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Sample records for included ethoxyresorufin-o-dealkylase erod

  1. EROD activity, chromosomal damage, and oxidative stress in response to contaminants exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings from Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Bigorgne, Emilie; Oziolor, Elias; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra; Erickson, Richard A.; Aagaard, Kevin; Matson, Cole W.

    2017-01-01

    Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestlings were collected from 60 sites in the Great Lakes, which included multiple sites within 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and six sites not listed as AOCs from 2010 to 2014. Nestlings, approximately 12 days-of-age, were evaluated for ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, chromosomal damage, and six measures of oxidative stress. Data on each of these biomarkers were divided into four equal numbered groups from the highest to lowest values and the groups were compared to contaminant concentrations using multivariate analysis. Contaminant concentrations, from the same nestlings, included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 17 elements. Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aPAHs) and parent PAHs (pPAHs) were measured in pooled nestling dietary samples. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and pesticides were measured in sibling eggs. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, and PCBs, in that order, were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest EROD activities; PFCs, PBDEs, the remaining pesticides, and all elements were of secondary importance. The four categories of chromosomal damage did not separate out well based on the contaminants measured. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, heptachlor, PCBs, chlordane, and dieldrin were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest activities of two oxidative stress measures, total sulfhydryl (TSH) activity and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) activity. The four categories of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the ratio of GSSG/GSH did not separate well based on the contaminants measured.

  2. Chromosomal damage and EROD induction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) along the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilie Bigorgne,; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Erickson, Richard A.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra; Custer, Christine M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Cole W. Matson,

    2015-01-01

    The health of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) was assessed in 2010 and 2011 using biomarkers at six sites downriver of Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area, a tributary into the UMR, and a nearby lake. Chromosomal damage was evaluated in nestling blood by measuring the coefficient of variation of DNA content (DNA CV) using flow cytometry. Cytochrome P450 1A activity in nestling liver was measured using the ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) assay, and oxidative stress was estimated in nestling livers via determination of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio GSSG/GSH, total sulfhydryl, and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH). A multilevel regression model (DNA CV) and simple regressions (EROD and oxidative stress) were used to evaluate biomarker responses for each location. Chromosomal damage was significantly elevated at two sites on the UMR (Pigs Eye and Pool 2) relative to the Green Mountain Lake reference site, while the induction of EROD activity was only observed at Pigs Eye. No measures of oxidative stress differed among sites. Multivariate analysis confirmed an increased DNA CV at Pigs Eye and Pool 2, and elevated EROD activity at Pigs Eye. These results suggest that the health of tree swallows has been altered at the DNA level at Pigs Eye and Pool 2 sites, and at the physiological level at Pigs Eye site only.

  3. Response of the freshwater Alga chlorella vulgaris to trichloroisocyanuric acid and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiangping; Wang, Xiang; Chen, Jufang; Zitko, Vladimir; An, Taichen

    2008-01-01

    The effects of trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) and ciprofloxacin (CPFX) on the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris were assessed by toxicity bioassays and by the values of biomarkers in phase I and phase II. The biomarkers included growth rate, concentration of chlorophyll a, activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylases (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and total glutathione (GSH). Ciprofloxacin was a weaker growth inhibitor than TCCA but, at a concentration of greater than 12.5 mg/L, decreased the growth of C. vulgaris. Concentration of chlorophyll a showed a similar trend. The 96-h median effective concentration (EC50; i.e., 50% reduction in growth relative to the control) of CPFX was 20.6 mg/L. Trichloroisocyanuric acid was a strong growth inhibitor and, at concentrations of greater than 0.80 mg/L, caused 100% inhibition on 24-h exposure. The 96-h EC50 of TCCA was 0.313 mg/L. Ciprofloxacin and TCCA affected the phase I and phase II enzyme activities differently. On exposure to CPFX, both EROD and GSH decreased at low CPFX concentrations (12.5 mg/L), and CAT and GST exhibited induction at low concentrations and inhibition at high concentrations. In TCCA exposure, GST activity was significantly stimulated, and GSH concentration was increased. Catalase activity increased only at TCCA concentrations of greater than 0.12 mg/L, and no change in EROD activity was observed.

  4. Organochlorine accumulation by Sentinel Mallards at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W.; Sobiech, S.A.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Farm-raised l2-month-old female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were released at the Winston-Thomas sewage treatment plant, Bloomington, Indiana. Five mallards were sacrificed at the start of the study and at approximately 10-day intervals through day 100. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in carcasses increased linearly with time of exposure and exceeded 16 mcg/g wet weight by day 100; PCBs in breast muscle exceeded 3.9 mcg/g by day 100. These PCB values are among the highest recorded for wild or sentinel waterfowl. PCB concentrations in breast muscle (26-523 mcg/g lipid weight) were 50-1,000 times greater than human consumption guidelines for edible poultry in Canada (0.5 mcg/g lipid weight) and 9-176 times greater than consumption guidelines for edible poultry in the United States (3.0 mcg/g lipid weight). Additionally, PCB concentrations in carcass and breast muscle exceeded the threshold of the Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumption Advisory 'do not eat' category (1.9 mcg/g wet weight) by day 20 and day 50, respectively. Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases including BROD (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase), and PROD (pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase) were induced over 5-fold compared to reference mallards. BROD, EROD, and PROD were each significantly correlated to total PCBs and to the toxicity of selected PCB congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

  5. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (DE-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A; Rattner, Barnett A; Hale, Robert C; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2009-05-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 microg/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 microg/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 microg/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 microg/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 microg total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  6. Toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (de-71) in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel (Falco sparverius) embryos and hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic survival, pipping and hatching success, and sublethal biochemical, endocrine, and histological endpoints were examined in hatchling chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following air cell administration of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) mixture (0.01-20 mu g/g egg) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3', 4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.002 mu g/g egg). The penta-BDE decreased pipping and hatching success at concentrations of 10 and 20 mu g/g egg in kestrels but had no effect on survival endpoints in chickens or mallards. Sublethal effects in hatchling chickens included ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) induction and histological changes in the bursa, but these responses were not observed in other species. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener 126 (positive control) reduced survival endpoints in chicken and kestrel embryos and caused sublethal effects (EROD induction, reduced bursal mass and follicle size) in chickens. Mallards were clearly less sensitive than the other species to administered penta-BDE and PCB 126. In a second experiment, the absorption of penta-BDE (11.1 mu g/g egg, air cell administered during early development) into the contents of chicken and kestrel eggs was determined at various intervals (24 h postinjection, midincubation, and pipping). By pipping, 29% of the penta-BDE administered dose was present in the egg contents in chickens, and 18% of the administered dose was present in kestrel egg contents. Based on uptake in kestrels, the lowest-observed-effect level on pipping and hatching success may be as low as 1.8 mu g total penta-BDE/g egg, which approaches concentrations detected in eggs of free-ranging birds. Because some penta-BDE congeners are still increasing in the environment, the toxic effects observed in the present study are cause for concern in wildlife.

  7. Erodibility of cemented materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gass, BG

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of stabilised layers is cost effective in road construction in South Africa. Some stabilised materials have however been found to be susceptible to erosion. To identify erodible materials the Erosion Test was developed in 1989...

  8. Estimation of riverbank soil erodibility parameters using genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapas Karmaker

    2017-11-07

    Nov 7, 2017 ... sion primarily depends on soil erodibility parameters and the developed shear stress. The erodibility parameters include the critical shear stress and the erodibility coeffi- cient. Critical shear stress can be defined as the limiting shear stress developed due to flowing water, if in excess, will lead to soil erosion ...

  9. Filled/Eroded Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    14 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows rugged terrain in northern Arabia Terra. The circular features are the remains of old meteor impact craters -- either the eroded remnants of the interiors of craters, or the remains of craters that were filled by layered material. The martian bedrock has craters of all sizes and states of erosion interbedded with its layered materials. Location near: 31.4oN, 299.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  10. Puerto Rico Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puerto Rico soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  11. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  12. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  13. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-W.; Melancon, M.J.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3 and 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD) and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD and PROD were not elevated at doses ? 0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05), but were significantly increased at doses ? 2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). The increased activity of these four enzymes ranged from 3to 6.4fold relative to control levels. The increased activities were maintained for at least four weeks. Due to a lack of induction at low doses of PCB 126, which were still relatively high compared to currentlyknown environmental concentrations, we suspect that EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD activities are not sensitive biomarkers for coplanar PCB exposure in leopard frogs.

  14. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  15. The Changing Mood in America. Eroding Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Faustine Childress; And Others

    This book examines the current social climate in the United States to determine whether there is an eroding social commitment to equal opportunity for blacks and other minorities and the poor. It is concluded that there is a changing mood in the dominant society, in the black population, and in all three branches of the federal government, and it…

  16. Dispersive and erodible soils - fundamental differences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive, erodible and slaking soils are prevalent over wide areas of South Africa. Each of these materials increases the cost of construction, but dispersive soils are likely to lead to far more serious problems, particularly in dam construction...

  17. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  18. Cytochrome P450-inhibitory activity of parabens and phthalates used in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yoko; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP)-inhibitory effects of 11 parabens and 7 phthalates used in consumer products, as well as their hydrolytic metabolites, were investigated, using rat liver microsomes as an enzyme source. The effects on individual CYP isozymes were evaluated by assaying inhibition of activities towards specific substrates, i.e., ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (BFCD), 7-methoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (MFCD) and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (EFCD) activities. These activities were dose-dependently inhibited, most potently by medium-side-chain parabens (C6-9) and phthalates (C4-6), and less potently by shorter- and longer-side-chain esters. The hydrolytic product of parabens, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, was not inhibitory, while those of phthalates, phthalic acid monoesters, showed lower inhibitory activity than the parent phthalates. Parabens showed relatively potent inhibition of MFCD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2C, and phthalates showed relatively potent inhibition of PROD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2B.

  19. Impact of land use change on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taleshian Jeloudar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability of soil separates to detachment by water is described as soil erodibility by Universal Soil Loss Equation which can be affected by land use change. In this study it was attempted to quantify the changes of Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor and its soil driving factors in three land uses including rangeland, rainfed farming, and orchards in Babolrood watershed, northern Iran. Soil composite samples were obtained from two layers in three land uses, and the related soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The rainfed farming land use showed the highest clay contents, but the highest amounts of soil organic matter and sand particles were found in orchard land use. The high intensity of tillage led to the significant decrease of soil aggregate stability and permeability in the rainfed farming land use. The Universal Soil Loss Equation K-factor was negatively correlated with soil permeability (r=-0.77**. In rangeland, the K-factor (0.045 Mg h/MJ/mm was significantly higher and the particle size distribution had a great impact on the K-factor. The orchard land use, converted from the rangeland, did not show any increase of soils erodibility and can potentially be introduced as a good alternative land use in sloping areas. However, more detailed studies on environmental, social and economic aspects of this land use are needed.

