma of bortezomib plus rituximab versus rituximab alone demonstrated a significant progression-free survival difference, the absolute difference was small (12.8 months versus 11 months. Combining bortezomib with established regimens, such as rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP, rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CVP, or rituximab-bendamustine also did not show definite benefit, and many of these studies did not meet their primary endpoint when bortezomib failed to improve responses or survival to the degree anticipated. In a disease where the goal of treatment is palliative and affected patients often have other medical and treatment-related comorbidities, decisions regarding therapies

  1. Thyroid-Like Follicular Carcinoma of the Kidney in a Patient with Skull and Meningeal Metastasis: A Unique Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Huang, Jiayu; Huang, Luke; Shi, Oumin; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Haige; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney (TLFCK) is an extremely rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma with close resemblance to the well-differentiated thyroid follicular neoplasms. TLFCK has not been included in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification due to the limited data available. Only 27 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Herein, we report a unique case of TLFCK that presented as a striking skull and meningeal metastasis 5 years after the initial diagnosis; this is the first case of TLFCK with such a novel metastasis pattern. A 68-year-old woman was found to have a right renal lesion using computed tomography (CT) during her regular clinical follow-up visit for bladder cancer, but she exhibited no obvious clinical symptoms. The CT scan showed a 4.4-cm diameter, slightly lobulated soft tissue mass in the right lower kidney, the pathological findings of which showed a TLFCK. Five years later, the patient had progressed to skull and meningeal metastasis. Both the renal tumor and the metastasis lesion were composed almost entirely of follicles with a dense, colloid-like material that resembled thyroid follicular carcinoma. However, no lesion was found in the thyroid gland. The neoplastic epithelial cells were strongly immunoreactive for cytokeratin 7 (and vimentin but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 and thyroglobulin. This is the first reported case of TLFCK to consist of widespread metastases to the skull and meninges and provides evidence that this rare variant of renal cell carcinoma has uncertain malignant potential and can be more clinically aggressive than previously believed.

  2. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  3. Follicular Thyroid Cancer Metastasis to the Urinary Bladder: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Grivas, N.; Housianitis, Z.; Doukas, M.; Stavropoulos, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid cancer metastasis to the urinary bladder is a very rear condition. To the authors’ knowledge there have been only 2 cases reported in the literature. Herein a case is reported of a metastatic bladder tumor in a 73-year-old woman with history of thyroid and breast cancer. Gross hematuria was the initial symptom of her metastatic disease. Pathology of the resected mass revealed a follicular thyroid cancer metastasis. This case illustrates that follicular carcinoma of the thyroid may hav...

  4. Concentrations of AMH and inhibin-B in relation to follicular diameter in normal human small antral follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B and steroids in normal human small antral follicles and to relate them to follicular size.......The aim of the present study was to determine the intrafollicular concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B and steroids in normal human small antral follicles and to relate them to follicular size....

  5. Incidence of apoptosis and transcript abundance in bovine follicular cells is associated with the quality of the enclosed oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowski, D; Salilew-Wondim, D; Torner, H; Tesfaye, D; Ghanem, N; Tomek, W; El-Sayed, A; Schellander, K; Hölker, M

    2012-08-01

    The close contact and interaction between the oocyte and the follicular environment influence the establishment of oocyte developmental competence. Moreover, it is assumed that apoptosis in the follicular cells has a beneficial influence on the developmental competence of oocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine oocytes with varied developmental competence show differences in the degree of apoptosis and gene expression pattern in their surrounding follicular cells (cumulus and granulosa cells). Oocytes and follicular cells from follicles of 3 to 5 mm in diameter were grouped as brilliant cresyl blue (BCB)+ and BCB- based on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in the ooplasm by BCB staining. In the follicular cells initial, early and late apoptotic events were assessed by analyzing caspase-3 activity, annexin-V and TUNEL, respectively. Global gene expression was investigated in immature oocytes and corresponding follicular cells. BCB+ oocytes resulted in a higher blastocyst rate (19.3%) compared to the BCB- group (7.4%, P BCB+ compared with the BCB- group. Additionally, the global gene expression profile revealed a total of 34 and 37 differentially expressed genes between BCB+ and BCB- cumulus cells and granulosa cells, respectively, whereas 207 genes showed an altered transcript abundance between BCB+ and BCB- oocytes. Among these, EIF3F, RARRES2, RNF34, ACTA1, GSTA1, EIF3A, VIM and CS gene transcripts were most highly enriched in the BCB+ oocytes, whereas OLFM1, LINGO1, ALDH1A3, PTHLH, BTN3A3, MRPS2 and PPM1K were most significantly reduced in these cells. Therefore, the follicular cells enclosing developmentally competent oocytes show a higher level of apoptosis and a different pattern of gene expression compared to follicular cells enclosing non-competent bovine oocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heizmann, Beate [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Sellars, MacLean [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macias-Garcia, Alejandra [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Institute for Medical Engineering and Science at MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chan, Susan, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Kastner, Philippe, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-02-12

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  7. MR imaging in following follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus, C.L.; Gendal, E.S.; Wiczyk, H.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Laufer, N.

    1987-01-01

    The authors assessed the usefulness of MR imaging in monitoring follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle. MR images, sonograms, and hormonal levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) obtained from five ovulatory volunteers were evaluated in approximately days 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 of the cycle. MR imaging surpassed US in demonstrating endometrial and myometrial changes. Follicular growth and development seen on MR images correlated well with US appearance and hormonal levels, with MR imaging demonstrating more secondary smaller follicles than US. Information about the normal cycle obtained with MR imaging is described and may have practical implications for women in infertility programs undergoing stimulated cycles and in vitro fertilization

  8. Simultaneous occurrence of follicular lymphoma and mixed-cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma: lymph node and extranodal involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grangeiro Maria do Patrocínio F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual and well-characterised case of composite lymphoma in the spleen and lymph node is presented. The simultaneous occurrence of mixed-cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL and follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL was demonstrated in a 66-year-old man admitted in our Service with anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple abdominal lymph nodes. The morphological study of the spleen and lymph node of the splenic hilum showed an infiltrate composed of two distinct neoplasias. The liver was involved by NHL infiltrate and the peripancreatic lymph node exhibited HL. The Reed-Sternberg (RS cells expressed CD 15 and CD 30, whereas the NHL cells presented standard immunohistochemical features of follicular lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the fifth case report of concurrent spleen involvement by composite lymphoma. The incidence, clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of this rare association are discussed.

  9. Diffuse Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report with a Revision of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Gian Luca Rampioni; Noccioli, Niccolò; Bartolazzi, Armando

    2016-11-17

    The diffuse follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DFV-PTC) is a rare malignant thyroid condition. It represents an uncommon variant of papillary carcinoma characterized by a diffuse involvement of thyroid parenchyma, follicular architecture and nuclear features of PTC in absence of a surrounding capsule. Up to date few data have been collected about this entity and, at the best of our knowledge, only 24 cases have been reported in the literature. According to these reports DFV-PTC seems to occur preferentially in young women and shows more aggressive behavior than other papillary thyroid tumors. Herein we present an unusual case of DFV-PTC occurring in an 83 years old woman, involving the entire thyroid gland, without distinct or prevalent thyroid nodules. The tumor was clinically misdiagnosed as obstructive goiter.

  10. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient\\'s age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with \\'red flag\\' symptoms.

  11. Bethlem myopathy: An autosomal dominant myopathy with flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aralikatte Onkarappa Saroja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy form a spectrum of collagenopathies caused by genetic mutations encoding for any of the three subunits of collagen VI. Bethlem phenotype is relatively benign and is characterized by proximal dominant myopathy, keloids, contractures, distal hyperextensibility, and follicular hyperkeratosis. Three patients from a single family were diagnosed to have Bethlem myopathy based on European Neuromuscular Centre Bethlem Consortium criteria. Affected father and his both sons had slowly progressive proximal dominant weakness and recurrent falls from the first decade. Both children aged 18 and 20 years were ambulant at presentation. All had flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis without muscle hypertrophy. Creatinine kinase was mildly elevated and electromyography revealed myopathic features. Muscle imaging revealed severe involvement of glutei and vasti with "central shadow" in rectus femoris. Muscle biopsy in the father showed dystrophic changes with normal immmunostaining for collagen VI, sarcoglycans, and dysferlin.

  12. In situ follicular neoplasia/lymphoma: Three illustrative cases exemplifying unique disease presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sakhadeo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three elderly patients with follicular lymphoma in situ (FLIS each highlighting a unique pattern of disease presentation and progression. The first patient had incidentally detected FLIS with peripheral blood spill and yet had an 11-year uneventful follow up. The second patient with an overt follicular lymphoma (FL developed high-grade transformation in jejunum with FLIS extensively involving the Payers patches. The third patient had a FLIS but that qualified as higher grade and was treated in spite of lack of overt FL mainly because of higher grade and patient subsequently did develop overt FL. The first case of typical FLIS confirms that peripheral blood spill does not connote poor prognosis in FLIS, the second case illustrates that FLIS may colonize mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue as part of homing in process of a disseminated FL and the third case validates the aggressive nature of high-grade FLIS.

  13. Follicular thyroid carcinoma characterized by abundant stromal components with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Yamada, Naoaki; Kitamori, Takashi; Kitamori, Fumiyo; Sato, Kazunari; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Sato, Junko; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    A dog developed a cervical mass, and computed tomography verified a mass surrounding the trachea with some pulmonary masses. Histopathologically, the cervical mass was composed of malignant neoplastic cells showing follicular appearance which reacted positive for thyroglobulin on immunohistochemistry. A characteristic feature of the tumor was abundant and metaplastic stromal components. Anastomosed collagenous tissues connecting to capsule of the tumor were abundant in the stroma. In parts of the collagenous tissues, mature cartilages and bones were continuously formed. There was no cellular atypia or invasion in the components. We diagnosed this case as follicular thyroid carcinoma with metaplastic stroma. This is the first case report that characterizes stromal components with chondroid and osseous metaplasia in a canine thyroid carcinoma.

  14. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heizmann, Beate; Sellars, MacLean; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  15. Effect of stage of follicular growth during superovulation on developmental competence of bovine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humblot, P; Holm, P; Lonergan, P

    2005-01-01

    The final steps of oocyte capacitation and maturation are critical for embryonic development but detailed information is scarce on how the oocyte is affected during this period. In this study, 2033 oocytes were collected from 106 superovulated cattle at four different time points before ovulation....... Follicular characteristics were measured and oocyte quality was assessed by morphology, mRNA expression of eight marker genes or developmental ability after in vitro/in vivo maturation and subsequent in vitro fertilization and culture. Approaching ovulation, expected increases in follicular size and cumulus...... expansion suggested progression of oocyte maturation. No differences were found in the expression patterns of analyzed genes, except for heat-shock-protein (Hsp) that was lower in in vivo matured oocytes collected shortly before ovulation. Oocytes collected at this time also had higher developmental ability...

  16. The influence of chronic gamma-irradiation on the structure of follicular system of animal ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banetskaya, N.B.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of a chronic gamma - irradiation in a low doze (0.5 Gy, capacity of a doze 1.8 * 10 -7 Gy / s) on follicular apparatus of ovary of young white female rats was investigated. Quantity of the follicles on the all stages of development was calculated. It is detected that the chronic irradiation by a low doze of young rats causes to morphological changes in ovaries. At once after an irradiation is marked the ovulation stimulation, it can be connected with change of the hormone balance in a body of the animals. In one month after an irradiation quantity of follicles on the all stages of development is reduced and number of atretic bodies is increased. The similar disorders can be connected as with direct influence of ionizing radiation on oocytes and them follicular cells, and also with action through change in bodies of the endocrine system. 14 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Iontophoresis of minoxidil sulphate loaded microparticles, a strategy for follicular drug targeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Barros, M Angélica de Oliveira; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Lopez, Renata F V

    2015-10-01

    The feasibility of targeting drugs to hair follicles by a combination of microencapsulation and iontophoresis has been evaluated. Minoxidil sulphate (MXS), which is used in the treatment of alopecia, was selected as a relevant drug with respect to follicular penetration. The skin permeation and disposition of MXS encapsulated in chitosan microparticles (MXS-MP) was evaluated in vitro after passive and iontophoretic delivery. Uptake of MXS was quantified at different exposure times in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles. Microencapsulation resulted in increased (6-fold) drug accumulation in the hair follicles relative to delivery from a simple MXS solution. Application of iontophoresis enhanced follicular delivery for both the solution and the microparticle formulations. It appears, therefore, that microencapsulation and iontophoresis can act synergistically to enhance topical drug targeting to hair follicles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sarcoptes scabiei alters follicular dynamics in female Iberian ibex through a reduction in body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, José; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge R; Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Romero, Diego; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Fandos, Paulino

    2017-08-30

    Normal development of the ovarian cycle is a key factor in ensuring female reproductive success. Sarcoptes scabiei has been shown to induce changes in host physiology, although the effects of this mite on the female reproductive cycle are still unknown. In an attempt to clarify this issue, the number of ovarian structures (primary follicles, secondary follicles, Graaf follicles, corpus luteum and corpus albicans) in female Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange was explored by histological analysis of samples taken from 102 females selectively harvested in the Sierra Nevada Natural Space, southern Spain. The effect of mange status, body weight (corrected for age), age and year of sampling on the number of ovarian structures was assessed using generalized linear models. Our results provide evidence that sarcoptic mange alters follicular dynamics through a reduction in host body weight, whose main consequences are noted in follicular maturation and ovulatory capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal testosterone treatment and postnatal obesity on ovarian follicular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, V; Smith, P; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep with obesity exaggerating such defects. Developmental studies found ovarian reserve is similar in control and prenatal T sheep at fetal day 140, with prenatal T females showing increased follicular recruitment and persistence at 10 months of age (postpubertal). This study tested if prenatal T sheep show accelerated depletion prepubertally and if depletion of ovarian reserve would explain loss of cyclicity in prenatal...

  20. A case of a combination of Crocker - Adamson follicular spinulosa, lichen acuminatus and Little - Lassueur syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Slesarenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a clinical case of a combination of Crocker-Adamson follicular spinulosa, lichen acuminatus and Little-Lassueur syndrome in a young man aged 17. The patient had the onset of atopic manifestations at an early age (atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis along with disorders related to the process of keratosis. The article provides current data on the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of these diseases.

  1. Cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of normal andcystic ovaries of sows

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Ana, Fabiano J.F. de; Reis Junior, Janildo L.; Araújo, Rosélia L.S.; J.Gimeno, Eduardo; Ortega, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of cytoskeletal proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically in 36 normal ovaries sampled from 18 sows and 44 cystic ovaries sampled from of 22 sows, was evaluated. All sows had history of reproductive problems, such as infertility or subfertility. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA) was quantified through image analysis to evaluate the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary, and cystic follicles. Cytokeratins (CK) immunoreactivity...

  2. Organochlorine pesticides in follicular fluid of women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies from central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yindi; Huang, Bo; Li, Qing X.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Female infertility rates have increased by approximately 4% since the 1980s. There is evidence of adverse effects on female fertility in relation to exposure of chemical pollution in recent years. Follicular fluid samples were collected from 127 woman patients (aged 20–35) who underwent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and had no records indicating occupational exposure to OCPs. Seventeen OCPs were analyzed in this study. The results showed that methoxychlor was dominant, accounted for 13.4% of total OCPs with a mean concentration of 167.9 ± 33.9 ng/g lipid weight (lw), followed by heptachlor-epoxide, hexachlorocyclohexanes, endrin and DDT. The concentrations of OCPs in the follicular fluid samples in the present study were moderate in comparison with those reported from developed or industrialized countries. All these pollutants can accumulate in different tissues of human body through diet, drinking water and respiration. No correlation between patient age and OCP concentrations was observed in this study. - Highlights: • 17 OCPs in follicular fluid samples from 127 woman patients were analyzed. • Methoxychlor was the most dominant, constituting 13.4% of total OCPs with a mean concentration of 168 ng/g lw. • The concentrations of DDT and HCHs were lower than those in human breast milk from Russia and Iran and blood from India. • DDTs and HCHs in the samples would be mainly from historical usage. • The correlation between patient ages and concentrations of OCPs was weak. - OCPs at median concentrations of 460.0–2927.2 ng/g lipid weight in follicular fluids of central China have physiological effects.

  3. Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane Subhadra V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collision tumors of the thyroid gland are a rare entity. We present a case of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma in the thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a collision tumor with a papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma within the thyroid gland. The clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profile are reported. The theories of origin, epidemiology and management are discussed with a literature review. Case presentation A 65 year old woman presented with a large thyroid swelling of 10 years duration and with swellings on the back and scalp which were diagnosed to be a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis. Clinical examination, radiology and endoscopy ruled out any other abnormality of the upper aerodigestive tract. The patient was treated surgically with a total thyroidectomy with central compartment clearance and bilateral selective neck dissections. The histopathology revealed a collision tumor with components of both a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the independent origin of these two primary tumors. Adjuvant radio iodine therapy directed toward the follicular derived component of the thyroid tumor and external beam radiotherapy for the squamous component was planned. Conclusion Collision tumors of the thyroid gland pose a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge. Metastasis from distant organs and contiguous primary tumors should be excluded. The origins of squamous cancer in the thyroid gland must be established to support the true evolution of a collision tumor and to plan treatment. Treatment for collision tumors depends upon the combination of primary tumors involved and each component of the combination should be treated like an independent primary. The reporting of similar cases with longer follow-up will help define the

  4. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Characterized by Abundant Stromal Components with Chondroid and Osseous Metaplasia in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    KOBAYASHI, Ryosuke; YAMADA, Naoaki; KITAMORI, Takashi; KITAMORI, Fumiyo; SATO, Kazunari; DOI, Takuya; WAKO, Yumi; SATO, Junko; TSUCHITANI, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A dog developed a cervical mass, and computed tomography verified a mass surrounding the trachea with some pulmonary masses. Histopathologically, the cervical mass was composed of malignant neoplastic cells showing follicular appearance which reacted positive for thyroglobulin on immunohistochemistry. A characteristic feature of the tumor was abundant and metaplastic stromal components. Anastomosed collagenous tissues connecting to capsule of the tumor were abundant in the stroma. In...

  5. Relationship between Energy Expenditure Related Factors and Oxidative Stress in Follicular Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz Nejat; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI), total calorie intake and physical activity (PA) as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS) in follicular fluid (FF). Materials and Methods This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additional...

  6. Metabolomic profiling and biochemical evaluation of the follicular fluid of endometriosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianna, Santonastaso; Alessia, Pucciarelli; Susan, Costantini; Francesca, Caprio; Angela, Sorice; Francesca, Capone; Antonella, Natella; Patrizia, Iardino; Nicola, Colacurci; Emilio, Chiosi

    2017-06-01

    Diseases are complex systems that can be studied through the integration of data derived from different disciplines to obtain a global and reliable picture of the biological phenomenon under investigation. Based on the recent observations that the metabolomics profiling of follicular fluids reflects the ovarian microenvironment of women and that endometriosis represents an example of complex diseases, clearly diagnosed by laparoscopy, we thought that the follicular fluids of endometriosis patients can represent a study model to evaluate the possibility of integrating data obtained by different approaches. Hence, the aim of this work was to analyze and integrate different clinical chemistry parameters with specific reference to the metabolic profile, inflammatory state and cell damage by a 1 H-NMR approach and biochemical analysis in the follicular fluids of women with different stages of endometriosis (I-II and III-IV) subjected to the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) cycle. Our analysis evidenced that in the follicular fluids of endometriosis patients the levels of phospholipids, lactate, insulin, PTX3, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL11 and VEGF were higher whereas those of some fatty acids, lysine, choline, glucose, aspartate, alanine, leucine, valine, proline, phosphocholine, total LDH as well its LDH-3 isoform were lower in comparison to the control group. The levels of LDHB, PTX3 and insulin receptor were also confirmed by RT-PCR applied on cumulus cells surrounding oocytes retrieved from the patients. The reduced oocyte quality observed in patients with endometriosis can be certainly correlated to the different levels of these molecules. These data represent how the integration of different experimental approaches may be useful for understanding the underlying mechanisms of a complex disease and can lead to a better clinical management of endometriosis.

  7. Increased circulating follicular helper T cells with decreased programmed death-1 in chronic renal allograft rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jian; Luo, Fengbao; Shi, Qianqian; Xu, Xianlin; He, Xiaozhou; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic antibody-mediated rejection is a major issue that affects long-term renal allograft survival. Since follicular helper T (Tfh) cells promote the development of antigen-specific B cells in alloimmune responses, we investigated the potential roles of Tfh cells, B cells and their alloimmune-regulating molecules in the pathogenesis of chronic renal allograft rejection in this study. Methods The frequency of Tfh, B cells and the levels of their alloimmune-regulating molecules inc...

  8. Primary follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasis to the kidney and widespread dissemination: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    CAI, DI-MING; WANG, HUI-YAO; JIANG, YONG; PARAJULY, SHYAM SUNDAR; TIAN, YE; MA, BU-YUN; LI, YONG-ZHONG; SONG, BIN; LUO, YAN

    2016-01-01

    Distant metastases are more common in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FC) than in papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, FC metastasis to the kidney with eggshell calcification, as observed in the present case, is rare. The current report presents a case of a 67-year-old woman exhibiting a solitary tumor in the mid pole of the left kidney. Radical nephrectomy was performed, as the tumor was diagnosed as a primary renal carcinoma using contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Once the tumor was con...

  9. Ovarian Follicular Dynamics During the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Muraco, Holley; Clough, Pat; Teets, Valerie; Arn, Dennis; Muraco, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the relationship between ovarian follicular dynamics and the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) requires detailed daily monitoring due to the transitory nature of LH and ovulation. Utilizing conditioned dolphins and non-invasive sampling techniques, such as urine collection and trans-abdominal ultrasound exams, provides the means to accurately monitor these fleeting processes. Urine samples and ultrasound exams used in this study were ...

  10. Metabolic Profiles in Ovulatory and Anovulatory Primiparous Dairy Cows During the First Follicular Wave Postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Chiho; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahiro; Sasamoto, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Motozumi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic hormones affect ovarian function in the cow. However, the relationship between metabolic factors and ovarian function is not clear in the postpartum primiparous cow because they are still growing. The aim of the present study was to investigate in detail the time-dependent profile of the metabolic hormones, metabolites, and milk yields of ovulatory and anovulatory primiparous cows during the first follicular wave postpartum. We used 16 primiparous Holstein cows and obtained blood sa...

  11. Follicular B Cell Lymphoma with Accompanying Ischemic Gastritis Completely Resolved by Rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Anam; Mehta, Neal; Peroutka, Kathryn

    2017-06-02

    BACKGROUND Follicular B cell lymphomas account for a significant portion of all newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. While involvement can be varied, the most common extranodal presentation is within the gastrointestinal tract beyond the stomach. In addition, the stomach has a diffuse multivessel vascular supply, which decreases the likelihood of developing ischemic gastritis. CASE REPORT An 89-year-old woman with history of diabetes, deep venous thromboembolism, and hypertension was referred due to a newly diagnosed retroperitoneal mass. Biopsy of a left para-aortic node was consistent with low-grade follicular B cell lymphoma. Following mainstream treatment guidelines, rituximab was administered. Approximately 12 hours later, the patient presented to the Emergency Department with intractable vomiting and nausea. After admission, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed extensive ischemic gastritis. Due to recurrent ascites requiring frequent paracenteses, and the clinical aggressiveness of the patient's underlying lymphoma, a second dose of rituximab was administered with concurrent initiation of total parenteral nutrition. Approximately 1 week later, the patient underwent a repeat EGD for quality of life planning while in hospice. The repeat EGD revealed resolved ischemic gastritis. Her diet was advanced and she was subsequently discharged home. CONCLUSIONS Rituximab alone shows promise in treating extensive follicular B cell lymphoma complicated by ischemic gastritis, which has not been previously reported in the literature.

  12. Recombinant luteinizing hormone priming in multiple follicular stimulation for in-vitro fertilization in downregulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, F; Caserta, D; Montanino, M; Berlinghieri, V; Bielli, W; Carfagna, P; Carra, M C; Costantino, A; Lisi, R; Poverini, R; Ciardo, F; Rago, R; Marci, R; Moscarini, M

    2012-09-01

    Follicle development is controlled amongst other factors by pituitary gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) that act in synergy in completing follicle maturation. Exogenous gonadotropins, combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, have been successfully used in patients with ovulatory disorders undergoing assisted reproduction. There is some evidence of a beneficial role of androgens or LH administration before FSH stimulation. This study was designed to verify whether the addition of LH in the early follicular phase, in downregulated patients undergoing follicular stimulation for assisted reproduction, would add benefits in terms of general outcomes and pregnancy rates. We compared two groups of patients one of which was treated with recombinant FSH (rFSH) alone and the other with rFSH plus recombinant LH (rLH), in the early follicular phase only. The number of eggs recovered was higher in the group treated with FSH only; however, the number of embryos available at transfer was similar in the two groups and, more importantly, the number of Grades I and II embryos was higher in the group pretreated with LH. Similarly, although biochemical pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rates were similar in both groups, a beneficial role of LH priming was demonstrated by the higher implantation rate achieved in these patients.

  13. Iontophoresis-targeted, follicular delivery of minoxidil sulfate for the treatment of alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Tais; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Vianna Lopez, Renata Fonseca

    2013-05-01

    Although minoxidil (MX) is a drug known to stimulate hair growth, the treatment of androgenic alopecia could be improved by delivery strategies that would favor drug accumulation into the hair follicles. This work investigated in vitro the potential of iontophoresis to achieve this objective using MX sulfate (MXS), a more water-soluble derivative of MX. Passive delivery of MXS was first determined from an ethanol-water solution and from a thermosensitive gel. The latter formulation resulted in greater accumulation of MXS in the stratum corneum (skin's outermost layer) and hair follicles and an overall decrease in absorption through the skin. Anodal iontophoresis of MXS from the same gel formulation was then investigated at pH 3.5 and pH 5.5. Compared with passive delivery, iontophoresis increased the amount of drug reaching the follicular infundibula from 120 to 600 ng per follicle. In addition, drug recovery from follicular casts was threefold higher following iontophoresis at pH 5.5 compared with that at pH 3.5. Preliminary in vivo experiments in rats confirmed that iontophoretic delivery of MXS facilitated drug accumulation in hair follicles. Overall, therefore, iontophoresis successfully and significantly enhanced follicular delivery of MX suggesting a useful opportunity for the improved treatment of alopecia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Prognostic Impact of CD163-Positive Macrophages in Follicular Lymphoma: A Study from the BC Cancer Agency and the Lymphoma Study Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Robert; Xerri, Luc; Gelas-Dore, Bénédicte; Tan, King; Feugier, Pierre; Vawda, Ayesha; Canioni, Danielle; Farinha, Pedro; Boussetta, Sami; Moccia, Alden A; Brice, Pauline; Chavez, Elizabeth A; Kyle, Alastair H; Scott, David W; Sanders, Ashley D; Fabiani, Bettina; Slack, Graham W; Minchinton, Andrew I; Haioun, Corinne; Connors, Joseph M; Sehn, Laurie H; Steidl, Christian; Gascoyne, Randy D; Salles, Gilles

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to assess the prognostic significance of follicular lymphoma-associated macrophages in the era of rituximab treatment and maintenance. We applied immunohistochemistry for CD68 and CD163 to two large tissue microarrays (TMA). The first TMA included samples from 186 patients from the BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) who had been treated with first-line systemic treatment including rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. The second contained 395 samples from PRIMA trial patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, and randomized to rituximab maintenance or observation. Macrophage infiltration was assessed using Aperio image analysis. Each of the two cohorts was randomly split into training/validation sets. An increased CD163-positive pixel count was predictive of adverse outcome in the BCCA dataset [5-year progression-free survival (PFS) 38% vs. 72%, respectively, P = 0.004 in the training cohort and 5-year PFS 29% vs. 61%, respectively, P = 0.004 in the validation cohort]. In the PRIMA trial, an increased CD163 pixel count was associated with favorable outcome (5-year PFS 60% vs. 44%, respectively, P = 0.011 in the training cohort and 5-year PFS 55% vs. 37%, respectively, P = 0.030 in the validation cohort). CD163-positive macrophages predict outcome in follicular lymphoma, but their prognostic impact is highly dependent on treatment received. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Follicular Development Dynamics and Plasma Progesterone Profile during the Estrous Cycle of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PP Putro

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of five local Friesian cows, 4 to 5 years, healthy, reproductively sound, were used in the study to understand the development dynamics of dominant follicles and plasma progesterone profile during estrous cycle.   Transrectal ultrasonographic examination using real time, B-mode, with 7.5 MHz transducer was performed daily for one full cycle to follow the development of dominant follicle and corpus luteum dynamics.   Blood plasma was collected daily to determine progesterone levels using EIA technique.   Follicular development dynamics and plasma progesterone levels were analyzed statistically using analyses of variance, while correlation between plasma progesterone levels and corpus luteum size were tested using correlation analyses.   The length of estrous cycle in local Friesian cow was 21.00 + 1.00 days.   Follicular dynamics during estrous cycle indicated only had two waves of dominant follicular development.   The first wave of dominant follicle was firstly identified on day 3, reached maximum diameter (11.17 + 0.90 mm on day 11 and identifiable until day 15.   The second dominant follicle appeared on day 11, reached maximum size on day 21 (13.17 + 0.69 mm and underwent ovulation on the next day.   The increased diameter of dominant follicle from days 17 to 21 was linear with growth rate of 1.20 + 0.18 mm/day.   Ovulatory dominant follicle had larger size than non-ovulatory ones (P<0.05.   Corpus luteum was ultrasonically detectable from days 5 to 19 of the estrous cycle.   The maximum size of corpus luteum (11.83 + 0.75 mm attained on day 11, and then regressed substantially till day 19.  Plasma progesterone level started to rise during the luteal phase, reached the peak level on day 12 (4.64 + 0.23 ng/ml and then decreased steadily till the lowest level (0.42 + 0.05 ng/ml at the time of estrus.  The plasma progesterone profile and the corpus luteum development were concomitant each other during estrous

  16. Angiotensin-(1-7) in human follicular fluid correlates with oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ines K; Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Oliveira, Marilene L; Del Puerto, Helen L; Dias, Júlia A; Lobach, Veronica N; Casalechi, Maíra; Camargos, Maria G; Reis, Adelina M; Santos, Robson A; Reis, Fernando M

    2017-06-01

    Do angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) levels in human ovarian follicular fluid (FF) correlate with the number and proportion of mature oocytes obtained for IVF? The present study shows for the first time that Ang-(1-7) levels in human FF correlate with the proportion of mature oocytes collected upon ovarian stimulation for IVF. Ang-(1-7) is an active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system that stimulates oocyte maturation in isolated rabbit and rat ovaries. However, its role in human ovulation remains unexplored. This was a prospective cohort study including 64 participants from a single IVF center. Sample size was calculated to achieve a statistical power of 80% in detecting 20% differences in the proportion of mature oocytes between groups. The participants were enrolled in the study during six consecutive months. Plasma samples were obtained from all subjects at Day 21 of the last menstrual cycle before starting pituitary blockade and controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). Plasma and FF samples were quickly mixed with a protease inhibitor cocktail and stored at -80°C. Ang-(1-7) was quantified in plasma and FF samples by a highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay, which was preceded by solid phase extraction, speed vacuum concentration and sample reconstitution in assay buffer. FF Ang-(1-7) levels were stratified into tertiles and the patients of each tertile were compared for COS/IVF outcomes using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis was used to adjust correlations for potential confounders. The mRNA encoding for Mas, a receptor for Ang-(1-7), was investigated by real-time PCR in luteinized granulosa cells purified from the FF. There was a four-fold increase in plasma Ang-(1-7) after ovulation induction (median 160.9 vs 41.4 pg/ml, P Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG). The authors have nothing to disclose. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

  17. Follicular helper T cells in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Alicia Beatriz; Acosta, Cristina Del Valle; Onetti, Laura; Mussano, Eduardo; Cadile, Ignacio Isaac; Ferrero, Paola Virginia

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease that is characterized by the presence of different autoantibodies such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. CD4T cells expressing CXCR5, referred as follicular helper T cells (Tfh), collaborate with B cells to produce antibodies. Differential expression of CXCR3 and CCR6 within CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells defines three mayor subsets: CXCR3 + CCR6 - (Tfh1), CXCR3 - CCR6 - (Tfh2) and CXCR3 - CCR6 + (Tfh17). The aim of the study was to assess whether there is an association between the percentage of these cells and RA and whether there is a correlation with disease activity. Twenty-four RA patients, 22 healthy controls (HC) and 16 undifferentiated arthritis (UA) patients were included. Percentage of CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells and their subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. No differences were found in the percentages of CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells in the comparison of RA vs HC or RA vs UA patients. Tfh1, Tfh2 and Tfh17 subsets showed no differences either. There was no correlation between CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells, Tfh1, Tfh2 and Tfh17, and Disease Activity Score in twenty-eight joints (DAS28) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Surprisingly, there was a positive correlation between Tfh17 cells and C-reactive protein. Finally, there was no correlation between CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells, or their subsets, and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin, or between the cells and RF. There were no differences between the percentages of CD4 + CXCR5 + T cells and their subsets in peripheral blood of RA patients and the percentages of cells in the control groups. This finding does not rule out a pathogenic role of these cells in the development and activity of RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating the Degree of Conformity of Papillary Carcinoma and Follicular Carcinoma to the Reported Ultrasonographic Findings of Malignant Thyroid Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeh, Su Kyoung; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Bum Soo; Lee, Yoen Soo

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor. Between January 2003 and December 2004, fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 1,036 patients with palpable and nonpalpable thyroid lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings of patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 127) and follicular carcinomas (n 23) that were proven by operation or fine needle aspiration biopsy. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of these nodules based on the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor: hypoechogenicity, a taller than wide orientation, a microlobulated or irregular margin, a thick hypoechoic rim (halo sign), microcalcification and cystic change. The echogenicity was hypoechoic in 72.4% (92/127) of the papillary carcinomas, but it was isoechoic in 65.2% (15/23) of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The nodule shape was tall or round in 74.1% of the papillary carcinomas, but it was flat in 72.7% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The tumor margin was microlobulated or irregular in 92.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in 60.9% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). A hypoechoic rim was seen in 26% of the papillary carcinomas (thin rim: 13.4%, thick rim: 12.6%) and in 86.6% of the follicular carcinomas (thin rim: 39.1%, thick rim: 47.8%, p < 0.001). Microcalcifications were demonstrated in 33.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in none of the cases of follicular carcinoma (p < 0.001). A solid mass without cystic change were seen in 98.4% of the papillary carcinomas and in 82.6% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The previously reported ultrasonography findings of malignant thyroid tumor are in conformity with most of the papillary carcinomas, but not with follicular carcinomas. The current ultrasonographic features for thyroid malignancy should be cautiously applied as the indication for

  19. Anti-ICOS Monoclonal Antibody MEDI-570 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Follicular Variant or Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-19

    Follicular T-Cell Lymphoma; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mature T- and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides; Recurrent Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides AJCC v7; Stage II Mycosis Fungoides AJCC v7; Stage III Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides AJCC v7

  20. Imaging of Early Response to Predict Prognosis in the First-Line Management of Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with Iodine-131-Rituximab Radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Murali; Boucek, Jan; MacDonald, William; McQuillan, Andrew; Turner, J Harvey

    2017-05-12

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of prognosis after first-line radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of advanced follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma (FL), by imaging with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET/CT) three months after induction treatment by Iodine-131-rituximab ( 131 I-rituximab). Objective response was determined using the Deauville 5-point scale in 68 prospective clinical trial patients. Baseline 18 F-FDG-PET/CT studies were used to calculate total-metabolic-tumor-volume (TMTV). Non-imaging studies included the Follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) and absolute baseline monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Patients were monitored for over ten years (median follow-up 59 months), and no patient was lost to follow-up. Complete response (CR) of 88% predicted excellent prognosis with median time-to-next-treatment (TTNT) not yet reached. Those patients (12%) who failed to achieve CR (Deauville ≤ 3) on 18 F-FDG-PET/CT at three months had significantly poorer outcomes ( p < 0.0001) with a median TTNT of 41 months. Requirement for re-treatment was predicted by FLIPI and absolute baseline monocyte count but not lymphocyte count. The TTNT was accurately predicted by 18 F-FDG-PET/CT Deauville response at three months following first-line therapy of FL with RIT. Early response demonstrated by imaging does, therefore, foretell prognosis in the individual FL patients.

