WorldWideScience

Sample records for included female gender

  1. Charismatic female leadership and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Research on the leadership and electorates of populist right-wing parties emphasizes that most of these parties are charismatic and male-dominated, both as regards their leadership and voters. However, while studies about the gender gap focus mainly on demand-side factors, such as electoral support......, socio-economic characteristics and the voters' attitudes towards issues such as immigration, those that analyse the role and position of gender issues are still rare. Similarly, or even more, overlooked is an analysis of the rhetoric, style, charisma and discourse of populist female leaders...

  2. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  3. Queering gender in contemporary female Bildung narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šnircová Soňa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores, in the context of feminist discussions about the Bildungsroman, a contemporary British novel that offers shocking images of female coming of age at the turn of the millennium. Queering gender and introducing male elements into the heroine’s process of maturation, the analysed novel appears to raise questions about the continuous relevance of the feminist distinction between male and female version of the genre. The paper however argues that although significantly rewriting both female Bildung and pornographic narratives, Helen Walsh’s Brass can still be read as a variation of the female Bildungsroman and an example of its contemporary developments.

  4. Female alcoholism: Gender differences as victimogenic predispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.

  5. Gendered Characteristics of Female Learners’ Conversational Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Yoshida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines gendered characteristics in four female Japanese language learners’ discourse practices in a communicative setting, where they interact with native Japanese speaking friends in a JFL context. Focusing on the relationship between gender ideologies and discourse practices, I explore the extent to which learners are aware of gender ideologies in the Japanese community and how these ideologies are influential in their discourse practices in the particular setting. In addition, how native speakers of Japanese evaluate gender-differentiated features produced by the learners during the interaction is investigated. Qualitatively-approached, this study revealed that each learner possesses a unique character in their utterances and perceptions, reflecting their individual awareness of gender ideologies and their negotiation of language use against the backdrop of social expectations. At the same time, a lack of such awareness emerged as an issue which kept them from fully and actively engaging in exploring their subjectivities. In addition, this study pointed out that native Japanese speakers utilised gender ideologies as the basis for their judgements on learners’ gendered features in their interaction.

  6. The Influence of Gender on ProfessionalismFemale in Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Hee

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the experience of female trainees who were trained in hospitals after graduating from medical school, focusing on methods of representing their gender in training courses. We interviewed 8 trainees who had been trained in a hospital in Seoul and 4 faculties from June 2010 to October 2010. We analyzed their similarities and differences and developed a vocational identity formation process to represent gender. Gender was represented contradictorily in their training course, affecting their choice of specialties and interactions with patients. But, female trainees did not want to their being distinguished from their male counterparts with regard to being a good doctor to be influenced by meritocracy. It was difficult for them to bear children and balance work and family life due to aspects of the training system, including long work hours and the lack of replacement workers. Consequently, they asked their parents to help with child care, because hospitals are not interested in the maternity system. Female trainees did not consider being a doctor to be a male profession. Likely, they believed that their femininity influenced their professionalism positively. The methods of representing gender are influenced by the training system, based a male-dominated apprenticeship. Thus, we will research the mechanisms that influence gender-discriminated choices in specialties, hospitals, and medical schools and prepare a maternity care system for female trainees. Strategies that maximize recruitment and retention of women in medicine should include a consideration of alternative work schedules and optimization of maternity leave and child care opportunities.

  7. Gender and the Politics of Female Infanticide and Prostitution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Michelle T. King. Between Birth and Death: Female Infanticide in Nineteenth-Century China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 264 pp. $50.00 (cloth/e-book. Elizabeth J. Remick. Regulating Prostitution in China: Gender and Local Statebuilding, 1900–1937. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 288 pp. $45.00 (cloth/e-book. The two works under review are both compelling historical studies that use gender as a category of analysis to make important contributions to our understanding of the construction of the modern Chinese state, the periodization of modern Chinese history, and the political and cultural significance of controlling the female body. While both books engage with gender as broadly construed, they adopt different approaches. Michelle King’s analysis focuses on discursive representations that took place, for the most part, outside the context of the state—what Confucian elites, foreign experts and missionaries, and Chinese nationalists wrote about female infanticide over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This discursive approach has been used before but rarely to such insightful effect. King’s research deepens our understanding of gender and imperialism in the nineteenth century by illustrating how imperialist notions of China as a backward and heathen place were constructed in part on dubious claims that identified female infanticide as an emblematically Chinese cultural practice. Elizabeth Remick’s gender analysis, in contrast, centers on the state institutions that were developed in the early 1900s to regulate prostitution, including tax policies, licensing fees, zoning regulations, medical examinations, and police supervision. Her study of the newly erected local and provincial government regulatory regimes is a pathbreaking demonstration of how the regulation of gender roles was at the heart of state-building efforts in early twentieth-century China...

  8. Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University system. ... which mostly affect women‟s job performance in the Nigerian university system. ... are essential in building a gender-friendly university work environment.

  9. Psychological Gender and Emotional Intelligence in Youth Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many sports (for instance soccer are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training. It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes’ emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak. As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was

  10. Psychological Gender and Emotional Intelligence in Youth Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Katarzyna; Bergier, Józef

    2015-09-29

    Many sports (for instance soccer) are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training). It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes' emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska) and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak). As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was average or low

  11. Gender and video games: How is female gender generally represented in various genres of video games?

    OpenAIRE

    Xeniya Kondrat

    2015-01-01

    Gender representation in video games is a current sensitive topic in entertainment media. Gender studies in video games look at the difference between the portrayal of female and male characters. Most video games tend to over-represent stereotypes and in general use extensive violence and cruelty (Maietti, 2008). Some video games use wrong, disrespectful and sometimes even violent representations of both genders. This research paper focuses on the current representation of female gender in vi...

  12. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2015-01-01

    While both the media and the academic literature focus primarily on male fans, in particular on violence and the prevention of hooliganism, little is known about female football supporters. This is also true of Denmark, a country that is known for its high degree of gender equality. This article...... aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  13. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.

  14. Does gender impact on female doctors' experiences in the training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored how female registrars perceived the impact of gender on their ... They expressed concern about finding and maintaining a work-life balance. ... Respondents will continue to recommend the specialty as a satisfying career to ...

  15. Gender and computer games : Exploring females' dislikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Tilo; Klimmt, Christoph

    On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female

  16. Mathematically Gifted Adolescent Females' Mixed Sentiment toward Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chen-yao

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…

  17. GENDER IDENTITY AND GENDER ROLE IN DSD PATIENTS RAISED AS FEMALES:A PRELIMINARY OUTCOME STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya eErcan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients.After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD,11 patients 46XY DSD answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI questionnaire including 60- item Masculinity-Femininity (MF subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n:50 were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist(D.I. on MMPI .For statistical purposes, 7 findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these 7 findings (S1-S7, two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4 and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S3 and S4 respectively. In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively.There was no significant difference between 46XX DSD patients and 46XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the 7 findings. Two patients requested gender change to male;only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions(S7.In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients

  18. Event-related potentials for gender discrimination: an examination between differences in gender discrimination between males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Natsuka; Hoshiyama, Minoru; Shimizu, Hideki; Saito, Hirofumi

    2008-09-01

    The event-related potentials (ERP) following presentation of male and female faces were investigated to study differences in the gender discrimination process. Visual stimuli from four categories including male and female faces were presented. For the male subjects, the P220 amplitude of the T5 area following viewing of a female face was significantly larger than that following viewing of a male face. On the other hand for female subjects, the P170 amplitude of the Cz area following observation of a male face was larger than that for a female face. The results indicate that the neural processes, including responsive brain areas used for gender discrimination by observing faces, are different between males and females.

  19. Gender identity and gender role orientation in female assigned patients with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Aino K; Fagerholm, Riitta; Santtila, Pekka; Miettinen, Päivi J; Taskinen, Seppo

    2012-11-01

    Gender identity and gender role orientation were assessed in 24 female assigned patients with disorders of sex development. A total of 16 patients were prenatally exposed to androgens, of whom 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 1 was virilized due to maternal tumor. Eight patients had 46,XY karyotype, of whom 5 had partial and 3 had complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gender identity was measured by the 27-item Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults with 167 female medical students as controls, and gender role was assessed by the femininity and masculinity subscales of the 30-item Bem Sex Role Inventory with 104 female and 64 male medical students as controls. No patient reached the cutoff for gender identity disorder on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. However, patients with 46,XY karyotype demonstrated a somewhat more conflicted gender identity, although the overall differences were relatively small. As to gender role orientation, patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome had high scores on the femininity and masculinity scales of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which made them the most androgynous group. Our findings, although clinically not clear cut, suggest that patients with disorders of sex development are a heterogeneous group regarding gender identity and gender role outcomes, and that this issue should be discussed with the family when treatment plans are made. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying Advanced Level Sciences: A Survey of One Province in Zimbabwe. C Pinias, VS Matswetu. Abstract. In spite of advances in the field of science and technology, females are still under-represented in the sciences. The study sought to explore the perceptions of ...

  1. Time to address gender inequalities against female physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawi, Suad; Al Salmi, Issa

    2017-11-10

    Although the health care system depends heavily on female physicians, it discriminates against women and tends to concentrate female physicians' work in lower status occupations. Gender discrimination has structural, social, and cultural dimensions. Such discrimination is perceived differently by various stakeholders and the public. In addition, there is reluctance to publicly acknowledge gender discrimination, especially in the culturally conservative Middle East region. Gender discrimination leads to underrepresentation of female physicians in leadership roles and certain specialties and hence leads to less attention and understanding of the working conditions of female physicians and their roles in the health care system. The lack of accessible data in the region regarding gender discrimination among physicians leads to stakeholders failing to recognize the existence and magnitude of this type of discrimination. This article takes up the relatively neglected issue of gender discrimination in the health care workforce among the stakeholders of the Ministry of Health and Prevention of the United Arab Emirates. Future research should explore the extent of gender discrimination among physicians and the gender remuneration gap, together with other sorts of discrimination, perception of equal opportunity, and dominant stereotypes of men and women working in health care in relation to job obligation, promotion, retention, remuneration, and education. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  3. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades.

  4. Male-to-female gender dysphoria: Gender-specific differences in resting-state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Junger, Jessica; Pauly, Katharina; Neulen, Josef; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane; Frölich, Dirk; Mingoia, Gianluca; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute

    2017-05-01

    Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women. Differences between male and female control groups were found only in the auditory RSN, whereas differences between both control groups and MtFs were found in the auditory and fronto-parietal RSNs, including both primary sensory areas (e.g. calcarine gyrus) and higher order cognitive areas such as the middle and posterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Overall, differences in MtFs compared with men and women were more pronounced before cross-sex hormonal treatment. Interestingly, rs-FC between MtFs and women did not differ significantly after treatment. When comparing hormonally untreated and treated MtFs, we found differences in connectivity of the calcarine gyrus and thalamus in the context of the auditory network, as well as the inferior frontal gyrus in context of the fronto-parietal network. Our results provide first evidence that MtFs exhibit patterns of rs-FC which are different from both their assigned and their aspired gender, indicating an intermediate position between the two sexes. We suggest that the present study constitutes a starting point for future research designed to clarify whether the brains of individuals with GD are more similar to their assigned or their aspired gender.

  5. Female Students' Experiences of Computer Technology in Single- versus Mixed-Gender School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lee-Ann; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how female students compare learning computer technology in a single- versus a mixed- gender school setting. Twelve females participated, all of whom were enrolled in a grade 12 course in Communications' Technology. Data collection included a questionnaire, a semi-structured interview and focus groups. Participants described…

  6. Challenging Gender Stereotypes through Literature: Picture Books with Strong Female Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Kay A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of using picture books to encourage development of gender role equity. Provides guidelines for selection of children's literature with capable female characters. Includes examples from recently published picture books. Presents discussion questions that teachers might use to help students focus on female character…

  7. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  8. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  9. GENDER AND GLOBALIZATION: FEMALE LABOR AND WOMEN'S MOBILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Val Moghadam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper casts a gender perspective on globalization to illuminate the contradictory effects on women workers and on women's activism. The scope of the paper is global. The sources of data are UN publications, country-based data and newsletters from women's organizations as well as the author's fieldwork. The paper begins by examining the various dimensions of globalization-economic, political and cultural, with a focus on their contradictory social-gender effects. These include inequalities in the global economy and the continued hegemony of the core, the feminization of labor, the withering away of the developmentalist/welfarist state, the rise of identity politics and other forms of particularism, the spread of concepts of human rights and women's rights, and the proliferation of women's organizations and transnational feminist networks. I argue that, although globalization has had dire economic effects, the process has created a new constituency-working women and organizing women who may herald a potent anti-systemic movement. World-systems theory, social movement theory, and development studies should take account of female labor and of oppositional transnational feminist networks.

  10. Descriptive Study of Gender Dysphoria in Japanese Individuals with Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shinohara, Yoshie; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2018-01-01

    We focus on Japanese individuals with gender identity disorder (GID), especially male-to-female (MTF) GID, who have experienced difficulty in adapting to social life. We clarify what gender dysphoria is, and we examine methods of intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals with MTF-GID from August 2015 to April 2017. We categorized the subjects’experiences regarding dysphoria into the ‘Onset of gender dysphoria,’ ‘Experience of feeling gender dysphoria,’ and ‘C...

  11. Gender and video games: How is female gender generally represented in various genres of video games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xeniya Kondrat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender representation in video games is a current sensitive topic in entertainment media. Gender studies in video games look at the difference between the portrayal of female and male characters. Most video games tend to over-represent stereotypes and in general use extensive violence and cruelty (Maietti, 2008. Some video games use wrong, disrespectful and sometimes even violent representations of both genders. This research paper focuses on the current representation of female gender in video games and how they are represented, stereotyped and used as characters in games. Results show that there is a difference between portraying women in the past and present. This research paper is based on previous academic research and results which were achieved with online questionnaire among game players and two interviews with professionals in the field of game design. The results show that there is still negative stereotyping of female gender. However, at the same time, the answers of the respondents show that the target audience of video games desires improvements in presentation of female gender as well as male.

  12. Watching Aggressive, Attractive, Female Protagonists Shapes Gender Roles for Women Among Male and Female Undergraduate Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D; Setters, Tiffany

    2011-07-01

    The impact of exposure to media representations of aggressive, attractive, female protagonists on audiences' gender role expectations for women was explored through a laboratory experiment with 122 undergraduates from a large university on the west coast of the United States. Participants viewed a segment of a major Hollywood motion picture that featured a female protagonist who was either highly attractive or less attractive and either highly aggressive or not aggressive. Viewing clips featuring a female protagonist who was both aggressive and stereotypically attractive led to greater endorsement of stereotypically feminine and stereotypically masculine gender role expectations for women. The effect on endorsement of stereotypically masculine expectations was partially mediated by the perception that the protagonist was a good role model for women. Although women endorsed both feminine and masculine gender role expectations for women more strongly than men, the effects of exposure to aggressive, attractive, female protagonists were similar for both male and female participants. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotype activation and superwoman expectations for women.

  13. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  14. Female resistance. Regional contemporary art from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Soledad Geat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the capacity of gender theory to address the artistic production of women in the city of Resistencia (Chaco, Argentina in order to analyze their work from notions, concepts and issues that have been read in their works. The selection corresponds to productions of three authors who live and work currently in Resistencia and who have raised, by their works on female sexuality as a theme, the questioning of ideas through their aesthetic and personal commitment. In order to reflect on aesthetic creation from the topic of sexuality in different artistic expressions, the iconographic description, analysis of works and reading in terms of gender converge in this paper and allow to question categories and concepts herein addressed such as domestic work, stereotypes of women, motherhood, certain taboos that persist in culture, ways of violence, desire and female sexual enjoyment.

  15. State liberalism, female supervisors, and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maume, David J; Ruppanner, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Whereas some are concerned that the gender revolution has stalled, others note the rapid increase in women's representation in the ranks of management, and the reduction of wage inequality in larger and more active welfare states. Although these latter trends portend an attenuation of gender inequality, their effects on the gender pay gap in the U.S. are understudied due to data limitations, or to the assumption that in the U.S. pay is determined by market forces. In this study we extend research on the determinants of the gender wage gap by examining sex-of-supervisor effects on subordinates' pay, and to what degree the state's commitment to equality conditions this relationship. We pooled the 1997 and 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce surveys to estimate hierarchical models of reporting to a female supervisor and wages, with theoretically important predictors at the individual level, and at the state of residence (an index composed of women's share of legislators, a measure of the liberal leanings of the state, and the size of the public sector relative to the labor force). We found that state effects on pay were mixed, with pay generally rising with state liberalism on the one hand. On the other hand, working for a female boss significantly reduced wages. We discussed the theoretical implications of our results, as well as the need for further study of the career effects on subordinates as women increasingly enter the ranks of management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Descriptive Study of Gender Dysphoria in Japanese Individuals with Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Yoshie; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2018-04-01

    We focus on Japanese individuals with gender identity disorder (GID), especially male-to-female (MTF) GID, who have experienced difficulty in adapting to social life. We clarify what gender dysphoria is, and we examine methods of intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals with MTF-GID from August 2015 to April 2017. We categorized the subjects'experiences regarding dysphoria into the 'Onset of gender dysphoria,' 'Experience of feeling gender dysphoria,' and 'Changes due to receiving medical care.' The subjects reported experiencing great pain and distress because they did not fully understand that they were experiencing dysphoria and could not align their gender identity and their self-identity. All subjects described their experiences of dysphoria as negative. Additionally, all said that the dysphoria was alleviated by a medical intervention such as visiting a gender clinic, receiving a diagnosis and treatment, and changing their physical sex to the sex congruent with their gender identity. The provision of information at the gender clinic and the physical changes achieved by medical intervention exerted a positive effect both mentally and socially on the subjects, who suffered various physical, mental and social problems.

  17. Longitudinal Gender Disparity in Female Urology Resident Primary Authorship at an American Urological Association Sectional Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tony R; Kocher, Neil J; Klausner, Adam P; Raman, Jay D

    2017-12-01

    To further evaluate the academic representation of female urology residents in the United States, we reviewed abstracts from the Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association (MA-AUA) sectional meetings to determine if the recent increase in the number of female urology residents mirrored an increase in this group's abstract authorship. Full text abstracts from the MA-AUA meetings were analyzed from 2008 to 2014 excluding 1 joint section meeting. First-author gender was determined by querying publicly available institutional websites, social media platforms, and the U.S. News & World Report. First-author gender was indeterminable in 10 abstracts based on search criteria and these were excluded. Individual abstracts were broadly categorized based on keywords into 1 of several topics. Chi-square statistical tests examined the relationship between first-authorship gender, publication year, and abstract category. The number of female urology residents in the MA-AUA increased over the study period. A total of 484 abstracts were analyzed. Three hundred ninety-three abstracts (81%) included a male first-author, whereas 81 abstracts (17%) included a female first-author. Female first-authorship ranged from 13% to 25% annually. Comparison of male-to-female first-authorship was statistically significant in all years evaluated (P <.001). There was a statistically significant difference between male and female first-authorship in all topic categories (P <.01), except Education/Other (P = .56). Despite continued gains and increasing female representation in urology, these data highlight significantly fewer female first-authors at the regional Mid-Atlantic section meetings. Larger studies are necessary to identify contributing factors and further areas for improvement toward decreasing gender imbalances within the academic community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Gender differences in career motivation: female doctors' ambitions benefit from family friendly work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, B.R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Peters, P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine gender differences in career motivation and the effect of a family friendly work environment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot investigation. METHOD: A web survey among male and female doctors (n = 107; 72 women and 35 men) in different specialties, including surgical, internal

  19. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... Social justice and equity are important principles in African health sciences ... Courses that endeavour to develop students' skills in patient-provider .... (sexual and emotional attraction) and gender identity (one's sense of.

  20. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various disciplines can teach sexual orientation and gender identity issues in their context by challenging heteronormativity and highlighting specific LGBTI health concerns, and can do so more successfully with interactive teaching approaches that hold more potential than formalised lectures. Rights-based teaching ...

  1. DOES GENDER IMPACT ON FEMALE DOCTORS' EXPERIENCES IN THE TRAINING AND PRACTICE OF SURGERY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoetok, F; van Wyk, J; Madiba, T E

    2017-06-01

    Surgery has been a male-dominated speciality both in South Africa and abroad. This mixed methodology case study collected data from a purposive sample of female surgical registrars enrolled at one institution in South Africa. A self-administered questionnaire was used to explore whether or not female doctors perceived any benefits of being in a male-dominated specialty. It explored problems encountered due to gender, the participants' perceptions of the influence of gender on their surgical training, practice and challenges. Thirty-two female registrars participated in the study. The respondents were mainly South African (91%) and enrolled in seven surgical specialities. Twenty-seven (84%) respondents were satisfied with their practical training and skills development as surgeons. Twenty-four (75%) respondents had identified a mentor from the department and all respondents indicated that the gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of their training. Seventeen (53%) respondents perceived having received differential treatment due to their gender and 25 (78.2%) thought that the gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the guidance in surgery. Challenges included physical threats to them as females from patients and disrespect, emotional threats and defaming statements from male registrars. Other challenges included time-constraints for family and academic work, poor work life balance and being treated differently due to their gender. Seventeen (53%) respondents would consider teaching in the Department of Surgery. Twenty-five respondents (78%) would recommended the specialty to young female students, as they were convinced that surgery had been the right choice for them. Seventeen respondents (53%) were also open to pursuing teaching posts in the Department of Surgery. Generally, females had positive perceptions of their training in Surgery. They expressed concern about finding a worklife balance. The gender of their mentor did not impact

  2. Types and Dynamics of Gendered Space: A Case of Emirati Female Learners in a Single-Gender Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeer, Gergana

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with gendered spaces as they emerge from exploring Emirati female learners' spatiality in a single-gender context. By conducting ethnographic research and utilising Lefebvre's triad of perceived, conceived and lived space for the analysis and categorisation of students' spaces, three types of gendered spaces emerged:…

  3. The gender imbalance in academic medicine: a study of female authorship in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Reena; Rajashekhar, Praveen; Lavin, Victoria L; Parry, Joanne; Attwood, James; Holdcroft, Anita; Sanders, David S

    2009-08-01

    A shortfall exists of female doctors in senior academic posts in the United Kingdom. Career progression depends on measures of esteem, including publication in prestigious journals. This study investigates gender differences in first and senior authorship in six peer-reviewed British journals and factors that are associated with publication rates. Data was collected on United Kingdom first and senior authors who had published in the British Medical Journal, Lancet, British Journal of Surgery, Gut, British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Archives of Diseases in Childhood. Authorship and gender were quantified for 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2004 (n=6457). In addition, selected questions from the Athena Survey of Science Engineering and Technology (ASSET2006), web-based doctor's self-report of publications were also analysed (n=1162). Female first authors increased from 10.5% in 1970 to 36.5% in 2004 (p<0.001) while female senior authors only increased from 12.3% to 16.5% (p=0.046). Within individual journals, the largest rise was in British Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology with 4.5- and 3-fold increases for first and senior authors, respectively. In contrast, female senior authors marginally declined in Gut and Lancet by 2.8% and 2.2%, respectively. ASSET2006 identified that female respondents who were parents were less likely to have publications as sole (p=0.02) and joint authors (p<0.001) compared to male respondents. Female respondents with care responsibilities for parents/partner also had less publications as lead authors compared to those without carer responsibilities (p<0.001). The increase in UK female first authors is encouraging. In contrast, there is considerable lag and in some specialties a decline in female senior authors. Factors that could narrow the gender gap in authorship should be sought and addressed.

  4. The Persistence of Traditional Gender Stereotypes: Evidence from the Distribution of Academic Honors at a Female-Majority University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A. Lynn; Phillips, G. Michael

    2010-01-01

    A shift from male-majority to female-majority university campuses has opened up new areas for research on gender bias, stereotypes, and discrimination. At one large state university on the west coast, there were more female than male graduates in Spring, 2008 in 7 out of 8 colleges, including the traditionally male-majority areas of business and…

  5. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W

    2009-08-11

    To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Prospective observational study. Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Self reported gender based violence. Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aOR(physicalviolence)) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aOR(rape)) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aOR(clientviolence)) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aOR(physicalviolence) 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aOR(clientviolence) 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aOR(clientviolence) 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aOR(rape) 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aOR(physicalviolence) 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aOR(clientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio

  6. Gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness ideals for male and female body builds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salusso-Deonier, C J; Markee, N L; Pedersen, E L

    1993-06-01

    The purposes of this research were (1) to explore gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness stimuli developed to represent commonly occurring real builds, (2) to identify observers' concepts of physical attractiveness ideals promoted by the media, and (3) to begin cross-validation of these stimuli as representations of observers' concepts of ideal physical attractiveness for male and female builds. Responses included (1) open-ended descriptions of ideal male and ideal female build, (2) ratings of relative attractiveness of 12 male and 15 female stimuli, (3) selections of stimulus types which best represented ideal builds, and (4) selections of stimulus types perceived to be promoted by the media. Analysis showed strong cross-validation among modes of response. Ideal male build included average/balanced type (small and medium), lean/broad-shouldered type (large), and muscular bulk type (medium). Ideal female body build included average/balanced type (small and medium) and lean/broad-shouldered type (small and medium). Gender differences were in emphasis only. Women emphasized lean/broad-shouldered and average/balanced male types. Men emphasized the muscular bulk male type. Body types perceived to be media-promoted highlighted stereotypic male muscularity and female leanness.

  7. The professional socialization of collegiate female athletic trainers: navigating experiences of gender bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Borland, John F; Burton, Laura J

    2012-01-01

    Female athletic trainers (ATs) experience gender discrimination in the workplace due to stereotypical gender roles, but limited information is available regarding the topic. To understand the challenges and obstacles faced by young female ATs working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletics. Exploratory study using semistructured interviews. Division I clinical setting. A total of 14 female ATs were included in the study, using both criterion and snowball-sampling techniques. Their mean age was 27 ± 2 years, with 5 ± 2 years of overall clinical experience. Criteria included employment at the Division I clinical setting, being a full-time assistant AT, and at least 3 years of working experience but no more than 9 years to avoid role continuance. Analysis of the interview data followed inductive procedures as outlined by a grounded theory approach. Credibility was established by member checks, multiple-analyst triangulation, and peer review. Clear communication with both coaches and players about expectations and philosophies regarding medical care, a supportive head AT in terms of clinical competence, and having and serving as a role model were cited as critical tools to alleviate gender bias in the workplace. The female ATs in this study stressed the importance of being assertive with coaches early in the season with regard to the AT's role on the team. They reasoned that these actions brought forth a greater perception of congruity between their roles as ATs and their gender and age. We suggest that female athletic training students seek mentors in their field while they complete their coursework and practicums. The ATs in the current study indicated that a mentor, regardless of sex, helped them feel empowered to navigate the male-centric terrain of athletic departments by encouraging them to be assertive and not second-guess their decisions.

  8. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K V

    2017-08-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.

  9. Training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in endurance athletes: is female gender cardioprotective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürholz, Monika; Radtke, Thomas; Roten, Laurent; Tanner, Hildegard; Wilhelm, Ilca; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    The risk of sudden death is increased in athletes with a male predominance. Regular physical activity increases vagal tone, and may protect against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in female and male endurance athletes. Runners of a 10-mile race were invited. Of 873 applicants, 68 female and 70 male athletes were randomly selected and stratified according to their average weekly training hours in a low (≤4 h) and high (>4 h) volume training group. Analysis of heart rate variability was performed over 24 h. Spectral components (high frequency [HF] and low frequency [LF] power in normalized units) were analyzed for hourly 5 min segments and averaged for day- and nighttime. One hundred and fourteen athletes (50 % female, mean age 42 ± 7 years) were included. No significant gender difference was observed for training volume and 10-mile race time. Over the 24-h period, female athletes exhibited a higher HF and lower LF power for each hourly time-point. Female gender and endurance training hours were independent predictors of a higher HF and lower LF power. In female athletes, higher training hours were associated with a higher HF and lower LF power during nighttime. In male athletes, the same was true during daytime. In conclusion, female and male athletes showed a different circadian pattern of the training-related increase in markers of vagal tone. For a comparable amount of training volume, female athletes maintained their higher markers of vagal tone, possibly indicating a superior protection against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias.

  10. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, L.; Mandy, W.; Petrides, K.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...

  11. [Gender differences in career motivation: female doctors' ambitions benefit from family friendly work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, B R; Lagro-Janssen, A L M; Doorewaard, J A C M; Eisinga, R N; Peters, C P

    2008-10-04

    To determine gender differences in career motivation and the effect of a family friendly work environment. Cross-sectional pilot investigation. A web survey among male and female doctors (n = 107; 72 women and 35 men) in different specialties, including surgical, internal medicine and general practitioners, was used to gather information on different dimensions of career motivation and perceptions of the family friendliness of the work environment. Differences were analysed by means of t-tests and regression analyses. Male doctors had higher scores on career identity and on career planning than female doctors. However, male and female doctors did not differ in their willingness to achieve top positions. Female doctors were more determined concerning their career goals than their male counterparts. The family friendliness of the work environment had an overall positive effect on career motivation for both male and female doctors. However, a family friendly work environment had a negative effect on the career identity of male doctors. For male and female doctors alike, support to achieve career goals and elimination of career barriers lead to increased career identity. Male and female doctors differed in certain dimensions of career motivation. Offering support for career goals and taking away career barriers leads to a higher career motivation than offering a family friendly work environment.

  12. A Qualitative Exploration of Gender Identity in Young People who identify as Neither Male nor Female

    OpenAIRE

    Boddington, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to categorising gender in western cultures, follows a binary\\ud system, where the gender of an individual must be either male or female. However,\\ud some individuals feel that their gender identity is neither male nor female, and may\\ud define themselves as non-binary. Non-binary gender has predominantly been\\ud encompassed within wider transgender research and, therefore, little is known about\\ud how young people who identify as non-binary describe their gender identity...

  13. Being Female Doing Gender. Narratives of Women in Education Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priola, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    The paper explores gender relations in academia and discusses how gender is constructed within academic institutions. It is based upon the study of a business school, part of a British university. The construction of gender relations within this institution was of special interest because the majority of managerial roles were occupied by women.…

  14. Gender Equity and Mass Communication's Female Student Majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombisky, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the history and politics of gender equity to make problematic the phrase "gender equity," to introduce the gender equity in education literature, and to outline some issues relevant to mass communication. Suggests that equal access represents a sex-blind approach dependent on a male standard. (SG)

  15. Female Paths to Adulthood in a Country of "Genderless Gender"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahelma, Elina

    2012-01-01

    In this article the life history of a young Finnish woman, Salla, is explored along with reflections of her best friend and other peers. The analysis is conducted from the perspective of Finland as a country of "genderless gender", where mute or hidden gendering and sexualisation converge with the gender-neutral rhetoric about the…

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  17. Gender Inequality and Rates of Female Homicide Victimization across U.S. Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Victoria E.; Smith, M. Dwayne

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that female victimization rates are influenced by conditions of sex-based inequality. No single inequality variable was found to be a statistically significant predictor of female homicide rates when controlling for social structural effects. Found little support for gender inequality/female homicide connection. (JBJ)

  18. Gender inequality in predispersal seed predation contributes to female seed set advantage in a gynodioecious species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gretel L; Brody, Alison K

    2015-05-01

    Most flowering plants are hermaphrodites. However, in gynodioecious species, some members of the population are male-sterile and reproduce only by setting seed, while others gain fitness through both male and female function. How females compensate for the loss of male function remains unresolved for most gynodioecious species. Here, as with many plants, fitness differences may be influenced by interactions with multiple species. However, whether multiple species interactions result in gender-specific fitness differences remains unknown. Using observational data from 2009-2010, we quantified seed set of the two sex morphs of Polemonium foliosissimu and asked how it is affected by pollination, and seed predation from a dipteran predispersal seed predator (Anthomyiidae: Hylemya sp.). We assessed seed production and losses to predation in 27 populations for one year and in six populations for a second year. Females set significantly more seed than did hermaphrodites in both years. Of the fitness components we assessed, including the number of flowers per plant, fruit set, seeds/fruit, and proportion of fruits destroyed by Hylemya, only fruit destruction differed significantly between the sexes. In one year, seeds/fruit and predation had a stronger effect on seed set for hermaphrodites than for females. Because predispersal seed predators do not pollinate flowers, their effects may depend on successful pollination of flowers on which they oviposit. To examine if genders differed in pollen limitation and seed predation and/or their interactive effects, in 2011 we hand-pollinated flowers and removed seed predator eggs in a fully factorial design. Both sexes were pollen limited, but their degree of pollen limitation did not differ. However, predation reduced.seed set more for hermaphrodites than for females. We found no significant interaction between hand pollen and seed predation, and no interaction between hand pollination and gender. Our results suggest that while

  19. A Case Report of Gender Dysphoria with Morbid Jealousy in a Natal Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Prasad; Aparna, B.

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is a new entity introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder V to address the distress of the previously labeled gender identity disorder patients. It is less commonly seen in natal females, often starting in their childhood. Adults and adolescent natal females with early-onset gender dysphoria are almost always gynephilic. This case report is presented to discuss the interesting evolution of the symptoms in gender dysphoria case with difficulties in adjusting to the assigned sexual role, relationship problems, morbid jealousy, and severe depressive features with suicidal ideations. PMID:29284816

  20. The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward H; Garfield, Melissa J; Sullivan, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking. To compare the associations of TFR and gender inequality with national prevalence rates of female and male smoking. Data from a previous study of smoking prevalence vs gender inequality in 74 countries were reanalysed with a regression model that also included TFR. We replicated this analysis with three additional measures of gender equality and 2012 smoking data from 173 countries. A 1 SD increase in TFR predicted a decrease in female smoking prevalence by factors of 0.58-0.77, adjusting for covariates. TFR had a smaller and unexpected negative association with male smoking prevalence. Increased gender equality was associated with increased female smoking prevalence, and, unexpectedly, with decreased male smoking prevalence. TFR was also associated with an increase in smoking prevalence among postmenopausal women. High TFR and gender inequality both predict reduced prevalence of female smoking across nations. In countries with high TFR, adaptations and cultural norms that protect fetuses from plant toxins might suppress smoking among frequently pregnant and lactating women. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  1. Associations of economic and gender inequality with global obesity prevalence: understanding the female excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K; Marphatia, Akanksha A; Cole, Tim J; McCoy, David

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is widely assumed to be associated with economic affluence; it has therefore been assumed to become more common with economic development. However, obesity has also been associated with poverty. These contrary findings highlight the need for an examination of the contribution of social and economic factors to the global distribution of obesity. Males and females may be differently exposed to social and economic inequality, however few studies have considered possible gender differences in the association between socio-economic indices and obesity prevalence. We analysed between-country associations between obesity prevalence and three social or economic indices: per capita gross domestic product (GDP), the Gini index of national wealth inequality, and the gender inequality index (GII). We considered the genders separately, the gender average, and also the gender difference (female excess) in obesity prevalence. Across 68 countries listing sample size, there were 3 obese women for every 2 obese men. Within populations, obesity prevalence in males and females was strongly correlated (r = 0.74), however, only 17% of the female excess prevalence was accounted for by the gender-average prevalence. In both genders, there was a positive association between obesity prevalence and GDP that attenuated at higher GDP levels, with this association weaker in females than males. Adjusting for GDP, both the Gini index and GII were associated with excess female obesity. These analyses highlight significant gender differences in the global distribution of obesity, and a gender difference in the association of obesity prevalence with socio-economic factors. The magnitude of female excess obesity is not constant across populations, and is greater in countries characterised by gender inequality and lower GDP. These findings indicate that improving women's status may be a key area for addressing the global obesity epidemic over the long term, with potential benefits for the

  2. Digital Games, Gender and Learning in Engineering: Do Females Benefit as Much as Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Richard; Iacovides, Jo; Owen, Martin; Gavin, Carl; Clibbery, Stephen; Darling, Jos; Drew, Ben

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore whether there is a gender difference in the beneficial effects of Racing Academy, which is a video game used to support undergraduate students learning of Mechanical Engineering. One hundred and thirty-eight undergraduate students (15 females and 123 males) participated in the study. The students completed a pre-test a week before they started using Racing Academy. The pre-test consisted of a test of students' knowledge of engineering, and a measure of students' motivation towards studying engineering. A week after using Racing Academy the students completed a post-test which was identical to the pre-test, except it also included a measure of how frequently they used Racing Academy and how motivating the students found playing Racing Academy. We found that after playing Racing Academy the students learnt more about engineering and there was no gender difference in the beneficial effect of Racing Academy, however there is some evidence that, female students found Racing Academy more motivating than male students. The implications for the use and design of video games for supporting learning for both males and females are discussed.

  3. Gender identity disorder: general overview and surgical treatment for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Ceulemans, Peter; De Cuypere, Griet; VanLanduyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip; Hamdi, Moustapha; Bowman, Cameron; Monstrey, Stan

    2005-11-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to discuss: 1. The terminology related to male-to-female gender dysphoria. 2. The different theories regarding cause, epidemiology, and treatment of gender dysphoria. 3. The surgical goals of sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. 4. The surgical techniques available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. Gender identity disorder (previously "transsexualism") is the term used for individuals who show a strong and persistent cross-gender identification and a persistent discomfort with their anatomical sex, as manifested by a preoccupation with getting rid of one's sex characteristics, or the belief of being born in the wrong sex. Since 1978, the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (in honor of Dr. Harry Benjamin, one of the first physicians who made many clinicians aware of the potential benefits of sex reassignment surgery) has played a major role in the research and treatment of gender identity disorder, publishing the Standards of Care for Gender Dysphoric Persons. The authors performed an overview of the terminology related to male-to-female gender identity disorder; the different theories regarding cause, epidemiology, and treatment; the goals expected; and the surgical technique available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. Surgical techniques available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism, with advantages and disadvantages offered by each technique, are reviewed. Other feminizing nongenital operative interventions are also examined. This review describes recent etiopathogenetic theories and actual guidelines on the treatment of the gender identity disorder in male-to-female transsexuals; the penile-scrotal skin flap technique is considered the state of the art for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals, whereas other techniques (rectosigmoid flap, local flaps, and isolated skin

  4. Gender Identities and Female Students' Learning Experiences in Studying English as Second Language at a Pakistani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Irfan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…

  5. Sex and Gender: How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe May 2016 Print this issue Sex and Gender How Being Male or Female Can ... a major impact on your health. While both sexes are similar in many ways, researchers have found ...

  6. Review of Amanda E. Herbert, Female Alliances: Gender, Identity, and Friendship in Early Modern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rehbein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Amanda E. Herbert, Female Alliances: Gender, Identity, and Friendship in Early Modern Britain. New Haven: Yale UP, 2014. xi, 256 pages: illustrations; 24 cm. ISBN 978-0-300-17740-4.

  7. Women and girls in science education: Female teachers' and students' perspectives on gender and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotty, Ann

    Science is a part of all students' education, PreK-12. Preparing students for a more scientifically and technologically complex world requires the best possible education including the deliberate inclusion and full contributions of all students, especially an underrepresented group: females in science. In the United States, as elsewhere in the world, the participation of girls and women in science education and professional careers in science is limited, particularly in the physical sciences (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2006). The goal of this research study is to gain a better understanding of the perspectives and perceptions of girls and women, both science educators and students, related to gender and participation in science at the time of an important course: high school chemistry. There is a rich body of research literature in science education that addresses gender studies post---high school, but less research that recognizes the affective voices of practicing female science teachers and students at the high school level (Bianchini, Cavazos, & Helms, 2000; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982). Similarly, little is known with regard to how female students and teachers navigate their educational, personal, and professional experiences in science, or how they overcome impediments that pose limits on their participation in science, particularly the physical sciences. This exploratory study focuses on capturing voices (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982) of high school chemistry students and teachers from selected urban and suburban learning communities in public schools in the Capital Region of New York State. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the intersection of the students' and teachers' experiences with regard to the following questions: (1) How do female chemistry teachers view the role gender has played in their professional and personal lives as they have pursued education, degree status, and

  8. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of Females in Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Females in Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex Schools in Nnewi. Education Zone ... want to know how things work, why they speak and work the way they do. What then is the ... conversations as negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give ... males and females communication style that makes them so different?

  9. Using Gender Role Conflict Theory in Counseling Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena

    2010-01-01

    Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…

  10. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  11. Gender Performativity in the Community College: A Case Study of Female Backline Classified Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Samantha Rose

    2012-01-01

    This case study explored the gendered performances of five female backline classified staff members who work in non-traditional fields within a community college. More specifically, this study defined gendered behaviors at a community college, and explored how these behaviors have affected the identities of women working in non-traditional fields…

  12. A Review of the Role of Female Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkovski, Melissa; Enticott, Peter G.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature exploring gender differences associated with the clinical presentation of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The potentially mediating effect of comorbid psychopathology, biological and neurodevelopmental implications on these gender differences is also discussed. A vastly heterogeneous condition, while females on…

  13. Female Entrepreneurship – An Appropriate Response to Gender Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ascher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss one of the most significant economic and social developments in the world – the rise of the female entrepreneurship phenomenon. Women entrepreneurship needs to be studied as a separate field for two main reasons: (a. Female entrepreneurship is an important source of economic growth in creating new jobs and by being genetically different: women provide different solutions to management and business issues; (b. Female entrepreneurship has been neglected, particularly in business research. Although equal opportunity for men and women in the entrepreneurial field is not a reality in the short range, the progress towards its achievement could be facilitated by better understanding of the impact of female entrepreneurship on society and its contribution to economic growth. This study addresses the growth in female entrepreneurship in the developed and developing countries, explores primary motivational and other factors that influence female entrepreneurship, reviews the main obstacles facing the female entrepreneur, and finally makes recommendations to policy-ma

  14. Does gender impact on female doctors'experiences in the training and practice of surgery? A single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoetok, F; Van Wyk, J M; Madiba, T E

    2017-09-01

    Surgery has been identified as a male-dominated specialty in South Africa and abroad. This study explored how female registrars perceived the impact of gender on their training and practice of surgery. A self-administered questionnaire was used to explore whether females perceived any benefits to training in a male-dominated specialty, their choice of mentors and the challenges that they encountered during surgical training. Thirty-two female registrars participated in the study. The respondents were mainly South African (91%) and enrolled in seven surgical specialties. Twenty-seven (84%) respondents were satisfied with their training and skills development. Twenty-four (75%) respondents had a mentor from the department. Seventeen (53%) respondents perceived having received differential treatment due to their gender and 25 (78.2%) thought that the gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the guidance received in surgery. Challenges included physical threats to female respondents from patients and disrespect, emotional threats and defaming statements from male registrars. Additional challenges included time-constraints for family and academic work, poor work-life balance and being treated differently due to their gender. Seventeen (53%) respondents would consider teaching in the Department of Surgery. Generally, females had positive perceptions of their training in Surgery. They expressed concern about finding and maintaining a work-life balance. The gender of their mentor did not impact on the quality of the training but 'bullying' from male peers and selected supervisors occurred. Respondents will continue to recommend the specialty as a satisfying career to young female students.