  20. Eroded Layered Material in Southwest Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)dramatically illustrate that many places on the red planet have outcrops of layered geologic materials. The two pictures above show the remains of layered material inside craters in southwestern Utopia Planitia (see inset for detailed view). These remnant layers indicate that the craters--and perhaps the plains that surround them--were once buried beneath a deposit that has since been eroded away. This theme of layered outcrops and exhumed craters appears to be one of the dominant observations that MGS MOC has made--to date--about Mars. The origin and composition of the layered material--and its ultimate fate once it was largely eroded away--are unknown. Each of the two pictures shown here covers an area about 4 kilometers (2.5 miles)by 6.3 kilometers (3.9 miles). Illumination is from the lower right. These are subframes of a single MOC image acquired in July 1998 during the MGS Science Phasing Orbits imaging campaign. This figure was presented at the 30th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston, Texas, March 1999. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  1. Quality Uncertainty Erodes Trust in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simine Vazire

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available When consumers of science (readers and reviewers lack relevant details about the study design, data, and analyses, they cannot adequately evaluate the strength of a scientific study. Lack of transparency is common in science, and is encouraged by journals that place more emphasis on the aesthetic appeal of a manuscript than the robustness of its scientific claims. In doing this, journals are implicitly encouraging authors to do whatever it takes to obtain eye-catching results. To achieve this, researchers can use common research practices that beautify results at the expense of the robustness of those results (e.g., p-hacking. The problem is not engaging in these practices, but failing to disclose them. A car whose carburetor is duct-taped to the rest of the car might work perfectly fine, but the buyer has a right to know about the duct-taping. Without high levels of transparency in scientific publications, consumers of scientific manuscripts are in a similar position as buyers of used cars – they cannot reliably tell the difference between lemons and high quality findings. This phenomenon – quality uncertainty – has been shown to erode trust in economic markets, such as the used car market. The same problem threatens to erode trust in science. The solution is to increase transparency and give consumers of scientific research the information they need to accurately evaluate research. Transparency would also encourage researchers to be more careful in how they conduct their studies and write up their results. To make this happen, we must tie journals’ reputations to their practices regarding transparency. Reviewers hold a great deal of power to make this happen, by demanding the transparency needed to rigorously evaluate scientific manuscripts. The public expects transparency from science, and appropriately so – we should be held to a higher standard than used car salespeople.

  2. 76 FR 82075 - Highly Erodible Land and Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Secretary 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0560-AH97 Highly Erodible Land and Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the... ``good faith'' provisions in the USDA regulations allow violators of highly erodible land conservation (HELC) or wetland conservation (WC) provisions to retain eligibility for USDA program benefits if...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF SOME SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES ON THEIR ERODABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Stanga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Soils from de hills and tableland regions, as well as those from subcarpathian area are characterized through higher erodability. The soils from mountain area present the lowest erodability, especially districambosol, due to the upper horizons properties. The erodabilidydepends on the ratio of historical geological erosion and surface erosion.

  4. Estimation of riverbank soil erodibility parameters using genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapas Karmaker

    2017-11-07

    Nov 7, 2017 ... Abstract. Determination of the erodibility parameters, such as critical shear stress and erodibility coefficient, are necessary before estimating the annual bank erosion (or bank retreat) at river reaches. However, in many cases, the river site is inaccessible making it difficult to assess the soil parameters either ...

  5. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  6. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: Evaluation of hepatic cytochrome p450 induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Woolf, A.; French, J.B.; Melancon, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with $-naphthoflavone ($NF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received $NF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal.

  7. Stabilization of erodible slopes with geofibers and nontraditional liquid additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Instability of erodible slopes due to extreme climate events and of permafrost slopes due degradation and thawing is a significant : engineering problem for northern transportation infrastructure. Engineers continually look for mitigation alternative...

  8. U.S.V.I. Soil Erodibility (Kffact)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S.V.I. soil erodibility (Kffactor) - low values indicate low vulnerability to erosion, higher values mean higher susceptibility to runoff.

  9. Improving and Applying the Measurement of Erodibility: Examining and Calibrating Rock Mass Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R. S.; Spotila, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Rock Mass Strength index (Selby, 1980) has become a standard test in geomorphology to quantify rock erodibility. Yet, the index combines a mixture of quantitative and qualitative parameters, yielding classification disparities arising from subjective user interpretations and producing final ratings that are effectively only comparable within a single researcher's dataset. Other methods, such as the Rock Quality Designation (Deere and Deere, 1988) and the Slope Mass Rating system (Bieniawski, 1989; Romana, 1995) employ some additional quantitative methods, but do not eliminate variability in user interpretation. Still, the idea of quantifying erodibility in an easily-applied field method holds great potential for furthering the understanding of large-scale landscape evolution. Therefore, we are applying several published and unpublished erodibility indices across a suite of rock types, varying the relative weights of index parameters and calculating ratings based on various potential interpretations of the index guidelines. To evaluate these results, we regress the iterations against the mean topographic slopes, allowing us to determine which index and weighting scheme is ideal overall. Results thus far have shown discrepancies between rating and slope in rocks that are more susceptible to chemical weathering (a parameter not typically included in erodibility indices). We are therefore examining the addition of chemical composition as an index parameter, or the possibility of creating weighting schema tailored to specific rock types and erosional environments. Preliminary results also suggest that beyond a threshold fracture density, high compressive rock strength is rendered moot, requiring further modification to existing indices.

  10. Differential effects of biochar on soils within an eroded field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas; Chintala, Rajesh; Sandhu, Saroop; Kumar, Sandeep; Clay, Dave; Gelderman, Ron; Papiernik, Sharon; Malo, Douglas; Clay, Sharon; Julson, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Future uses of biochar will in part be dependent not only on the effects of biochar on soil processes but also on the availability and economics of biochar production. If pyrolysis for production of bio-oil and syngas becomes wide-spread, biochar as a by-product of bio-oil production will be widely available and relatively inexpensive compared to the production of biochar as primary product. Biochar produced as a by-product of optimized bio-oil production using regionally available feedstocks was examined for properties and for use as an amendment targeted to contrasting soils within an eroded field in an on-farm study initiated in 2013 at Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plant based biochar materials produced from carbon optimized gasification of corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were applied at a 1% (w/w) rate to a Maddock soil (Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) located in an eroded upper landscape position and a Brookings soil (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) located in a depositional landscape position. The cropping system within this agricultural landscape was a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. Biochar physical and chemical properties for each of the feedstocks were determined including pH, surface area, surface charge potential, C-distribution, ash content, macro and micro nutrient composition. Yields, nutrient content, and carbon isotope ratio measurements were made on the harvested seed. Soil physical properties measured included water retention, bulk density, and water infiltration from a ponded double ring infiltrometer. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of biochar on partitioning of nitrate and phosphorus at soil surface exchange complex and the extracellular enzymes activity of C and N cycles. Crop yields were increased only in the Maddock soil. Biochar interacted with each

  11. Detoxification, endocrine, and immune responses of tree swallow nestlings naturally exposed to air contaminants from the Alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Fernie, Kim J; Soos, Catherine; Harner, Tom; Getachew, Fitsum; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-01-01

    Changes in environmental and wildlife health from contaminants in tailings water on the Canadian oil sands have been well-studied; however, effects of air contaminants on wildlife health have not. A field study was conducted to assess biological costs of natural exposure to oil sands-related air emissions on birds. Nest boxes for tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were erected at two sites; within 5 km of active oil sands mining and extraction, and ≥ 60 km south, at one reference site. Passive air monitors were deployed at the nest boxes to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nestlings were examined at day 9 post hatching to assess T cell function and morphometry. At day 14 post hatching, a subset of nestlings was euthanized to measure detoxification enzymes, endocrine changes, and histological alterations of immune organs. Except for ozone, all air contaminants were higher at the two oil sands sites than the reference site (up to 5-fold). Adult birds had similar reproductive performance among sites (p>0.05). Nestlings from industrial sites showed higher hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) induction (p0.6), and no histological alterations in the spleen or bursa of Fabricius (p>0.05). This is the first report examining toxicological responses in wild birds exposed to air contaminants from industrial activity in the oil sands. It is also the first time that small, individual air contaminant monitors have been used to determine local contaminant levels in ambient air around nest boxes of wild birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Organochlorine and PBDE concentrations in relation to cytochrome P450 activity in livers of Forster’s Terns (Sterna forsteri) and Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), in San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Melancon, Mark J.; Stebbins, Katie R.; Hoffman, David J.

    2010-01-01

    We measured halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) [polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT)] and P450 [e.g., ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD)] stress in livers from Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) adults and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) adults and chicks in San Francisco Bay (SFB). Penta BDEs and tetra PBDEs composed 46–66% of ∑PBDE in terns. PCB homologues di, tri, penta, hexa, and hepta composed 93–95% of ∑PCBs and p′p-DDE composed 82–98% of all ∑DDTs. We found similar concentrations of ∑PBDEs [mean micrograms per gram wet weight (ww) ± standard error = 0.4 ± 0.1], ∑PCBs (5.9 ± 1.6), and ∑DDTs (0.6 ± 0.1) among species, sexes, and regions. However, concentrations were higher in Forster’s tern adults than chicks (∑PBDEs = 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.1; ∑PCBs = 7.08 ± 2.4 and 2.4 ± 1.4; ∑DDTs = 0.5 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.1; respectively), and there was a nonsignificant trend of elevated ∑PBDEs and ∑PCBs for adult Forster’s terns in the Central South Bay and Lower South Bay portions of SFB. Combined Forster’s tern and Caspian tern ∑DDTs bioaccumulated similarly to selenium, but not mercury, and there was a nonsignificant but positive trend for ∑PBDEs and ∑PCBs bioaccumulation with mercury. P450 protein activity was higher in adult Forster’s terns than Caspian terns, higher in Central South Bay than in Lower South Bay, and higher in adult Forster’s terns than in chicks.