  1. Identification of CHEK1, SLC26A4, c-KIT, TPO and TG as new biomarkers for human follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf, Anne-Marie; Chitikova, Zhanna; Pusztaszeri, Marc; Berczy, Margaret; Delucinge-Vivier, Celine; Triponez, Frederic; Meyer, Patrick; Philippe, Jacques; Dibner, Charna

    2016-07-19

    The search for preoperative biomarkers for thyroid malignancies, in particular for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) diagnostics, is of utmost clinical importance. We thus aimed at screening for potential biomarker candidates for FTC. To evaluate dynamic alterations in molecular patterns as a function of thyroid malignancy progression, a comparative analysis was conducted in clinically distinct subgroups of FTC and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) nodules. NanoString analysis of FFPE samples was performed in 22 follicular adenomas, 56 FTC and 25 PDTC nodules, including oncocytic and non-oncocytic subgroups. The expression levels of CHEK1, c-KIT, SLC26A4, TG and TPO were significantly altered in all types of thyroid carcinomas. Based on collective changes of these biomarkers which correlating among each other, a predictive score has been established, allowing for discrimination between benign and FTC samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Additional transcripts related to thyroid function, cell cycle, circadian clock, and apoptosis regulation were altered in the more aggressive oncocytic subgroups only, with expression levels correlating with disease progression. Distinct molecular patterns were observed for oncocytic and non-oncocytic FTCs and PDTCs. A predictive score correlation coefficient based on collective alterations of identified here biomarkers might help to improve the preoperative diagnosis of FTC nodules.

  2. Rituximab for the first-line treatment of stage III/IV follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Y; Bagust, A; Hounsome, J; McLeod, C; Boland, A; Davis, H; Walley, T; Dickson, R

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report into the clinical and cost-effectiveness of rituximab for the first-line treatment of stage III/IV follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (FNHL) based upon the manufacturer's submission to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal (STA) process. The manufacturer's scope restricts the intervention to rituximab in combination with CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone) (R-CVP); the only comparator used was CVP alone. The evidence from the one included randomised controlled trial (RCT) suggests that the addition of rituximab to a CVP chemotherapy regimen has a positive effect on the outcomes of time to treatment failure, disease progression, overall tumour response, duration of response and time to new lymphoma treatment in patients with stage III/IV FNHL compared with CVP alone. Adverse events were comparable between the two arms. This study was confirmed as the only relevant RCT. The economic analyses provided by the manufacturer were modelled using a three-state Markov model with with the health states being defined as progression-free survival (PFS), progressed (in which patients have relapsed) and death (which is an absorbing state). The model generated results for a cohort of patients with an initial age of 53 and makes no distinction between men and women. The model is basic in design, with several serious design flaws and key parameter values that are probably incompatible. Attempting to rectify the identified errors and limitations of the model did not increase the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) above 30,000 pounds. Although the cost-effectiveness results obtained appear to be compelling in support of R-CVP compared with CVP for the trial population the results may not be so convincing for a more representative population. The results of the ERG analysis on the impact of age suggest that ICERs increase

  3. The Ratio of Blood T Follicular Regulatory Cells to T Follicular Helper Cells Marks Ectopic Lymphoid Structure Formation While Activated Follicular Helper T Cells Indicate Disease Activity in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Valter R; Romão, Vasco C; Agua-Doce, Ana; Santos, Mara; López-Presa, Dolores; Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Fonseca, João Eurico; Graca, Luis

    2018-05-01

    To investigate whether the balance of blood follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells can provide information about ectopic lymphoid neogenesis and disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We prospectively recruited 56 patients clinically suspected of having SS. Sixteen of these patients subsequently fulfilled the American-European Consensus Group criteria for SS and were compared to 16 patients with non-SS sicca syndrome. Paired blood and minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsy samples were analyzed to study Tfr cells and subsets of Tfh cells in both compartments. Patients with primary SS had normal Tfh cell counts in peripheral blood; however, activated programmed death 1-positive (PD-1+) inducible costimulator-positive (ICOS+) Tfh cells in peripheral blood were strongly associated with disease activity assessed by the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (r = 0.8547, P = 0.0008). Conversely, the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio indicated ectopic lymphoid structure formation in MSGs, being strongly associated with B cell, CD4+ T cell, and PD-1+ICOS+ T cell infiltration in MSGs, and was especially increased in patients with focal sialadenitis. Further analysis showed that the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio allowed discrimination between SS patients and healthy donors with excellent accuracy and was a strong predictor of SS diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 12.96, P = 0.028) and the presence of focal sialadenitis (OR 10, P = 0.022) in patients investigated for sicca symptoms, thus highlighting the potential clinical value of this marker. The blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio and PD-1+ICOS+ Tfh cells constitute potential novel biomarkers for different features of primary SS. While the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio is associated with ectopic lymphoid neogenesis, activated Tfh cells indicate disease activity. © 2018, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Maternal IL-6 can cause T-cell-mediated juvenile alopecia by non-scarring follicular dystrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen E P; Maus, Rachel L G; Davis, Tessa R; Sundberg, John P; Gil, Diana; Schrum, Adam G

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to decipher immunological mechanisms of the autoimmune disorder alopecia areata (AA), we hypothesized that interleukin-6 (IL-6) might be associated with juvenile-onset AA, for which there is currently no experimental model. Upon intramuscular transgenesis to overexpress IL-6 in pregnant female C57BL/6 (B6) mice, we found that the offspring displayed an initial normal and complete juvenile hair growth cycle, but developed alopecia around postnatal day 18. This alopecia was patchy and reversible (non-scarring) and was associated with upregulation of Ulbp1 expression, the only mouse homolog of the human AA-associated ULBP3 gene. Alopecia was also associated with inflammatory infiltration of hair follicles by lymphocytes, including alpha-beta T cells, which contributed to surface hair loss. Despite these apparently shared traits with AA, lesions were dominated by follicular dystrophy that was atypical of human AA disease, sharing some traits consistent with B6 alopecia and dermatitis. Additionally, juvenile-onset alopecia was followed by complete, spontaneous recovery of surface hair, without recurrence of hair loss. Prolonging exposure to IL-6 prolonged the time to recovery, but once recovered, repeating high-dose IL-6 exposure de novo did not re-induce alopecia. These data suggest that although substantial molecular and cellular pathways may be shared, functionally similar alopecia disorders can occur via distinct pathological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Dermatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. CD8α− Dendritic Cells Induce Antigen-Specific T Follicular Helper Cells Generating Efficient Humoral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsik Shin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on T follicular helper (Tfh cells have significantly advanced our understanding of T cell-dependent B cell responses. However, little is known about the early stage of Tfh cell commitment by dendritic cells (DCs, particularly by the conventional CD8α+ and CD8α− DC subsets. We show that CD8α− DCs localized at the interfollicular zone play a pivotal role in the induction of antigen-specific Tfh cells by upregulating the expression of Icosl and Ox40l through the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. Tfh cells induced by CD8α− DCs function as true B cell helpers, resulting in significantly increased humoral immune responses against various human pathogenic antigens, including Yersinia pestis LcrV, HIV Gag, and hepatitis B surface antigen. Our findings uncover a mechanistic role of CD8α− DCs in the initiation of Tfh cell differentiation and thereby provide a rationale for investigating CD8α− DCs in enhancing antigen-specific humoral immune responses for improving vaccines and therapeutics.

  6. Follicular dendritic cells, conduits, lymphatic vessels, and high endothelial venules in tertiary lymphoid organs: Parallels with lymph node stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon eStranford

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, the contribution of stromal, or non-hematopoietic, cells to the structure and function of lymph nodes (LNs, as canonical secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs, is compared to that of tertiary lymphoid tissue or organs (TLOs, also known as ectopic lymphoid tissues. TLOs can arise in non-lymphoid organs during chronic inflammation, as a result of autoimmune responses, graft rejection, atherosclerosis, microbial infection, and cancer. The stromal components found in SLOs including follicular dendritic cells, fibroblast reticular cells, lymphatic vessels, and high endothelial venules and possibly conduits are present in TLOs; their molecular regulation mimics that of LNs. Advances in visualization techniques and the development of transgenic mice that permit in vivo real time imaging of these structures will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions in the context of chronic inflammation. A clearer understanding of the inflammatory signals that drive non lymphoid stromal cells to reorganize into TLOs could allow the design of therapeutic interventions to impede the progression of autoimmune activity, or alternatively, to enhance anti-tumor responses.

  7. Obesity-Associated Autoantibody Production Requires AIM to Retain the Immunoglobulin M Immune Complex on Follicular Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Arai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural immunoglobulin M (IgM is reactive to autoantigens and is believed to be important for autoimmunity. Blood pentameric IgM loaded with antigens forms a large immune complex (IC that contains various elements, including apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM. Here we demonstrate that this IgM-AIM association contributes to autoantibody production under obese conditions. In mice fed a high-fat diet, natural IgM increased through B cell TLR4 stimulation. AIM associated with IgM and protected AIM from renal excretion, increasing blood AIM levels along with the obesity-induced IgM augmentation. Meanwhile, the AIM association inhibited IgM binding to the Fcα/μ receptor on splenic follicular dendritic cells, thereby protecting the IgM IC from Fcα/μ receptor-mediated internalization. This supported IgM-dependent autoantigen presentation to B cells, stimulating IgG autoantibody production. Accordingly, in obese AIM-deficient (AIM−/− mice, the increase of multiple IgG autoantibodies observed in obese wild-type mice was abrogated. Thus, the AIM-IgM association plays a critical role in the obesity-associated autoimmune process.

  8. Progesterone levels and follicular dynamic during holstein cows postpartum under low tropic conditions in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pinzón S.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen Holstein cows were selected at random and followed, every three days, from the 7th day postpartum until they got pregnant again or day 120 postpartum. Ovarian activity was determined through use of dynamic follicular ultrasounds and the measurement of progesterone levels (RIA. The intervals: delivery first estrus observed, first insemination, first ovulation, first rise in progesterone (>1ng/ml and first dominant follicle were 67.3, 70.3, 27, 36 and 26 days respectively. The conception rate at first insemination was 54.4%. The patterns of follicular growth were inconsistent during the first 15 days postpartum. Some cows showed inactive ovaries and others showed follicles with diameters over 10mm. 72.6% of the cows had “silent” estrous cycles with a luteal phase shorter than those with estrus behavior (12 vs. 15 days and lower progesterone concentration at day 15 ( 1.994 vs. 3.3873 ng/ml. Earlier luteal activity (day 3 was observed in pregnant cows than in open cows (day 6. Pregnant cows had higher progesterone levels at day 15 (over 3 ng/ml while open cows levels went down gradually revealing early luteolysis. Results show that the beginning of postpartum ovarian activity (follicular and hormonal dynamic is not determined by the first estrous behavior. Use of RIA is a tool to detect where in the cycle is the subject animal when there are no external signs of estrus. The delay in reproductive activity, as evaluated based the wide range of open days and the number of services per pregnancy, is not due to a lack of early ovarian activity. It is necessary to analyze together other factors, such as productive pressure and nutritional problems that could be affecting reproductive efficiency in future investigations.

  9. Follicular dynamics, corpus luteum growth and regression in multiparous buffalo cows and buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ojeda R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Characterize the follicular dynamics and luteal growth and regression pattern of multiparous (MB and heifer (BH Murrah buffaloes in Colombian tropical conditions. Material and methods. Ten MB and ten BH were synchronized with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device. No artificial insemination was performed during the estrous and daily ultrasound examinations were performed 15 days later to determine the number and diameter of the structures present in both ovaries in the subsequent natural estrous cycle. The Student’s T test was used to evaluate differences between MB and BH. All data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Results. The length of the estrous cycle was 22.00±4.50 days for MB and 22.00±2.70 days for BH. Follicular growth occurs in one (n=1; 5.89%, two (n=14; 82.35% or three waves (n=2; 11.76%. The first wave initiated the day after ovulation with the recruitment of 8.33±2.06 and 10.00±2.72 follicles in MB and BH, while the second wave started on day 11.00±2.00 and 10.50±2.82, presenting 8.37±2.26 and 8.00±1.51 follicles. The third wave began on day 16.21±3.10 showing 6.50±1.70 follicles, only BM had three waves. The maximum luteal diameter was 19.58±4.16 mm and 17.74±3.32 mm respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups for these variables. Conclusions. These results show that the follicular development in buffaloes occurs in waves, where two waves is the most common pattern, as previously reported by other authors.

  10. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in a Country of Endemic Iodine Deficiency (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Muonir Der

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC has historically been linked to iodine deficiency. Although Ghana is among the iodine deficient regions of the world, the proportions, trends, and the clinical features of FTCs have not been studied as a single disease entity. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequencies, trends, and the clinicopathological characteristics of FTCs among all thyroid malignancies in our institution. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study from January 1994 to December 2013. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 23 (Chicago and Graph pad prism version 5.00. Results. Follicular thyroid cancer was the second thyroid malignancy (35.0% and showed a gradual rise in relative proportions over the period. The male-female ratio was 1 : 1.5. The mean ages were 46.9 (SD ±17.3 for males and 46.4 (SD ±13.3 years for females. Enlarged palpable anterior neck swelling was the commonest symptom in males (86.7% and females (91.3% (P=0.730. Hurthle cell carcinoma was the commonest variant of FTC, with 26.7% males and 10.6% females (P=0.116. Distant spread was found in 23.3% of males compared to 19.1% of females (P=0.633. The common sites of distant spread were bones (57.2% in males and cervical lymph nodes (44.4% in females (P=0.106. Conclusion. Follicular thyroid cancer was the second common thyroid malignancy (35.0% with a gradual rise in trend over the study period and male-female ratio of 1.5 : 1. Large anterior neck swelling was the commonest clinical presentation of FTC.

  11. Association between follicular gastritis and Helicobacter pylori in children seen at a public hospital in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, C R; Vera, C A; Huiza-Espinoza, L

    2016-01-01

    For the last 15 years, infection from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been recognized in gastritis pathogenesis, and is known to trigger an important inflammatory response in these patients. To determine the association between follicular gastritis and H. pylori infection in children seen at a public hospital in Peru. An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted on all the children treated at the Hospital Nacional Docente Madre "Niño San Bartolomé" in Lima, Peru, within the time frame of 2011-2012. All the personal data from the patients' medical histories and endoscopic procedures were collected. The crude prevalence ratios (PR) were obtained and adjusted (aPR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), using generalized linear models with the binomial family and log link function. A total of 123 children met the study criteria. Forty-eight (39%) of the study sample were girls and the mean age of the children was 12 years. H. pylori was present in 44% of the sample and 9% presented with more than 100 bacteria per field (classified as +++). Thirty-five percent of the children had esophagitis due to concomitant reflux. The presence of H. pylori was associated with follicular gastritis (P<0.01; aPR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.49-3.49), adjusted by the children's age. Based on the data analyzed, it was concluded that the children with follicular gastritis had a greater likelihood of having H. pylori than those that did not present with gastritis. These results can be extrapolated to other similar populations and should be evaluated in each setting so that this does not become a public health problem within the next few years. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Reshaping the eyebrow by follicular unit transplantation from excised eyebrow in extended infrabrow excision blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichinose A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhito Konishi1, Isao Sugimoto2, Hirohiko Kakizaki3, Akihiro Ichinose41Kobe Academia Clinic, 2Division of Aesthetic Medical Science, Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: We report the reshaping of the eyebrow by follicular unit transplantation from excised eyebrow skin in extended infrabrow excision blepharoplasty.Methods: The method was carried out in two patients with moderate or significant dermatochalasis. The areas to be excised from the infrabrow and intrabrow skin were decided upon and the area of hair transplantation was planned in the suprabrow area and the tail of the eyebrow. The skin was removed and the excised intrabrow skin was dissected into single follicular units. Tiny incisions were made with a scalpel, and grafts were inserted using fine forceps.Results: Almost all transplanted eyebrow follicles took successfully, resulting in eyebrows of a desirable shape as planned preoperatively. The reshaped eyebrows had a natural appearance since the transplanted hairs were similar to those of the original eyebrow. The eyelids still looked youthful rather than operated-on. Finally, the evidence of blepharoplasty was hardly visible and patient satisfaction was quite high. The patients felt more ease in opening their eyes and obtained a wider visual field.Conclusion: Our study demonstrated excellent results with hair transplantation from eyebrow to eyebrow, a finding which, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. Our method can be used for selected patients, especially men, with moderate to severe dermatochalasis, who find a reduction or change in the shape of the eyebrow unacceptable.Keywords: blepharoplasty, dermatochalasis, follicular unit transplantation, eyebrow reconstruction

  13. The Role of Follicular Fluid Thiol/Disulphide Homeostasis in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tola, Esra Nur; Köroğlu, Nadiye; Ergin, Merve; Oral, Hilmi Baha; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Erel, Özcan

    2018-04-04

    Oxidative stress is suggested as a potential triggering factor in the etiopathogenesis of Polycystic ovary syndrome related infertility. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis, a recently oxidative stress marker, is one of the antioxidant mechanism in human which have critical roles in folliculogenesis and ovulation. The aim of our study is to investigate follicular fluid thiol/disulphide homeostasis in the etiopathogenesis of Polycystic ovary syndrome and to determine its' association with in vitro fertilization outcome. The study procedures were approved by local ethic committee. Cross sectional design Methods: Follicular fluid of twenty-two Polycystic ovary syndrome women and twenty ovulatory controls undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were recruited. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis was analyzed via a novel spectrophotometric method. Follicular native thiol levels were found to be lower in Polycystic ovary syndrome group than non- Polycystic ovary syndrome group (p=0.041) as well as native thiol/total thiol ratio (pPolycystic ovary syndrome group (pPolycystic ovary syndrome patients was found. A positive predictive effect of native thiol on fertilization rate among Polycystic ovary syndrome group was also found (p=0.03, β=0.45, 95% CI=0.031-0.643). Deterioration in thiol/disulphide homeostasis, especially elevated disulphide levels could be one of the etiopathogenetic mechanism in Polycystic ovary syndrome. Increased native thiol levels is related to fertilization rate among Polycystic ovary syndrome patients and also positive predictor marker of fertilization rate among Polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Improvement of thiol/disulphide homeostasis could be of importance in the treatment of Polycystic ovary syndrome to increase in vitro fertilization success in Polycystic ovary syndrome.

  14. Differentially expressed genes and gene networks involved in pig ovarian follicular atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenina, Elena; Fabre, Stephane; Bonnet, Agnès; Monniaux, Danielle; Robert-Granié, Christèle; SanCristobal, Magali; Sarry, Julien; Vignoles, Florence; Gondret, Florence; Monget, Philippe; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian folliculogenesis corresponds to the development of follicles leading to either ovulation or degeneration, this latter process being called atresia. Even if atresia involves apoptosis, its mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to analyze global gene expression in pig granulosa cells of ovarian follicles during atresia. The transcriptome analysis was performed on a 9,216 cDNA microarray to identify gene networks and candidate genes involved in pig ovarian follicular atresia. We found 1,684 significantly regulated genes to be differentially regulated between small healthy follicles and small atretic follicles. Among them, 287 genes had a fold-change higher than two between the two follicle groups. Eleven genes (DKK3, GADD45A, CAMTA2, CCDC80, DAPK2, ECSIT, MSMB, NUPR1, RUNX2, SAMD4A, and ZNF628) having a fold-change higher than five between groups could likely serve as markers of follicular atresia. Moreover, automatic confrontation of deregulated genes with literature data highlighted 93 genes as regulatory candidates of pig granulosa cell atresia. Among these genes known to be inhibitors of apoptosis, stimulators of apoptosis, or tumor suppressors INHBB, HNF4, CLU, different interleukins (IL5, IL24), TNF-associated receptor (TNFR1), and cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) were suggested as playing an important role in porcine atresia. The present study also enlists key upstream regulators in follicle atresia based on our results and on a literature review. The novel gene candidates and gene networks identified in the current study lead to a better understanding of the molecular regulation of ovarian follicular atresia. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of parapharyngeal space: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussain, Turki; Saleem, Muhammad; Velagapudi, Suresh Babu; Dababo, Mohammad Anas

    2015-03-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) of the parapharyngeal space is a rare malignant tumor. Only eleven cases of FDCS of the parapharyngeal space have been reported in English literature. Most of the reported cases developed tumor recurrence within 1 year or had metastasis. Because of the rarity of FDCS in the parapharyngeal space and peculiar histology, it can be misdiagnosed as undifferentiated carcinoma or meningioma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of the existence of FDCS in this location. This paper aims to report a unique case of FDCS of the parapharyngeal space without recurrence in 26 months follow up with a review of the literature.

  16. Down-regulation of microRNAs controlling tumourigenic factors in follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Maria; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Borup; Henao Giraldo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    pattern in distinguishing malignant from benign nodules we employed a supervised learning algorithm and leave-one-out-cross-validation. By this procedure, FA and FC were identified with a negative predicted value (NPV) of 83% (data generated by microarray platform) and of 92% (data generated by q......RT-PCR platform). We conclude that follicular neoplasia is associated by major changes in miRNA expression that may promote malignant transformation by increasing the expression of transcripts encoding tumourigenic factors. Moreover, miRNA profiling may facilitate the diagnosis of carcinoma vs. adenoma....

  17. Follicular cell dendritic sarcoma of cervical nodes in a patient with significant WTC exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemen, Larry; Kaplan, Barry; Sussman, Louis

    2015-01-07

    A patient who worked at the World Trade Center (WTC) site presented with right cervical lymphadenopathy. He underwent right neck dissection. The final pathology showed follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. He was treated with radiation and chemotherapy and remained free of disease initially. He then presented with left cervical lymphadenopathy 2.5 years later and underwent a left neck dissection with similar pathology. A discussion of the disease process and WTC exposure is presented. Clinicians should be cognisant of this disease process and the latency between WTC exposure and the onset of sarcomas. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Modulation of sebum excretion from the follicular reservoir by a dichlorophenyl-imidazoldioxolan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, G E; Cauwenbergh, G

    1996-10-01

    Synopsis The dichlorophenyl-imidazoldioxolan elubiol is used for skin and hair care in subjects with oily skin or dandruff. A study was conducted in 14 men to evaluate by non-invasive methods the effect of long-term use of elubiol on the sebum output at the skin surface. Measures were made using the Sebumeter SM810 and Sebutapes. Data show a progressive decrease in skin oiliness at the forehead site treated by elubiol compared to the contralateral control site. The function of the follicular reservoir appears to be affected without significant primary change in the sebaceous gland activity.

  19. Index Case of Cutaneous Follicular Mycosis Fungoides With Central Nervous System Involvement and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Mohler, Alexander; Leppert, Michelle; Parra, Cindy; Zeng, Yue-Ping; Prok, Lori; Schowinsky, Jeffrey; Magro, Cynthia M; Pacheco, Theresa; Ney, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    Central nervous system involvement by mycosis fungoides (MF) is rare and is usually seen in advanced stages of the disease. We describe a patient with early-stage follicular MF who presented with changes in mental status. Despite an initial diagnosis of vasculitis based on clinical and brain biopsy results, the postmortem examination revealed extensive infiltration of MF cells throughout the brain with leptomeningeal involvement. This case in addition to the accompanied review of literature illustrates the importance of the awareness of central nervous system involvement by MF and highlights the need for an urgent neurologic evaluation in patients with a history of MF now presenting with neurologic signs or symptoms.

  20. Economic evaluation of sequential treatments for follicular non-hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Erkki J; Martikainen, Janne A; Vihervaara, Ville; Mustonen, Kim; Nousiainen, Tapio

    2012-04-01

    The cost-effectiveness analyses of follicular lymphoma (FL) treatments have focused on the second-line rituximab maintenance in patients with relapsed FL. The assessment of full FL treatment chain has been lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of FL treatment sequences. Transitions between progression-free first-line treatment (PF1), progression-free second-line treatment (PF2), progression, and death health states were simulated with a probabilistic Markov model with half-cycle correction. At first, patients were assumed to be receiving rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP) induction. The first-line RCHOP induction responders continued without (RCHOP) or with (RCHOPR) the first-line rituximab-maintenance treatment. In the case of PF1 failure, patients received RCOPR/bendamustine or RCOPR/COP according to the European Society for Medical Oncology guidance. In the case of PF2 failure, patients were expected to receive the best supportive care (BSC). The survivals and adverse events were estimated with direct and indirect comparisons. Health outcomes and Finnish payer (drug, drug administration, monitoring, test, progression, serious adverse event) costs valued in 2010 euros were discounted with 3% per annum. The mean discounted lifetime overall survival with FL was 9.6 to 11.5 years, quality-adjusted survival was 7.2 to 8.8 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), progression-free time was 7.7 to 10.2 years, and costs were €153,425 to €168,549, depending on the treatment sequence. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for RCHOPR→RCOPR/bendamustine→BSC, RCHOPR→RCOPR/COP→BSC, and RCHOP→RCOPR/bendamustine→BSC were €9575/€8014/€5900, €9881/€8310/€6013, and €8812/€7194/€5808, respectively, per QALY/life-year/progression-free year gained in comparison with RCHOP→RCOPR/COP→BSC. According to the cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier, the treatment of 61.8% to

  1. Endometritis Increases Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Follicular Fluid and Cervico-vaginal Mucus in the Buffalo Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boby, Jones; Kumar, Harendra; Gupta, Harihar Prasad; Jan, Mustapha Hussain; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Patra, Manas Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb; Abraham, Asha; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2017-07-03

    Emerging evidence shows that some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated not only in the endometrium but also in the follicular fluid of cows with endometritis. Developing a cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) based test has the potential for becoming a pen-side test because of the ease of sample collection. The present study describes the results of two different experiments. The first experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of endometritis on the proinflammatory cytokines of follicular fluid based on the reproductive tracts of buffalo collected at a slaughter house Buffalo genitalia were categorized into purulent endometritis (PE), cytological endometritis (CE), and non-endometritis (NE) based on the white-side test and endometrial cytology, respectively (n = 14/group). Each group was subdivided into follicular and mid-luteal stage (n = 7/stage) and the follicular fluid was collected from the largest follicle. Second experiment was done to study the difference in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the CVM of repeat breeders with subclinical endometritis presented to the clinic. CVM was collected from the repeaters (n = 10) and non-repeaters (n = 10) through aseptic trans-vaginal aspiration. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were quantitated through bovine specific ELISA kits. Significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα) along with low intra-follicular estradiol in buffaloes of PE and CE groups suggest that endometritis impedes the follicular steroidogenesis. Significantly higher concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in the CVM of repeaters indicate their potential as a pen-side diagnostic test for CE.

  2. Rituximab maintenance for 2 years in patients with high tumour burden follicular lymphoma responding to rituximab plus chemotherapy (PRIMA): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salles, Gilles; Seymour, John Francis; Offner, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Patients with follicular lymphoma can have long survival times, but disease progression typically occurs 3-5 years after initial treatment. We assessed the potential benefit of 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving a rituximab p...

  3. Rituximab maintenance for 2 years in patients with high tumour burden follicular lymphoma responding to rituximab plus chemotherapy (PRIMA): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salles, Gilles; Seymour, John Francis; Offner, Fritz; López-Guillermo, Armando; Belada, David; Xerri, Luc; Feugier, Pierre; Bouabdallah, Réda; Catalano, John Vincent; Brice, Pauline; Caballero, Dolores; Haioun, Corinne; Pedersen, Lars Moller; Delmer, Alain; Simpson, David; Leppa, Sirpa; Soubeyran, Pierre; Hagenbeek, Anton; Casasnovas, Olivier; Intragumtornchai, Tanin; Fermé, Christophe; da Silva, Maria Gomes; Sebban, Catherine; Lister, Andrew; Estell, Jane A.; Milone, Gustavo; Sonet, Anne; Mendila, Myriam; Coiffier, Bertrand; Tilly, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Patients with follicular lymphoma can have long survival times, but disease progression typically occurs 3-5 years after initial treatment. We assessed the potential benefit of 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving a rituximab plus

  4. Higher World Health Organization grades of follicular lymphoma correlate with better outcome in two Nordic Lymphoma Group trials of rituximab without chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlin, Björn Engelbrekt; Sundström, Christer; Sander, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A common treatment for follicular lymphoma is rituximab monotherapy. To identify patients for whom this regimen is adequate as first-line therapy, we applied the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for grading follicular lymphoma in a prospective central pathology review...

  5. Immunoregulation of follicular renewal, selection, POF, and menopause in vivo, vs. neo-oogenesis in vitro, POF and ovarian infertility treatment, and a clinical trial

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukovský, Antonín; Caudle, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 10, Nov 23 (2012), č. článku 97. ISSN 1477-7827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Fetal neo-oogenesis * Follicular selection * Follicular renewal in mammals Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2012

  6. CRP at early follicular phase of menstrual cycle can cause misinterpretation for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Kiseli, Mine; Pabuccu, Emre; Candar, Tuba; Demirtas, Selda

    2015-12-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known marker of inflammation and infection in clinical practice. This study is designed to evaluate CRP levels in different phases of menstrual cycle, which might end up with misleading conclusions especially when used for cardiovascular risk assessment. Twenty-seven women were eligible for the cross-sectional study. Venous blood samples from each participant were collected twice during the menstrual cycle. The first sampling was held at 2nd to 5th days of the menstrual cycle for FSH, estradiol, CRP, and sedimentation, and the second was done at 21st to 24th days of the menstrual cycle for measurement of progesterone, CRP, and sedimentation values. CRP values were significantly higher in the early follicular phase compared to luteal phase (1.8 mg/L [0.3-7.67] vs. 0.7 mg/L [0.1-8.3], p menstrual cycle, sedimentation rate was similar (12.1 ± 6.7 vs. 12.3 ± 7.7; p = 0.717, respectively). CRP levels in early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (menstruation) are significantly higher than CRP levels in luteal phase of the same cycle. In reproductive age women, detection of CRP for cardiovascular risk assessment during menstruation might not be appropriate.