  15. Does Manager Gender Matter? : The Association between Female Manager and Wages of Male and Female Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Hultqvist, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Women in the Swedish labor market have lower wage than men on average. There are multiple reasons for this gender wage differential. Among other things, processes at the organizational level have been stressed. Some researchers argue that the gender of the manager has an effect on wages and that this effect might differ for men and women. Prior studies have analyzed the potential effect of manager gender on wages, but few empirical studies have scrutinized the question. The studies that exist...

  16. Gender training and female empowerment : Experimental evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, Erwin; Lensink, Robert; Vu, Nhung

    We combine an RCT and a lab-in-the-field experiment to explore how participating in an 'entrepreneurship and gender' training affects the intra-household bargaining position of women. While male preferences dominate household decisions, the training attenuates the bargaining gap considerably.

  17. Female Gender and Reproductive Factors Affecting Risk, Relapses and Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; D'Hooghe, T.; De Keyser, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory demyelinating and degenerative disease of the central nervous system, is a frequent cause of neurological disability in young adults. Female predominance has increased over the last decades. Although female gender carries a higher risk of developing

  18. Inscribing the Female Body: Fuzzy Gender and Goddess in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inscribing the Female Body: Fuzzy Gender and Goddess in a South Indian Saiva Marriage Myth. ... particular stream of Hinduism and the matrix of mythology within which she is installed, the paper unpacks how “female” has come ... well allow for an alternate, more plastic reading of marriage and motherhood, and of female.

  19. Bearing the Burden of Doubt: Female Coaches' Experiences of Gender Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Based on interview research, this study examined how master female coaches based in the United Kingdom experienced relations with men within their profession. Using a feminist cultural studies approach to examine how sport promotes and maintains a gender order unfavorable to women, we found that female coaches felt the need to continually prove…

  20. Expression of "Kawaii" ("Cute"): Gender Reinforcement of Young Japanese Female School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano-Cavanagh, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Japanese word "kawaii" "cute". Teachers frequently use "kawaii" to show positive feelings toward objects in the classroom. Female children also are primary users of the word, which suggests that they are acquiring "kawaii" as an index of female gender identity. From a linguistic…

  1. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  2. Female selective abortion - beyond 'culture': family making and gender inequality in a globalising India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan-Kumar, Maya

    2010-02-01

    There is an emerging global discourse on female selective abortion (FSA) as several Asian countries witness an increasing imbalance in their sex ratios in favour of boys. While there is an attendant increase in demographic and social surveys on the issue, little is understood about FSA as either a desired or contested practice of family making in the contexts in which it is practiced. Drawing on the accounts of feminists, doctors and lower, middle-class Hindu and Muslim women and their families in Rajasthan, Northern India, the paper explores differing perceptions and attitudes to FSA in the region. Focusing on the agency of pregnant women who resort to FSA, the paper suggests that gender inequality and marriage anxieties shape especially lower-middle-class women's engagement with reproductive technologies, including those of sex selection. The paper also concludes that the decisions of both Hindu and Muslim lower-middle-class women to abort female babies is informed by their shared, pragmatic understanding of the economic realities of gender discrimination and of their social obligation as wives to reproduce a particular quality of patriarchal family.

  3. Gender Inequality in Female-Dominated Occupation: The Earnings of Male and Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Richard R.; Schneider, Jeffrey M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines earnings differentials between male and female teachers, using data from the 1987 Schools and Staffing Survey by the U.S. Department of Education. The estimated cost of being a female teacher is 5% in annual contract salary. In the female-dominated teaching profession, despite regulated pay scales and other structures to ensure pay…

  4. Nation and Gender: Female Identity in Contemporary South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... kind of femininity is suggested in those works? And how are the images of women related to the question of national identity? The paper focuses on three main features of female identity which can be found in the texts: the utopian quality of femininity, the mysteriousness of women, and the relation of women and history.

  5. Will Female Kicker's Legal Victory Reshape Gender Roles in Athletics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Welch

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes implications of a $2-million judgment awarded to a female football player by a federal jury who found that Duke University (North Carolina) engaged in illegal discrimination by keeping her off its football team. Considers the tradition of football as a decidedly male activity, Title IX requirements, and the large degree of variance in…

  6. ASD in females: are we overstating the gender difference in diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiser, Nicole L; White, Susan W

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is predominantly diagnosed in males. In explaining the differential rate of occurrence in males and females, biogenetic models have been proposed and studied, often to the exclusion of potential social or cultural factors that may influence different rates of diagnosis across the genders. In this theoretical paper, we consider sociocultural influences that may contribute to the differential expression of ASD in females and partially explain potential underidentification of ASD in females. Based on our synthesis of the extant literature, we propose that ASD may be underidentified in affected females without co-occurring intellectual impairment, owing to a pattern of subtle yet potentially meaningful gender differences in symptom manifestation (e.g., less unusual stereotyped and repetitive behaviors in females, increased prevalence of internalizing problems in females) and gender inequities in research on the ASD phenotype that potentially contributes to biases in assessment tools and diagnostic practices. We offer recommendations for future research directions on gender differences in ASD, and we suggest implications to inform best practice and policy for the assessment of females with ASD.

  7. Self-characterizations of adult female informal caregivers: gender identity and the bearing of burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maeona K

    2005-01-01

    Gender identity is a powerful aspect of self that shapes values, attitudes, and conduct. Family caregivers, particularly women, tend to forgo institutionalization of care recipients even when care demands are overwhelming. The reluctance of women to relinquish care raises questions about the relationship between gender identity and the bearing of burden. To illuminate the relationship between gender and burden, 36 adult women caring for highly dependent adults were asked to describe the nature of "self"; that is, how they characterized themselves as a person. Results were tabulated and critically examined in relation to stereotypical gender traits, as well as social and political processes that create gender dichotomies. Overall, self-characterizations indicated caregivers had internalized stereotypical female gender traits that support and facilitate the enduring of burden.

  8. Rethinking stereotype reliance. Understanding the connection between female candidates and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nichole M

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of female candidates are running for Congress in American national elections. Despite the rise in female candidates running for office, women are not significantly increasing their presence in the House and Senate. A much hypothesized influence over the electoral fates of female candidates is the role of gender stereotypes. However, political science scholars have struggled to pinpoint the effect of stereotypes on vote choice, if there is any effect. This essay compares the way social psychology and political science scholars theoretically, conceptually and empirically test for gender stereotype influence over evaluations of female candidates and politicians. Differences emerge in the theoretical assumptions made in the two disciplines, the types of measures used in research, and the empirical tests conducted to demonstrate the presence or absence of stereotypes in evaluations of women. The discussion explores how scholars studying female candidates and politicians can integrate insights from social psychology to clarify the role of stereotypes in candidate evaluation and choice.

  9. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.

  10. A Study of the Relevance of Gender Identity and Characterization of Female Gamers in Massively Multiplayer Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsueh Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games has increased significantly. Massive Multiplayer Online Games provide a virtual stage for players to freely shape their virtual roles and rebuild their self-identification based on preferences. Thus, characterization has become one of the most important parts when discussing female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games. To understand the relevance of gender identity and characterization of female gamers in Massive Multiplayer Online Games, this paper divides gender identity into two parts: sexual orientation and gender role; and separates characterization into three parts: gender, class, and appearance. The results show the following. In gender identity, most female gamers are attracted to men. In gender role, female gamers must gradually shed gender stereotypes. This paper also finds that female gamers turn gender stereotypes upside down concerning toys, jobs, housework, and leadership. In characterization, female gamers tend to create female roles, tend to choose wizard and archer as an occupation; and create roles that have light skin and exude confidence. For gender identity and characterization, females’ psychological sex, sexual orientation, and gender role all have significant influences on a character’s gender and class.

  11. Gender inequality in career advancement for females in Japanese academic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Kyoko; Fukami, Kayo; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Koichi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2014-11-01

    During the past three decades, the participation of women in medicine has increased from 10.6% (1986) to 19.7% (2012) in Japan. However, women continue to be underrepresented in the top tiers of academic medicine. We highlight gender inequality and discuss the difficulties faced by female surgeons in Japanese academic surgery. Using anonymous and aggregate employment data of medical doctors at Kyoto University Hospital from 2009 and 2013, and a commercially-published faculty roster in 2012-2013, we compared gender balance stratified by a professional and an academic rank. The numbers of total and female doctors who worked at Kyoto University Hospital were 656 and 132 (20.1%) in 2009 and 655 and 132 (20.2%) in 2013, respectively. Approximately half the men (n = 281) were in temporary track and the rest (n = 242) were in tenure track, but only one fifth of women (n = 24) were in tenure track compared to 108 women in temporary track (p < 0.0001) in 2013. There were three female associate professors in basic medicine (8.1%), two female professors in clinical non-surgical medicine (3.9%) and one female lecturer in clinical surgical medicine (2.3%) in 2012. Fewer female doctors were at senior positions and at tenure positions than male doctors at Kyoto University Hospital. There were no female associate and full professors in surgery. The status of faculty members indicates the gender differences in leadership opportunities in Japanese academic surgery.

  12. Challenging the other: exploring the role of opponent gender in digital game competition for female players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lotte; Núñez Castellar, Elena; Van Looy, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the effect of opponent gender on the game experience of female players. Concretely, it looked into skill perception and player emotions of women in same gender and cross-gender game competition. We set up a 2×2×2 (male vs. female opponent×low vs. high competitive women×lost vs. won game) experimental design in which women were instructed to play against a proclaimed male and female competitor. Unknowingly, however, participants played against an AI, which was configured to produce a winning and a losing condition for each opponent by manipulating difficulty. Results indicated that opponent gender only had an effect on perceived stress, which was higher with male opponents. Moreover, players evaluated their own gaming skills as lower and the skills of presumed male opponents as higher when they thought they were playing against men. Importantly, our results also showed that the above described pattern for self-perceived skills and perceived opponent skills was modulated by trait competitiveness with a larger effect size for low competitive women. Overall, this study illustrates that gender dynamics affect the play experience of women in cross-gender gaming competition. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Adam, Paula; Grant, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Graham, Kathryn E; Valentine, Pamela A; Sued, Omar; Boukhris, Omar F; Al Olaqi, Nada M; Al Rahbi, Idrees S; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Bice, Sara; Heiden, Tamika L; Fischer, Michael D; Dopson, Sue; Norton, Robyn; Pollitt, Alexandra; Wooding, Steven; Balling, Gert V; Jakobsen, Ulla; Kuhlmann, Ellen; Klinge, Ineke; Pololi, Linda H; Jagsi, Reshma; Smith, Helen Lawton; Etzkowitz, Henry; Nielsen, Mathias W; Carrion, Carme; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Vizcaino, Esther; Naing, Lin; Cheok, Quentin H N; Eckelmann, Baerbel; Simuyemba, Moses C; Msiska, Temwa; Declich, Giovanna; Edmunds, Laurel D; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Buchan, Alison M J; Williamson, Catherine; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Surender, Rebecca; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-07-19

    Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action.

  14. Gender-related beliefs of Turkish female science teachers and their effect on interactions with female and male students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Sibel

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Turkish female science teachers' gender-related beliefs and those teachers' corresponding interaction with their male and female students. The data was collected from five different sources: Surveys, interviews, observations, chi square data from the observation phase, and interviews with selected teachers. The data was analyzed using the Ericson interpretive method of socio-cultural theories which provided a framework for understanding the development of teacher beliefs and their interactions with their students. In this study, the survey revealed three types of teachers ranging from traditional, moderate to modern. Moderate teachers exhibited characteristics that were on a continuum between the traditional and modern teachers. Traditional teachers believed that males and females should have certain defined roles. Females should be responsible for taking care of the needs of their children and their husbands. By comparison, modern teachers did not assign specific roles to either males or females. With regard to the role of women in science, traditional teachers believed that female scientists could not be as successful as male scientists. By comparison, modern teachers believed that female scientists could be as successful as male scientists. Modern teachers did indicate that they thought females needed to work harder than males to prove themselves. When it came to the teachers' views and beliefs regarding their female and male students' success in their science classrooms, traditional teachers believed that their male students were brighter than their female students. They also believed that female students excelled only because they worked harder. Modern teachers believed that success is dependent on each student's background and his or her interest in science. Classroom observation indicated that traditional and modern teachers interacted differently with their male and female students

  15. Gender Differences in Communication Patterns of Females in Single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -sex school include appropriate gestures, correct grammar, fluency, staying on topic, talkativeness, politeness, use of no slang, loudness, emotionality, use of no tag questions and cooperative/supportive attributes. The same is applicable in ...

  16. Female vs. Male Ampelmännchen-Gender-Specific Reaction Times to Male and Female Traffic Light Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid I. Kandil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are important visual guiding signals for the safe navigation through complex road traffic. Interestingly, there is little variation in the traffic signs for cars around the world. However, remarkable variation exists for pedestrian traffic signs. Following up from an earlier study, we investigated the visual efficacy of female vs. male German Ampelmännchen pedestrian traffic signs. In a Stroop-like test, 30 subjects were presented with female and male go and no-go traffic light figures that were shown either in the corresponding or opposing color. Subjects had to indicate, based either solely on the form or the color of the figure, whether they were allowed to go. Accuracy and response times across all subjects did not differ for the female vs. male signs, indicating that Ampelfrau and Ampelmann signs have equal visual efficacy. However, subjects responded faster to signs of their own vs. the opposite gender. This preference for signs of one's own gender is in accordance with effects in social psychology described by social learning theory. An introduction of such novel traffic lights may, thus, contribute to higher compliance with the traffic sign signals.

  17. Digital Games, Gender and Learning in Engineering: Do Females Benefit as Much as Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Richard; Iacovides, Jo; Owen, Martin; Gavin, Carl; Clibbery, Stephen; Darling, Jos; Drew, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore whether there is a gender difference in the beneficial effects of Racing Academy, which is a video game used to support undergraduate students learning of Mechanical Engineering. One hundred and thirty-eight undergraduate students (15 females and 123 males) participated in the study. The students completed a…

  18. Adolescents' Judgments of Homophobic Harassment toward Male and Female Victims: The Role of Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…

  19. Thinking about gender types: Cognitive organization of female and male types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, R.; Ashmore, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g.

  20. The impact of gender and business training for female microfinance clients in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, Nhung; van Velzen, Rosine; Lensink, Robert; Bulte, Erwin H.

    2015-01-01

    This study documents the impact of offering a gender and business training to female microfinance clients in Vietnam on business outcomes and women empowerment using a randomised controlled trial. Many researchers argue that management and business skills are crucial to increase productivity and

  1. The Interactive Effects of Gender and Mentoring on Career Attainment: Making the Case for Female Lawyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Aarti; Dreher, George F.; Bretz, Robert; Wiethoff, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The moderating effects of biological gender on the relationships between mentoring and career attainment were explored among legal professionals. Research results indicated that male and female lawyers were equally likely to have senior male mentors. However, senior male mentors were associated with higher career attainment only for female…

  2. Norms And Environment Of Gender, Sex, And Love: Black Female Protagonists In Toni Morrison's Sula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESUR BHUPENDRA NANDLAL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the great African American woman novelist Toni Morrison and her novel Sula. This work is an expression of Morrison's concern for the degradation of women in society. It is about two female protagonists who have been born and brought up according to norms and an environment of gender, sex and love that shape their personalities. The female protagonists Sula and Nel represent two different opinions and attitudes toward gender roles, sex and love. Nel follows the conventional norms of society; while Sula throughout her life rejects the traditional notions of feminine ‘responsibility’ and refuses to see women as only wives and mothers. This paper also explains how these norms and environment of gender, sex and love destroy the relationship between not only men and women but also women themselves.

  3. Crossing the Gender Gap: A Study of Female Participation and Performance in Advanced Maths and Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, Jessica

    2006-10-01

    A statistical analysis of enrollment in AP maths and sciences in the Abilene Independent School District, between 2000 and 2005, studied the relationship between gender, enrollment, and performance. Data suggested that mid-scoring females were less likely than their male counterparts to enroll in AP-level courses. AISD showed higher female : male score ratios than national and state averages but no improvement in enrollment comparisons. Several programs are suggested to improve both participation and performance of females in upper-level math and science courses.

  4. Transcending Gender: Female Non-Buddhists’ Experiences of the Vipassanā Meditation Retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Schedneck

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Female non-Buddhists have been writing detailed descriptions of their personal experiences in vipassanā meditation retreats since the 1960s. These memoirists relate to the English-speaking world their experience of the retreat process and self-transformations. Early memoirists traveled Asia in order to learn and practice vipassanā meditation. These memoirs are as much about the meditation practice itself as living in an Asian culture. The mindfulness craze, beginning in the late 2000s, brought with it increased awareness of vipassanā practice. At this time we see a renewed interest in recording vipassanā retreat experiences, but these are even more personal and not concerned with travel, as many vipassanā meditation retreats are now available outside of Asia. I consider four female memoirists: Marie Byles and Jane Hamilton-Smith, writing in the 1960s and 1970s, and Raji Lukkoor, and Jennifer Howd, whose memoirs appeared in 2010 and 2014, respectively. These women’s writings demonstrate that, although non-Buddhist female meditators understand vipassanā meditation as a nongendered practice, it is still an embodied, gendered experience. Each of these women has different reactions to the female gender on the retreat, from outrage at gender discrimination to acceptance of it, from judgment of female teachers and meditators to revealing a more feminine self.

  5. Gender, renal function, and outcomes on the liver transplant waiting list: assessment of revised MELD including estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robert P; Shaheen, Abdel Aziz M; Aspinall, Alexander I; Quinn, Robert R; Burak, Kelly W

    2011-03-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) allocation system for liver transplantation (LT) may present a disadvantage for women by including serum creatinine, which is typically lower in females. Our objectives were to investigate gender disparities in outcomes among LT candidates and to assess a revised MELD, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), for predicting waiting list mortality. Adults registered for LT between 2002 and 2007 were identified using the UNOS database. We compared components of MELD, MDRD-derived eGFR, and the 3-month probability of LT and death between genders. Discrimination of MELD, MELDNa, and revised models including eGFR for mortality were compared using c-statistics. A total of 40,393 patients (36% female) met the inclusion criteria; 9% died and 24% underwent LT within 3 months of listing. Compared with men, women had lower median serum creatinine (0.9 vs. 1.0 mg/dl), eGFR (72 vs. 83 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and mean MELD (16.5 vs. 17.2; all p discrimination for 3-month mortality (c-statistics: MELD 0.896, MELD-eGFR 0.894, MELDNa 0.911, MELDNa-eGFR 0.905). Women are disadvantaged under MELD potentially due to its inclusion of creatinine. However, since including eGFR in MELD does not improve mortality prediction, alternative refinements are necessary. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Female Surgeons as Counter Stereotype: The Impact of Gender Perceptions on Trainee Evaluations of Physician Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassiotto, Magali; Li, Jie; Maldonado, Yvonne; Kothary, Nishita

    2018-02-02

    Similar to women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics disciplines, women in medicine are subject to negative stereotyping when they do not adhere to their sex-role expectations. These biases may vary by specialty, largely dependent on the gender's representation in that specialty. Thus, females in male-dominated surgical specialties are especially at risk of stereotype threat. Herein, we present the role of gender expectations using trainee evaluations of physician faculty at a single academic center, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Using Graduate Medical Education evaluation data of physician faculty from MedHub, we examined the differences in evaluation scores for male and female physicians within specialties that have traditionally had low female representation (e.g., surgical fields) compared to those with average or high female representation (e.g., pediatrics). Stanford Medicine residents and fellows' MedHub ratings of their physician faculty from 2010 to 2014. A total of 3648 evaluations across 1066 physician faculty. Overall, female physicians received lower median scores than their male counterparts across all specialties. When using regression analyses controlling for race, age, rank, and specialty-specific characteristics, the negative effect persists only for female physicians in specialties with low female representation. This finding suggests that female physicians in traditionally male-dominated specialties may face different criteria based on sex-role expectations when being evaluated by trainees. As trainee evaluations play an important role in career advancement decisions, dictate perceptions of quality within academic medical centers and affect overall job satisfaction, we propose that these differences in evaluations based merely on gender stereotypes could account, in part, for the narrowing pipeline of women promoted to higher ranks in academic medicine. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published

  7. GENDER AND THE ACTION FILM: QUESTIONS OF FEMALE HEROISM (ANALYSIS OF FEMALE MASCULINITY OF THE FEMALE HEROIC CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajariah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Action telah memantapkan dirinya sebagai salah satu genre terkemuka yang telah hadirdi industri film untuk waktu yang lama. Meskipun film aksi sering kali diidentifikasi dengan filmproduksi Hollywood, dan disebut sebagai state-of-the-art dari film aksi, film Jmaes Bond,bagaimanapun, adalah pertama dan terutama adalah produk Inggris. Bergenre action, film iniditandai sebagai film berorientasi laki-laki (Tasker 2004: 8 sementara itu melalui esainya VisualPleasure and Narrative Cinema” oleh Laura Mulvey (1975 mengingatkan kita pada bagianpenting yang dimainkan oleh isu gender dan kritik film yang feminis, dalam analisis film aksi.Makalah ini membahas perkembangan film laga atau aksi dalam proses untuk membangunkarakter heroik perempuan, yang menunjukkan gagasan perempuan 'maskulinitas', istilah yangdiciptakan oleh Tasker (1993. Penguatan kode biner gender telah diteliti pada film-film aksiyang mengarah ke argumen pada identifikasi pemberdayaan atau eksploitasi dalam aksi yangdipilih teks filmis dari 2010 dan 2011. Perempuan Berdasarkan teori Laura Mulvey padapandangan laki-laki, analisis skrining tubuh di film action berkisar pada aspek narasi, dansinematografi film yang dipilih: Salt (Phillip Noyce, 2010.Abstrak. Action telah memantapkan dirinya sebagai salah satu genre terkemuka yang telah hadirdi industri film untuk waktu yang lama. Meskipun film aksi sering kali diidentifikasi dengan filmproduksi Hollywood, dan disebut sebagai state-of-the-art dari film aksi, film Jmaes Bond,bagaimanapun, adalah pertama dan terutama adalah produk Inggris. Bergenre action, film iniditandai sebagai film berorientasi laki-laki (Tasker 2004: 8 sementara itu melalui esainya VisualPleasure and Narrative Cinema” oleh Laura Mulvey (1975 mengingatkan kita pada bagianpenting yang dimainkan oleh isu gender dan kritik film yang feminis, dalam analisis film aksi.Makalah ini membahas perkembangan film laga atau aksi dalam proses untuk membangunkarakter heroik

  8. Personal values of male and female doctors: gender aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neittaanmäki, L; Gross, E B; Virjo, I; Hyppölä, H; Kumpusalo, E

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the personal values of physicians. It was part of the Physician 93 Study, the purpose of which was to shed light on the life situation, career and future plans of young doctors and their views on medical education. The survey population included all the medical doctors registered during the years 1982-1991 in Finland (N = 4671). In the spring of 1993 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 2341 doctors. After two reminder letters, 1818 questionnaires (78%) were returned. 59% of the respondents were women. Subjects were asked to rate on a 4-point scale each of a set of 17 potentially important values listed in the questionnaire, five of which were seen by the majority of physicians as very important. These values were: family life, health, close friends, success in work or in studies and children's success. The potentially important values were conceptualized as indicative of eight important dimensions of the values of physicians: close friends, health. self actualization, success, universal values, well-being, family and ideology. Women doctors rated close friends, health, success, universalism and ideology as more important than men doctors.

  9. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  10. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Gender and Race Composition of Jobs and the Male/Female, White/Black Pay Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…

  12. [Negative prognostic impact of female gender on oncological outcomes following radical cystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabi, Y; Rouscoff, Y; Delongchamps, N B; Sibony, M; Saighi, D; Zerbib, M; Peyraumore, M; Xylinas, E

    2016-02-01

    To confirm gender specific differences in pathologic factors and survival rates of urothelial bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy. We conducted a retrospective monocentric study on 701 patients treated with radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. Impact of gender on recurrence rate, specific and non-specific mortality rate were evaluated using Cox regression models in univariate and multivariate analysis. We collected data on 553 males (78.9%) and 148 females (21.1%) between 1998 and 2011. Both groups were comparable at inclusion regarding age, pathologic stage, nodal status and lymphovascular invasion. Mean follow-up time was 45 months (interquartile 23-73) and by that time, 163 patients (23.3%) had recurrence of their tumor and 127 (18.1%) died from their disease. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, female gender was independently associated with disease recurrence (RR: 1.73; 95% CI 1.22-2.47; P=0.02) and cancer-specific mortality (RR=2.50, 95% CI=1.71-3.68; P<0.001). We confirmed female gender to be an independent negative prognosis factor for patients following a radical cystectomy and lymphadenectomy for an invasive muscle bladder cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Do Growth Mindsets in Math Benefit Females? Identifying Pathways between Gender, Mindset, and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degol, Jessica L; Wang, Ming-Te; Zhang, Ya; Allerton, Julie

    2018-05-01

    Despite efforts to increase female representation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), females continue to be less motivated to pursue STEM careers than males. A short-term longitudinal study used a sample of 1449 high school students (grades 9-12; 49% females) to examine pathways from gender and mindset onto STEM outcomes via motivational beliefs (i.e., expectancy beliefs, task value, and cost). Mindset, motivational beliefs, and STEM career aspirations were assessed between the fall and winter months of the 2014-2015 school year and math grades were obtained at the conclusion of the same year. Student growth mindset beliefs predicted higher task values in math. Task values also mediated the pathway from a growth mindset to higher STEM career aspirations. Expectancy beliefs mediated the pathway between gender and math achievement. This mediated pathway was stronger for females than for males, such that females had higher math achievement than males when they endorsed a growth mindset. Findings suggest possible avenues for improving female's interest in STEM.

  14. Gender ideologies, socioeconomic opportunities, and HIV/STI-related vulnerability among female, African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Chung, Shang-en; Glass, Barbara; Ellen, Jonathan

    2008-09-01

    The importance of gender within HIV/STI prevention has become widely recognized. However, gender ideologies associated with vulnerability to HIV/STI are often examined and addressed without sufficient attention to the larger socioeconomic context within which they arise and evolve. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 155 female, African-American adolescents recruited from two health clinics in Baltimore, Maryland. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to assess the relationships between HIV/STI vulnerability resulting from male partner concurrency, adherence to traditional female gender norms, using a measure of hyperfemininity, and perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures. The likelihood of reported partner concurrency increased significantly among participants reporting higher levels of hyperfemininity (OR = 2.08; 95%CI = 1.01-4.30). Hyperfeminine thinking and behavior was significantly lower in the context of higher perceived socioeconomic opportunity structures (OR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.79-0.95). Interventions seeking to promote gender equity and reduce HIV/STI may be more effective when the socioeconomic context of gender ideologies is assessed and addressed. Programs and policies to increase educational and professional opportunity structures, particularly among marginalized communities, should be actively integrated into HIV/STI prevention planning.

  15. Participatory modeling to support gender equality: The importance of including stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Engen, M.L. van; Engen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of

  16. Participatory modeling to support gender equality : The importance of including stakeholders in interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; van Engen, Marloes

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of this

  17. Prevalence and correlates of gender-based violence among female university students in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Aliyu, Muktar H; Galadanci, Hadiza S; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-09-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health and human rights problem worldwide. The extent of this problem in educational institutions has not been explored in Northern Nigeria. Using self administered questionnaires, we determined the prevalence and risk factors for gender-based violence among 300 female university students in Kano, Northern Nigeria. The overall prevalence of gender-based violence was 58.8% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 52.9% to 64.5%]. Specifically, 22.8%, 22.2% and 50.8% of students experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence respectively. Religious affiliation ethnicity, indigeneship, marital status, campus residence and faculty affiliation were significant predictors of GBV. GBV awareness creation programs, legal protection and implementation of an effective redress mechanism are recommended to curb this menace.

  18. Gender imbalance in infant mortality: a cross-national study of social structure and female infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Kana; Crenshaw, Edward M

    2006-01-01

    Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios. This cross-national study of 93 developed and developing countries uses such macro-social theories as modernization theory, gender perspectives, human ecology, and sociobiology/evolutionary psychology to predict gender differentials in infant mortality. We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives.

  19. Outcome and preferences in male-to-female subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male-to-female (MTF) transgender subjects in Eastern India. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic. Descriptive statistical analysis is carried out in the present study, and Microsoft Word and Excel are used to generate graphs and tables. The mean follow-up was 1.9 years and 14 subjects (25.5%) were lost to follow-up after a single or 2-3 contact sessions. Rest 41 subjects (74.5%) desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All 41 subjects were dressing to present herself as female and all of them were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy either estrogen only (68%), or drospirenone in combination with estrogen (12%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH) in combination with estrogens (19.5%). Most of the subjects preferred estrogen therapy as it was most affordable and only a small number of subjects preferred drospirenone or GnRH agonist because of cost and availability. 23.6% subjects underwent esthetic breast augmentation surgery and 25.5% underwent orchiectomy and/or vaginoplasty. Three subjects presented with prior breast augmentation surgery and nine subjects presented with prior orchiectomy without vaginoplasty, depicting a high prevalence of poorly supervised surgeries. Standards of care documents provide clinical guidance for health professionals about the optimal management of transsexual people. The lack of information among health professionals about proper and protocolwise management leads to suboptimal physical, social, and sexual results.

  20. Outcome and preferences in male–to–female subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gender dysphoria (GD is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. Aims: Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male–to–female (MTF transgender subjects in Eastern India. Subjects and Methods: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis is carried out in the present study, and Microsoft Word and Excel are used to generate graphs and tables. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.9 years and 14 subjects (25.5% were lost to follow-up after a single or 2–3 contact sessions. Rest 41 subjects (74.5% desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All 41 subjects were dressing to present herself as female and all of them were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy either estrogen only (68%, or drospirenone in combination with estrogen (12% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH in combination with estrogens (19.5%. Most of the subjects preferred estrogen therapy as it was most affordable and only a small number of subjects preferred drospirenone or GnRH agonist because of cost and availability. 23.6% subjects underwent esthetic breast augmentation surgery and 25.5% underwent orchiectomy and/or vaginoplasty. Three subjects presented with prior breast augmentation surgery and nine subjects presented with prior orchiectomy without vaginoplasty, depicting a high prevalence of poorly supervised surgeries. Conclusions: Standards of care documents provide clinical guidance for health professionals about the optimal management of transsexual people. The lack of information among health professionals about proper and protocolwise management leads to suboptimal physical, social, and sexual results.

  1. Closing the Gender Gap: Increased Female Authorship in AJR and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Joo; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Bitna; Moon, Ji Yoon; Yoon, Soo Jeong; Hong, Su Jin; Baek, Sora

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender differences in the authorship of original research articles by radiologists in two major American radiology journals, AJR and Radiology. In a retrospective bibliometric analysis, all original articles published in AJR and Radiology during three 3-year periods (1991-1993, 2001-2003, and 2011-2013) were reviewed to determine the gender of the first and corresponding radiology authors. In addition, radiologic subspecialty and country of the authors were also abstracted from each article. The gender of the first and corresponding authors could be determined for 10,043 of 10,228 authors (98.2%) of original research in radiology. Between the periods 1991-1993 and 2011-2013, the percentage of female authors significantly increased: from 20.4% to 34.4%, respectively, among first authors (p < 0.0001); and from 18.0% to 28.7%, respectively, among corresponding authors (p < 0.0001). There was a significant correlation between the gender of the first and corresponding authors (p < 0.05). In the 2011-2013 period, the proportion of female authors was highest in breast (64.2%) and pediatric (48.2%) and lowest in vascular and interventional (18.5%) and cardiac (21.0%) subspecialties. The proportion of female authors was the highest in The Netherlands (47.3%), South Korea (37.9%), France (36.2%), and Italy (33.6%). There was a significant increase in the female authorship of original research articles in two major American radiology journals between the periods 1991-1993 and 2011-2013.

  2. Obesity paradox in heart failure patients – Female gender characteristics-KAMC-single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeren Khaled

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings showed that heart failure patients with low BMI had poor adverse clinical outcome measures (poor EF, recurrent readmission, mortality and composite rates of CVA, TIA and unexplained syncope which reflect the effect of obesity paradox in those patients with HFrEF. Female patient subgroup showed similar characteristic findings which also might reflect the value of gender-specific BMI related clinical outcomes.

  3. Multilingual gendered identities: female undergraduate students in London talk about heritage languages

    OpenAIRE

    Preece, Siân

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore how a group of female university students, mostly British Asian and in their late teens and early twenties, perform femininities in talk about heritage languages. I argue that analysis of this talk reveals ways in which the participants enact ‘culturally intelligible’ gendered subject positions. This frequently involves negotiating the norms of ‘heteronormativity’, constituting femininity in terms of marriage, motherhood and maintenance of heritage culture and language...

  4. Thinking about gender types: cognitive organization of female and male types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Roos; Ashmore, Richard D

    2003-06-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g. workaholic, family man, sissy, womanizer, labourer). In Study 2A, a multidimensional configuration of 229 of these male and female types was derived from a free sorting task among a new set of participants. In Study 2B, a subset of types was judged on several dimensions of meaning, which were then fitted into the configuration of types. The most important dimensions in describing the structure of gender types were: young-old, masculine-feminine and traditional-modern. The masculine-feminine dimension showed that the male and female types were largely separated from each other; within each gender category, the types were ordered by their position on the masculine-feminine dimension. Several other aspects of current thinking about men and women are discussed.

  5. Gendered Morality and Development Narratives: The Case of Female Labor Migration from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses two dominant and contradictory representations of Indonesian female migrant workers: as national “heroes” who contribute to Indonesia’s economic development, or as exploited “victims” of labor abuse. By analyzing public statements by Indonesian state actors, news reports, and migrant activists’ websites, I argue that representations of migrants as victims do not undermine representations of migrants as heroes of development. Instead, in Indonesian public discourses about migrant women, various institutions and actors often evoke similar gendered moral assumptions of what makes a “good” or “bad” Indonesian woman and worker. These assumptions serve narratives that imply which migrant workers are heroes who deserve media attention; which migrants are unfairly abused and deserve state protection; and which migrants partly deserve their tragic fates. I term these assumptions gendered moral hierarchies, which distinguish between “tolerable” and “illegitimate” violence. Gendered moral hierarchies in representations of migrants downplay the responsibility of states and institutions for migrant safety, labor protection, and aspects of social welfare, by emphasizing individual moral responsibility and blame. More attention to gendered moral assumptions behind migrants’ narratives of development and victimhood can illuminate how they experience the risks and promises of transnational labor migration in gendered and culturally specific ways.

  6. Female Leadership: Understanding Female Roles in Business, Gender-based Barriers to Senior Management Positions, and How to Make the Breakthrough

    OpenAIRE

    LU, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    Gender has become a significant issue in management and organization, which is worth to be noticed in both theory and practical perspectives. Also as the improvement of female education level, more successful female leaders/managers play important roles in business world. However, there still exist some traditional barriers for many women to develop their career. Therefore, understanding the patterns to make female leaderships distinctive is a modern topic, and researching the women different...

  7. Gender and sexual economics: do women view sex as a female commodity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C

    2014-07-01

    In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4%) FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1%) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%). FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2%) subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol-wise management options leading to suboptimal physical, social, and

  9. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  10. Gender stereotypes in psychosocial care for female crack and powder cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érika Barbosa de Oliveira; Pereira, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo; Penna, Lúcia Helena Garcia

    2018-05-10

    The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care. The health professionals voiced a traditional view of the heterosexual, docile, and maternal woman and reproduced stereotypical concepts when addressing female crack and cocaine users as sensitive, frail individuals, emotionally dependent on men and more involved in the home and family. These professionals need a more refined understanding of gender issues in the mental health-disease process in order to allow overcoming preconceived notions and reductionist health care practices.

  11. Reforming Lao Teacher Education to Include Females and Ethnic Minorities--Exploring Possibilities and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Britt-Marie; Chounlamany, Kongsy; Khounphilaphanh, Bounchanh; Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article explores possibilities and constraints for the inclusion of female and ethnic minority students in Lao education in order to provide education for all. Females and ethnic minorities have traditionally been disadvantaged in Lao education and reforms for the inclusion of these groups are therefore welcome. The article provides rich…

  12. Female gender is a social determinant of diabetes in the Caribbean: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Sobers-Grannum

    Full Text Available Diabetes (DM is estimated to affect 10-15% of the adult population in the Caribbean. Preventive efforts require population wide measures to address its social determinants. We undertook a systematic review to determine current knowledge about the social distribution of diabetes, its risk factors and major complications in the Caribbean. This paper describes our findings on the distribution by gender.We searched Medline, Embase and five databases through the Virtual Health Library, for Caribbean studies published between 2007 and 2013 that described the distribution by gender for: known risk factors for Type 2 DM, prevalence of DM, and DM control or complications. PRISMA guidance on reporting systematic reviews on health equity was followed. Only quantitative studies (n>50 were included; each was assessed for risk of bias. Meta-analyses were performed, where appropriate, on studies with a low or medium risk of bias, using random effects models.We found 50 articles from 27 studies, yielding 118 relationships between gender and the outcomes. Women were more likely to have DM, obesity, be less physically active but less likely to smoke. In meta-analyses of good quality population-based studies odds ratios for women vs. men for DM, obesity and smoking were: 1.65 (95% CI 1.43, 1.91, 3.10 (2.43, 3.94, and 0.24 (0.17, 0.34. Three studies found men more likely to have better glycaemic control but only one achieved statistical significance.Female gender is a determinant of DM prevalence in the Caribbean. In the vast majority of world regions women are at a similar or lower risk of type 2 diabetes than men, even when obesity is higher in women. Caribbean female excess of diabetes may be due to a much greater excess of risk factors in women, especially obesity. These findings have major implications for preventive policies and research.

  13. Is there a (fe)male approach? Understanding gender differences in entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIngrid Verheul (1975) graduated in Economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam in 1999. She started writing here PhD. thesis on female entrepreneurship in 2000. In addition to female entrepreneurship, her research interests include determinants of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship

  14. Stag parties linger: continued gender bias in a female-rich scientific discipline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne A Isbell

    Full Text Available Discussions about the underrepresentation of women in science are challenged by uncertainty over the relative effects of the lack of assertiveness by women and the lack of recognition of them by male colleagues because the two are often indistinguishable. They can be distinguished at professional meetings, however, by comparing symposia, which are largely by invitation, and posters and other talks, which are largely participant-initiated. Analysis of 21 annual meetings of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists reveals that within the subfield of primatology, women give more posters than talks, whereas men give more talks than posters. But most strikingly, among symposia the proportion of female participants differs dramatically by the gender of the organizer. Male-organized symposia have half the number of female first authors (29% that symposia organized by women (64% or by both men and women (58% have, and half that of female participation in talks and posters (65%. We found a similar gender bias from men in symposia from the past 12 annual meetings of the American Society of Primatologists. The bias is surprising given that women are the numerical majority in primatology and have achieved substantial peer recognition in this discipline.

  15. Stag Parties Linger: Continued Gender Bias in a Female-Rich Scientific Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Lynne A.; Young, Truman P.; Harcourt, Alexander H.

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about the underrepresentation of women in science are challenged by uncertainty over the relative effects of the lack of assertiveness by women and the lack of recognition of them by male colleagues because the two are often indistinguishable. They can be distinguished at professional meetings, however, by comparing symposia, which are largely by invitation, and posters and other talks, which are largely participant-initiated. Analysis of 21 annual meetings of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists reveals that within the subfield of primatology, women give more posters than talks, whereas men give more talks than posters. But most strikingly, among symposia the proportion of female participants differs dramatically by the gender of the organizer. Male-organized symposia have half the number of female first authors (29%) that symposia organized by women (64%) or by both men and women (58%) have, and half that of female participation in talks and posters (65%). We found a similar gender bias from men in symposia from the past 12 annual meetings of the American Society of Primatologists. The bias is surprising given that women are the numerical majority in primatology and have achieved substantial peer recognition in this discipline. PMID:23185407

  16. Gender difference in color preference across cultures: \\ud An archetypal pattern modulated by a female cultural stereotype

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnardel, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    A gender difference in color preference among British participants has been repeatedly reported, in which both males and females show a preference for blue-green colors, while females express an additional preference for pink-purple colors6,10,12. To investigate the robustness of gender difference in color preference in a different culture, we tested 81 young adult Indians from a school of Design and compared them to 80 young British students in Psychology. A 35-item International Personality...