  13. Erodibility of Mud: Characterization and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this...coldest and wettest of the sampling periods, the flats were mostly unvegetated and we did not note any widespread microalgae on the sediment surface. In

  14. Incorporation of Fine-Grained Sediment Erodibility Measurements into Sediment Transport Modeling, Capitol Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Elias, Edwin; Jones, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Capitol Lake was created in 1951 with the construction of a concrete dam and control gate that prevented salt-water intrusion into the newly formed lake and regulated flow of the Deschutes River into southern Puget Sound. Physical processes associated with the former tidally dominated estuary were altered, and the dam structure itself likely caused an increase in retention of sediment flowing into the lake from the Deschutes River. Several efforts to manage sediment accumulation in the lake, including dredging and the construction of sediment traps upriver, failed to stop the lake from filling with sediment. The Deschutes Estuary Feasibility Study (DEFS) was carried out to evaluate the possibility of removing the dam and restoring estuarine processes as an alternative ongoing lake management. An important component of DEFS was the creation of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the restored Deschutes Estuary. Results from model simulations indicated that estuarine processes would be restored under each of four restoration alternatives, and that over time, the restored estuary would have morphological features similar to the predam estuary. The model also predicted that after dam-removal, a large portion of the sediment eroded from the lake bottom would be deposited near the Port of Olympia and a marina located in lower Budd Inlet seaward of the present dam. The volume of sediment transported downstream was a critical piece of information that managers needed to estimate the total cost of the proposed restoration project. However, the ability of the model to predict the magnitude of sediment transport in general and, in particular, the volume of sediment deposition in the port and marina was limited by a lack of information on the erodibility of fine-grained sediments in Capitol Lake. Cores at several sites throughout Capitol Lake were collected between October 31 and November 1, 2007. The erodibility of sediments in the cores was later determined in the

  15. Seasonal change of WEPP erodibility parameters on a fallow plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. K. McCool; S. Dun; J. Q. Wu; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    In cold regions, frozen soil has a significant influence on runoff and water erosion. Frozen soil can reduce infiltration capacity, and the freeze-thaw processes degrade soil cohesive strength and increase soil erodibility. In the Inland Pacific Northwest of the USA, major erosion events typically occur during winter from low-intensity rain, snowmelt, or both as frozen...

  16. Assessment of ground water contamination in Erode District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation and hepatic EROD activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation and hepatic EROD activity in golden grey mullet Liza aurata from Tunis Bay, southern Mediterranean. ... Liza aurata was used as a bioindicator species to monitor contamination by organic xenobiotics of estuarine water at the outlet of Khélij channel [canal], Tunisia, from November ...

  18. sessment of ground water contamination in Erode District, Tamilnadu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  19. Effects of soil physical properties on erodibility and infiltration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looked at the physical properties of soil of selected areas of Gidan Kwano campus of Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria and their effects on erodibility and infiltration parameters. Infiltration rate of the selected areas were conducted using a double ring infiltrometer and soil samples collected at ...

  20. Prioritization of Soil Conservation Measures using Erodibility Indices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    susceptibility to erosion. The trends of indices were generated by IDW interpolation method to .... some studies indicated relationship between erodibility and dispersion rate, water retaining capacity index and ... Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth randomly; keeping spatial distance as random variable from ...

  1. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  2. Tracing peatland geomorphology: sediment and contaminant movements in eroding and restored systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Emma; Evans, Martin; Hutchinson, Simon; Rothwell, James

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands are an important store of soil carbon, play a vital role in global carbon cycling, and can also act as sinks of atmospherically deposited heavy metals. However, large areas of blanket peat are significantly degraded and actively eroding as a direct result of anthropogenic pressures, which negatively impacts carbon and pollutant storage. The restoration of eroding UK peatlands is a major conservation concern, and over the last decade measures have been taken to control erosion and restore large areas of degraded peat. In severely eroded peatlands, topography is highly variable, and an appreciation of geomorphological form and process is key in understanding the controls on peatland function, and in mitigating the negative impacts of peatland erosion. The blanket peats of the Peak District, Southern Pennines, UK embody many problems and pressures faced by peatlands globally, and are amongst the most heavily eroded and contaminated in the world. The near-surface layer of the peat is contaminated by high concentrations of anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited heavy metals which are released into the fluvial system as a consequence of widespread erosion. Whilst not desirable, this legacy of lead pollution and its release offer a unique opportunity to trace peatland sediment movements and thus investigate the controls on sediment and contaminant mobility. A suite of established field, analytical and modelling techniques have been modified and adapted for use in peatland environments and these have been successfully employed in combination to address issues of sediment and contaminant release at a range of scales, including: (i) the development of field portable XRF to assess in situ lead concentrations in wet organic sediments; (ii) adaptation of time integrated mass flux samplers to explore spatial and temporal sediment dynamics in peatland streams; and (iii) the application of sediment source fingerprinting and numerical mixing models to

  3. Reliability assessment of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    Full Text Available Water disposal constructions are one of the most responsible constructions of reservoir hydrosystem, that’s why the a lot of attention was always paid to the problems of estimating and providing their reliability and safety. The most important function of such objects is providing reliability and safety of other hydraulic constructions and economic assets in afterbay and water head. The authors offer estimation method for reliability and faultless performance of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug on low-head water development. In order to estimate the reliability of reserved water disposal with erodible fuse plug the Bayesian treatment was used. The calculation of diagnoses (states of reserved water disposal isoffered in case of diagnostic properties k 1 and k 2. One of the main demands placed onreserved water disposals is erosion of soil plug in case of flood discharge exeedance over the estimated frequency with the full opening of the waste sluice.

  4. National Highway Alignment from Namakkal to Erode Using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    T. Subramani; S.Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The vision of the Highway Alignment is to increase the capacity, connectivity, efficiency and safety of the Highways System so as to enable balanced socioeconomic development of all sections of the people and all regions from NAMAKKAL to ERODE via and to reduce the traffic and travelling of the state. It is to establish shortest path for road network time in the roads which provide a better and comfortable base for updating the traffic and other related information in road adm...

  5. Bonding stability of adhesive systems to eroded dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the immediate and 6 months microshear bond strength (µSBS of different adhesive systems to sound and eroded dentin. Sixty bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated into two groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (erosive challenge following a pH cycling model comprising 4 ×/day Sprite Light® drink for 10 days. Then, specimens were reassigned according to the adhesive system: etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond, two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond, or one-step self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over pre-treated dentin and filled with resin composite (Z250. Half of the specimens were evaluated by the µSBS test after 24 h, and the other half 6 months later, after water storage at 37°C. Failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Data were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests (α = 0.05. After 6 months of water aging, marked reductions in µSBS values were observed, irrespective of the substrate. The µSBS values for eroded dentin were lower than those obtained for sound dentin. No difference in bonding effectiveness was observed among adhesive systems. For all groups, adhesive/mixed failure was observed. In conclusion, eroded dentin compromises the bonding quality of adhesive systems over time.

  6. Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded Beaches in Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. F. Goreau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.

  7. Salt Efflorescence Effects on Soil Surface Erodibility and Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Zhang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soluble salts resulting from weathering of geological materials often form surface crusts or efflorescences in areas with shallow saline groundwater. In many cases, the affected areas are susceptible to wind erosion due to their lack of protective vegetation and their flat topography. Fugitive dusts containing soluble salts affect the biogeochemistry of deposition regions and may result in respiratory irritation during transport. We created efflorescent crusts on soil trays by surface evaporation of single salt solutions and bombarded the resultant efflorescences with quartz abrader sand in a laboratory wind tunnel. Four replicate trays containing a Torrifluvent soil affected by one of nine salts commonly found in arid and semiarid streams were tested and the emissions were captured by an aspirated multi-stage deposition and filtering system. We found that in most cases the efflorescent crust reduced the soil surface erodibility but also resulted in the emission of salt rich dust. Two of the salts, sodium thiosulfate and calcium chloride, resulted in increased soil volume and erodibility. However, one of the calcium chloride replicates was tested after an outbreak of humid air caused hygroscopic wetting of the soil and it became indurated upon drying greatly decreasing the erodibility. Although saline affected soils are not used for agricultural production and degradation is not a great concern, the release of salt rich dust is an area of environmental concern and steps to control the dust emissions from affected soils should be developed. Future testing will utilize suites of salts found in streams of arid and semiarid regions.

  8. 75 FR 75961 - Notice of Implementation of the Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Wind Erosion Prediction System for Soil Erodibility System Calculations for the Natural Resources... Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) for soil erodibility system calculations scheduled for implementation for... Erosion Equation (WEQ) where applicable. DATES: Effective Date: This is effective December 7, 2010...

  9. 77 FR 74167 - Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation AGENCIES: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance... associated with Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation certification requirements. This...

  10. 7 CFR 12.21 - Identification of highly erodible lands criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.21 Identification of highly erodible lands criteria. (a... is explained in the paper by Woodruff, N.P., and F. H. Siddaway, 1965, “A Wind Erosion Equation...

  11. 7 CFR 12.20 - NRCS responsibilities regarding highly erodible land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.20 NRCS responsibilities regarding highly... public lists of highly erodible soil map units; (c) Make soil surveys for purposes of identifying highly erodible land; and (d) Provide technical guidance to conservation districts which approve conservation...

  12. Dynamic replacement and loss of soil carbon on eroding cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Sharpe, J.M.; Parton, W.J.; Ojima, D.S.; Fries, T.L.; Huntington, T.G.; Dabney, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Links between erosion/sedimentation history and soil carbon cycling were examined in a highly erosive setting in Mississippi loess soils. We sampled soils on (relatively) undisturbed and cropped hillslopes and measured C, N, 14C, and CO2 flux to characterize carbon storage and dynamics and to parameterize Century and spreadsheet 14C models for different erosion and tillage histories. For this site, where 100 years of intensive cotton cropping were followed by fertilization and contour plowing, there was an initial and dramatic decline in soil carbon content from 1870 to 1950, followed by a dramatic increase in soil carbon. Soil erosion amplifies C loss and recovery: About 100% of the original, prehistoric soil carbon was likely lost over 127 years of intensive land use, but about 30% of that carbon was replaced after 1950. The eroded cropland was therefore a local sink for CO2 since the 1950s. However, a net CO2 sink requires a full accounting of eroded carbon, which in turn requires that decomposition rates in lower slopes or wetlands be reduced to about 20% of the upland value. As a result, erosion may induce unaccounted sinks or sources of CO2, depending on the fate of eroded carbon and its protection from decomposition. For erosion rates typical of the United States, the sink terms may be large enough (1 Gt yr-1, back-of-the-envelope) to warrant a careful accounting of site management, cropping, and fertilization histories, as well as burial rates, for a more meaningful global assessment.