  7. Metabolic profile of serum and follicular fluid from postpartum dairy cows during summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Martins, Muller C; Braga, Lucas S; Silva, Thiago H; Alves, Bruna G; Santos, Ricarda M; Silva, Thiago V; Viu, Marco A O; Beletti, Marcello E; Jacomini, José O; Gambarini, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to monitor the biochemical profiles of serum and follicular fluid (FF) of postpartum dairy cows during the summer (n=30) and winter (n=30). Blood and FF (follicles ≥ 9 mm) were obtained from Girolando cows at 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days postpartum. The samples were collected and analysed to determine glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), urea, sodium (Na), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) levels. Throughout the study, the following clinical variables were measured: rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and body condition score (BCS). In addition, the temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated for each season. During the summer season, THI was higher, BCS decreased, there was an increase in RT, and glucose, urea, Na and K serum levels were decreased (P<0.05). The levels of TC, TG, urea, K and Ca in follicular fluid increased (P<0.05). Positive correlations (P<0.05) were observed between the serum and FF levels for glucose (r=0.29), TC (r=0.24) and Ca (r=0.30). Therefore, the biochemical profile of serum and FF of dairy cows under summer heat-stress conditions demonstrates marked changes that may impair fertility during lactation.

  8. Follicular microhemorrhage: a unique dermoscopic sign for the detection of coexisting trichotillomania in alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Misaki; Amagai, Masayuki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of trichotillomania (TT) is often difficult as it presents similar clinical manifestations with other hair loss diseases, especially alopecia areata (AA). As TT often coexists with AA, the methodology enabling reliable detection of TT in AA needs to be developed. Recently, characteristic dermoscopic findings of TT have been reported, yet, they were most clearly detectable by conventional immersion dermoscopy, not by dry dermoscopy, a technique more easily adoptable in daily practice. In addition, the usefulness of those signs for differentiating TT from AA has not been sufficiently assessed. Through intensive scanning of hair loss lesions by dry dermoscopy in AA patients with TT, we found a sign potentially useful for detecting hidden TT. The sign we named "follicular microhemorrhage" (FMH) represents a red dot corresponding to a follicular ostia capped or stuffed with blood clot and suggests a history of traumatic forced plucking. So far, we have detected FMH in four TT patients with moderate to severe AA. Although further accumulation of cases is necessary, FMH would be beneficial to dissect complicated pathophysiology of hair loss in AA patients with TT. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Nodal Metastasis in Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gregory Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous (TB lymphadenitis can mimic cervical node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC since the distribution and appearance of affected lymph nodes are similar. We present the case of an asymptomatic 50-year-old Filipino who sought consult for a gradually enlarging anterior neck mass and a single palpable cervical lymph node. Preoperative workup suggested a thyroid malignancy with nodal metastasis. He underwent total thyroidectomy with node dissection where histopathology confirmed follicular variant- (FV- PTC. Lymph node examination, however, revealed TB lymphadenitis, and the patient was given standard antimycobacterial therapy. This is the first documented case in Southeast Asia, a high TB burden region. This is also the first report involving FV-PTC, which has features between those of conventional PTC and follicular thyroid carcinoma. The case suggests that, in endemic areas, TB should be a differential in the etiology of cervical lymphadenopathy in PTC patients. In developed countries, this differential diagnosis is also valuable because of the increasing incidence of HIV and TB coinfection. Proper preoperative evaluation is important and needs to be highlighted in the formulation of local guidelines.

  10. Distribution of Peripheral Memory T Follicular Helper Cells in Patients with Schistosomiasis Japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Chen

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a helminthic disease that affects more than 200 million people. An effective vaccine would be a major step towards eliminating the disease. Studies suggest that T follicular helper (Tfh cells provide help to B cells to generate the long-term humoral immunity, which would be a crucial component of successful vaccines. Thus, understanding the biological characteristics of Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis, which has never been explored, is essential for vaccine design.In this study, we investigated the biological characteristics of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomiasis patients by flow cytometry. Our data showed that the frequencies of total and activated peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients were significantly increased during Schistosoma japonicum infection. Moreover, Tfh2 cells, which were reported to be a specific subpopulation to facilitate the generation of protective antibodies, were increased more greatly than other subpopulations of total peripheral memory Tfh cells in patients with schistosomiasis japonica. More importantly, our result showed significant correlations of the percentage of Tfh2 cells with both the frequency of plasma cells and the level of IgG antibody. In addition, our results showed that the percentage of T follicular regulatory (Tfr cells was also increased in patients with schistosomiasis.Our report is the first characterization of peripheral memory Tfh cells in schistosomasis patients, which not only provides potential targets to improve immune response to vaccination, but also is important for the development of vaccination strategies to control schistosomiasis.

  11. Relationship between Energy Expenditure Related Factors and Oxidative Stress in Follicular Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz Nejat; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI), total calorie intake and physical activity (PA) as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS) in follicular fluid (FF). This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients' BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001). The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03) and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02). MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  12. Cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of normal andcystic ovaries of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytoskeletal proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically in 36 normal ovaries sampled from 18 sows and 44 cystic ovaries sampled from of 22 sows, was evaluated. All sows had history of reproductive problems, such as infertility or subfertility. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA was quantified through image analysis to evaluate the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary, and cystic follicles. Cytokeratins (CK immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC and mild in the theca interna (TI and externa (TE of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the reaction to CK in the GC in the cystic follicles, mainly in the luteinized cysts. The immunoreactivity for vimentin was higher in the GC from normal and cystic follicles in contrast with the other follicular structures. In the luteinized cysts, the IHCSA for vimentin was significantly higher in TI and in both observed cysts, the labeling was more accentuated in TE. Immunohistochemical detection of desmin and α-SMA was restricted to the TE, without differences between the normal and cystic follicles. The results of the current study show that the development of ovarian cysts in sows is associated to changes in the expression of the cytoskeletal proteins CK and vimentin.

  13. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neme Leandro G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. Methods We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. Results The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p Conclusion These results show that the combination of weak proliferation indices and low apoptosis observed in follicular cysts, could explain the cause of the slow growth of cystic follicles and the maintenance of a static condition without degeneration, which leads to their persistence. These alterations may be due to structural and functional modifications that take place in these cells and could be related to hormonal changes in animals with this condition.

  14. Estradiol decreases iodide uptake by rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlanetto T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has well-known indirect effects on the thyroid. A direct effect of estradiol on thyroid follicular cells, increasing cell growth and reducing the expression of the sodium-iodide symporter gene, has been recently reported. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of estradiol on iodide uptake by thyroid follicular cells, using FRTL-5 cells as a model. Estradiol decreased basal iodide uptake by FRTL-5 cells from control levels of 2.490 ± 0.370 to 2.085 ± 0.364 pmol I-/µg DNA at 1 ng/ml (P<0.02, to 1.970 ± 0.302 pmol I-/µg DNA at 10 ng/ml (P<0.003, and to 2.038 ± 0.389 pmol I-/µg DNA at 100 ng/ml (P<0.02. In addition, 4 ng/ml estradiol decreased iodide uptake induced by 0.02 mIU/ml thyrotropin from 8.678 ± 0.408 to 7.312 ± 0.506 pmol I-/µg DNA (P<0.02. A decrease in iodide uptake by thyroid cells caused by estradiol has not been described previously and may have a role in goiter pathogenesis.

  15. [Outbreak of follicular conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus in a geriatric centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artieda, Juncal; Montes, Milagrosa; Vicente, Diego; Martínez, Consuelo; Piñeiro, Luis; Mendiola, Josune

    2010-12-01

    Adenovirus serotype 4a is a respiratory virus that occasionally causes conjunctivitis. This paper describes an outbreak of follicular conjunctivitis that occurred in a geriatric centre. Outbreak description and epidemiological research through a survey. For the microbiological study conjunctival swabs were collected using viral and bacterial transport media. Adenovirus was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The serotype was determined by sequencing of a fragment of the hexon and E1 genes. In autumn 2008 an outbreak of follicular conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus serotype 4a was detected. Twenty three percent 23% (69/300) of residents and 5% (9/180) of workers in a geriatric centre in Gipuzkoa were affected. The clinical symptoms were of prolonged duration (11±5 days). The temporal association of the cases suggested transmission from person to person. The sanitary measures established (asepsis and frequent hand washing, cleaning and disinfection of objects and surfaces) were effective, interrupting the transmission of the disease within a short period of time. Rapid detection, identification of the causative agent and implementing appropriate control measures can significantly reduce the impact on both health and economic costs of these outbreaks. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular...... fluid and cells were obtained from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization for tubal infertility. The concentrations of VIP and PHM in pre-ovulatory human follicular fluid were measured radioimmunochemically. Granulosa/lutein cells isolated from follicular fluid were cultured under serum....... We conclude that VIP and PHM are present in human preovulatory follicular fluid and that VIP stimulates DNA synthesis and oestradiol secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. This indicates that VIP and perhaps PHM participate in the local nervous regulation of human ovarian function....

  17. Systemic Inflammation in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Involves Follicular T-Helper, Th17- and Activated B-Cells and Correlates with Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Börnsen, Lars; Ratzer, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Pathology studies of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) indicate a major role of inflammation including Th17-cells and meningeal inflammation with ectopic lymphoid follicles, B-cells and plasma cells, the latter indicating a possible role of the newly identified subset of follicular T-helper (TFH...... with disease progression, using flow cytometry and gene expression analysis of CD4(+) and CD8(+)T-cells, B-cells, monocytes and dendritic cells. Furthermore, gene expression of cerebrospinal fluid cells was studied. Flow cytometry studies revealed increased frequencies of ICOS(+)TFH-cells in peripheral blood...... from relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive (SPMS) MS patients. All MS subtypes had decreased frequencies of Th1 TFH-cells, while primary progressive (PPMS) MS patients had increased frequency of Th17 TFH-cells. The Th17-subset, interleukin-23-receptor(+)CD4(+)T-cells, was significantly...

  18. Reduced intensity conditioning HLA identical sibling donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with follicular lymphoma: long-term follow-up from two prospective multicenter trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñana, José Luis; Martino, Rodrigo; Gayoso, Jorge; Sureda, Anna; de la Serna, Javier; Díez-Martín, Jose Luis; Vazquez, Lourdes; Arranz, Reyes; Tomás, José Francisco; Sampol, Antonia; Solano, Carlos; Delgado, Julio; Sierra, Jorge; Caballero, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Background Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with poor risk lymphoma, at least in part because of the graft-versus-lymphoma effect. Over the past decade, reduced intensity conditioning regimens have been shown to offer results similar to those of conventional high-dose conditioning regimens but with lower toxicity early after transplantation, especially in patients with chemosensitive disease at transplant. Design and Methods The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term outcome of patients with follicular lymphoma who received an HLA identical sibling allogeneic stem cell transplant with a reduced intensity conditioning regimen within prospective trials. The prospective multicenter studies considered included 37 patients with follicular lymphoma who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation between 1998 and 2007 with a fludarabine plus melphalan-based reduced intensity conditioning regimen. Results The median age of the patients was 50 years (range, 34–62 years) and the median follow-up was 52 months (range, 0.6 to 113 months). Most patients (77%) had stage III-IV at diagnosis, and patients had received a median of three lines of therapy before the reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation. At the time of transplantation, 14 patients were in complete remission, 16 in partial remission and 7 had refractory or progressive disease after salvage chemotherapy. The 4-year overall survival rates for patients in complete remission, partial remission, or with refractory or progressive disease were 71%, 48% and 29%, respectively (P=0.09), whereas the 4-year cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality were 26% (95% CI, 11–61), 33% (95% CI, 16–68) and 71% (95% CI, 44–100), respectively. The incidence of relapse for the whole group was only 8% (95% CI, 2–23). Conclusions We conclude that this strategy of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation

  19. Immunoregulation of follicular renewal, selection, POF, and menopause in vivo, vs. neo-oogenesis in vitro, POF and ovarian infertility treatment, and a clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The immune system plays an important role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis ("tissue immune physiology"). Function of distinct tissues during adulthood, including the ovary, requires (1) Renewal from stem cells, (2) Preservation of tissue-specific cells in a proper differentiated state, which differs among distinct tissues, and (3) Regulation of tissue quantity. Such morphostasis can be executed by the tissue control system, consisting of immune system-related components, vascular pericytes, and autonomic innervation. Morphostasis is established epigenetically, during morphogenetic (developmental) immune adaptation, i.e., during the critical developmental period. Subsequently, the tissues are maintained in a state of differentiation reached during the adaptation by a “stop effect” of resident and self renewing monocyte-derived cells. The later normal tissue is programmed to emerge (e.g., late emergence of ovarian granulosa cells), the earlier its function ceases. Alteration of certain tissue differentiation during the critical developmental period causes persistent alteration of that tissue function, including premature ovarian failure (POF) and primary amenorrhea. In fetal and adult human ovaries the ovarian surface epithelium cells called ovarian stem cells (OSC) are bipotent stem cells for the formation of ovarian germ and granulosa cells. Recently termed oogonial stem cells are, in reality, not stem but already germ cells which have the ability to divide. Immune system-related cells and molecules accompany asymmetric division of OSC resulting in the emergence of secondary germ cells, symmetric division, and migration of secondary germ cells, formation of new granulosa cells and fetal and adult primordial follicles (follicular renewal), and selection and growth of primary/preantral, and dominant follicles. The number of selected follicles during each ovarian cycle is determined by autonomic innervation. Morphostasis is altered with advancing age, due

  20. Serum and follicular anti-Mullerian hormone levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS under metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falbo Angela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data regarding metformin effects on follicular fluid anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels were to date available in literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS whether metformin administration affects serum and follicular AMH levels, and whether this is related to ovarian response to the treatment. Methods Twenty young patients with PCOS who had received metformin were enrolled. Ten patients were anovulatory (Met-anov group, whereas the other 10 were ovulatory (Met-ov group but had failed to conceive. Further untreated PCOS (PCOS controls, n. 10 and healthy controls (non-PCOS controls, n. 10 who were scheduled for laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. In each subjects, clinical and biochemical evaluations were performed. AMH concentrations in blood and antral follicular fluid were assayed. Results In both Met-anov and Met-ov groups, and without difference between them, serum androgens and AMH, and indices of insulin resistance were significantly (p p Conclusions Metformin administration in patients with PCOS exerts a differential action on the ovarian AMH levels on the basis of ovulatory response. Changes in AMH levels in antral follicular fluid during metformin treatment could be involved in the local mechanisms mediating the ovulatory restoration.

  1. Host origin of follicular dendritic cells induced in the spleen of SCID mice after transfer of allogeneic lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, K.; Kaji, M.; Takahashi, T.; van den Berg, T. K.; Dijkstra, C. D.

    1995-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are uniquely characterized by the ability to trap immune complexes. In a previous report, it was shown that functional FDC with the capacity to trap immune complexes via complement receptor emerged in the splenic follicle after transferring syngeneic lymphocytes into

  2. Follicular lymphomas with and without translocation t(14;18) differ in gene expression profiles and genetic alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leich, Ellen; Salaverria, Itziar; Bea, Silvia; Zettl, Andreas; Wright, George; Moreno, Victor; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Chan, Wing-Chung; Braziel, Rita M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Delabie, Jan; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Lister, Andrew; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Staudt, Louis M.; Hartmann, Elena M.; Mueller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Campo, Elias; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is genetically characterized by the presence of the t(14; 18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation in approximately 90% of cases. In contrast to FL carrying the t(14; 18), their t(14; 18)-negative counterparts are less well studied about their immunohistochemical, genetic,

  3. Gene expression in bovine embryos derived from oocytes with different developmental competence collected at the defined follicular developmental stage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němcová, Lucie; Machatková, M.; Hanzalová, K.; Horáková, J.; Kaňka, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 65, 7 (2006), s. 1254-1264 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/02/1135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cattle * follicular development * oocyte development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.898, year: 2006

  4. Follicular fluid and serum levels of Inhibin A and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in patients undergoing IVF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moos, J.; Filová, V.; Pavelková, J.; Moosová, M.; Pěknicová, Jana; Řežábek, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 5 (2009), s. 1739-1744 ISSN 0015-0282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Follicular fluid / blood barier * PAPP-A * Inhibin A Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.970, year: 2009

  5. A population-based study of prognosis in advanced stage follicular lymphoma managed by watch and wait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Bilgrau, Anders E; de Nully Brown, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Watch and wait (WAW) is a common approach for asymptomatic, advanced stage follicular lymphoma (FL), but single-agent rituximab is an alternative for these patients. In this nationwide study we describe the outcome of patients selected for WAW. A cohort of 286 out of 849 (34%) stage III-IVA FL...

  6. Dietary-induced chronic hypothyroidism negatively affects rat follicular development and ovulation rate and is associated with oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, E.; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; Stelt, van der Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the

  7. Dissecting molecular events in thyroid neoplasia provides evidence for distinct evolution of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kerstin; Prawitt, Susanne; Eszlinger, Markus; Ihling, Christian; Sinz, Andrea; Schierle, Katrin; Gimm, Oliver; Dralle, Henning; Steinert, Frank; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Schmid, Kurt W; Fuhrer, Dagmar

    2011-12-01

    Benign hypofunctional cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) are a frequent scintiscan finding and need to be distinguished from thyroid carcinomas. The origin of CTNs with follicular morphologic features is unresolved. The DNA damage response might act as a physiologic barrier, inhibiting the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. We investigated the following in hypofunctional follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC): i) the mutation rate of frequently activated oncogenes, ii) the activation of DNA damage response checkpoints, and iii) the differential proteomic pattern between FA and FTC. Both FTC and FA, which did not harbor RAS, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, or PAX/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ mutations, express various proteins in common and others that are more distinctly expressed in FTC rather than in FA or normal thyroid tissue. This finding is in line with the finding of constitutive DNA damage checkpoint activation (p-Chk2, γ-H2AX) and evidence for replicative stress causing genomic instability (increased cyclin E, retinoblastoma, or E2F1 mRNA expression) in FTC but not FA. We discuss the findings of the increased expression of translationally controlled tumor protein, phosphatase 2A inhibitor, and DJ-1 in FTC compared with FA identified by proteomics and their potential implication in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. Our present findings argue for the definition of FA as a truly benign entity and against progressive development of FA to FTC. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RIG-I-like receptor activation by dengue virus drives follicular T helper cell formation and antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Kaptein, Tanja M.; van Hamme, John L.; Overmars, Ronald J.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular T helper cells (TFH) are fundamental in orchestrating effective antibody-mediated responses critical for immunity against viral infections and effective vaccines. However, it is unclear how virus infection leads to TFH induction. We here show that dengue virus (DENV) infection of human

  9. CHROMOSOMAL-ABERRATIONS IN FOLLICULAR THYROID-CARCINOMA - CASE-REPORT OF A PRIMARY TUMOR AND ITS METASTASIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, E; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; OOSTERHUIS, JW; DEJONG, B; WIERSEMA, J; VOS, A; VERMEIJ, A; Dam, A.

    We present the result of a cytogenetic study of a case of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and its metastasis. Both tumors have a low number of chromosomes. The primary tumor is characterized by a idic(22;22)(p11;p11). The skeletal metastasis has also structural abnormalities of chromosome 22.

  10. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone concentrations in the follicular aspirate during ovum pickup as predictors of in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa Sarhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A relationship between ‘oocyte quality’ and follicular fluid hormones is expected, since its formation coincides with the ‘oocyte maturation’ phase. The aim of this study was to find a possible relation between oocyte quality with follicular luteinizing hormone (LH and estradiol (E2 as hormonal parameters of oocyte quality during ovum pickup for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Methods: Concentrations of LH and E2 in individual follicular fluid samples obtained during assisted reproduction treatment were related to oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo grading. E2 and LH differences between individual groups of oocytes and embryos were calculated using the paired Student’s t test and ANOVA test. Results: Follicular E2 levels showed a significant positive correlation with oocyte nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo grading being higher in follicles whose oocytes had matured nucleus (475 ± 142.9 ng/ml vs. 332 ± 76.4 ng/ml, P value <0.001, normally fertilized (502.5 ± 131.3 ng/ml vs. 339.8 ± 78.3 ng/ml, P value <0.001 and developed into good quality embryos (596.9 ± 72.4 ng/ml grade A vs. 511.7 ± 73 ng/ml grade B vs. 310.9 ± 57 ng/ml grade C, P value <0.001. However Follicular LH was only positively correlated with oocyte nuclear maturation. Conclusions: The local follicular environment may play a key role in the observed differences in oocyte quality. Our results suggest that the use follicular E2 may be of value in the assessment of oocyte quality. If there is a marker for oocyte quality, it would be possible to select oocytes rather than embryos, which may improve selection criteria of the best embryo to transfer, therefore increases success rate of ICSI.

  11. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  12. Does dietary fat intake influence oocyte competence and embryo quality by inducing oxidative stress in follicular fluid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein; Saboor Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fat-rich diet may alter oocyte development and maturation and embryonic development by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in follicular environment. Objective: To investigate the relationship between fat intake and oxidative stress with oocyte competence and embryo quality. Materials and Methods: In observational study follicular fluid was collected from 236 women undergoing assisted reproduction program. Malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of follicular fluid were assessed as oxidative stress biomarkers. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle fat consumption and its component were assessed. A percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes, fertilization rate were considered as markers of oocyte competence and non-fragmented embryo rate, mean of blastomer and good cleavage (embryos with more than 5 cells on 3 days post insemination) rate were considered as markers of embryo quality. Results: The MDA level in follicular fluid was positively related to polyunsaturated fatty acids intake level (p=0.02) and negatively associated with good cleavage rate (p=0.045). Also good cleavage rate (p=0.005) and mean of blastomer (p=0.006) was negatively associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids intake levels. The percentage of metaphase ΙΙ stage oocyte was positively related to the TAC levels in follicular fluid (p=0.046). The relationship between the OS biomarkers in FF and the fertilization rate was not significant. Conclusion: These findings revealed that fat rich diet may induce the OS in oocyte environment and negatively influence embryonic development. This effect can partially be accounted by polyunsaturated fatty acids uptake while oocyte maturation is related to TAC and oocytes with low total antioxidant capacity have lower chance for fertilization and further development. PMID:24639727

  13. A novel PTCH1 germline mutation distinguishes basal cell carcinoma from basaloid follicular hamartoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellani Ali

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws and developmental defects. The disorder results from mutations in the PTCH1 gene. Case presentation A 15-year-old boy presented to our dental clinic with multiple jaw cysts. The patient had broad confluent eyebrows, a broad base of the nose, frontal bossing and palmoplantar pits. Examination of the jaw cysts revealed many keratinizing cysts without granular cell layers a finding that raised the suspicion of nevoid basal cell carcinoma. Radiological examinations showed calcification of the falx cerebri, spina bifida, bifid thoracic ribs and frontal bossing. Histopathological examination showed basaloid proliferation in the upper dermis with follicular differentiation surrounded by a loose mucinous stroma and retraction artifacts. These features make it difficult to differentiate between nevoid basal cell carcinoma and basaloid follicular hamartoma, especially the presence of these findings on a non-hairy area. BCL-2 staining was positive in the periphery of the basaloid proliferation, which is typical of basaloid follicular hamartoma, and not in a diffuse pattern, which is typical of nevoid basal cell carcinoma. The proband's siblings and parents were healthy with no family history of this condition in the extended family. Since histology was equivocal and palmoplantar pits are seen in both basaloid follicular hamartoma and nevoid basal cell carcinoma, molecular genetic investigation was necessary to differentiate between the two potential diagnoses. After sequencing the entire PTCH1 gene, we detected a single nucleotide deletion (c.1291delC in codon 431 of the PTCH protein, which resulted in a premature stop translation at residue 431. This de novo mutation was not detected in both parents and in 100 normal volunteers of matching ethnicity. Conclusion Screening the

  14. Anti-Müllerian hormone reduces growth rate without altering follicular survival in isolated caprine preantral follicles cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, R M P; Lima, L F; Brito, I R; Silva, G M; Correia, H H V; Ribeiro de Sá, N A; Ferreira, A C A; Sales, A D; Lobo, C H; Campello, C C; Smitz, J; Wheeler, M B; Figueiredo, J R

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), with and without FSH, on the in vitro development of isolated caprine preantral follicles, as well as follicular steroid production and mRNA levels of AMH, hormone receptors (AMH and FSH), CYP19A1 (cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1), CYP17 (cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1), HSD3B (3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) and Myc (myelocytomatosis oncogene). Isolated secondary follicles were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha (α-MEM+) alone or supplemented with 50ng mL -1 AMH and/or 100ng mL -1 FSH added sequentially on different days of culture. Follicles were cultured for a total of 18 days, with different media during the first (Days 0-9) and second (Days 10-18) halves of the culture period, resulting in six treatment groups, as follows: α-MEM+/α-MEM+, FSH/FSH, AMH/AMH, AMH+FSH/AMH+FSH, AMH/FSH, and FSH/AMH. Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of follicular growth, oocyte maturation and steroid secretion. There was a decrease in follicular growth rate in the AMH, AMH+FSH and AMH/FSH treatment groups compared with α-MEM+ and FSH treatment groups (Prates of meiotic resumption and steroid secretion (P>0.05). Moreover, follicles cultured in the presence of FSH had lower levels of AMH receptor type II (AMHRII) mRNA compared with non-cultured control (freshly isolated follicles), and the AMH and AMH/FSH treatment groups. In conclusion, AMH reduces the follicular growth rate of isolated goat preantral follicles in vitro without affecting follicular survival.

  15. Combining Follicular Unit Extraction and Scalp Micropigmentation for the Cosmetic Treatment of Alopecias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rassman, MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two relatively new modalities, follicular unit extraction (FUE and scalp micropigmentation have changed the treatment of hair loss, to reduce the number of procedures and the total costs of the hair restoration process. These 2 modalities augment each other when treating patients with thinning hair and balding. The explosion of FUE procedures (which reflected 52.6% of the hair transplant procedures performed in 2016, up from 48.5% and the appearance of more and more new physicians offering hair restoration technologies employing FUE have caused a 20% annual growth in this industry over the past few years. This article reviews the use of FUE and scalp micropigmentation when used in combination.

  16. Mantle cell lymphoma: prognostic capacity of the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Christensen, Bjarne Egelund; Pedersen, Niels Tinggaard

    2006-01-01

    The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is the most commonly used prognostic model for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, the prognostic value of the IPI is limited. The recently published Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) is built on variables, which are pertinent...... to MCL. This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic value of FLIPI in a population-based series of 93 patients with MCL diagnosed in a 7-year period. End points of the study were response to therapy, overall survival, and disease-free survival (DFS) according to the IPI and FLIPI. Applied...... to the whole series, the FLIPI identified three risk groups with markedly different outcome with 5-year overall survival rates of 65%, 42%, and 8% respectively. Notably, the high-risk group comprised 53% of patients. In contrast, the IPI only allocated 16% of cases to the high-risk group and had a lower...

  17. An imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Natalia R; Panzani, Carolina G; Gimeno, Eduardo J; Neme, Leandro G; Alfaro, Natalia S; Ortega, Hugo H

    2009-07-01

    Cystic ovarian disease is an important cause of infertility that affects bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine species and even human beings. Alterations in the ovarian micro-environment of females with follicular cysts could alter the normal processes of proliferation and programmed cell death in ovarian cells. Thus, our objective was to evaluate apoptosis and proliferation in ovarian cystic follicles in rats in order to investigate the cause of cystic follicle formation and persistence. We compared the number of in situ apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay, expression of active caspase-3 and members of Bcl-2 family by immunohistochemistry; and cell proliferation by the expression of the proliferation markers: PCNA and Ki-67. The proliferation index was low in granulosa of tertiary and cystic follicles of light exposed rats when compared with tertiary follicles of control animals, while in theca interna only cystic follicles presented low proliferation index when compared with tertiary follicles (p hormonal changes in animals with this condition.

  18. Effects of IR laser radiation in thyroid follicular cells: fine structural and stereological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lourdes; Perez de Vargas, I.; Ruiz, C.; Parrado, C.; Pelaez, A.

    1993-06-01

    We have examined the results obtained from the stereological ultraestructural study of follicular cells in thyroid glands treated with IR laser (904 nm). We studied 40 wistar rats exposed to radiation with doses of 46,80 J/cm2. They were sacrificed 1 and 180 days after the treatment. A stereological study of the volume and surface density was made in mitochondria, rER. Gogi complex and cytoplasmic granules. In the rats sacrificed 1 day after exposure to laser radiation, the thyrocited showed minimal morphological changes. In the rats sacrificed after a long period (180 days) the thyrocites showed a significant increase of volume and surface densities of rER, that may mean decreased capacity of the cells to synthesize thyroglobulin. Volume and surface densities of the citoplasmic granules experienced a significant increase.

  19. Response to hypogravity of normal in vitro cultured follicular cells from thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Antonella; Perrella, Giuseppina; Curcio, Francesco; Saverio, F.; Impiombato, Ambesi

    Aim of this investigation is the study of molecular modifications occurring in differentiated mammalian cells exposed to gravitational changes. The test system chosen is a well characterized clone of differentiated, normal thyroid follicular cells (FRTL5) in long-term culture. As a follow-up to our recent experiment performed during the MASER-7 sounding rocket mission, flown for European Space Agency by Swedish Space Corporation in May 1996, we evaluated FRTL5 cells responses to Thyroid Stimulating Hormone dependent cAMP production under acute hypogravity conditions obtained in a fast rotating clinostat. Following this approach, we evaluated the FRTL5 cells response to TSH under microgravity conditions in order to optimize experimental tools and strategies in preparation to, and in between real flight missions.

  20. Hybrid Desmoplastic/Follicular Ameloblastoma of the Mandible: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayasu Iwase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA is one of the 6 histopathological subtypes of ameloblastoma. Hybrid lesions in which histopathologically conventional ameloblastoma coexists with areas of DA are rare. A 40-year-old male was referred to our hospital complaining of a swelling in the right premolar region of the mandible. A panoramic radiograph showed an area of radiolucency with a well-defined corticated border, whereas computed tomography revealed a unilocular radiolucent lesion and buccal expansion together with cortical perforation. The lesion was treated via enucleation and curettage of the marginal bone and fenestration. A histopathological examination showed a hybrid ameloblastoma with a pronounced desmoplastic pattern and follicular changes. The patient’s postoperative course has been favorable up to now, and no marked changes have been observed. We presented a case of hybrid ameloblastoma and reviewed the 36 reported cases of hybrid ameloblastoma that have been reported in the English literature.

  1. Hybrid Desmoplastic/Follicular Ameloblastoma of the Mandible: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Airi; Tanaka, Yoko; Saida, Naoyuki; Onaka, Eriko; Bando, Sanae; Kondo, Gen

    2017-01-01

    Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is one of the 6 histopathological subtypes of ameloblastoma. Hybrid lesions in which histopathologically conventional ameloblastoma coexists with areas of DA are rare. A 40-year-old male was referred to our hospital complaining of a swelling in the right premolar region of the mandible. A panoramic radiograph showed an area of radiolucency with a well-defined corticated border, whereas computed tomography revealed a unilocular radiolucent lesion and buccal expansion together with cortical perforation. The lesion was treated via enucleation and curettage of the marginal bone and fenestration. A histopathological examination showed a hybrid ameloblastoma with a pronounced desmoplastic pattern and follicular changes. The patient's postoperative course has been favorable up to now, and no marked changes have been observed. We presented a case of hybrid ameloblastoma and reviewed the 36 reported cases of hybrid ameloblastoma that have been reported in the English literature. PMID:28584671

  2. Preliminary findings suggest hidradenitis suppurativa may be due to defective follicular support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danby, F W; Jemec, G B E; Marsch, W Ch

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The initial pathology in hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)/acne inversa takes place in the folliculopilosebaceous unit (FPSU) and its surrounding tissue. The process involves follicular hyperkeratosis, inflammation and perifolliculitis. Identification of the exact origin of inflammation m...... 2-3+ positivity irrespective of any inflammation present. The distribution of inflammatory cells around the sebofollicular junction occurred predominantly in areas of BMZ thinning. CONCLUSIONS: The BMZ PAS positivity of clinically uninvolved FPSUs of patients with HS appears to be wispy...... or not present at all. It is speculated that this may explain the apparent fragility of the sebofollicular junction. There is an increased concentration of inflammatory cells adjacent to these areas, while inflammatory cells are scarce in areas where the PAS-positive material is intact. It is hypothesized...

  3. IL-7 and CD4 T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Chiodi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IL-7 was previously shown to upregulate the expression of molecules important for interaction of CD4+ T cells with B cells. It is poorly studied whether IL-7 has a role in the biology of T follicular helper (Tfh cells and whether IL-7 dysregulates the expression of B-cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells. We review the literature and provide arguments in favor of IL-7 being involved in the biology of human Tfh cells. The CD127 IL-7 receptor is expressed on circulating Tfh and non-Tfh cells, and we show that IL-7, but not IL-6 or IL-21, upregulates the expression of CD70 and PD-1 on these cells. We conclude that IL-7, a cytokine whose level is elevated during HIV-1 infection, may have a role in increased expression of B cell costimulatory molecules on Tfh cells and lead to abnormal B cell differentiation.