  17. Measurement of lower canine clinical crown index in male and female for gender identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Dewi Handayani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to acquire the value index of clinical crown lower jaw canine male and female, and to prove whether the index of male's canine is bigger than female's. The samples of the research was the students of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran class of 1998 until 2001 by using proportional random sampling method according to the criteria and also adjust with the numbers of male and female composition in per class. The characteristic of the research was analytical descriptive with survey technique. The result of t test statistic measurement was that index of clinical crown tower jaw canine of mate was 1.50 and female was 1.21, by using reliance 95%. The inference of the research showed that the index of clinical crown lower jaw canine of male was significantly bigger than female's. The result of the research can be used as auxiliary data from the techniques to process gender identification in odontology forensic.

  18. The effect of gender on the clinical clerkship experiences of female medical students: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaria, Palav; Abedin, Sakena; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2009-07-01

    To characterize how female medical students perceive the role of gender within their medical education during the transition to the clinical curriculum. In 2006-2007, the authors conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 12 third-year female medical students completing their first clinical clerkship. Participants were purposefully selected from a single New England medical school to represent a range of ages, ethnicities, and prior life experiences. Participants (1) struggled to define their role on the wards and often defaulted to stereotypical gender roles, (2) perceived differences in the nature of their workplace relationships compared with the nature of male medical students' workplace relationships, (3) had gendered expectations of male and female physicians that shaped their interactions with clinical supervisors, (4) felt able to negotiate uncomfortable situations with patients but felt unable to negotiate uncomfortable situations with supervisors and attendings, and (5) encountered a "gender learning curve" on the wards that began to shape their self-view as future female physicians. Despite increased numbers of women in medicine, issues of gender continue to have a substantial impact on the medical education of female students. Institutions can design interventions about gender issues in medicine that expand beyond a focus on sexual harassment to address the complex ways in which students are affected by issues of gender.

  19. Male-female discrimination: an analysis of gender gap and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Quintano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occupational dynamics have brought in significant innovations in Italy, as the increased participation of women in the labour market, that have stimulated studies about the gender wage gap, concerning the different remuneration reserved to male and female workers. In this work the Authors, following Oaxaca and Blinder approach, estimate the gap for Italian employers and proceed to its decomposition, one part due to differences in individual characteristics (endowment effect and another part due to the different returns on the same characteristics (coefficient effect, related to discrimination. Then, the gender wage gap and its decomposition is analyzed with reference to Italian macro-areas considered separately with the aim to highlight the different fundamental dynamics. The model has also been modified using the Heckmann correction to eliminate the bias due to self-selection; i.e. the different propensity to work for men and women.

  20. "doing and Undoing Gender": Female Higher Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Golnar

    2009-11-01

    Since the establishment of the Islamic Republic, female higher education has been characterised by a paradoxical combination of discrimination and exclusion, on the one hand, and increasing equality and empowerment, on the other. This study focuses on the triangle of education, equality and empowerment, using Sara Longwe's women's empowerment framework to analyse the interplay between the three. State policies to Islamise the universities during the 1980-1983 Cultural Revolution determined the "gender appropriateness" of each specialisation and led to the exclusion of women from "masculine" fields of study during the early years of the revolution. Despite such discriminatory measures, women today represent the majority of students in all fields, except engineering. Women, however, remain underrepresented at graduate levels of education and as faculty members. An important challenge is to understand why men are not entering different specialisations and whether there is a possibility of "re-doing gender" - this time in addressing male inequality and disempowerment at undergraduate levels.

  1. Type 3 Thyroplasty for a Patient with Female-to-Male Gender Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Saito; Kazuhiro Nakamura; Shigeto Itani; Kiyoaki Tsukahara

    2018-01-01

    Objective. In most cases, about the voice of the patient with female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID), hormone therapy makes the voice low-pitched. In success cases, there is no need for phonosurgery. However, hormone therapy is not effective in some cases. We perform type 3 thyroplasty in these cases. Method. Hormone therapy was started in 2008 but did not lower the speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs). We therefore performed TP3 under local anesthesia. Results. In our case, the...

  2. Bearing the burden of doubt: female coaches' experiences of gender relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Leanne

    2010-12-01

    Based on interview research, this study examined how master female coaches based in the United Kingdom experienced relations with men within their profession. Using a feminist cultural studies approach to examine how sport promotes and maintains a gender order unfavorable to women, we found that female coaches felt the need to continually prove themselves and often experienced coaching as a hostile and intimidating culture. Participants reported a gradual reduction in such unwelcoming behavior from men, seemingly because they had proved to be no threat to the existing patriarchal structure. A critical exploration of coaching is needed to understand how masculine hegemony leads to women's relative powerlessness as coaches. Furthermore, the findings present a case for a greater emphasis on sociocultural education within the UK coaching curricula.

  3. Clinico-biochemical factors to early predict biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis: age, female gender, and ALT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnescu, N O; Costea, R; Zarnescu Vasiliu, E C; Neagu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Aims: Despite the existence of an easy tool to diagnose biliary tract disease as an etiology for acute pancreatitis (AP), the sensitivity of abdominal ultrasound is around 80%, which can be even lower in certain conditions. We have retrospectively reviewed data of 146 patients admitted for acute pancreatitis between 1999 and 2013. Bivariate analysis for clinical and biochemical variables was performed with respect to etiology of AP (biliary versus non-biliary). Multivariate analysis was performed by using binary logistic regression. There were 87 males (59.6%) and 59 females (40.4%), with a median age of 51. The etiology of acute pancreatitis was biliary in 71 patients (48.6%). Bivariate analysis found the following as significant association (p=0.001) with biliary pancreatitis: older age, female gender, and elevated AST, ALT. A binary logistic regression analysis identified as predictor factors for biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis: age OR = 1.031 (95% CI 1.004 - 1.059, p = 0.024), sex (female) OR = 2.34 (95% CI 1.022 - 5.359, p = 0.044) and ALT OR = 1.004 (95% CI 1.001 - 1.007, p =0.004). The two clinical scores included the three variables (A.S.ALT scores) in categorical format were generated and then checked with the ROC curves (areas under curve are 0.768 and 0.778). Age, female gender, and elevated ALT can help identifying cases with biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis.

  4. Heterozygous ambra1 deficiency in mice: a genetic trait with autism-like behavior restricted to the female gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Ekrem; Dahm, Liane; Lu, Derek; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Ju, Anes; Tantra, Martesa; Kästner, Anne; Chowdhury, Kamal; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    Autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental conditions affecting around 0.5% of the population across cultures, with a male/female ratio of approximately 4:1. Phenotypically, ASD are characterized by social interaction and communication deficits, restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and reduced cognitive flexibility. Identified causes converge at the level of the synapse, ranging from mutation of synaptic genes to quantitative alterations in synaptic protein expression, e.g., through compromised transcriptional or translational control. We wondered whether reduced turnover and degradation of synapses, due to deregulated autophagy, would lead to similar phenotypical consequences. Ambra1, strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, is a positive regulator of Beclin1, a principal player in autophagosome formation. While homozygosity of the Ambra1 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, heterozygous mice with reduced Ambra1 expression are viable, reproduce normally, and lack any immediately obvious phenotype. Surprisingly, comprehensive behavioral characterization of these mice revealed an autism-like phenotype in Ambra1 (+/-) females only, including compromised communication and social interactions, a tendency of enhanced stereotypies/repetitive behaviors, and impaired cognitive flexibility. Reduced ultrasound communication was found in adults as well as pups, which achieved otherwise normal neurodevelopmental milestones. These features were all absent in male Ambra1 (+/-) mice. As a first hint explaining this gender difference, we found a much stronger reduction of Ambra1 protein in the cortex of Ambra1 (+/-) females compared to males. To conclude, Ambra1 deficiency can induce an autism-like phenotype. The restriction to the female gender of autism-generation by a defined genetic trait is unique thus far and warrants further investigation.

  5. Heterozygous Ambra1 deficiency in mice: A genetic trait with autism-like behavior restricted to the female gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem eDere

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental conditions affecting around 0.5% of the population across cultures, with a male/female ratio of ~4:1. Phenotypically, ASD are characterized by social interaction and communication deficits, restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and reduced cognitive flexibility. Identified causes converge at the level of the synapse, ranging from mutation of synaptic genes to quantitative alterations in synaptic protein expression, e.g. through compromised transcriptional or translational control. We wondered whether reduced turnover and degradation of synapses, due to deregulated autophagy, would lead to similar phenotypical consequences. Ambra1, strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, is a positive regulator of Beclin1, a principal player in autophagosome formation. While homozygosity of the Ambra1 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, heterozygous mice with reduced Ambra1 expression are viable, reproduce normally, and lack any immediately obvious phenotype. Surprisingly, comprehensive behavioral characterization of these mice revealed an autism-like phenotype in Ambra1+/- females only, including compromised communication and social interactions, a tendency of enhanced stereotypies/repetitive behaviors, and impaired cognitive flexibility. Reduced ultrasound communication was found in adults as well as pups which achieved otherwise normal neurodevelopmental milestones. These features were all absent in male Ambra1+/- mice. As a first hint explaining this gender difference, we found a much stronger reduction of Ambra1 protein in the cortex of Ambra1+/- females compared to males. To conclude, Ambra1 deficiency can induce an autism-like phenotype. The restriction to the female gender of autism-generation by a defined genetic trait is unique thus far and warrants further investigation.

  6. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  7. Do Female Executives Make a Difference? The Impact of Female Leadership on Gender Gaps and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Macis; Fabiano Schivardi; Andrea Moro; Luca Flabbi

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a matched employer-employee panel data set and find that female leadership has a positive effect on female wages at the top of the distribution, and a negative one at the bottom. Moreover, performance in firms with female leadership increases with the share of female workers. This evidence is consistent with a model where female executives are better equipped at interpreting signals of productivity from female workers. This suggests substantial costs of under-representation of wome...

  8. Sexuality behind bars in the female central penitentiary of Santiago, Chile: Unlocking the gendered binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Madariaga, Francisca Alejandra; Gómez Garcés, Belén Estefanía; Carrasco Parra, Alicia; Foster, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We explore what it means to promote healthy sexuality for incarcerated women. We report upon the experiences of ten inmates in the Female Central Penitentiary of Santiago, Chile, regarding their sexuality within prison. We used a qualitative, descriptive research approach. Individual and semistructured interviews were conducted with women from different sections of the prison over a 2-month period. Participants highlighted the site for conjugal visits, the Venusterio, as a place of privacy and sexual expression between couples from outside prison. Motivated by loneliness, need of protection, and desire for affection, participants enacted alternate gender and sexual identities and sexual orientation. Some previously heterosexual women became 'machos', women taking on dominant masculine identities. Women found a paradoxical freedom to express a malleable and fluid sexual identity, an identity that might not go outside the prison. Informed by Judith Butler's idea of performativity, we argue that women could enact both different gender and sexual identities in search of satisfying their affective and erotic desires while under the duress of incarceration. The findings suggest a need for a more fluid understanding of gender and sexuality, especially for those midwives and nurses who strive to promote sexual health, not only reproductive health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Female EFL teachers: shifting and multiple gender and language-learner identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ximena Rojas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender studies have taken an important role within the academic community, and specifically in the field of second and foreign languagelearning. In this paper I use a Feminist Poststructuralist Discourse Analysis (FPDA study to explore how emergent femininities construct genderidentities and power relations inside the EFL classroom setting through interaction. I argue that identities are multiple and shifting accordingto the way individuals position and reposition themselves through discourse(s. In doing so, gender identities can be identified and related tolearners’ identities in EFL contexts. I chose a Feminist Poststructuralist Discourse Analysis (FPDA methodology (Baxter, 2003 in order toidentify telling cases (Mitchell, 1984 during interactions in which, female adult students from a private university in Bogotá, Colombia makeexplicit the exercising of power during classroom activities, such as debates (Castañeda- Peña, 2009 and disputes (Toohey, 2001 in foreignlanguage learning. I chose video recordings, transcripts and interviews as instruments to cope with the objectives of the study as well as toaccomplish the methodological suggestions. Findings suggest the importance of being aware of the multiplicity of gender identities that mayintervene when learning a language and how to deal with more egalitarian discourses and activities during classes that guarantee, to someextent, the empowerment of silent voices.

  10. Female science teacher beliefs and attitudes: implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Mara; Gallard, Alejandro J.

    2007-10-01

    Beliefs and attitudes resulting from the unique life experiences of teachers frame interactions with learners promoting gender equity or inequity and the reproduction of social views about knowledge and power as related to gender. This study examines the enactment of a female science teacher's pedagogy (Laura), seeking to understand the implications of her beliefs and attitudes, as framed by her interpretations and daily manifestations, as she interacts with students. Distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the social organization of society at large, governed by understood and unspoken patriarchy, present both academically and socially; (b) the devaluing of women as "knowers" of scientific knowledge as defined by a western and male view of science; (c) the marginalization or "feminization" of education and pedagogical knowledge. The findings reflect tensions between attitudes and beliefs and actual teacher practice suggesting the need for awareness within existing or new teachers about their positions as social agents and the sociological implications related to issues of gender within which we live and work, inclusive of science teaching and learning.

  11. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualise a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents’ gender; (3) to examine the ‘cultural lag’ theory of male rape where it was hypothesised that if the public perception of male rape l...

  12. A Study of the Relevance of Gender Identity and Characterization of Female Gamers in Massively Multiplayer Online Games

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Hsueh Yang; I-Ning Chao

    2018-01-01

    The population of female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games has increased significantly. Massive Multiplayer Online Games provide a virtual stage for players to freely shape their virtual roles and rebuild their self-identification based on preferences. Thus, characterization has become one of the most important parts when discussing female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games. To understand the relevance of gender identity and characterization of female gamers in Massive Mul...

  13. Sexuality Within Female Same-Gender Couples: Definitions of Sex, Sexual Frequency Norms, and Factors Associated with Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelby B; Ritchie, Lane; Knopp, Kayla; Rhoades, Galena K; Markman, Howard J

    2018-04-01

    Despite a growing number of female same-gender (FSG) relationships, couples-based research and interventions have focused primarily on mixed-gender couples. Consequently, research has applied a heteronormative lens to understanding some relationship factors, including sexuality. The current study sought to provide descriptive data regarding frequency and conceptualizations of sex across partners in FSG relationships, as well as to analyze how relationship factors are associated with sexual satisfaction in this population. Participants (N = 206) were 103 adult FSG couples who had been together for at least 2 months. Individuals provided self-report data on how they conceptualized sex, and actor-partner models were utilized to assess relationship factors associated with sexual satisfaction. Findings indicated that women in FSG relationships hold broad definitions of sex, with the majority of behaviors conceptualized as sex, including acts that involved partnered genital touching. In dyadic actor-partner models, sexual satisfaction was predicted by several factors including sexual frequency, emotional intimacy, and sexual intimacy. Unexpectedly, higher desired sexual frequency was associated with lower sexual satisfaction; however, this finding only emerged after controlling for actual sexual frequency, suggesting that discrepancies between desired and actual sex frequency may be important for FSG couples. Implications for clinical practice with FSG couples are explored, including a strength-based focus on broad conceptualizations of sex within this population and targeting relationship factors associated with sexual satisfaction.

  14. Dimensional profiles of male to female gender identity disorder: an exploratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Bandini, Elisa; Ricca, Valdo; Ferruccio, Naika; Corona, Giovanni; Meriggiola, Maria C; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Manieri, Chiara; Ristori, Jiska; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder (MtF GID) is a complex phenomenon that could be better evaluated by using a dimensional approach. To explore the aggregation of clinical manifestations of MtF GID in order to identify meaningful variables describing the heterogeneity of the disorder. A consecutive series of 80 MtF GID subjects (mean age 37 +/- 10.3 years), referred to the Interdepartmental Center for Assistance Gender Identity Disorder of Florence and to other Italian centers from July 2008 to June 2009, was studied. Diagnosis was based on formal psychiatric classification criteria. Factor analysis was performed. Several socio-demographic and clinical parameters were investigated. Patients were asked to complete the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, a self-rating scale to evaluate gender role) and Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R, a self-rating scale to measure psychological state). Factor analysis identified two dimensional factors: Factor 1 was associated with sexual orientation, and Factor 2 related to behavioral and psychological correlates of early GID development. No correlation was observed between the two factors. A positive correlation between Factor 2 and feminine BSRI score was found, along with a negative correlation between Factor 2 and undifferentiated BSRI score. Moreover, a significant association between SCL-90-R Phobic subscale score and Factor 2 was observed. A variety of other socio-demographic parameters and clinical features were associated with both factors. Behavioral and psychological correlates of Factor 1 (sexual orientation) and Factor 2 (gender identity) do not constitute the framework of two separate clinical entities, but instead represent two dimensions of the complex MtF GID structure, which can be variably intertwined in the same subject. By using factor analysis, we offer a new approach capable of delineating a psychopathological and clinical profile of MtF GID patients.

  15. Steps towards equal gender representation: TANDEMplusIDEA - an international mentoring and personal development scheme for female scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Breuer, Elke

    2010-05-01

    TANDEMplusIDEA was a European mentoring programme conducted by the technical universities RWTH Aachen, Imperial College London, ETH Zurich and TU Delft between 2007 and 2010 to achieve more gender equality in science. Given the continuing underrepresentation of women in science and technology and the well-known structural and systematic disadvantages in male-dominated scientific cultures, the main goal of this programme was to promote excellent female scientists through a high-level professional and personal development programme. Based on the mentoring concept of the RWTH Aachen, TANDEMplusIDEA was the first mentoring programme for female scientists realized in international cooperation. As a pilot scheme funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, the scientific evaluation was an essential part of the programme, in particular in view of the development of a best practice model for international mentoring. The participants of this programme were female scientists at an early stage of their academic career (postdoc or assistant professor) covering a wide range of science disciplines, including geosciences. This transdisciplinarity as well as the international dimension of the programme have been identified by the participants as one of the keys of success of the programme. In particular, the peer-mentoring across discipline boarders proved to have been an invaluable component of the development programme. This presentation will highlight some of the main findings of the scientific evaluation of the programme and focus on some additional personal insights from the participants.

  16. One-Stage Gender-Confirmation Surgery as a Viable Surgical Procedure for Female-to-Male Transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Borko; Bizic, Marta; Bencic, Marko; Kojovic, Vladimir; Majstorovic, Marko; Jeftovic, Milos; Stanojevic, Dusan; Djordjevic, Miroslav L

    2017-05-01

    Female-to-male gender-confirmation surgery (GCS) includes removal of breasts and female genitalia and complete genital and urethral reconstruction. With a multidisciplinary approach, these procedures can be performed in one stage, avoiding multistage operations. To present our results of one-stage sex-reassignment surgery in female-to-male transsexuals and to emphasize the advantages of single-stage over multistage surgery. During a period of 9 years (2007-2016), 473 patients (mean age = 31.5 years) underwent metoidioplasty. Of these, 137 (29%) underwent simultaneous hysterectomy, and 79 (16.7%) underwent one-stage GCS consisting of chest masculinization, total transvaginal hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, vaginectomy, metoidioplasty, urethral lengthening, scrotoplasty, and implantation of bilateral testicular prostheses. All surgeries were performed simultaneously by teams of experienced gynecologic and gender surgeons. Primary outcome measurements were surgical time, length of hospital stay, and complication and reoperation rates compared with other published data and in relation to the number of stages needed to complete GCS. Mean follow-up was 44 months (range = 10-92). Mean surgery time was 270 minutes (range = 215-325). Postoperative hospital stay was 3 to 6 days (mean = 4). Complications occurred in 20 patients (25.3%). Six patients (7.6%) had complications related to mastectomy, and one patient underwent revision surgery because of a breast hematoma. Two patients underwent conversion of transvaginal hysterectomy to an abdominal approach, and subcutaneous perineal cyst, as a consequence of colpocleisis, occurred in nine patients. There were eight complications (10%) from urethroplasty, including four fistulas, three strictures, and one diverticulum. Testicular implant rejection occurred in two patients and testicular implant displacement occurred in one patient. Female-to-male transsexuals can undergo complete GCS, including mastectomy

  17. Changing gender roles and health impacts among female workers in export-processing industries in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanapola, Chamila T

    2004-06-01

    Since the economic liberalization in 1977, a large number of Sri Lankan women have entered the labour market and engaged in income-generating activities. Some women choose to travel abroad as domestic workers, while others choose to work in export-processing industries. This process has a profound impact on gender and gender roles in Sri Lanka. Young rural women have changed their traditional women's roles to become independent daughters, efficient factory workers and partially modernized women. Even though changing gender roles are identified as a positive impact of industrial work, the new social, cultural, and legal environments of industrial work have negative impacts on these women's lives. This paper explores health impacts of changing gender roles and practices of young rural women, focusing on the experiences of female workers in export-processing industries. Further, it contributes to the literature on gender and health, and on qualitative approaches within health geographic studies. A model is formulated to suggest a conceptual framework for studying women's health. The model describes the determinant factors of individual health status based on the question of who (personal attributes) does what (type of work) where (place), when and how (behaviours). These are also determinant factors of gender and gender roles of a society. The three types of health problems (reproductive, productive and mental health) of a woman, in this case a female industrial worker, are determined by her gender roles and practices associated with these roles.

  18. Gender representation on gender-targeted television channels: A comparison of female- and male-targeted TV channels in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalmans, S.; Kleemans, M.; Sadza, A.J.C.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the differences in the representation of gender on male- and female-targeted channels with regard to recognition (i.e., the actual presence of men and women) and respect (i.e., the nature of that representation or portrayal). To this end, the presence of men and women

  19. A Comparative Study of Australian and New Zealand Male and Female Nurses' Health: A Sex Comparison and Gender Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony; Henwood, Tim; Oliffe, John L; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Kim, Jae Rin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the health and lifestyle behaviors between male and female nursing professionals. Biological, workplace, and lifestyle factors as well as health behaviors and outcomes are reported as different between male and female nurses. Although male nurses show distinct health-related patterns and experience health disparities at work, few studies have investigated health differences by sex in a large cohort group of nursing professionals. This observation study of Australian and New Zealand nurses and midwives drew data from an eCohort survey. A cohort of 342 females was generated by SPSS randomization (total N=3625), to compare against 342 participating males. Measures for comparison include health markers and behaviors, cognitive well-being, workplace and leisure-time vitality, and functional capacity. Findings suggest that male nurses had a higher BMI, sat for longer, slept for less time, and were more likely to be a smoker than their female nurse counterparts. Men were more likely to report restrictions in bending, bathing, and dressing. In relation to disease, male nurses reported greater rates of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease, including a three times greater incidence of myocardial infarction, and were more likely to have metabolic problems. In contrast, however, male nurses were more likely to report feeling calm and peaceful with less worries about their health. Important for nurse workforce administrators concerned about the well-being of their staff, the current study reveals significant sex differences and supports the need for gender-sensitive approaches to aid the well-being of male nurses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Obesity paradox in heart failure patients - Female gender characteristics-KAMC-single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Sheeren; Matahen, Rajaa

    2017-09-01

    The correlation between low body mass index (BMI) and congestive heart failure (obesity paradox) has been described in the literature; However, the association between BMI and clinical outcome measures is not well characterized. Little is known about CHF in the Middle Eastern female population; most of the gender-specific information on heart failure comes from higher income "Western" countries. We aimed to identify the correlation between heart failure patients especially those with low BMI and clinical/safety outcome measures with focusing on female patients subgroup characteristics. We performed group comparisons of statistically relevant variables using prospectively collected data of HFrEF patients hospitalized over a 12 month period. The 167 patients (Group I) enrolled by this study with mean age of 59.64 ± 12.9 years, an EF score of 23.96 ± 10.14, 62.9% had ischemic etiology, 12.5% were smoker, 18% had AF, 31.1% had received ICD/CRT-D and an estimated 8.85 ± 9.5 days length of stay (LOS). The low BMI group of patients (Group II) had means age of 58.7 ± 14.5 years, a significant lower EF score of 20.32 ± 8.58, significantly higher 30, 90 days readmission rates and in-house mortality (22%, 36.6% and 17.1% vs 10.2%, 20.4% and 6.6% respectively) and higher rates of CVA, TIA and unexplained syncope (19.5% vs 7.2%). Similarly, female patients with low BMI (Group IV) had lower EF score of 22.0 ± 53, higher 30,90 days readmission rates and in-house mortality (34.4%,43.8% and 25% vs 13.5%,21.6% and 5.4% respectively) and higher rates of CVA, TIA and unexplained syncope(10% vs 0%). Our findings showed that heart failure patients with low BMI had poor adverse clinical outcome measures (poor EF, recurrent readmission, mortality and composite rates of CVA, TIA and unexplained syncope) which reflect the effect of obesity paradox in those patients with HFrEF. Female patient subgroup showed similar characteristic findings which also might reflect the

  1. Steroid hormones in bluegill, a species with male alternative reproductive tactics including female mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Rosemary; Neff, Bryan D

    2007-12-22

    The proximate mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of within-sex variation in mating behaviour are still poorly understood. Species characterized by alternative reproductive tactics provide ideal opportunities to investigate such mechanisms. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) are noteworthy in this regard because they exhibit two distinct cuckolder (parasitic) morphs (called sneaker and satellite) in addition to the parental males that court females. Here we confirm previous findings that spawning cuckolder and parental males have significantly different levels of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. We also report, for the first time, that oestradiol and cortisol levels are higher in cuckolders than in parental males. The two cuckolder morphs did not differ in average levels of any of the four hormones. However, among satellite males which mimic females in appearance and behaviour, there was a strong negative relationship between oestradiol levels and body length, a surrogate for age. This finding suggests that for satellite males, oestradiol dependency of mating behaviour decreases with increasing mating experience. Although such decreased hormone dependence of mating behaviour has been reported in other taxa, our data represent the first suggestion of the relationship in fishes.

  2. Xq28 duplications including MECP2 in five females: Expanding the phenotype to severe mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, E K; Collins, A; Papa, F T; Tejada, M I; Wheeler, P; Peeters, E A J; Gijsbers, A C J; van de Kamp, J M; Kriek, M; Losekoot, M; Broekma, A J; Crolla, J A; Pollazzon, M; Mucciolo, M; Katzaki, E; Disciglio, V; Ferreri, M I; Marozza, A; Mencarelli, M A; Castagnini, C; Dosa, L; Ariani, F; Mari, F; Canitano, R; Hayek, G; Botella, M P; Gener, B; Mínguez, M; Renieri, A; Ruivenkamp, C A L

    2012-06-01

    Duplications leading to functional disomy of chromosome Xq28, including MECP2 as the critical dosage-sensitive gene, are associated with a distinct clinical phenotype in males, characterized by severe mental retardation, infantile hypotonia, progressive neurologic impairment, recurrent infections, bladder dysfunction, and absent speech. Female patients with Xq duplications including MECP2 are rare. Only recently submicroscopic duplications of this region on Xq28 have been recognized in four females, and a triplication in a fifth, all in combination with random X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Based on this small series, it was concluded that in females with MECP2 duplication and random XCI, the typical symptoms of affected boys are not present. We present clinical and molecular data on a series of five females with an Xq28 duplication including the MECP2 gene, both isolated and as the result of a translocation, and compare them with the previously reported cases of small duplications in females. The collected data indicate that the associated phenotype in females is distinct from males with similar duplications, but the clinical effects may be as severe as seen in males. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitudes Toward Gender, Work, and Family among Female and Male Scientists in Germany and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Fuchs, Stefan; Aisenbrey, Silke; Kravets, Natalyia

    This research used a comparative approach and an elite framework to look at attitudes toward gender, work, and family among male and female scientists. The data came from the 1994 International Social Survey Program module measuring family and changing gender roles in (the former) East Germany, West Germany, and the United States. Research questions focused on the variation between the three samples in male scientists' attitudes regarding gender, work, and family; women's representation in science occupations; and the relation between the two. Another major concern was the extent to which female scientists express attitudes regarding gender, work, and family that resemble those of male scientists and the implications of these processes for increasing women's access to science. As predicted, male scientists in East Germany tended to have the most progressive attitudes (especially those regarding gender and work), East German women had the greatest access to science occupations, and there were virtually no sex differences in attitudes of East German scientists. West German male scientists were the most traditional on attitudes regarding gender and work, and U. S. male scientists tended to be the most traditional on attitudes regarding family. The attitudes of female scientists in West Germany and the United States reflected this larger trend, but there were sex differences within countries, with female scientists being more progressive than male scientists. Thus, the findings suggest that women s representation in science is related to the attitudes of male scientists regarding gender, work, and family. And although female scientists often hold quite similar attitudes as male scientists, there is considerable cross-country variation in how progressive the attitudes are and how similar men's and women's attitudes are. Implications for women's access to elite science occupations are discussed.

  4. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiong Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer (CFO gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between 2009 and 2012 indicate that (1 female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms; (2 female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and (3 banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  5. Female CFOs and loan contracting: Financial conservatism or gender discrimination? – An empirical test based on collateral clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xixiong; Xu; Yaoqin; Li; Mengmeng; Chang

    2016-01-01

    Based on signaling and gender discrimination theory, we examine whether chief financial officer(CFO) gender matters to bank–firm relationships and the designing of collateral clauses in bank loan contracting, and explore the potential path of influence. Data taken from Chinese listed companies between2009 and 2012 indicate that(1) female-CFO-led firms are less likely to obtain credit loans than male-CFO-led firms;(2) female-CFO-led borrowers are more likely to be required to provide collateral for loans than male-CFO-led borrowers; and(3) banks are more inclined to claim mortgaging collateral when lending to female-CFO-led firms and prefer to guarantee collateral when lending to male-CFO-led firms. Female-CFO-led borrowers seem to be granted more unfavorable loan terms than male-CFO-led borrowers, supporting the hypothesis that female CFOs experience credit discrimination. Further analysis reveals that regional financial development helps to alleviate lending discrimination against female CFOs. Furthermore, female CFOs in SOEs are less likely than their non-SOE counterparts to experience gender discrimination in the credit market.

  6. Gender differences and the definition of success: male and female veterinary students' career and work performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.

  7. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  8. Gender separation increases somatic growth in females but does not affect lifespan in Nothobranchius furzeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available According to life history theory, physiological and ecological traits and parameters influence an individual's life history and thus, ultimately, its lifespan. Mating and reproduction are costly activities, and in a variety of model organisms, a negative correlation of longevity and reproductive effort has been demonstrated. We are employing the annual killifish Nothobranchius furzeri as a vertebrate model for ageing. N. furzeri is the vertebrate displaying the shortest known lifespan in captivity with particular strains living only three to four months under optimal laboratory conditions. The animals show explosive growth, early sexual maturation and age-dependent physiological and behavioural decline. Here, we have used N. furzeri to investigate a potential reproduction-longevity trade-off in both sexes by means of gender separation. Though female reproductive effort and offspring investment were significantly reduced after separation, as investigated by analysis of clutch size, eggs in the ovaries and ovary mass, the energetic surplus was not reallocated towards somatic maintenance. In fact, a significant extension of lifespan could not be observed in either sex. This is despite the fact that separated females, but not males, grew significantly larger and heavier than the respective controls. Therefore, it remains elusive whether lifespan of an annual species evolved in periodically vanishing habitats can be prolonged on the cost of reproduction at all.

  9. Female students of Hungarian origin in the higher education system of Serbia: A gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendak-Kabok Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of students of Hungarian origin studying at the University of Novi Sad (Vojvodina, Serbia is considerably lower than expected, based on the size of the Hungarian national community living in Vojvodina. This fact is caused by various reasons, but the most important is that one third of the Hungarian students continue their higher education in Hungary instead of Serbia. The primary cause of this brain drain is that they cannot continue their studies in their mother tongue. Hungary is a member of the European union, and therefore prospective students choose it over Serbia, as a Eu university degree opens up better employment opportunities, especially in the Eu. This paper analyzes the number of female students from the Hungarian national community in Vojvodina, who are studying at the university of Novi Sad, and compares their number to the number of students of Serbian nationality at the same university, as well as the gender aspect of their faculty choices. The aim of this study is to express the lower representation of Hungarian female students at the university of Novi Sad, especially in the areas of technical sciences studies and computing and information sciences, and to propose measures and solutions in order to overcome the above mentioned lower representation. The research results indicate a decrease in the number of female Hungarian students and a seriously biased structure of their faculty choices at the university of Novi Sad, as well as the fact that their faculty choices result in problems which they face later when they start looking for employment. It would be of great importance if the government, as the founder of higher educational institutions, would take action. The civil society's engagement is needed as well in this field, through affirmative and other measures which could increase the number of students in the technical study areas and thereby increase the likeliness of finding suitable employment opportunities

  10. Does Gender Matter? Female Representation on Corporate Boards and Firm Financial Performance - A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Jan Luca; Nikolova, Romina; Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Voelpel, Sven Constantin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an ongoing, worldwide debate about the representation of females in companies. Our study aimed to meta-analytically investigate the controversial relationship between female representation on corporate boards and firm financial performance. Following a systematic literature search, data from 20 studies on 3097 companies published in peer-reviewed academic journals were included in the meta-analysis. On average, the boards consisted of eight members and female participation was low (mean 14%) in all studies. Half of the 20 studies were based on data from developing countries and 62% from higher income countries. According to the random-effects model, the overall mean weighted correlation between percentage of females on corporate boards and firm performance was small and non-significant (r = .01, 95% confidence interval: -.04, .07). Similar small effect sizes were observed when comparing studies based on developing vs. developed countries and higher vs. lower income countries. The mean board size was not related to the effect sizes in studies. These results indicate that the mere representation of females on corporate boards is not related to firm financial performance if other factors are not considered. We conclude our study with a discussion of its implications and limitations. PMID:26086454

  11. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap. PMID:23433245

  12. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Nerina; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-02-25

    In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  13. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  14. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects—something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women

  15. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects-something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women

  16. Support for traditional female roles across 32 countries: Female labour market participation, policy models and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, S.C.H.; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this research we study support for traditional female roles. We test individual and contextual explanations for differences in support for traditional female roles within and across 32 countries. Higher educated, employed people and those who do not adhere to a religion are least supportive. The

  17. Support for traditional female roles across 32 countries : Female labour market participation, policy models and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, S.C.H.; Gesthuizen, M.; Schepers, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this research we study support for traditional female roles. We test individual and contextual explanations for differences in support for traditional female roles within and across 32 countries. Higher educated, employed people and those who do not adhere to a religion are least supportive. The

  18. "I Can Do More Things": How Black Female Student-Athletes Contend with Race, Gender, and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Tomika

    2015-01-01

    Black female student-athletes who attend a predominantly White, Division I institution navigate their college experiences differently than their peers. They may face social, academic, and athletic challenges related to their race and gender which may impact their social and academic integration into the campus community. The purpose of this study…

  19. Do values matter? The impact of work ethic and traditional gender role values on female labour market supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to gain a better understanding of the explanatory value of work ethic and traditional gender role values with regard to variation in female labour market supply. Although women's labour market participation has increased dramatically over the past decades, it still lacks behind

  20. Do values matter? : The impact of work ethic and traditional gender role values on female labour market supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Kirsten; Verbakel, Ellen; de Graaf, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to gain a better understanding of the explanatory value of work ethic and traditional gender role values with regard to variation in female labour market supply. Although women’s labour market participation has increased dramatically over the past decades, it still lacks behind

  1. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  2. Video Game Violence and the Female Game Player: Self- and Opponent Gender Effects on Presence and Aggressive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, Matthew S.

    2006-01-01

    Adding depth and breadth to the general aggression model, this paper presents three experiments that test the relationships among user and opponent gender representation, opponent type, presence, and aggressive thoughts from violent video game play. Studies 1 and 2 suggest that females experience greater presence and more aggressive thoughts from…

  3. Another Look at Sex Differences in Preferred Mate Characteristics: The Effects of Endorsing the Traditional Female Gender Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen-Schmidt, Mary C.; Eagly, Alice H.

    2002-01-01

    This research used an individual differences approach to test Eagly and Wood's (1999) claim that sex differences in the characteristics that people prefer in mates reflect the tendency for men and women to occupy different social roles in a society. The study related the extent to which participants endorsed the traditional female gender role to…

  4. Negotiation of Gender Relations Meaning among Female Interpretation Community in Housing and Village Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Budi Lestari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sitcom of Husbands fearing Wives (SSTI-Suami-Suami Takut Istri, is one of the private television sitcoms which highlights violence as a joke to provoke laughter of its audiences. In SSTI, the joke involves the concept of gender, exchanging the role of women and men which has been socially and culturally constructed. One of the main objectives of this study is to analyze the role of the interpretation community in understanding the gender relations in SSTI sitcom. The study aims to discover the media interpretation by a group of female audiences living in the village and sub-district of Tembalang, Semarang. The results show that the negotiation of interpretation community on SSTI sitcom is not in line with the goal of the media; because the nature of men and women roles that are exchanged is interpreted as an “abnormal” relation. Therefore, the hierarchical power relation between men and women which tends to disadvantage women, for interpretation community is regarded as a normal & natural.Tayangan sinetron komedi Suami-suami Takut Istri (SSTI, merupakan salah satu program televisi swasta yang menonjolkan kekerasan sebagai lelucon untuk tujuan memancing tawa. Dalam prakteknya SSTI melibatkan konsep jender, yang mempertukarkan sifat-sifat perempuan dan laki-laki  sebagai hasil kontruksi secara sosial maupun kultural. Salah satu tujuan penelitian ini ingin menganalisis peran komunitas interpretasi dalam pemaknaan tentang relasi jender pada tayangan sinetron SSTI. Penelitian ini berlangsung pada penonton perempuan yang tinggal di perumahan dan perkampungan wilayah kecamatan Tembalang, kota Semarang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa negosiasi komunitas interpretasi pada tayangan sinetron SSTI tidak sejalan dengan arahan media karena ternyata sifat laki-laki dan perempuan yang dipertuarkan dimaknai sebagai relasi yang tidak ‘normal’. Dengan demikian relasi kuasa hirarkis antara laki-laki dan perempuan  yang cenderung merugikan

  5. Gender issues in malaysian education: Factors influencing male and female students’ academic achievement through cognitive processes in public examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppiah Nachiappan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender issues in the field of education has been a continuos debated issue for generations. In the present context, the gender issue is being debated heatedly based on the differences in the achievements among male and female students in public exams.The objective of this study is to obtain views from (N=120 secondary school students randomly selected from various location in Malaysia. Hermeneutic analysis was used in order to analyse the students’ written essays on the factors which contributed to the achievement of the two genders in examinations. The findings of the study clearly indicated that female students outperform male students in examinations. The sample also summed up the factors leading to the failure of male students in performing well and ways to overcome this setback.

  6. Microdeletions including FMR1 in three female patients with intellectual disability - further delineation of the phenotype and expression studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, A M; Wohlleber, E; Engels, H

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in males. It is caused most often by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions, and less frequently by point mutations and partial or full deletions of the FMR1 gene. The wide...... clinical spectrum of affected females partly depends on their X-inactivation status. Only few female ID/DD patients with microdeletions including FMR1 have been reported. We describe 3 female patients with 3.5-, 4.2- and 9.2-Mb de novo microdeletions in Xq27.3-q28 containing FMR1. X-inactivation was random...

  7. Gender differences in brain activity and the relationship between brain activity and differences in prevalence rates between male and female major depressive disorder patients: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijian; Yan, Rui; Wei, Maobin; Tang, Hao; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    We examined the gender-difference effect on abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of male and female major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and the further clarified the relationship between the abnormal ALFF and differences in MDD prevalence rates between male and female patients. Fourteen male MDD patients, 13 female MDD patients and 15 male and 15 female well matched healthy controls (HCs) completed this study. The ALFF approach was used, and Pearson correlation was conducted to observe a possible clinical relevance. There were widespread differences in ALFF values between female and male MDD patients, including some important parts of the frontoparietal network, auditory network, attention network and cerebellum network. In female MDD patients, there was a positive correlation between average ALFF values of the left postcentral gyrus and the severity of weight loss symptom. The gender-difference effect leading to abnormal brain activity is an important underlying pathomechanism for different somatic symptoms in MDD patients of different genders and is likely suggestive of higher MDD prevalence rates in females. The abnormal ALFF resulting from the gender-difference effect might improve our understanding of the differences in prevalence rates between male and female MDD patients from another perspective. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Type 3 Thyroplasty for a Patient with Female-to-Male Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Itani, Shigeto; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki

    2018-01-01

    In most cases, about the voice of the patient with female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID), hormone therapy makes the voice low-pitched. In success cases, there is no need for phonosurgery. However, hormone therapy is not effective in some cases. We perform type 3 thyroplasty in these cases. Hormone therapy was started in 2008 but did not lower the speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs). We therefore performed TP3 under local anesthesia. In our case, the SFF at the first visit was 146 Hz. The postoperative SFF was 110 Hz. TP3 was performed under local anesthesia in a patient with FTM/GID in whom hormone therapy proved ineffective. With successful conversion to a lower-pitched voice, the patient could begin to live daily life as a male. QOL improved significantly with TP3. If hormone therapy proves ineffective, TP3 may be selected as an optional treatment and appears to show few surgical complications and was, in this case, a very effective treatment.

  9. Type 3 Thyroplasty for a Patient with Female-to-Male Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Saito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In most cases, about the voice of the patient with female-to-male/gender identity disorder (FTM/GID, hormone therapy makes the voice low-pitched. In success cases, there is no need for phonosurgery. However, hormone therapy is not effective in some cases. We perform type 3 thyroplasty in these cases. Method. Hormone therapy was started in 2008 but did not lower the speaking fundamental frequencies (SFFs. We therefore performed TP3 under local anesthesia. Results. In our case, the SFF at the first visit was 146 Hz. The postoperative SFF was 110 Hz. Conclusions. TP3 was performed under local anesthesia in a patient with FTM/GID in whom hormone therapy proved ineffective. With successful conversion to a lower-pitched voice, the patient could begin to live daily life as a male. QOL improved significantly with TP3. If hormone therapy proves ineffective, TP3 may be selected as an optional treatment and appears to show few surgical complications and was, in this case, a very effective treatment.