  13. Influence of biochar and terra preta substrates on wettability and erodibility of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, A.; Dotterweich, M.; Diehl, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fohrer, N.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) and terra preta substrates (TPS) have recently been promoted as soil amendments suitable for soil stabilization, soil amelioration and long-term carbon sequestration. BC is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material. TPS is composed of liquid and solid organic matter, including BC, altered by acid-lactic fermentation. Their effect on wettability, soil erodibility and nutrient discharge through overland flow was studied by laboratory experiments. At water contents between 0 and 100% BC is water repellent, while TPS changes from a wettable into a repellent state. The 5 and 10 vol % mixtures of BC and 10 and 20 vol% mixtures of TPS with sand remain mainly wettable during drying but repellency maxima are shifted to higher water contents with respect to pure sand and are mainly of subcritical nature. The runoff response was dominated by infiltration properties of the substrates rather than their wettability.Only one mixtures (20% TPS) produced more runoff than sandy-loamy soil on a 15% slope at an intensity of 25 mm•h-1. The 10% BC decreased runoff by up to 40%. At higher rainfall intensities (45 and 55 mm•h-1) the 10% TPS7 was up to 35% less erodible than 10% BC. Despite the TPS containing more nutrients, nutrient discharge varied between types of nutrients, slopes, rainfall intensities and mixtures. The application of a 1 cm layer onto the soil surface instead of 10% mixtures is not recommended due to high nutrient concentrations in the runoff and the wettability of pure substrates. The usage of 10% BC in lowland areas with low frequency and low-intensity precipitation and 10% TPS7 in areas with higher rainfall intensities appears to be appropriate and commendable according to current results. However, together with reversibility of repellency, it needs to undergo further examination in the field under different environmental and land use conditions Key words: biochar, terra preta substrate, wettability

  14. Effect of erodent particles on the erosion of metal specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzaque, M. Mahbubur, E-mail: mmrazzaque@me.buet.ac.bd; Alam, M. Khorshed; Khan, M. Ishak, E-mail: ishak.buet@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    This paper presents the experimental results of the measurement of erosion rate of carbon steel specimens in sand water slurry system in a slurry pot tester. Sylhet sand has been sieved to get three sizes of erodent particles; namely, less than 250 micron, 250 to 590 micron and 590 to 1190 micron. Experiments are done with three sand concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%). The rate of erosion of the carbon steel specimens is measured as the loss of weight per unit surface area per unit time under the dynamic action of solid particles. The eroded surfaces of the specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to visualize the impact of the slurry of various conditions. It is seen that irrespective of the particle size the rate of erosion increases with the increase of slurry concentration. This increment of erosion rate at high concentration is high for large particles. High erosion rate is observed in case of large sand particles. In case of small and fine particles erosion rate is small because of low impact energy as well as the wastage of energy to overcome the hindrance of the finer particles before striking on the specimen surface.

  15. Effect of erodent particles on the erosion of metal specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, M. Mahbubur; Alam, M. Khorshed; Khan, M. Ishak

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the measurement of erosion rate of carbon steel specimens in sand water slurry system in a slurry pot tester. Sylhet sand has been sieved to get three sizes of erodent particles; namely, less than 250 micron, 250 to 590 micron and 590 to 1190 micron. Experiments are done with three sand concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%). The rate of erosion of the carbon steel specimens is measured as the loss of weight per unit surface area per unit time under the dynamic action of solid particles. The eroded surfaces of the specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to visualize the impact of the slurry of various conditions. It is seen that irrespective of the particle size the rate of erosion increases with the increase of slurry concentration. This increment of erosion rate at high concentration is high for large particles. High erosion rate is observed in case of large sand particles. In case of small and fine particles erosion rate is small because of low impact energy as well as the wastage of energy to overcome the hindrance of the finer particles before striking on the specimen surface.

  16. Inhibitory effects of Cassia tora L. on benzo[a]pyrene-mediated DNA damage toward HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C H; Hsieh, C L; Song, T Y; Yen, G C

    2001-05-01

    The effects of water extracts from Cassia tora L. (WECT) treated with different degrees of roasting on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 were investigated via the comet assay without exogenous activation mixtures, such as S9 mix. WECT alone, at concentrations of 0.1-2 mg/mL, showed neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effect toward HepG2 cells. B[a]P-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells could be reduced by WECT in a dose-dependent manner (P roasted at 150 degrees C (60%) > roasted at 250 degrees C (23%). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of HepG2 cells was effectively inhibited by WECT, and a similar trend of inhibition was observed in the order unroasted (64%) > roasted at 150 degrees C (42%) > roasted at 250 degrees C (18%). The activity of NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase was also decreased by unroasted and 150 degrees C-roasted samples (50% and 38%, respectively). Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase activity was increased by treatment with unroasted (1.26-fold) and 150 degrees C-roasted (1.35-fold) samples at 1 mg/mL. In addition, the contents of anthraquinones (AQs) in WECT, including chrysophanol, emodin, and rhein, were decreased with increasing roasting temperature. Each of these AQs also demonstrated significant antigenotoxic activity in the comet assay. The inhibitory effects of chrysophanol, emodin, and rhein on B[a]P-mediated DNA damage in HepG2 cells were 78, 86, and 71%, respectively, at 100 microM. These findings suggested that the decreased antigenotoxicity of the roasted samples might be due to a reduction in their AQs content.

  17. Developmental toxicity of PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Melancon, M J; Klein, P N; Rice, C P; Eisemann, J D; Hines, R K; Spann, J W; Pendleton, G W

    1996-12-01

    Planar PCB congeners are embryotoxic and teratogenic to birds including American kestrels. The developmental toxicity of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) was studied in the posthatching kestrel as a model for the eagle. Nestlings were dosed orally for 10 days with 5 microl/g body weight of corn oil (controls) or the planar PCB 126 at concentrations of 50, 250, or 1000 ng/g body weight. Dosing with 50 ng/g of PCB 126 resulted in a hepatic concentration of 156 ng/g wet weight, liver enlargement and mild coagulative necrosis, over 10-fold increases in hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, and approximately a 5-fold increase in methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase. At this dose, mild to moderate lymphoid depletion of the spleen was apparent, as were decreased follicle size and content of the thyroid. At 250 ng/g, concentration of PCB 126 in the liver was 380 ng/g with increasing multifocal coagulative necrosis, decreased bone growth, decreased spleen weight with lymphocyte depletion of the spleen and bursa, and degenerative lesions of the thyroid. At 1000 ng/g, the liver concentration was 1098 ng/g, accompanied by decreased bursa weight, decreased hepatic thiol concentration, and increased plasma enzyme activities (ALT, AST, and LDH-L) in addition to the previous effects. Highly significant positive correlations were noted between liver concentrations of PCB 126 and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathone. These findings indicate that nestling kestrels are more susceptible to PCB 126 toxicity than adults, but less sensitive than embryos, and that planar PCBs are of potential hazard to nestling birds.

  18. Geomorphology and forest management in New Zealand's erodible steeplands: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Chris; Marden, Michael; Basher, Les R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we outline how geomorphological understanding has underpinned forest management in New Zealand's erodible steeplands, where it contributes to current forest management, and suggest where it will be of value in the future. We focus on the highly erodible soft-rock hill country of the East Coast region of North Island, but cover other parts of New Zealand where appropriate. We conclude that forestry will continue to make a significant contribution to New Zealand's economy, but several issues need to be addressed. The most pressing concerns are the incidence of post-harvest, storm-initiated landslides and debris flows arising from steepland forests following timber harvesting. There are three areas where geomorphological information and understanding are required to support the forest industry - development of an improved national erosion susceptibility classification to support a new national standard for plantation forestry; terrain analysis to support improved hazard and risk assessment at detailed operational scales; and understanding of post-harvest shallow landslide-debris flows, including their prediction and management.

  19. How Welfare Regimes Generate and Erode Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies of social capital, operationalised as social trust between citizens, have revealed two major puzzles. The first puzzle has to do with the decline in social trust in the USA, which fuelled considerable debate about social capital. The question is why social capital erodes...... in the USA and other liberal welfare regimes, while social capital is stable in the so-called social democratic and conservative welfare regimes. The second puzzle is why the group of social democratic regimes have extremely high levels of social trust. It is argued that both puzzles have to do...... with the presence or absence of a poor and culturally distinct underclass. The social democratic welfare regimes hinder – while the liberal welfare regime generate – such underclass phenomena....

  20. Effects of erodant particle shape and various heat treatments on erosion resistance of plain carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, J.; Buckley, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Erosion tests were conducted on 1045 steel samples which had been subjected to different heat treatments. The weight of material removed upon erosion with glass beads and crushed glass was measured. The data show that there is no correlation between hardness and erosion resistance. The erosion rate was strongly dependent on the shape of erodant particles, being an order of magnitude higher for erosion with crushed glass than with glass beads. Heat treatment had a profound effect on the erosion resistance when the erodant particles were glass beads but little or no effect when the particles were crushed glass. It is thus concluded that different mechanisms of material removal are involved with these two erodants. This conclusion is supported by the surface morphology of annealed 1045 steel samples which had been eroded by these two types of erodant particles. SEM micrographs of the eroded surfaces show that for erosion with glass beads it is deformation induced fracture of surface layers.

  1. The abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Martines Souza, Beatriz; Foratori Junior, Gerson Aparecido; Wang, Linda; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the in vitro abrasive effect of commercial whitening toothpastes on eroded bovine enamel samples in respect to erosive tooth wear. 72 bovine crowns were embedded, polished and subjected to the baseline profile analysis. The samples were then protected in 2/3 of the enamel surface and were randomly assigned to six groups (n= 12/group): G1: Oral-B 3D White, G2: Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White, G3: Sorriso Xtreme White 4D, G4: Colgate Luminous White, G5: Crest (conventional toothpaste), G6:erosion only (control). All samples were submitted to an erosive pH cycling (4 x 90 seconds in 0.1% citric acid, pH 2.5, per day) and abrasive challenges (2 x 15 seconds, per day) for 7 days. After the first and the last daily cycles, the samples were subjected to abrasive challenges, using a toothbrushing machine, soft toothbrushes and slurry of the tested toothpastes (1.5 N). Between the challenges, the samples were immersed in artificial saliva. The final profile was obtained and overlaid to the baseline profile for the calculation of the erosive tooth wear (μm). The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn tests (Pwear (3.68±1.06 μm), similarly to G3 (3.17± 0.80 μm) and G4 (3.44± 1.29 μm). G3 and G4 performed similarly between them and compared with G5 (2.35± 1.44 μm). G2 (1.51± 0.95 μm) and G6 (0.85± 0.36 μm) showed the lowest enamel wear, which did not differ between them and from G5. Oral-B 3D White showed the highest abrasive potential while Close-up Diamond Attraction Power White showed the lowest abrasive potential on eroded enamel in vitro. This study showed that some commercial whitening toothpastes, especially those containing pyrophosphate associated with hydrated silica, enhanced enamel erosive wear.

  2. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  3. Soil aggregate stability and erodibility in different gully sites in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses soil aggregate stability and erodibility in different gully sites in parts of Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria with the aim to provide quantitative information on the variation of some soil properties and their interaction with eroding agents and how this affects soil erosion on the sites. The gullies selected are found ...

  4. Developing a parameterization approach of soil erodibility for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  5. Developing soil erodibility prediction equations for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a key factor for estimating soil erosion using physically based models. In this study, a new parameterization approach for estimating erodibility was developed for the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM). The approach uses empirical equations that were developed by apply...