  4. Subcutaneous lymphoid follicular hyperplasia secondary to vaccination: correlation of ultrasound findings with clinical and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Copete, M C; Crespo Martínez, C; Martínez García, C; Calbo Maiques, J

    In recent years, the use of vaccines has been standardized within vaccination programs. Adverse effects at the puncture site are usually mild and transient. Nevertheless, in some cases, persistence subcutaneous nodules can develop; these are often underdiagnosed because they are so rare and because of the long time that can transpire between the vaccination and their appearance. Histologically, they consist of a lymphoid follicular hyperplasia that occurs as a reaction to the aluminum particles usually used as an adjuvant in some vaccines. We were unable to find any reference in the radiological literature to these soft-tissue nodules secondary to vaccination. We report the characteristic ultrasound findings that will enable radiologists to identify or strongly suspect these lesions and thereby avoid unnecessary imaging tests that might lead to confusion and inadequate management of these patients. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  6. DC-SIGN-expressing macrophages trigger activation of mannosylated IgM B-cell receptor in follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rada; Mourcin, Frédéric; Uhel, Fabrice; Pangault, Céline; Ruminy, Philippe; Dupré, Loic; Guirriec, Marion; Marchand, Tony; Fest, Thierry; Lamy, Thierry; Tarte, Karin

    2015-10-15

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) results from the accumulation of malignant germinal center (GC) B cells leading to the development of an indolent and largely incurable disease. FL cells remain highly dependent on B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and on a specific cell microenvironment, including T cells, macrophages, and stromal cells. Importantly, FL BCR is characterized by a selective pressure to retain surface immunoglobulin M (IgM) BCR despite an active class-switch recombination process, and by the introduction, in BCR variable regions, of N-glycosylation acceptor sites harboring unusual high-mannose oligosaccharides. However, the relevance of these 2 FL BCR features for lymphomagenesis remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that IgM(+) FL B cells activated a stronger BCR signaling network than IgG(+) FL B cells and normal GC B cells. BCR expression level and phosphatase activity could both contribute to such heterogeneity. Moreover, we underlined that a subset of IgM(+) FL samples, displaying highly mannosylated BCR, efficiently bound dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), which could in turn trigger delayed but long-lasting BCR aggregation and activation. Interestingly, DC-SIGN was found within the FL cell niche in situ. Finally, M2 macrophages induced a DC-SIGN-dependent adhesion of highly mannosylated IgM(+) FL B cells and triggered BCR-associated kinase activation. Interestingly, pharmacologic BCR inhibitors abolished such crosstalk between macrophages and FL B cells. Altogether, our data support an important role for DC-SIGN-expressing infiltrating cells in the biology of FL and suggest that they could represent interesting therapeutic targets. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Altered N-Linked Glycosylation in Follicular Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Involvement in Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Hollander

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available B-cell antigen receptor (BCR expression is indispensable for survival of most B-cell malignancies. In follicular lymphoma (FL, N-linked glycosylation sites are introduced in the immunoglobulin (Ig variable region genes. Oligosaccharides added to the acquired sites are unusually of the high-mannose type. These glycans interact with mannose-specific lectins, especially with dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN. Lectin binding to FL triggers persistent activating signals, suggesting that lectins within the tumor microenvironment promote cell survival and proliferation. Insertion of N-glycosylation sites in Ig variable region genes has been detected in other germinal center-associated lymphomas, specifically in subsets of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and Burkitt’s lymphomas, suggesting involvement of altered glycans in pathogenesis of these malignancies as well. Furthermore, the BCR in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL carries high-mannose oligosaccharides, albeit in the heavy chain constant rather than variable region. The high expression level of the unique glycoform, particularly in the more aggressive unmutated CLL subset, suggests a functional significance for this glycan in CLL. As lectin interaction with the BCR is critical for FL and probably for some other lymphomas, targeting this interaction is considered to be an interesting therapeutic strategy. Reagents for blockade of lectin–BCR interaction may include antibodies against high-mannose glycans and mannose-based oligosaccharide mimics or non-carbohydrate glycomimetics. Moreover, as this interaction triggers signaling pathways similar to those demonstrated for BCR engagement by antigen, BCR signal transduction inhibitors may emerge as effective therapeutics for lectin-driven malignancies.

  8. Altered N-Linked Glycosylation in Follicular Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Involvement in Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Nurit; Haimovich, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expression is indispensable for survival of most B-cell malignancies. In follicular lymphoma (FL), N-linked glycosylation sites are introduced in the immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region genes. Oligosaccharides added to the acquired sites are unusually of the high-mannose type. These glycans interact with mannose-specific lectins, especially with dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). Lectin binding to FL triggers persistent activating signals, suggesting that lectins within the tumor microenvironment promote cell survival and proliferation. Insertion of N-glycosylation sites in Ig variable region genes has been detected in other germinal center-associated lymphomas, specifically in subsets of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and Burkitt's lymphomas, suggesting involvement of altered glycans in pathogenesis of these malignancies as well. Furthermore, the BCR in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) carries high-mannose oligosaccharides, albeit in the heavy chain constant rather than variable region. The high expression level of the unique glycoform, particularly in the more aggressive unmutated CLL subset, suggests a functional significance for this glycan in CLL. As lectin interaction with the BCR is critical for FL and probably for some other lymphomas, targeting this interaction is considered to be an interesting therapeutic strategy. Reagents for blockade of lectin-BCR interaction may include antibodies against high-mannose glycans and mannose-based oligosaccharide mimics or non-carbohydrate glycomimetics. Moreover, as this interaction triggers signaling pathways similar to those demonstrated for BCR engagement by antigen, BCR signal transduction inhibitors may emerge as effective therapeutics for lectin-driven malignancies.

  9. Has the time to come leave the “watch-and-wait” strategy in newly diagnosed asymptomatic follicular lymphoma patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, Antonio; Casanova, María; Redondo, Maximino; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Medina-Pérez, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the median overall survival for follicular lymphoma (FL) has been considered to be 9-10 years, and no treatment had ever prolonged this time period. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago demonstrated that treating patients with asymptomatic FL at the onset of the disease did not increase their survival, and that almost 20% of these patients did not need any treatment in the first 10 years of follow-up. Based on these facts, most clinical practice guidelines recommend active surveillance policies for patients with asymptomatic FL. The introduction of antiCD-20 monoclonal antibodies, over the last 15 years, has significantly increased the median survival rate to above 14 years. This improvement was achieved before the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy regimens became extensively used in patients with symptomatic disease. Therefore, this increase in survival may currently be more significant. At present, several clinical trials have evaluated low-toxicity therapies that prolong progression-free periods, among which rituximab monotherapy, radioimmunotherapy or the combination of rituximab with bendamustine are the most relevant. Unfortunately, these clinical trials have included only patients with symptomatic FL. The results of a recently reported clinical trial show that treatment with single-agent rituximab prolongs progression-free survival rates, time to new treatment and the quality of life of asymptomatic patients, as compared with the active surveillance strategy. Longer follow-up of these results and data regarding overall survival are awaited before this treatment can be recommended as the standard initial therapy. There are different therapeutic possibilities for asymptomatic FL patients, but no data are currently available to indicate which option is the best. Patients need to understand the risks and benefits of observation versus treatment before a final decision can be made. For patients who want active treatment the

  10. Has the time to come leave the "watch-and-wait" strategy in newly diagnosed asymptomatic follicular lymphoma patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Antonio; Casanova, María; Redondo, Maximino; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Medina-Pérez, Angeles

    2012-05-31

    Historically, the median overall survival for follicular lymphoma (FL) has been considered to be 9-10 years, and no treatment had ever prolonged this time period. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago demonstrated that treating patients with asymptomatic FL at the onset of the disease did not increase their survival, and that almost 20% of these patients did not need any treatment in the first 10 years of follow-up. Based on these facts, most clinical practice guidelines recommend active surveillance policies for patients with asymptomatic FL. The introduction of antiCD-20 monoclonal antibodies, over the last 15 years, has significantly increased the median survival rate to above 14 years. This improvement was achieved before the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy regimens became extensively used in patients with symptomatic disease. Therefore, this increase in survival may currently be more significant. At present, several clinical trials have evaluated low-toxicity therapies that prolong progression-free periods, among which rituximab monotherapy, radioimmunotherapy or the combination of rituximab with bendamustine are the most relevant. Unfortunately, these clinical trials have included only patients with symptomatic FL. The results of a recently reported clinical trial show that treatment with single-agent rituximab prolongs progression-free survival rates, time to new treatment and the quality of life of asymptomatic patients, as compared with the active surveillance strategy. Longer follow-up of these results and data regarding overall survival are awaited before this treatment can be recommended as the standard initial therapy. There are different therapeutic possibilities for asymptomatic FL patients, but no data are currently available to indicate which option is the best. Patients need to understand the risks and benefits of observation versus treatment before a final decision can be made. For patients who want active treatment the

  11. Has the time to come leave the “watch-and-wait” strategy in newly diagnosed asymptomatic follicular lymphoma patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, the median overall survival for follicular lymphoma (FL has been considered to be 9-10 years, and no treatment had ever prolonged this time period. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago demonstrated that treating patients with asymptomatic FL at the onset of the disease did not increase their survival, and that almost 20% of these patients did not need any treatment in the first 10 years of follow-up. Based on these facts, most clinical practice guidelines recommend active surveillance policies for patients with asymptomatic FL. Discussion The introduction of antiCD-20 monoclonal antibodies, over the last 15 years, has significantly increased the median survival rate to above 14 years. This improvement was achieved before the combination of rituximab and chemotherapy regimens became extensively used in patients with symptomatic disease. Therefore, this increase in survival may currently be more significant. At present, several clinical trials have evaluated low-toxicity therapies that prolong progression-free periods, among which rituximab monotherapy, radioimmunotherapy or the combination of rituximab with bendamustine are the most relevant. Unfortunately, these clinical trials have included only patients with symptomatic FL. The results of a recently reported clinical trial show that treatment with single-agent rituximab prolongs progression-free survival rates, time to new treatment and the quality of life of asymptomatic patients, as compared with the active surveillance strategy. Longer follow-up of these results and data regarding overall survival are awaited before this treatment can be recommended as the standard initial therapy. Summary There are different therapeutic possibilities for asymptomatic FL patients, but no data are currently available to indicate which option is the best. Patients need to understand the risks and benefits of observation versus treatment before a final decision

  12. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  13. Microneedling dilates the follicular infundibulum and increases transfollicular absorption of liposomal sepia melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano G

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Serrano,1 Patricia Almudéver,2 Juan M Serrano,3 Julio Cortijo,2 Carmen Faus,1 Magda Reyes,1 Inmaculada Expósito,3 Ana Torrens,3 Fernando Millán1 1Clínica Dermatológica Serrano, 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Valencia, 3Research and Development Department, Sesderma Laboratories, Valencia, Spain Abstract: Encapsulation of chemicals in liposomes and microneedling are currently used techniques to enhance the penetration of several substances through skin and hair. In this study, we apply a liposomal melanin–fluorescein compound to an ex vivo model of human skin, using a new electrical microneedling device (Nanopore turbo roller. The product was applied by hand massage (A or with the assistance of the electrical roller for 2 minutes (B. An additional test was performed free of product and with only the E-roller (C. Histological changes and product absorption were evaluated by optical and fluorescent microscopy 60 and 90 minutes after the treatment. Site B showed larger deposits of melanin–fluorescein at superficial and deep levels of hair structures in comparison to site A. Light, epidermal deposits of the melanin–fluorescein complex were also observed. Sites B and C showed a significant widening (47% of the follicular infundibulum which could explain the increased penetration of the formulation. Microneedling also removed the scales and sebum residues in the neighborhood of the infundibulum. Targeting hair follicles with melanin may be useful to dye poorly pigmented hairs, improving laser hair removal. The procedure accelerates the delivery of melanin into hair structures allowing an even absorption, larger pigment deposits, and deeper penetration of the formulation into the hair. Keywords: liposomes, melanin, microneedling, follicular infundibulum, hair removal

  14. Hollowing or cavitation during follicular lumen formation in the differentiating thyroid of grass snake Natrix natrix L. (Lepidosauria, Serpentes) embryos? An ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupik, Weronika

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism of follicular lumen differentiation during thyroid gland morphogenesis in vertebrate classes is still unclear and the current knowledge regarding the origin and the mechanism of follicular lumen formation during thyroid differentiation in reptiles is especially poor. The present study reports on an ultrastructural investigation of thyroid follicle formation and follicular lumen differentiation in grass snake (Natrix natrix L.) embryos. The results of this study show that the earliest morphogenesis of the presumptive thyroid follicles in grass snake embryos appears to be similar to that described in embryos of other vertebrate classes; however, differences appeared during the later stages of its differentiation when the follicular lumen was formed. The follicular lumen in grass snake embryos was differentiated by cavitation; during thyroid follicle formation, a population of centrally located cells was cleared through apoptosis to form the lumen. This manner of follicular lumen differentiation indicates that it has an extracellular origin. It cannot be excluded that other types of programmed cell death also occur during follicular lumen formation in this snake species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Hormone-dependent bacterial growth, persistence and biofilm formation--a pilot study investigating human follicular fluid collected during IVF cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Pelzer

    Full Text Available Human follicular fluid, considered sterile, is aspirated as part of an in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. However, it is easily contaminated by the trans-vaginal collection route and little information exists in its potential to support the growth of microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to determine whether human follicular fluid can support bacterial growth over time, whether the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone (present at high levels within follicular fluid contribute to the in vitro growth of bacterial species, and whether species isolated from follicular fluid form biofilms. We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp. and E. coli. Several species, Lactobacillus spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp., formed biofilms when incubated in native follicular fluids in vitro (18/24, 75%. We conclude that bacteria aspirated along with follicular fluid during IVF cycles demonstrate a persistent pattern of growth. This discovery is important since it can offer a new avenue for investigation in infertile couples.

  16. A rare mutation in the RET-protooncogen associated with mixed medullary-follicular micro-carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, K.; Huwe, A.; Boldt, H.; Dresel, S. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, HELIOS-Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany); Geipel, D. [St.-Hedwig-Krankenhaus, Bereich Endokrine Chirurgie (Germany); Mairinger, T. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, HELIOS-Klinikum Emil von Behring (Germany); Schwabe, M. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Charite Berlin Campus Mitte (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and accounts for 1% to 10% of all thyroid cancers (1). MTC can be sporadic or hereditary. Hereditary MTC represents 20% to 30% of all MTC with an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission and a high degree of penetrance (>90%). It can be transmitted as a single entity (sporadic), familial MTC (FMTC), or it can arise as part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome type 2A or 2B. Both genders are equally affected. (1, 9) The identification of hereditary MTC has been facilitated in recent years by the direct analysis of germline point mutations of the RET(rearranged during transfection)-protooncogene, a 21 exon gene that encodes a plasma membrane-bound tyrosine kinase receptor, localised on chromosome 10q11.2, which is expressed in tissues derived from the neural crest. To date codon mutations in nine different exons were identified (7, 8, 16, 22, 29) causing MEN 2A (MTC in combination with pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism, including rare variants with Hirschsprung's disease and cutaneous lichen amyloidosis), FMTC (MTC as a sole disease phenotype) and MEN 2B (MTC in combination with pheochromocytoma, multiple mucosa neuromas, and marfanoid habitus). The most common mutation, accounting for over 80% of all mutations associated with MEN 2A (or Sipple's) syndrome affects codon 634 in exon 11 of the RET-protooncogene. Other mutations affect codon 630 in exon 11, and codons 609, 611, 618, 620 in exon 10 - they also cause FMTC, although some have a classic MEN 2A syndrome. 5% to 10% of families with FMTC have mutations that affect codons 768, 790, 791 in exon 13: codons 804, 844 in exon 14, and codon 891 in exon 15 (3, 4, 10). The much more aggressive MEN 2B is caused by a single mutation converting a methionine into a threonine at codon 918 in exon 16, and has been identified in approximately 95% of patients with MEN 2B. Other rare mutations associated with MEN 2

  17. Inhibin-B secretion and FSH isoform distribution may play an integral part of follicular selection in the natural menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C. Yding

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to expand the concept on how follicular selection takes place in the follicular phase of the natural menstrual cycle. It is suggested that inhibin-B exerts a more intimate role in this process than previously understood. Inhibin-B shows a peak in the circulation....... Collectively, it appears that inhibin-B is an integral part of follicular selection in the normal menstrual cycle, exerting both endocrine and paracrine effects and facilitating continued growth of the selected follicle....

  18. Gene expression profiling reveals a close relationship between follicular lymphoma grade 3A and 3B, but distinct profiles of follicular lymphoma grade 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Heike; Kohler, Christian; Witzig, Raphael; Kreuz, Markus; Leich, Ellen; Klapper, Wolfram; Hummel, Michael; Loeffler, Markus; Trümper, Lorenz; Spang, Rainer; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German

    2018-03-22

    A linear progression model of follicular lymphomas (FL) FL1, FL2 and FL3A has been favored, since FL 3A often coexist with a FL1/2 component. FL3B, in contrast, is thought to be more closely related to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and both FL3B and DLBCL are often simultaneously present in one tumor (DLBCL/FL3B). To obtain more detailed insights into FL progression, comprehensive analysis of a well-defined set of FL1/2 (n=22), FL3A (n=16), FL3B (n=6), DLBCL/FL3B (n=9) and germincal center B-cell(GCB)-type DLBCL (n=45) was performed using gene expression profiling, immunohistochemical staining and genetic analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While immunohistochemical (CD10, IRF4/MUM1, Ki67, BCL2, BCL6) and genetic profiles (translocations of BCL2, BCL6 and MYC) delineate FL1-3A from FL3B and DLBCL/FL3B, significant differences were observed between FL1/2 and FL3A upon gene expression profiling (GEP). Interestingly, FL3B turned out to be closely related to FL3A, not categorizing within a separate GE cluster, and both FL3A and FL3B showed overlapping profiles in between FL1/2 and DLBCL. Finally, basing upon their gene expression pattern, DLBCL/FL3B represents a composite form of FL3B and DLBCL, with the majority of samples more closely resembling DLBCL. The fact that gene expression profiling clearly separated FL1/2 from both FL3A and FL3B suggests a closer biological relationship of the latter. This notion, however, stands in a certain contrast to immunohistochemical and genetic profiles of the different histologic FL subtypes that point to a closer relationship of FL1/2 and FL3A, and separating them from FL3B. Copyright © 2018, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  19. Prognostic relevance of CD163 and CD8 combined with EZH2 and gain of chromosome 18 in follicular lymphoma: a study by the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Wendy B. C.; Mendeville, Matias; Redd, Robert; Clear, Andrew J.; Bladergroen, Reno; Calaminici, Maria; Rosenwald, Andreas; Hoster, Eva; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Gaulard, Philippe; Xerri, Luc; Salles, Gilles; Klapper, Wolfram; Phreundschuh, Michael; Jack, Andrew; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Natkunam, Yasodha; Advani, Ranjana; Kimby, Eva; Sander, Birgitta; Sehn, Laurie; Hagenbeek, Anton; Raemaekers, John; Gribben, John; Kersten, Marie Jose'; Ylstra, Bauke; Weller, Edie; de Jong, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    In follicular lymphoma, studies addressing the prognostic value of microenvironment-related immunohistochemical markers and tumor cell-related genetic markers have yielded conflicting results, precluding implementation in practice. Therefore, the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium performed a

  20. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, M.; Patzelt, A.; Vergou, T.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Kramer, A.; Müller, G.; Sterry, W.; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.

    2012-05-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles.

  1. Resection is an effective treatment for recurrent follicular dendritic cell sarcoma from retroperitoneum: unusual presentation of a rare tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Chen, Ling-Li; Ding, Bo-Wen; Jin, Da-Yong; Xu, Xue-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Retroperitoneum follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is an extremely rare neoplasm. The treatment of this disease is not clear. A 49-year-old Chinese female who had been found a 4.4×4 cm retroperitoneum mass by routine physical examination was received radical resection. Pathology revealed an inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell tumor. After five years follow-up, a new nodule was noted on the tail of pancreas by routine CT evaluation. Re-resection was performed and pathological examination found a spindle-cell tumor with a great quantity of froth histiocytes. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD35 and CD21 which suggested it was a recurrent FDCS. Retroperitoneum FDCS is a very rare tumor. Surgical resection may be the first choice for this disease, even for recurrent tumor, if feasible. A relatively good prognosis often is achieved when compared with other malignancy.

  2. Coexistence of atypical adenoma, adenoma with bizarre nuclei and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of atypical adenoma, adenoma with bizarre nuclei and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma is described in the same thyroid, with study of p53 expression. A 72-year-old woman presented to the endocrinology out-patient unit for a routine follow-up visit. Patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Histological examination revealed a solid nodular neoplasm with the longest diameter of 0.8 cm in the upper pole of the left lobe. The neoplasm showed the histological features of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with moderate diffuse immunoreactivity for p53. The lower pole of the right lobe showed two adjacent nodules with histological features respectively of atypical adenoma and adenoma with bizarre nuclei, with strong diffuse immunoreactivity for p53.

  3. The influence of beer, cognac and ethanol upon the follicular state of mouse ovaries on day 4 of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, S; Mureşan, C

    1995-01-01

    There exist few experimental and anatomo-clinical data with respect to the effect of preconceptional and intragestional ethanol (alcoholic beverages) intake upon ovarian morpho-physiology. In order to obtain an insight into this aspect of alcohol embryo- and fetopathy, the influence of acute intoxication with beer and cognac on the background of chronic intake (in mice) and of chronic ethanol intake (in rats) upon ovarian morphology was studied, on day 4 (mice) and 5 (rats), respectively. The following characteristics were registered: the percentage of various follicular developmental stages (I-V), of atreting follicles, of preantral and antral follicles, of follicles with precocious antrogenesis. Significant changes were round in mice with respect to antral and mature follicles (lower percentage induced by beer) and concerning atreting follicles (lower percentage induced by cognac). On the other hand, precocious antrogenesis (during follicular stage II) occurred by far more frequently than expected.

  4. DNA rearrangement in human follicular lymphoma can involve the 5' or the 3' region of the bcl-2 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Y.; Bashir, M.M.; Givol, I.; Cossman, J.; Jaffe, E.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    In most human lymphomas, the chromosome translocation t(14;18) occurs within two breakpoint clustering regions on chromosome 18, the major one at the 3' untranslated region of the bcl-2 gene and the minor one at 3' of the gene. Analysis of a panel of follicular lymphoma DNAs using probes for the first exon of the bcl-2 gene indicates that DNA rearrangements may also occur 5' to the involved bcl-2 gene. In this case the IgH locus and the bcl-2 gene are found in an order suggesting that an inversion also occurred during the translocation process. The coding region of the bcl-2 gene, however, are left intact in all cases of follicular lymphoma studied to date

  5. Proliferation in the normal FTE is a hallmark of the follicular phase, not BRCA mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sophia H L; Milea, Anca; Shaw, Patricia A

    2012-11-15

    Women who have inherited germline mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2 are at increased risk of developing high-grade serous carcinoma, and many of these cancers arise in the distal fimbriated end of the fallopian tube. We have previously shown that the fallopian tube epithelia of BRCA1 mutation carriers (FTE-BRCA) have altered signaling pathways compared to nonmutation carriers. In this study, we sought to determine whether these differences result in a proliferative advantage to the epithelia in this high-risk patient population and to investigate whether the postovulation environment of the FTE-BRCA compared to FTE from nonmutation carriers experiences a differential abundance of immune cells. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67, CD3, CD8, CD20, and CD68 was performed on histologically normal tubal epithelium (ampulla, n = 83), fimbria (n = 18) with known ovarian cycle status and germline mutation status and for Ki67 on fimbrial epithelium from women (n = 144) with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) with concomitant cancer (n = 15) were also analyzed for presence of immune infiltrates. All slides were digitized and analyzed using automated image analysis software. There was no significant difference in the proliferative index in histologically normal FTE between BRCA1/BRCA2 and non-BRCA, in 144 fimbriae and 83 ampullae. The FTE-BRCA1 epithelia did not exhibit a differential presence of lymphocytes or macrophages, however more macrophages were present in the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase epithelia. In STICs macrophages were more abundant than lymphocytes with an incremental increase noted with disease progression. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers exhibited no significant increase in proliferation in the fallopian tube epithelial cells either in the ampulla or fimbriated ends of the tube. Rather, a significant proliferative increase was defined in the cases determined

  6. Altered N-Linked Glycosylation in Follicular Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Involvement in Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, Nurit; Haimovich, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expression is indispensable for survival of most B-cell malignancies. In follicular lymphoma (FL), N-linked glycosylation sites are introduced in the immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region genes. Oligosaccharides added to the acquired sites are unusually of the high-mannose type. These glycans interact with mannose-specific lectins, especially with dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). Lectin binding to FL trigger...

  7. Expression of BAFF and BAFF-R in Follicular Lymphoma: Correlation with Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Survival Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Rao, Hui-Lan; Huang, Jia-Jia; Xia, Yi; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Lin, Tong-Yu; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Li, Su; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: B-cell activation factor (BAFF) and BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R) play crucial roles in the viability and proliferation of malignant lymphoma cells. Limited information exists regarding expression profiles and the prognostic role of BAFF and BAFF-R in follicular lymphoma (FL). We sought to determine the expression profiles of BAFF and BAFF-R in FL and to evaluate the correlation of BAFF and BAFF-R expression with clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome of FL. Correlation between ex...

  8. Expression of a constitutively active calcineurin encoded by an intron-retaining mRNA in follicular keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Fujimura

    Full Text Available Hair growth is a highly regulated cyclical process. Immunosuppressive immunophilin ligands such as cyclosporin A (CsA and FK506 are known as potent hair growth modulatory agents in rodents and humans that induce active hair growth and inhibit hair follicle regression. The immunosuppressive effectiveness of these drugs has been generally attributed to inhibition of T cell activation through well-characterized pathways. Specifically, CsA and FK506 bind to intracellular proteins, principally cyclophilin A and FKBP12, respectively, and thereby inhibit the phosphatase calcineurin (Cn. The calcineurin (Cn/NFAT pathway has an important, but poorly understood, role in the regulation of hair follicle development. Here we show that a novel-splicing variant of calcineurin Aß CnAß-FK, which is encoded by an intron-retaining mRNA and is deficient in the autoinhibitory domain, is predominantly expressed in mature follicular keratinocytes but not in the proliferating keratinocytes of rodents. CnAß-FK was weakly sensitive to Ca(2+ and dephosphorylated NFATc2 under low Ca(2+ levels in keratinocytes. Inhibition of Cn/NFAT induced hair growth in nude mice. Cyclin G2 was identified as a novel target of the Cn/NFATc2 pathway and its expression in follicular keratinocytes was reduced by inhibition of Cn/NFAT. Overexpression of cyclin G2 arrested the cell cycle in follicular keratinocytes in vitro and the Cn inhibitor, cyclosporin A, inhibited nuclear localization of NFATc2, resulting in decreased cyclin G2 expression in follicular keratinocytes of rats in vivo. We therefore suggest that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway has a unique regulatory role in hair follicle development.

  9. Expression of Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Related Genes and Plasticity of Aspirated Follicular Cells Obtained from Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Dzafic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After removal of oocytes for in vitro fertilization, follicular aspirates which are rich in somatic follicular cells are discarded in daily medical practice. However, there is some evidence that less differentiated cells with stem cell characteristics are present among aspirated follicular cells (AFCs. The aim of this study was to culture AFCs in vitro and to analyze their gene expression profile. Using the RT2 Profiler PCR array, we investigated the expression profile of 84 genes related to stemness, mesenchymal stem cells (MCSs, and cell differentiation in AFCs enriched by hypoosmotic protocol from follicular aspirates of infertile women involved in assisted reproduction programme in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs and fibroblasts. Altogether the expression of 57 genes was detected in AFCs: 16 genes (OCT4, CD49f, CD106, CD146, CD45, CD54, IL10, IL1B, TNF, VEGF, VWF, HDAC1, MITF, RUNX2, PPARG, and PCAF were upregulated and 20 genes (FGF2, CASP3, CD105, CD13, CD340, CD73, CD90, KDR, PDGFRB, BDNF, COL1A1, IL6, MMP2, NES, NUDT6, BMP6, SMURF2, BMP4, GDF5, and JAG1 were downregulated in AFCs when compared with BM-MSCs. The genes which were upregulated in AFCs were mostly related to MSCs and connected with ovarian function, and differed from those in fibroblasts. The cultured AFCs with predominating granulosa cells were successfully in vitro differentiated into adipogenic-, osteogenic-, and pancreatic-like cells. The upregulation of some MSC-specific genes and in vitro differentiation into other types of cells indicated a subpopulation of AFCs with specific stemness, which was not similar to those of BM-MSCs or fibroblasts.

  10. The association between homocysteine in the follicular fluid with embryo quality and pregnancy rate in assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Pelin; Ersoylu, Bilge; Cepni, Ismail; Guralp, Onur; Atakul, Nil; Irez, Tulay; Idil, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the association between follicular fluid homocysteine levels and embryo quality and pregnancy rates in patients undergoing assisted reproduction. Fifty infertile women who were admitted to our clinic were enrolled in the study. Ovulation induction was performed by using GnRH agonist and gonadotropins. For each patient, homocysteine level in the follicular fluid was measured by using nephelometric method after the oocyte pick-up. The association between the homocysteine concentration in the follicular fluid and the oocyte-embryo quality, pregnancy rates and hormone levels were investigated. Mean ± SD Hcy was 9.6 ± 2.02 μmol/L and 14.9 ± 2.93 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p Homocystein did not have any correlation with M2, late M2, and total number of oocytes, number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos, and embryo quality grade. Area under curve (AUC) of hcy for prediction of pregnancy failure was 0.922 (p = 0.0001, 95% Confidence interval 0.85-0.99). A threshold of 11.9 μmol/L of hcy had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 91.6% for prediction of pregnancy failure. The subgroup analysis in male factor infertility group (n = 28), showed that mean homocystein was 9.9 ± 2.44 μmol/L and 14.1 ± 2.72 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p = 0.002). Low follicular fluid homocysteine level is associated with a better chance of clinical pregnancy.

  11. The in vitro use of the hair follicle closure technique to study the follicular and percutaneous permeation of topically applied drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jessica; Niedorf, Frank; Wohlert, Mareike; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies on follicular permeation emphasise the importance of hair follicles as diffusion pathways, but only a limited amount of data are available about the follicular permeation of topically applied drugs. This study examines the use of a hair follicle closure technique in vitro, to determine the participation of hair follicles in transdermal drug penetration. Various substances, with different lipophilicities, were tested: caffeine, diclofenac, flufenamic acid, ibuprofen, paracetamol, salicylic acid and testosterone. Diffusion experiments were conducted with porcine skin, the most common replacement material for human skin, in Franz-type diffusion cells over 28 hours. Different experimental settings allowed the differentiation between interfollicular and follicular permeation after topical application of the test compounds. A comparison of the apparent permeability coefficients of the drugs demonstrates that the percutaneous permeations of caffeine and flufenamic acid were significantly higher along the hair follicles. In the cases of paracetamol and testosterone, the follicular pathway appears to be of importance, while no difference was found between interfollicular and follicular permeation for diclofenac, ibuprofen and salicylic acid. Thus, the hair follicle closure technique represents an adequate in vitro method for gaining information about follicular or percutaneous permeation, and can replace in vivo testing in animals or humans. 2012 FRAME.

  12. Analysis of human mammary fibroadenoma by Ki-67 index in the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, M F; Navarrete, M A L H; Facina, G; Falzoni, R; Silva, R; Baracat, E C; Nazario, A C P

    2009-04-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign mammary condition among women aged 35 or younger. Expression of Ki-67 antigen has been used to compare proliferative activity of mammary fibroadenoma epithelium in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Ninety eumenorrheic women were selected for tumour excision; they were assigned to either of the two groups, according to their phase of menstrual cycle. At the end of the study, 75 patients with 87 masses were evaluated by epithelial cell Ki-67 expression, blind (no information given concerning group to which any lesion belonged). Both groups were found to be homogeneous relative to age, menarche, body mass index, previous gestation, parity, breastfeeding, number of fibroadenomas, family history of breast cancer and tabagism. Median tumour size was 2.0 cm and no relationship between proliferative activity and nodule diameter was observed. No typical pattern was observed in the expression of Ki-67 in distinct nodules of the same patient. Average values for expression of Ki-67 (per 1000 epithelial cells) in follicular and luteal phases were 27.88 and 37.88, respectively (P = 0.116). Our findings revealed that proliferative activities in the mammary fibroadenoma epithelium did not present a statistically significant difference in the follicular and luteal phases. The present study contributes to clarifying that fibroadenoma is a neoplasm and does not undergo any change in the proliferative activity during the menstrual cycle.