  10. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Ertl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have <30% females. It was investigated to which degree individual stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects

  11. The Use of Female Sex Workers Among Men in Nepal: Prevalence, STIs/HIV-Related Risk Behaviors, and Gender Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Heterosexual sex involving female sex workers (FSWs) is widely documented for its role in facilitating the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. Critical to such studies, and increasingly considered essential to HIV prevention efforts, is the gender constructs and power dynamics within relationships. However, little efforts have been made, which focus on male clients of FSWs, particularly on the relationship between gender ideologies and men’s sexual contact with FSWs, within the Nepali context. The present study aims to fill this critical gap by assessing the prevalence of use of FSWs and its association with STIs/HIV-related risk behaviors and gender ideologies among Nepali men. We used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. For the purpose of analyses, we included a sample of 4,121 men, aged 15–49 years. During data analyses, we used multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for the following variables: age, region, residence, religion, educational level, wealth index, employment status, and cigarette smoking status. Of the total sample, approximately 5% reported the use of FSWs in their lifetime. In regression models, men who had sex with FSWs were more likely to report a history of STIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.69–5.43; P < 0.001], not using condom all the time (aOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05–2.12; P = 0.010), more than one sexual partner (aOR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.18–5.23; P < 0.001), and have had early sexual debut (aOR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.85–3.67; P < 0.001). Respondents reporting the endorsement of violence against wives (aOR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01–2.84; P = 0.04) and male sexual entitlement (aOR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.21–2.32; P = 0.001) were significantly more likely to report sexual contact with FSWs. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specifically tailored interventions toward male clients of FSWs, with a particular emphasis on

  12. The Use of Female Sex Workers Among Men in Nepal: Prevalence, STIs/HIV-Related Risk Behaviors, and Gender Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael

    Heterosexual sex involving female sex workers (FSWs) is widely documented for its role in facilitating the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. Critical to such studies, and increasingly considered essential to HIV prevention efforts, is the gender constructs and power dynamics within relationships. However, little efforts have been made, which focus on male clients of FSWs, particularly on the relationship between gender ideologies and men's sexual contact with FSWs, within the Nepali context. The present study aims to fill this critical gap by assessing the prevalence of use of FSWs and its association with STIs/HIV-related risk behaviors and gender ideologies among Nepali men. We used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. For the purpose of analyses, we included a sample of 4,121 men, aged 15-49 years. During data analyses, we used multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for the following variables: age, region, residence, religion, educational level, wealth index, employment status, and cigarette smoking status. Of the total sample, approximately 5% reported the use of FSWs in their lifetime. In regression models, men who had sex with FSWs were more likely to report a history of STIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.69-5.43; P < 0.001], not using condom all the time (aOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.05-2.12; P = 0.010), more than one sexual partner (aOR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.18-5.23; P < 0.001), and have had early sexual debut (aOR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.85-3.67; P < 0.001). Respondents reporting the endorsement of violence against wives (aOR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01-2.84; P = 0.04) and male sexual entitlement (aOR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.21-2.32; P = 0.001) were significantly more likely to report sexual contact with FSWs. Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specifically tailored interventions toward male clients of FSWs, with a particular emphasis on promoting

  13. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  14. Female Gender and Acne Disease Are Jointly and Independently Associated with the Risk of Major Depression and Suicide: A National Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chien Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne is a common disease in adolescence with female preponderance. It could cause poor self-esteem and social phobia. Previous studies based on questionnaires from several thousands of adolescents showed that acne is associated with major depression and suicide. However, the gender- and age-specific risk of depression and suicide in patients with acne remain largely unknown. Using a database from the National Health Insurance, which included 98% of the population of Taiwan in 2006, we identified patients of acne, major depression, and suicide based on ICD-9-CM codes. Totally 47111 patients with acne were identified (16568 males and 30543 females from 1 million subjects. The youths of 7–12 years had the highest prevalence of acne (14.39%. Major depression was more common in those with acne (0.77% than controls (0.56% , P < 0.0001 regardless of gender. Multiple logistic regression showed an increased risk of major depression in women without acne (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.75–1.96. The risk is additive in women with acne (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 2.43–3.17. Similar additive risk of suicide was noticed in women with acne. In conclusion, acne and gender, independently and jointly, are associated with major depression and suicide. Special medical support should be warranted in females with acne for the risk of major depression and suicide.

  15. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The Gender Division of Labor and the Reproduction of Female Disadvantage: Toward an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Janet Saltzman

    1988-01-01

    Presents a theory of mechanisms sustaining and reproducing systems of gender stratification, central amongst which is gender division of labor, within both the family and the wider society. Asserts men create dominant social functions which contribute further to gender stratification. Maintains women then choose that which they would otherwise be…

  17. Behavioural and Cognitive Sex/Gender Differences in Autism Spectrum Condition and Typically Developing Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing…

  18. The Prognostic Roles of Gender and O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Methylation Status in Glioblastoma Patients: The Female Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Enrico; Tosoni, Alicia; Minichillo, Santino; Depenni, Roberta; Paccapelo, Alexandro; Bartolini, Stefania; Michiara, Maria; Pavesi, Giacomo; Urbini, Benedetta; Crisi, Girolamo; Cavallo, Michele A; Tosatto, Luigino; Dazzi, Claudio; Biasini, Claudia; Pasini, Giuseppe; Balestrini, Damiano; Zanelli, Francesca; Ramponi, Vania; Fioravanti, Antonio; Giombelli, Ermanno; De Biase, Dario; Baruzzi, Agostino; Brandes, Alba A

    2018-04-01

    Clinical and molecular factors are essential to define the prognosis in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status, age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), and extent of surgical resection are the most relevant prognostic factors. Our investigation of the role of gender in predicting prognosis shows a slight survival advantage for female patients. We performed a prospective evaluation of the Project of Emilia Romagna on Neuro-Oncology (PERNO) registry to identify prognostic factors in patients with GBM who received standard treatment. A total of 169 patients (99 males [58.6%] and 70 females [41.4%]) were evaluated prospectively. MGMT methylation was evaluable in 140 patients. Among the male patients, 36 were MGMT methylated (25.7%) and 47 were unmethylated (33.6%); among the female patients, 32 were methylated (22.9%) and 25 were unmethylated (17.9%). Survival was longer in the methylated females compared with the methylated males (P = 0.028) but was not significantly different between the unmethylated females and the unmethylated males (P = 0.395). In multivariate analysis, gender and MGMT methylation status considered together (methylated females vs. methylated males; hazard ratio [HR], 0.459; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.242-0.827; P = 0.017), age (HR, 1.025; 95% CI, 1.002-1.049; P = 0.032), and KPS (HR, 0.965; 95% CI, 0.948-0.982; P factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender orientation and alcohol-related weight control behavior among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Barr, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Weight control behavior was assessed via the Compensatory-Eating-and-Behaviors-in Response-to-Alcohol-Consumption-Scale. Control variables included sex, race/ethnicity, age, and depressive symptoms. Gender orientation was measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The prevalence and probability of alcohol-related weight control behavior using ordinal logistic regression are reported. Men and women do not significantly differ in compensatory-weight-control-behavior. However, regression models suggest that recent binge drinking, other substance use, and masculine orientation are positively associated with alcohol-related weight control behavior. Sex was not a robust predictor of weight control behavior. Masculine orientation should be considered a possible risk factor for these behaviors and considered when designing prevention and intervention strategies.

  20. Women in WAR and peace – reflections on gender and the role of female soldiers in MINUSMA, MALI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    Active involvement of women is key to sustainable and inclusive peace. Despite efforts to increase the deployment of female soldiers, the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) remains dominated by men. A focus on the operational relevance of gender integration and building...... on existing capacities in the mission will be small, yet realistic, steps forward. This paper discusses mechanisms within the mission that have been established to raise gender awareness, based on fieldwork conducted by me in MINUSMA in June 2016, together with post.doc Signe Cold-Ravnkilde and Peter Albrecht...

  1. The influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.

  2. Negotiating the Use of Female-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods in a Context of Gender-Based Violence: the Narrative of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Stadler, Jonathan; Laborde, Nicole; Magazi, Busisiwe; Mathebula, Florence; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Female-initiated methods of HIV prevention are needed to address barriers to HIV prevention rooted in gender inequalities. Understanding the socio-cultural context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials, including gender-based violence, is thus critical. MTN-003C (VOICE-C), a qualitative sub-study of the larger MTN-003 (VOICE) trial, examined socio-cultural barriers and facilitators to PrEP amongst women in Johannesburg. We conducted focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and ethnographic interviews with 102 trial participants, 22 male partners, 17 community advisory board members, and 23 community stakeholders. We analysed how discussions of rape are emblematic of the gendered context in which HIV risk occurs. Rape emerged spontaneously in half of discussions with community advisory board members, two-thirds with stakeholders and among one-fifth of interviews/discussions with trial participants. Rape was used to reframe HIV risk as external to women’s or partner’s behaviour and to justify the importance of PrEP. Our research illustrates how women, in contexts of high levels of sexual violence, may use existing gender inequalities to negotiate PrEP use. This suggests that future interventions should simultaneously address harmful gender attitudes, as well as equip women with alternative means to negotiate product use, in order to more effectively empower women to protect themselves from HIV. PMID:26551920

  3. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  4. Immediate Manager Gender and Female Wages - The Importance of Manager Position

    OpenAIRE

    Halldén, Karin; Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny; Rosen, Asa

    2016-01-01

    One argument for increasing female representation in management is the anticipation that female managers are particularly beneficial for female employees through, e.g., role modeling or mentoring. Contrary to the expected positive association, we find that female wages are negatively associated with working directly for a female as opposed to male manager using a representative sample of matched employee-employer data from Sweden. However, dividing the sample by managerial position, and contr...

  5. Persistence of the Gender Gap and Low Employment of Female Workers in a Stratified Labor Market: Evidence from South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonmo Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The gender gap in working conditions has barely improved in South Korea where various measures for gender equality have been in place for a relatively long time. Furthermore, the female employment rate is also the lowest in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. This study will evaluate the stratified structure of the labor market to identify the causes and will analyze changes in the gender employment distribution and mobility. This study conducted an empirical analysis of gender distribution and labor mobility in the South Korean labor market, utilizing long-term data (2005–2014 from the supplementary survey by employment type on the Economically Active Population of the Korea National Statistical Office. From the analysis, women showed a relatively smaller increase than men in the primary labor market, classified as the large and standard employment market, in 2014 compared with 2005, but showed a relatively greater increase than men in the secondary labor market, comprising the small–medium and non-standard employment market. Thus, gender skewness in employment distribution was greater in the stratified labor market. On the other hand, the non-economically active population more than doubled for women compared to men. From the analysis of labor mobility by gender, a higher proportion of women were employed in the peripheral labor market than in the core labor market and women were also more likely to be employed in the relatively weak peripheral labor market. These results imply that dichotomous gender equality policies for resolving the gender gap have a certain limitation in the stratified labor market. Thus, what is needed is a holistic approach that takes into account the labor market structure.

  6. Women (Do Not) Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes. PMID:28220097

  7. Women (Do Not) Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees' perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.

  8. Women (Do Not Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Veldman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (incompatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.

  9. The Impact of Gender Segregation on Male-Female Wage Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo Dorantes, Catalina; De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the role of gender segregation and pay structure in explaining gender wage differentials of full-time salaried workers in Spain. Data from the 1995 and 2002 Wage Structure Surveys reveal that raw gender wage gaps decreased from 0.24 to 0.14 over the seven-year period. Average differences in the base wage and wage complements decreased from 0.09 to 0.05 and from 0.59 to 0.40, respectively. However, the gender wage gap is still large after accounting for work...

  10. The association between female genital fistula symptoms and gender-based violence: A multicountry secondary analysis of household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Lindsay; Tripathi, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which include standardised questions on female genital fistula symptoms, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the epidemiology of fistula. This study sought to examine associations between self-reported fistula symptoms and experience of gender-based violence (GBV) among women interviewed in DHS surveys. This study used data from thirteen DHS surveys with standardised fistula and domestic violence modules. Data from the most recent survey in each country were pooled, weighting each survey equally. Multivariable logistic regressions controlled for maternal and demographic factors. Prevalence of fistula symptoms in this sample of 95 625 women ranges from 0.3% to 1.8% by country. The majority of women reporting fistula symptoms (56%) have ever experienced physical violence, and more than one-quarter have ever experienced sexual violence (27%), compared with 38% and 13% among women with no symptoms, respectively. Similarly, 16% of women with fistula symptoms report recently experiencing sexual violence-twice the percentage among women not reporting symptoms (8%). Women whose first experience of sexual violence was from a non-partner have almost four times the odds of reporting fistula symptoms compared with women who never experienced sexual violence. These associations indicate a need to investigate temporal and causal relationships between violence and fistula. The increased risk of physical and sexual violence among women with fistula symptoms suggests that fistula programmes should incorporate GBV into provider training and services. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Guo, Grace L.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  12. The Princess and the Poor Self-Image: An Analysis of Newbery Medal Winners for Gender Bias and Female Underrepresentation Leading into the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. McCleary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how 12 recent (2000-2011 Newbery Medal-winning books represent gender. The study counts how many of the books’ characters represent progressive or traditional gender roles, how many male and female characters represent each character category (protagonist, antagonist, major, and minor, how many strong female characters are accepted or rejected by their peers, how many characters hold stereotypical gender beliefs about themselves or their peers, and how many works contain balanced feminist perspectives. The study finds equitable female representation, but the study also finds a bias toward traditional male stereotypes. The results indicate a general acceptance of strong female characters and a balanced representation of females, regardless of a historical fiction classification. These results suggest that characters in Newbery Medal-winning books represent gender more equally and less stereotypically compared to characters in works of earlier decades.

  13. Leaving college: a gender comparison in male and female-dominated programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severiens, S.; ten Dam, G.

    2012-01-01

    Women, on average, outnumber men and are more successful in higher education. A literature overview showed that these differences may be explained by gender differences in learner characteristics, by external factors and by institutional factors. This study aims to explain gender differences in

  14. Leaving College: A Gender Comparison in Male and Female-Dominated Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Severiens (Sabine); G. ten Dam (Geert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWomen, on average, outnumber men and are more successful in higher education. A literature overview showed that these differences may be explained by gender differences in learner characteristics, by external factors and by institutional factors. This study aims to explain gender

  15. Supporting Gender Equality in Extracurricular Activities and the Impact on Female Bullying Victimization in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Brett

    2017-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the extent to which U.S. high school students are bullied in connection with participation in and attitudes towards extracurricular activities. Previous research suggests that students are bullied when their participation exhibits gender abnormal performances of masculinity or femininity, but less is known…

  16. Gifted Females: Teachers, Nurses and Astronauts; A Unit on Gender Issues; PEAC: Primary Extension and Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carole C.

    1994-01-01

    Gifted girls (ages 10-12) in Western Australia participated in a gender issues course to promote self-esteem and gender identity, challenge traditional beliefs, and raise political awareness of antisexism. The course focused on expression of shared experiences; the Greek myth of Pandora; stereotypes in television programs, literature, and greeting…

  17. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  18. Distinctive features of female-to-male transsexualism and prevalence of gender identity disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Keiko; Shimizu, Ayumi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Masumori, Naoya; Ohmura, Tousei; Kiya, Tamotsu; Fujimoto, Takashi; Koizumi, Motoiki; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of transsexualism is thought to differ among socio-geographic backgrounds, and little is known about its prevalence in Japan. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is known to be associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, is often seen in female-to-male (FTM) transsexual patients. Consequently, detection of PCOS is an important part of health care for these individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of transsexuality in Japan, as well as the incidences of PCOS and insulin resistance among Japanese FTM transsexual patients. One hundred four male-to-female (MTF) and 238 FTM Japanese transsexual patients were studied. Medical histories, including histories of menstrual cycling and hormone treatment, were taken. To exclude other diseases, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and hormone-secreting tumors, thorough medical assessments, including transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonography and measurement of serum hormone levels and insulin resistance indexes, were performed. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the Rotterdam 2003 criteria. Based on demographic statistics, the prevalences of MTF and FTM transsexuality are about 3.97 and 8.20 per 100,000 people, respectively, making the MTF-to-FTM ratio about 1:2. Of the FTM transsexual patients studied, 128 had not taken hormones before their initial assessment (untreated group); the remaining 50 self-administered androgen. Among the untreated group, 32.0% were diagnosed with PCOS, 30.1% were insulin-resistant, and 31.1% showed hypoadiponectinemia. The sex ratio among Japanese transsexuals is different than among Caucasians. PCOS and insulin resistance are common findings in FTM transsexual patients at initial presentation. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Solutions for retention of female cardiologists: from the survey of gender differences in the work and life of cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Yayoi Tetsuou; Tokita, Miwa; Kato, Kazuyo; Kato, Yuko; Miyauchi, Mizuho; Ono, Isuzu; Tanabe, Hiroko; Yokoshima, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Hiroko; Miyatake, Yoshiko; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2009-11-01

    To prevent a future shortage of cardiologists, it is important for female cardiologists to continue working. Gender differences in the professional and private lives of cardiologists, as well as the barriers to work for female cardiologists, were surveyed. In August 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to all 195 faculty members/fellows and 155 alumni of the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at Nippon Medical School. More female cardiologists were dissatisfied with their job than male cardiologists (34% vs 17%, PWomen reported greater career limitation by family responsibilities and housework. Men and women both reported that long working hours was the most problematic issue, but significantly more women reported this than men (76% vs 94%, Pwomen, (3)establishment of a retraining system, and (4)development of work and research opportunities that are attractive to women. The Japanese Circulation Society is expected to establish a retraining system at certified institutions.

  20. The relationship of gender balance at work, family responsibilities and workplace characteristics to drinking among male and female attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, E R

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of gender balance at work, family and home responsibilities and workplace factors to the drinking behaviors of attorneys. Using a stratified random sampling procedure, attorneys were selected from the bar associations of two large Midwestern cities. Telephone interviews were completed with 300 men and 257 women (37.3% of those originally selected), who were asked about characteristics of their work, the numbers of female attorneys they had contact with in four types of working relationships, overall and work-related drinking, and family and home responsibilities. Multiple regression and discriminant analyses were used to study the influence of these variables on drinking. Gender balance variables entered several of the analyses. For both men and women the frequency of work-related drinking positively correlated with the number of female attorneys in the organization, but was negatively related to the number of women who were peers. Family and home responsibilities entered predictive equations, both positively and negatively, for both men and women. Size of firm was positively correlated with frequency of business-related drinking and, for men, with frequency of social drinking related to work. The influence of the gender composition of the workplace on drinking behaviors may vary, for both men and women, by the type of contact involved, with closer or more active involvement with female colleagues associated with decreased frequency of drinking. Work-related drinking may also be related to home and family demands and the size of the firm, again for both genders.

  1. "Maybe She Was Provoked": Exploring Gender Stereotypes About Male and Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Female gender and acne disease are jointly and independently associated with the risk of major depression and suicide: a national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Chien; Tu, Hung-Pin; Hong, Chien-Hui; Chang, Wei-Chao; Fu, Hung-Chun; Ho, Ji-Chen; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a common disease in adolescence with female preponderance. It could cause poor self-esteem and social phobia. Previous studies based on questionnaires from several thousands of adolescents showed that acne is associated with major depression and suicide. However, the gender- and age-specific risk of depression and suicide in patients with acne remain largely unknown. Using a database from the National Health Insurance, which included 98% of the population of Taiwan in 2006, we identified patients of acne, major depression, and suicide based on ICD-9-CM codes. Totally 47111 patients with acne were identified (16568 males and 30543 females) from 1 million subjects. The youths of 7-12 years had the highest prevalence of acne (14.39%). Major depression was more common in those with acne (0.77%) than controls (0.56% , P suicide was noticed in women with acne. In conclusion, acne and gender, independently and jointly, are associated with major depression and suicide. Special medical support should be warranted in females with acne for the risk of major depression and suicide.

  3. Gendered endings: Narratives of male and female suicides in the South African Lowveld

    OpenAIRE

    Niehaus, I

    2012-01-01

    This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11013-012-9258-y. Copyright @ Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Durkheim’s classical theory of suicide rates being a negative index of social solidarity downplays the salience of gendered concerns in suicide. But gendered inequalities have had a negative impact: worldwide significantly more men than women perpetrate fatal suicides. Drawing on narratives of 52 fat...

  4. Are Female Workers Less Productive Than Male Workers? Productivity and the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Meyerson, Eva M.; Petersen, Trond; Snartland, Vemund

    1998-01-01

    It is extraordinarily difficult to determine the extent to which the gender wage gap reflects discriminatory behaviors by employers or differences in productive capacities between men and women. We note that where piece-rate work is performed, wages should in principle reflect productivity differences and that it is more difficult to discriminate on the basis of gender because one is paid for what one produces. With this as our point of departure, we compared men and women working in the same...

  5. The Gender Differences: Hispanic Females and Males Majoring in Science or Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan Wightman

    Documented by national statistics, female Hispanic students are not eagerly rushing to major in science or engineering. Using Seidman's in-depth interviewing method, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, majoring in science or engineering were interviewed. Besides the themes that emerged with all 22 Hispanic students, there were definite differences between the female and male Hispanic students: role and ethnic identity confusion, greater college preparation, mentoring needed, and the increased participation in enriched additional education programs by the female Hispanic students. Listening to these stories from successful female Hispanic students majoring in science and engineering, educators can make changes in our school learning environments that will encourage and enable more female Hispanic students to choose science or engineering careers.

  6. Global variance in female population height: the influence of education, income, human development, life expectancy, mortality and gender inequality in 96 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Quentin J

    2014-01-01

    Human height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. Female population heights of 96 nations were culled from previously published sources and public access databases. Factor analysis with United Nations international data on education rates, life expectancy, incomes, maternal and childhood mortality rates, ratios of gender participation in education and politics, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) was run. Results indicate that population heights vary more closely with gender inequality than with population health, income or education.

  7. Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction in a Rapidly Changing Cultural Environment: Addressing Gender Equality versus Equivalence in the Bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Marianne; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    The socio-sexual climate in Western cultures is changing at an astounding rate. Never before have societal expectations about gender roles shifted so radically, transforming our understanding of what it means to be a sexual man or woman today. We have observed that confusion regarding masculine and feminine roles within long-term committed relationships can represent challenges for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Despite the relevance to sexual medicine, sexual medicine specialists have largely avoided this controversial topic. To review the current literature relating to heterosexual gender roles and sexual intimacy, to offer perspective and context on this issue, and to propose an approach to the man, woman, or couple based in evolutionary theory that we have found useful in our extensive clinical experiences. We reviewed the English-language peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 through 2015, that addressed the impact of heterosexual gender role expression on sexual intimacy in long-term committed relationships. Main outcomes include a review of the applicable literature and an assessment of the literature's relevance for patients and practitioners of sexual medicine. An alternative context for understanding heterosexual gender expression grounded in evolutionary theory is provided, as is a new treatment perspective based on our work as a sex therapist and an urologist. The impact of gender expression on sexual experience might be impossible to ascertain fully because it is difficult to quantify in research, independently and especially in combination. Furthermore, existing research is fraught with challenges and inadequacies. Although we acknowledge and affirm the critical importance of gender equality, modern conceptualizations of gender in the literature ignore pertinent evolutionary adaptations and might be minimally applicable to sexual medicine patients. More research is needed. We propose that equality of genders does not necessarily mean

  8. Verbal memory declines more in female patients with Parkinson's disease: the importance of gender-corrected normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, S; Roeske, S; Heber, I; Reetz, K; Schulz, J B; Riedel, O; Wittchen, H U; Storch, A; Linse, K; Baudrexel, S; Hilker, R; Mollenhauer, B; Witt, K; Schmidt, N; Balzer-Geldsetzer, M; Dams, J; Dodel, R; Gräber, S; Pilotto, A; Petrelli, A; Fünkele, S; Kassubek, J; Kalbe, E

    2016-08-01

    Data on gender-specific profiles of cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are rare and inconsistent, and possible disease-confounding factors have been insufficiently considered. The LANDSCAPE study on cognition in PD enrolled 656 PD patients (267 without cognitive impairment, 66% male; 292 with mild cognitive impairment, 69% male; 97 with PD dementia, 69% male). Raw values and age-, education-, and gender-corrected Z scores of a neuropsychological test battery (CERAD-Plus) were compared between genders. Motor symptoms, disease duration, l-dopa equivalent daily dose, depression - and additionally age and education for the raw value analysis - were taken as covariates. Raw-score analysis replicated results of previous studies in that female PD patients were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.03), while men outperformed women in visuoconstruction (p = 0.002) and figural memory (p = 0.005). In contrast, gender-corrected Z scores showed that men were superior in verbal memory (word list learning, p = 0.02; recall, p = 0.02; recognition, p = 0.04), while no difference was found for visuospatial tests. This picture could be observed both in the overall analysis of PD patients as well as in a differentiated group analysis. Normative data corrected for gender and other sociodemographic variables are relevant, since they may elucidate a markedly different cognitive profile compared to raw scores. Our study also suggests that verbal memory decline is stronger in women than in men with PD. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings, examine the progression of gender-specific cognitive decline in PD and define different underlying mechanisms of this dysfunction.

  9. A Gender Bias Habit-Breaking Intervention Led to Increased Hiring of Female Faculty in STEMM Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Patricia G; Forscher, Patrick S; Cox, William T L; Kaatz, Anna; Sheridan, Jennifer; Carnes, Molly

    2017-11-01

    Addressing the underrepresentation of women in science is a top priority for many institutions, but the majority of efforts to increase representation of women are neither evidence-based nor rigorously assessed. One exception is the gender bias habit-breaking intervention (Carnes et al., 2015), which, in a cluster-randomized trial involving all but two departmental clusters ( N = 92) in the 6 STEMM focused schools/colleges at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, led to increases in gender bias awareness and self-efficacy to promote gender equity in academic science departments. Following this initial success, the present study compares, in a preregistered analysis, hiring rates of new female faculty pre- and post-manipulation. Whereas the proportion of women hired by control departments remained stable over time, the proportion of women hired by intervention departments increased by an estimated 18 percentage points ( OR = 2.23, d OR = 0.34). Though the preregistered analysis did not achieve conventional levels of statistical significance ( p power, as the cluster-randomized trial has a maximum sample size of 92 departmental clusters. These patterns have undeniable practical significance for the advancement of women in science, and provide promising evidence that psychological interventions can facilitate gender equity and diversity.

  10. Do beliefs about gender roles moderate the relationship between exposure to misogynistic song lyrics and men's female-directed aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Courtland S; Berke, Danielle S; Miller, Joshua D; Zeichner, Amos

    2017-04-01

    Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female-directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression. Results indicated that misogynistic lyrics and hostile sexism significantly predicted both unprovoked and provoked aggression against a female target. Contrary to expectations, moderating effects of gender role beliefs on the relationship between misogynistic lyrics and men's aggression were not found. Implications are discussed in terms of the costs of misogyny in media for women's lives. Aggr. Behav. 43:123-132, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Status incongruity and backlash effects: Defending the gender hierarchy motivates prejudice against female leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudman, L.A.; Moss-Racusin, C.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Nauts, S.

    2012-01-01

    Agentic female leaders risk social and economic penalties for behaving counter-stereotypically (i.e., backlash; Rudman, 1998), but what motivates prejudice against female leaders? The status incongruity hypothesis (SIH) proposes that agentic women are penalized for status violations because doing so

  12. Gendered endings: narratives of male and female suicides in the South African Lowveld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Isak

    2012-06-01

    Durkheim's classical theory of suicide rates being a negative index of social solidarity downplays the salience of gendered concerns in suicide. But gendered inequalities have had a negative impact: worldwide significantly more men than women perpetrate fatal suicides. Drawing on narratives of 52 fatal suicides in Bushbuckridge, South Africa, this article suggests that Bourdieu's concepts of 'symbolic violence' and 'masculine domination' provide a more appropriate framework for understanding this paradox. I show that the thwarting of investments in dominant masculine positions have been the major precursor to suicides by men. Men tended to take their own lives as a means of escape. By contrast, women perpetrated suicide to protest against the miserable consequences of being dominated by men. However, contra the assumption of Bourdieu's concept of 'habitus', the narrators of suicide stories did reflect critically upon gender constructs.

  13. Gender identity disorder and autism spectrum disorder in a 23-year-old female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Thomazeau, Barbara; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2014-02-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year-old woman with Gender Identity Disorder (GID) asking for a cross-sex hormonal treatment with sex reassignment surgery and who was recently diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Gender identity clinics are now reporting an overrepresentation of individuals with ASD among GID patients. The prevalence of ASD is 10-fold higher among GID patients than in general population. However, few case reports or studies have explored the co-occurrence of ASD and GID. This co-occurrence is relevant for diagnostic and clinical management and also raises important theoretical issues.

  14. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L; Beasley, R Palmer; Tran, Ly T H; Nguyen, Huong T H; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-10-24

    Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women's health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females' sexual or reproductive health. Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students' discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women's vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women's sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.

  15. ‘It’s really a hard life’: Love, gender and HIV risk among male-to-female transgender persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELENDEZ, RITA M.; PINTO, ROGÉRIO

    2012-01-01

    Scientific studies demonstrate high rates of HIV infection among male-to-female (MTF) transgender individuals and that stigma and discrimination place MTFs at increased risk for infection. However, there is little research examining how gender roles contribute to HIV risk. This paper reports on in-depth interviews with 20 MTFs attending a community clinic. Data reveal that stigma and discrimination create a heightened need for MTFs to feel safe and loved by a male companion and that in turn places them at a higher risk for acquiring HIV. Male-to-female transgender individuals appear to turn to men to feel loved and affirmed as women; their main HIV risk stems from their willingness to engage with sexual partners who provide a sense of love and acceptance but who also may also request unsafe sexual behaviours. A model illustrating how HIV risk is generated from stigma and discrimination is presented. PMID:17457728

  16. The impact of the Nigerian Economic Reforms on the female gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of gender inequality on economic growth and poverty eradication. It stresses the need to promote access to microfinance and other poverty alleviation strategies to reduce poverty amongst women and empower them socially, recognising their multiple roles as wives, mothers and managers.

  17. Outsourcing the Gender Factory : Living Arrangements and Service Expenditures on Female and Male Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, Esther de; Treas, Judith K.; Cohen, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey 1998, this study analyzes how much money different types of households spend for domestic services on “female” and “male” tasks.We test alternative hypotheses based on economic and sociological theories of gender differentiation. Contrary to

  18. Gender and Body Concerns in Adolescent Females: Single Sex and Coeducational School Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensinger, Janell

    This paper involves focus group research with adolescent women from coeducational and single sex independent schools. First, it discusses research that finds girls who attend single sex institutions to be at a distinct advantage with respect to gender issues and academics. In order to obtain a better understanding of these differences, a study is…

  19. Gender Orientation and Alcohol-Related Weight Control Behavior among Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L.; Barr, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants: Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Method: Weight…

  20. GENDER AND POVERTY: SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF FEMALE ROLE MODELS AND VULNERABILITY PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella RISSOTTO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution regards an analysis of gender-related role models and their relevance for poverty. Data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Poverty as a function of gender is interpreted in the present case in the light of the interrelation between economic disadvantages, inherent in the sy stems of integration, an d social exclusion, with special reference to the family and the labour market. From this point of view, the concept of dependence represents a strategic concept that may be broken down into the dimensions of: - economic (income source; - material (non economic help in the management of the family. It will be shown how gender models have a statistically significant weight in the distribution of a greater or lesser degree of dependence. Economic dependence and material dependence may be related back to two empirical typological indexes, wh ich summarize a set of semantically relevant indicators. Also an additional index of economic hardship has been constructed, which also summarizes specific indicators. In addition to gender profiles, the analysis takes into account specific categories of women, focusing attention on subjects that are potentially vulnerable to poverty (elderly women, women with precarious jobs and divorcees defining their specific profiles.

  1. Approaching Gender Equity in Academic Chemistry: Lessons Learned from Successful Female Chemists in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Friedmann, Jaimie; Childs, Ann; Hillier, Judith

    2018-01-01

    The internationally acknowledged gender gap in science continues to be an unrelenting concern to science educators; aggregate data in the UK show that both recruitment and retention of women in academic science remain relatively low. Most published research focuses on women in the broad field of science, generates correlations or predictions, or…

  2. Blood thiamine, zinc, selenium, lead and oxidative stress in a population of male and female alcoholics: clinical evidence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Mancinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Long term alcohol abuse is associated with deficiencies in essential nutrients and minerals that can cause a variety of medical consequences including accumulation of toxic metals. Aim. The aim of this research is to get evidence-based data to evaluate alcohol damage and to optimize treatment. Thiamine and thiamine diphosphate (T/TDP, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, lead (Pb and oxidative stress in terms of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were examined in blood samples from 58 alcohol dependent patients (17 females and 41 males. RESULTS. T/TDP concentration in alcoholics resulted significantly lower than controls (p < 0.005 for both sexes. Serum Zn and Se did not significantly differ from reference values. Levels of blood Pb in alcoholics resulted significantly higher (p < 0.0001 than Italian reference values and were higher in females than in males. ROMs concentration was significantly higher than healthy population only in female abusers (p = 0.005. CONCLUSION. Alcoholics show a significant increase in blood oxidative stress and Pb and decrease in thiamine. Impairment occurs mainly in female abusers confirming a gender specific vulnerability.

  3. Perceived gender inequality, sexual communication self-efficacy, and sexual behaviour among female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M.; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Tran, Ly T. H.; Nguyen, Huong T. H.; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the literature on sexual behaviour has documented associations between gender-based relationship inequality and sexual communication ability and the actual use of condoms or other contraceptives among young women. This study aimed to examine these associations among undergraduate female students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1181 female third-year students from two universities in the Mekong Delta was conducted. Latent variable modelling and logistic regression were employed to examine the hypothesised associations. Results Among the 72.4% of students who had ever had boyfriends, 44.8% indicated that their boyfriends had asked for sex, 13% had had penile–vaginal sex and 10.3% had had oral sex. For those who had had penile–vaginal sex, 33% did not use any contraceptive method, including condoms, during their first sexual intercourse. The greater a student’s perception that women were subordinate to men, the lower her self-efficacy for sexual communication and the lower her actual frequency of discussing safer sex matters and asking her partner to use a condom. Sexual communication self-efficacy was associated with actual contraceptive use (P = 0.039) but only marginally with condom use (P = 0.092) at first sexual intercourse. Conclusion Sexual health promotion strategies should address the influence of gender relations on young women’s sexual communication self-efficacy and the subsequent impact on actual contraceptive and condom use. PMID:22877589

  4. Identity, self-regulation, and gender inequality: Sexual and reproductive health and rights of Adolescent girls and Female sex workers In South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabbert, A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Many sexual and reproductive health inequities are rooted in gender inequality that place women in South Africa, especially adolescent girls and sex workers, at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Gender inequality causes multiple layers of stigma, discrimination, and marginalisation, including

  5. Male and Female Middle School Students' Perceptions of Maternal Employment as a Function of Gender and School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Debi; Lindquist, Mia; Strauss, Aviva; Gorton, Larua; McCauley, Joyce; Nyce, Susan; Johnson, Lisa; Covert, Stephanie; Maggi, Leigh; Fields, Susan; Eddy, Preethy; Black, Aimee; Denis, Lauren; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study examined middle school students' perceptions of maternal employment, as a function of their gender and type of school environment (suburban vs. urban). A four-part survey, which included information about the respondents' mother's work status, the Beliefs About Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children (BACMEC) scale, and…

  6. Testosterone replacement elevates the serum uric acid levels in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Mahmood, Sabina; Araki, Motoo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) results from a disagreement between a person's biological sex and the gender to which he or she identifies. With respect to the treatment of female to male GID, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available. The uric acid (UA) level can be influenced by testosterone; however, the early effects and dose-dependency of TRT on the serum UA concentration have not been evaluated in this population. We herein conducted a dose-response analysis of TRT in 160 patients with female to male GID. The TRT consisted of three treatment groups who received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate: 125 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 250 mg every two weeks. Consequently, serum UA elevation was observed after three months of TRT and there was a tendency toward testosterone dose-dependency. The onset of hyperuricemia was more prevalent in the group who received the higher dose. We also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased levels of serum UA and serum creatinine. Since the level of serum creatinine represents an individual's muscle volume and the muscle is a major source of purine, which induces UA upregulation, the serum UA elevation observed during TRT is at least partially attributed to an increase in muscle mass. This is the first study showing an association between serum UA elevation and a TRT-induced increase in muscle mass. The current study provides important information regarding TRT for the follow-up and management of the serum UA levels in GID patients.

  7. I Am the Invincible Sword Goddess: Mediatization of Chinese Gender Ideology through Female Kung-Fu Practitioners in Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Hiramoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The media are avid portrayers of gender binarism and the belief in male-female distinctions, which are mainly attributed to perceived differences of a physical nature. In this paper, we investigate representations of female kung-fu practitioners (nuxia in films to discuss how processes of mediation and mediatization depict their femininity, so as to mitigate their appropriation of Chinese martial arts masculinity. Often, nuxias are portrayed as empowered women who are equipped to take control of their own lives and to courageously take on challenges from a variety of opponents. However, multimodal deconstruction of the various characteristics of nuxias must be placed in an Asian-specific context in order to understand the femininity specific to these characters and to move beyond Western gender ideologies displayed by the media. Perpetuating Confucian patriarchal ideals, nuxia roles constantly and consistently associate conformation to Confucian values with virtuousness and non-conformation with wickedness. We therefore can use the ideals of Confucianism as a more accurate foundation in deconstructing the identities of nuxias, which allows us to better understand the mediation and mediatization processes of ideologies associated with Chinese femininity and masculinity in martial arts films.

  8. Warriors and Mystics: Religious Iconography, Eroticism, Blasphemy and Gender in Punk Female Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Garrigós

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between the use of religious iconography related to eroticism by Spanish punk artists, and the gender stereotyping that the appropriation of these symbols aims to destabilize. The desire to shock and disturb the audience places these artists in a position where they have to challenge established values, such as religious and identity ones. There are many examples of male punk bands that openly rebel against organized religion, but the critique of these bands is direct, whereas women use eroticism to expose the patriarchal strategies of the church, as well as to project an image of themselves that breaks all expectations. Religious iconography becomes the tool for the ironic reevaluation and eventual destruction of cultural and gender structures as part of their artistic program.

  9. Female Gender Scheme is Disturbed by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Qualitative Study From Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Mohammadpour Thamtan, Reza Ali; Shiva, Niloofar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting up to one in every five women of reproductive age. The majority of researches on PCOS focus on its biomedical aspects, often overlooking and neglecting women’s own perceptions and experiences. Objectives: This study aimed to explore women’s perception and experiences that influence their personal gender role. Patients and Methods: This research is a qualitative study by conventional content analysis. Semi...

  10. Social Licence to Operate through a gender lens : The challenges of including women’s interests in development assistance projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijelava, David; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the concept of social licence to operate from a gender perspective. We examine the challenges associated with obtaining a gender-aware social licence for development assistance organizations working in conservative, traditional rural societies. We argue that during project

  11. Gender, Lies and Video Games: the Truth about Females and Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klawe, Maria M.

    2006-01-01

    This talk explores how girls and women differ from boys and men in their uses of and attitudes towards computers and computing. From playing computer games to pursuing computing careers, the participation of females tends to be very low compared to that of males. Why is this? Opinions range from girls wanting to avoid the math and/or the geek image of programming to girls having better things to do with their lives. We discuss research findings on this issue, as well as initiatives designed to increase the participation of females in computing.

  12. [Gender violence and other factors associated with emotional distress in female users of public health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Agoff, Carolina; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Híjar, Martha C

    2006-01-01

    To identify and describe the factors associated with emotional distress in a national sample of women users of public health services in Mexico, such a Secretaria de Salud (SSA), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE). This research study was conducted using the database of the National Survey of Violence against Women that consisted of the responses of a total of 26 042 female users of health care services provided by the Mexican government health agencies. The Personal Health Scale (ESP per its initials in Spanish) was used to assess emotional distress. To measure violence a 19-item scale which explores different types of violence as well as severity was used. The relationship between emotional distress and gender violence was determined through a binary logistic regression model, as were economic status and demographic variables. One of the most important findings of this study is the high prevalence of emotional distress (15.3%) among women seeking health care services from the public sector and the relationship of such emotional distress with the experience of marital physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Factors associated with emotional distress among female users of health care services were age (26 and older); activity (laborer); working hours (71 hours a week or more); alcohol intake (greater intake); abuse during childhood (frequency and types of abuse); severity of marital violence (severe violence); socioeconomic status (very low SES); and type of dwelling (urban). The principal predictor of emotional distress was intimate partner abuse, especially in severe expression. The next predictor was violence in childhood. Taking into consideration these predictors it is recommended to use screening instruments to identify emotional distress and gender violence in health setting. It is important to design and implement attention and reference programs in public

  13. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women’s vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women’s sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Conclusion Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women’s sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.