  6. Soil erodibility mapping using three approaches in the Tangiers province –Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Iaaich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is a key factor in assessing soil loss rates. In fact, soil loss is the most occurring land degradation form in Morocco, affecting rural and urban vulnerable areas. This work deals with large scale mapping of soil erodibility using three mapping approaches: (i the CORINE approach developed for Europe by the JRC; (ii the UNEP/FAO approach developed within the frame of the United Nations Environmental Program for the Mediterranean area; (iii the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE K factor. Our study zone is the province of Tangiers, North-West of Morocco. For each approach, we mapped and analyzed different erodibility factors in terms of parent material, topography and soil attributes. The thematic maps were then integrated using a Geographic Information System to elaborate a soil erodibility map for each of the three approaches. Finally, the validity of each approach was checked in the field, focusing on highly eroded areas, by confronting the estimated soil erodibility and the erosion state as observed in the field. We used three statistical indicators for validation: overall accuracy, weighted Kappa factor and omission/commission errors. We found that the UNEP/FAO approach, based principally on lithofacies and topography as mapping inputs, is the most adapted for the case of our study zone, followed by the CORINE approach. The USLE K factor underestimated the soil erodibility, especially for highly eroded areas.

  7. Eroding students' rural motivation: first do no harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2014-01-01

    Migration of health professionals is one of the drivers of vast inequalities in access to healthcare, as medical graduates tend to move away from both poorer countries and rural areas. One of the central ethical problems raised in attempting to alleviate these inequalities is the tension between the healthcare needs of under-served patients and the rights of medical graduates to choose their place of work and specialty. If medical graduates had greater motivation to work in under-served rural areas, this tension would decrease accordingly. Medical schools have a duty to avoid eroding existing motivation for such training and practice. This duty has practical implications. Medical students' motivation regarding their choice of specialty changes during medical training, turning them away from choices such as primary care and rural practice towards more highly specialised, more hospital based specialties. Although students may be victims of a number of biases in the initial assessment, this is unlikely to be the whole story. Students' priorities are likely to change based on their admiration for specialist role models and the visibility of the financial and non-financial rewards attached to these specialties. Students may also have a false expectation upon admission that they will be proficient in rural medicine on graduation, and change their mind once they realise the limits of their skills in that area. Although the measures required to reverse this effect currently lack a solid evidence base, they are plausible and supported by the available data.

  8. Correlation of erosion and erodibility assessments using caesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, G.L.; Campbell, B.L.; Loughran, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented which show that in soils in which net erosion is occurring, the content of the environmental isotope caesium-137 is highly correlated with soil loss. Other soil characteristics which may be related to the caesium content and therefore to soil loss have also been examined. Of these factors, an improved index of soil aggregate stability explained the most variation in caesium content (52%). Soil organic matter content explained 27% of variation in caesium content and other soil erodibility indices based on quantitative measurement of aggregate stability, explained between 6% and 21% of the variation. Indices based on implied hydrologic characteristics, implied aggregation and clay dispersion explained between 1% and 3% of caesium variation. It is suggested that practical factors of soil protection are relevant to the prediction of erosion hazard and may be more relevant than some indices of soil resistance. It is noted further that caesium-137 content of a soil gives every indication of being a most suitable predictor of soil erosion status

  9. Cranium eroding sweat gland carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.; Karadeniz, A. N.; Aksu, G.; Guveli, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare tumors. Eccrine sweat gland carcinomas are also very rare, with only about 200 cases reported in the world literature and only one of them was eroding the cranium. Treatment modalities of these carcinomas are not well known. Case report. Our patient was 47 years old female. Since 1989, she was operated on six times because of the tumour relapses. After each operation, the pathological results were: sweat gland adenoma, sweat gland tumour, cylindroma, turban tumour, malign cylindiroma. That was her seventh relapse. On examination, a lesion of the size 10 x 6 cm was observed in the left parietal region. Computed tomography showed the lesion had the size of 11 x 5 cm, and was destroying the tabula externa, diploic region and tabula. The tumour was invading the dura and causing periost reaction. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy treatment was planned because of malign transformation and risk of recurrence. Conclusions. Only one case with cranium erosion was reported in literature. In our case, also intracranial extension of the tumor was observed. (author)

  10. Surface Eroding, Semicrystalline Polyanhydrides via Thiol-Ene "Click" Photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetz, Katie L; Mohammed, Halimatu S; Shipp, Devon A

    2015-05-11

    Surface eroding and semicrystalline polyanhydrides, with tunable erosion times and drug delivery pharmacokinetics largely dictated by erosion, are produced easily with thiol-ene "click" polymerization. This strategy yields both linear and cross-linked network polyanhydrides that are readily and fully cured within minutes using photoinitiation, can contain up to 60% crystallinity, and have tensile moduli up to 25 MPa for the compositions studied. Since they readily undergo hydrolysis and exhibit the oft-preferred surface erosion mechanism, they may be particularly useful in drug delivery applications. The polyanhydrides were degraded under pseudophysiological conditions and cylindrical samples (10 mm diameter × 5 mm height) were completely degraded within ∼10 days, with the mass-time profile being linear for much of this time after a ∼24 h induction period. Drug release studies, using lidocaine as a model, showed pharmacokinetics that displayed a muted burst release in the early stages of erosion, but then a delayed release profile that is closely correlated to the erosion kinetics. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies of the linear and cross-linked semicrystalline polyanhydrides, and degradation products, against fibroblast cells indicate that the materials have good cytocompatibility. Overall, cells treated with up to 2500 mg/L of the semicrystalline polyanhydrides and degradation products show >90% human dermal fibroblast adult (HDFa) cell viability indicative of good cytocompatibility.

  11. Development of Surface Eroding Thermocouples in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jun; Donovan, David; Watkins, Jon; Wang, Huiqian; Rudakov, Dmitry; Murphy, Christopher; Unterberg, Ezekial; Thomas, Dan; Boivin, Rejean

    2017-10-01

    The Surface Eroding Thermocouple (SETC) is a specialized diagnostic for characterizing the surface temperature evolution with a high temporal resolution ( 1ms) which is especially useful in areas unobservable by line-of-sight diagnostics (e.g. IR cameras). Recently, SETCs were tested in DiMES and successfully acquired temperature signals during strike point sweeps on the lower divertor shelf. We observed that the SETCs have a sub-10 ms time response and is sufficient to resolve ELM heat pulses. Preliminary analysis shows heat fluxes measured by SETCs and IR camera agree within 20%. Comparison of SETCs, calorimeters and Langmuir probe also show good agreement. We plan to implement an array of SETCs embedded in the tiles forming the new DIII-D small angle slot (SAS) divertor. Strategies to improve the SNR of these SETCs through testing in DiMES before the final installation will be discussed. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0016318 (UTK), DE-AC05-00OR22725 (ORNL), DE-FG02-07ER54917 (UCSD), DE-FC02-04ER54698 (GA), DE-AC04-94AL85000 (SNL).

  12. Climate Change Impact on Paddy Farming in Erode and Tiruchirapalli Districts of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraj Paramasivam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change implies both direct and indirect impact on the general well-being of the people in the rural community such as agriculture and allied sectors for their livelihood security.  A study was conducted on the small and marginal paddy farmers of Tamil Nadu. A sample size of 200 paddy farmers was selected from the districts of Erode and Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu. Findings revealed that paddy farmers perceived climate change impacts includes five major components viz. crop nature, pest incidence, disease menace, water crisis and agro climatic status. It was found that farmers were much aware of the variations in rainfall pattern and its distribution followed by variability in temperature and changes in wind speed and direction. Receipt of low rainfall was found to be the most pertinent issue.

  13. Manure and tillage use in remediation of eroded land and impacts on soil chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikha, Maysoon M; Benjamin, Joseph G; Vigil, Merle F; Poss, David J

    2017-01-01

    Soil loss through wind and water erosion is an ongoing problem in semiarid regions. A thin layer of top soil loss over a hectare of cropland could be corresponding to tons of productive soil loss per hectare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of beef feedlot manure, tillage and legume grass mixtures on changes in soil quality and nutrient components. The study was initiated in 2006 on an eroded site near Akron, Colorado, on a Norka-Colby very-fine sandy loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic, Argiustolls). Tillage treatments were no-tillage, shallow tillage (sweeps operations with V-blade) and deep tillage (DT; moldboard plow operations). In one set of plots, DT was implemented biannually (DT-2); and in another set the DT was done once at the initiation of the experiment in 2006. Amendments consisted of beef manure and urea (46-0-0), N fertilizer. Both amendments were added at low and high rates. A control treatment, with no fertilizer or manure added, was included with no-tillage and shallow tillage only. Six years of manure addition and tillage significantly altered soil chemical properties compared with fertilizer and grass legume mixtures. Across all the tillage treatments, at the 0-30 cm depth, soil pH from 2006 to 2012, was reduced 1.8 fold with high-manure compared with high-fertilizer treatment. Soil EC, Na, and SAR increased by 2.7 fold while soil P increase by 3.5 fold with high-manure treatment compared with low-manure from 2006 to 2012 across all the tillage treatments at the surface 0-30 cm. Soil organic carbon associated with high-manure was 71% higher than low-manure and 230% higher than high-fertilizer treatments in the 0-60 cm depth. Similar patterns were observed with soil total N. Overall, manure amendments greatly improved the soil nutrient status on this eroded site. However, the legume grass mixtures showed little effect on improving soils chemical properties. The micronutrients supplied by manure improved the soil