  13. Ovarian activity and oocyte quality associated with the biochemical profile of serum and follicular fluid from Girolando dairy cows postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Lúcio, Aline C; Martins, Muller C; Silva, Thiago H; Alves, Bruna G; Braga, Lucas S; Silva, Thiago V; Viu, Marco A O; Beletti, Marcelo E; Jacomini, José O; Santos, Ricarda M; Gambarini, Maria L

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of heat stress (HS) on the metabolic profile of serum and follicular fluid (FF), ovarian follicle development, and oocyte quality of Girolando dairy cows. Oocytes, blood, and FF (follicles ≥9mm) samples were obtained at 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days postpartum in the summer and winter seasons. During transvaginal follicular aspiration, rectal temperature (RT), body condition score (BCS), number of ovarian follicles, and quality of oocytes were recorded. The ambient air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) were also recorded to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), urea, sodium (Na), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) concentrations were determined using serum and FF samples. The RT, THI, and BCS loss were greater (P<0.01) in the summer; however, glucose, Na, and K serum concentrations decreased in the same season (P<0.05). Degenerated oocytes were positively associated (P<0.05) with THI (r=0.14) and AT (r=0.13), and negatively associated with glucose (r=-0.12) and K (r=-0.11) serum concentrations. HS induces metabolic changes, which compromise the number of ovarian follicles and the follicular environment, thus resulting in morphologically damaged oocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hormonal characteristics of follicular fluid from women receiving either GnRH agonist or hCG for ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C Yding; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Ejdrup, H Bredkjaer

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent prospective randomized study from our group compared GnRH agonist (0.5 mg buserelin) and hCG (10,000 IU) for triggering of ovulation following a flexible antagonist protocol. The agonist group showed a poor reproductive outcome despite luteal phase support with progesterone......-ovulatory follicular maturation resulting in oocytes with a compromised developmental competence. METHODS: Hormone concentrations were measured in two individual follicular fluid samples from each of 32 women receiving buserelin and 37 receiving hCG, thus representing a subset of the follicles retrieved. RESULTS......: Follicular fluid levels of LH in the agonist group as compared with the hCG group was 11.1 +/- 0.5 versus 3.6 +/- 0.3 IU/l (mean +/- SEM; P hCG, not determined versus 139+/-8 IU/l; E(2), 1.9 +/- 0.2 versus 1.8 +/- 0.2 micromol/l (P > 0...

  15. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, M; Patzelt, A; Lademann, J; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B; Vergou, T; Kramer, A; Mueller, G

    2012-01-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles

  16. Relationship between bcl-2, bax, beclin-1, and cathepsin-D proteins during postovulatory follicular regression in fish ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Roberto D V S; Thomé, Ralph G; Santos, Hélio B; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2016-04-01

    In fish ovaries, postovulatory follicles (POFs) are key biomarkers of breeding and provide an interesting model for studying the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of autophagic and apoptotic proteins to improve the knowledge on the mechanisms regulating ovarian remodeling after spawning. Females from three neotropical fish species kept in captivity were submitted to hormonal induction. After ova stripping, ovarian sections were sampled daily until 5 days postspawning (dps). Similar events of POF regression were detected by histology, terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and electron microscopy in the three species: follicular cells hypertrophy, progressive disintegration of the basement membrane, gradual closing of the follicular lumen, theca thickening, and formation of large autophagic vacuoles preceding apoptosis of the follicular cells. Autophagic and apoptotic proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Morphometric analysis of the immunolabeling revealed a more intense reaction for bcl-2 and beclin-1 (BECN1) in POFs at 0 to 1 dps and for bax at 2 to 3 dps (P family, BECN1, and cathepsin-D can be involved in the regulation of ovarian remodeling in teleost fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anoctamin 1 is Apically Expressed on Thyroid Follicular Cells and Contributes to ATP- and Calcium-Activated Iodide Efflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Iosco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Iodide efflux from thyroid cells into the follicular lumen is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, however, the pathways mediating this transport have only been partially identified. A calcium-activated pathway of iodide efflux has long been recognized, but its molecular identity unknown. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1 is a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC, and this study aims to investigate its contribution to iodide fluxes in thyroid cells. Methods: RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and live cell imaging with the fluorescent halide biosensor YFP-H148Q/I152L were used to study the expression, localization and function of ANO1 in thyroid cells. Results: ANO1 mRNA was detected in human thyroid tissue and FRTL-5 thyrocytes, and ANO1 protein was localized to the apical membrane of follicular cells. ATP induced a transient loss of iodide from FRTL-5 cells that was dependent on the mobilization of intracellular calcium, and was inhibited by CaCC/ANO1 inhibitors and siRNA against ANO1. Calcium-activated iodide efflux was also observed in CHO cells over-expressing the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS and ANO1. Conclusion: ANO1 in thyrocytes functions as a calcium-activated channel mediating iodide efflux, and may contribute to the rapid delivery of iodide into the follicular lumen for the synthesis of thyroid hormones following activation by calcium-mobilizing stimuli.

  18. Treatment with rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and oxaliplatin (R-DHAOx) produces a strong long-term antitumor effect in previously treated patients with follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machover, D; Delmas-Marsalet, B; Misra, S C; Ulusakarya, A; Gumus, Y; Frénoy, N; Guettier, C; Saffroy, R; Innominato, P; Almohamad, W; Brahimi, N; Haydar, M; Goldschmidt, E

    2010-02-01

    We explored the addition of rituximab to high-dose cytarabine (ara-C), oxaliplatin (L-OHP), and dexamethasone [R-DHAOx], in resistant and relapsed patients with CD20-positive follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Twenty-two patients were included; they were treated previously with one to five chemotherapy regimens, including 13 patients who had also received rituximab. R-DHAOx consisted of rituximab, 375mg/m(2), day 1; dexamethasone, 40mg/d, days one to four; L-OHP, 130mg/m(2), day 1; and ara-C, 2000mg/m(2) every 12 h, day 2. Courses were repeated every 21 days for eight courses. Twenty-one patients (95%) achieved a complete response and one had a partial response. Responses were obtained in patients with and without resistance to prior treatment, either alone or combined with rituximab. The median follow-up time was 58.3 months (range, 8.7-92.6 months). Progression-free survival reached a plateau at 84% at 38.2 months. Only two of the 21 complete responders have relapsed. Tumor molecular markers disappeared in all 10 complete responders whose markers were found before treatment. Peripheral neuropathy related to the cumulative dose of L-OHP, and myelosuppression were the most prominent toxic effects. R-DHAOx is highly active for salvage treatment of patients with follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and it produces long-term antitumor efficacy. 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Oogenesis, follicular development and reproductive performance in the prenatally irradiated bovine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.; Reynolds, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the radioresponse of the various developmental stages of the prenatal bovine germ cell, cows bearing foetuses varying in age from 40+-5 (point of gonadal sex differentiation) to 270+-10 (approximately 13 days before parturition) days of gestation were irradiated with 300 R of 60 Co gamma radiation at 25-50 R/min, a level just below that likely to cause maternal deaths and gross foetal abnormalities at some developmental stages. Dose to the foetal gonad was approximately 100 rad. When the prenatally irradiated heifers were approximately 10 months old their ovaries were recovered at slaughter, serially sectioned, and prepared for microscopic analysis. A complete quantitative analysis of oocytes in primordial, growing and vesicular follicles was effected. Follicular development (reflected by counts of growing and vesicular follicles) was apparently unaffected at all ages tested (P>0.25), whereas oogenesis (reflected by counts of oocytes in primordial follicles) was significantly impeded (64% of control) only between 70 and 90 days of gestation (P<0.05). The germ-cell population at this period differs from later developmental stages principally by the presence of a high proportion of mitotically active oogonia, hence it appears that the oogonium is the most vulnerable cell type. Neither the viability nor reproductive performance of 60 cows that were prenatally irradiated (100 rad) at either 80+-10 or 130+-20 days of gestation was affected through a minimum of 5 years of postnatal life and three pregnancies. (author)

  20. A Distinct T Follicular Helper Cell Subset Infiltrates the Brain in Murine Neuropsychiatric Lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shweta; Stock, Ariel; Macian, Fernando; Putterman, Chaim

    2018-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are not uncommon, yet the mechanisms underlying disease initiation and progression in the brain are incompletely understood. Although the role of T cells in other lupus target organs such as the kidney is well defined, which T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric SLE is not known. The present study was aimed at characterizing the CD4 T cell populations that are present in the choroid plexus (CP) of MRL/MpJ-fas lpr mice, the primary site of brain infiltration in this classic lupus mouse model which exhibits a prominent neurobehavioral phenotype. T cells infiltrating the CP of MRL/MpJ-fas lpr mice were characterized and subset identification was done by multiparameter flow cytometry. We found that the infiltrating CD4 T cells are activated and have an effector phenotype. Importantly, CD4 T cells have a T follicular helper cell (T FH ) like phenotype, as evidenced by their surface markers and signature cytokine, IL-21. In addition, CD4 T FH cells also secrete significant levels of IFN-γ and express Bcl-6, thereby conforming to a potentially pathogenic T helper population that can drive the disease progression. Interestingly, the regulatory axis comprising CD4 T regulatory cells is diminished. These results suggest that accumulation of CD4 T FH in the brain of MRL/MpJ-fas lpr mice may contribute to the neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE, and point to this T cell subset as a possible novel therapeutic candidate.

  1. A Distinct T Follicular Helper Cell Subset Infiltrates the Brain in Murine Neuropsychiatric Lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Jain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are not uncommon, yet the mechanisms underlying disease initiation and progression in the brain are incompletely understood. Although the role of T cells in other lupus target organs such as the kidney is well defined, which T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric SLE is not known. The present study was aimed at characterizing the CD4 T cell populations that are present in the choroid plexus (CP of MRL/MpJ-faslpr mice, the primary site of brain infiltration in this classic lupus mouse model which exhibits a prominent neurobehavioral phenotype. T cells infiltrating the CP of MRL/MpJ-faslpr mice were characterized and subset identification was done by multiparameter flow cytometry. We found that the infiltrating CD4 T cells are activated and have an effector phenotype. Importantly, CD4 T cells have a T follicular helper cell (TFH like phenotype, as evidenced by their surface markers and signature cytokine, IL-21. In addition, CD4 TFH cells also secrete significant levels of IFN-γ and express Bcl-6, thereby conforming to a potentially pathogenic T helper population that can drive the disease progression. Interestingly, the regulatory axis comprising CD4 T regulatory cells is diminished. These results suggest that accumulation of CD4 TFH in the brain of MRL/MpJ-faslpr mice may contribute to the neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE, and point to this T cell subset as a possible novel therapeutic candidate.

  2. Detection and Measurement of the Intracellular Calcium Variation in Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Herrera-Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method for measuring the variation of intracellular calcium in follicular cells. The proposal consists in two stages: (i the detection of the cell’s nuclei and (ii the analysis of the fluorescence variations. The first stage is performed via watershed modified transformation, where the process of labeling is controlled. The detection process uses the contours of the cells as descriptors, where they are enhanced with a morphological filter that homogenizes the luminance variation of the image. In the second stage, the fluorescence variations are modeled as an exponential decreasing function, where the fluorescence variations are highly correlated with the changes of intracellular free Ca2+. Additionally, it is introduced a new morphological called medium reconstruction process, which helps to enhance the data for the modeling process. This filter exploits the undermodeling and overmodeling properties of reconstruction operators, such that it preserves the structure of the original signal. Finally, an experimental process shows evidence of the capabilities of the proposal.

  3. Characterization of the follicular dendritic cell reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, Brandon F; Tazi, Loubna; Gartner, Suzanne; Liu, Yiling; Burgon, Trever B; Estes, Jacob D; Thacker, Tyler C; Crandall, Keith A; McArthur, Justin C; Burton, Gregory F

    2008-06-01

    Throughout the natural course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) trap and retain large quantities of particle-associated HIV RNA in the follicles of secondary lymphoid tissue. We have previously found that murine FDCs in vivo could maintain trapped virus particles in an infectious state for at least 9 months. Here we sought to determine whether human FDCs serve as an HIV reservoir, based on the criteria that virus therein must be replication competent, genetically diverse, and archival in nature. We tested our hypothesis using postmortem cells and tissues obtained from three HIV-infected subjects and antemortem blood samples obtained from one of these subjects. Replication competence was determined using coculture, while genetic diversity and the archival nature of virus were established using phylogenetic and population genetics methods. We found that FDC-trapped virus was replication competent and demonstrated greater genetic diversity than that of virus found in most other tissues and cells. Antiretrovirus-resistant variants that were not present elsewhere were also detected on FDCs. Furthermore, genetic similarity was observed between FDC-trapped HIV and viral species recovered from peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained 21 and 22 months antemortem, but was not present in samples obtained 4 and 18 months prior to the patient's death, indicating that FDCs can archive HIV. These data indicate that FDCs represent a significant reservoir of infectious and diverse HIV, thereby providing a mechanism for viral persistence for months to years.

  4. Enamel dysplasia with hamartomatous atypical follicular hyperplasia (EDHFH) syndrome: suggested pathogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Kramer, B; Raubenheimer, E J; Lemmer, J

    2008-03-01

    The syndrome of enamel dysplasia with hamartomatous atypical follicular hyperplasia (EDHFH) is an unusual syndrome and is unique to black South Africans. Major criteria for the syndrome are enamel dysplasia with generalized amelogenesis imperfecta-like features and atypical hyperplastic dental follicles with microscopic features of central odontogenic fibroma WHO-type (follicle analogue) attached to the crowns of multiple impacted teeth. Minor features of some cases are anterior open-bite malocclusion, supernumerary teeth, pulpal calcification, aberrant roots with hypercementosis, and hypodontia. The pathogenic mechanisms that lead to the development of EDHFH are unknown. We speculate that faulty synthesis of enamel matrix proteins may interfere with enamel formation and play a role in the generalized enamel hypoplasia described in this syndrome. Alterations in inductive signalling by the odontogenic epithelium mediated by enamel matrix proteins may explain the development of the follicle analogues, the root hypercementosis and the presence of dysplastic cementum deposition juxtaposed to odontogenic epithelium in the gingival overgrowth. Thus, alterations in the function of enamel matrix protein function, may be the common denominator responsible for the development of the EDHFH phenotype.

  5. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma manifesting as follicular isthmus cysts in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Elizabeth A; Graham, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was examined for swelling of the right upper lip. The cat had been receiving oral ciclosporin A for eosinophilic plaques. The swelling appeared clinically and cytologically consistent with an abscess; exudate was cultured and treatment consisted of antibiotic therapy and surgical curettage. Five months of antibiotic therapy with three separate surgical treatments resulted in minimal improvement; three separate biopsy samples demonstrated epithelial cysts with severe dermal inflammation. Swelling and drainage of purulent material from the affected lip persisted and progressed to involve the left upper lip. Euthanasia was elected 13 months after initial examination due to disease progression. On necropsy, histopathology demonstrated multiple isthmus cysts intermixed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The clinical and histopathologic features were unusual for feline cutaneous SCC. The cystic nature and lack of epidermal involvement suggest the tumor arose from non-epidermal squamous cells such as follicular isthmus or ductal epithelium. There is a pattern of SCC recognized in human renal transplant patients with features of epidermal inclusion cysts. These features have not been previously reported in SCC from a cat.

  6. Hair Follicle Plasticity with Complemented Immune-modulation Following Follicular Unit Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Reza P; Thomas, Alexander H; Lindner, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Background: During hair transplantation as an effective therapy for androgenetic alopecia, hair follicles were typically trans-located from the nonaffected occipital to the balding frontal or vertex region of the scalp. Although this is an autologous intervention, the donor and recipient hair follicle tissue differ in composition and local environment. Settings and Design: In two case studies, we investigated the changes in hair follicle morphology and the immune status of scalp and body hair follicles from different origins transplanted to the eyebrows and the frontal scalp using follicular unit extraction. Results: Quantitative histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry revealed a transformation in hair follicle length and dermal papilla size of the scalp, chest and beard hair follicles, which had been re-extracted after a 6-month period posttransplantation. Furthermore, a significant infiltration of B and T lymphocytes as well as macrophages could be observed most prominently in the infundibulum of transplanted hair follicles. Conclusion: The presented results demonstrate that hair follicle units from different body sites are capable to replace miniaturized or degraded hair follicles in different recipient areas like scalp or eyebrows as they keep their intrinsic capability or acquire the potential to readjust plastically within the beneficiary skin region. The essential secretory crosstalk underlying the observed tissue remodeling is possibly mediated by the infiltrating immune cells. PMID:25878444

  7. Characterization of human follicular thyroid cancer cell lines in preclinical mouse models

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    Ashley N Reeb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Follicular thyroid cancer (FTC is the second most common type of thyroid cancers. In order to develop more effective personalized therapies, it is necessary to thoroughly evaluate patient-derived cell lines in in vivo preclinical models before using them to test new, targeted therapies. This study evaluates the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of a panel of three human FTC cell lines (WRO, FTC-238, and TT1609-CO2 with defined genetic mutations in two in vivo murine models: an orthotopic thyroid cancer model to study tumor progression and a tail vein injection model to study metastasis. All cell lines developed tumors in the orthotopic model, with take rates of 100%. Notably, WRO-derived tumors grew two to four times faster than tumors arising from the FTC-238 and TT2609-CO2 cell lines. These results mirrored those of a tail vein injection model for lung metastasis: one hundred percent of mice injected with WRO cells in the tail vein exhibited aggressive growth of bilateral lung metastases within 35 days. In contrast, tail vein injection of FTC-238 or TT2609-CO2 cells did not result in lung metastasis. Together, our work demonstrates that these human FTC cell lines display highly varied tumorigenic and metastatic potential in vivo with WRO being the most aggressive cell line in both orthotopic and lung metastasis models. This information will be valuable when selecting cell lines for preclinical drug testing.

  8. [Guideline for radioimmunotherapy of CD20+ follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Grünwald, F; Knapp, W H; Trümper, L; von Schilling, C; Dreyling, M

    2009-01-01

    This guideline is a prerequisite for the quality management in the treatment of non-Hodgkon-lymphomas in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma after rituximab therapy and as consolidation therapy after first remission following CHOP like treatment using radioimmunotherapy. It is based on an interdisciplinary consensus and contains background information and definitions as well as specified indications and detailed contraindications of treatment. Essential topics are the requirements for institutions performing the therapy. For instance, presence of an expert for medical physics, intense cooperation with all colleagues committed to treatment of lymphomas, and a certificate of instruction in radiochemical labelling and quality control are required. Furthermore, it is specified which patient data have to be available prior to performance of therapy and how treatment has to be carried out technically. Here, quality control and documentation of labelling are of great importance. After treatment, clinical quality control is mandatory (work-up of therapy data and follow-up of patients). Essential elements of follow-up are specified in detail. The complete treatment inclusive after-care has to be realised in close cooperation with those colleagues (hemato-oncologists) who propose, in general, radioimmunotherapy under consideration of the development of the disease.

  9. Follicular helper T cells poise immune responses to the development of autoimmune pathology.

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    Gómez-Martín, Diana; Díaz-Zamudio, Mariana; Romo-Tena, Jorge; Ibarra-Sánchez, María J; Alcocer-Varela, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Follicular helper T cells (T(FH)) have been implicated as a lineage that provides sufficient help to B cells in order to become professional antibody producers. This T helper subset is characterized by a distinctive cell-surface phenotype (CD4(+)CD57(+)CXCR5(+)) and cytokine profile (IL-21, IL-6, and IL-27) as well as transcriptional program (BCL-6, ICOS, and PD-1). Evidence supports the concept that T(FH) subset development, as well as for other lineages, is dependent on microenvironment cues that modulate a particular transcriptional program, susceptible to plasticity. Recently, it has been shown that BCL-6 and IL-21 act as master regulators for the development and function of T(FH) cells. Moreover, costimulation via ICOS, as well as signaling proteins such as SAP constitute required elements of the regulatory network that modulates T(FH) functions. T(FH) dysregulation has been implicated in the development of autoimmune pathology, such as SLE. Indeed, the Sanroque mice associated to the mutation of Roquin, a ubiquitin ligase, essential for the regulation of ICOS and germinal center responses, constitutes a model that shares features with human SLE. Recently, the expansion of "circulating T(FH) cells" (CD4(+)CXCR5(+)ICOS(high)PD1(high)) has been described for a subset of SLE patients that share T(FH) dependent features of disease with Sanroque mice, such as glomerulonephritis and cytopenias. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

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    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (Pgilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (Pgilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  11. Clinical manifestations of low bone mass in amenorrhea patients with elevated follicular stimulating hormone.

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    Yu, Qi; Lin, Shouqing; He, Fangfang; Li, Baoluo; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ying

    2002-09-01

    To study the characteristics of low bone mass in amenorrhea patients with elevated follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). Amenorrhea patients with elevated FSH: Primary amenorrhea 18 cases, secondary amenorrhea 171 cases and age matched controls with normal menstruation, 180 cases. The descriptive parameters were: estrogen, alkaline phosphatase, urinary excretion of calcium to creatine ratio, cortical bone mineral density at the right radius measured by single photon absorptiometry and trabecular bone mineral density at the lumbar vertebra body measured by quantitative computerized tomography. Average E(2) levels in amenorrhea patients is under 150 pmol/L with significantly higher alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium to creatine ratio values than the normal menstruation group. Cortical bone mineral density in the secondary amenorrhea group (655 +/- 69 mg/cm(2)) was significantly lower than that of the normal menstruation group (677 +/- 56 mg/cm(2), P < 0.01). Trabecular bone mineral density in the secondary amenorrhea group (145 +/- 26 mg/cm(3)) was significantly lower than that of the NOR group (192 +/- 28 mg/cm(3), P < 0.001). The disparity with the normal menstruation group is even greater in the primary amenorrhea group. Bone mineral density of the amenorrhea patients was negatively correlated with duration of the menopause. Serum estrodiol levels in amenorrhea patients was so low that bone turnover was accelerated. This led to insufficient bone accumulation and a dramatically drop in trabecular bone mineral density. The extent was closely related to age of onset of amenorrhea and the duration of ovarian failure.

  12. Detection of dendritic cells and related cytokines in follicular fluid of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Zhang, Tao; Tian, Fuying; Huo, Ran; Tang, Aifa; Zeng, Yong; Duan, Yong-Gang

    2017-09-01

    The presence of dendritic cells (DCs) and associated cytokines in follicular fluid (FF) from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remains unknown. FF was collected from PCOS patients and patients with severe male factor infertility (control) at the day of transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Phenotypes of DC were detected by flow cytometry, and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-23 were assessed by ELISA. A significant decrease in the percentage of DC was found in patients with PCOS (16.22±5.5%) compared with control (21.27±5.5%, P<.01). E 2 on the day of hCG administration was correlated positively with the mean fluorescence intensity of HLA-DR (r=.75, P<.01) and reversely correlated with the concentration of TNF-α in FF (r=-.69, P<.01). The level of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 increased significantly but IL-23 decreased in FF from patients with PCOS. The decrease of DC and disturbance of associated cytokines in FF from PCOS patients indicates a disorder of immunological microenvironment of the ovarian follicle, which might be involved in the dysfunction of folliculogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Surgical orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine in the presence of dens invaginatus and follicular cyst.

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    Spallarossa, Marialuce; Canevello, Carola; Silvestrini Biavati, Francesca; Laffi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. "Dens invaginatus" is a dental anomaly which originates from the invagination of the ameloblastic epithelium into the lingual surface of the dental crown during the odontogenesis. It can cause early pulpal necrosis, abscesses, retention or dislocation of contiguous elements, cysts, and internal resorptions. It normally affects the upper lateral incisors. In the following study the authors will discuss the etiology, the physiopathology, and the surgical-orthodontic management of a rare case of impacted canine associated with dens invaginatus and follicular cyst, with the aim of highlighting the importance of taking any therapeutic decision based on the data available in the literature. Case Report. The present study describes a combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine associated with a lateral incisor (2.2) suffering from type III dens invaginatus with radicular cyst, in a 15-year-old patient. Discussion. When treating a dens invaginatus there are different therapeutic solutions: they depend on the gravity of the anomaly and on the association with the retention of a permanent tooth. The aesthetic and functional restoration becomes extremely important when performing a surgical-orthodontic repositioning.

  14. CARBOHYDRATES OF CHANGES DURING THE FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT IN THE OVARY OF THE MOUSE DEER, TRAGULUS JAVANICUS

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    Hamny -

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The data available on the female reproductive organ of mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus is still very limited. A study was therefore conducted to investigate the distribution and the concentration of carbohydrate residues during the development of ovary follicles. An ovary at luteal phase was used in this study. Thin sections of the ovary were prepared occording to the standard methods and they were then histochemically stained with flourecnece-labelled lectins such as peanut agglutinin (PNA, Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA, Concanavalin A (Con A, Winged bean agglutinin (WGA and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA. The result showed that changes in the distribution and the concentration of carbohydrate occured during the development of the follicle. During the preantral stage, the cytoplasm of oosit contained carbohydrate with the residues of glucosa dan mannosa. Zona pelusida contained carbohydrates with residues of glucosa, mannosa, galactosa dan N-asetylgalactosamine, whereas extracellular matrix contained carbohydrate with the residues of glucosa dan mannosa. In the antral follicle, the cyitoplasm of oocytes contained carbohydarte with the residues of galactosa dan N-asetylgalactosamine, whereas its zona pelusida, extracellular matrix and follicular fluid contained carbohydarte with the residues of fucosa, N-asetylglucosamin and cyalic acid. Diffrences in the types and the distribution pattern of carbohydrates were observed in this study, both in preantral and antral follicles.

  15. The Transcription Factor c-Maf Promotes the Differentiation of Follicular Helper T Cells

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    Fabienne Andris

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (Tfh have been identified as the primary cell subpopulation regulating B cell responses in germinal centers, thus supporting high-affinity antibody production. Among the transcription factors orchestrating Tfh cell differentiation and function, the role played by the proto-oncogene c-Maf remains poorly characterized. We report herein that selective loss of c-Maf expression in the T cell compartment results in defective development of Tfh cells in response to both antigen/adjuvant vaccinations and commensal intestinal bacteria. Accordingly, c-Maf expression in T cells was essential for the development and high-affinity antibody secretion in vaccinated animals. c-Maf was expressed early, concomitantly to BCL6, in Tfh cell precursors and found to regulate Tfh fate in a cell-autonomous fashion. Altogether, our findings reveal a novel, non-redundant, function for c-Maf in the differentiation of Tfh cells and the regulation of humoral immune responses to T-cell-dependent antigens.

  16. Classification of follicular lymphoma images: a holistic approach with symbol-based machine learning methods.

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    Zorman, Milan; Sánchez de la Rosa, José Luis; Dinevski, Dejan

    2011-12-01

    It is not very often to see a symbol-based machine learning approach to be used for the purpose of image classification and recognition. In this paper we will present such an approach, which we first used on the follicular lymphoma images. Lymphoma is a broad term encompassing a variety of cancers of the lymphatic system. Lymphoma is differentiated by the type of cell that multiplies and how the cancer presents itself. It is very important to get an exact diagnosis regarding lymphoma and to determine the treatments that will be most effective for the patient's condition. Our work was focused on the identification of lymphomas by finding follicles in microscopy images provided by the Laboratory of Pathology in the University Hospital of Tenerife, Spain. We divided our work in two stages: in the first stage we did image pre-processing and feature extraction, and in the second stage we used different symbolic machine learning approaches for pixel classification. Symbolic machine learning approaches are often neglected when looking for image analysis tools. They are not only known for a very appropriate knowledge representation, but also claimed to lack computational power. The results we got are very promising and show that symbolic approaches can be successful in image analysis applications.

  17. The transcription factor KLF2 restrains CD4⁺ T follicular helper cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June-Yong; Skon, Cara N; Lee, You Jeong; Oh, Soohwan; Taylor, Justin J; Malhotra, Deepali; Jenkins, Marc K; Rosenfeld, M Geoffrey; Hogquist, Kristin A; Jameson, Stephen C

    2015-02-17

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for efficient B cell responses, yet the factors that regulate differentiation of this CD4(+) T cell subset are incompletely understood. Here we found that the KLF2 transcription factor serves to restrain Tfh cell generation. Induced KLF2 deficiency in activated CD4(+) T cells led to increased Tfh cell generation and B cell priming, whereas KLF2 overexpression prevented Tfh cell production. KLF2 promotes expression of the trafficking receptor S1PR1, and S1PR1 downregulation is essential for efficient Tfh cell production. However, KLF2 also induced expression of the transcription factor Blimp-1, which repressed transcription factor Bcl-6 and thereby impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Furthermore, KLF2 induced expression of the transcription factors T-bet and GATA3 and enhanced Th1 differentiation. Hence, our data indicate KLF2 is pivotal for coordinating CD4(+) T cell differentiation through two distinct and complementary mechanisms: via control of T cell localization and by regulation of lineage-defining transcription factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Severe Malaria Infections Impair Germinal Center Responses by Inhibiting T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation

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    Victoria Ryg-Cornejo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops only after years of repeated exposure to Plasmodium parasites. Despite the key role antibodies play in protection, the cellular processes underlying the slow acquisition of immunity remain unknown. Using mouse models, we show that severe malaria infection inhibits the establishment of germinal centers (GCs in the spleen. We demonstrate that infection induces high frequencies of T follicular helper (Tfh cell precursors but results in impaired Tfh cell differentiation. Despite high expression of Bcl-6 and IL-21, precursor Tfh cells induced during infection displayed low levels of PD-1 and CXCR5 and co-expressed Th1-associated molecules such as T-bet and CXCR3. Blockade of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IFN-γ or T-bet deletion restored Tfh cell differentiation and GC responses to infection. Thus, this study demonstrates that the same pro-inflammatory mediators that drive severe malaria pathology have detrimental effects on the induction of protective B cell responses.

  19. A Honey Trap for the Treatment of Acne: Manipulating the Follicular Microenvironment to Control Propionibacterium acnes

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    E. Anne Eady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, as 40 years ago, we still rely on a limited number of antibiotics and benzoyl peroxide to treat inflammatory acne. An alternative way of suppressing the growth of Propionibacterium acnes is to target the environment in which it thrives. We conjecture that P. acnes colonises a relatively “extreme” habitat especially in relation to the availability of water and possibly related factors such as ionic strength and osmolarity. We hypothesise that the limiting “nutrient” within pilosebaceous follicles is water since native sebum as secreted by the sebaceous gland contains none. An aqueous component must be available within colonised follicles, and water may be a major factor determining which follicles can sustain microbial populations. One way of preventing microbial growth is to reduce the water activity ( of this component with a biocompatible solute of very high water solubility. For the method to work effectively, the solute must be small, easily diffusible, and minimally soluble in sebaceous lipids. Xylose and sucrose, which fulfil these criteria, are nonfermentable by P. acnes and have been used to reduce water activity and hence bacterial colonisation of wounds. A new follicularly targeted topical treatment for acne based on this approach should be well tolerated and highly effective.

  20. Diagnosis of Follicular Lesions of Undetermined Significance in Fine-Needle Aspirations of Thyroid Nodules

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    J. Ratour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology for follicular lesions of undetermined significance (FLUS, the risk of cancer and diagnostic improvement with use of immunocytochemistry. Methods. For each FLUS diagnosis, we analyzed the cytological criteria (9 Bethesda criteria, secondary fine-needle aspiration (FNA results, surgical procedures, contribution of immunocytochemistry with the antibodies cytokeratin 19 (CK19 and monoclonal anti-human mesothelial cell (HBME1. Results. Among patients with 2,210 thyroid FNAs, 244 lesions (337 nodules were classified as FLUS (11% of all thyroid FNAs. The 3 criteria most often applied were cytological atypia suggesting papillary carcinoma (36%, microfollicular architecture but sparse cellularity (23.1%, cytological atypia (21.5%. With secondary FNA, 48.8% of nodules were reclassified as benign. For about half of all cases (41.4% for the first FNA, 57.6% for the second FNA, immunocytochemistry helped establishing a diagnosis favoring malignant or benign. No benign immunocytochemistry results were associated with a malignant lesion. In all, 22.5% of the 39 removed nodules were malignant. Conclusion. The FLUS category is supported by well-described criteria. The risk of malignancy in our series was 22.5%. Because we had no false-negative immunocytochemistry results, immunocytochemistry could be helpful in FLUS management.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of sheep granulosa cells and oocytes during early follicular development obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection

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    Bonnet Agnes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful achievement of early folliculogenesis is crucial for female reproductive function. The process is finely regulated by cell-cell interactions and by the coordinated expression of genes in both the oocyte and in granulosa cells. Despite many studies, little is known about the cell-specific gene expression driving early folliculogenesis. The very small size of these follicles and the mixture of types of follicles within the developing ovary make the experimental study of isolated follicular components very difficult. The recently developed laser capture microdissection (LCM technique coupled with microarray experiments is a promising way to address the molecular profile of pure cell populations. However, one main challenge was to preserve the RNA quality during the isolation of single cells or groups of cells and also to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA. Using a new LCM method, we describe here the separate expression profiles of oocytes and follicular cells during the first stages of sheep folliculogenesis. Results We developed a new tissue fixation protocol ensuring efficient single cell capture and RNA integrity during the microdissection procedure. Enrichment in specific cell types was controlled by qRT-PCR analysis of known genes: six oocyte-specific genes (SOHLH2, MAEL, MATER, VASA, GDF9, BMP15 and three granulosa cell-specific genes (KL, GATA4, AMH. A global gene expression profile for each follicular compartment during early developmental stages was identified here for the first time, using a bovine Affymetrix chip. Most notably, the granulosa cell dataset is unique to date. The comparison of oocyte vs. follicular cell transcriptomes revealed 1050 transcripts specific to the granulosa cell and 759 specific to the oocyte. Functional analyses allowed the characterization of the three main cellular events involved in early folliculogenesis and confirmed the relevance and potential of LCM-derived RNA. Conclusions

  2. Molecular Testing of Nodules with a Suspicious or Malignant Cytologic Diagnosis in the Setting of Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (NIFTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Kyle C; Eszlinger, Markus; Paschke, Ralf; Angell, Trevor E; Alexander, Erik K; Marqusee, Ellen; Nehs, Matthew A; Jo, Vickie Y; Lowe, Alarice; Vivero, Marina; Hollowell, Monica; Qian, Xiaohua; Wieczorek, Tad; French, Christopher A; Teot, Lisa A; Cibas, Edmund S; Lindeman, Neal I; Krane, Jeffrey F; Barletta, Justine A

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is an indolent thyroid tumor characterized by frequent RAS mutations and an absence of the BRAF V600E mutation commonly seen in classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC). The ability to differentiate potential NIFTP/follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) from cPTC at the time of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) can facilitate conservative management of NIFTP. The aim of the current study was to investigate how molecular testing may add to cytologic assessment in the pre-operative differentiation of potential NIFTP/FVPTC and cPTC. We had previously evaluated cytologists' ability to prospectively distinguish potential NIFTP/FVPTC from cPTC in a cohort of 56 consecutive FNAs diagnosed as malignant or suspicious for malignancy. We utilized this cohort to perform molecular analysis. Detected molecular abnormalities were stratified into two groups: (1) those supporting malignancy and (2) those supporting a diagnosis of potential NIFTP/FVPTC. The cytologists' characterization of cases and the detected molecular alterations were correlated with the final histologic diagnoses. Molecular testing was performed in 52 (93%) of the 56 cases. For the 37 cases cytologists favored to be cPTC, 31 (84%) had a molecular result that supported malignancy (28 BRAF V600E mutations, 2 NTRK1 fusions, 1 AGK-BRAF fusion). For the 8 cases that were favored to be NIFTP/FVPTC by cytologists, 7 (88%) had a molecular result that supported conservative management (1 NRAS mutation, 6 wild-type result). Seven cases were designated as cytomorphologically indeterminate for NIFTP/FVPTC or cPTC, of which 6 (86%) had a molecular result that would have aided in the pre-operative assessment of potential NIFTP/FVPTC or cPTC/malignancy. These included 3 BRAF V600E mutations in nodules that were cPTC on resection, an HRAS mutation, and a wild-type result in the 2 nodules that were NIFTP, and a TERT promoter

  3. Basal (18)F-FDG PET/CT in follicular lymphoma: A comparison of metabolic and clinical variables in the prognostic assessment.