  14. Experiences of long-term home care as an informal caregiver to a spouse: gendered meanings in everyday life for female carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Henrik; Sandberg, Jonas; Hellström, Ingrid

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we explore the gender aspects of long-term caregiving from the perspective of women providing home care for a spouse suffering from dementia. One of the most common circumstances in which a woman gradually steps into a long-term caregiver role at home involves caring for a spouse suffering from dementia. Little attention has been paid to examining the experiences and motivations of such caregivers from a feminist perspective. Twelve women, all of whom were informal caregivers to a partner suffering from dementia, were interviewed on the following themes: the home, their partner's disease, everyday life, their relationship and autonomy. The results of these interviews were analysed in relation to gender identity and social power structures using a feminist perspective. The findings of this study show that the informants frequently reflected on their caregiving activities in terms of both general and heteronormative expectations. The results suggest that the process of heteropolarisation in these cases can be an understood as a consequence of both the spouse's illness and the resulting caring duties. Also, the results suggest that the act of caring leads to introspections concerning perceived 'shortcomings' as a caregiver. Finally, the results indicate that it is important to recognise when the need for support in day-to-day caring is downplayed. Women view their caregiving role and responsibilities as paramount; their other duties, including caring for themselves, are deemed less important. We stress that the intense commitment and responsibilities that women experience in their day-to-day caring must be acknowledged and that it is important for healthcare professionals to find mechanisms for providing choices for female caregivers without neglecting their moral concerns. Female carers face difficulties in always living up to gendered standards and this need to be considered when evaluating policies and practices for family carers. © 2012 Blackwell

  15. Beauty and the Beast--Can Life Drawing Support Female Students in Challenging Gendered Media Imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Clare

    2013-01-01

    How does life drawing impact on a group of 14-16-year-old female art and design students and their perception of body image? In contemporary Western society, we are bombarded with advertising, social media and celebrity culture on a daily basis, often with a focus on body image. This article questions whether, due to this visual assault, young…

  16. Voices in Transition: Testosterone, Transmasculinity, and the Gendered Voice among Female-to-Male Transgender People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimman, Lal

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is based on a long-term ethnographic and sociophonetic study of 15 transgender people on the female-to-male (or "transmasculine") identity spectrum. The focus of the study is the way these individuals' voices change during the first 1-2 years of masculinizing hormone therapy, which brings about a drop in vocal…

  17. The Role of Gender in Foreign Language Learning Attitudes: Japanese Female Students' Attitudes towards English Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed data from research on Japanese high school students' attitudes toward learning English to investigate female students' more positive attitudes toward English learning. Girls' attitudes toward English were affected by a composite of Japanese social and educational elements (e.g., characterization of English as a woman-dominant choice at…

  18. Gender, Work, and HIV Risk: Determinants of Risky Sexual Behavior among Female Entertainment Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei

    2006-01-01

    We proposed to integrate cognitive and social factors in the study of unprotected commercial sex. Data from 159 female entertainment workers from 15 establishments in Shanghai who reported commercial sex in the month prior to interview were used to test the approach. Two-sample t tests and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine…

  19. Gender-Linked Perceptions and Causal Attributions of Female/Male Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Harriet; Plake, Barbara S.

    Undergraduate students (N=518) rated graduate application materials for males or females applying to traditionally perceived masculine or feminine fields. Independent variables were rater's pro/anti feminism, sex of subject, sex of referent, sex of field, and sex of attributes. Dependent variables were academic competence, personal dynamics,…

  20. The Intersection of Race and Gender in School Leadership for Three Black Female Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Latish Cherie

    2012-01-01

    Using four assumptions of Black feminism, this qualitative study describes the practice of three African-American female principals in predominantly African-American, urban high schools. First, in general, the principals seemed to understand their experiences as part of a larger historical context. Second, given the shared racial and gender…

  1. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  2. Is it a (fe)male pain? Portuguese nurses' and laypeople's gendered representations of common pains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, S F; Silva, S A; Carvalho, H; Costa, M; Pereira, S

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have explored gender role expectations of pain behaviours in different cultures, only a few authors have tried to explore whether certain pains are more associated with the typical man or woman. Hence, this study aimed at exploring, among Portuguese laypeople and nurses, patterns of common pains more strongly associated with the typical man or woman, and their relationship with health-care training and personal pain experiences. A total of 68 nurses (76% women) and 55 laypeople (62% women) were asked to identify, through free association, the most frequent common pains that people in general associate with the typical man and woman, respectively, and also to report their personal past pain experiences. A content analysis was used to categorize and quantify participants' responses. A multiple correspondence analysis was performed to identify gendered patterns of common pains, followed by a cluster analysis to classify participants according to their endorsed patterns. Findings showed that while 'back and musculoskeletal pains' was the only pattern associated with the typical man, more differentiated patterns of pains were associated with the typical woman, namely (1) headaches; (2) abdominal, back and musculoskeletal pains; and (3) pains due to hormonal cycles, labour/puerperium and from the urinary/reproductive system. These representations were shared by laypeople and nurses and were only significantly associated with personal experiences of pains from the urinary/reproductive system. This study identified different gendered patterns of common pains, which may have important implications for (wo)men's pain experiences and how these are interpreted by others. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. The transmission protocols of gender as female submission device to marital violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Scaffo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the way in which women historically respond , in the familiar scenario, to marital violence. In principle, the snip, adopted as an object of study and analysis, consists of a typical mode of violence to the woman filed in the context of the cogs which  configure  the encounter between men and women. It points out the factors enhanced in this  meeting  which produce violence, exploring the  the possibility to reflect on aspects of the masculine condition or in ghosts   of the feminine universe. Considering the gender issue,    the following question is raised: Is the position of women  constructed based on educational principles  which determine  a particular type of role to  them or are there  other determinants? The analysis and discussion of this theme will be carried out considering the generational transmission of norms of gender-protocols from mother to daughter as well as  the constant reissue, in an unreflective manner, , that has been constituted as formative  roots of the   women’s behavior and which are part of the dynamics of the feminine in gender relations, in which the woman occupies a historically subordinate plan. Probably the condition of inferiority reflects  the transmission, from mother to daughter, of stereotyped patterns culturally assigned to women and that are accepted and replicated, almost automatically, in the scenario of marital relations.

  4. The cost of providing combined prevention and treatment services, including ART, to female sex workers in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Cianci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female Sex workers (FSW are important in driving HIV transmission in West Africa. The Yerelon clinic in Burkina Faso has provided combined preventative and therapeutic services, including anti-retroviral therapy (ART, for FSWs since 1998, with evidence suggesting it has decreased HIV prevalence and incidence in this group. No data exists on the costs of such a combined prevention and treatment intervention for FSW. This study aims to determine the mean cost of service provision per patient year for FSWs attending the Yerelon clinic, and identifies differences in costs between patient groups. METHODS: Field-based retrospective cost analyses were undertaken using top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for 2010. Expenditure and service utilisation data was collated from primary sources. Patients were divided into groups according to full-time or occasional sex-work, HIV status and ART duration. Patient specific service use data was extracted. Costs were converted to 2012 US$. Sensitivity analyses considered removal of all research costs, different discount rates and use of different ART treatment regimens and follow-up schedules. RESULTS: Using the top-down costing approach, the mean annual cost of service provision for FSWs on or off ART was US$1098 and US$882, respectively. The cost for FSWs on ART reduced by 29%, to US$781, if all research-related costs were removed and national ART monitoring guidelines were followed. The bottom-up patient-level costing showed the cost of the service varied greatly across patient groups (US$505-US$1117, primarily due to large differences in the costs of different ART regimens. HIV-negative women had the lowest annual cost at US$505. CONCLUSION: Whilst FSWs may require specialised services to optimise their care and hence, the public health benefits, our study shows that the cost of ART provision within a combined prevention and treatment intervention setting is comparable to providing ART to

  5. Effects of aging and gender on micro-rheology of blood in 3 to 18 months old male and female Wistar (Crl:WI) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Viktoria; Peto, Katalin; Deak, Adam; Tanczos, Bence; Nemeth, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Age- and gender-related alterations of hemorheological parameters have not been completely elucidated to date. Experiments on older animals may give valuable information on this issue. However, the majority of rheological studies have been performed in young rodents. We aimed to investigate the influence of aging and gender on hemorheological parameters in rats. Coeval male (n=10) and female (n=10) Wistar (Crl:WI) rats were followed-up over 15 months. Blood samples were obtained from the lateral tail vein at 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months of age. Hematological parameters, red blood cell deformability (elongation under shear), osmotic gradient deformability and erythrocyte aggregation were tested. Body weight and the estrus cycle (in females) were also examined. Erythrocyte aggregation showed age- and gender-related variations. Red blood cell deformability was greater in females and gradually decreased over the 15-month period in both genders. Erythrocyte aggregation was greater in male rats at most ages, but did not show consistent changes with age. The micro-rheological parameters showed age-related alterations with gender differences. The effect of the estrous cycle cannot be excluded in female rats. The results provide reference data for studies of aging in rats and of the mechanism related to age and gender differences in hemorheology.

  6. Female Gender Scheme is Disturbed by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Qualitative Study From Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Mohammadpour Thamtan, Reza Ali; Shiva, Niloofar

    2014-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting up to one in every five women of reproductive age. The majority of researches on PCOS focus on its biomedical aspects, often overlooking and neglecting women's own perceptions and experiences. This study aimed to explore women's perception and experiences that influence their personal gender role. This research is a qualitative study by conventional content analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 reproductive aged women with PCOS, recruited from the reproductive endocrinology research center. , in-depth interviews were continued to reach data saturation. The study was carried out at the reproductive endocrinology research center of Shahid Beheshti University in Tehran All the interviews were recorded and transcribed, and qualitative content analysis of the data was conducted manually. Four themes were identified. Content analysis of the interviews revealed these women mainly perceived themselves with lack of physical attractiveness, loss of womanhood, interruption of sexual role and disruption of fertility potential, feelings were related to symptoms e.g. 'excess' hair; absent or disrupted menstrual cycle, obesity and infertility commonly experienced by women with PCOS. Women with PCOS are challenged in their perceptions of themselves as "feminine" because of their hairy appearance, irregular menses and lack of fertility and this influences their gender roles. Medical practitioners must understand how PCOS precisely affects women's roles and initiate management aimed at reconstructing their "womanhood", along with their medical treatment.

  7. Gendered Morality and Development Narratives: The Case of Female Labor Migration from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses two dominant and contradictory representations of Indonesian female migrant workers: as national “heroes” who contribute to Indonesia’s economic development, or as exploited “victims” of labor abuse. By analyzing public statements by Indonesian state actors, news reports, and migrant activists’ websites, I argue that representations of migrants as victims do not undermine representations of migrants as heroes of development. Instead, in Indonesian public discourses abou...

  8. Kadın Kütüphaneciler: Toplumsal Cinsiyet Sorunları = Female Librarians: Gender Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı, kadın kütüphanecilerin cinsiyet ayrımcılığından dolayı kütüphanelerde karşılaşacakları olası sorunları irdelemektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmada, kadın kütüphanecilerin kütüphanelerde karşılaşacakları sorunlar şu şekilde ayrılmıştır; ○ kütüphanelerde cinsel istismar (mobbing; ○ ücret ayrımcılığı (kadın kütüphaneci olarak düşük ücret alma ○ kariyer gelişiminde cinsiyet ayrımcılığı; ○ kadın kütüphaneci olarak haksız yere işten çıkarılma ○ kadın kütüphaneci olarak kariyere ara verme (evlilik ya da bebek sahibi olma gibi nedenler ve ○ iş görüşmelerinde kişisel sorularla karşılaşma (evlilikle ya da annelikle ilgili zamanlamayla ilgili sorular. Ayrıca araştırmada, kadın kütüphanecilerin cinsiyet ayrımcılığına ilişkin kütüphanelerde karşılaşacakları yukarıda sıralanan sorunlara ilişkin çeşitli çözüm önerileri de tartışılmıştır./The purpose of this study is to examine the possible problems being met by female librarians due to gender discrimination in libraries. With this purpose in this study, the relevant problems being met by female librarians in libraries are divided as follows; sexual harassment (mobbing in libraries, wage discrimination (receiving a low wage as a female librarian, gender discrimination in career development, unfair dismissal as a female librarian, career break as a female librarian (because of marriage or having a new baby, and encountering the personal questions in job interviews (such as the questions of the timing of marriage or motherhood. Furthermore, in the study, various recommendations for solving the above problems of gender discrimination met by female librarians in libraries have been also discussed.

  9. Unequal on top: Gender profiling and the income gap among high earner male and female professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Jennifer; Dobrev, Stanislav D

    2015-09-01

    We develop a comprehensive, multi-level model of income inequality between high earner men and women during the early career stages. We argue that young women are routinely subjected to "gender profiling" by employers-women's potential contribution to the organization is interpreted through the lens of social stereotypes and cultural norms that attribute to them weaker labor market commitment than men. We investigate two specific mechanisms that arise from this profiling and lead to income inequality: First, women have diminished access to resources and advancement opportunities within the firm which results in lower returns to tenure for women than for men. Second, external mobility is greatly beneficial for men but much less so for women because it reinforces the image of weak commitment. Salary regressions of early career history data of young MBA alumni of a prestigious U.S. business school accord with our conjectures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The gendered stereotype of the 'good manager': Sex role expectations towards male and female managers

    OpenAIRE

    Gmür, Markus

    2006-01-01

    In the past 30 years, U.S. and international studies have shown that societal expectations of the 'good manager' are closely related to the male stereotype. However, it is not clear, whether this stereotype is the same for men andwomen alike in managerial positions. The results of a German study with 625 students and 376 professionals participating between 1997 and 2005 are presentedin the short note below. The main findings of the study are: 1. Female managers are expected to conform more cl...

  11. Sexual dysfunction is more than twice as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Lotte; Eidemak, Inge; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare sexual dysfunction in Danish female predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 with age-matched healthy women in Denmark. METHODS: Twenty-seven adult female predialysis patients (CKD stage 4-5 ~ creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min) without.......1, respectively, p = 0.180). CONCLUSION: Sexual dysfunction was found to be more than two times as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients with CKD stage 4-5 compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls, and this result emphasizes the need for attention towards sexual function in the treatment...... diagnosed depression and 54 randomly assigned healthy female controls completed the questionnaires Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the Major Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Predialysis patients reported lower Female Sexual Function Index scores compared to the controls (14...

  12. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    OpenAIRE

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height we...

  13. A Case Study of Gender Bias at the Postdoctoral Level in Physics, and its Resulting Impact on the Academic Career Advancement of Females

    OpenAIRE

    Towers, S.

    2008-01-01

    This case study of a typical U.S. particle physics experiment explores the issues of gender bias and how it affects the academic career advancement prospects of women in the field of physics beyond the postdoctoral level; we use public databases to study the career paths of the full cohort of 57 former postdoctoral researchers on the Run II Dzero experiment to examine if males and females were treated in a gender-blind fashion on the experiment. The study finds that the female researchers wer...

  14. Specifics of the implicit expression of the author’s gender identity in 19th and 20th century German-language female memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler L.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available this article covers the expression of implicit gender identity of the subject of speech activity in the 19th and 20th century women's memories. The study revealed that implicit gender aspects associated with linguistic ascertainment of gender stereotypes presented in female linguistic material form the lexico-semantic category of “Character”. Within this category, the lexico-semantic sub-categories “Emotionality”, “Fearfulness and diffidence” and “Dreaminess” play a significant role, representing the corresponding stereotypes.

  15. Dentists interacting and working with female dental nurses: a qualitative investigation of gender differences in primary dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, R; Gorter, R; Braam, A

    2004-02-14

    To investigate if women compared with men dentists experience deferential treatment from their female nurses, what workplace strategies women use to manage chair-side assistance and to examine if these were country related. A convenience sample of 22 male and female dentists of different ages working in general dental practice in The Netherlands and Northern Ireland participated. The sample framework was determined by saturation of the concepts. All informants were interviewed in a clinical setting. The data was subjected to rigorous line by line coding in order to identify clusters of codes, themes and concepts. Three themes were identified. These were: experiencing deferential nursing assistance; adopting 'friendly-like' working strategies and adopting business-like, hierarchical working strategies. Gender differences were shown for each of the themes. Women rather than men made friends with their nurses and attempted to reduce status inequalities. This led to workplace strategy inconsistencies. This suggested that it was not the type of strategy adopted but the inconsistency with which it was implemented that caused difficulties between younger women dentists and their nurses. Training dental students and young graduates how to interact appropriately in the clinical situation and to appreciate the nurses' work status will assist in improving working relationships.

  16. Assessing eating disorder risk: the pivotal role of achievement anxiety, depression and female gender in non-clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Konstantinos C; Frangos, Christos C

    2013-03-12

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders.

  17. Assessing Eating Disorder Risk: The Pivotal Role of Achievement Anxiety, Depression and Female Gender in Non-Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos C. Frangos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865 consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2 were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders.

  18. Gender, motivation, experience and wages

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Swaffield

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-97 this paper investigates the structure of the female wage equation and the gender wage differential. The discriminatory portion of the gender wage differential is overstated by over 40% when inadequate measures of female labour market experience are included in the wage equation. The degree of labour market motivation, aspirations and constraints are found to have a significant impact on the female wage. Moreover, the impact of time o...

  19. Does Gender Matter? Female Representation on Corporate Boards and Firm Financial Performance--A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Jan Luca; Nikolova, Romina; Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Voelpel, Sven Constantin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an ongoing, worldwide debate about the representation of females in companies. Our study aimed to meta-analytically investigate the controversial relationship between female representation on corporate boards and firm financial performance. Following a systematic literature search, data from 20 studies on 3097 companies published in peer-reviewed academic journals were included in the meta-analysis. On average, the boards consisted of eight members and female participation was low (mean 14%) in all studies. Half of the 20 studies were based on data from developing countries and 62% from higher income countries. According to the random-effects model, the overall mean weighted correlation between percentage of females on corporate boards and firm performance was small and non-significant (r = .01, 95% confidence interval: -.04, .07). Similar small effect sizes were observed when comparing studies based on developing vs. developed countries and higher vs. lower income countries. The mean board size was not related to the effect sizes in studies. These results indicate that the mere representation of females on corporate boards is not related to firm financial performance if other factors are not considered. We conclude our study with a discussion of its implications and limitations.

  20. Response to Therapy and Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Cancer Are Associated With Biomarkers Including Human Papillomavirus, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Gender, and Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Bhavna; Cordell, Kitrina G.; Lee, Julia S.; Prince, Mark E.; Tran, Huong H.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Urba, Susan G.; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina I.; Taylor, Jeremy; D'Silva, Nisha J.; Yang, Kun; Kurnit, David M.; Bradford, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    Induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation for responders or immediate surgery for non-responders is an effective treatment strategy head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the larynx and oropharynx. Biomarkers that predict outcome would be valuable in selecting patients for therapy. In this study, the presence and titer of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pre-treatment biopsies, as well as smoking and gender were examined in oropharynx cancer patients enrolled in an organ sparing trial. HPV16 copy number was positively associated with response to therapy and with overall and disease specific survival, whereas EGFR expression, current or former smoking behavior, and female gender (in this cohort) were associated with poor response and poor survival in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR may be useful adjuncts for therapy to improve outcome in the cases with the poorest biomarker profile

  1. Work, gender roles, and health: neglected mental health issues among female workers in the ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhter S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sadika Akhter,1,2 Shannon Rutherford,1 Feroza Akhter Kumkum,2 David Bromwich,1 Iqbal Anwar,2 Aminur Rahman,2 Cordia Chu1 1Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Traditionally, women in Bangladesh stayed at home in their role as daughter, wife, or mother. In the 1980s, economic reforms created a job market for poor, uneducated rural women in the ready-made garment industry, mostly located in urban areas. This increased participation in paid work has changed the gender roles of these women. Women’s earnings support their family, but they are also separated from their children, with impacts on their mental health and well-being. This study explores the lived experience of women in Bangladesh working in the ready-made garment industry as they strive to be mothers and family providers, often in high-stress conditions.Methods: The study was conducted in two industrial areas of Dhaka over 8 months. Data collection included a literature review, 20 in-depth interviews with married female garment workers, and 14 key-informant interviews with officials from the Ministry of Labour and Employment, health-service providers within the garment factories, factory managers, and representatives of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. The data collected were analyzed thematically.Results: Poverty was a key motivating factor for female migrant workers to move from rural areas. Their children stay in their village with their grandparents, because of their mothers’ work conditions and the lack of childcare. The women reported stress, anxiety, restlessness, and thoughts of suicide, due to the double burden of work and separation from their children and family support. Further, they cannot easily access government hospital services due to their long work hours, and the limited medical

  2. "I'm too used to it": a longitudinal qualitative study of third year female medical students' experiences of gendered encounters in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaria, Palav; Abedin, Sakena; Berg, David; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2012-04-01

    Although the number of women entering medical school has been steadily rising in the U.S.A., female medical students continue to report instances of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. The full spectrum of such experiences and their effect on the professional identity formation of female students over time remains largely unknown. To investigate these experiences, we interviewed 12 third year female medical students at a private New England medical school over several points during the 2006-2007 academic year. Using theoretical frameworks of gender performance and the centrality of student-patient and student-supervisor relationships, we were better able to understand how female medical students interpret the role of 'woman doctor' and the effect of negative and positive gendered interactions on the evolution of their professional identity. We found that participants quickly learned how to confront and respond to inappropriate behavior from male patients and found interactions with female patients and supervisors particularly rewarding. However, they did not feel equipped to respond to the unprofessional behavior of male supervisors, resulting in feelings of guilt and resignation over time that such events would be a part of their professional identity. The rapid acculturation to unprofessional behavior and resignation described by participants has implications for not only professional identity formation of female students but specialty choices and issues of future physician workforce. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender differences in trusting strangers: Role of the target's gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of 8-week body weight control program including sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) supplementation in Korean female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Sung, Min Jung

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a body weight control program with supplementation of sea tangle (20 g/day) on 22 female college students. The contents of the program for 8 weeks contained diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification through nutrition education. Body composition, dietary habit scores, serum lipid profiles, daily nutrient intakes and the quality of life were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the program. Average age of subjects and height were 20.8 years and 161.9 cm, respectively. After 8 weeks, there were significant reductions in body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and BMI. The dietary habit score such as a balanced diet, regularity of mealtime, overeating, eating while watching TV or using the computer and eating salty food were increased significantly. Serum lipid levels such as total cholesterol level, LDL-cholesterol level and triglyceride level were decreased but not significantly. There were decreases in intake of energy, protein and fat and increases in intakes of dietary fiber, folic acid, calcium and potassium from the beginning to the end of the program. There were significant improvements on subcomponents of quality of life; physical functioning, general-health and vitality. The limitation of this study was the fact that there was no control group, but an overall evaluation suggests the 8-week body weight control program consisting of diet therapy, exercise and behavioral modification with supplementation of sea tangle would be helpful to improve the body composition, dietary habits, daily nutrient intakes and quality of life in Korean female college students. PMID:20098584

  5. Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Borghi , Rachele; Camuffo , Monica

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The protests which have been ongoing in North-African countries since February 2011 have contributed towards giving visibility to that component of society often neglected by the dominant male model: women. Female bodies occupied not only the front covers of important magazines (Libération, n.9253, 12th-13th February 2011; Los Angeles Times, Saturday 12th February), but also a traditional male space: the public space. This media visibility of women has given new food f...

  6. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Tsujimura

    2017-09-01

    Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169–e174.

  7. Gender Discrimination in Death Reportage: Reconnoitering Disparities through a Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Paid Obituaries of Pakistani English Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sajid M.; Christopher, Anne A.; Krishnasamy, Hariharan A/L N.

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the issue of gender discrimination in the post death scenario of obituarial discourse. It aims to identify the way Pakistani newspaper obituaries recognize and project males and females after their deaths. A total of 601 paid obituaries published in a year's time span in Pakistani English newspapers were evaluated for the…

  8. Dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aya; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Sako, Tomoko; Mahmood, Sabina; Kaku, Haruki; Nasu, Yasutomo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) is a conflict between a person's actual physical gender and the one they identify him or herself with. Testosterone is the key agent in the medical treatment of female to male GID patients. We conducted a dose-response analysis of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in 138 patients to determine the onset of the therapeutic effects. The TRT consisted of intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate and patients were divided into three groups; 250 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 125 mg every two weeks. The onset of deepening of voice, increase in facial hair and cessation of menses was evaluated in each group. At one month after the start of TRT, the onset of these physical changes was more prevalent in the group receiving the higher dose of testosterone, and there were dose-dependent effects observed between the three treatment groups. On the other hand, at six months after the start of TRT, most of the patients had achieved treatment responses and there were no dose-dependent effects with regard to the percentage of patients with therapeutic effects. No significant side effects were observed in any of the treatment groups. We demonstrated that the early onset of the treatment effects of TRT is dose-dependent, but within six months of starting TRT, all three doses were highly effective. Current study provides useful information to determine the initial dose of TRT and to suggest possible changes that should be made in the continuous dosage for long term TRT.

  9. Gender Role Attitude with an Emphasis on Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Falahati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender roles defined as the patterns of behavior which are approved by society and culture. In other words gender role is the way men and women doing to recognition as feminine and masculine and culture, and society accepted and encourage those behaviors as appropriate behavior for men and women. Present study aimed to study gender role attitude using Islamic gender role attitude scale. A sample of 400 male and female students at public universities including Allameh-Tabataba'i University, Tehran University and the University of Kurdistan was drawn. Respondents were selected using random sampling method and data were collected with questionnaire. Results revealed that there were no traditional gender role attitude among students and all the respondents have professional and liberal attitude toward gender roles. There were significant gender differences between male and female in gender role attitude so that female students have more liberal attitude. In terms of ethnicity there were gender differences in Fars and Lur attitude, so that male have professional and female have liberal attitude. Among Kurdish respondents, male and female have liberal attitude while among Turkish, both male and female have traditional-professional attitude.

  10. Reproductive immunology: a focus on the role of female sex hormones and other gender-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeva, Elena

    2011-02-01

    Reproductive immunology has attracted the attention of researchers interested in fertility and pregnancy as well as those interested in immunity and autoimmunity. Over the past couple of decades, a wealth of data on the immune-reproductive interactions has been generated. This issue of the Journal will examine several topics including the role of immune factors in the induction of anti-Ro antibody-mediated autoimmunity in neonates and the immunological effects of gender and sex hormones. The possible implications of the research reviewed here for the development of novel therapeutic approaches are also addressed.

  11. The attitudes and beliefs of a female science teacher: Implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Mara

    In this case study of a female science teacher named Laura, numerous observations, field notes, researcher interpretations, and assertions were developed. As meanings were negotiated, intent of actions was defined using significant statements, clustered to produce invariant meaning units. Both the participant's intents and how she interpreted her experiences were central to the understandings sought in this study. Whenever Laura planned for teaching science, taught, or otherwise interacted with students, the following four themes seemed to frame her actions: (1) Responsibility to Nurture/Mother/Mentor (2) Connecting to and Relating (3) Meeting Gender-Specific Expectations (4) Promoting the Fighter/Survivor Within. Each theme is examined in relation to attitudes and beliefs about teaching and learning science, and conclusions and assertions are expressed. The findings of this study point to the tensions between Laura's attitudes and beliefs and her pedagogical practices, disconfirming these as they pertain to gender in relation to teaching and learning science. It was not evident as part of her daily practice that student experiences were used in an attempt to create connections between their lives and science, although Laura always emphasized that science is a way of life. The findings support questioning the role of intentionality and a teacher's perceived ability to adhere to intentions while practicing within the norms established by the social institution of schools operating within the larger structures of society. The major findings and implications are relevant to the manner teachers are prepared and encouraged to enact their practice by departments and boards of education, prepared by institutions of higher education and subsequent participation in professional development. Specifically, calling attention to how these educational frameworks emphasize or de-emphasize the role of teachers and promote cognizance in terms of the culture of schools, reflective

  12. Identity, self-regulation, and gender inequality: Sexual and reproductive health and rights of Adolescent girls and Female sex workers In South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Many sexual and reproductive health inequities are rooted in gender inequality that place women in South Africa, especially adolescent girls and sex workers, at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Gender inequality causes multiple layers of stigma, discrimination, and marginalisation, including misuse of criminal law, gender-based and sexual violence, and denial of sexual and reproductive health rights, which continue to create barriers to realising these rights. This thesis adopts a social a...

  13. Work, gender roles, and health: neglected mental health issues among female workers in the ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sadika; Rutherford, Shannon; Akhter Kumkum, Feroza; Bromwich, David; Anwar, Iqbal; Rahman, Aminur; Chu, Cordia

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, women in Bangladesh stayed at home in their role as daughter, wife, or mother. In the 1980s, economic reforms created a job market for poor, uneducated rural women in the ready-made garment industry, mostly located in urban areas. This increased participation in paid work has changed the gender roles of these women. Women's earnings support their family, but they are also separated from their children, with impacts on their mental health and well-being. This study explores the lived experience of women in Bangladesh working in the ready-made garment industry as they strive to be mothers and family providers, often in high-stress conditions. The study was conducted in two industrial areas of Dhaka over 8 months. Data collection included a literature review, 20 in-depth interviews with married female garment workers, and 14 key-informant interviews with officials from the Ministry of Labour and Employment, health-service providers within the garment factories, factory managers, and representatives of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association. The data collected were analyzed thematically. Poverty was a key motivating factor for female migrant workers to move from rural areas. Their children stay in their village with their grandparents, because of their mothers' work conditions and the lack of childcare. The women reported stress, anxiety, restlessness, and thoughts of suicide, due to the double burden of work and separation from their children and family support. Further, they cannot easily access government hospital services due to their long work hours, and the limited medical services provided in the workplace do not meet their needs. In order to improve the health and well-being of female garment workers, steps should be taken to develop health interventions to meet the needs of this important group of workers who are contributing significantly to the economic development of the country.

  14. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... the years of inseminations during first lactations from 1995 to 2004, were analyzed. Six fertility traits (i.e., interval in days from calving to first insemination, calving interval, days open, interval in days from first to last insemination, numbers of inseminations per conception, and nonreturn rate...... stability and predictive ability than single-trait models for all the fertility traits, except for nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The stability and predictive ability for the model including MILK or PROT were similar to the model including all 3 milk production traits and better than...

  15. "A female … will not be available here": gendered labour markets in northwest Pakistan's rural development sector

    OpenAIRE

    Grünenfelder, Julia

    2010-01-01

    While Pakistan has legally binding mechanisms to promote gender equality in employment, labour markets are shaped by the highly gender-segregated society they are embedded in. Based on the conceptualisation of labour markets as gendered institutions, I explore how gender generates unequal access to the labour market for social organisers—a term referring to a type of development practitioner—in the Hazara region, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, making it difficult for women to particip...

  16. The gender gap in risk factor control: Effects of age and education on the control of cardiovascular risk factors in male and female coronary patients. The EUROASPIRE IV study by the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Delphine; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Sutter, Johan; Dallongeville, Jean; Gevaert, Sofie; De Backer, Guy; Bruthans, Jan; Kotseva, Kornelia; Reiner, Željko; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Clays, Els

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in the management and risk factor control of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), taking into account their age and educational level. Analyses are based on the EUROASPIRE IV (EUROpean Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) survey. Males and females between 18 and 80years of age, hospitalized for a first or recurrent coronary event were included in the study. Data were available for 7998 patients of which 75.6% were males. Overall, females had a worse risk factor profile compared to males and were more likely to have 3 or more risk factors (29.5% vs. 34.9%; p<0.001) across all age groups. A significant gender by education interaction (p<0.05) and gender by age interaction effect (p<0.05) was found. Furthermore, males were more likely to have a LDL-cholesterol on target (OR=1.50[1.28-1.76]), a HbA1c on target (OR=1.33[1.07-1.64]), to be non-obese (OR=1.45[1.30-1.62]) and perform adequate physical activity (OR=1.71[1.46-2.00]). In contrast males were less likely to be non-smokers (OR=0.71[0.60-0.83]). Furthermore, males were less likely to have made a dietary change (OR=0.78[0.64-0.95]) or a smoking cessation attempt (OR=0.70[0.50-0.96]) and more likely to have received smoking cessation advice if they were smokers (OR=1.52[1.10-2.09]). Whereas gender differences in CHD treatment are limited, substantial differences were found regarding target achievement. The largest gender difference was seen in less educated and elderly patients. The gender gap declined with decreasing age and higher education. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Closing the Gender Gap: Improved Performance of U.S.-Born Females on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dale J.; White, Sheida; Cohen, Steffaney B.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the current state of the gender literacy gap and the change in the gender literacy gap between 1992 and 2003, using the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). The results revealed that although there were significant gender literacy gaps in 1992, virtually all…

  18. Female cluster headache in the United States of America: what are the gender differences? Results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D; Fishman, Royce S

    2012-06-15

    To present results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey regarding gender differences in cluster headache demographics, clinical characteristics, diagnostic delay, triggers, treatment response and personal burden. Very few studies have looked at the gender differences in cluster headache presentation. The United States Cluster Headache Survey is the largest study of cluster headache sufferers ever completed in the United States and it is also the largest study of female cluster headache patients ever presented. The total survey consisted of 187 multiple choice questions which dealt with various issues related to cluster headache including: demographics, clinical characteristics, concomitant medical conditions, family history, triggers, smoking history, diagnosis, treatment response and personal burden. A group of questions were specifically targeted to female cluster headache patients. The survey was placed on a website from October to December 2008. For all survey responders the diagnosis of cluster headache needed to be made by a neurologist but there was no validation of the headache diagnosis by the authors. 1134 individuals completed the survey (816 male, 318 female). Key Points that define the differences between female and male cluster headache include: a. Age of onset: women develop cluster headache at an earlier age than men and are more likely to develop a second peak of cluster headache onset after 50 years of age. b. Family history: woman cluster headache sufferers are more likely to have a family history of both cluster headache and migraine and have an increased familial risk of Parkinson's disease. c. Comorbid conditions: female cluster headaches sufferers are significantly more likely to experience depression and have asthma than males. d. Aura issues: aura with cluster headache is equally common in both sexes, but aura duration is shorter in women. Women are much more likely to experience sensory, language and brainstem auras. e. Pain

  19. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  20. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Martin

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to

  1. Differences in compassion fatigue, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and relationship satisfaction, including sexual desire and functioning, between male and female detectives who investigate sexual offenses against children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Eric J; Lating, Jeffrey M; Lowry, Jenny L; Martino, Traci P

    2010-01-01

    Law enforcement detectives who work with traumatized individuals, especially children who were victims of sexual abuse or assault, are likely to experience job-related emotional distress. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among compassion fatigue, probable PTSD symptoms, and personal relationship satisfaction, including communication and sexual satisfaction, in a sample of 47 male and female detectives. Responses to the administered questionnaires indicated a relation between compassion fatigue symptoms and probable PTSD symptoms. There also were compelling gender differences. For example, for male detectives, open communication with their spouse or significant other was negatively correlated with burnout, indicating the more open the communication, the lower the reported burnout. However for female detectives there was a negative correlation between open communication with spouse or significant other and compassion satisfaction, suggesting that more open communication was related to lower levels of satisfaction with their ability to be a professional caregiver Furthermore, although stepwise regression analysis indicated that years of service as a detective is independently associated with sexual desire, female detectives evidenced less sexual desire and more difficulty with sexual functioning than did male detectives. Implications of these preliminary findings are discussed and limitations addressed.

  2. Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex) and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna

    2012-12-17

    The categorization of individuals as "male" or "female" is based on chromosome complement and gonadal and genital phenotype. This combined genetic-gonadal-genitals sex, here referred to as 3G-sex, is internally consistent in ~99% of humans (i.e., one has either the "female" form at all levels, or the "male" form at all levels). About 1% of the human population is identified as "intersex" because of either having an intermediate form at one or more levels, or having the "male" form at some levels and the "female" form at other levels. These two types of "intersex" reflect the facts, respectively, that the different levels of 3G-sex are not completely dimorphic nor perfectly consistent. Using 3G-sex as a model to understand sex differences in other domains (e.g., brain, behavior) leads to the erroneous assumption that sex differences in these other domains are also highly dimorphic and highly consistent. But parallel lines of research have led to the conclusion that sex differences in the brain and in behavior, cognition, personality, and other gender characteristics are for the most part not dimorphic and not internally consistent (i.e., having one brain/gender characteristic with the "male" form is not a reliable predictor for the form of other brain/gender characteristics). Therefore although only ~1% percent of humans are 3G-"intersex", when it comes to brain and gender, we all have an intersex gender (i.e., an array of masculine and feminine traits) and an intersex brain (a mosaic of "male" and "female" brain characteristics).

  3. [The gender gap in highest quality medical research - A scientometric analysis of the representation of female authors in highest impact medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendels, Michael H K; Wanke, Eileen M; Benik, Steffen; Schehadat, Marc S; Schöffel, Norman; Bauer, Jan; Gerber, Alexander; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Oremek, Gerhard M; Groneberg, David A

    2018-05-01

     The study aims to elucidate the state of gender equality in high-impact medical research, analyzing the representation of female authorships from January, 2008 to September, 2017.  133 893 male and female authorships from seven high-impact medical journals were analyzed. The key methodology was the combined analysis of the relative frequency, odds ratio and citations of female authorships. The Prestige Index measures the distribution of prestigious authorships between the two genders.  35.0 % of all authorships and 34.3 % of the first, 36.1 % of the co- and 24.2 % of the last authorships were held by women. Female authors have an odds ratio of 0.97 (KI: 0.93 - 1.01) for first, 1.36 (KI: 1.32 - 1.40) for co- und 0.57 (KI: 0.54 - 0.60) for last authorships compared to male authors. The proportion of female authorships exhibits an annual growth of 1.3 % overall, with 0.5 % for first, 1.2 % for co-, and 0.8 % for last authorships. Women are underrepresented at prestigious authorship compared to men (Prestige Index = -0.38). The underrepresentation accentuates in highly competitive articles attracting the highest citation rates, namely, articles with many authors and articles that were published in highest-impact journals. Multi-author articles with male key authors are more frequently cited than articles with female key authors. The gender-specific differences in citation rates increase the more authors contribute to an article. Women publish fewer articles compared to men (39.6 % female authors are responsible for 35.0 % of the authorships) and are underrepresented at productivity levels of more than 1 article per author. Distinct differences at the country level were revealed.  High impact medical research is characterized by few female group leaders as last authors and many female researchers being first or co-authors early in their career. It is very likely that this gender-specific career dichotomy will persistent in

  4. The peer review gap: A longitudinal case study of gendered publishing and occupational patterns in a female-rich discipline, Western North America (1974-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Tushingham

    Full Text Available Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that women continue to be underrepresented in publication output in the sciences. This is true even in female-rich fields such as archaeology. Since most gender-related publication studies rely on data from peer-reviewed journals, it would be instructive, though challenging, to also track publication output in non-refereed and professional or industry venues, which tend to be more accessible to those working in extra-academic settings. This comparison is important in fields such as archaeology in which the vast majority (approximately 90% of practitioners in the USA work for private sector cultural resource management firms and federal and state agencies. To understand the dynamics of who publishes where, we compiled a new dataset tracking over 40 years of peer-reviewed versus non-peer-reviewed publications that publish articles on the archaeology of California (an American Indian cultural area including southwest Oregon, most of the state of California, and Baja Mexico and the Great Basin culture area (spanning eight western USA states. Historic gender differences in the publishing output of authors identified as men versus those identified as women were revealed by articles published between 1974 and 2016 in two refereed journals, the Journal of California Anthropology/ Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology and California Archaeology, and in one un-refereed venue, the Society for California Archaeology Proceedings. Although multiple independent measures indicate that women are contributing and active members of the discipline, publishing records yield more variable results. Specifically, while women have historic and increasingly robust levels of participation in the non-peer-reviewed Proceedings, they remain vastly underrepresented in the two peer-reviewed journals, which are widely regarded as more prestigious and influential. We argue that this "peer review gap" is influenced by

  5. The peer review gap: A longitudinal case study of gendered publishing and occupational patterns in a female-rich discipline, Western North America (1974–2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Tiffany; Hill, Katheryn

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that women continue to be underrepresented in publication output in the sciences. This is true even in female-rich fields such as archaeology. Since most gender-related publication studies rely on data from peer-reviewed journals, it would be instructive, though challenging, to also track publication output in non-refereed and professional or industry venues, which tend to be more accessible to those working in extra-academic settings. This comparison is important in fields such as archaeology in which the vast majority (approximately 90%) of practitioners in the USA work for private sector cultural resource management firms and federal and state agencies. To understand the dynamics of who publishes where, we compiled a new dataset tracking over 40 years of peer-reviewed versus non-peer-reviewed publications that publish articles on the archaeology of California (an American Indian cultural area including southwest Oregon, most of the state of California, and Baja Mexico) and the Great Basin culture area (spanning eight western USA states). Historic gender differences in the publishing output of authors identified as men versus those identified as women were revealed by articles published between 1974 and 2016 in two refereed journals, the Journal of California Anthropology/ Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology and California Archaeology, and in one un-refereed venue, the Society for California Archaeology Proceedings. Although multiple independent measures indicate that women are contributing and active members of the discipline, publishing records yield more variable results. Specifically, while women have historic and increasingly robust levels of participation in the non-peer-reviewed Proceedings, they remain vastly underrepresented in the two peer-reviewed journals, which are widely regarded as more prestigious and influential. We argue that this “peer review gap” is influenced by variation in the

  6. Brief Report: Does Gender Matter in Intervention for ASD? Examining the Impact of the PEERS® Social Skills Intervention on Social Behavior Among Females with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J; Schiltz, Hillary; Haendel, Angela; Dolan, Bridget K; Willar, Kirsten S; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S; Carson, Audrey M; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2017-07-01

    A paucity of research has been conducted to examine the effect of social skills intervention on females with ASD. Females with ASD may have more difficulty developing meaningful friendships than males, as the social climate can be more complex (Archer, Coyne, Personality and Social Psychology Review 9(3):212-230, 2005). This study examined whether treatment response among females differed from males. One hundred and seventy-seven adolescents and young adults with ASD (N = 177) participated in this study. When analyzed by group, no significant differences by gender emerged: PEERS ® knowledge (TASSK/TYASSK, p = .494), direct interactions (QSQ, p = .762), or social responsiveness (SRS, p = .689; SSIS-RS, p = .482). Thus, females and males with ASD respond similarly to the PEERS ® intervention.