  14. Stage-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in vivo activity in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Doncel, Miguel; Carbonell, Gregoria; San Segundo, Laura; Sastre, Salvador; Beltrán, Eulalia M; Fernández-Torija, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Using medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos, this study aimed to quantitatively characterize the stage-dependent in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) as indicator of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity. Embryos were challenged for 24-h to an agonist (β-naphthoflavone [BNF], 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μg L(-1)) or to its combination (2.5 μg L(-1)) with an antagonist (α-naphthoflavone [ANF], 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg L(-1)), initiated at four different developmental time points (1, 3, 6, and 9 d post-fertilization [dpf]). Respective induction and competitive inhibition were evaluated over fluorescent images of whole embryo (nonorgan-specific [NOS] EROD activity) and gallbladder (organ-specific [OS] EROD activity). Both flavonoids showed signs of stability in solution. Generally speaking, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for NOS EROD increased with BNF concentration and exposure challenge. BNF co-exposure with ⩾50 μg ANF L(-1) during the 1-2 and 3-4 dpf challenges lowered NOS EROD to undetectably induced levels. Significant increments in MFIs for OS-EROD were seen from exposures to ⩾2.5 μg BNF L(-1), peaking during the 6-7 dpf challenge regardless of BNF concentration. The simultaneous BNF/ANF incubation showed competitive inhibition for OS EROD activity, although levels were generally detectably induced during all challenges and at all ANF concentrations. The morphometric in vivo gallbladder analysis indicated significant dilation in the 10 dpf-old embryos co-exposed to BNF and 200 μg ANF L(-1). This quantitative approach can be used successfully at 4 dpf at the NOS-EROD or OS-EROD levels, although the NOS-EROD response was sensitive enough to induction or inhibition, even at 2 dpf. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparison of Thresholds: Shields and Erodibility Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. P.; Annandale, G. W.; Rock, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold between stasis and mobility, and the forms and processes associated with the interfacial instabilities it defines, is a fundamental component of most morphodynamic systems. Scientists and engineers who focus on the interface of the earth's dynamic surface and the turbulent fluids of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, have approached this interface from a diversity of perspectives. In the field of sediment transport, Shield's 1936 paper stands as a benchmark for the theoretical understanding of the threshold of incipient motion of non-cohesive granular transport. However, in processes such as the erosion of cohesive material or bedrock erosion, consensus has yet to be reached among researchers, as to which method most aptly encompasses these processes. The lack of consensus is reasonable, considering the diversity of the applications, and implications, of interface dynamics. When thresholds may depend on the sequence of antecedent conditions, as in cohesive sediment entrainment, or the time scale of perception ranges from many Hertz to geologic eras, as in the processes of rock scour, a diversity of conceptual models is to be anticipated. In Scour Technology (Annandale 2006), the Erodibility Index Method (EIM) is presented as a threshold paradigm that spans the breadth of all earth materials that may experiences erosion by fluid forces. The authors present a comparison of the modern expression of the benchmark theoretical understanding of the threshold of incipient motion of non-cohesive granular material with the EIM. Results illustrate that each threshold can provide insight into the other and that the Shields parameter can be expressed within the vocabulary of the EIM.

  16. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  17. Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Extract and 6-Prenylnaringenin Induce P450 1A1 Catalyzed Estrogen 2-Hydroxylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Humulus lupulus L. (hops) is a popular botanical dietary supplement used by women as a sleep aid and for postmenopausal symptom relief. In addition to its efficacy for menopausal symptoms, hops can also modulate the chemical estrogen carcinogenesis pathway and potentially protect women from breast cancer. In the present study, an enriched hop extract and the key bioactive compounds [6-prenylnarigenin (6-PN), 8-prenylnarigenin (8-PN), isoxanthohumol (IX), and xanthohumol (XH)] were tested for their effects on estrogen metabolism in breast cells (MCF-10A and MCF-7). The methoxyestrones (2-/4-MeOE1) were analyzed as biomarkers for the nontoxic P450 1A1 catalyzed 2-hydroxylation and the genotoxic P450 1B1 catalyzed 4-hydroxylation pathways, respectively. The results indicated that the hop extract and 6-PN preferentially induced the 2-hydroxylation pathway in both cell lines. 8-PN only showed slight up-regulation of metabolism in MCF-7 cells, whereas IX and XH did not have significant effects in either cell line. To further explore the influence of hops and its bioactive marker compounds on P450 1A1/1B1, mRNA expression and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity were measured. The results correlated with the metabolism data and showed that hop extract and 6-PN preferentially enhanced P450 1A1 mRNA expression and increased P450 1A1/1B1 activity. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation by the isolated compounds was tested using xenobiotic response element (XRE) luciferase construct transfected cells. 6-PN was found to be an AhR agonist that significantly induced XRE activation and inhibited 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced XRE activity. 6-PN mediated induction of EROD activity was also inhibited by the AhR antagonist CH223191. These data show that the hop extract and 6-PN preferentially enhance the nontoxic estrogen 2-hydroxylation pathway through AhR mediated up-regulation of P450 1A1, which further emphasizes the importance of

  18. On the ages of resonant, eroded and fossil asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Knežević, Zoran; Spoto, Federica; Cellino, Alberto; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2017-05-01

    In this work we have estimated 10 collisional ages of 9 families for which for different reasons our previous attempts failed. In general, these are difficult cases that required dedicated effort, such as a new family classifications for asteroids in mean motion resonances, in particular the 1/1 and 2/1 with Jupiter, as well as a revision of the classification inside the 3/2 resonance. Of the families locked in mean motion resonances, by employing a numerical calibration to estimate the Yarkovsky effect in proper eccentricity, we succeeded in determining ages of the families of (1911) Schubart and of the "super-Hilda" family, assuming this is actually a severely eroded original family of (153) Hilda. In the Trojan region we found families with almost no Yarkovsky evolution, for which we could compute only physically implausible ages. Hence, we interpreted their modest dispersions of proper elements as implying that the Trojan asteroid families are fossil families, frozen at their proper elements determined by the original ejection velocity field. We have found a new family, among the Griquas locked in the 2/1 resonance with Jupiter, the family of (11097) 1994 UD1. We have estimated the ages of 6 families affected by secular resonances: families of (5) Astraea, (25) Phocaea, (283) Emma, (363) Padua, (686) Gersuind, and (945) Barcelona. By using in all these cases a numerical calibration method, we have shown that the secular resonances do not affect significantly the secular change of proper a. We have confirmed the existence of the family resulting from cratering on (5) Astraea by computing a new set of resonant proper elements adapted to the resonance g +g5 - 2g6 : this new family has a much larger membership and has a shape compatible with simple collisional models. For the family of (145) Adeona we could estimate the age only after removal of a number of assumed interlopers. With the present paper we have concluded the series dedicated to the determination of

  19. Lightweight High Temperature Non-Eroding Throat Materials for Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this proposed effort is the development of lightweight, non-eroding nozzle materials for use in propulsion systems. Lightweight structures are...

  20. Eroded Coffee Traceability and Its Impact on Export Coffee Prices for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Leung

    2014-01-01

    In December 2008, the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) opened a new coffee platform that has transformed Ethiopia’s coffee trade. The way ECX handles coffee in a commodity fashion has eroded traceability, a characteristic sought after by overseas coffee buyers. This paper traces the forces that give rise to the commoditization of coffee. An empirical analysis using a dataset on export coffee transactions supports the view that eroded traceability suppresses the export price of non-traceable...

  1. An iso-erodent map Imo state of Nigeria | Madubuike | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among inputs/resources often needed for erosion risk assessment of a region is the iso-erodent map of the region. This is a map showing areas of equal erosion potentials in the region. As Imo and Abia states of Nigeria lie in a high erosion region of the country, it was decided in this work to produce an iso-erodent map of ...

  2. [Characteristics of Soil Respiration along Eroded Sloping Land with Different SOC Background on the Hilly Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gai; Xu, Ming-xiang; Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Chao-hua; Fan, Hui-min; Wang, Shan-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to characterize soil respiration along eroded sloping land at erosion and deposition area under different soil organic carbon(SOC) levels, and linked the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, SOC and slope position. Experiments were carried out in the plots of S type slopes include five different soil organic carbon levels in the Loess Hilly Region. The S type slopes were divided into control area at the top of the slope, erosion area at the middle of the slope and deposition area at the toe of the slope. We found that soil temperature had a greater impact on soil respiration in the deposition area, whereas soil moisture had a greater impact on soil respiration in the erosion area compared among control area, erosion area and deposition area. In addition, SOC was the most important factor affecting soil respiration, which can explain soil respiration variation 54. 72%, followed by soil moisture, slope position and soil temperature, which explain soil respiration variation 18. 86% , 16. 13% and 10. 29%, respectively. Soil respiration response to erosion showed obvious on-site and off-site effects along the eroded sloping land. Soil respiration in the erosion area was reduced by 21. 14% compared with control area, and soil respiration in the deposition area was increased by 21. 93% compared with control area. Erosion effect on source and sink of carbon emission was correlated with SOC content of the eroded sloping land. When SOC content was higher than 6. 82 g.kg-1, the slope. erosion tended to be a carbon sequestration process, and when SOC content was lower than 3.03 g.kg-1, the slope erosion tended to be a process of the carbon emission source. The model could reflect the relationship between soil respiration and independent variables of soil organic carbon content, soil temperature and moisture.

  3. Sex-ratio control erodes sexual selection, revealing evolutionary feedback from adaptive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Tim W; Kuijper, Bram; Weissing, Franz J; Pen, Ido

    2011-09-20

    Female choice is a powerful selective force, driving the elaboration of conspicuous male ornaments. This process of sexual selection has profound implications for many life-history decisions, including sex allocation. For example, females with attractive partners should produce more sons, because these sons will inherit their father's attractiveness and enjoy high mating success, thereby yielding greater fitness returns than daughters. However, previous research has overlooked the fact that there is a reciprocal feedback from life-history strategies to sexual selection. Here, using a simple mathematical model, we show that if mothers adaptively control offspring sex in relation to their partner's attractiveness, sexual selection is weakened and male ornamentation declines. This weakening occurs because the ability to determine offspring sex reduces the fitness difference between females with attractive and unattractive partners. We use individual-based, evolutionary simulations to show that this result holds under more biologically realistic conditions. Sexual selection and sex allocation thus interact in a dynamic fashion: The evolution of conspicuous male ornaments favors sex-ratio adjustment, but this conditional strategy then undermines the very same process that generated it, eroding sexual selection. We predict that, all else being equal, the most elaborate sexual displays should be seen in species with little or no control over offspring sex. The feedback process we have described points to a more general evolutionary principle, in which a conditional strategy weakens directional selection on another trait by reducing fitness differences.

  4. Hypothetical Reentry Thermostructural Performance of Space Shuttle Orbiter With Missing or Eroded Thermal Protection Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie; Quinn, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    This report deals with hypothetical reentry thermostructural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter with missing or eroded thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. The original STS-5 heating (normal transition at 1100 sec) and the modified STS-5 heating (premature transition at 800 sec) were used as reentry heat inputs. The TPS missing or eroded site is assumed to be located at the center or corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of missing TPS tiles, under the original STS-5 heating, the orbiter can afford to lose only one TPS tile at the center or two TPS tiles at the corner (spar-rib juncture) of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. Under modified STS-5 heating, the orbiter cannot afford to lose even one TPS tile at the center or at the corner of the lower surface of wing midspan bay 3. For cases of eroded TPS tiles, the aluminum skin temperature rises relatively slowly with the decreasing thickness of the eroded central or corner TPS tile until most of the TPS tile is eroded away, and then increases exponentially toward the missing tile case.

  5. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Adham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.