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    Jiménez Londoño, G A; García Vicente, A M; Poblete García, V M; Amo-Salas, M; Calle Primo, C; Ibañez García, Á; Martínez Sanchís, B; López-Fidalgo, J F; Solano Ramos, F; Martínez Hellín, A; Díaz Morfa, M; Soriano Castrejón, Á

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relationship of clinical variables related to prognosis and tumor burden, with metabolic variables obtained in the staging (18)F-FDG PET/CT, and their value in the prognosis in follicular lymphoma (FL). 82 patients with FL, a (18)F-FDG PET/CT at diagnosis and a follow-up for a minimum of 12 months, were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. Clinical variables (Tumor grade, Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) and Tumor burden) were evaluated. Metabolic variables such as SUVmax in the highest hypermetabolic lesion, extralymphatic locations, number of involved lymph node locations, bone marrow (BM) involvement, PET stage and diameter of the biggest hypermetabolic lesion, were analyzed in order to establish a PET score and classify the studies in low, intermediate and high metabolic risk. Clinical and metabolic variables (included metabolic risk) were compared. The relation among all variables and disease-free survival (DFS) was studied. The 28% of patients had a high-grade tumor. The 30.5% had FLIPI risk low, 29.3% intermediate y 40.2% high. The 42.7% presented a high tumor burden. The PET/CT was positive in 94% of patients. The tumor grade did not show significant relation with metabolic variable. FLIPI risk and tumor burden showed statistical relations with the SUV max and the PET score (p<0.008 and p=0.003 respectively). With respect to DFS, significant differences were detected for the PET stage and FLIPI risk (p=0.015 and p=0.047 respectively). FLIPI risk was the only significant predictor in Cox regression analysis, with a Hazard Ratio of 5.13 between high risk and low risk. The present research highlights the significant relation between metabolic variables obtained with FDG PET/CT and clinical variables although their goal as an independent factor of prognosis was not demonstrated in the present work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  4. Follicular size predicts success in artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm in donkeys.

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    Saragusty, Joseph; Lemma, Alemayehu; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd; Göritz, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In asses, semen collection, cryopreservation, and artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen have been scarcely described and success rate, particularly following AI, is reportedly low. In the absence of reliable protocols, assisted reproductive technologies cannot support the conservation efforts aimed at endangered wild ass species and domestic donkey breeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. In experiment 1 we evaluated freezing Abyssinian donkey (N = 5, 4 ejaculates each) spermatozoa using three freezing extenders (Berliner Cryomedium + glycerol, BC+G; BotuCrio, BOTU; INRAFreeze, INRA) and two cryopreservation techniques (liquid nitrogen vapour, LNV; directional freezing, DF). Post-thaw evaluation indicated that BOTU and INRA were similar and both superior to BC+G (P ≤ 0.004 for all motility tests), and that DF was superior to LNV (P < 0.002 for all evaluation parameters). In experiment 2, relying on these results, we used Abyssinian donkey sperm frozen in BOTU and INRA by DF for AI (N = 20). Prior to AI, thawed samples were diluted in corresponding centrifugation media or autologous seminal fluids at 1:1 ratio. No difference was found between BOTU and INRA or between the addition of seminal fluids or media, all resulting in ~50% pregnancy, and no differences were noted between males (N = 4). The size of pre-ovulatory follicle was a significant (P = 0.001) predictor for AI success with 9/10 pregnancies occurring when follicular size ranged between 33.1-37.4 mm, no pregnancy when it was smaller, and only one when larger. A number of ass species face the risk of extinction. Knowledge gained in this study on the Abyssinian donkey can be customised and transferred to its closely related endangered species and breeds.

  5. Early stage follicular lymphoma: what is the clinical impact of the first-line treatment strategy?

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    Michallet, Anne-Sophie A S; Lebras, Laure L; Bauwens, Deborah D; Bouafia-Sauvy, Fadhela F; Berger, Françoise F; Tychyj-Pinel, Christelle C; D'Hombres, Anne A; Salles, Gilles G; Coiffier, Bertrand B

    2013-07-01

    Less than 20% of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) present with Ann Arbor Stage I or II disease at diagnosis. Numerous therapeutic options exist, however radiation therapy is considered the standard of care for early-stage disease based on single-institution or retrospective series. Our aim was to revisit the outcome of patients with localized FL in the rituximab era. We analyzed the characteristics and outcomes of 145 early-stage FL patients, who were retrospectively divided into six groups according to their initial treatment: watchful waiting (WW), chemotherapy alone (CT), radiotherapy alone (RT), combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RT-CT), rituximab alone (Ri), and immunochemotherapy (Ri-CT). Of the 145 patients, 84 (57.9%) had stage I disease and 61 (42.1%) stage II. The complete response (CR) rate varied from 57% for the Ri group to 95% for the RT-CT group. Overall survival (OS) at 7.5 y of patients treated after 2000 was better than that of those treated prior to 2000. OS did not significantly differ from one treatment to another. In contrast, a significant difference was found for progression-free survival (PFS) at 7.5 y, which favored Ri-CT (60%) therapy versus the others (p=0.00135). Delayed therapy initiation was associated with a similar OS than that observed in patients receiving immediate intervention. The "watchful waiting" strategy may thus be proposed as first-line therapy, similar to stage III and IV FL patients with a low tumor burden. However, when treatment is required, immunochemotherapy appears to be the best option.

  6. Germinal center B cell depletion diminishes CD4+ follicular T helper cells in autoimmune mice.

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    Isharat Yusuf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continuous support from follicular CD4(+ T helper (Tfh cells drives germinal center (GC responses, which last for several weeks to produce high affinity memory B cells and plasma cells. In autoimmune Sle1 and NZB/W F1 mice, elevated numbers of Tfh cells persist, promoting the expansion of self-reactive B cells. Expansion of circulating Tfh like cells have also been described in several autoimmune diseases. Although, the signals required for Tfh differentiation have now been well described, the mechanisms that sustain the maintenance of fully differentiated Tfh are less understood. Recent data demonstrate a role for GC B cells for Tfh maintenance after protein immunization. METHODS AND FINDING: Given the pathogenic role Tfh play in autoimmune disease, we explored whether B cells are required for maintenance of autoreactive Tfh. Our data suggest that the number of mature autoreactive Tfh cells is controlled by GC B cells. Depletion of B cells in Sle1 autoimmune mice leads to a dramatic reduction in Tfh cells. In NZB/W F1 autoimmune mice, similar to the SRBC immunization model, GC B cells support the maintenance of mature Tfh, which is dependent mainly on ICOS. The CD28-associated pathway is dispensable for Tfh maintenance in SRBC immunized mice, but is required in the spontaneous NZB/W F1 model. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that mature Tfh cells require signals from GC B cells to sustain their optimal numbers and function in both autoimmune and immunization models. Thus, immunotherapies targeting B cells in autoimmune disease may affect pathogenic Tfh cells.

  7. Retrospective analysis of first-line treatment for follicular lymphoma based on outcomes and medical economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneishi, Manaka; Nakamura, Ayaka; Tachibana, Katsumi; Suemitsu, Junko; Hasebe, Shinji; Takeuchi, Kazuto; Yakushijin, Yoshihiro

    2018-04-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with indolent progression. Several treatment options are selected, based not only on disease status, quality of life (QOL), and age of patient, but also on recent increasing medical costs. We retrospectively analysed the first-line treatment of FL with regard to treatment outcomes and medical economics, and discuss the appropriate strategies for FL. Data on a total of 69 newly-diagnosed patients with FL was retrospectively collected from 2001 to 2015. The median age of the patients was 60 years and the median follow-up was 58 months. A total of 25 cases with FL were treated with R monotherapy, and 28 cases were treated with R-CHOP as first-line treatment. The factors affecting the decision of physicians to use R or R-CHOP treatment were serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and disease stage. The first-line treatment-associated survival did not show any statistical differences between R and R-CHOP. The average hospitalization and average of all medical costs during the first-line treatment were 4.1 days (R) versus 55.7 days (R-CHOP), and JPY 1,707,693 (USD 15,324) (R) versus JPY 2,136,117 (USD 19,170) (R-CHOP), respectively. R monotherapy for patients whose diseases show low tumor burden and who are not candidates for local treatment has benefits as a first-line treatment compared to R-CHOP, based on the patients' QOL and medical economics.

  8. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  9. FOXP3-stained image analysis for follicular lymphoma: optimal adaptive thresholding with maximal nucleus coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaras, C.; Pennell, M.; Chen, W.; Sahiner, B.; Shana'ah, A.; Louissaint, A.; Hasserjian, R. P.; Lozanski, G.; Gurcan, M. N.

    2017-03-01

    Immunohistochemical detection of FOXP3 antigen is a usable marker for detection of regulatory T lymphocytes (TR) in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded sections of different types of tumor tissue. TR plays a major role in homeostasis of normal immune systems where they prevent auto reactivity of the immune system towards the host. This beneficial effect of TR is frequently "hijacked" by malignant cells where tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells are recruited by the malignant nuclei to inhibit the beneficial immune response of the host against the tumor cells. In the majority of human solid tumors, an increased number of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3 positive TR is associated with worse outcome. However, in follicular lymphoma (FL) the impact of the number and distribution of TR on the outcome still remains controversial. In this study, we present a novel method to detect and enumerate nuclei from FOXP3 stained images of FL biopsies. The proposed method defines a new adaptive thresholding procedure, namely the optimal adaptive thresholding (OAT) method, which aims to minimize under-segmented and over-segmented nuclei for coarse segmentation. Next, we integrate a parameter free elliptical arc and line segment detector (ELSD) as additional information to refine segmentation results and to split most of the merged nuclei. Finally, we utilize a state-of-the-art super-pixel method, Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) to split the rest of the merged nuclei. Our dataset consists of 13 region-ofinterest images containing 769 negative and 88 positive nuclei. Three expert pathologists evaluated the method and reported sensitivity values in detecting negative and positive nuclei ranging from 83-100% and 90-95%, and precision values of 98-100% and 99-100%, respectively. The proposed solution can be used to investigate the impact of FOXP3 positive nuclei on the outcome and prognosis in FL.

  10. Correlation between follicular fluid levels of sRAGE and vitamin D in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Deepika; Grazi, Richard; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn M; Merhi, Zaher

    2017-11-01

    The pro-inflammatory advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their anti-inflammatory soluble receptors, sRAGE, play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. There is a correlation between vitamin D (vit D) and sRAGE in the serum, whereby vit D replacement increases serum sRAGE levels in women with PCOS, thus incurring a protective anti-inflammatory role. This study aims to compare levels of sRAGE, N-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML; one of the AGEs), and 25-hydroxy-vit D in the follicular fluid (FF) of women with or without PCOS, and to evaluate the correlation between sRAGE and 25-hydroxy-vit D in the FF. Women with (n = 12) or without (n = 13) PCOS who underwent IVF were prospectively enrolled. Women with PCOS had significantly higher anti-Mullerian hormone levels, higher number of total retrieved and mature oocytes, and higher number of day 3 and day 5 embryos formed. Compared to women without PCOS, women with PCOS had significantly lower FF sRAGE levels. In women with PCOS, in women without PCOS, and in all participants together, there was a significant positive correlation between sRAGE and 25-hydroxy-vit D. sRAGE positively correlated with CML in women without PCOS but not in women with PCOS. In women with PCOS, the low ovarian levels of the anti-inflammatory sRAGE suggest that sRAGE could represent a biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Whether there is a direct causal relationship between sRAGE and vit D in the ovaries remains to be determined.

  11. Comparison of clinical characteristics of patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernaga Lorea, Ander; Migueliz Bermejo, Iranzu; Anda Apiñániz, Emma; Pineda Arribas, Javier; Toni García, Marta; Martínez de Esteban, Juan Pablo; Insausti Serrano, Ana María

    2018-03-01

    Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) is an uncommon thyroid cancer historically considered to be a variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). The aim of this study was to assess the differences between these groups in terms of clinical factors and prognoses. A total of 230 patients (153 with FTC and 77 with HCC) with a median follow-up of 13.4 years were studied. The different characteristics were compared using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Patients with HCC were older (57.3±13.8 years vs. 44.6±15.2 years; P<.001). More advanced TNM stages were also seen in patients with HCC and a greater trend to distant metastases were also seen in patients with HCC (7.8% vs. 2.7%, P=.078). The persistence/recurrence rate at the end of follow-up was higher in patients with HCC (13% vs. 3.9%, P=.011). However, in a multivariate analysis, only age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.10, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.17; P=.001), size (HR 1.43, CI 1.05-1.94; P=.021), and histological subtype (HR 9.79, CI 2.35-40.81; P=.002), but not presence of HCC, were significantly associated to prognosis. HCC is diagnosed in older patients and in more advanced stages as compared to FTC. However, when age, size, and histological subtype are similar, disease-free survival is also similar in both groups. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Histocompatibility and long-term results of the follicular unit-like wigs after xenogeneic hair transplantation: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Lu, Feng; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Zhang, Zijie; Hu, Zhi-Qi

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to observe the histocompatibility and long-term results of wigs after xenogeneic hair transplantation and to explore the possibility of industrial products in clinical application. Methods. The human hair and melted medical polypropylene were preceded into the follicular unit-like wigs according to the natural follicular unit by extrusion molding. 12 New Zealand rabbits were used as experimental animals for wigs transplantation. The histocompatibility of polypropylene and human hair was observed by H&E staining and scanning electron microscope. The loss rate of wigs was calculated to evaluate the long-term result after transplantation. Results. Mild infiltration by inflammatory cells around the polypropylene and human hair were seen during the early period after transplantation, accompanied with local epithelial cell proliferation. The inflammatory cells were decreased after 30 days with increased collagen fibers around the polypropylene and human hair. The follicular unit-like wigs maintained a good histocompatibility in one year. The degradation of hair was not significant. The loss rate of wigs was 4.1 ± 4.0% in one year. The appearance of hair was satisfactory. Conclusions. We successfully developed a follicular unit-like wigs, which were made of xenogeneic human hair with medical polypropylene, showing a good histocompatibility, a low loss rate, and satisfactory appearance in a year after transplantation. The follicular unit-like wigs may have prospective industrial products in clinical application.

  13. Lichenoid mucocutaneous syndrome a variant of para neoplastic pemphigus (PNP following the treatment of follicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with fludarabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease associated with cancer. Since the original description of the condition, various publications have suggested the presence of a heterogeneous spectrum of paraneoplastic mucocutaneous conditions with clinical features of lichenplanus. Several cases of PNP have been reported following treatment with fludarabine. Methods: We present a case of lichenoid syndrome in a follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL patient after treatment with fludarabine and review 8 additional published cases of fludarabine related PNP. Results: Our case is unique due to the fact that the patient presented with lichenoid features both clinically and microscopically and responded well to rituximab therapy. According to literature, both skin and mucosa (eyes and gastrointestinal tract are involved and symptoms start about 1-2 weeks after exposure to fludarabine. Various immunosuppressive treatments have been employed including high dose steroids. Many of these patients developed complications related to the immunosuppressive therapy such as cytomegalovirus, candidiasis and pneumocystis carinii infection and died from respiratory failure. On the other hand, long-term remissions have also been described. Conclusion: Our case represents an unusual case of fludarabine related to mucocutaneous lichenoid syndrome, a variant of PNP, and in view of the outcome in previously described cases, rituximab may be considered a preferred and safe first line therapy for such complication.

  14. The effect of cotinine concentrations in seminal plasma and follicular fluid on the pregnancy outcomes of couples undergoing assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioğlu, Füsun; Karahalil, Bensu; Yücel, Çiğdem; Türk, Rukiye

    2016-11-17

    This study determined the effects of cotinine concentrations in follicular fluid (FF) and seminal plasma (SP) on the pregnancy outcome of couples using assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). This study was conducted as a case-control study. A total of 217 couples were included in the study. Among these couples, there were nonsmokers (66 women and 40 men), passive smokers (106 women and 54 men), and active smokers (45 women and 123 men). Demographic and smoking data were collected by questionnaire at the onset of treatment. FF and SP samples were obtained from the couples on the day of oocyte retrieval. The cotinine concentrations in the FF and SP of nonsmokers were significantly lower than they were in the other groups (P = 0.001). The difference in cotinine concentrations detected in FF between women with positive pregnancy test results and women with negative pregnancy test results was statistically insignificant. It was also determined that the percentage of clinical pregnancy was lower in nonsmoker women than in passive smoker or smoker women (P > 0.05). Although we found there was no significant difference in the pregnancy outcome between nonsmoker and passive smoker or smoker women, smoking cessation should be an integral part of ARTs.

  15. The effect of follicular fluid hormones on oocyte recovery after ovarian stimulation: FSH level predicts oocyte recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaudo Paolo F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology (ART overcomes the physiologic process to develop a single dominant follicle. However, following stimulation, egg recovery rates are not 100%. The objective of this study is to determine if the follicular fluid hormonal environment is associated with oocyte recovery. Methods This is a prospective study involving patients undergoing ART by standard ovarian stimulation protocols at an urban academic medical center. A total of 143 follicular fluid aspirates were collected from 80 patients. Concentrations of FSH, hCG, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and prolactin were determined. A multivariable regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the follicular fluid hormones and oocyte recovery. Results Intrafollicular FSH was significantly associated with oocyte recovery after adjustment for hCG (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.03–1.42. The hCG concentration alone, in the range tested, did not impact the odds of oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.93–1.07. Estradiol was significantly associated with oocyte recovery (AOR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–0.99. After adjustment for progesterone, the strength of association between FSH and oocyte recovery increased (AOR = 1.84, 95%CI 1.45–2.34. Conclusion The relationship between FSH and oocyte recovery is significant and appears to work through mechanisms independent of the sex hormones. FSH may be important for the physiologic event of separation of the cumulus-oocyte complex from the follicle wall, thereby influencing oocyte recovery. Current methods for inducing the final stages of oocyte maturation, with hCG administration alone, may not be optimal. Modifications of treatment protocols utilizing additional FSH may enhance oocyte recovery.

  16. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: How Have Histologic Diagnoses Changed in the Last Half-Century and What Are the Prognostic Implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Nicole A; Nagar, Sapna; Kaplan, Sharone P; White, Michael G; Antic, Tatjana; Sadow, Peter M; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Angelos, Peter; Kaplan, Edwin L; Grogan, Raymon H

    2015-11-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) comprises 10% of differentiated thyroid cancers. Diagnostic controversy and interobserver variability render the practical diagnosis of FTC difficult. Overall survival rates vary (46-97%). The aims of this study were to review FTC histologically at the authors' tertiary care institution and to evaluate long-term survival and recurrence. Diagnostic slides from 66 FTC cases (1965-2007) were reviewed by three pathologists from two institutions (blinded to clinical outcomes), and consensus was obtained. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment, survival, and recurrence data were collected. Thyroid cancer-specific and recurrence-free survival were calculated by original and reclassified diagnoses. Forty-seven cases (71%) were reclassified: 24 (36%) to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 18 (27%) to follicular adenoma (FA), and five (8%) to poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC). Nineteen (29%) maintained a diagnosis of FTC. The extent of surgical resection and rates of radioiodine treatment did not differ by reclassification diagnosis. Pre-review FTC-specific survival was 83.5% and 75.1% at 10 and 20 years, respectively. Following contemporary reclassification, FTC-specific survival was 77% and 33.7% at 10 and 20 years, respectively. There were no cancer-specific deaths in the FA or PTC groups. Over the past 50 years, changes in our understanding of the pathogenesis, histology, and behavior of thyroid carcinoma may partially account for the changes in histologic diagnosis. Elimination of PTC and FA "contaminants" led to decrease in survival following reclassification. Variability in histologic interpretation contributes to diagnostic challenges in follicular lesions. Histologic review of thyroid tumors for research studies is crucial, especially given the ever-changing diagnostic criteria.

  17. Epidural vs intramuscular administration of lecirelin, a GnRH analogue, for the resolution of follicular cysts in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Annalisa; Annalisa, Rizzo; Campanile, Debora; Debora, Campanile; Mutinati, Maddalena; Maddalena, Mutinati; Minoia, Giuseppe; Giuseppe, Minoia; Spedicato, Massimo; Massimo, Spedicato; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi; Luigi, Sciorsci Raffaele

    2011-06-01

    Bovine follicular cysts are an ovarian disorder of dairy cows associated with abnormal estrous behaviour and infertility. The treatment of choice is intramuscular administration of a GnRH analogue, which acts by triggering pituitary release of LH. However, the presence of GnRH and GnRH receptors on spinal cord and ovary in some species, and the kind of innervation of the ovary, let us hypothesize that GnRH and its analogues may also act when administered by epidural route, as happens for other drugs. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the effects of epidural vs intramuscular administration of lecirelin (a GnRH analogue) on FC regression, estrus detection and pregnancy outcomes. The study was conducted on 220 Friesian cows affected by follicular cysts, divided among 4 groups: Group L(epid) and Group L(im) received, respectively 50 μg of lecirelin in the epidural space and intramuscular; Group C(epid) and Group C(im) were used as control groups. In Group L(epid), estrus induction and pregnancy rates were significantly higher than in Group L(im). The results of this study show that the epidural administration of lecirelin promoted the remission of follicular cysts and an improvement of reproductive parameters compared to intramuscular administration. Thus, an alternative therapeutical approach is available for FC treatment, in order to obtain an easier restoration of the ovarian activity, especially in those cases refractory to classical therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The development and survival but not function of follicular B cells is dependent on IL-7Rα Tyr449 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Patton

    Full Text Available IL-7 is a critical cytokine for lymphocyte development. Recent work has highlighted critical roles for IL-7 signaling in mature T cell homeostasis and function, but its role in B cells is less well characterized. Using a knock-in mouse possessing a Tyr to Phe mutation at position 449 (IL-7Rα(449F/449F mice within the cytoplasmic SH2-binding motif of IL-7Rα, we evaluated the role of IL-7Rα Y449 motif in spleen B cells. IL-7Rα(449F/449F mice had reduced numbers and increased death of follicular B cells compared to WT, but had significantly more follicular cells than IL-7Rα(-/-. The death of IL-7Rα(449F/449F follicular cells was not due to a failure to respond to BAFF or lower levels of BAFF, a critical B cell survival factor. Marginal zone B cells were unaffected by the IL-7Rα(449F/449F mutation. Any role for TSLP was ruled out, as TSLPR(-/- mice had an identical B cell phenotype to wild-type mice. Bone marrow chimeras and the absence of IL-7Rα on B cells suggested that IL-7 did not directly regulate mature B cells, but that an IL-7-responsive cell was influencing B cells. IL-7 was also critical at the checkpoint between the T1 and T2 stages in the spleen. IL-7Rα(-/- mice fail to develop T2 cells, but IL-7Rα(449F/449F show a reduction compared to WT but not complete absence of T2 cells. We also tested the functional responses of IL-7Rα(449F/449F to antigens and infection and found no difference in antibody responses to T-dependent or T-independent antigens, or to Influenza/A. IL-7 was important for generation of antibody responses to the intestinal worm H. polygyrus and for naive levels of IgA. Taken together, this suggests that IL-7 regulates follicular B cell numbers and survival in a cell-extrinsic manner, via a bone-marrow derived cell, but is not critical for antibody production outside the gut.

  19. Nonspecific iodine accumulation in surgical suture material mimicking follicular thyroid cancer bone metastasis in (131)I scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, Thomas; Nietzsche, Sandor; Gottschaldt, Michael; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2014-02-01

    A 23-year-old man with follicular thyroid carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastases showed a clear I focus on the skull after radioiodine therapy; therefore, an osseous metastasis was suspected. I and MRI fusion suggested the I focus to be adjacent to an epicranial suture from an early childhood trepanation for epidural hematoma. Radio-guided surgery found dark brown material to be the source of the radiation and successfully removed the material. Subsequent electron microscopy revealed a thread within the dark brown material, suggesting suture material as the cause of I accumulation.

  20. T Follicular Helper Cells Promote a Beneficial Gut Ecosystem for Host Metabolic Homeostasis by Sensing Microbiota-Derived Extracellular ATP

    OpenAIRE

    Perruzza, Lisa; Gargari, Giorgio; Proietti, Michele; Fosso, Bruno; D’Erchia, Anna Maria; Faliti, Caterina Elisa; Rezzonico-Jost, Tanja; Scribano, Daniela; Mauri, Laura; Colombo, Diego; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Moregola, Annalisa; Mooser, Catherine; Pesole, Graziano; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ATP-gated ionotropic P2X7 receptor regulates T?follicular helper (Tfh) cell abundance in the Peyer?s patches (PPs) of the small intestine; deletion of P2rx7, encoding for P2X7, in Tfh cells results in enhanced IgA secretion and binding to commensal bacteria. Here, we show that Tfh cell activity is important for generating a diverse bacterial community in the gut and that sensing of microbiota-derived extracellular ATP via P2X7 promotes the generation of a proficient gut ecosystem ...

  1. Detection of follicular transport of lidocaine and metabolism in adipose tissue in pig ear skin by DESI mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Janina; Mortensen, Rasmus; Hansen, Steen H

    2014-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry imaging is demonstrated as a detection technique for penetration experiments of drugs in skin. Lidocaine ointment was used as the model compound in ex vivo experiments with whole pig ears as the skin model. Follicular transport...... of lidocaine into the deeper skin layers is demonstrated for the first time. Furthermore, metabolism of lidocaine to 3-OH-lidocaine was observed in subcutaneous tissue as well as in lobules of white adipose tissue surrounding the hair follicles. These results suggest that it is advantageous to use full...

  2. Growth and development in Syrian Awassi ewes during patterns of ovarian follicular different reproductive stages monitored by laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Soukouti, A.

    2009-06-01

    An in situ study was conducted on Syrian Awassi ewes, inside and outside the breeding season, untreated or treated with vaginal sponges together with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin aiming at monitoring the ovaries' diameters, number of different follicular categories, number, diameters and lifespan of corpora lutea in each ovary using a laparoscope and finding out the relationship among these parameters and progesterone concentration. For the first time, it has been possible to characterise the Syrian Awassi sheep at the ovarian follicles level during different reproductive stages using a laparoscope. (author)

  3. Radiologic and pathologic findings of a follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with extensive stromal fat: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jn Woo; Kim, Tae Hyung; Roh, Hong Gee; Moon, Won Jin; Lee, Sang Hwa; Hwang, Tae Sook; Park, Kyoung Sik [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Thyroid cancer may have small adipose structures detected by microscopy. However, there are no reports of thyroid cancer with gross fat evaluated by radiological methods. We reported a case of a 58-year-old woman with a fat containing thyroid mass. The mass was hyperechoic and ovoid in shape with a smooth margin on ultrasonography. On computed tomography, the mass had markedly low attenuation suggestive of fat, and fine reticular and thick septa-like structures. The patient underwent a right lobectomy. The mass was finally diagnosed as a follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer with massive stromal fat.

  4. BCL6 interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jessica A.; Tubo, Noah J.; Gearhart, Micah D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Jenkins, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (GC-Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor BCL6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the BCL6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of pept...

  5. Follicular and endocrine dose responses according to anti-Müllerian hormone levels in IVF patients treated with a novel human recombinant FSH (FE 999049)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Ernesto; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Barri, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and follicular development and endocrine responses induced by increasing doses (5·2-12·1 μg/day) of a novel recombinant human FSH (rhFSH, FE 999049) in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF......: Follicular development and endocrine parameters during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with rhFSH. RESULTS: Serum FSH levels increased with increasing rhFSH doses and steady-state levels for each dose were similar in both AMH strata. In the whole study population, significant (P ... for these hormones, and no clear dose-related increase was observed for the number of follicles in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dose-response relationships between rhFSH and follicular development and endocrine parameters are significantly different for IVF/ICSI patients with lower and higher serum AMH levels...

  6. Phenotype, effector function, and tissue localization of PD-1-expressing human follicular helper T cell subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillsamer Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that PD-1 is expressed by follicular T cells but its function in regulation of human T helper cells has been unclear. We investigated the expression modality and function of PD-1 expressed by human T cells specialized in helping B cells. Results We found that PD-1-expressing T cells are heterogeneous in PD-1 expression. We identified three different PD-1-expressing memory T cell subsets (i.e. PD-1low (+, PD-1medium (++, and PD-1high (+++ cells. PD-1+++ T cells expressed CXCR5 and CXCR4 and were localized in the rim of germinal centers. PD-1+ or PD-1++ cells expressed CCR7 and were present mainly in the T cell area or other parts of the B cell follicles. Utilizing a novel antigen density-dependent magnetic sorting (ADD-MS method, we isolated the three T cell subsets for functional characterization. The germinal center-located PD-1+++ T cells were most efficient in helping B cells and in producing IL-21 and CXCL13. Other PD-1-expressing T cells, enriched with Th1 and Th17 cells, were less efficient than PD-1+++ T cells in these capacities. PD-1+++ T cells highly expressed Ki-67 and therefore appear active in cell activation and proliferation in vivo. IL-2 is a cytokine important for proliferation and survival of the PD-1+++ T cells. In contrast, IL-21, while a major effector cytokine produced by the PD-1-expressing T helper cells, had no function in generation, survival, or proliferation of the PD-1-expressing helper T cells at least in vitro. PD-1 triggering has a suppressive effect on the proliferation and B cell-helping function of PD-1+++ germinal center T cells. Conclusion Our results revealed the phenotype and effector function of PD-1-expressing T helper cell subsets and indicate that PD-1 restrains the B cell-helping function of germinal center-localized T cells to prevent excessive antibody response.

  7. Expression features of follicular helper T cells in peripheral blood in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expression features of follicular helper T (Tfh cells in peripheral blood in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Methods A total of 53 CHB patients who were admitted to Department of Hepatology in Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Xinjiang Medical University from March 2016 to March 2017 were enrolled. Fasting venous blood samples were collected in the morning, and flow cytometry was used to measure Tfh and its subsets in peripheral blood. A total of 48 healthy individuals were enrolled as controls. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the LSD-t test was used for further comparison between any two groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison between multiple groups. The chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation. Results The CHB group had significant higher percentages of CD4+ ICOS+, CD4+ CXCR5+, and CD4+ ICOS+ CXCR5+ Tfh cells than the control group (Z=-4.319, P<0.001; t=3.742, P<0.001; t=15.948, P<0.001. There were no significant differences in the percentages of CD4+ ICOS+, CD4+ CXCR5+, and CD4+ ICOS+ CXCR5+ Tfh cells between the CHB patients with different immune stages, i.e., low-level replication, immune tolerance, and immune clearance (all P>0.05. CD4+ ICOS+ CXCR5+ was not correlated with HBsAg quantitation or HBV DNA. Conclusion Tfh cells are involved in the immune response mediated by hepatitis B virus, and they exert an anti-HBV effect by regulating humoral immune response.