  7. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  8. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartmann

    Full Text Available The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader

  9. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  10. Gender reassignment surgery: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Bellringer, James

    2011-05-01

    Gender reassignment (which includes psychotherapy, hormonal therapy and surgery) has been demonstrated as the most effective treatment for patients affected by gender dysphoria (or gender identity disorder), in which patients do not recognize their gender (sexual identity) as matching their genetic and sexual characteristics. Gender reassignment surgery is a series of complex surgical procedures (genital and nongenital) performed for the treatment of gender dysphoria. Genital procedures performed for gender dysphoria, such as vaginoplasty, clitorolabioplasty, penectomy and orchidectomy in male-to-female transsexuals, and penile and scrotal reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals, are the core procedures in gender reassignment surgery. Nongenital procedures, such as breast enlargement, mastectomy, facial feminization surgery, voice surgery, and other masculinization and feminization procedures complete the surgical treatment available. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health currently publishes and reviews guidelines and standards of care for patients affected by gender dysphoria, such as eligibility criteria for surgery. This article presents an overview of the genital and nongenital procedures available for both male-to-female and female-to-male gender reassignment.

  11. Gender-specific effects of endogenous testosterone: female alpha-estrogen receptor-deficient C57Bl/6J mice develop glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, S J; Berho, M; Korach, K; Doublier, S; Lupia, E; Striker, G E; Karl, M

    2007-08-01

    Young female mice on a C57Bl/6J (B6) background are considered glomerulosclerosis (GS)-resistant but aging B6 mice develop mild GS. Estrogen deficiency accelerates while estrogen replacement retards GS in young sclerosis-prone oligosyndactyly mutant mice on an ROP background. To explore the effects of sex hormones on glomerular structure and function in the context of gender and genetic background, we studied mice in which the estrogen-receptor (ER) genes alpha- or -beta were deleted (alpha- or betaER knockout (KO)) and crossed into the B6 background. We also studied ovariectomized (Ovx) B6 mice given testosterone. Male and female betaERKO and male alphaERKO mice had no glomerular dysfunction at 9 months of age; however, alphaERKO female mice displayed albuminuria and GS. Ovx prevented glomerular dysfunction in alphaERKO female mice by eliminating endogenous testosterone production while exogenous testosterone induced GS in Ovx B6 mice. Androgen receptor (AR) expression and function was found in microdissected glomeruli and cultured mesangial cells. Testosterone compared to placebo increased both AR expression and TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in glomeruli isolated from female B6 mice. Estrogen deficiency had no deleterious effects on the glomeruli in B6 mice. Our study shows that genetic traits strongly influence the GS-promoting effects of estrogen deficiency while testosterone induces GS in a gender-specific manner.

  12. Effect of Γ-aminobutyric acid on kidney injury induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion in male and female rats: Gender-related difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafapour, Marzieh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Monajemi, Ramesh; Mazaheri, Safoora; Talebi, Ardeshir; Talebi, Nahid; Shirdavani, Soheyla

    2015-01-01

    The most important cause of kidney injury is renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), which is gender-related. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of Γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA (against IRI in male and female rats. Thirty-six female and male wistar rats were assigned to six experimental groups. The IRI was induced by clamping renal vessels for 45 min then was performed reperfusion for 24 h. The group sex posed to IRI were pretreated with GABA and were compared with the control groups. Serum levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, kidney weight, and kidney tissue damage score increased in the IRI alone groups, (P GABA decreased these parameters in female significantly (P GABA. Testis weight did not alter in male rats. Serum level of nitrite and kidney level of malondialdehyde (MDA) had no significant change in both female and male rats. Kidney level of nitrite increased significantly in female rats experienced IRI and serum level of MDA increased significantly in males that were exposed to IRI (P GABA could ameliorate kidney injury induced by renal IRI in a gender dependent manner.

  13. Adolescent males and young females in tehran: differing perspectives, behaviors and needs for reproductive health and implications for gender sensitive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; Shah, Iqbal; Cleland, John; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-04-01

    Despite cultural and religious prohibitions against premarital heterosexual relationships and intimacy, some recent evidence suggests some rise in premarital heterosexual interactions and relationships among young people. On the other hand, although HIV in Iran is a concentrated epidemic and mainly reported among high risk groups such as injecting drug users (IDUs), but there are evidences that the mode of transmission is shifting towards sexual contacts. This trend has caused concern among health policy makers in terms of prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS particularly, among young people. This paper was prepared with the aim of highlighting how gender contributes to variation in reproductive health needs and conduct of young people in Iran. This paper is based on a secondary analysis and compares comparable reproductive beliefs and conducts of women and men based on the data of two surveys conducted in Tehran in 2002 and 2005. A survey among 1385 adolescent males and another survey among 1743 female undergraduate students in four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran. Both surveys used anonymous self-administered questionnaires. To make the two samples comparable, the data of unmarried female university undergraduate students who resided in Tehran were merged with the data of adolescent male students who intended to pursue higher education. Common variables of the two surveys were identified, homogenized, merged and analysed. Reproductive health knowledge among male adolescents was poor compared to that of their female peers. Although premarital friendships were moderately acceptable from view points of both males and females, the majority were against premarital sex, particularly among female participants. There were evidences of gender-based double standards in perceptions of premarital sexuality among both males and females; particularly, it was stronger among males than females. Male adolescents reported earlier and greater experiences of premarital

  14. Synchronicity of social change and the construct of gender roles: Traditionalism and modernity as contents of mainstream model of female gender roles in women's magazines during the last quarter of 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarić Isidora N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of the research is to retrospectively decode changes in mainstream construct of female gender roles within the period of ''developed self-management socialism'' (1970s, period of structural crisis of socialism (1980s and post-socialist period of Serbian/Yugoslav society. The mainstream construct of female gender roles will be reconstruct from Serbian women's magazine 'Bazar''. Through the basic presumptions of theoretical framework the research will try to conceptualize theoretical approach which will correspond with co called 'new communicative research model' which will be capable to incorporate contemporary changes within the process of communication among the emitter and recipients in order to better understand the content of the message.

  15. Leftist Movements, Gender, and the Argentinean Textile Industry. The Position of the Communist and Socialist Parties vis-à-vis the Claims of Female Workers, 1936-1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Norando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the incorporation of gender demands into the claims of female textile workers in Argentina, as well as the positions assumed in that respect by the Socialist Party and the Communist Party, through the analysis of three case studies: two textile worker strikes and the claim for the reform of the Maternity Insurance Law. The objective is to study the relationships of these parties with the claims of female workers from a perspective that links gender and class relations, on the basis of both worker and State sources. One of the fundamental conclusions of this study is that the Socialist and Communist Parties played an active role in transforming those claims into concrete realizations.

  16. "Did you come?" A qualitative exploration of gender differences in beliefs, experiences, and concerns regarding female orgasm occurrence during heterosexual sexual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Claire M A; Fisher, William A

    2014-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in young adult heterosexual men's and women's experiences, beliefs, and concerns regarding the occurrence or nonoccurrence of orgasm during sexual interactions, with emphasis on the absence of female orgasm during intercourse. Qualitative reports were obtained from five female focus groups (N = 24, M age = 19.08) and five male focus groups (N = 21, M age = 19.29), involving three to five participants per group. Transcripts of the discussions were analyzed for emerging themes across focus group discussions. Results indicated that, for both male and female participants, the most common concern regarding lack of female orgasm in a partnered context focused on the negative impact this might have on the male partner's ego. Male and female participants also agreed that men have the physical responsibility to stimulate their female partner to orgasm, while women have the psychological responsibility of being mentally prepared to experience the orgasm. Men and women tended to maintain different beliefs, however, regarding clitoral stimulation during intercourse, as well as the importance of female orgasm for a woman's sexual satisfaction in a partnered context. Findings suggest foci for sexual education.

  17. We are not a female band, we are a band!”: Female performance as a model of gender transgression in Serbian popular music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenić Iva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental performance, leadership, and authorship by women in music has historically been subjected to various repressive regimes, while many of the prejudices and restrictions regarding female musicking can still be discerned in contemporary popular music practices in Serbia. These mechanisms have been transferred into contemporary music with different ideological and stylistic inclination, such as indie music cohorts and folk- or tradition-based genres and scenes. The structural preconditions that articulate the subject position of female instrumentalists, regardless of genre or the scene they belong to are the lack of history of female playing and the requirement that they reach the supposedly higher standards of male musicians. This article starts with a brief genealogy of female instrumental music performance from late socialism to the diversity of contemporary popular music in its present neo-liberal context. Against that background it interprets the disciplining mechanisms restricting female musical creativity and performance, addressing the issues of identity and power through female agency in music.

  18. Male and female residents in postgraduate medical education – A gender comparative analysis of differences in career perspectives and their conditions in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler, Stine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This article focuses on the gender-specific career differences of residents in their postgraduate medical education in Germany. In particular the structural obstacles female physicians have to overcome during residency are investigated. Moreover, the study examines the position preferences of male and female physicians in the hospital and in how far occupational self-efficacy corresponds to the interest in a hospital leading position.Methods: The KarMed-Study’s database consists of annual postal surveys throughout the entire residency of medical students, who were in their “Practical Year” in 2008/2009. Descriptive statistics and regression models were used in the analysis.Results: Male and female physicians differ in terms of their preferred work place (hospital, ambulatory care, others, hospital position and working hours. Female physicians prefer part-time work and rarely assume leading positions compared to male physicians. In addition, female physicians, especially those with children, need more time to complete their postgraduate training. Female physicians with children are burdened and disadvantaged more often than their female colleagues without children as well as male physicians in general (e.g. belated start and completion of residency, lower rate of doctorate titles, higher quota of part-time contracts, short-term employment contracts, and higher rates of residency interruption or termination. Besides gender and doctorate title, the occupational self-efficacy expectation has an influence on the preference of leading positions in hospitals. Respondents with a low occupational self-efficacy score are less likely to strive for leading positions with more responsibilities than those with a high score. Conclusion: The results demonstrate clear gender disparities in postgraduate training. Female physicians, especially those with children, are disadvantaged in various areas when compared with their male colleagues. In particular

  19. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  20. Gender differences in multiple sclerosis : induction of estrogen signaling in male and progesterone signaling in female lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchetti, Sabina; van Eden, Corbert G; Schuurman, Karianne; van Strien, Miriam E; Swaab, Dick F; Huitinga, Inge

    The basis of gender differences in the prevalence and clinical progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not understood. Here, we identify gender-specific responses in steroid synthesis and signaling in the brains of MS patients as possible contributors to these differences. We investigated gene

  1. A Masculine Perspective of Gendered Topics in the Research Literature on Males and Females with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Parmenter, Trevor R.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Shuttleworth, Russell P.; Parker, Desrae

    2010-01-01

    Background: A focus on male social pathologies may have evolved within parts of the intellectual disability research literature. This article explores this notion and makes some connections between mainstream gender theory about hegemonic masculinity and the current gendered discourse in intellectual disability research. Method: We conducted a…

  2. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  3. Escaping workplace gender discrimination through mobility? Labor-market experiences of Polish female migrants in the West

    OpenAIRE

    Pustulka, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Based on qualitative data gathered during a comparative doctoral research project, this article aims to shed light on the transnational mobility of women as viewed through the lens of the labor market and takes an intersectional approach to the nexus of gender, class, and ethnicity. It investigates in particular the careers of Polish women whose migratory decisions appear to have been affected by gender inequalities and injustices prevalent in the labor market in Poland, and examines accounts...

  4. Gendered organisational cultures in German academic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felizitas Sagebiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe and analyse how female professors manage formal and informal norms and values of their departments and organizations. State of the art includes different gender theories and research. With a qualitative methodological design (especially interviews and focus discussion groups, case studies were conducted in companies, political institutions, governmental research organizations and universities. From a gender perspective, the following aspects were analysed: gender stereotypes and gendered leadership expectations, transparent and strategic communication, expectations of output, commitment and availability, gender awareness, and integration in gendered networking and networks. The results focus on academic engineering cultures in investigated research institutes and one technical university.

  5. Children's Books as a Source of Influence on Gender Role Development: Analysis of Female Characters Using Jung's Four Archetypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shirley J.; Pankake, Anita; Schall, Janine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to answer this question: "Do children when choosing a book to read for pleasure receive a stereotypical impression of the female role as opposed to the male role as defined by the literature?" A qualitative study reviewed main female characters of the Children's Choice books of 2008 with Jung's archetypes (Great Good…

  6. Gender-role stereotypes and interpersonal behavior: How addicted patients view their ideal male and female therapist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Gijs, L.A.C.L.

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the influences of self-perceived interpersonal behavior of addicted inpatients (n = 107) on the stereotypes of their ideal male and female therapist. Based on the interpersonal model of personality patients were asked to describe their ideal male and female therapist.

  7. "Keeping in mind the gender stereotype": the role of need for closure in the retrieval-induced forgetting of female managers' qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Pellegrini, Valerio; De Cristofaro, Valeria; Giannini, Annamaria; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2018-05-19

    The present research addressed the question of whether need for closure (NFC; Kruglanski in The psychology of closed mindedness, Psychology Press, New York, 2004) biases individuals' memory of female leaders. Merging research on role congruity theory of leadership (Koenig et al. in Psychol Bull 4:616-642, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023557 ) and research on retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF, Anderson et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cognit 20:1063-1087, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.5.861 ), we hypothesized and found that high-NFC participants show (1) a higher RIF of dimensions commonly associated with the leadership prototype (agentic/masculine) ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved dimensions commonly associated with the female prototype (communal/feminine) were ascribed to the same target; and (2) a lessened RIF of female stereotypical dimensions ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved prototypical leadership dimensions were ascribed to the same target. Overall, the present findings suggest that when faced with women leaders, high NfC enhances the accessibility of gender stereotype-congruent memories and reduces the accessibility of prototypical leadership ones, thus reducing the RIF of communal/feminine memories.

  8. Gender gap in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The article considers a significant global issue - gender gap starting and developing own business. The field of business was for a long time reserved to men, thus, despite of an increasing number of female entrepreneurs during last decade, the number of female entrepreneurs in Europe, including Lithuania, remains lower than the one of male entrepreneurs. According to the data of various statistical sources, an average ratio of enterprises newly established by men and women in EU countries is...

  9. What's Gender Got to Do With It: Difference in the Proportion of Traditionally Female Cases Performed by General Urologists of Each Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotker, Katherine; Iosifescu, Sarah; Baird, Grayson; Thavaseelan, Simone; Hwang, Kathleen

    2018-06-01

    To examine surgical case volume characteristics in certifying urologists to evaluate practice patterns, given the long-standing understanding but unproven hypothesis that non-fellowship trained female general urologists perform more urogynecologic procedures compared with their equally trained male counterparts. Case log data from certifying and recertifying urologists from 2000 to 2015 were obtained from the American Board of Urology. Thirty-seven Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes were chosen to represent traditionally urogynecologic cases. Logistic regression analysis models were used to determine the percentage of total CPT codes logged during the certification period made up by traditionally urogynecologic cases. Male and female non-fellowship trained, self-described general urologists were compared. The case logs of 4032 non-fellowship trained general urologists were reviewed from 2000 to 2015, 297 of whom were female and 3735 of whom were male. Urogynecologic cases made up 1.27% of the total CPT codes logged by the women and 0.59% of those codes logged by the men (P <.001), an increase of 2.2 times (P <.001). This statistically significant difference persisted regardless of certification period, geographic location, population density, or full-time vs part-time employment. Traditional urogynecologic cases represented a significantly greater percentage of the total cases logged by non-fellowship trained female general urologists compared with their non-fellowship trained, generalist male colleagues. The percentage of total cases performed by both is very small. However, it supports a belief that patient populations differ for male and female general urologists, which may impact training or career choices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    Very little has been elucidated about sexual interest in female-to-male (FtM) transsexual persons. To investigate the sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons vs that of men using an eye-tracking system. The study included 15 men and 13 FtM transsexual subjects who viewed three sexual videos (clip 1: sexy clothed young woman kissing the region of the male genitals covered by underwear; clip 2: naked actor and actress kissing and touching each other; and clip 3: heterosexual intercourse between a naked actor and actress) in which several regions were designated for eye-gaze analysis in each frame. The designation of each region was not visible to the participants. Visual attention was measured across each designated region according to gaze duration. For clip 1, there was a statistically significant sex difference in the viewing pattern between men and FtM transsexual subjects. Longest gaze time was for the eyes of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects. For clip 2, there also was a statistically significant sex difference. Longest gaze time was for the face of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects, and there was a significant difference between regions with longest gaze time. The most apparent difference was in the gaze time for the body of the actor: the percentage of time spent gazing at the body of the actor was 8.35% in FtM transsexual subjects, whereas it was only 0.03% in men. For clip 3, there were no statistically significant differences in viewing patterns between men and FtM transsexual subjects, although longest gaze time was for the face of the actress in men, whereas it was for non-human regions in FtM transsexual subjects. We suggest that the characteristics of sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons are not the same as those of biological men. Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons

  11. "He's more typically female because he's not afraid to cry": connecting heterosexual gender relations and men's depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Wong, Sabrina T

    2011-09-01

    Depression, a disorder often thought of as a women's health issue, is underreported in men, and little is known about how heterosexual couples respond when the male partner is depressed. Within the context of men's depression, couples may be challenged to make life adjustments that impact their gender relations. The findings detailed in this article are drawn from an innovative qualitative study of 26 Canadian heterosexual couples (26 men and their 26 women partners) in which the man had a formal diagnosis and/or self-identified as depressed. Participants completed individual, semi structured interviews that focused on exploring how masculinities and femininities intersect to forge particular heterosexual gender relations in the context of men's depression. A social constructionist gender analysis revealed three couple patterns: trading places, business as usual, and edgy tensions. Trading places refers to couples who embodied some atypical masculine and feminine roles to compensate for the men's depression-induced losses (e.g., men as homemakers and women as breadwinners). Women partners in these dyads broke with feminine ideals in how they provided partner support by employing tough love strategies for self-protection and a means of prompting the men's self-management of their depression. Couples involved in business as usual co-constructed men's alignment with masculine workman ideals and women's support of their partner to counter and conceal men's depression induced-deficits. Also described were edgy tensions, where a mismatch of gender expectations fueled resentment and dysfunction that threatened the viability of some relationships. Overall, the limits of women's resilience and care-giving were evident, yet the findings also reveal how men's management of their depression was directly influenced by their partner. Opportunities for couples to assess their relationship dynamics within a broad range of gender relations might support couples' connectedness and

  12. Promoting gender equality in access to microcredit through flexible lending approaches of female targeting MFIs: Evidence from Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Mukamana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to loans is one of the most important areas of focus by many development practitioners for reducing the existing gender gap in access to productive resources. Microfinance Institutions which target females as key clients were promoted for their lending approaches which avoid previous discriminatory practices that excluded women in the financial system. The current study examines the role of Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda in promoting equality in access to microcredit between female and male borrowers. The results of the study are generated by analyzing quantitative data collected from 244 females and 94 males using the questionnaire and qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and interviews with key informants. The study findings revealed that Duterimbere has been able to adapt its requirements to the specific needs of poor women. A significant number of poor women have been able to join the MFI through group solidarity, a method that has upgraded their borrowing capacity to the level of getting individual loans on equal basis as male peers. This study recommends further research that should go beyond access to loan and consider the dynamics of power relations about utilization of the loan received by female and male borrowers.

  13. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p < 0.0001). Social gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p < 0.0001). Syndemics were associated with sexual risk in TMSM who had socially affirmed their gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p < 0.001), but not among those TMSM who had not (aOR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.63-1.19; p = 0.37). Findings suggest that syndemic pathways to sexual risk are similar for TMSM who have socially gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. 'You already drank my beer, I can decide anything': using structuration theory to explore the dynamics of alcohol use, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Anna M; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Underwood, Carol R

    2018-03-16

    Female sex workers experience high rates of gender-based violence and HIV. Alcohol has been shown to facilitate women's risk of both gender-based violence and HIV; however, little research has explored how aspects of the sex work environment shape this risk. Drawing on structuration theory, this study explored how social conduct is patterned across time and space within the sex work environment to influence alcohol consumption, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 female sex workers enrolled in an ongoing community randomised controlled trial of a combination HIV prevention intervention in Iringa, Tanzania. Data were analysed using both inductive and deductive approaches. Findings reveal how routine interactions between female sex workers and their clients occur at three moments of time and space during the sex exchange process to facilitate alcohol consumption and increase women's risk of gender-based violence and HIV. Findings also highlight how sex workers utilise collective agency to address aspects of the sex work environment that place them at risk of alcohol abuse, gender-based violence and HIV. Implications for future interventions to prevent gender-based violence and HIV among female sex workers in Tanzania and similar contexts are discussed.

  15. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Christopher E

    2013-02-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in "hypersexualized" ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games, many of which are seen by only a few thousand people. Box art adorning the front of video game boxes is a form of advertising seen by most game customers prior to purchase and should therefore predict sales if indeed particular depictions of female and male characters influence sales. Using a sample of 399 box art cases from games with ESRB ratings of Teen or Mature released in the US during the period of 2005 through 2010, this study shows that sales were positively related to sexualization of non-central female characters among cases with women present. In contrast, sales were negatively related to the presence of any central female characters (sexualized or non-sexualized) or the presence of female characters without male characters present. These findings suggest there is an economic motive for the marginalization and sexualization of women in video game box art, and that there is greater audience exposure to these stereotypical depictions than to alternative depictions because of their positive relationship to sales.

  16. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in “hypersexualized” ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games, many of which are seen by only a few thousand people. Box art adorning the front of video game boxes is a form of advertising seen by most game customers prior to purchase and should therefore predict sales if indeed particular depictions of female and male characters influence sales. Using a sample of 399 box art cases from games with ESRB ratings of Teen or Mature released in the US during the period of 2005 through 2010, this study shows that sales were positively related to sexualization of non-central female characters among cases with women present. In contrast, sales were negatively related to the presence of any central female characters (sexualized or non-sexualized) or the presence of female characters without male characters present. These findings suggest there is an economic motive for the marginalization and sexualization of women in video game box art, and that there is greater audience exposure to these stereotypical depictions than to alternative depictions because of their positive relationship to sales. PMID:23467816

  17. Being female in a health care hierarchy. On the social construction of gender and leader identity in a work organization having a predominance of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrant, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to illuminate the situation of women working in hierarchical organizations--patriarchal systems where male values and characteristics are normative--especially when the majority of employees in the organization are female. Do organizations where women make up the majority of the work force offer specific opportunities for women? How does the predominance of women affect the social construction of gender and leader identity? These questions are examined from a feminist perspective. Two concepts, gender system and the logic of personal relationships, provide the point of departure. Empirical support is drawn from studies, primarily of health care institutions, one of them an ongoing study by the author. The conclusion is that the hierarchical system seems to be self-generating among both women and men. A more flexible and anti-authoritarian work organization gives greater opportunities for women to develop in their work and to accept leading positions. The benefits of certain female characteristics, summarized in the concept of responsible rationality, in organizational life are discussed.

  18. Gender identity and sport: is the playing field level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C

    2005-10-01

    This review examines gender identity issues in competitive sports, focusing on the evolution of policies relating to female gender verification and transsexual participation in sport. The issues are complex and continue to challenge sport governing bodies, including the International Olympic Committee, as they strive to provide a safe environment in which female athletes may compete fairly and equitably.

  19. Breaking the Gender Binary: Feminism and Transgressive Female Desire in Lucía Etxebarria's Beatriz y los cuerpos celestes and La Eva futura/La letra futura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Applegate

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The popular texts of Spanish author Lucía Etxebarria have created a polemical social phenomenon in contemporary Spain for their blatant depiction of a world of violence, drugs, and experimental sex of the late-millennium youth culture of Generación X. These topics, along with Etxebarria's public persona and feminist ideology, have fomented much public criticism and given rise to discussion of the current status of feminism, gender norms, and women's authorship in Spain today. This article analyzes Etxebarria's novel Beatriz y los cuerpos celestes and her collection of feminist essays La Eva futura/La letra futura, demonstrating that Etxebarria's depiction of female desire and sexuality within their cultural context challenges the notion that feminism has no more to achieve and breaks the gender binary by imagining a gender-anonymous world. Beatriz delves into the life of the title character, a young woman whose experience with a dissolute social culture and her attempts to understand herself cause her to question stereotypical standards of womanhood and eroticism and to declare that she fits into no such preconceived notions. Beatriz is a literary inscription of Etxebarria's feminist ideology as posited in La Eva futura, insofar as both these texts blur the line between feminism and postfeminism and engage with consumerist culture and identity. Moreover, they construe a philosophy that pushes the boundaries of normative discourse by misciting hegemonic notions of femininity and sexuality and creating the potential for change through such mis-repetition of hegemonic discourse. Ultimately, Etxebarria's work strives for a transgressive, unbound, and fluid female desire that is in continuous reconstruction and defies heteronormative definition.

  20. Patterns of Gender-Based Violence and Associations with Mental Health and HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah T; Flaherty, Brian P; Deya, Ruth; Masese, Linnet; Ngina, Jacqueline; McClelland, R Scott; Simoni, Jane; Graham, Susan M

    2018-03-30

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is common among female sex workers (FSWs) and is associated with multiple HIV risk factors, including poor mental health, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Prior studies have focused on GBV of one type (e.g. physical or sexual) or from one kind of perpetrator (e.g., clients or regular partners), but many FSWs experience overlapping types of violence from multiple perpetrators, with varying frequency and severity. We examined the association between lifetime patterns of GBV and HIV risk factors in 283 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Patterns of GBV were identified with latent class analysis based on physical, sexual, or emotional violence from multiple perpetrators. Cross-sectional outcomes included depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, disordered alcohol and other drug use, number of sex partners, self-reported unprotected sex, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal secretions, and a combined unprotected sex indicator based on self-report or PSA detection. We also measured HIV/STI incidence over 12 months following GBV assessment. Associations between GBV patterns and each outcome were modeled separately using linear regression for mental health outcomes and Poisson regression for sexual risk outcomes. Lifetime prevalence of GBV was 87%. We identified 4 GBV patterns, labeled Low (21% prevalence), Sexual (23%), Physical/Moderate Emotional (18%), and Severe (39%). Compared to women with Low GBV, those with Severe GBV had higher scores for depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and disordered alcohol use, and had more sex partners. Women with Sexual GBV had higher scores for disordered alcohol use than women with Low GBV, but similar sexual risk behavior. Women with Physical/Moderate Emotional GBV had more sex partners and a higher prevalence of unprotected sex than women with Low GBV, but no differences in mental health. HIV/STI incidence did not differ significantly by GBV

  1. Gender differences in self-reported physical and psychosocial exposures in jobs with both female and male workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, van der A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. METHODS: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on

  2. Pair-housing of male and female rats during chronic stress exposure results in gender-specific behavioral responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbroek, C.; Snijders, T.A.B.; Den Boer, J.A.; Gerrits, Marjolein; Fokkema, D.S.; ter Horst, G.J

    Social support has a positive influence on the course of a depression and social housing of rats could provide an animal model for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of social support. Male and female rats were subjected to chronic footshock stress for 3 weeks and pair-housing of rats was used

  3. Gender differences in self-reported physical and psychosocial exposures in jobs with both female and male workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on

  4. The Effect of Poverty, Gender Exclusion, and Child Labor on Out-of-School Rates for Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda Castillo, Leopoldo; Sotelsek Salem, Daniel; Sarr, Leopold Remi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze the effect of poverty, social exclusion, and child labor on out-of-school rates for female children. This empirical study is based on a dynamic panel model for a sample of 216 countries over the period 1970 to 2010. Results based on the generalized method of moments (GMM) of Arellano and Bond (1991) and the…

  5. Gender and Hyper-Linear History in the Representation of the Female Australian Primary School Teacher in "Marion" (ABCTV, 1974)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Josephine

    2018-01-01

    Building on the author's previous work on Australian national cinema and schooling, this article explores the representation of the female primary school teacher in the television mini-series entitled "Marion" (Australian Broadcasting Commission, 1974). Using narrative analysis, it argues that this representation is disruptive of…

  6. The Overarm-Throwing Pattern among U-14 ASA Female Softball Players: A Comparative Study of Gender, Culture, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranek, Laura Jones; Barton, Gina V.

    2011-01-01

    A developmental description of overarm-throwing characteristics of U-14 female ASA softball players is presented here. Comparisons were made between these athletes and teens of similar age in the United States (Runion, Roberton, & Langendorfer, 2003) and in Germany (Ehl, Roberton, & Langendorfer, 2005). A majority of the softball players…

  7. Measurement Invariance of the Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire across Gender: Explaining the "Contented Female Worker Paradox" More Thoroughly

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, S.; Hofmans, J.; De Cooman, R.; Pepermans, R.

    2009-01-01

    Although women tend to earn less for doing similar jobs, research indicates that they are at least as satisfied with their pay as their male colleagues. In examining explanations for this "paradox of the contented female worker," the Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) is often used to measure and compare the pay satisfaction of both…

  8. What Does This Story Say about Females? Challenging Gender-Biased Texts in the English-Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayik, Rawia

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in critical literacy theory, this teacher research in a Middle Eastern EFL classroom addresses the traditional female positioning in literature, media, and pop culture. Adolescent students are encouraged to challenge the traditional Cinderella fairy tale through various critical literacy engagements. A content analysis of sample written…

  9. Patients' Priorities Regarding Female-to-Male Gender Affirmation Surgery of the Genitalia-A Pilot Study of 47 Patients in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Josephine; Andréasson, My; Kölby, Lars; Elander, Anna; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2017-06-01

    their specific benefits and limitations to make an informed choice. Jacobsson J, Andréasson M, Kölby L, et al. Patients' Priorities Regarding Female-to-Male Gender Affirmation Surgery of the Genitalia-A Pilot Study of 47 Patients in Sweden. J Sex Med 2017;14:857-864. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender Ambivalence and The Expression of Passions in the Performances of Early Roman Cantatas by Castrati and Female Singers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeanneret, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Solo singing is associated with the expression of passions during the 17th century. Cantatas were sung by women as well as castrati, playing an ambivalent game on gender, eroticism, and passions. Contemporary testimonies of these performances juxtaposed with the medical theory of the humors shows...... beloved. While we rightly read such changes of temperature as standardized extravagances of poetics, they are also deeply rooted in Early Modern scientific theories of the body. Performance was one part of sophisticated entertainments along with improvisation of poetry, discourses on love, and games...

  11. Public security female workers at the coast of Paraná, Brazil: intersections of gender, work, violence(s), and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniele; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to promote visibility of women working in public security along the Parana coast, articulating issues of gender, violence(s), and the health-disease process. The methodology was qualitative, through an ethnographic research which included 50 women (civilians, military policewomen, and prison officers) from municipalities along the Parana coast, between March 2014 and March 2015. Results revealed: 1) the dilemmas that these women are subjected to, facing the seasonal dynamics in the field of public security in the region; 2) exposure to violence (mainly institutional and gender-based) and its impact on these women's health; 3) power relations, marked by corporations' hierarchies and gender asymmetries between men and women in professional settings. In summary, this research highlighted the need to promote visibility of women working in public security institutions, considering the impact of violence and gender inequalities in their personal and professional lives, including the resistance and rearrangements promoted by these women in the institutions in response to their presence in a hegemonic and traditionally male environment.

  12. A cross-sectional survey on gender-based violence and mental health among female urban refugees and asylum seekers in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morof, Diane F; Sami, Samira; Mangeni, Maria; Blanton, Curtis; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Tomczyk, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    To assess gender-based violence and mental health outcomes among a population of female urban refugees and asylum seekers. In a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 in Kampala, Uganda, a study team interviewed a stratified random sample of female refugees and asylum seekers aged 15-59 years from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Somalia. Questionnaires were used to collect information about recent and lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence, and symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among the 500 women selected, 117 (23.4%) completed interviews. The weighted lifetime prevalences of experiencing any (physical and/or sexual) violence, physical violence, and sexual violence were 77.5% (95% CI 66.6-88.4), 76.2% (95% CI 65.2-87.2), and 63.3% (95% CI 51.2-75.4), respectively. Lifetime history of physical violence was associated with PTSD symptoms (Pviolence (P=0.014). Overall, 112 women had symptoms of depression (weighted prevalence 92.0; 95% CI 83.9-100) and 83 had PTSD symptoms (weighted prevalence 71.1; 95% CI 59.9-82.4). Prevalences of violence, depression, and PTSD symptoms among female urban refugees in Kampala are high. Additional services and increased availability of psychosocial programs for refugees are needed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings: female empowerment amidst male emasculation-a challenge to local integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Holly A

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings. Building on previous research in Afghanistan, it analyses refugee women's evolving economic lives and enterprise initiatives and related social dynamics in refugee communities. Case studies look specifically at two Islamic refugee contexts: Nairobi, Kenya (Somali refugees), and Irbid and Zarqa, Jordan (Syrian refugees). The discussion spotlights the precarious nature of refugee women's new practices and work norms under forced and strained circumstances, without a process of negotiation with male family members. In the case of longer-term refugees (Somalis), it describes new collective agency among refugee women, boosting support for new practices. The paper reflects on emerging gender roles and relations in such hostile conditions, particularly as men remain excluded and struggle for their own identity and authority. In addition, it draws attention to the gap relating to refugee men and policymaking, and highlights ways to address better their needs for refugee resilience, inclusion, and local integration. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  14. Gender equality and human rights approaches to female genital mutilation: a review of international human rights norms and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Banerjee, Joya; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale; Fried, Susana T

    2017-05-12

    Two hundred million girls and women in the world are estimated to have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM), and another 15 million girls are at risk of experiencing it by 2020 in high prevalence countries (UNICEF, 2016. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a global concern. 2016). Despite decades of concerted efforts to eradicate or abandon the practice, and the increased need for clear guidance on the treatment and care of women who have undergone FGM, present efforts have not yet been able to effectively curb the number of women and girls subjected to this practice (UNICEF. Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. 2013), nor are they sufficient to respond to health needs of millions of women and girls living with FGM. International efforts to address FGM have thus far focused primarily on preventing the practice, with less attention to treating associated health complications, caring for survivors, and engaging health care providers as key stakeholders. Recognizing this imperative, WHO developed guidelines on management of health complications of FGM. In this paper, based on foundational research for the development of WHO's guidelines, we situate the practice of FGM as a rights violation in the context of international and national policy and efforts, and explore the role of health providers in upholding health-related human rights of women at girls who are survivors, or who are at risk. Findings are based on a literature review of relevant international human rights treaties and UN Treaty Monitoring Bodies.

  15. Characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders culpable under the new legislation in Japan: A gender comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takako; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Satoko; Shiina, Akihiro; Iyo, Masaomi; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    2016-02-01

    Although a substantial increase in the number of female offenders has drawn interest towards understanding their unique characteristics, few studies have investigated the characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders in Japan and none since the legislation enacted in 2005 in Japan, which provided for special services for them. The aim of this study is to identify those characteristics of people detained under this legislation, which distinguish the women from the men and may indicate special needs among the women. A retrospective records-based study of all patients admitted to one secure unit in the 8 years since its opening in July 2005 until a census date of 31 October 2013. Thirty-six (15%) of the patients were women. Marriage, mood disorders, past suicide attempts and homicide were more common among the women than the men. Six of the female offender-patients had committed filicides, of which four were infanticides. There appears to be a particularly vulnerable sub-group of women with severe mood disorders, a history of serious suicide attempts and young children at risk of harming those children. Our sample was small and from a single unit so, given the potential importance of improving understanding of who is at risk in such circumstances, extending our study nationally seems indicated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Permanências e rupturas: sentidos de gênero em mulheres chefes de família Permanencies and ruptures: gender meanings in female family heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Jaqueline Freiberger Testoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resultou de um estudo realizado com três mulheres chefes de família, moradoras de um bairro popular em uma cidade catarinense. Ao investigar de que forma constroem-se os sentidos de gênero na trajetória de vida destas mulheres, procurou-se refletir como estes sentidos posicionam os sujeitos na trama das relações sociais e de gênero. Considerando a construção histórica, social e cultural do gênero, pode-se questionar a naturalização da ligação entre sexo e gênero - tão freqüente na psicologia - e a conseqüente regulação na constituição das subjetividades femininas e masculinas dela proveniente. Os resultados apontam a existência de permanências, como a forte presença da moral sexual e do grande valor atribuído por elas à maternidade. Revelam, no entanto, alternativas de exercer pequenas rupturas neste padrão ao criarem, a partir da apropriação de outros saberes e outras significações pelas próprias experiências, um novo patamar de expectativas e possibilidades em suas vidas.This article is the result of a study accomplished with three female heads of family living in a popular neighborhood in a town of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. When investigating how gender meanings are constructed in the life trajectory of those women, we sought to reflect how those meanings locate the subjects in the plot of social and gender relations. Considering the historical, social and cultural construction of gender, the naturalization of the linking between sex and gender - so frequent in psychology - and the resulting regulation in the constitution of female and male subjectivities deriving from it can be questioned. The results point to the existence of permanencies such as the strong presence of sexual moral and the high value attributed by them to motherhood. They reveal, however, alternatives for carrying out small ruptures in that pattern when creating, from the appropriation of other knowledges and other

  17. Burocracia educativa, trabajo docente y género: supervisoras que conducen "poniendo el cuerpo" Educational bureaucracy, teacher's work and gender: female supervisors physically involved in management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Morgade

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Existe en la actualidad un importante corpus de investigaciones que indagan cómo en el nivel primario de la educación formal las significaciones de género que son hegemónicas en la vida escolar y en la vida social en su conjunto se articulan con las definiciones del trabajo docente de maestras y maestros. El presente artículo se nutre de una tesis doctoral dirigida a analizar las dinámicas de género en la construcción del liderazgo que realizan las maestras en cargos directivos a nivel de la escuela y del "distrito" escolar.1 La hipótesis central que se despliega en la tesis es que las tensiones propias del encuentro entre, por una parte, la normativa y las políticas del sistema educativo, y, por otra parte, los procesos subjetivos de las prácticas docentes de conducción de la dirección y la supervisión se articulan también con las significaciones de género tradicionales acerca de lo femenino y lo masculino.There currently exists an important corpus of research wondering how, in the primary level of formal education, the meanings of gender that are hegemonic in school life and in life social as a whole are articulated with the definitions of the work of male and female teachers. The present paper draws on a PhD thesis, recently defended at the University of Buenos Aires, that analyzed the dynamics of gender in the building of leadership carried on by female teachers occupying management position at school and school "district" levels. The main hypothesis developed in this thesis is that the tensions characteristic of the encounter between normativeness and the educational system policies, on the one hand, and the subjective processes of the teaching practices of board management and supervision are also articulated with the traditional meanings of gender views of male and female.

  18. Psychosocial stress factors, including the relationship with the coach, and their influence on acute and overuse injury risk in elite female football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensgaard, Anne Marte; Ivarsson, Andreas; Nilstad, Agnethe; Solstad, Bård Erlend; Steffen, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between specific types of stressors (eg, teammates, coach) and acute versus overuse injuries is not well understood. To examine the roles of different types of stressors as well as the effect of motivational climate on the occurrence of acute and overuse injuries. Players in the Norwegian elite female football league (n=193 players from 12 teams) participated in baseline screening tests prior to the 2009 competitive football season. As part of the screening, we included the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes and the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (Norwegian short version). Acute and overuse time-loss injuries and exposure to training and matches were recorded prospectively in the football season using weekly text messaging. Data were analysed with Bayesian logistic regression analyses. Using Bayesian logistic regression analyses, we showed that perceived negative life event stress from teammates was associated with an increased risk of acute injuries (OR=1.23, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.48)). There was a credible positive association between perceived negative life event stress from the coach and the risk of overuse injuries (OR=1.21, 95% credibility interval (1.01 to 1.45)). Players who report teammates as a source of stress have a greater risk of sustaining an acute injury, while players reporting the coach as a source of stress are at greater risk of sustaining an overuse injury. Motivational climate did not relate to increased injury occurrence.

  19. Is the indigenous school gendered? Investigation about the life of Xakriabá women and female teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Aline Vale Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The schooling and literacy process among the indigenous people Xakriabá in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is analyzed through the gender perspective. Statistical data on the indigenous school of the Xakriabá people and brief descriptions of their daily life are forwarded. Investigation demonstrates that, although the Xakriabá indigene school and the Brazilian non-indigene school converge with regard to better schooling progress in women and to the feminization of the professorship (although not in hierarchical commanding posts, different meanings exist within the schooling process and literacy. In fact, they were installed within contexts with specific social, cultural and economical dynamics.

  20. Gender role stereotype and poor working condition pose obstacles for female doctors to stay in full-time employment: alumnae survey from two private medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Miki; Nomura, Kyoko; Higaki, Yuko; Akaishi, Yu; Seki, Masayasu; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Komoda, Takayuki; Otaki, Junji

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of physicians has become a serious problem in Japan. It has been pointed out that an increase in the number of female doctors may contribute to the aggravation of this shortage because it is known that women work fewer hours than male doctors. Here, we investigated how many female doctors had ever resigned from a full-time position, and elucidated the reasons why female doctors find it difficult to stay in full-time employment. An alumnae survey of 2 private medical schools was conducted in 2007. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1423 graduates and 711 responded with informed consent (response rate, 50%; mean age, 39 years). Overall, 55% of the respondents had previously resigned from full-time employment, of which 90% resigned within 10 years of graduating from medical school. The difficulty in balancing work, childbirth and child rearing (45%) were the top 2 reasons for resignation, followed by physical problems (12%) and long working hours (8%). Among those who resigned, only 33% returned to full-time employment. Women who had at least 1 child were only 30% of those who had never resigned and 84% of those who had previously resigned. The majority of study subjects, regardless of experience of resignation (88%), agreed that women should continue to work even after childbirth. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that many female doctors resigned from a full-time position within 10 years of graduating from medical school, largely because of the gender role stereotype and poor working conditions.