  6. Textural characteristics and sedimentary environment of sediment at eroded and deposited regions in the severely eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini; Nawang, Siti Aminah Bassa; Abdul Maulud, Khairul Nizam; Benson, Yannie Anak; Azhary, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Mohamed

    2017-11-15

    This study investigates the textural characteristics of sediments collected at eroded and deposited areas of highly severed eroded coastline of Batu Pahat, Malaysia. Samples were taken from systematically selected 23 locations along the 67km stretch of coastline and are extended to the fluvial sediments of the main river of Batu Pahat. Grain size distribution analysis was conducted to identify its textural characteristics and associated sedimentary transport behaviours. Sediments obtained along the coastline were fine-grained material with averaged mean size of 7.25 ϕ, poorly sorted, positively skewed and has wide distributions. Samples from eroded and deposition regions displayed no distinctive characteristics and exhibited similar profiles. The high energy condition transported the sediments as suspension, mostly as pelagic and the sediments were deposited as shallow marine and agitated deposits. The fluvial sediments of up to 3km into the river have particularly similar profile of textural characteristics with the neighbouring marine sediments from the river mouth. Profiles were similar with marine sediments about 3km opposite the main current and can go up to 10km along the current of Malacca Straits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MAPPING ERODED AREAS ON MOUNTAIN GRASSLAND WITH TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mayr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Alps as well as in other mountain regions steep grassland is frequently affected by shallow erosion. Often small landslides or snow movements displace the vegetation together with soil and/or unconsolidated material. This results in bare earth surface patches within the grass covered slope. Close-range and remote sensing techniques are promising for both mapping and monitoring these eroded areas. This is essential for a better geomorphological process understanding, to assess past and recent developments, and to plan mitigation measures. Recent developments in image matching techniques make it feasible to produce high resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models from terrestrial oblique images. In this paper we propose to delineate the boundary of eroded areas for selected scenes of a study area, using close-range photogrammetric data. Striving for an efficient, objective and reproducible workflow for this task, we developed an approach for automated classification of the scenes into the classes grass and eroded. We propose an object-based image analysis (OBIA workflow which consists of image segmentation and automated threshold selection for classification using the Excess Green Vegetation Index (ExG. The automated workflow is tested with ten different scenes. Compared to a manual classification, grass and eroded areas are classified with an overall accuracy between 90.7% and 95.5%, depending on the scene. The methods proved to be insensitive to differences in illumination of the scenes and greenness of the grass. The proposed workflow reduces user interaction and is transferable to other study areas. We conclude that close-range photogrammetry is a valuable low-cost tool for mapping this type of eroded areas in the field with a high level of detail and quality. In future, the output will be used as ground truth for an area-wide mapping of eroded areas in coarser resolution aerial orthophotos acquired at the same time.

  8. SOIL ERODIBILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS ERODIBILIDADE DO SOLO NOS TABULEIROS COSTEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Curi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to determine soil losses caused by water erosion, in different situations, erosion prediction models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, are used. Their application on agricultural and environmental planning depends on the determination of the USLE factors, including erodibility (K factor. The objective of this study was to determine erodibility for the main soil classes of the Brazilian Coastal Plains region, in Aracruz, Espírito Santo State. The experiment was established in the following soils: medium/clayey texture Yellow Argisol (PA1, Haplic Plinthosol (FX, and moderately rocky Yellow Argisol (PA2. For the calculation of soil erodibility, data of erosivity and soil losses, from November 1997 to May 2004, were used. Soil losses samplings were performed for each rainfall event regarded as erosive. The erodibility values were 0.007 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1

  9. Water and dissolved carbon transport in an eroding soil landscape using column experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckh, Helene; Gerke, Horst; Glæsner, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    -40 cm and 40-60 cm) horizons of the eroded Haplic Luvisol and Ap (0-20 cm) and CBkg (20-40 cm) horizon of the Haplic Regosol. Leaching experiments were performed on intact soil columns (20 cm diameter, 20 cm height) and carried out during unsaturated conditions with a suction applied at the lower...... the finding of a substantially lower leaching of particles from all Regosol horizons, we assume a lower transport of particulate C from the Haplic Regosol than from the eroded Haplic Luvisol. Results suggest that soil erosion not only affected the pedological structure and physical soil properties but also...

  10. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Rajkumar; Thirumalaisamy, Subramani; Lakshumanan, Elango

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn) were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater sa...

  11. Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding the colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, A.; Zwas, S.T.; Rabau, M.Y.; Avigad, I.; Borag, B.; Wolfstein, I.

    1985-08-01

    Massive lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding into the colonic wall was demonstrated accurately by Tc-99m RBCs. In addition, retrograde bleeding into the gallbladder was also identified while arteriography did not show contrast extravasation. This case supports the use of Tc-99m RBCs over Tc-99m sulfur colloid for more accurate localization of lower GI bleeding.

  12. Eroded dentin does not jeopardize the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Barros Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of adhesive restorative materials to sound and eroded dentin. Thirty-six bovine incisors were embedded in acrylic resin and ground to obtain flat buccal dentin surfaces. Specimens were randomly allocated in 2 groups: sound dentin (immersion in artificial saliva and eroded dentin (pH cycling model - 3× / cola drink for 7 days. Specimens were then reassigned according to restorative material: glass ionomer cement (KetacTM Molar Easy Mix, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (VitremerTM or adhesive system with resin composite (Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z250. Polyethylene tubes with an internal diameter of 0.76 mm were placed over the dentin and filled with the material. The microshear bond test was performed after 24 h of water storage at 37ºC. The failure mode was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×. Bond strength data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests (α = 0.05. Eroded dentin showed bond strength values similar to those for sound dentin for all materials. The adhesive system showed the highest bond strength values, regardless of the substrate (p < 0.0001. For all groups, the adhesive/mixed failure prevailed. In conclusion, adhesive materials may be used in eroded dentin without jeopardizing the bonding quality. It is preferable to use an etch-and-rinse adhesive system because it shows the highest bond strength values compared with the glass ionomer cements tested.

  13. Geospatial approach in mapping soil erodibility using CartoDEM–A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geospatial approach in mapping soil erodibility using CartoDEM – A case study in hilly watershed of Lower Himalayan Range. Suresh Kumar Surya Gupta ... The present study was attempted to generate soil erodibilty map using terrain indices derived from DTM and surface soil sample data. Soil variability in the hilly ...

  14. Submandibular gland megalith eroding the floor of the mouth: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sourav; Singh, Smita

    2013-12-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common pathologic condition affecting the salivary glands. However, large sialoliths (megaliths) are considered rare. The submandibular glands are more susceptible to stone formation than are the other salivary glands. We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with an unusually large sialolith that had eroded the floor of the mouth.

  15. Glyphosate and AMPA distribution in wind-eroded sediment derived from loess soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Bento, Celia; Goossens, Dirk; Rezaei, Mahrooz; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Mol, J.G.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural

  16. Sediment transport capacity of concentrated flows on steep loessial slope with erodible beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai; Liu, Gang; Liu, Puling; Zheng, Fenli; Zhang, Jiaqiong; Hu, Feinan

    2017-05-24

    Previous research on sediment transport capacity has been inadequate and incomplete in describing the detachment and transport process of concentrated flows on slope farmlands during rill development. An indoor concentrated flow scouring experiment was carried out on steep loessial soil slope with erodible bed to investigate the sediment transport capacity under different flow rates and slope gradients. The results indicated that the sediment transport capacity increases with increasing flow rate and slope gradient, and these relationships can be described by power functions and exponential functions, respectively. Multivariate, nonlinear regression analysis showed that sediment transport capacity was more sensitive to slope gradient than to flow rate, and it was more sensitive to unit discharge per unit width than to slope gradient for sediment transport capacity in this study. When similar soil was used, the results were similar to those of previous research conducted under both erodible and non-erodible bed conditions. However, the equation derived from previous research under non-erodible bed conditions with for river bed sand tends to overestimate sediment transport capacity in our experiment.

  17. Geospatial approach in mapping soil erodibility using CartoDEM – A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Indian Space Research Organization, 4 Kalidas Road,. Dehradun 248 001, India. ∗. Corresponding author. e-mail: suresh kumar@iirs.gov.in. Soil erodibility is one of the most important factors used in spatial soil erosion risk assessment. Soil information derived from soil map is used to ...

  18. [Effects of biological soil crust on soil erodibility in Hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Qian; Zhao, Yun-Ge; Qin, Ning-Qiang; Zhang, Guo-Xiu

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the effects of biological soil crust (biocrust) in re-vegetated grasslands on soil physical and chemical properties, and by using EPIC estimation model in combining with simulated rainfall trials, this paper studied the effects of biocrust with different biomass and different soil texture on the soil erodibility (K value) in Hilly Loess Plateau Region of Northwest China in different seasons. The results showed biocrust could significantly decrease soil erodibility, with the K value of biocrust soil decreased by about 17%, compared with subsoil. The soil erodibility decreased with the increasing biomass of biocrust. The K value of moss crust soil decreased by 21%, compared with cyanobacteria crust soil. The erodibiliy of biocrust soil differed with different seasons, being significantly higher in rainy season than before or after the rainy season due to the differences in the biological activity of the biocrust organisms. The erodibilty of biocrust soil with different texture also varied significantly, with the K value in the order of sandy loam soil > silt soil > sandy soil. The measurement under simulated rainfall showed that the development of biocrust could decrease the erodibility of biocrust soil by about 90%, compared with that of the subsoil (5-10 cm).

  19. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lanuru, Mahatma; van Bernem, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    ). The erodibility of the sediment showed strong temporal variation with high erosion thresholds in spring and late summer and significantly lower thresholds during the rest of the study period. The erosion thresholds were strongly dependent on the contents of chlorophyll a (chl a) and colloidal carbohydrates, both...

  20. Assessment of Soil erodibility Indices and Soil wash in a miniature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil textural grades and organic matter content were determined in the laboratory by the hydrometer and Walkely-Black methods respectively. Rates of ground lowering were computed from exposed parts of the pins installed in the field after the 2010 rainy season, while erodibility indices were determined from textural ...

  1. Simulated bat populations erode when exposed to climate change projections for western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hayes

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that temperature and precipitation conditions correlate with successful reproduction in some insectivorous bat species that live in arid and semiarid regions, and that hot and dry conditions correlate with reduced lactation and reproductive output by females of some species. However, the potential long-term impacts of climate-induced reproductive declines on bat populations in western North America are not well understood. We combined results from long-term field monitoring and experiments in our study area with information on vital rates to develop stochastic age-structured population dynamics models and analyzed how simulated fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes populations changed under projected future climate conditions in our study area near Boulder, Colorado (Boulder Models and throughout western North America (General Models. Each simulation consisted of an initial population of 2,000 females and an approximately stable age distribution at the beginning of the simulation. We allowed each population to be influenced by the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation for our study area and a generalized range-wide model projected through year 2086, for each of four carbon emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5. Each population simulation was repeated 10,000 times. Of the 8 Boulder Model simulations, 1 increased (+29.10%, 3 stayed approximately stable (+2.45%, +0.05%, -0.03%, and 4 simulations decreased substantially (-44.10%, -44.70%, -44.95%, -78.85%. All General Model simulations for western North America decreased by >90% (-93.75%, -96.70%, -96.70%, -98.75%. These results suggest that a changing climate in western North America has the potential to quickly erode some forest bat populations including species of conservation concern, such as fringed myotis.