  8. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of follicular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skibola Christine F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma represents a diverse group of hematological malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL is one of the most common subtypes. Family and epidemiological studies suggest an important genetic role in the etiology of FL. In recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS of FL, several genetic susceptibility loci have been identified on chromosome 6p21.33 (rs6457327 and 6p21.32 (rs10484561, rs2647012 in the human leukocyte antigen class I and class II regions. To identify new genetic variants and further elucidate the genetic basis of FL, a meta-analysis was performed of the top 1000 SNPs associated with FL risk from two GWAS in the US, Denmark and Sweden (592 cases, 1541 controls, with independent validation in 107 cases and 681 controls. Results rs9275517 and rs3117222 in the HLA class II region were validated and inversely associated with FL risk (rs9275517: OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.55-0.73, p = 4.03 × 10-11; rs3117222: OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.57-0.77, p = 1.45 × 10-7. rs9275517, which is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2647012 (r2 = 0.9, was no longer associated with FL after conditioning on rs2647012. The rs3117222 association was independent of established FL SNPs, but not of the HLA-DPB1*0301 allele. Using publicly available gene expression profiles with matching genotype information, we found that rs3117222 also was significantly correlated with increased HLA-DPB1 expression. Conclusions By performing a meta-analysis of two GWAS of FL, we further validated the relevance of HLA-DPB1*0301 as a protective allele in the pathogenesis of FL. Moreover, the protective rs3117222 A allele correlated with increased levels of HLA-DPB1, suggesting a possible disease mechanism involving HLA-DPB1 expression regulation. Our results add further support to the major role of HLA genetic variation in the pathogenesis of FL.

  9. Steroid and metabolic hormonal profile of porcine serum vis-à-vis ovarian follicular fluid

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    Soumen Naskar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to understand whether serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones may be indicative of their level in ovarian follicular fluid (FF in porcine, and its influence on fertility. Materials and Methods: Ovaries from pigs (n=32 of two genetic groups, namely, native (Ghungroo; n=16 and crossbred (Hampshire × Ghungroo; n=16 were collected. Both the genetic groups comprised gilts (n=8 and sows (n=8, and sows were in luteal phase of estrus cycle. FF was aspirated from small, medium and large follicles, and centrifuged for the collection of supernatant for further analysis. Blood samples were collected from the same animals, and serum was separated. Hormones, namely, cortisol, T3, T4 and testosterone were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Two-way ANOVA was used for analysis of data considering genetic background (native or crossbred, stage of reproductive life (gilt or sow, and source of sample (serum or FF as fixed effects. Results: It was observed that all the hormones except cortisol differed significantly (p<0.01 based on genetic background. Stage of reproductive life and source of sample did not affect the studied hormonal level. Within the genetic groups, stage of reproductive life influenced T3 (p<0.01, cortisol (p<0.05 and testosterone (p<0.01 level in crossbred pigs as compared to T3 (p<0.01 only in native pigs. The level of T3 in serum, as well as FF, was higher (p<0.01 in Ghungroo gilts compared to sows. However, a reverse of this was observed in the case of crossbred pigs. The level of cortisol (p<0.05 and testosterone (p<0.01 was higher in crossbred sows than gilts in both serum and FF. Conclusion: The study revealed that serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones is indicative of their level in the ovarian FF. Further, varying level of steroid and metabolic hormones in pigs based on genetic background may be due to variation in body size, rate of energy metabolism and stage of (reproductive life.

  10. MYC expression and translocation analyses in low-grade and transformed follicular lymphoma.

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    Aukema, Sietse M; van Pel, Roel; Nagel, Inga; Bens, Susanne; Siebert, Reiner; Rosati, Stefano; van den Berg, Eva; Bosga-Bouwer, Anneke G; Kibbelaar, Robby E; Hoogendoorn, Mels; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Kluin, Philip M; Nijland, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) (grade 1/2, FL1/2) has an annual risk of transformation of ≈3%, which is associated with aberrations in CDKN2A/B, TP53, and MYC. As in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, high MYC expression in transformed FL (tFL) might predict a MYC breakpoint. We quantified MYC expression by immunohistochemistry and digital analysis in 41 paired biopsies from 20 patients with FL1/2 with subsequent transformation and in four isolated biopsies of tFL. As controls, 28 biopsies of FL1/2 without transformation (median follow-up of 105 months) and nine biopsies of FL3A/B were analysed. In the 20 FL1/2-tFL pairs, MYC expression was significantly higher in tFL than in the initial FL1/2 biopsies (median 54% versus 6%; 7% in FL3A, and 35% in FL3B). MYC breaks (MYC-R) were detected in eight of 21 (38%) tFLs analysed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), with a median MYC score of 86%. In two of the analysed tFL cases, the translocation was already detected in antecedent FL1/2. MYC partners were immunoglobulin (IG) loci in three of eight cases (one IGL, one IGH, and one IGK) and non-IG in five of eight cases (two PAX5, one BCL6, and two unknown). Of the eight MYC-R+ cases, six were BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit, one was BCL2+/BCL6+/MYC+ triple-hit, and one was MYC+ single-hit. All three IG-MYC+ cases showed a MYC expression level of >85%, whereas the five cases with a non-IG MYC partner had a wider range of expression (median 68%, range 13-86%). Among the 13 MYC-R- tFLs, two groups with almost dichotomous MYC expression could be observed (three cases showed ≥90% MYC expression), suggesting alternative mechanisms of MYC activation. we show an increase in MYC expression from FL1/2 to tFL. MYC breakpoints were present in ≈40% of the cases, which is markedly higher than in de novo DLBCL. MYC expression was uniformly high in cases with an IG-MYC translocation but much more heterogeneous and in part independent of the presence of a MYC break in non-IG-MYC and

  11. LH pulse frequency and the emergence and growth of ovarian antral follicular waves in the ewe during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle

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    Rawlings Norman C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ewe, ovarian antral follicles emerge or grow from a pool of 2–3 mm follicles in a wave like pattern, reaching greater than or equal to 5 mm in diameter before regression or ovulation. There are 3 or 4 such follicular waves during each estrous cycle. Each wave is preceded by a peak in serum FSH concentrations. The role of pulsatile LH in ovarian antral follicular emergence and growth is unclear; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to further define this role. Methods Ewes (n = 7 were given 200 ng of GnRH (IV every hour for 96 h from Day 7 of the estrous cycle, to increase LH pulse frequency. Controls (n = 6 received saline. In a second study, ewes (n = 6 received subcutaneous progesterone-releasing implants for 10 days starting on Day 4 of the cycle, to decrease LH pulse frequency. Controls (n = 6 underwent sham surgery. Daily transrectal ovarian ultrasonography and blood sampling was performed on all ewes from the day of estrus to the day of ovulation at the end of the cycle of the study. At appropriate times, additional blood samples were taken every 12 minutes for 6 h and 36 min or 6 h in studies 1 and 2 respectively. Results The largest follicle of the follicular wave growing when GnRH treatment started, grew to a larger diameter than the equivalent wave in control ewes (P Conclusion We concluded that waves of ovarian follicular growth can occur at LH pulse frequencies lower than those seen in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle but frequencies seen in the follicular phase, when applied during the mid-luteal phase, in the presence of progesterone, do enhance follicular growth to resemble an ovulatory follicle, blocking the emergence of the next wave.

  12. Hormonal Profiles in the Serum and Follicular Fluid of Female Camel (Camelus dromedarius During the Peak and the Low Breeding Season

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    Shujait Ali, Nazir Ahmad*, Nafees Akhtar, Zia-ur-Rahman1 and Maqbool Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Serum and follicular fluid concentrations of some hormones during the low (May to October and the peak (November to April breeding seasons in female camels with small and large Graafian follicles were investigated. Ovaries of 25 adult female camels slaughtered at a local abattoir were collected. Jugular blood samples and follicular fluid aspirated from small (5-9 mm and large (10-20 mm follicles were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, T3, T4 and cortisol concentrations. Serum progesterone and cortisol concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05 during the low than the peak breeding season. However, reverse was true for the serum estradiol, T3 and T4 levels. Animals with small follicles had higher (P<0.05 serum progesterone and cortisol concentrations than those with large follicles, while reverse was true for serum T3 levels. Follicular size had non significant effect on serum estradiol and T4 levels. In the follicular fluid, estradiol concentration was higher (P<0.05 during the low breeding season. However, season had non significant effect on follicular fluid levels of other hormones. Size of the follicle affected only progesterone level in the follicular fluid, which was higher (P<0.05 in large follicles. In conclusion, serum contents of estradiol, T3 and T4 were higher during the peak than the low breeding season; while reverse was true for serum progesterone and cortisol contents. For the follicle fluid, contents of estradiol were higher during the low than the peak breeding season. Follicle size influenced its progesterone contents only, which were higher in large than in small follicles.

  13. LH pulse frequency and the emergence and growth of ovarian antral follicular waves in the ewe during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekallu, Srinivas V; Toosi, Behzad M; Rawlings, Norman C

    2009-01-01

    Background In the ewe, ovarian antral follicles emerge or grow from a pool of 2–3 mm follicles in a wave like pattern, reaching greater than or equal to 5 mm in diameter before regression or ovulation. There are 3 or 4 such follicular waves during each estrous cycle. Each wave is preceded by a peak in serum FSH concentrations. The role of pulsatile LH in ovarian antral follicular emergence and growth is unclear; therefore, the purpose of the present study was to further define this role. Methods Ewes (n = 7) were given 200 ng of GnRH (IV) every hour for 96 h from Day 7 of the estrous cycle, to increase LH pulse frequency. Controls (n = 6) received saline. In a second study, ewes (n = 6) received subcutaneous progesterone-releasing implants for 10 days starting on Day 4 of the cycle, to decrease LH pulse frequency. Controls (n = 6) underwent sham surgery. Daily transrectal ovarian ultrasonography and blood sampling was performed on all ewes from the day of estrus to the day of ovulation at the end of the cycle of the study. At appropriate times, additional blood samples were taken every 12 minutes for 6 h and 36 min or 6 h in studies 1 and 2 respectively. Results The largest follicle of the follicular wave growing when GnRH treatment started, grew to a larger diameter than the equivalent wave in control ewes (P ewes (P ewes, suppressed a peak in serum concentrations of FSH, causing a follicular wave to be missed. Treatment with progesterone decreased the frequency of LH pulses but did not have any influence on serum FSH concentrations or follicular waves. Conclusion We concluded that waves of ovarian follicular growth can occur at LH pulse frequencies lower than those seen in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle but frequencies seen in the follicular phase, when applied during the mid-luteal phase, in the presence of progesterone, do enhance follicular growth to resemble an ovulatory follicle, blocking the emergence of the next wave. PMID:19638235

  14. Dopamine in human follicular fluid is associated with cellular uptake and metabolism-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in granulosa cells: implications for physiology and pathology.

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    Saller, S; Kunz, L; Berg, D; Berg, U; Lara, H; Urra, J; Hecht, S; Pavlik, R; Thaler, C J; Mayerhofer, A

    2014-03-01

    Is the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the human ovary involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)? Human ovarian follicular fluid contains DA, which causes the generation of ROS in cultured human granulosa cells (GCs), and alterations of DA levels in follicular fluid and DA uptake/metabolism in GCs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are linked to increased levels of ROS. DA is an important neurotransmitter in the brain, and the metabolism of DA results in the generation of ROS. DA was detected in human ovarian homogenates, but whether it is present in follicular fluid and plays a role in the follicle is not known. We used human follicular fluid from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), GCs from patients with or without PCOS and also employed mathematical modeling to investigate the presence of DA and its effects on ROS. DA in follicular fluid and GCs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GC viability, apoptosis and generation of ROS were monitored in GCs upon addition of DA. Inhibitors of DA uptake and metabolism, an antioxidant and DA receptor agonists, were used to study cellular uptake and the mechanism of DA-induced ROS generation. Human GCs were examined for the presence and abundance of transcripts of the DA transporter (DAT; SLC6A3), the DA-metabolizing enzymes monoamine oxidases A/B (MAO-A/B) and catechol-O-methyltransferase and the vesicular monoamine transporter. A computational model was developed to describe and predict DA-induced ROS generation in human GCs. We found DA in follicular fluid of ovulatory follicles of the human ovary and in GCs. DAT and MAO-A/B, which are expressed by GCs, are prerequisites for a DA receptor-independent generation of ROS in GCs. Blockers of DAT and MAO-A/B, as well as an antioxidant, prevented the generation of ROS (P human follicular compartment, functions of DA could only be studied in IVF-derived GCs, which can be viewed as a cellular model for the

  15. Simultaneous seeding of follicular thyroid adenoma both around the operative bed and along the subcutaneous tunnel of the upper chest wall after endoscopic thyroidectomy

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    Jung, Jo Sung; Kim, Shin Young; Jung, Hae Yeon; Han, Seon Wook; Lee, Jong Eun [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Deuk Young [Dept. of Surgery, YonseiAngelot Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Endoscopic thyroidectomy is considered appropriate for follicular neoplasms, but on occasion, it leads to unexpected complications such as seeding along the port insertion site. Only 4 cases of operative track seeding after endoscopic thyroidectomy have been reported. Furthermore, simultaneous seeding at both operative track of upper chest wall and operative bed is also very rare. We present a case of thyroid follicular adenoma seeding at both the subcutaneous tunnel of the upper chest wall and the operative bed after endoscopic thyroidectomy, with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography with pathologic correlations.

  16. Follicular growth but absence of oocyte and cumulus maturation during ovarian stimulation in the days following surgical abortion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohade, Clémentine; Moreau, Jessika; Gatimel, Nicolas; Gladieff, Laurence; Parinaud, Jean; Leandri, Roger

    2017-09-01

    This paper is a case report on the results of an ovarian stimulation performed in the days following an induced abortion. A patient had breast cancer diagnosed during an early pregnancy. She had an induced abortion and had, before chemotherapy an ovarian stimulation, using rFSH and GnRH antagonist, followed by follicular puncture for oocyte for vitrification in the view of fertility preservation. No oocyte could be obtained despite a good hormonal and ultrasonographical follicular growth. This case report suggest that ovarian stimulation must be delayed after abortion to allow the maturation of oocyte-cumulus complexes.

  17. Early follicular testosterone level predicts preference for masculinity in male faces - but not for women taking hormonal contraception.

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    Bobst, Cora; Sauter, Sabine; Foppa, Andrina; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that women's preference for masculinity in male faces changes across the menstrual cycle. Preference for masculinity is stronger when conception probability is high than when it is low. These findings have been linked to cyclic fluctuations of hormone levels. The purpose of the present study is to further investigate the link between gonadal steroids (i.e. testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) and masculinity preference in women, while holding the cycle phase constant. Sixty-two female participants were tested in their early follicular cycle phase, when conception probability is low. Participants were shown face pairs and where asked to choose the more attractive face. Face pairs consisted of a masculinized and feminized version of the same face. For naturally cycling women we found a positive relationship between saliva testosterone levels and masculinity preference, but there was no link between any hormones and masculinity preference for women taking hormonal contraception. We conclude that in naturally cycling women early follicular testosterone levels are associated with masculinity preference. However, these hormonal links were not found for women with artificially modified hormonal levels, that is, for women taking hormonal contraception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone profiles in a dairy cow diagnosed with an ovarian follicular cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, S; Ingenhoff, L; Kerrisk, K L; Celi, P

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the oxidative stress biomarkers in a cow diagnosed with a follicular cyst in her left ovary. Progesterone (P4) and plasma oxidative stress status was measured in 13 Holstein cows after synchronization of oestrus with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α) protocol. The presence and size of ovarian structures were monitored by transrectal ultrasound at 4 hourly intervals. Of the 13 cows, 12 were monitored until ovulation was detected and recorded, whereas one cow failed to ovulate and developed a follicular cyst. Oxidative stress biomarkers; reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), oxidative stress index (OSI), glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were measured in the cystic cow and compared to those of the 12 ovulated cows and are referred to as higher or lower if they are outside the mean ± standard error of mean of those of ovulated cows. The cystic cow had lower ROMs and OSI between 36 and 84 h after PGF2α injection and at 9 h, from 36 to 60 h after PGF2α injection respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant (BAP and GSH) was higher in the cystic cow compared to her ovulated herd mates. The observed imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant might have disrupted the physiological events for ovulation to occur, leading to cystic ovarian disease.

  19. Hormonal, follicular and endometrial dynamics in letrozole-treated versus natural cycles in patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation

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    Brunengraber Lisa N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to compare letrozole-stimulated cycles to natural cycles in 208 patients undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI between July of 2004 and January of 2007. Group I (n = 47 received cycle monitoring only (natural group, Group II (n = 125 received letrozole 2.5 mg/day on cycle days three to seven, and Group III (n = 36 received letrozole 5 mg/day on cycle days three to seven. There were no differences between the groups in endometrial thickness or P4 on the day of hCG. Estradiol levels had higher variation in the second half of the follicular phase in both letrozole-treated groups compared to the control group. Estradiol per preovulatory follicle was similar in both letrozole cycles to that observed in the natural cycles. LH was lower on the day of hCG administration in the letrozole 2.5 mg/day group vs. the natural group. In summary, letrozole results in some minor changes in follicular, hormonal and endometrial dynamics compared to natural cycles. Increased folliculogenesis and pregnancy rates were observed in the letrozole-treated groups compared to the natural group. These findings need to be confirmed in larger, prospective studies.

  20. Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Secreting Thyroid Hormone and Radioiodine Avid without Stimulation: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Syed A. Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is an extremely rare case of a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer who continued to produce thyroid hormone and was iodine scan positive without stimulation after thyroidectomy and radioiodine (I-131 therapy. Patient Findings. A 76-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma on lung nodule biopsy. Total thyroidectomy was performed and he was ablated with 160 mCi of I-131 after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH stimulation. Whole body scan (WBS after treatment showed uptake in bilateral lungs, right sacrum, and pelvis. The thyroglobulin decreased from 2,063 to 965 four months after treatment but rapidly increased to 2,506 eleven months after I-131. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH remained suppressed and free T4 remained elevated after I-131 therapy without thyroid hormone supplementation. He was treated with an additional 209 mCi with WBS findings positive in lung and pelvis. Despite I-131, new metastatic lesions were noted in the left thyroid bed and large destructive lesion to the first cervical vertebrae four months after the second I-131 dose. Conclusions. This case is exceptional because of its rarity and also due to the dissociation between tumor differentiation and aggressiveness. The metastatic lesions continued to secrete thyroid hormone and remained radioiodine avid with rapid progression after I-131 therapy.

  1. Update on the rational use of (90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in the treatment of follicular lymphoma

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    Martina Lehnert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Martina Lehnert, Heinz Ludwig, Niklas Zojer 1st Department of Medicine, Center for Oncology and Hematology, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: The development of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20 has facilitated targeted treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL. By using 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin®, a radionuclide (yttrium-90, linked by the chelator tiuxetan to the antibody ibritumomab is brought into the vicinity of lymphoma cells. By the so-called cross-fire effect, this beta emitter has the capacity to destroy not only the lymphoma cells having bound the antibody, but also neighboring lymphoma cells. Currently this antibody is licensed in the European Union for use in relapsed or refractory FL. It is anticipated that this drug will also be approved for use as consolidation therapy after successful first-line treatment. Here we first will review the published literature supporting the use of 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan in the aforementioned indications and emerging data showing applicability of ibritumomab tiuxetan as sole first-line therapy for FL, as well as in the transplant setting. Possible strategies of incorporating ibritumomab tiuxetan into the treatment algorithm of FL are discussed.Keywords: follicular lymphoma, 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan

  2. Clusterin in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue, tonsils, and adenoids: localization to M cells and follicular dendritic cells.

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    Verbrugghe, Phebe; Kujala, Pekka; Waelput, Wim; Peters, Peter J; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2008-03-01

    The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) overlying the follicles of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is a key player in the initiation of mucosal immune responses. We recently reported strong clusterin expression in the FAE of murine Peyer's patches. In this study, we examined the expression of clusterin in the human gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and Waldeyer's ring. Immunohistochemistry for clusterin in human Peyer's patches, appendix and colon lymphoid follicles revealed expression in M cells and in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Using cryo-immunogold electron microscopy in Peyer's patches, we observed cytosolic immunoreactivity in M cells and labeling in the ER/Golgi biosynthetic pathway in FDCs. In palatine tonsils and adenoids, we demonstrated clusterin expression in germinal centers and in the lymphoepithelium in the crypts where M cells are localized. In conclusion, clusterin is expressed in M cells and follicular dendritic cells at inductive sites of human mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue suggesting a role for this protein in innate immune responses. Moreover, the use of clusterin as a human M cell marker could prove to be a valuable tool in future M cell research.

  3. Expression of PUMA in Follicular Granulosa Cells Regulated by FoxO1 Activation During Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Qun; Shen, Ming; Wu, Wang-Jun; Li, Bo-Jiang; Weng, Qian-Nan; Li, Mei; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is a main cause of follicular atresia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways involving numerous genes and transcription factors. In this study, we found expression of the p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a BH3-only Bcl-2 subfamily protein, in ovarian GCs during oxidative stress. By overexpression and knockdown of Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), we found that FoxO1 regulates PUMA at the protein level. Moreover, as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to activate FoxO1 by promoting its nuclear import, we used a JNK inhibitor to reduce FoxO1 activation and detected decreased PUMA messenger RNA expression and protein levels during oxidative stress. In addition, in vivo oxidative stress-induced upregulation of PUMA was found following injection of 3 nitropropionic acid in mice. In conclusion, oxidative stress increases PUMA expression regulated by FoxO1 in follicular GCs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Effects of propylene glycol drenching before and after luteolysis on blood glucose, ovarian steroids and follicular dynamics in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, A; Tanaka, T; Kamomae, H

    2012-02-01

    The effect of propylene glycol drenching on ovarian and hormonal dynamics was studied in heifers. Five cycling heifers were used twice (as control and treatment) with crossover design. After the confirmation of ovulation (day 0), the heifers in the treatment group received propylene glycol on days 6, 7 and 8 as an oral drench (250 ml of 90% propylene glycol). On day 10, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), 15 mg per head of dinoprost, was administered intramuscularly to induce luteal regression followed by the follicular phase and then propylene glycol was again administered twice daily (500 ml/day) on days 10, 11 and 12. Palpation per rectum and ovarian ultrasonography were performed every other day from days 0 to 10, and daily after PGF2α administration until the subsequent ovulation (second ovulation) for analysis of follicular and luteal dynamics. Blood samples were also collected every other day from days 0 to 10, and then at 6 h intervals after PGF2α administration until the second ovulation. For the samples taken at 6-h intervals after PGF2α administration, the concentrations of glucose showed clear daily fluctuations in both groups. Changes in the plasma concentration of glucose in the treatment group were significantly (P propylene glycol drenching in heifers. However, no significant changes in ovarian and hormonal dynamics were found under such metabolic conditions.

  5. FCG (FLIPI, Charlson comorbidity index, and histological grade) score is superior to FLIPI in advanced follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljevic, Biljana; Jelicic, Jelena; Andjelic, Bosko; Antic, Darko; Markovic, Olivera; Petkovic, Ivan; Jovanovic, Maja Perunicic; Trajkovic, Goran; Bila, Jelena; Djurasinovic, Vladislava; Sretenovic, Aleksandra; Vukovic, Vojin; Smiljanic, Mihailo; Balint, Milena Todorovic

    2016-12-01

    The Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) is widely used in the identification of risk groups among follicular lymphoma (FL) patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of FLIPI combined with the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and histological grade of lymphoma. 224 newly diagnosed FL patients (median age 56 years) treated with immunochemotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Low FLIPI had 21.0 % of patients, intermediate 28.1 % and high 46.9 %. 50.9 % of patients had no comorbidities. Only 7.1 % of patients had a high CCI score (≥2), while 25.9 % of patients were histological grade 3. Parameters that influenced overall survival were evaluated using Cox regression analysis, in which CCI, FLIPI and histological grade (p < 0.05) retained prognostic significance. By combining these parameters, we have developed the FCG score, which incorporates FLIPI, CCI, and histological grade. This score defines three risk categories (low: 41.5 %; intermediate: 37.5 %; high: 13.4 %), associated with significantly different survival (p < 0.0001); this consequently improves discriminative power by 9.1 % compared to FLIPI. FCG score represents a possible new prognostic index, highlighting the role of the patient's clinical state and the histological characteristics of disease, as indicated by comorbidity index and histological grade of lymphoma.

  6. Dietary energy source and feeding levels during the rearing period affect ovarian follicular development and oocyte maturation in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D S; Fang, Z F; Wu, D; Zhuo, Y; Xu, S Y; Wang, Y Z; Zhou, P; Lin, Y

    2010-07-15

    Fifty-four Landrace x Yorkshire gilts (59.0 +/- 4.2 kg and 147 +/- 3 d old) were used to examine the effects of dietary energy source (starch or mixed fat) at high [112.5% of energy requirements recommended by NRC (1998)], normal (100%), and low (87.5%) energy feeding levels on ovarian follicular development and oocyte maturation. Forty-seven estrus gilts were slaughtered at Day 19 after the second estrus; oocytes were recovered from follicles >4 mm in diameter, and matured in vitro for 44 h. Gilts fed high-energy diets had more follicles >4 mm (mean, 25.8 vs. 19.1, P energy diet. Furthermore, gilts fed starch-rich diets had enhanced oocyte nuclear maturation relative to those fed fat-rich diets (75.4 vs. 68.0%, P energy feeding groups, high-energy feeding groups had higher (P energy group than in the normal group. Compared with gilts fed the high-energy diet supplemented with fat, gilts fed the high-energy diet supplemented with starch had a tendency (P nuclear maturation during culture in vitro. We inferred that starch-rich, high-energy diets during rearing may improve ovarian follicular development and oocyte maturation in replacement gilts. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Follicular Regulatory CD8 T Cells Impair the Germinal Center Response in SIV and Ex Vivo HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Joy M.; Levy, David N.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Connick, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    During chronic HIV infection, viral replication is concentrated in secondary lymphoid follicles. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells control HIV replication in extrafollicular regions, but not in the follicle. Here, we show CXCR5hiCD44hiCD8 T cells are a regulatory subset differing from conventional CD8 T cells, and constitute the majority of CD8 T cells in the follicle. This subset, CD8 follicular regulatory T cells (CD8 TFR), expand in chronic SIV infection, exhibit enhanced expression of Tim-3 and IL-10, and express less perforin compared to conventional CD8 T cells. CD8 TFR modestly limit HIV replication in follicular helper T cells (TFH), impair TFH IL-21 production via Tim-3, and inhibit IgG production by B cells during ex vivo HIV infection. CD8 TFR induce TFH apoptosis through HLA-E, but induce less apoptosis than conventional CD8 T cells. These data demonstrate that a unique regulatory CD8 population exists in follicles that impairs GC function in HIV infection. PMID:27716848

  8. [Investigation of follicular development and oocyte maturation after cryopreservation and xenograft of newborn mouse ovaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bo-Lin; Chen, Xue-Jin; Shi, Zhen-Dan; Li, Wan-Li; Tian, Yun-Bo

    2006-02-25

    In order to explore the feasibility of cryopreserving primordial follicles in attaining their developmental competence following freezing and thawing, ovaries from newborn mice were cryopreserved and the thawed ovaries were xenografted into kidney capsules of adult female mice. Ovaries were isolated from newborn B6C2F(1) female mice, infiltrated by Leibovitz 15 (L-15) medium containing 10% (V/V) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1.5 mol/L dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and then packed into 0.25 ml plastic straws. The ovaries contained in straws were frozen under nitrogen vapour at -40 degrees C in Cryocell 1200 programmable freezer, and stored in liquid nitrogen for periods ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Upon thawing, the straws were dipped into room temperature water for 10~20 s, after which the ovaries were collected and washed in L-15 buffer containing 10% (V/V) FBS without DMSO to remove cryoprotectant. The thawed ovaries were transplanted into kidney capsules of 8~12-week old adult B6C2F(1) female recipient mice by two protocols, with either 1 or 2 ovaries in each capsule. Upon withdrawal after at least 14 d of transplantation, only 45.00% (72/160) of the ovaries were recovered from 40 recipients transplanted with 2 ovaries in each capsule, compared to 82.50% (33/40) in 20 recipients with only 1 ovary in each capsule. The grafted ovaries exhibited similar follicular developmental progression to that of natural ovaries. There were antral follicles present in the transplanted ovaries on day 14, whose number increased more substantially on day 19 after transplantation. Following stimulation of the recipient mice with 10 IU PMSG on day 19 after xenografting, follicles further developed to preovulatory stage with appearance of cumulus oocytes and enlarged antrum. Oocytes from these fully grown antral follicles were collected and matured in vitro in modified essential medium-alpha (MEMalpha). After 16~17 h of culture, 40.90% of the oocytes exhibited germinal vesicle

  9. PET/CT assessment in follicular lymphoma using standardized criteria: central review in the PRIMA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tychyj-Pinel, Christelle [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Ricard, Fabien [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Fulham, Michael [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Fournier, Marion [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, The Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation (LYSARC), Pierre-Benite (France); Meignan, Michel [CHU Henri Mondor, Medicine Nucleaire, Creteil (France); Lamy, Thierry [Service d' Hematologie, CHU, Rennes (France); Vera, Pierre [Centre Henri Becquerel, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rouen (France); Rouen University, QuantIF (Litis EA4108), Rouen (France); Salles, Gilles [Universite de Lyon, Faculte de Medecine, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Service d' Hematologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (France); Trotman, Judith [University of Sydney, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia); Concord Hospital, Department of Haematology, Concord, NSW (Australia)

    2014-03-15

    We aimed to compare the standardized central review of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans performed after induction therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the PRIMA study (Salles et al., Lancet 377:42-51, 2011; Trotman et al., J Clin Oncol 29:3194-3200, 2011) to scan review at local centres. PET/CT scans were independently evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians using the 2007 International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria (Cheson et al., J Clin Oncol 25:579-586, 2007; Juweid et al., J Clin Oncol 25:571-578, 2007; Shankar et al., J Nucl Med 47:1059-1066, 2006) and Deauville 5-point scale (5PS) criteria (Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 50:1257-1260, 2009; Meignan et al., Leuk Lymphoma 51:2171-2180, 2010; Barrington et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37:1824-1833, 2010). PET/CT status was compared with prospectively recorded patient outcomes. Central evaluation was performed on 119 scans. At diagnosis, 58 of 59 were recorded as positive, with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of 11.7 (range 4.6-35.6). There was no significant association between baseline SUV{sub max} and progression-free survival (PFS). Sixty post-induction scans were interpreted using both the IHP criteria and 5PS. Post-induction PET-positive status failed to predict progression when applying the IHP criteria [p = 0.14; hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-4.6] or 5PS with a cut-off ≥3 (p = 0.12; HR 2.0; 95 % CI 0.8-4.7). However, when applying the 5PS with a cut-off ≥4, there was a significantly inferior 42-month PFS in PET-positive patients of 25.0 % (95 % CI 3.7-55.8 %) versus 61.4 % (95 % CI 45.4-74.1 %) in PET-negative patients (p = 0.01; HR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.2-7.8). The positive predictive value (PPV) of post-induction PET with this liver cut-off was 75 %. The 42-month PFS for patients remaining PET-positive by local assessment was 31.1 % (95 % CI 10.2-55.0 %) vs 64.6 % (95 % CI 47.0-77.6 %) for PET

  10. The rs2910164 Genetic Variant of miR-146a-3p Is Associated with Increased Overall Mortality in Patients with Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Anna; Czetwertyńska, Małgorzata; Świerniak, Michał; Gierlikowski, Wojciech; Kolanowska, Monika; Bakuła-Zalewska, Elwira; Jhiang, Sissy M.; Jażdżewski, Krystian; Wójcicka, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Aberrant expression of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and the resistance to post-operative radioactive iodide treatment is a crucial cause of higher mortality of some thyroid cancer patients. In this study, we analyzed the impact of miR-146a on the expression and function of NIS and on the overall survival of thyroid cancer patients. The study included 2441 patients (2163 women; 278 men); including 359 cases with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (fvPTC). miR:NIS interactions were analyzed in cell lines using in vivo binding and inhibition assays and radioactive iodine uptake assays. Tumor/blood DNA was used for rs2910164 genotyping. Overall survival was assessed retrospectively. In the results, we showed that miR-146a-3p directly binds to and inhibits NIS. Inhibition of miR-146a-3p restores the expression and function of NIS, increasing radioactive iodine uptake. Rs2910164 functional variant within miR-146a-3p is associated with increased overall mortality among fvPTC female patients. The deaths per 1000 person-years were 29.7 in CC carriers vs. 5.08 in GG/GC-carriers (HR = 6.21, p = 0.006). Higher mortality of CC vs. GG/GC carriers was also observed in patients with lower clinical stage (HR = 22.72, p 50 years) (HR = 7.8, p = 0.002). MiR-146a-3p underwent somatic mutations in 16.1% of analyzed specimens, mainly towards the deleterious C allele. In this report we propose a novel molecular marker of the clinical outcome of fvPTC patients. Rs2910164 increases the overall mortality with inhibition of NIS and disruption of radioiodine uptake as a possible mechanism. PMID:29495389

  11. FSH replaced by low-dose hCG in the late follicular phase versus continued FSH for assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Wellington P; Vieira, Andrea D D; Figueiredo, Jaqueline B P; Nastri, Carolina O

    2013-03-28

    During controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is frequently used for several days to achieve follicular development. FSH is a relatively expensive drug, substantially contributing to the total expenses of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). When follicles achieve a diameter greater than 10 mm they start expressing luteinising hormone (LH) receptors. At this point, FSH might be replaced by low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is less expensive. In addition to cost reduction, replacing FSH by low-dose hCG has a theoretical potential to reduce the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of using low-dose hCG to replace FSH during the late follicular phase in women undergoing COH for assisted reproduction, compared to the use of a conventional COH protocol. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCT) in electronic databases (Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS), trials registers (ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform), conference abstracts (ISI Web of knowledge), and grey literature (OpenGrey); additionally we handsearched the reference list of included studies and similar reviews. The last electronic search was performed in February 2013.. Only true RCTs comparing the replacement of FSH by low-dose hCG during late follicular phase of COH were considered eligible; quasi or pseudo-randomised trials were not included. Cross-over trials would be included only if data regarding the first treatment of each participant were available; trials that included the same participant more than once would be included only if each participant was always allocated to the same intervention and follow-up periods were the same in both/all arms, or if data regarding the first treatment of each participant were

  12. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation: II. The role of connexin 32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Tran, D. T.; Murray, D. K.; Rightnar, S. S.; Todd, S.; Nelson, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether connexin 32-type gap junctions contribute to the "contact effect" in follicular thyrocytes and whether the response is influenced by radiation quality. Our previous studies demonstrated that early-passage follicular cultures of Fischer rat thyroid cells express functional connexin 32 gap junctions, with later-passage cultures expressing a truncated nonfunctional form of the protein. This model allowed us to assess the role of connexin 32 in radiation responsiveness without relying solely on chemical manipulation of gap junctions. The survival curves generated after gamma irradiation revealed that early-passage follicular cultures had significantly lower values of alpha (0.04 Gy(-1)) than later-passage cultures (0.11 Gy(-1)) (P 0.1, n = 9). This strongly suggests that the presence of functional connexin 32-type gap junctions was contributing to radiation resistance in gamma-irradiated thyroid follicles. Survival curves from proton-irradiated cultures had alpha values that were not significantly different whether cells expressed functional connexin 32 (0.10 Gy(-1)), did not express connexin 32 (0.09 Gy(-1)), or were down-regulated (early-passage plus heptanol, 0.09 Gy(-1); late-passage plus heptanol, 0.12 Gy(-1)) (P > 0.1, n = 19). Thus, for proton irradiation, the presence of connexin 32-type gap junctional channels did not influence their radiosensitivity. Collectively, the data support the following conclusions. (1) The lower alpha values from the gamma-ray survival curves of the early-passage cultures suggest greater repair efficiency and/or enhanced resistance to radiation-induced damage, coincident with the expression of connexin 32-type gap junctions. (2) The increased sensitivity of FRTL-5 cells to proton irradiation was independent of their ability to communicate through connexin 32 gap junctions. (3) The fact that the beta components of the survival curves from both gamma rays and proton beams were

  13. Supplementation with small-extracellular vesicles from ovarian follicular fluid during in vitro production modulates bovine embryo development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gabriella M.; del Collado, Maite; Sampaio, Rafael V.; Sangalli, Juliano R.; Silva, Luciano A.; Pinaffi, Fábio V. L.; Jardim, Izabelle B.; Cesar, Marcelo C.; Nogueira, Marcelo F. G.; Cesar, Aline S. M.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Perecin, Felipe; Meirelles, Flávio V.