  1. The Biological Contributions to Gender Identity and Gender Diversity: Bringing Data to the Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Irwig, Michael S; Beach, Lauren; Chan, Yee-Ming; Derks, Eske M; Esteva, Isabel; Ehrenfeld, Jesse; Heijer, Martin Den; Posthuma, Danielle; Raynor, Lewis; Tishelman, Amy; Davis, Lea K

    2018-03-01

    The American Psychological Association defines gender identity as, "A person's deeply-felt, inherent sense of being a boy, a man, or a male; a girl, a woman, or a female; or an alternative gender (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, gender neutral) that may or may not correspond to a person's sex assigned at birth or to a person's primary or secondary sex characteristics" (American Psychological Association, Am Psychol 70(9):832-864, 2015). Here we review the evidence that gender identity and related socially defined gender constructs are influenced in part by innate factors including genes. Based on the data reviewed, we hypothesize that gender identity is a multifactorial complex trait with a heritable polygenic component. We argue that increasing the awareness of the biological diversity underlying gender identity development is relevant to all domains of social, medical, and neuroscience research and foundational for reducing health disparities and promoting human-rights protections for gender minorities.

  2. Shiro Kawada's Concept of “Danjo-Byōdō” (Male Female Equality)and His Gender Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    亀口, まか

    2003-01-01

    Shiro Kawada was an active economist in the late Meiji and early Showa era who asserted women’s suffrage and equal pay for equal work. This paper examines the historical significance of his idea of “Danjo-Byodo” (the equality between men and women) and his gender perspective, including his disapproval of discriminatory treatment of the sexes based on sexual differences. He divided sexual differences into two distinguishable differences : “biological difference” and “social difference”. Moreov...

  3. Gender, Cultural Influences, and Coping with Musculoskeletal Pain at Work: The Experience of Malaysian Female Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maakip, Ismail; Oakman, Jodi; Stuckey, Rwth

    2017-06-01

    Purpose Workers with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) often continue to work despite their condition. Understanding the factors that enable them to remain at work provides insights into the development of appropriate workplace accommodations. This qualitative study aims to explore the strategies utilised by female Malaysian office workers with MSP to maintain productive employment. Methods A qualitative approach using thematic analysis was used. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 female Malaysian office workers with MSP. Initial codes were identified and refined through iterative discussion to further develop the emerging codes and modify the coding framework. A further stage of coding was undertaken to eliminate redundant codes and establish analytic connections between distinct themes. Results Two major themes were identified: managing the demands of work and maintaining employment with persistent musculoskeletal pain. Participants reported developing strategies to assist them to remain at work, but most focused on individually initiated adaptations or peer support, rather than systemic changes to work systems or practices. A combination of the patriarchal and hierarchical cultural occupational context emerged as a critical factor in the finding of individual or peer based adaptations rather than organizational accommodations. Conclusions It is recommended that supervisors be educated in the benefits of maintaining and retaining employees with MSP, and encouraged to challenge cultural norms and develop appropriate flexible workplace accommodations through consultation and negotiation with these workers.

  4. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  5. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  6. Gender, culture, and mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet S; Mertz, Janet E

    2009-06-02

    Using contemporary data from the U.S. and other nations, we address 3 questions: Do gender differences in mathematics performance exist in the general population? Do gender differences exist among the mathematically talented? Do females exist who possess profound mathematical talent? In regard to the first question, contemporary data indicate that girls in the U.S. have reached parity with boys in mathematics performance, a pattern that is found in some other nations as well. Focusing on the second question, studies find more males than females scoring above the 95th or 99th percentile, but this gender gap has significantly narrowed over time in the U.S. and is not found among some ethnic groups and in some nations. Furthermore, data from several studies indicate that greater male variability with respect to mathematics is not ubiquitous. Rather, its presence correlates with several measures of gender inequality. Thus, it is largely an artifact of changeable sociocultural factors, not immutable, innate biological differences between the sexes. Responding to the third question, we document the existence of females who possess profound mathematical talent. Finally, we review mounting evidence that both the magnitude of mean math gender differences and the frequency of identification of gifted and profoundly gifted females significantly correlate with sociocultural factors, including measures of gender equality across nations.

  7. A synthetic combination of mutations, including fs(1)pyrSu(b), rSu(b) and b, causes female sterility and reduces embryonic viability in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Gojkovic, Zoran; Bahn, E.

    1999-01-01

    A Drosophila melangaster mutant, fs(1)pyr(Su(b)), carrying a mutation that maps to the tip of the X chromosome, has been isolated. The mutation, when present alone, does not confer a detectable phenotype. However, this mutation causes female sterility and reduces embryonic viability when combined...

  8. The overarm-throwing pattern among U-14 ASA female softball players: a comparative study of gender, culture, and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petranek, Laura Jones; Barton, Gina V

    2011-06-01

    A developmental description of overarm-throwing characteristics of U-14female ASA softballplayers is presented here. Comparisons were made between these athletes and teens of similar age in the United States (Runion, Roberton, & Langendorfe 2003) and in Germany (Ehl, Roberton, & Langendorfer, 2005). A majority of the softball players demonstrated the most advanced developmental levels for the backswing foot, humerus, and forearm components. Seventy percent (n = 26) demonstrated a Level 2 trunk, while 30% (n = 11) demonstrated a differentiated trunk, Level 3. The average throwing velocity was 62.58 ft/s (19.07 m/s). Comparisons were made to girls with less throwing experience in the United States (Runion et al.) and Germany (Ehl et al.); the softball players threw with greater velocity (9.12ft/s [2.77 m/s]and 15.89 ft/s [4.84 m/s], respectively) and demonstrated superior trunk, humerus, and forearm actions. The boys from both countries threw the ball faster than the softball players. Significant chi-square analyses found the softball players had superior humeral actions (Level 3) compared to the German boys and superior forearm actions (Level 3) compared to both groups of bays. Experience seems to have an impact when comparisons among girls are made; yet, explanations for differences seen between boys and girls still remain unclear and warrant further research.

  9. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  10. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  11. An Overview of "Doing Gender" in Women's Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutright, Chelsea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a focus of practice-based studies and the phenomenon of gender as a practice, this paper explores how to examine the practice of gender within women’s organizations. The author looks at the impacts of gendered individuals within organizations, questions the contemporary literature on organizing as an inherently masculine space, and explores how gendered organizing impacts predominately female-based organizations in their interactions with male dominated organizations. It concludes that utilizing a practice-based approach to organizing which includes a gendered analysis of practice offers a compelling way to understand gender within NGOs and other organizations focused on women’s issues.

  12. Investigating the role of male advantage and female disadvantage in explaining the discrimination effect of the gender pay gap in the Cameroon labor market. Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson Thomas NDAMSA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the sources of gender-based wage differentials and investigates the relative importance of the endowment effect, female disadvantage and male advantage in explaining gender-based wage differentials in the Cameroon labor market. Use is made of the Ordinary Least Square technique and the Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition. Oaxaca-Ransom decomposition results show that primary education, secondary education, tertiary education and professional training are sources of the gender pay gap. Our results also underline the importance of working experience, formal sector employment and urban residency in explaining wage differentials between male and female workers in the Cameroon labour market. Our findings reveal that education human capital explains a greater portion of the endowment effect and contributes little to the discrimination effect. Essentially, we observe that the discrimination effect has a worsening effect on the gender pay gap compared to the mitigating role of the endowment effect. Again, our results show that a greater part of the discrimination effect of the gender pay gap is attributed to female disadvantage in the Cameroon labor market.

  13. Exploring Stereotypical Perceptions of Female Players in Digital Gaming Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Linda K; Gresty, Claire E; Stubbs-Ennis, Natasha

    2017-12-01

    Gender stereotypes are still reported to exist in digital gaming contexts, despite the fact that participation of females is relatively equal to that of males. The current research explored a number of factors and their impact upon stereotypical perceptions and attitudes toward female players. This included avatar gender, gender identity by gaming context, as well as more general gender-role beliefs. We undertook two studies, each utilizing an online questionnaire targeted toward online players. Study 1 recruited online gamers (N = 489) and compared competence perceptions of players, which varied by player gender (male, female) and avatar gender (male, female), whereby four conditions were established. Overall, player competence was perceived to be highest when male avatars were used, specifically when female players were depicted in this way. Study 2 explored the relationships between male social identity and gender-role beliefs, with sexist attitudes in gaming, and whether this varied by gaming context (massively multiplayer online [MMO] vs. first-person shooter [FPS]). Male online gamers (N = 193) were recruited, of which 112 were MMO players, and 81 were FPS players. It was found that identifying as male social identity was not related to sexist attitudes in either gaming context. However, more general gender-role beliefs were related to sexist attitudes. The findings indicate that although certain stereotypes exist (e.g., competence perceptions), these are not necessarily harvested by players' identities within communities, but may derive through more operational functions such as avatar gender.

  14. Gender Differences in Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2000-01-01

    We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere, appear to be primarily due to gender-specific factors. However, the relatively large gender pay...

  15. Apolipoprotein E4, Gender, Body Mass Index, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Air Pollution Interactions: Recipe for Alzheimer's Disease Development in Mexico City Young Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins. Exposures are associated with early brain gene imbalance in oxidative stress, inflammation, innate and adaptive immune responses, along with epigenetic changes, accumulation of misfolded proteins, cognitive deficits, and brain structural and metabolic changes. The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele, the most prevalent genetic risk for AD, plays a key role in the response to air pollution in young girls. APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75% to <94% BMI percentiles are at the highest risk of severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2 SD from average IQ). This review focused on the relationships between gender, BMI, systemic and neural inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, dyslipidemia, vascular risk factors, and central nervous system involvement in APOE4 urbanites exposed to PM2.5 and magnetite combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles that can reach the brain. APOE4 young female heterozygous carriers constitute a high-risk group for a fatal disease: AD. Multidisciplinary intervention strategies could be critical for prevention or amelioration of cognitive deficits and long-term AD progression in young individuals at high risk.

  16. An investigation of the 'female camouflage effect' in autism using a computerized ADOS-2 and a test of sex/gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Agnieszka; Schuller, Björn; Marchi, Erik; Piana, Stefano; Camurri, Antonio; Lassalle, Amandine; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    comparable level in girls with autism. High-functioning females with autism might present better on non-verbal (gestures) mode of communication than boys with autism. It may camouflage other diagnostic features. It poses risk of under-diagnosis or not receiving the appropriate diagnosis for this population. Further research is required to examine this phenomenon so appropriate gender revisions to the diagnostic assessments might be implemented.

  17. Take Care Of Home And Family, Honey, And Let Me Take Care Of The Money. Gender Bias And Credit Market Barriers For Female Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Ongena, S.; Popov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We identify the causal effect of gender bias on access to finance. We extract an exogenous measure of gender bias from survey responses by descendants of US immigrants on questions about the role of women in society. We then investigate a detailed dataset on small business firms from 17 countries and find that the inherited component of gender bias is associated with gender-based discrimination in the credit market of the immigrants' country of origin. In particular, in countries wit...

  18. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-01-01

    This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised ...

  19. How “Gendered” Are Gendered Pathways into Prison?: a Latent Class Analysis of the Life Experiences of Male and Female Prisoners in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Katharina J.; Palmen, Hanneke; Kruttschnitt, Candace; Bijleveld, Catrien; Dirkzwager, Anja; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Studies of pathways to offending have mainly focused on identifying either gendered trajectories in criminal careers, gendered risk factors for offending, or gendered pathways. Less common is research that explores to what extent classes or types of pathways to offending are actually

  20. Disillusioning Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Illusions are not errors but erroneous beliefs motivated by wishful ideas and fantasies. To disillusion gender is to challenge the traditional Freudian construction that splits masculinity and femininity into agency versus passivity, the first with power, the second without. Disillusioning femininity as impotent frees up potency and power as generativity. Disillusioning masculinity as phallic and omnipotent opens the masculine subject to permeability and vulnerability. Illusions regarding the transgender include the idea that there are only two gender categories and the idea that gender identity is generated solely from an internal sense of self. The wish "to be seen as" or "to pass as" one gender or the other shows that social structures exceed the individual. At least for now, the disillusionment of gender with which we are left marks a tension between the internal sense of gender identity and the social structures of gender.

  1. Prevalence of Gender Nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-07-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person's gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based research on the broad spectrum of gender nonconformity is scarce and more information on the variance outside the gender binary is needed. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of gender incongruence (identifying stronger with the other sex than with the sex assigned at birth) and gender ambivalence (identifying equally with the other sex as with the sex assigned at birth) based on two population-based surveys, one of 1,832 Flemish persons and one of 2,472 sexual minority individuals in Flanders. In the general population, gender ambivalence was present in 2.2 % of male and 1.9 % of female participants, whereas gender incongruence was found in 0.7 % of men and 0.6 % of women. In sexual minority individuals, the prevalence of gender ambivalence and gender incongruence was 1.8 and 0.9 % in men and 4.1 and 2.1 % in women, respectively. With a current Flemish population of about 6 million, our results indicate a total of between 17,150 and 17,665 gender incongruent men and between 14,473 and 15,221 gender incongruent women in Flanders.

  2. Dataset reporting the perceiver identification rates of basic emotions expressed by male, female and ambiguous gendered walkers in full-light, point-light and synthetically modelled point-light walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halovic, Shaun; Kroos, Christian

    2017-12-01

    This data set describes the experimental data collected and reported in the research article "Walking my way? Walker gender and display format confounds the perception of specific emotions" (Halovic and Kroos, in press) [1]. The data set represent perceiver identification rates for different emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear and neutral), as displayed by full-light, point-light and synthetic point-light walkers. The perceiver identification scores have been transformed into H t rates, which represent proportions/percentages of correct identifications above what would be expected by chance. This data set also provides H t rates separately for male, female and ambiguously gendered walkers.

  3. Therapeutic Management of a Substantial Pelvic Aneurysmatic Bone Cyst Including the Off-Label Use of Denosumab in a 35-Year-Old Female Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ntalos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC are benign bone tumors, which are highly vascularized. The main course of treatment is curettage followed by bone grafting or cement insertion. Still recurrence remains a main problem for patients. Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody, which acts as an inhibitor of the RANK/RANKL pathway, diminishing bone turnover. Recent case reports have shown that Denosumab can be a promising therapeutic agent for people suffering from therapy-resistant ABC. We report the case of a 35-year-old female patient presenting with a pronounced ABC of the pelvis. Since the tumor was inoperable, Denosumab was administered, leading to a significant shrinkage of the lesion, which allowed surgical intervention. Upon recurrence, Denosumab was restarted putting the patient once more into remission. Follow-up was four years overall with a clinical and radiological stable disease for fifteen months after final discontinuation of the monoclonal antibody. Therefore, our case further underlines the potential of Denosumab in the treatment of ABC.

  4. Gender training and female empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, Erwin; Lensink, Robert; Vu, Nhung

    2016-01-01

    We combine an RCT and a lab-in-the-field experiment to explore how participating in an ‘entrepreneurship and gender’ training affects the intra-household bargaining position of women. While male preferences dominate household decisions, the training attenuates the bargaining gap considerably.

  5. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Very little has been elucidated about sexual interest in female-to-male (FtM) transsexual persons. Aims: To investigate the sexual interest of FtM transsexual persons vs that of men using an eye-tracking system. Methods: The study included 15 men and 13 FtM transsexual subjects who viewed three sexual videos (clip 1: sexy clothed young woman kissing the region of the male genitals covered by underwear; clip 2: naked actor and actress kissing and touching each other; and cl...

  6. Why Aren't There More Female Pain Medicine Physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Tina L; Bicket, Mark C

    2018-04-09

    Despite a growing awareness about the importance of gender equity and the rising number of women in medicine, women remain persistently underrepresented in pain medicine and anesthesiology. Pain medicine ranks among the bottom quartile of medical specialties in terms of female applicants, female trainees, and proportion of female practitioners. Female pain medicine physicians are also notably disadvantaged compared with their male colleagues in most objective metrics of gender equity, which include financial compensation, career advancement, public recognition, and leadership positions. Increased gender diversity among pain medicine physicians is vital to fostering excellence in pain research, education, and clinical care, as well as creating a high-quality work environment. Pain medicine stands at a crossroads as a specialty, and must examine reasons for its current gender gap and consider a call to action to address this important issue.

  7. Social relations based on sex/gender and sexual division of work in the brazilian post office: female participation, professional hierarchy and management policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Gomes Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to analyze how social relations based on sex/gender and gender images have influenced the inclusion and participation of women in the operational area of the Brazilian Post and Telegraph Company (ECT. We seek to answer the following questions: How do the social relations based on sex and gender images influence the inclusion and participation of women in the state company? What is the image of women’s work in the company and how this image affects the career advancement? In what manner the union demands and the work management policies positions themselves in relation to gender issues? It is found that the workforce in ECT is mostly male and that the social relations based on sex presents a gender image among the employees, makers of labor management policies and trade unionists which associate the company work activities to men, reinforcing unequal sex/gender relations in this environment.

  8. The use of entropy index for gender inequality analysis | Ekhosuehi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Millennium Declaration, the proportion (or ratio) of females to males in a given sector is used as the indicator for gender inequality. A critical limitation in the proportion (or ratio) statistic is that it does not include randomness in gender disparity over a period of time. It is well-known that randomness, which is a key ...

  9. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Eric; Laughlin, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    In estimating earnings equations for seven occupations, when fringe benefits are excluded, women receive significantly lower wages in all but the most female-dominated occupation. Including fringe benefits makes gender significant in only one occupational category. Crowding of one gender into an occupation appears the primary determinant of the…

  10. INEQUALITY IN GENDER ROLES, A CHALLENGE TO OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING: A CASE OF FEMALE STUDENTS IN DIPLOMA IN PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION – THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rahma M. Msoffe

    2016-01-01

    Open and Distance Learning could not only help in gender equality and women empowerment, but also may facilitate the effectiveness and strengthening of women education. However, there is little knowledge on how gender roles affect performance of girls/women education. The paper set out to examine whether inequality in gender roles affect women’s education, find out types of domestic chores that women normally engage with and how they affect their academic progress and assess whether women hav...

  11. Gender Issues in Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender wise analysis of data brings out biological, behavioural and social variables which indicate inequality in the health parameters in male and female sex. There is discrimination against women. Right to birth is denied by sex selective elimination, right to survival is denied by the neglect of girl child resulting in declining trend of child sex ratio which has reached an alarming low level of 914 in 2011 in spite of the fact that the female sex is biologically stronger. The mortality and morbidity indicators are unfavourable to the females. Maternal mortality in developing countries including India is unacceptably high. There is a failure of achievement of Millennium Development Goals in relation to maternal mortality and gender equality and empowerment of women. Crime against women is increasing. Violence is domestic or at workplace or occurring in public places. Social factors like male dominance and subordinate status of women make them vulnerable to unfair treatment, discrimination, denial of basic human rights to survival, education, health, inheritance, etc. The preventive measures in the form of education of masses for effective change in behaviour against gender discrimination, provision of facilities for achieving gender equality, and legislative measures for controlling violence against women at domestic and public level need intensification to achieve social justice of gender equality.

  12. The Output Cost of Gender Discrimination: A Model-Based Macroeconomic Estimate

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. de V.; Tavares, José

    2008-01-01

    Gender-based discrimination is a pervasive and costly phenomenon. To a greater or lesser extent, all economies present a gender wage gap, associated with lower female labour force participation rates and higher fertility. This paper presents a growth model where saving, fertility and labour market participation are endogenously determined, and there is wage discrimination. The model is calibrated to mimic the performance of the U.S. economy, including the gender wage gap and relative female l...

  13. Women Know Better What Other Women Think and Feel: Gender Effects on Mindreading across the Adult Life Span

    OpenAIRE

    Wacker, Renata; B?lte, Sven; Dziobek, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Research recurrently shows that females perform better than males on various mindreading tasks. The present study contributes to this growing body of literature by being the first to demonstrate a female own-gender mindreading bias using a naturalistic social cognition paradigm including female and male targets. We found that women performed better at reading others’ minds, and that they were specifically more capable to read female targets, an own-gender target effect absent in men. Furtherm...

  14. Status of sex reassignment surgery for gender identity disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumori, Naoya

    2012-05-01

    An incongruence between one's physiological sex and the gender identity that is one's basic sense of self as a man or a woman is known as gender identity disorder. In general, the conditions of physiological men having female gender identity and physiological women having male gender identity are called male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder, respectively. Although the precise pathogenesis of gender identity disorder remains unclear, the prevalence of gender identity disorder is quite high, with the rates calculated for male-to-female to be 1:25,000 and female-to-male to be 1:12,000 in Hokkaido, Japan. The diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder in Japan are based on the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Gender Identity Disorder, 4th edition. Although gender identity disorder was previously thought to be a psychiatric condition, it is extremely difficult to assign gender identity to physiological sex by psychiatric and psychological treatments. To adapt the figure of the body to the native gender identity, physical treatments such as administration of cross-sex steroids and sex reassignment surgery are considered. However, there are very few institutions that routinely carry out sex reassignment surgery in Japan, even though it is mandatory for changing sex on the census register at the present time. Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female and female-to-male patients includes orchiectomy, penectomy, clitoroplasty, vaginoplasty and vulvoplasty, and hysterectomy, ovariectomy, metoidioplasty and phalloplasty, respectively. To provide accurate information about physical treatment for patients with gender identity disorder, even urologists who are not actively involved in the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder should understand the fundamental aspects and contemporary problems of gender identity disorder. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Interpreting Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Nicholson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deconstructs dominant understandings of two concepts central to feminist analysis itself: gender and woman. Much of post-1960s feminist scholarship has relied on the distinction between “sex” and gender. Although this distinction has served many useful purposes (particularly that of allowing feminists to challenge biological determinism, it has also enabled feminists to preserve a type of dualistic thinking about women's identity. It has allowed feminists to think of differences among women as separable from that which women share. The author argues that this polar framework has enabled feminists to stress the deep differences between women's and men's culture-generated experiences. But, because the polar framework of contemporary society is neither completely stable or hegemonic nor links perfectly male and female experiences with male and female identified bodies, employing it as an unquestioned element of one's analysis also leads to problems. This framework falls to capture the gender deviance of many of us, reinforces cultural stereotypes of the meaning of female and male experience, and acts politically to suppress modes of being that challenge gender dualisms.

  16. 成人女性性别课程开发初探——女性主义课程论的视角%Preliminary Study on Gender Curriculum for Adult Females -- From the Perspective of the Feminism Curriculum Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳士彬; 何爱霞

    2012-01-01

    There exist many problems such as gender shielded, gender role stereotype, female personalized subject ignored, female learning styles extreme in the current adult education curriculum. The development of gender curriculum for adult females should determine suitable curriculum goal orientation, outfit internal curriculum development subject, compile distinctive curriculum contents and use pertinence curriculum teaching styles regarding the feminism curriculum theory as guidelines.%目前的成人教育课程存在着“性别屏蔽”、性别角色刻板、忽视女性个性化主体、女性学习方式极端化等诸多问题。以女性主义课程论的有关思想为指导,成人女性性别课程开发应确立适切性的课程目标取向,配置内在化的课程开发主体,选编有特色的课程内容,采取针对性的课程教学方式。

  17. Gender Differences among Patients with a Single Depressive Episode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens D; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on gender differences in depression have usually included a mixture of patients with first-episode, chronic and recurrent depression. Consequently, the results might be confounded by the history of depression among participants. The present study evaluated gender differences......, personality traits and disorders, stressful life events, family history, and treatment response. RESULTS: Female patients showed a higher level of neuroticism and more residual anxiety symptoms after treatment of the depression. There were no gender differences in severity of depression, psychiatric co...

  18. Stopping the "Flow of Co-Eds and Other Female Species": A Historical Perspective on Gender Discrimination at Southern (U.S.) Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Amy Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The interrelated nature of gender and racial constructs in the culture of the southern United States accounts for much of the historical prejudice against coeducation in the region's institutions of higher education. This essay offers a historical perspective on gender discrimination on the campuses of Southern universities from the attempts to…

  19. Males Are Not as Active as Females in Online Discussion: Gender Differences in Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gender difference in students' perceived discussion strategies in face-to-face and online asynchronous contexts. A survey of 363 university students and follow-up interviews of 20 participants was conducted to examine any gender differences within each context and between the two contexts. The Discussion Strategies Scale…

  20. Take Care Of Home And Family, Honey, And Let Me Take Care Of The Money. Gender Bias And Credit Market Barriers For Female Entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Popov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We identify the causal effect of gender bias on access to finance. We extract an exogenous measure of gender bias from survey responses by descendants of US immigrants on questions about the role of women in society. We then investigate a detailed dataset on small business firms from 17

  1. DIFFERENT ENDURANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE AND MALE GERMAN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgart

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1st division and thirteen male (4th division soccer players completed an incremental test (IT to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l-1 blood lactate (v2 and v4 and maximum velocity (vmax as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4. Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%, vmax (11.3% and ISRT distance (31.6%. No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training.

  2. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  3. [Gender perspective in health care teaching: a pending task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, Estela; Poblete, Johanna; Molina Vega, Irma; Miranda, Christian; Zúñiga, Yanira; Fecci, Ester; Rodríguez, Laura; Márquez, Myriam; Ramírez, Miguel

    2007-06-01

    Gender must be considered in the design and implementation of health policies to safeguard equity and accomplish sanitary objectives. To identify gender perspective in the curricula of five health care careers in the Universidad Austral de Chile. To identify the situation of women in the teaching profile of such curricula. An exploratory and descriptive study with a critical reading of the structure of the programs of 217 courses. Revision of official academic registries. Gender is usually not included in the curricula of health care careers. The generic language conceals female academics and students. There was a scarce inclusion of cross sectional issues such as collaborative work, interpersonal and democratic relationship, equity and critical analysis. There were no differences in academic achievements between female and male students. The contractual profile of female academics reproduces the gender inequity of the work market. The inclusion of gender is a pending task in the training of health care professionals.

  4. Gender-based violence against female sex workers in Cameroon: prevalence and associations with sexual HIV risk and access to health services and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Lyons, Carrie; Billong, Serge Clotaire; Njindam, Iliassou Mfochive; Grosso, Ashley; Nunez, Gnilane Turpin; Tumasang, Florence; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Baral, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for HIV and physical and sexual gender-based violence (GBV). We describe the prevalence of lifetime GBV and its associations with HIV risk behaviour, access to health services and barriers in accessing justice among FSWs in Cameroon. FSWs (n=1817) were recruited for a cross-sectional study through snowball sampling in seven cities in Cameroon. We examined associations of lifetime GBV with key outcomes via adjusted logistic regression models. Overall, 60% (1098/1817) had experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. GBV was associated with inconsistent condom use with clients (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.87), being offered more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.79), having had a condom slip or break (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) and difficulty suggesting condoms with non-paying partners (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.87). Violence was also associated with fear of health services (AOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.16) and mistreatment in a health centre (AOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.73). Access to justice was constrained for FSWs with a GBV history, specifically feeling that police did not protect them (AOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.78). Among FSWs in Cameroon, violence is prevalent and undermines HIV prevention and access to healthcare and justice. Violence is highly relevant to FSWs' ability to successfully negotiate condom use and engage in healthcare. In this setting of criminalised sex work, an integrated, multisectoral GBV-HIV strategy that attends to structural risk is needed to enhance safety, HIV prevention and access to care and justice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  6. Gender Congruency From a Neutral Point of View: The Roles of Gender Classes and Conceptual Connotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The question of whether language affects thought is long-standing, with grammatical gender being one of the most contended instances. Empirical evidence focuses on the gender congruency effect, according to which referents of masculine nouns are conceptualized more strongly as male and those of feminine nouns more strongly as female. While some recent studies suggest that this effect is driven by conceptual connotations rather than grammatical properties, research remains theoretically inconclusive because of the confounding of grammatical gender and conceptual connotations in gendered (masculine or feminine) nouns. Taking advantage of the fact that German also includes a neuter gender, the current study attempted to disentangle the relative contributions of grammatical properties and connotations to the emergence of the gender congruency effect. In three pairs of experiments, neuter and gendered nouns were compared in an Extrinsic Affective Simon Task based on gender associations, controlled for a possible role of gender-indicating articles. A congruency effect emerged equally strongly for neuter and gendered nouns, but disappeared when including connotations as covariate, thereby effectively excluding grammatical gender as the (only) driving force for this effect. Based on a critical discussion of these findings, we propose a possible mechanism for the emergence of the effect that also has the potential to accommodate conflicting patterns of findings from previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Differential effects of gender on entropy perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcharoen, Kleddao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine differences in perception of entropy (color intensity) between male and female computer users. The objectives include identifying gender-based differences in entropy intention and exploring the potential effects of these differences (if any) on user interface design. The research is an effort to contribute to an emerging field of interest in gender as it relates to science, engineering and technology (SET), particularly user interface design. Currently, there is limited evidence on the role of gender in user interface design and in use of technology generally, with most efforts at gender-differentiated or customized design based on stereotypes and assumptions about female use of technology or the assumption of a default position based on male preferences. Image entropy was selected as a potential characteristic where gender could be a factor in perception because of known differences in color perception acuity between male and female individuals, even where there is no known color perception abnormality (which is more common with males). Although the literature review suggested that training could offset differences in color perception and identification, tests in untrained subject groups routinely show that females are more able to identify, match, and differentiate colors, and that there is a stronger emotional and psychosocial association of color for females. Since image entropy is associated with information content and image salience, the ability to identify areas of high entropy could make a difference in user perception and technological capabilities.

  8. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    -founder (gender) homophily affects the likelihood of female and male joiners to become founders themselves. We find a relatively large and robust positive effect among female joiners that can be attributed to the role modeling function of female founders. Female entrepreneurs hiring personnel may thus have...

  9. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be influenced by their identification with the males and females in their lives, the sense of being a girl or a boy (i.e. gender identity) cannot be changed. Gender Stereotypes Over time, society has recognized that stereotypes of ...

  10. Gender awareness among physicians – the effect of specialty and gender. A study of teachers at a Swedish medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamberg Katarina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal for medical education today is professional development including gender equality and awareness of gender issues. Are medical teachers prepared for this task? We investigated gender awareness among physician teachers, expressed as their attitudes towards the role of gender in professional relationships, and how it varied with physician gender and specialty. We discuss how this might be related to the gender climate and sex segregation in different specialties. Method Questionnaires were sent to all 468 specialists in the clinical departments and in family medicine, who were engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of preceptor and student gender in clinical tutoring and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between family physicians, surgical, and non-surgical hospital doctors, and between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The response rate was 65 %. There were differences between specialty groups in all investigated areas mainly due to disparities among men. The odds for a male family physician to assess gender important were three times higher, and for a male non-surgical doctor two times higher when compared to a male surgical doctor. Female teachers assessed gender important to a higher degree than men. Among women there were no significant differences between specialty groups. Conclusions There was an interaction between physician teachers' gender and specialty as to whether they identified gender as important in professional relationships. Male physicians, especially from the surgical group, assessed gender important to a significantly lower degree than female physicians. Physicians' degree of gender awareness may, as one of many factors, affect working climate and the

  11. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... by drawing on and operationalizing violent, male networks — from struggle activists' networks, to vigilante groups and gangs, to the police. The fact that they were women helped them to tap into and exploit these networks. At the same time, they were restricted by their sex, as their ability to navigate...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  12. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  13. From Metrosexual to Retrosexual: The Importance of Shifting Male Gender Roles to Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Katherine Noel

    2008-01-01

    The study of gender in feminism should not only concentrate on female gender roles and queer transgressions of established gender roles, but should also include an in-depth discussion on male gender roles as they exist in society. This paper focuses on the metrosexual and the retrosexual trends which have recently affected the male gender role in society. The emergence of the metrosexual in the 1990s through 2005 was a profound change in the traditional male gender role which allowed men to ...

  14. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female dr...

  15. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  16. Brief Report: Does Gender Matter in Intervention for ASD? Examining the Impact of the PEERS® Social Skills Intervention on Social Behavior among Females with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J.; Schiltz, Hillary; Haendel, Angela; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Carson, Audrey M.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2017-01-01

    A paucity of research has been conducted to examine the effect of social skills intervention on females with ASD. Females with ASD may have more difficulty developing meaningful friendships than males, as the social climate can be more complex (Archer, Coyne, "Personality and Social Psychology Review" 9(3):212-230, 2005). This study…

  17. The Role of Race and Gender in the Mentoring Experiences and Career Success of African American Female Senior Executive Administrators in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Taffye Benson

    2009-01-01

    From 1995 to 2005 education doctoral degrees conferred to African American females increased by 92%, however the increase in availability among this population for higher education administrator positions has not kept pace with the growth of African American female higher education doctoral graduates (Ryu, 2008). Such data have spurred inquiry…

  18. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    various approaches to feminism philosophy leads more to complementarity of male and female principles of humanity with further acceptance of gender roles that reflect more complicated panorama of spiritual life.

  19. Should CAH in females be classified as DSD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eGonzález

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Great controversies and misunderstandings have developed around the relatively recently coined term disorders of sex development or DSD. In this article we question the wisdom of including XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH in the DSD category and develop arguments against it based on the published literature on the subject. It is clear that females with CAH assigned the female gender before 24 months of age and properly managed retain the female gender identity regardless of the Prader grade. Females with CAH and low Prader grades have the potential for a normal sexual and reproductive life. Those with greater degrees of prenatal androgen exposure (Prader grades IV and V raised as females also identify themselves as females but experience more male like behavior in childhood, have a greater rate of homosexuality and have greater difficulty with vaginal penetration and maintaining pregnancies. Improvement in surgical techniques, better endocrinological, psychological and surgical follow up may lessen these problems in the future. Given the fact that the term DSD includes many conditions with problematic gender identity and conflicts with the gender assigned at birth, it may be appropriate exclude females with CAH from the DSD classification.

  20. Gender differences in first and secondhand smoke exposure, spirometric lung function and cardiometabolic health in the old order Amish: A novel population without female smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert M; Dransfield, Mark T; Eberlein, Michael; Miller, Michael; Netzer, Giora; Pavlovich, Mary; Pollin, Toni I; Scharf, Steven M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sin, Don; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2017-01-01

    Due to their relatively homogeneous lifestyle and living environment, the Amish offer a novel opportunity to study the health associations of tobacco smoke exposure, particularly secondhand smoke. We hypothesized that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with worse pulmonary and cardiometabolic health. We examined cross-sectional data on 3568 Amish study participants, including tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure from family members included in the study. Thirty-four percent of Amish men reported ever smoking. Of this proportion, 64% used cigars, 46% cigarettes, and 21% pipes. Less than 1% of women reported ever smoking. Smoking was associated with lower spirometric lung function, higher body mass index, lower HDL cholesterol, higher heart rate, lower ankle-brachial index, and larger aortic diameter in men. A greater number of sources of secondhand smoke exposure (defined from the total of spouses, parents, and siblings who smoke) was associated with higher body mass index (p = 0.03) and with higher fasting glucose in men (p = 0.01), but not in women (p = 0.007 for sex*secondhand smoke interaction). Secondhand smoke exposure was also associated with reduced HDL cholesterol only in women (p = 0.002) and a lower heart rate only in men (p = 0.006). Smoking habits among the Old Order Amish are notable for the absence of female participation and a high proportion of cigar and pipe use. Smoking is associated with decreased spirometric indices of lung function and increased cardiovascular risk in this population and secondhand smoke exposure is associated with a greater burden of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Sex differences in correlations could reflect differences in exposure patterns, mechanisms, or susceptibilities.

  1. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  2. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  3. The Impact of Gender and Family Processes on Mental Health and Substance Use Issues in a Sample of Court-Involved Female and Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Lim, Ji-Young; Yarcheck, Courtney M.; Bostic, Jennifer M.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    Greater empirical attention directed toward gender-sensitive assessment strategies that concentrate on family-specific factors is thought to be both timely and necessary, especially with regard to outcome variables associated with mental health and substance abuse in at-risk adolescent populations. A sample of 2,646 court-involved adolescents was…

  4. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  5. The Effect of Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, and Gender-Role Identity on Academic Performance Outcomes of Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Jade Simone

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the predictive worthiness of the predictor variable indices--locus of control, self-efficacy, and gender identity--to ascertain if elevated levels of the predictors influence academic performance outcomes (individually as well as interactionally). The study theorized that students with increased levels of locus…

  6. Mentors Are from Venus and Mars: Exploring the Benefits of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Gender Pairings in the Mentoring Relationships of Female Senior Student Affairs Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnagin, Lea Marie

    2010-01-01

    While the number of women entering the student affairs profession has increased, gender equity at the senior level of leadership remains elusive in the student affairs profession. In comparison to their presence in graduate preparation programs and lower levels of administration women continue to lag behind men in their rate of advancement to the…

  7. Bridging the gender pay gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-31

    Nursing may be a largely female profession, but men are vastly overrepresented in senior positions. Experts say the NHS has to take action to correct the huge gender imbalance - and female nurses need to learn how to help themselves.

  8. Gender Identity in Autism: Sex Differences in Social Affiliation with Gender Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kate; Smith, Laura G E; Russell, Ailsa J

    2018-04-28

    High rates of gender variance have been reported in autistic people, with higher variance in autistic females than males. The social component of gender identity may be affected, with autistic females experiencing lower identification with and feeling less positively about their gender groups than controls. We measured gender identification, gender self-esteem, and aspects of gender expression (masculinity and femininity) in autistic natal males and females, and controls (N = 486). We found that autistic people had lower gender identification and gender self-esteem than controls, and autistic natal females had lower gender identification than autistic natal males and natal female controls. In conclusion, autistic people, particularly natal females, had lower social identification with and more negative feelings about a gender group.

  9. Genetic-gonadal-genitals sex (3G-sex and the misconception of brain and gender, or, why 3G-males and 3G-females have intersex brain and intersex gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Daphna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The categorization of individuals as “male” or “female” is based on chromosome complement and gonadal and genital phenotype. This combined genetic-gonadal-genitals sex, here referred to as 3G-sex, is internally consistent in ~99% of humans (i.e., one has either the “female” form at all levels, or the “male” form at all levels. About 1% of the human population is identified as “intersex” because of either having an intermediate form at one or more levels, or having the “male” form at some levels and the “female” form at other levels. These two types of “intersex” reflect the facts, respectively, that the different levels of 3G-sex are not completely dimorphic nor perfectly consistent. Using 3G-sex as a model to understand sex differences in other domains (e.g., brain, behavior leads to the erroneous assumption that sex differences in these other domains are also highly dimorphic and highly consistent. But parallel lines of research have led to the conclusion that sex differences in the brain and in behavior, cognition, personality, and other gender characteristics are for the most part not dimorphic and not internally consistent (i.e., having one brain/gender characteristic with the “male” form is not a reliable predictor for the form of other brain/gender characteristics. Therefore although only ~1% percent of humans are 3G-“intersex”, when it comes to brain and gender, we all have an intersex gender (i.e., an array of masculine and feminine traits and an intersex brain (a mosaic of “male” and “female” brain characteristics.

  10.  Trade reform and gender in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    treatment of production technology and import protection, and is linked to a top-down microsimulation model of households. We find that trade policy has only a modest effect on gender wage differentials, and conclude that policy concerns with gender imbalances should focus on skill upgrading and sectoral......This paper uses an economywide model to study the impact of trade policy reform on male and female labor in Mozambique. The model disaggregates factor markets by skill and gender, and incorporates links between trade reform, product prices and wages by gender. The model also includes a detailed...... mobility rather than on trade policy...

  11. Are gender differences important for the clinical effects of antidepressants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Steyerberg, Ewout Willem; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in antidepressant treatment response, side effects, dropout rates, and plasma concentrations were examined in patients with major and predominantly melancholic depression. METHOD: The study included a subgroup of 292 inpatients (96 men, 196 women) from three Danish...... and multiple linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical evaluations. RESULTS: Both genders had similar remission rates (Hamilton depression scale score .... The plasma concentrations of clomipramine were significantly higher for female than for male patients. No gender differences were found in posttreatment Hamilton depression scale scores, nor did the therapeutic effects of treatment depend on gender. Rates of dropout and side effects were similar for men...

  12. Gender of rearing and psychosocial aspect in 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaher, Arushi; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Chauhan, Vasundhera; John, Jomimol; Mehta, Manju

    2016-01-01

    In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new) with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences.

  13. Gender of rearing and psychosocial aspect in 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushi Gangaher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH with ambiguous genitalia, assigning gender of rearing can be complex, especially If genitalia is highly virilized. Apart from karyotype, prenatal androgen exposure, patient's gender orientation, sociocultural, and parental influences play a role. The aim of this study was to assess gender dysphoria and psychosocial issues in patients of CAH raised as males and females. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that includes patients (old and new with CAH who were treated by us in the last 6 months. A semi-structured interview proforma was used to elicit history and psychosocial background of the patients. The clinical and biochemical details were noted. For psychological analysis, patients were screened for gender dysphoria using Parent Report Gender Identity Questionnaire for children <12 years and Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. Results: We analyzed 22 46 XX CAH patients among which, 3 were reared as males and 19 as females. Among the 19 patients reared as females, 17 patients showed no gender dysphoria. Two patients revealed gender dysphoria as indicated by their marginally low scores on the gender dysphoria assessment. However, in view of current literature and the age groups of the patients, behavior of the 6-year-old patient can be best understood as being tomboyish. Gender dysphoria in the 22-year-old can be explained by the dominance of psychosocial factors and not hormones alone. Among the three patients reared as males, two prepubertal were satisfied with their male gender identity. The third patient, aged 32 years, had gender dysphoria when reared as a male that resolved when gender was reassigned as female and feminizing surgery was done. Conclusion: Gender assignment in 46 XX CAH is guided by factors such as degree of virilization of genitalia, gender orientation, patient involvement, sociocultural, and parental influences.