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy success results from the interaction of multiple factors, among them are folliculogenesis and early embryonic development. Failure during these different processes can lead to difficulties in conception. Alternatives to overcome these problems are based on assisted reproductive techniques. Extracellular vesicles are cell-secreted vesicles present in different body fluids and contain bioactive materials, such as messenger RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), and proteins. Thus, our hypothesis is that extracellular vesicles from follicular fluid from 3–6 mm ovarian follicles can modulate bovine embryo development in vitro. To test our hypothesis follicular fluid from bovine ovaries was aspirated and small-extracellular vesicles (extracellular vesicles (EVs) were utilized for functional experiments investigating their role in modulating messenger RNA, microRNA as well as global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels of bovine blastocysts. EVs from 3–6 mm follicles were used for RNA-seq and miRNA analysis. Functional annotation analysis of the EVs transcripts revealed messages related to chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. EVs treatment during oocyte maturation and embryo development causes changes in blastocyst rates, as well as changes in the transcription levels of genes related to embryonic metabolism and development. Supplementation with EVs from 3–6 mm follicles during oocyte maturation and early embryo development (until the 4-cell stage) increased the levels of bta-miR-631 (enriched in EVs from 3–6 mm follicles) in embryos. Interestingly, the addition of EVs from 3–6 mm follicles induced changes in global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation levels compared to embryos produced by the standard in vitro production system. Our results indicate that the supplementation of culture media with EVs isolated from the follicular fluid of 3–6 mm follicles during oocyte maturation and early embryo development can partially modify

  14. Lack of Bcl-2 expression in follicular lymphoma may be caused by mutations in the BCL2 gene or by absence of the t(14;18) translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraders, M; de Jong, D; Kluin, P; Groenen, PC; van Krieken, H

    Follicular lymphoma (FL), except grade 3B, is characterized by the chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21), which results in over-expression of the Bcl-2 protein. Ten per-cent of all FLs, however, do not show Bcl-2 protein expression with standard immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal Bcl-2

  15. Comparison of follicular fluid and serum levels of Inhibin A and Inhibin B with calculated indices used as predictive markers of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in IVF patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moos, J.; Řežábek, K.; Filová, V.; Moosová, M.; Pavelková, J.; Pěknicová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 7 (2009), s. 1-7 ISSN 1477-7827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome - OHSS * inhibin A * inhibin B * follicular fluid Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.077, year: 2009

  16. Primary follicular lymphoma of the small intestine: alpha4beta7 expression and immunoglobulin configuration suggest an origin from local antigen-experienced B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bende, Richard J.; Smit, Laura A.; Bossenbroek, Janneke G.; Aarts, Wilhelmina M.; Spaargaren, Marcel; de Leval, Laurence; Boeckxstaens, Guy E. E.; Pals, Steven T.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Primary follicular lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract (GI-FL) is a rare so far poorly studied entity. We analyzed four FL cases located in the small intestine and duodenum to gain insight in their pathogenesis and to find an explanation for their low tendency to disseminate outside the GI tract.

  17. Regulation of anti-Müllerian hormone production in the cow: a multiscale study at endocrine, ovarian, follicular, and granulosa cell levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Charlène; Médigue, Claire; Fabre, Stéphane; Jarrier, Peggy; Bontoux, Martine; Clément, Frédérique; Monniaux, Danielle

    2011-03-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an endocrine marker that can help predict superovulatory responses to treatments administered to cows for embryo production. However, the optimal time of the estrous cycle at which a blood test should be performed for a highly reliable prognosis has not yet been established. Moreover, little is known about the regulation of AMH production. To answer these questions, a study was designed to investigate the regulation of AMH production in cows selected for their high or low ovulatory responses to superovulation. At the granulosa cell level, AMH production was inhibited by follicle-stimulating hormone but enhanced by bone morphogenetic proteins. At the follicular level, the expression of AMH within the follicle was dependent on the stage of follicular development. At the ovarian level, the size of the pool of small antral growing follicles determined ovarian AMH production. At the endocrine level, AMH followed a specific dynamic profile during the estrous cycle, which occurred independently of the follicular waves of terminal follicular development. Cows selected for their high or low responses to superovulation did not differ in the regulation of AMH production, but cows with higher responses had higher plasma AMH concentrations throughout the cycle. The optimal period of the estrous cycle at which to measure AMH concentrations with the aim of selecting the best cows for embryo production was found to be at estrus and after Day 12 of the cycle. Based on this multiscale study, we propose a model that integrates the different regulatory levels of AMH production.

  18. Development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: interrogation of key proteins and biological processes in human follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarkovská, Karla; Skalníková, Helena; Halada, Petr; Hrabáková, Rita; Moos, J.; Rezábek, K.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2011), s. 679-692 ISSN 1360-9947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biomarkers * computer modelling * human follicular fluid Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 3.852, year: 2011

  19. Differential effects of natural flavonoids on growth and iodide content in a human Na*/I- symporter-transfected follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder-van der Elst, Janny P.; van der Heide, Daan; Romijn, Johannes A.; Smit, Jan W. A.

    2004-01-01

    Natural flavonoids (plant pigments) have been shown to inhibit thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in vitro and the growth of thyroid cancer cell lines. We have studied the role of flavonoids on the iodide transport and the growth of the human follicular thyroid cancer cell line (FTC133) which was stably

  20. GWAS of follicular lymphoma reveals allelic heterogeneity at 6p21.32 and suggests shared genetic susceptibility with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedby, Karin E; Foo, Jia Nee; Skibola, Christine F

    2011-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) represents a diverse group of hematological malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a prevalent subtype. A previous genome-wide association study has established a marker, rs10484561 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region on 6p21.32 associated w...

  1. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Molecular imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and molecular testing for mutations in differentiating benign from malignant follicular neoplasm: a prospective comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanella, L.; Treglia, G.; Ceriani, L. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Centre, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Campenni, A. [Policlinico Universitario, Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Messina (Italy); Verburg, F.A. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Trimboli, P. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Centre, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Ospedale Israelitico, Sezione di Endocrinologia e Diabetologia, Roma (Italy); Bongiovanni, M. [Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudouise, Institut de Pathologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To compare mutation analysis of cytology specimens and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients with a cytological reading of follicular neoplasm. Patients ≥18 years of age with a solitary hypofunctioning thyroid nodule (≥10 mm), normal thyrotropin and calcitonin levels, and a cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasm were prospectively enrolled. Mutation analysis and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy were performed and patients were subsequently operated on to confirm or exclude a malignant lesion. Mutations for KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and for BRAF and translocations of PAX8/PPARγ, RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 were investigated. Static thyroid scintigraphic images were acquired 10 and 60 min after intravenous injection of 200 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and visually assessed. Additionally, the MIBI washout index was calculated using a semiquantitative method. In our series, 26 % of nodules with a follicular pattern on cytology were malignant with a prevalence of follicular carcinomas. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy was found to be significantly more accurate (positive likelihood ratio 4.56 for visual assessment and 12.35 for semiquantitative assessment) than mutation analysis (positive likelihood ratio 1.74). A negative {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scan reliably excluded malignancy. In patients with a thyroid nodule cytologically diagnosed as a follicular proliferation, semiquantitative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy should be the preferred method for differentiating benign from malignant nodules. It is superior to molecular testing for the presence of differentiated thyroid cancer-associated mutations in fine-needle aspiration cytology sample material. (orig.)

  3. Mixed Lichenoid and Follicular T- and B-Cell Lymphoid Reaction to Red Tattoos With Monoclonal T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroura, Hiba; Bergman, Reuven

    2017-09-28

    Pseudolymphomatous reactions have been described to occur in tattoos. Most cases have exhibited T-cell predominance and polyclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. One case with monoclonal IgH gene rearrangements progressed into B-cell lymphoma. Lichenoid infiltrates are commonly described but lymphoid follicles much less frequently. We report a case with mixed lichenoid and follicular T- and B-cell reaction to red tattoos. The histopathology and the immunohistochemical studies were constant with a mixed T- and B-cell pseudolymphoma, the IgH gene rearrangement study was polyclonal, but the T-cell receptor gene rearrangement study was monoclonal. The patient who responded to intralesional corticosteroid injections remains under close scrutiny.

  4. Endocytosis and recycling of immune complexes by follicular dendritic cells enhances B cell antigen binding and activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesters, Balthasar A.; Chatterjee, Priyadarshini; Kim, Young-A; Gonzalez, Santiago F.; Kuligowski, Michael P.; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Carroll, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Stromal derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major reservoir for antigen that is essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate. A long-standing question is how FDCs retain antigen in its native form for extended periods and how they display it to specific B cells. Here we found that FDC acquired complement-coated immune complexes (IC) from non-cognate B cells via complement receptors 1 and 2 (CD35 and CD21 respectively) and rapidly internalized them by an actin-dependent pathway. IC were retained intact within a non-degradative cycling compartment and were displayed periodically on the cell surface where they were accessible to antigen-specific B cells. This would explain how antigens are protected from damage and retained over long periods of time, while remaining accessible for B cells. PMID:23770227

  5. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in radiologically normal dental follicular space of mandibular third molars: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargi S. Sarode

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT of the dental follicle in an impacted third molar without clinical and radiological evidence are reported during routine histopathological examination. In both the cases left mandibular third molar was mesioangularly impacted with pericoronal radiolucency of less than 2.5 mm, which was not indicative of any pathology. As a routine protocol (which is not practiced widely of our institution, dental follicles associated with extracted molars were sent for histopathological examination. Histopathological features were consistent with CCOT with pathognomonic ghost cell transformation of odontogenic epithelium. The patients were followed for one year with no recurrence. This paper emphasizes the importance of routine histopathological examination of dental follicles associated with asymptomatic impacted teeth without any clinical or radiographic evidence of follicular lesion.

  6. BCL6 interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jessica A.; Tubo, Noah J.; Gearhart, Micah D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Jenkins, Marc K.

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (GC-Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor BCL6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the BCL6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of peptide:MHCII-specific GC-Tfh cells following Listeria monocytogenes infection and a 2-fold decrease following immunization with a peptide in CFA. The reduction in GC-Tfh cells was associated with diminished plasma cell and GC B cell formation. Thus, T cell-expressed BCOR is critical for optimal GC-Tfh differentiation and humoral immunity. PMID:25964495

  7. Cutting edge: Bcl6-interacting corepressor contributes to germinal center T follicular helper cell formation and B cell helper function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jessica A; Tubo, Noah J; Gearhart, Micah D; Bardwell, Vivian J; Jenkins, Marc K

    2015-06-15

    CD4(+) germinal center (GC)-T follicular helper (Tfh) cells help B cells become long-lived plasma cells and memory cells. The transcriptional repressor Bcl6 plays a key role in GC-Tfh formation by inhibiting the expression of genes that promote differentiation into other lineages. We determined whether BCOR, a component of a Polycomb repressive complex that interacts with the Bcl6 BTB domain, influences GC-Tfh differentiation. T cell-targeted BCOR deficiency led to a substantial loss of peptide:MHC class II-specific GC-Tfh cells following Listeria monocytogenes infection and a 2-fold decrease following immunization with a peptide in CFA. The reduction in GC-Tfh cells was associated with diminished plasma cell and GC B cell formation. Thus, T cell-expressed BCOR is critical for optimal GC-Tfh cell differentiation and humoral immunity. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Bismuth subnitrate iodoform parafin paste used in the management of inflammatory follicular cyst – Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Morawala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentigerous cyst or follicular cyst is a type of odontogenic cyst which encloses the crown of an unerupted tooth and is attached to the amelocemental junction and is the second most common odontogenic cyst contributing about 16.6% to 21.3% of all odontogenic cysts. Occurrence of Dentigerous cysts according to Shear is usually in 3rd and 4th decade in contrast to this finding Shibata et al showed that the age of discovery of the dentigerous cyst was generally 9–11 years. The treatment indicated for dentigerous cysts are surgical enucleation of the cyst, along with removal of the involved tooth; or the use of a marsupialization technique, which removes the cyst while preserving the developing tooth. The present case report describes the management of dentigerous cysts in children with the use of Bismuth Subnitrate Iodoform Paste.

  9. Induction of IL21 in Peripheral T Follicular Helper Cells Is an Indicator of Influenza Vaccine Response in a Previously Vaccinated HIV-Infected Pediatric Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Lesley R; Cotugno, Nicola; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Pan, Li; Rinaldi, Stefano; Sanchez, M Celeste; Gonzalez, Louis; Cagigi, Alberto; Rossi, Paolo; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-03-01

    HIV-infected patients of all ages frequently underperform in response to seasonal influenza vaccination, despite virologic control of HIV. The molecular mechanisms governing this impairment, as well as predictive biomarkers for responsiveness, remain unknown. This study was performed in samples obtained prevaccination (T0) from HIV-infected children who received the 2012-2013 seasonal influenza vaccine. Response status was determined based on established criterion for hemagglutination inhibition titer; participants with a hemagglutination titer ≥1:40 plus a ≥4-fold increase over T0 at 3 wk postvaccination were designated as responders. All children had a history of prior influenza vaccinations. At T0, the frequencies of CD4 T cell subsets, including peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) cells, which provide help to B cells for developing into Ab-secreting cells, were similar between responders and nonresponders. However, in response to in vitro stimulation with influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) Ag, differential gene expression related to pTfh cell function was observed by Fluidigm high-density RT-PCR between responders and nonresponders. In responders, H1N1 stimulation at T0 also resulted in CXCR5 induction (mRNA and protein) in CD4 T cells and IL21 gene induction in pTfh cells that were strongly associated with H1N1-specific B cell responses postvaccination. In contrast, CD4 T cells of nonresponders exhibited increased expression of IL2 and STAT5 genes, which are known to antagonize peripheral Tfh cell function. These results suggest that the quality of pTfh cells at the time of immunization is important for influenza vaccine responses and provide a rationale for targeted, ex vivo Ag-driven molecular profiling of purified immune cells to detect predictive biomarkers of the vaccine response. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Hypoxia Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Follicular Thyroid Cancer: Involvement of Regulation of Twist by Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yeon Ju; Na, Hwi Jung; Suh, Michelle J; Ban, Myung Jin; Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Won Shik; Kim, Jae Wook; Choi, Eun Chang; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Chang, Jae Won; Koh, Yoon Woo

    2015-11-01

    Although follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a relatively fair prognosis, distant metastasis sometimes results in poor prognosis and survival. There is little understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the aggressiveness potential of thyroid cancer. We showed that hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) induced aggressiveness in FTC cells and identified the underlying mechanism of the HIF-1α-induced invasive characteristics. Cells were cultured under controlled hypoxic environments (1% O₂) or normoxic conditions. The effect of hypoxia on HIF-1α, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related markers were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Invasion and wound healing assay were conducted to identify functional character of EMT. The involvement of HIF-1α and Twist in EMT were studied using gene overexpression or silencing. After orthotopic nude mouse model was established using the cells transfected with lentiviral shHIF-1α, tissue analysis was done. Hypoxia induces HIF-1α expression and EMT, including typical morphologic changes, cadherin shift, and increased vimentin expression. We showed that overexpression of HIF-1α via transfection resulted in the aforementioned changes without hypoxia, and repression of HIF-1α with RNA interference suppressed hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and EMT. Furthermore, we also observed that Twist expression was regulated by HIF-1α. These were confirmed in the orthotopic FTC model. Hypoxia induced HIF-1α, which in turn induced EMT, resulting in the increased capacity for invasion and migration of cells via regulation of the Twist signal pathway in FTC cells. These findings provide insight into a possible therapeutic strategy to prevent invasive and metastatic FTC.

  11. Progression-free survival at 2 years post-autologous transplant: a surrogate end point for overall survival in follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ubieto, Ana; Grande, Carlos; Caballero, Dolores; Yáñez, Lucrecia; Novelli, Silvana; Hernández, Miguel T; Manzanares, María; Arranz, Reyes; Ferreiro, José Javier; Bobillo, Sabela; Mercadal, Santiago; Galego, Andrea; Jiménez, Javier López; Moraleda, José María; Vallejo, Carlos; Albo, Carmen; Pérez, Elena; Marrero, Carmen; Magnano, Laura; Palomera, Luis; Jarque, Isidro; Coria, Erika; Rodriguez, Antonia; Martín, Alejandro; López-Guillermo, Armando; Salar, Antonio; Lahuerta, Juan José

    2017-12-01

    Overall survival (OS) is the gold-standard end point for studies evaluating autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in follicular lymphoma (FL), but assessment may be elusive due to the lengthy disease course. We analyzed the validity of two earlier end points, proposed in the setting of first-line chemo-/immunotherapy, as surrogates for OS-progression-free survival (PFS) status at 24 months (PFS24) and complete response at 30 months (CR30) post-ASCT. We also have investigated the clinical features of patients with early progression after ASCT. Data were available for 626 chemosensitive FL patients who received ASCT between 1989 and 2007. Median follow-up was 12.2 years from ASCT. In the PFS24 analysis, 153 (24%) patients progressed within 24 months and 447 were alive and progression-free at 24 months post-ASCT (26 who died without disease progressions within 24 months were excluded). Early progression was associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR], 6.8; P = 0.00001). In the subgroup of patients who received an ASCT in the setting or relapse after being exposed to rituximab, the HR was 11.3 (95% CI, 3.9-30.2; P < 0.00001). In the CR30 analysis, 183 of 596 (31%) response-evaluable patients progressed/died with 30 months post-ASCT. The absence of CR30 was associated with shorter OS (HR, 7.8; P < 0.00001), including in patients with prior rituximab (HR, 8.2). PFS24 and CR30 post-ASCT are associated with poor outcomes and should be primary end points. Further research is needed to identify this population to be offered alternative treatments. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Rituximab Extended Schedule or Re-Treatment Trial for Low–Tumor Burden Follicular Lymphoma: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Brad S.; Hong, Fangxin; Williams, Michael E.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Krauss, John C.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Swinnen, Lode J.; Schuster, Stephen J.; Peterson, Christopher G.; Sborov, Mark D.; Martin, S. Eric; Weiss, Matthias; Ehmann, W. Christopher; Horning, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In low–tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL), maintenance rituximab (MR) has been shown to improve progression-free survival when compared with observation. It is not known whether MR provides superior long-term disease control compared with re-treatment rituximab (RR) administered on an as-needed basis. E4402 (RESORT) was a randomized clinical trial designed to compare MR against RR. Patients and Methods Eligible patients with previously untreated low–tumor burden FL received four doses of rituximab, and responding patients were randomly assigned to either RR or MR. Patients receiving RR were eligible for re-treatment at each disease progression until treatment failure. Patients assigned to MR received a single dose of rituximab every 3 months until treatment failure. The primary end point was time to treatment failure. Secondary end points included time to first cytotoxic therapy, toxicity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results A total of 289 patients were randomly assigned to RR or MR. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, the estimated median time to treatment failure was 3.9 years for patients receiving RR and 4.3 years for those receiving MR (P = .54). Three-year freedom from cytotoxic therapy was 84% for those receiving RR and 95% for those receiving MR (P = .03). The median number of rituximab doses was four patients receiving RR and 18 for those receiving MR. There was no difference in HRQOL. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities were infrequent in both arms. Conclusion In low–tumor burden FL, a re-treatment strategy uses less rituximab while providing disease control comparable to that achieved with a maintenance strategy. PMID:25154829

  13. Follicular-fluid anti-Mullerian hormone (FF AMH) is a plausible biochemical indicator of functional viability of oocyte in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bindu N; Chimote, Meena N; Chimote, Nishad N; Nath, Nirmalendu M; Chimote, Natachandra M

    2013-04-01

    Oocyte quality may be a governing factor in influencing in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. However, morphological evaluation of oocyte quality is difficult in conventional IVF cycles. Follicular-fluid (FF), the site for oocyte growth and development, has not yet been sufficiently explored to obtain a marker indicative of oocyte quality. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is produced by granulosa cells of preantral and early-antral follicles and is released in FF. To investigate AMH as a biochemical indicator of functional viability/quality of oocyte produced in the FF micro-environmental milieu. Prospective study involving 132 cycles of conventional IVF-embryo transfer (ET) in infertile women. AMH concentration was estimated in pooled FF on day of oocyte pickup. Cycles were sorted into low and high groups according to median (50 (th) centile) values of measurement. Main outcome measure was oocyte viability, which included morphological assessment of oocyte quality, fertilization rate, clinical pregnancy, and implantation rates. Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Low FF AMH group shows significantly higher percentage of top-quality oocytes (65.08 ± 24.88 vs. 50.18 ± 25.01%, P =0.0126), fertilization (83.65 ± 18.38 vs. 75.78 ± 21.02%, P =0.0171), clinical pregnancy (57.57 vs. 16.67%, P >0.0001), and embryo implantation rates (29.79 vs. 7.69%, P >0.0001) compared to high FF AMH group. FF AMH shares an inverse correlation with FF E2 (Pearson r = -0.43, r(2) = 0.18) and clinical pregnancy (Pearson r = -0.46, r(2) = 0.21). Threshold value of FF AMH for pregnancy is >1.750 ng/mg protein. FF AMH is a plausible biochemical indicator of functional viability of oocyte in conventional IVF cycles.

  14. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayeh Arabzadeh; Ghamartaj Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed.Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001) and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01), respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS). In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032) and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients (Author).

  15. Is the Level of Nitric Oxide in the Dental Follicular Tissues of Impacted Third Molars With a History of Recurrent Pericoronitis a True Marker of Oxidative Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendek, Meltem Karsiyaka; Şenses, Fatma; Kisa, Üçler; Aksoy, Nurkan; Tekin, Umut

    2017-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an indicator of oxidative stress in several tissues. Its role in dental follicular (DF) tissues of impacted third molars with a history of recurrent pericoronitis is not well elucidated. The present study compared NO levels between inflamed and noninflamed DF tissues of impacted third molars with a history of recurrent pericoronitis. A cross-sectional study was designed. The study sample included inflamed DF tissues (test group) with certain local inflammatory symptoms, such as pain, tenderness, swelling, and erythema and noninflamed DF tissues (control group) without local inflammatory symptoms of impacted mandibular third molars. Each patient contributed only 1 specimen to the samples. All tissues samples were biochemically investigated for NO levels as an indicator of oxidative stress. The primary predictor variable was inflammatory status; secondary predictor variables were age and gender. The primary outcome variable was NO level. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted. The test group consisted of 57 patients (28 men, 29 women; mean age, 23.28 ± 5.16 yr) and the control group consisted of 57 patients (30 men, 27 women; mean age, 23.02 ± 5.42 yr). No relevant intergroup differences were noted for demographic findings such as age and gender. NO levels were significantly higher in inflamed DF tissues of impacted third molars than in noninflamed DF tissues (P stress and the necessity to remove impacted mandibular third molars with a history of recurrent pericoronitis. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J.; Rzasa, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10 -7 M or 2x10 -7 M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10 5 cells, respectively), and E2 272.5 pg/10 5 cells, 10.6 pg/10 5 cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10 5 cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10 5 cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle 'in vivo'. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  17. Obesity is not a descriptive factor for oxidative stress and viscosity in follicular fluid of in vitro fertilization patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, B; Kilic, S; Yilmaz, N; Goktas, T; Keskin, U; Seven, A; Ulubay, M; Batioglu, S

    2017-08-01

    Obesity's impact on micro-environmental oxidative stress and follicular fluid (FF) viscosity and whether or not it has any effect on in vitro fertilization (IVF) success is a matter of debate. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the levels of oxidative stress markers and the FF viscosity in obese and non-obese patients. Eighty norm-responder patients undergoing IVF were prospectively grouped according to their body mass indexes (BMI). Group 1 (n = 40) and group 2 (n = 40) had BMI values of ≤24.9 and ≥25.0, respectively. Total sulfhydryl (RSH) levels (nmol/m) and the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (malondialdehyde, or MDA) (µmol/ml) in FFs were quantified. For the first time in our study, FF viscosity with changing BMI values was also determined. The mean levels of MDA (µmol/ml) and RSH (nmol/ml) were not significantly different between groups (1.37 ± 0.51; 1.51 ± 0.51; p > 0.05 for MDA and 0.42 ± 0.30; 0.41 ± 0.20; p > 0.05 for RSH, respectively). Similarly, the FF viscosity (centipoise) was not different between groups (1.28 ± 0.28; 1.30 ± 0.19; p viscosity with changing BMI values. We also demonstrated that the levels of oxidative stress markers and the viscosity of follicular fluid did not affect clinical outcomes.

  18. High fat diet triggers cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of granulosa cells during the follicular development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Liao, Xinghui; Wang, Zhengchao, E-mail: zcwang@fjnu.edu.cn

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of granulosa cells (GCs) proliferation during the follicular development is complicated and multifactorial, which is essential for the oocyte growth and normal ovarian functions. To investigate the role of high fat diet (HFD) on the proliferation of GCs, 4-week old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control diet (NC) for 15 weeks or 20 weeks and then detected the expression level of some regulatory molecules of cell cycle and apoptosis. The abnormal ovarian morphology was observed at 20 weeks. Further mechanistic studies indicated that HFD induced-obesity caused elevated apoptotic levels in GCs of the ovaries in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, cell cycle progress was also impacted after HFD fed. The cell cycle inhibitors, p27{sup Kip1} and p21{sup Cip1}, were significantly induced in the ovaries from the mice in HFD group when compared with that in the ovaries from the mice in NC group. Subsequently, the expression levels of Cyclin D1, D3 and CDK4 were also significantly influenced in the ovaries from the mice fed with HFD in a time-dependent manner. The present results suggested that HFD induced-obesity may trigger cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of GCs, causing the abnormal follicular development and ovarian function failure. - Highlights: • HFD induced-obesity leads to abnormal ovarian morphology. • HFD induced-obesity triggers excessive apoptosis in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity up-regulates cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity causes cell cycle arrest in the ovary.

  19. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  20. In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until...... 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers...... of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (Σsecondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular...

  1. Reproductive endocrine profiles and follicular growth after estrus induction in the riverine water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n=50 and riverine-swamp hybrid buffalo (2n = 49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. BonDurant

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten adult female water buffalo were used in the present study (5 x [2n = 50] and 5 x [2n= 49] hybrids. Ovarian activity was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography between two consecutive ovulations. Observed follicular wave numbers were: 1 (n=1, 2 (n=4, and 3 (n=5. The interovulatory interval ranged 17 to 23 days. Differences in mean follicular diameter between follicles of the normal karyotype (2n=50 and buffalo hybrids (2n=49 were found on the second subordinate group of follicles (P0.05, whereas inhibin profiles were significantly higher in the hybrid group (P<0.05. Understanding the biological meaning of the difference in inhibin concentrations in B. bubalis female reproductive performance will require further investigation.

  2. Effects of follicular cells and FSH on the resumption of meiosis in equine oocytes matured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoleda, J L; Tharasanit, T; Van Tol, H T A; Stout, T A E; Colenbrander, B; Bevers, M M

    2003-04-01

    It has been suggested that preculturing immature oocytes in a manner that maintains them in meiotic arrest may improve cytoplasmic maturation and, thereby, the eventual developmental competence of oocytes matured in vitro. This study examined the ability of follicular cells to maintain meiotic arrest in equine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered from dead mares were cultured for 38 h in M199 either attached to, or together with, different follicle wall components, as follows: (1) attached to the follicle wall, (2) cocultured with separated follicle wall, (3) attached to membrana granulosa (COCG), (4) COCGs cocultured with sheets of theca cells, (5) COCGs cultured in theca-cell conditioned medium, and (6) control COCs without any follicle wall components. When oocytes were cultured attached to their follicle wall, 79% remained in the GV stage throughout the 38 h incubation. However, when oocytes were cocultured with separate pieces of follicle wall, meiosis resumed and a similar proportion of oocytes progressed to metaphase II (79%) as under control conditions (84%). Only 16% of oocytes cultured while still attached to the membrana granulosa (COCGs) maintained the GV stage, whereas when COCGs were cocultured with theca cells or in theca-cell conditioned medium, significantly more oocytes remained in the GV stage (64 and 52%, respectively), indicating that theca cells secrete a meiosis-inhibiting factor. The effect of FSH on the meiosis-inhibiting activity of follicular cells was investigated by culturing COCs attached to the follicle wall and COCGs in the presence or absence of theca cells in medium containing FSH. Addition of 0.05 iu recombinant human FSH ml(-1) to the culture medium did not affect nuclear maturation and failed to overcome the suppressive effect exerted by the follicle wall or by theca cells, despite the fact that mRNA for the FSH receptor was found using RT-PCR in both cumulus and granulosa cells. These results demonstrate that the

  3. Effect of the time in administration of clomiphene on follicular growth, endometrium and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Zeinalzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate is very successful in inducing ovulation; there is usually a discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rate. If treatment is started early in the cycle this negative effect is reduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the time of administration of clomiphene citrate on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was performed on 115 PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome women in Fateme Zahra Fertility and Infertility Research Health Center in April 2012. Patients randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the early group (No. 55 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily starting the next day after finishing medroxyprogesterone acetate tablet for 5 day, whereas the patient in the late group (No. 60 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily for 5 day starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Then on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates by SPSS software, version 16 (Armonk, NY, USA were compared in two groups. Results: 36.4% of patients of early administration of clomiphene and 60% of patients in the later administration of Clomiphene were able to build dominant follicle. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.011. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on age, body mass index, duration of infertility. Findings showed that in the early group 14 (63.6% and in the late groups 8 (36.4% women who made dominant follicle, were pregnant. There was significant difference between these two groups (P<0.001. But, in the number of follicles, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate, there were no significant difference. In the early administration of clomiphene, the pregnancy rate was 25.5%. However in the later administration of clomiphene it was 13.3% (P=0

  4. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  5. Proteome Mining of Human Follicular Fluid Reveals a Crucial Role of Complement Cascade and Key Biological Pathways in Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarkovská, Karla; Martinková, Jiřina; Lišková, Lucie; Halada, Petr; Moos, J.; Rezábek, K.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2010), s. 1289-1301 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS9781; GA AV ČR 1QS500450568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Human follicular fluid * plasma * assisted reproduction Subject RIV: FK - Gynaecology, Childbirth Impact factor: 5.460, year: 2010

  6. Inhibin-B secretion and FSH isoform distribution may play an integral part of follicular selection in the natural menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yding Andersen, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to e