  14. The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J J; Wharrad, H

    2001-05-01

    The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy. This is the third and final paper drawing on data taken from United Nations (UN) data sets. The first paper examined the global distribution of health professionals (as measured by ratios of physicians and nurses to population), and its relationship to gross national product per capita (GNP) (Wharrad & Robinson 1999). The second paper explored the relationships between the global distribution of physicians and nurses, GNP, female literacy and the health outcome indicators of infant and under five mortality rates (IMR and u5MR) (Robinson & Wharrad 2000). In the present paper, the global distribution of health professionals is explored in relation to maternal mortality rates (MMRs). The proportion of births attended by medical and nonmedical staff defined as "attendance at birth by trained personnel" (physicians, nurses, midwives or primary health care workers trained in midwifery skills), is included as an additional independent variable in the regression analyses, together with the ratio of physicians and nurses to population, female literacy and GNP. To extend our earlier analyses by considering the relationships between the global distribution of health professionals (ratios of physicians and nurses to population, and the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel), GNP, female literacy and MMR. countries, regression analyses were performed using numbers of physicians, and numbers of nurses, per 1000 population, the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel, GNP per capita and female literacy as independent variables and MMRs as the dependent variable. Linear regression analyses show positive associations for MMRs and the ratios of physicians to population (73%, n=136), ratios of nurses to population (56%, n=137), and

  15. Understanding and Overcoming Implicit Gender Bias in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicole A; Tannan, Shruti C; Kalliainen, Loree K

    2016-11-01

    Although explicit sex-based discrimination has largely been deemed unacceptable in professional settings, implicit gender bias persists and results in a significant lack of parity in plastic surgery and beyond. Implicit gender bias is the result of a complex interplay of cultural and societal expectations, learned behaviors, and standardized associations. As such, both male and female surgeons are subject to its influence. A review of the literature was conducted, examining theories of gender bias, current manifestations of gender bias in plastic surgery and other fields, and interventions designed to address gender bias. Multiple studies demonstrate persistent gender bias that impacts female physicians at all levels of training. Several institutions have enacted successful interventions to identify and address gender bias. Explicit gender bias has largely disappeared, yet unconscious or implicit gender bias persists. A wide-scale commitment to addressing implicit gender bias in plastic surgery is necessary and overdue. Recommendations include immediate actions that can be undertaken on an individual basis, and changes that should be implemented at a national and international level by leaders in the field.

  16. Non-binary or genderqueer genders

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Christina; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Seal, Leighton; Barker, Meg John; Nieder, Timo O; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are genderqueer' or non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging ...

  17. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  18. Attitudes toward homosexuality among young adults: connections to gender role identity, gender-typed activities, and religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.

  19. Do We Think Children Need a Mom and Dad?: Understanding How Gender Ideology Impact Attitudes Toward Same-Gender Parent Family Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stephanie N; Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S

    2018-01-01

    Research and opinion polls demonstrate that attitudes toward same-gender parent families have been improving in recent years among Western countries; however, the history of oppression toward, and misconceptions about, same-gender parent families continue to be demonstrated in Australian family rights policies. Common misconceptions include the belief that children need both male and female role models, and this could be influencing peoples' support for same-gender family rights and having a wider impact on legislation change. Yet a dearth of research exists exploring a connection between gender role beliefs and support for same-gender family rights using a broad international sample, including Australia. To investigate this connection, a sample (N = 615) from 18 English-speaking countries responded to a series of questions to determine the importance of gender norm beliefs on same-gender family prejudice. Regression analysis demonstrated that people with traditional beliefs about gender norms were more likely to endorse a negative attitude toward same-gender marriage and same-gender parenting. Findings suggest a link between socially prescribed gender norms and prejudice toward same-gender parent families that may be fueling arguments against same-gender family rights policies. The implications of these findings on same-gender parent families and their rights require future investigation.

  20. The gender gap in sport performance: equity influences equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Halson, Shona; Myburgh, Kathryn H; Ogasawara, Etsuko; Millard-Stafford, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Sport is recognized as playing a relevant societal role to promote education, health, intercultural dialogue, and the individual development, regardless of an individual's gender, race, age, ability, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. Yet, it was not until the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London that every country's delegation included a female competitor. The gender gap in sport, although closing, remains, due to biological differences affecting performance, but it is also influenced by reduced opportunity and sociopolitical factors that influence full female participation across a range of sports around the world. Until the cultural environment is equitable, scientific discussion related to physiological differences using methods that examine progression in male and female world-record performances is limited. This commentary is intended to provide a forum to discuss issues underlying gender differences in sport performance from a global perspective and acknowledge the influence of cultural and sociopolitical factors that continue to ultimately affect female performance.

  1. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  2. "Who Do You Want Me to Be?" An Exploration of Female and Male Perceptions of "Imposed" Gender Roles in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownhill, Simon; Oates, Ruby

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an exploratory discussion surrounding the views and experiences of women and men who work/train in the early years (0-8 years) by bringing together select findings from two independent doctoral research projects. In an effort to weave together the voices of females and males working/training in the early years sector, this…

  3. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality: Relationships to changing gender roles and other societal trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Earle

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.

  4. Wages, Promotions, and Gender Workplace Segregation (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    HASHIMOTO Yuki; SATO Kaori

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how job assignments affect gender pay gap and the promotion rate of female workers using personnel records from a large Japanese manufacturing firm, where newly-hired male and female workers are systematically assigned to different workplaces ("gender job segregation"). According to our gender pay gap analysis, we find that controlling for workplace heterogeneity leads to a larger, rather than smaller, gender pay gap, implying that female workers are sorted into work...

  5. Wages, Promotions, and Gender Workplace Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    橋本, 由紀; 佐藤, 香織

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how job assignments affect gender pay gap and the promotion rate of female workers using personnel records from a large Japanese manufacturing firm, where newly-hired male and female workers are systematically assigned to different workplaces ("gender job segregation"). According to our gender pay gap analysis, we find that controlling for workplace heterogeneity leads to a larger, rather than smaller, gender pay gap, implying that female workers are sorted into work...

  6. 女性軍訓教官的職場困境:以已婚育有子女者為例的性別分析 Gender Study of Married Female Military Instructors’ Work Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    楊櫻華 Ying-Hua Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available 本研究以「女性軍訓教官」的工作經驗為主,透過訪談八位女性軍訓教官,探討其在職場上因「性別」因素所造成之困境。綜合分析結果發現,女教官進入校園服務必須面臨的職場困境有下列三項:傳統性別角色的侷限、就業歧視、升遷的限制等。其中升遷限制除了性別歧視及制度設計因素外, 父權社會結構因素亦造成女教官自我設限,降低追求成就之動機。 This qualitative research focuses on female military instructors’ work experiences. Through interviews, the researchers investigated the impacts of “gender” on work experiences and career development of female military instructors. The research findings are as follows. Most of the female military instructors must contend with the problem of discrimination in their workplace. Their promotion is also affected by gender stereotyped and gender role ideology. In addition, the researchers also found that the interviewees have also been confined by themselves psychologically. The researchers finally suggest that more institutional design to improve the discriminatory work conditions is needed.

  7. 女性軍訓教官的職場困境:以已婚育有子女者為例的性別分析 A Gender Study of Married Female Military Instructors’ Work Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    楊櫻華 Ying-Hua Yang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究以「女性軍訓教官」的工作經驗為主,透過訪談八位女性軍訓教官,探討其在職場上因「性別」因素所造成之困境。綜合分析結果發現,女教官進入校園服務必須面臨的職場困境有下列三項:傳統性別角色的侷限、就業歧視、升遷的限制等。其中升遷限制除了性別歧視及制度設計因素外,父權社會結構因素亦造成女教官自我設限,降低追求成就之動機。 This qualitative research focuses on female military instructors’ work experiences. Through interviews, the researchers investigated the impacts of “gender” on work experiences and career development of female military instructors. The research findings are as follows. Most of the female military instructors must contend with the problem of discrimination in their workplace. Their promotion is also affected by gender stereotyped and gender role ideology. In addition, the researchers also found that the interviewees have also been confined by themselves psychologically. The researchers finally suggest that more institutional design to improve the discriminatory work conditions is needed.

  8. Gender Identity in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Karimi, Sakineh; Shirazi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Sex assignment in infancy for patients with disorder of sex development (DSD) is a challenging problem. Some of the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have DSD that may affect their gender identity. The study aimed to assess gender identity in patients with CAH. In this study, 52 patients with CAH, including 22 prepubertal children and 30 adolescents and adults, were assessed using two separate gender identity questionnaires for children and adults based on the criteria of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition. In the children group, compatibility was seen between gender identity and rearing gender. In the adult group, there were three cases of mismatching between gender identity and sex assignment composed of two females with poor control and one male with good control with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Three girls with 11-hydroxylase deficiency (11-OHD) were reared as boy. Two of them with late diagnosis at 5 and 6 years of age had pseudoprecocious puberty. Parents and children did not accept to change the gender. One of them is 36 years old now, is depressed and unsatisfied with her gender, another girl is still child and has male sexual identity. One girl with 11-OHD and early diagnosis at birth with Prader 5 virilization but with good hormonal control was changed to female gender at 12 years of age when female sexual characteristics appeared; she is 34-years-old now, married, and with two children, and she is satisfied with her gender. In patients with CAH, gender identity disorder is a rare finding. Hormonal control, social, familial, and religious beliefs have impacts on gender identity of these patients.

  9. The effect of gender medicine education in GP training: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielissen, Patrick; Verdonk, Petra; Waard, Magreet Wieringa-de; Bottema, Ben; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the change in general practitioner (GP) trainees' gender awareness following a modular gender medicine programme or a mainstream gender medicine programme. In 2007, a prospective study was conducted in three cohorts of in total 207 GP trainees who entered GP training in the Netherlands. The outcome measure was the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale and a 16-item gender knowledge questionnaire. Two gender medicine teaching methods were compared: a modular approach (n = 75) versus a mainstream approach (n = 72). Both strategies were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and t-tests. The overall response rates for the modular, mainstream and control cohort were 78, 72 and 82 %, respectively. There was a significant difference in change in gender knowledge scores between the modular cohort compared with the mainstream and control cohort (p = 0.049). There were no statistical differences between the cohorts on gender sensitivity and gender role ideology. At entry and end, female GP trainees demonstrated significantly higher gender awareness than male GP trainees. A modular teaching method is not a more favourable educational method to teach gender medicine in GP training. Female GP trainees are more gender aware, but male GP trainees are not unaware of gender-related issues.

  10. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one’s manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers’ response to an employee’s psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee’s manager’s gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. Methods A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. Results The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor

  11. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Jessica T; Cullen, Mark R; Desai, Manisha; Modrek, Sepideh

    2013-11-08

    Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one's manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers' response to an employee's psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee's manager's gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor of time to first acute injury (p

  12. Prevalencia de diferentes tipos de violencia en usuarias del sector salud en México Gender violence prevalence in female users of health services in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Olaiz

    2006-01-01

    inmediatas y acumulativas sobre la salud. Los resultados indican la necesidad urgente de prevenir y atender este problema.OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of violence against females among those who are health service beneficiaries in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Survey on Violence against Women (ENVIM, per its Spanish abbreviation was applied in 2003 to female users of public primary and secondary health care services. The sampling framework was based on a stratified, probabilistic sample in two stages. First the health care units were selected with probability proportional to the number of physicians' offices in the unit, from a list of possible care units. Second, women 15 years and older who sought care at the health care unit were selected for participation in the study through systematic sampling. Univariate analysis and then bivariate analysis were carried out on the data collected with a questionnaire. RESULTS: The sample included 26 042 women between 15 and 92 years of age, with a mean age of 35.8 years. Physical violence during childhood was reported by 42% of the women. Only 7.8% answered yes to a general question about whether they experienced domestic partner violence, but 21.5% reported experiencing violence of any type during the last 12 months as measured by a scale including specific acts of psychological, economic, physical and sexual violence. The most frequently reported type of violence was psychological (19.6%. Of the women who had been pregnant, 14.1% reported having experienced violence during pregnancy, and 4.4% reported being hit in the abdomen. The prevalence of sexual violence was 17.3% and close to half reported being victims of this type of violence before age 15. Higher prevalence of violence was found among women with lower levels of formal education, living in a rented home, in areas with higher overcrowding indices, and users of Ministry of Health care services. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying and measuring violence is complex

  13. Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Campa; Alessandra Casarico; Paola Profeta

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes to what extent gender culture affects gender gap in employment. Drawing on Italian data, we measure culture by building two indices: one based on individuals' attitudes, as done in the existing literature; one based on firms' attitudes. Firms' beliefs, which express their set of ideas, values and norms, though generally neglected, are as important as individuals' attitudes to explain female labor market outcomes. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we show that our ...

  14. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  15. Gender, British Administration and Mission Management of Education in Zambia 1900-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of including gender in the analytical framework in a study of the management and provision of education in Zambia from 1900 to 1939. It shows that a focus on gender allows females to enter the historical narrative and the leadership of women such as Mabel Shaw, Hannah Frances Davidson and Julia Smith can be given…

  16. Increased Cross-Gender Identification Independent of Gender Role Behavior in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results from a Standardized Assessment of 4- to 11-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Zucker, Kenneth J; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    While reports showing a link between prenatal androgen exposure and human gender role behavior are consistent and the effects are robust, associations to gender identity or cross-gender identification are less clear. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential cross-gender identification in girls exposed prenatally to high concentrations of androgens due to classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Assessment included two standardized measures and a short parent interview assessing frequency of behavioral features of cross-gender identification as conceptualized in Part A of the diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) in the DSM-IV-TR. Next, because existing measures may have conflated gender role behavior with gender identity and because the distinction is potentially informative, we factor analyzed items from the measures which included both gender identity and gender role items to establish the independence of the two constructs. Participants were 43 girls and 38 boys with CAH and 41 unaffected female and 31 unaffected male relatives, aged 4- to 11-years. Girls with CAH had more cross-gender responses than female controls on all three measures of cross-gender identification as well as on a composite measure of gender identity independent of gender role behavior. Furthermore, parent report indicated that 5/39 (12.8 %) of the girls with CAH exhibited cross-gender behavior in all five behavioral domains which comprise the cross-gender identification component of GID compared to 0/105 (0.0 %) of the children in the other three groups combined. These data suggest that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally are more likely to show cross-gender identification than girls without CAH or boys with and without CAH. Our findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure could play a role in gender identity development in healthy children, and may be relevant to gender assignment in cases of prenatal hormone disruption

  17. The aging population: imperative to uncouple sex and gender to establish "gender equal" health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Gloria A; Mussman, Brianna

    2015-04-01

    The transgender community has long been marginalized in society. As the world's population ages, gender-unbiased health services for this growing population, with age-related chronic illnesses, will be essential. To optimally eliminate hurdles that trans individuals often confront when requesting services, it appears judicious to eliminate the strict and antiquated definition of what constitutes "normal" female and "normal" male. A review of literature on transgender medicine on PubMed over the last five years was conducted. Existing statistics indicate that unacceptable bias and discrimination are occurring, making trans patients less likely to seek care. There are emerging initiatives that address the transgender and gender non-conforming population. Ongoing needs include defining what constitutes "gender equal," understanding the continuum of gender identity, and establishing and implementing guidelines for gender equal counseling and care. With the routine practice of defining sex at birth and equating sex with gender in the health care setting, the transgender patient encounters multiple barriers to accessing and acquiring health care services. These strict gender labels appear to preclude the institution of gender equal care. Care templates on gender equal patient encounters should be implemented to better address transgender health needs in a non-biased manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Gender Feeling Amplitude: an instrument to assist clinicians with the assessment of gender diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Background The Gender Feeling Amplitude (GFA) is a 68-item list of words and phrases with which to identify the feelings and severity of a young person's distress regarding their gender identity and gender diversity, and takes ~1min to administer. For this pilot study, 67 adolescents and youth who sought support, confirmation or intervention (either via themselves or their parents) regarding gender diversity or gender transition were given the GFA in a face-to-face meeting before the beginning of an assessment procedure for gender diversity. Forty-three assigned females and 24 assigned males aged between 10 and 20 years were analysed by frequency of item, age and assigned gender. Of the 68 items, those circled by close to 50% or more of the participants were 'self-conscious', 'awkward' and 'don't fit in'. One-third or more circled the words 'shy', 'supported', 'hopeful', 'discomfort', 'as if I'm not being seen properly', 'forced to be something I'm not', 'depressed' and 'stressed'. Comparisons showed some variations in responses by both assigned gender and age, and the discussion includes ways the GFA may be able to assist a health practitioner with explorations of gender diversity and interventions for counselling.

  19. Assessment on the problems of female staff at Jimma University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is therefore, meant to identify gender related problems of Jimma ... attitude of the society against females, work overload, lack of assertiveness, ... of females believed that there existed gender discrimination currently (p<0.05).

  20. [Gender stereotypes arising in a state of gender awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the structure of gender stereotypes which might arise in the state of gender awareness that was triggered by social situations where people perceived their gender differences strongly. Out of 1,500 residents in Tokyo aged between 20-60, 342 females and 313 males were randomly chosen and answered the questions about gender consciousness in the state of gender awareness. A factor analysis revealed that "maternity" and "trustworthiness" were the dominant dimensions of gender stereotypes in the state of gender awareness, and that trustworthiness particularly formed the basis of gender stereotypes. Generation differences in gender stereotypes were also revealed between women in their 40 s and 50 s, and between men in their 30 s and 40 s. Generally, power for men and nurture for women were more likely to be perceived in a state of gender awareness.

  1. Gender Considerations in Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mulheres em conflito com a lei: a ressignificação de identidades de gênero em um contexto prisional Women in conflict with the law: the ressignification of gender identities in a female prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Patrícia Teixeira de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma investigação sobre identidades de gênero, ressignificadas por mulheres encarceradas em um presídio feminino do norte do Paraná. As análises realizadas de dados de entrevistas semi-estruturadas revelam que, a partir da sua inserção na cultura prisional, é possível identificar identidades negociadas, desejadas e / ou negadas por essas mulheres e possíveis conflitos de identidade gerados pela relação de suas realidades e culturas, por serem provenientes de classe baixa, oriundas de famílias desestruturadas, com pouca escolaridade e marcadas pelo estigma, de presidiárias. A análise mostra também que as identidades reconstruídas nesse ambiente reforçam a construção de estigmas que contribuem para a reincidência. Concluímos que a prisão deve ser repensada como um espaço para a aplicação da inclusão, reabilitação e reinserção social, por meio de projetos nos quais a escrita deveria ser incluída, considerando o papel social que ela já tem nesse contexto.This paper presents the results of an investigation about the ressignification process of gender identities by imprisoned women in a female prison, in the North of Paraná State - South Brazil. The data analyses of semi-structured interviews showed that is possible to identify negotiated, desired or negated identities as well as identity conflicts caused by their own realities and cultures, lower-socio-economic level, dysfunctional families, low literacy level, besides prison stigma. The analyses show that representations and identities re-built in the prison environment, especially those of prison and society, reinforce the construction of stigmas which may contribute to create reoccurring imprisonments. Prisons should be revaluated as a place for inclusion, social rehabilitation and re-insertion intro society through specific projects, in which writing should be included, considering it's social role in this context.

  3. Gender discrimination and nursing: α literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Kaite, Charis P

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine gender stereotypes in relation to men in nursing, discuss gender discrimination cases in nursing, and explore methods used for promoting equal educational opportunities during nursing studies. The literature review was based on related databases, such as CINAHL, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and EBSCO. Legal case studies are included in order to provide a more practical example of those barriers existing for men pursuing nursing, as well as statistical data concerning gender discrimination and male attrition to nursing schools in relation to those barriers. These strengthen the validity of the manuscript. Literature review showed that gender discrimination is still prevalent within nursing profession. Nursing faculty should prepare male nursing students to interact effectively with female clients as well. Role modeling the therapeutic relationship with clients is one strategy that may help male students. In general, the faculty should provide equal learning opportunities to nursing students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Where are the gender differences? Male priming boosts spatial skills in women

    OpenAIRE

    Ortner, Tuulia M.; Sieverding, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The effects of gender stereotype activation by priming on performance in a spatial task were investigated among a mixed adult sample (including students) of 161 men and women (mean age=31.90) from Austria (Europe). They were assigned to one of four experimental groups according to gender and stereotype activation condition. After a male or female gender stereotype activating task, participants worked on a test assessing mental rotation (three-dimensional cube test, Gittler 1990...

  5. Gender wage gap when women are highly inactive: Evidence from repeated imputations with Macedonian data

    OpenAIRE

    Petreski, Marjan; Mojsoska-Blazevski, Nikica; Petreski, Blagica

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand if large gender employment and participation gaps in Macedonia can shed some light on the gender wage gap. A large contingent of inactive women in Macedonia including long-term unemployed due to the transition process, female remittance receivers from the male migrant, unpaid family workers in agriculture and so on, is outside employment, but is not necessarily having the worst labour-market characteristics. In addition, both gender wage gap and...

  6. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  7. Female Sex Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...

  8. Outdoor Advertising and Gender Differences : Factors Influencing Perception and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis examines attitudes towards outdoor advertising, with strong emphasis on gender-based differences. The research intends to reveal the most influencing factors, including gender, format, different images and recall. Earlier researchers have argued that females are inclined to rate advertisements more positively than men. Five different, but interconnected studies, one content analysis and four surveys, were implicated in order to measure the responses to advertising. It is further su...

  9. Gender Discrimination and Women's Development in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gender is a common term where as gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Recognizing women's right and believing their ability are essential for women's empowerment and…

  10. Young females in the athletic arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, A L

    1998-10-01

    There are factors that uniquely affect young females in sports. The sociologic aspects of female youth sports can be understood from a historical perspective. Athletics have an influence on the development of young girls, from gender identity and sexual orientation to the foundations of self-esteem and moral development. There is a relationship between certain psychopathologic conditions common in girls and athletics, including eating disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders. Although involvement in sports may engender some of these problems, others may be successfully treated through physical exercise.

  11. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  12. Natural Disasters, Gender and Handicrafts

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Yoshito

    2012-01-01

    Using original post-disaster household survey data gathered in rural Fiji, this article explores the disaster–gender nexus. Female-headed households are disadvantaged, not because of bias against them in disaster damage or relief, but because of a newly emerging gendered division of labour for dwelling rehabilitation that tightens their constraints on intra-household labour allocation. Female-headed households with damaged dwellings resort to female labour activities connected with informal r...

  13. Gender Differences in Ethnic Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Enno Masurel; Peter Nijkamp

    2003-01-01

    Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While the earliest studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies have focused on gender-based differences in entrepreneurship from a new perspective, referred to as the “integrated perspective”, which is rooted in psychological and sociological theories. Thi...

  14. Gender comparisons in children with ASD entering early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Alexandra M; Paynter, Jessica M; Trembath, David

    2017-09-01

    Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the social, communication, and cognitive functioning, as well as level of ASD symptoms, in a cohort of children who presented for early intervention to inform understanding of gender differences in this population, as well as to inform understanding of the mechanisms by which gender bias may occur. Participants included 254 children (42 females) aged 29-74 months who completed measures of cognition, communication skills, adaptive behaviour, and ASD symptoms on entry to early intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, no significant gender differences were found both overall, and when split by functioning level. However, a similar ratio of males and females was found in both high- and low-functioning groups contrary to predictions. These results are consistent with some of the previous research that suggests gender differences may not be apparent in clinical samples at this young age. We highlight a need for further research that may use universal screening or longitudinal methods to understand the trajectory of development for females with ASD specifically. Such research could better inform timely and tailored intervention from the preschool years onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perception of Female Doctors\\' Clinical Practice and Teaching in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reasons adduced for these include socio-cultural misconceptions, gender concordance and sensitivity. We conclude that female doctors should improve their practice style and content and veer into male dominated specialties to clarify these misconceptions. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research Vol.

  16. The Prevalence of Only-Child Status Among Children and Adolescents Referred to a Gender Identity Service Versus a Clinical Comparison Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S Kathleen; VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Wasserman, Lori; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-08-18

    Several studies indicate that homosexual males have a high proportion of older brothers compared to heterosexual males. Natal males with gender dysphoria who are likely to be homosexual also display this sibship pattern. Until recently, there was little evidence linking homosexuality and/or gender dysphoria in females to unique sibship characteristics. Two studies have indicated that natal female youth clinically referred for gender dysphoria are more likely to be only children (Schagen, Delemarre-van de Waal, Blanchard, & Cohen-Kettenis, 2012; VanderLaan, Blanchard, Wood, & Zucker, 2014). However, these studies did not include control groups of youth clinically referred for other reasons. Thus, it is unclear whether the increased likelihood of only-child status is specific to gender-referred natal females. This study compared only-child status among youth referred to a mental health service for gender dysphoria (778 males, 245 females) versus other reasons (783 males, 281 females). Prehomosexual gender-referred males were less likely to be only children than clinical controls. Contrary to previous findings, gender-referred females were not more likely to be only children, indicating that increased likelihood of only-child status is not specific to gender-referred females, but is characteristic of clinic-referred females more generally.

  17. Fenómenos Migratorios y Género: Identidades Femeninas "Remodeladas" Migratory Phenomena and Gender: "Re-modeled" Female Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Godoy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios indican que las migraciones pueden ejercer una influencia fundamental en la identidad de las mujeres. Este ensayo se pregunta por los efectos que pueden tener dos procesos migratorios muy diferentes en la identidad de género de las mujeres: exiliadas chilenas en Europa, en las décadas del setenta y ochenta, e inmigrantes peruanas por razones económicas en Santiago de Chile, en la década del noventa. Para responder a esta pregunta, discute desarrollos teóricos provenientes desde la psicología transcultural con estudios de otras disciplinas, para analizar los procesos de aculturación psicológica que experimentan las mujeres migrantesMigrations have important implications for women's identities. From this statement, this essay asks for the consequences of two migratory processes very different in the women's gender identity: the Chilean women in Europe, exiled by the military dictatorship regime, and of Peruvian immigrant women in Santiago, during the nineties. To answer this question, the essay proposes to establish a relation between theoretical developments from transcultural psychology, and other discipline's studies, to analyze psychological acculturation processes of immigrant women

  18. The perception and experience of gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement among Japanese physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from the US have found that female physicians often experience gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement. In Japan, female physicians are underrepresented in leadership positions but little is known about the prevalence of gender discrimination. We investigated the perception and prevalence of gender-based career obstacles and discrimination among Japanese physicians. The study was based on surveys of alumnae from 13 medical schools and alumni from 3 medical schools. In total, 1,684 female and 808 male physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 83% and 58%). More women than men had the perception of gender-based career obstacles for women (77% vs. 55%; p gender discrimination related to professional advancement (21% vs. 3%; p gender discrimination included age (p gender discrimination compared with younger women (OR 5.77, 95% CI: 1.83-18.24 for women above 50, and OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.48-7.28 for women between 40 and 49) and women with PhD were more likely to experience gender discrimination (OR 4.23, 95% CI: 1.81-9.89). Our study demonstrated that a significant proportion of Japanese women experienced gender-based discrimination and perceived gender-based career obstacles compared with male physicians.

  19. Evidence that gendered wording in job advertisements exists and sustains gender inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Danielle; Friesen, Justin; Kay, Aaron C

    2011-07-01

    Social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999) contends that institutional-level mechanisms exist that reinforce and perpetuate existing group-based inequalities, but very few such mechanisms have been empirically demonstrated. We propose that gendered wording (i.e., masculine- and feminine-themed words, such as those associated with gender stereotypes) may be a heretofore unacknowledged, institutional-level mechanism of inequality maintenance. Employing both archival and experimental analyses, the present research demonstrates that gendered wording commonly employed in job recruitment materials can maintain gender inequality in traditionally male-dominated occupations. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated the existence of subtle but systematic wording differences within a randomly sampled set of job advertisements. Results indicated that job advertisements for male-dominated areas employed greater masculine wording (i.e., words associated with male stereotypes, such as leader, competitive, dominant) than advertisements within female-dominated areas. No difference in the presence of feminine wording (i.e., words associated with female stereotypes, such as support, understand, interpersonal) emerged across male- and female-dominated areas. Next, the consequences of highly masculine wording were tested across 3 experimental studies. When job advertisements were constructed to include more masculine than feminine wording, participants perceived more men within these occupations (Study 3), and importantly, women found these jobs less appealing (Studies 4 and 5). Results confirmed that perceptions of belongingness (but not perceived skills) mediated the effect of gendered wording on job appeal (Study 5). The function of gendered wording in maintaining traditional gender divisions, implications for gender parity, and theoretical models of inequality are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  1. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  2. Gender Justice and School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Desheng

    2009-01-01

    Gender justice includes three basic dimensions: gender equality, respect for difference, and free choice. In reality, schools construct and reproduce the gender injustice of the social culture through multiple dimensions that include the visible and the invisible curriculum, and the teacher's behaviour. In terms of gender justice, the social…

  3. Gender Differences in Ethnic Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baycan, T.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While earlier studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies

  4. Gender, gender roles and completion of nursing education: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katrina; Muldoon, Orla T; Moutray, Marianne

    2010-05-01

    The current worldwide nursing shortage and high attrition of nursing students remain a challenge for the nursing profession. The aim of this paper was to investigate how key psychological attributes and constructions differentiate between completers and non-completers of nursing education. A questionnaire including measures of gender role identity and perceived gender appropriateness of careers was administered to 384 students early in the first year of the course. At the end of the programme attrition rates were obtained. The findings indicate that males were more likely to leave the course than females. Furthermore, those who completed the course tended to view nursing as more appropriate for women, in contrast to the non-completers who had less gender typed views. The female-dominated nature of nursing, prevalent stereotypes and gender bias inherent in nursing education seem to make this an uncomfortable place for males and those with less gendered typed views. Whilst it is acknowledged that attrition is undoubtedly a complex issue with many contributing factors, the nursing profession need to take steps to address this bias to ensure their profession is open equally to both female and male recruits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gendered Teacher–Student Interactions in English Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Hassaskhah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Being and becoming is the ultimate objective of any educational enterprise, including language teaching. However, research results indicate seemingly unjustified differences between how females and males are treated by EFL (English as a Foreign Language teachers. The overall aim of this study is to illustrate, analyze, and discuss aspects of gender bias and gender awareness in teacher–student interaction in the Iranian college context. To this end, teacher–student interactions of 20 English teachers and 500 students were investigated from the perspective of gender theory. The data were obtained via classroom observations, a seating chart and the audio-recording of all classroom interactions during the study. The findings, obtained from the quantitative descriptive statistics and chi-square methods, as well as the qualitative analysis by way of open and selective coding, uncovered that there were significant differences in the quantity and quality of the interaction for females and males in almost all categories of interaction. The study also revealed teachers’ perception of “gender,” the problems they associate with gender, and the attitudes they have to gender issues. Apparently, while positive incentives are able to facilitate learner growth, the presence of any negative barrier such as gender bias is likely to hinder development. This has implications for teachers, and faculty members who favor healthy and gender-neutral educational climate.

  6. Gender Systematics in Telescope Time Allocation at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patat, F.

    2016-09-01

    The results of a comprehensive statistical analysis of gender systematics in the time allocation process at ESO are presented. The sample on which the study is based includes more than 13 000 Normal and Short proposals, submitted by about 3000 principal investigators (PI) over eight years. The genders of PIs, and of the panel members of the Observing Programmes Committee (OPC), were used, together with their career level, to analyse the grade distributions and the proposal success rates. Proposals submitted by female PIs show a significantly lower probability of being allocated time. The proposal success rates (defined as number of top ranked runs over requested runs) are 16.0 ± 0.6% and 22.0 ± 0.4% for females and males, respectively. To a significant extent the disparity is related to different input distributions in terms of career level. The seniority of male PIs is significantly higher than that of female PIs, with only 34% of the female PIs being professionally employed astronomers (compared to 53% for male PIs). A small, but statistically significant, gender-dependent behaviour is measured for the OPC referees: both genders show the same systematics, but they are larger for males than females. The PI female/male fraction is very close to 30/70; although far from parity, the fraction is higher than that observed, for instance, among IAU membership.

  7. Species and gender differences in the metabolism and distribution of tertiary amyl methyl ether in male and female rats and mice after inhalation exposure or gavage administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Susan C J; Janszen, Derek B; Asgharian, Bahman; Moore, Timothy A; Parkinson, Horace D; Fennell, Timothy R

    2003-01-01

    Tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) is a gasoline fuel additive used to reduce emissions. Understanding the metabolism and distribution of TAME is needed to assess potential human health issues. The effect of dose level, duration of exposure and route of administration on the metabolism and distribution of TAME were investigated in male and female F344 rats and CD-1 mice following inhalation or gavage administration. By 48 h after exposure, >96% of the administered radioactivity was expired in air (16-71%) or eliminated in urine and feces (28-72%). Following inhalation exposure, mice had a two- to threefold greater relative uptake of [14C]TAME compared with rats. Metabolites were excreted in urine of rats and mice that are formed by glucuronide conjugation of tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA), oxidation of TAA to 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane and glucuronide conjugation of 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane. A saturation in the uptake and metabolism of TAME with increased exposure concentration was indicated by a decreased relative uptake of total [14C]TAME equivalents and an increase in the percentage expired as volatiles. A saturation of P-450 oxidation of TAA was indicated by a disproportional decrease of 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane and its glucuronide conjugate with increased exposure concentration. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Over-Expression of Porcine Myostatin Missense Mutant Leads to A Gender Difference in Skeletal Muscle Growth between Transgenic Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dezun; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Jiang, Shengwang; Xiao, Gaojun; Cui, Wentao

    2015-08-24

    Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-β family member, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Piedmontese cattle breeds have a missense mutation, which results in a cysteine to tyrosine substitution in the mature myostatin protein (C313Y). This loss-of-function mutation in myostatin results in a double-muscled phenotype in cattle. Myostatin propeptide is an inhibitor of myostatin activity and is considered a potential agent to stimulate muscle growth in livestock. In this study, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing porcine myostatin missense mutant (pmMS), C313Y, and wild-type porcine myostatin propeptide (ppMS), respectively, to examine their effects on muscle growth in mice. Enhanced muscle growth was observed in both pmMS and ppMS transgenic female mice and also in ppMS transgenic male mice. However, there was no enhanced muscle growth observed in pmMS transgenic male mice. To explore why there is such a big difference in muscle growth between pmMS and ppMS transgenic male mice, the expression level of androgen receptor (AR) mutant AR45 was measured by Western blot. Results indicated that AR45 expression significantly increased in pmMS transgenic male mice while it decreased dramatically in ppMS transgenic male mice. Our data demonstrate that both pmMS and ppMS act as myostatin inhibitors in the regulation of muscle growth, but the effect of pmMS in male mice is reversed by an increased AR45 expression. These results provide useful insight and basic theory to future studies on improving pork quality by genetically manipulating myostatin expression or by regulating myostatin activity.

  9. Rural youth and violence: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry L; Kulig, Judith; Grant Kalischuk, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The public health system must consider violence as an all too common reality in modern life. Violence can contribute to long-lasting negative consequences for individuals and communities. Research on violence has primarily focused on urban environments. Research examining youth violence within rural communities is limited. This is particularly the case for the links between gender and violence in small rural settings. The purpose of this study was to examine rural violence from a gender perspective by examining four variables: meaning, causes, consequences and solutions. A survey was completed in Central Alberta, Canada with 178 students from grades 6 to 12. The schools' geographic locations represented two distinct economic settings: one natural resources and the other agriculture. The mean age of the participants was 16 years with 60% of the youth female and 40% male. The survey instrument was composed of demographic questions and 70 questions that focused on violence. Violence was a concern for all youth, but there were gender differences. Females viewed the meaning of violence as having the intent to harm others and causes contributing to violence included television, movies, video games and the internet. Females were more concerned than males about the emotional consequences of violence. For solutions, females were more accepting of intrusive means to control violence such as increased security and stricter school rules, and involving non-peer helpers such as teachers and community based agencies as a means to help combat violence. The results of this study indicate that violence exists among rural youth and causes a great deal of concern. In particular, the study underscores the fact that there are potential gender differences in relation to causes, meaning, impact and solutions to violence. All the youth believed that violence in their lives needs to be addressed and want to develop anti-violence strategies. Females in particular see the development of such

  10. Gender Discrimination and Women's Development in India

    OpenAIRE

    sivakumar, marimuthu

    2008-01-01

    Gender is a common term where as gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Recognizing women’s right and believing their ability are essential for women’s empowerment and development. This study deals with gender discrimination in India, its various forms and its causes. Importance of women in development, legislation...

  11. [Gender aspects of psychiatric publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Marion; Unger, Annemarie; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Wancata, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Are authors of German language psychiatric journals more often male or female? Are there gender differences regarding scientific topics? Analysis of publications of two German-language journals (Neuropsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Praxis) for the period 2008-2009. We could not find any gender differences concerning the number of first authors, but the number of male co-authors was nearly double as high as of female co-authors. Qualitative research methods were used more often by female researchers, but there were no significant differences regarding scientific topics. Overall, we found fewer gender differences than expected concerning authorship.

  12. Language Teachers’ Burnout and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Jamshidirad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gender on the three burnout dimensions; emotional exhaustion (EE, depersonalization (DP and personal accomplishment (PA among English language teachers in Malaysia. This study was a quantitative survey study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES (Maslach, Jackson, & Schwab, 1986 was used to collect the data to determine the burnout levels of the teachers with respect to its three dimensions. These Data was collected from 28 English language teachers (50% female. Descriptive and inferential statistics including frequency, percentage, means, standard deviations, and t-test were used in the analysis. The results showed that gender was not a predictor of burnout in this sample. The study can have useful implications for educational administrators who deal with language teachers.

  13. Female desistance: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodermond, E.; Kruttschnitt, C.; Slotboom, A.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether, and if so how, male-based theories of desistance also apply to female offenders, this article reviews 44 studies on female desistance. Where available, gender differences in desistance are considered. Having children and supportive relationships is found to be important for

  14. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  15. The Gender-Mediated Impact of a Career Development Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Diana V. W.; Chen, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differential impact of an educational intervention on high school students' career maturity based on gender. Dimensions of career maturity investigated include congruence, career certainty, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy and career exploration. Females were found to increase significantly in…

  16. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  17. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.

  18. Iron ladies, men of steel : The effects of gender stereotyping on the perception of male and female candidates are moderated by prototypicality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Joris; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Otten, Sabine

    Women remain a minority in politics. In nearly all countries, including parliamentary, democracies, women are still underrepresented in national parliament and other representative institutions. Research has argued that there is a bias against women in elections. Here we study the process behind

  19. Does Gender Influence Colour Choice in the Treatment of Visual Stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam L Conway

    Full Text Available Visual Stress (VS is a condition in which words appear blurred, in motion, or otherwise distorted when reading. Some people diagnosed with VS find that viewing black text on white paper through coloured overlays or precision tinted lenses (PTLs reduces symptoms attributed to VS. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the choice of colour of overlays or PTLs is influenced by a patient's gender.Records of all patients attending a VS assessment in two optometry practices between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who reported a significant and consistent reduction in symptoms with either overlay and or PTL were included in the analysis. Overlays and PTLs were categorized as stereotypical male, female or neutral colours based on gender preferences as described in the literature. Chi-square analysis was carried out to determine whether gender (across all ages or within age groups was associated with overlay or PTL colour choice.279 patients (133 males and 146 females, mean age 17 years consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with an overlay and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant association between the colour of overlay chosen and male or female gender (Chi-square 0.788, p = 0.674. 244 patients (120 males and 124 females, mean age 24.5 years consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with PTLs and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant association between stereotypical male/female/neutral colours of PTLs chosen and male/female gender (Chi-square 6.46, p = 0.040. More males preferred stereotypical male colour PTLs including blue and green while more females preferred stereotypical female colour PTLs including pink and purple.For some VS patients, the choice of PTL colour is influenced not only by the alleviation of symptoms but also by other non-visual factors such as gender.

  20. Does Gender Influence Colour Choice in the Treatment of Visual Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Miriam L; Evans, Bruce J W; Evans, Josephine C; Suttle, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Visual Stress (VS) is a condition in which words appear blurred, in motion, or otherwise distorted when reading. Some people diagnosed with VS find that viewing black text on white paper through coloured overlays or precision tinted lenses (PTLs) reduces symptoms attributed to VS. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the choice of colour of overlays or PTLs is influenced by a patient's gender. Records of all patients attending a VS assessment in two optometry practices between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who reported a significant and consistent reduction in symptoms with either overlay and or PTL were included in the analysis. Overlays and PTLs were categorized as stereotypical male, female or neutral colours based on gender preferences as described in the literature. Chi-square analysis was carried out to determine whether gender (across all ages or within age groups) was associated with overlay or PTL colour choice. 279 patients (133 males and 146 females, mean age 17 years) consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with an overlay and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant association between the colour of overlay chosen and male or female gender (Chi-square 0.788, p = 0.674). 244 patients (120 males and 124 females, mean age 24.5 years) consistently showed a reduction in symptoms with PTLs and were included. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant association between stereotypical male/female/neutral colours of PTLs chosen and male/female gender (Chi-square 6.46, p = 0.040). More males preferred stereotypical male colour PTLs including blue and green while more females preferred stereotypical female colour PTLs including pink and purple. For some VS patients, the choice of PTL colour is influenced not only by the alleviation of symptoms but also by other non-visual factors such as gender.