  2. Investigating the Effect of Compaction Characteristics on the Erodibility of Cohesive Soils Using the JET Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Tabrizi, A.; LaRocque, L. A.; Chaudhry, M.; Imran, J.

    2013-12-01

    Several flood disasters occur every year all over the world, mostly due to levee and dam failure which result in human fatalities as well as devastating economic damages. To model and predict earthen embankment failures for the preparation of emergency action plans and risk assessments, the soil erodibility by flowing water is an essential parameter. The determination of erodibility becomes even more complicated for cohesive soils because of the large number of parameters controlling their erosion behavior (e.g. clay content, plasticity, compaction effort, compaction water content) and the difficulty of estimating these parameters. In this study the effect of the compaction energy and compaction water content on the erodibility of a sandy loam soil was assessed. Soil samples were prepared in a standard diameter compaction mold, 101.6 mm, for three levels of compaction effort and water content (i.e. low, medium, and high) with two replications for each case (18 tests total) and examined using the jet erosion test (JET). Observations from qualitative and statistical analyses of the data are: 1) a wide range of erodibility, from very erodible to very resistant, was produced by changes in the compaction characteristics; 2) for a given compaction energy, the erosion resistance based on the detachment rate coefficient kd tends to become minimum near the optimum compaction water content. On the dry side of optimum compaction water content, kd decreases with steep gradients by increasing the water content, while it increases with a flatter gradient on the wet side; 3) At a given water content, the soil erosion resistance increases with compaction efforts; 4) compaction water content influences soil erosibility more than compaction energy, especially on the dry side of the optimum compaction water content; and 5) for a given compaction effort, the critical shear stress increases with water content up to an optimum water content and then it decreases which is in consistent

  3. Learning from Loss: Eroding Coastal Heritage in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellie Graham

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage sites are constantly changing due to natural processes, and this change can happen fastest at the coast. Much legislation has been enacted to protect sites of historic interest, but these do not protect sites from natural processes. Change is already happening, and climate change predictions suggest that the pace will accelerate in the future. Instead of seeing the potential destruction of heritage sites as a disaster, we should embrace the opportunity that they can provide for us to learn about the past and to plan for the future. Heritage laws often enshrine a policy of preservation in situ, meaning that our most spectacular sites are preserved in a state of equilibrium, with a default position of no permitted intervention. However, the options for threatened coastal sites mirror those of shoreline management plans, which usually recommend either the construction of a coastal defence or, more likely, a strategy of managed retreat, where erosion is allowed to take its course after appropriate mitigations strategies have been enacted. Managed retreat can lead to a range of research projects, some of which would not normally be possible at similar, unthreatened and legally protected monuments. Such research also has the potential to involve members of the public, who can help in the discovery process, and cascade what they have learned through their communities. Information shared can be about the heritage site itself, including how communities in the past coped at times of climatic stress; and also about the processes that are now threatening the monument, thus helping teach about present day climate change.

  4. Relevance of macrozoobenthic grazers to understand the dynamic behaviour of sediment erodibility and microphytobenthos resuspension in sunny summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvain, Francis; Guizien, Katell; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Bréret, Martine; Dupuy, Christine

    2014-09-01

    The quantification of overall microphytobenthos productivity should include the export of biomass from the intertidal zone during high tides, which implies refined estimates and concepts of erosion parameters. For the first time, the export of microphytobenthic cells was assessed over an intertidal mudflat in the Marennes-Oléron Bay, France, during a complete spring/neap tide modulation. In the summer of 2008, resuspension rates of chl-a exported only reached 2.5% of the standing stock of benthic diatoms on each day. Sedimentary factors failed to explain any variation regarding bed and microphytobenthos erodibility. During the early fluff layer erosion phase, there were negative effects of grazing activities exerted by motile infauna (Peringia ulvae) on erosion fluxes of chl-a, while there was a related positive correlation with pheopigment proportion. The erosion process plays an important role in this vegetal-herbivore interaction by reinforcing the decline of the microphytobenthic biomass and provoking a catastrophic shift to mass erosion after a sequence of several days of co-occurring intense grazing by snails and chl-a decline. During mass erosion, the biofilm decline explained the variations of sediment erodibility, with a marked negative correlation between bound extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) proteins and critical threshold for bed erosion, in contrast with the commonly observed positive influence of EPS secretion on bed resistance. The complex nature of the effects of EPS by microphytobenthos must be further investigated to unravel their complex role in bioengineering sediments. The increase of protein proportion in EPS could provide specific properties related to hydrophilic features. Nevertheless, the level of grazing pressure by P. ulvae should be so intense that the top-down control must explain this original finding, since there was a positive correlation of proteins in EPS and snail density that could be related to mucus secretion (as a

  5. Large-eddy simulation of the flow over a hydrokinetic turbine mounted on an erodible bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2013-11-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy comprises an important source of clean and renewable energy. The beds of natural waterways are usually erodible. The hydrokinetic turbines affect the sediment transport, which, on the other hand, also influences the performance of hydrokinetic turbines. A powerful computational framework for simulating marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine arrays mounted in complex river bathymetry with sediment transport has been developed and validated by our group. In this work we apply this method to simulate the turbulent flow over a hydrokinetic turbine mounted in an open channel with erodible bed. Preliminary results show qualitatively good agreement with the experiment. Detailed comparison with measurements and analysis of the simulation results will be presented in the conference. This work was supported by the University of Minnesota Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment IREE (grant no RO-0004-12). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  6. Mangrove Rehabilitation on Highly Eroded Coastal Shorelines at Samut Sakhon, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsui Naohiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study site is currently retreating at a rate of 20 m y−1 due to severe coastal erosion and found to be highly polluted as revealed from the water, sediment and biological analysis. In an attempt to prevent coastal erosion, 14,000 Rhizophora mucronata (RM trees were planted across a heavily eroded shoreline at Samut Sakhon, Thailand. The survival rate of RM was high at the landward area and decreased at the offshore area. The most landward plot showed the highest survival rate when measured 4 years after planting (63.5%, while only 26.7% of trees survived at the most offshore plot. NPK and coconut fiber were shown to be significantly effective to enhance initial tree growths in heavily eroded area.

  7. Testing the effect of a microbial-based soil amendment on aggregate stability and erodibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malozo, Mponda; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    Minimizing soil erosion is essential for maintaining proper soil quality and thus preserving soil productivity. The erodibility of a soil is closely linked to its structural stability as well as its infiltrability. This study focuses on testing the effect of two different soil amendments on soil...... aggregate stability and erodibility. Two commercial products, gypsum and a microbial-based solution were used for the experiment and were tested on two Danish sandy loamy soils as well on a sandy soil from Tanzania. The carrier of the microbial-based product, a glycerol solution, was tested as well....... In the laboratory, soils were treated with the soil amendments in a two-step procedure at controlled water contents following aerobic incubation in closed containers. Water-aggregate stability and clay dispersion were measured on soil aggregates less than 8 mm in diameter. Aggregate stability was measured...

  8. Abrasion of eroded and sound enamel by a dentifrice containing diamond abrasive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J.; Hoegger, Vanessa G. M.; Attin, Thomas

    2017-07-24

    Eroded enamel is more susceptible to abrasive wear than sound enamel. New toothpastes utilizing diamond particles as abrasives have been developed. The present study investigated the abrasive wear of eroded enamel by three commercially available toothpastes (one containing diamond particles) and compared it to the respective wear of sound enamel caused by these toothpastes. Seventy-two bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to six groups (S1–S3 and E1–E3; n=12). Samples were submitted to an abrasive (S1–S3) or erosion plus abrasion (E1–E3) cycling. Per cycle, all samples were brushed (abrasion; 20 brushing stokes) with the following toothpastes: S1/E1: Signal WHITE SYSTEM, S2/E2: elmex KARIESSCHUTZ and S3-E3: Candida WHITE DIAMOND (diamond particles). Groups E1–E3 were additionally eroded with HCl (pH 3.0) for 2 min before each brushing procedure. After 30, 60 and 90 cycles enamel wear was measured by surface profilometry. Within the same toothpaste and same number of cycles, enamel wear due to erosion plus abrasion was significantly higher than due to mere abrasion. After 30, 60 and 90 cycles, no significant difference in the wear in groups S1 and S2 was observed while the wear in group E1 was significantly (pwear in group S3 was about 5 times higher than that in group S2, while wear in group E3 was about 1.3 times higher than that in group E2. As compared to the other two investigated toothpastes, the dentifrice containing diamond particles caused slightly higher abrasive wear of eroded enamel and distinctly higher wear of sound enamel compared to the conventional toothpastes under investigation.

  9. Effects of human pharmaceuticals on cytotoxicity, EROD activity and ROS production in fish hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laville, N.; Aiet-Aiessa, S.; Gomez, E.; Casellas, C.; Porcher, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are found in the aquatic environment but their potential effects on non-target species like fish remain unknown. This in vitro study is a first approach in the toxicity assessment of human drugs on fish. Nine pharmaceuticals were tested on two fish hepatocyte models: primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes (PRTH) and PLHC-1 fish cell line. Cell viability, interaction with cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) enzyme and oxidative stress were assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrasodium bromide tetrazolium (MTT), 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) and dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA) assays, respectively. The tested drugs were clofibrate (CF), fenofibrate (FF), carbamazepine (CBZ), fluoxetine (FX), diclofenac (DiCF), propranolol (POH), sulfamethoxazole (SFX), amoxicillin (AMX) and gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ). All substances were cytotoxic, except AMX at concentration up to 500 μM. The calculated MTT EC 50 values ranged from 2 μM (CF) to 651 μM (CBZ) in PLHC-1, and from 53 μM (FF) to 962 μM (GdCl 3 ) in PRTH. CF, FF, and FX were the most cytotoxic drugs and induced oxidative stress before being cytotoxic. Compared to hepatocytes from human and dog, fish hepatocytes seemed to be more susceptible to the peroxisome proliferators (PPs) CF and FF. In PLHC-1 cells none of the tested drugs induced the EROD activity whereas POH appeared as a weak EROD inducer in PRTH. Moreover, in PRTH, SFX, DiCF, CBZ and to a lesser extend, FF and CF inhibited the basal EROD activity at clearly sublethal concentrations which may be of concern at the biological and chemical levels in a multipollution context

  10. A conservative treatment approach using direct composite resins for anterior teeth eroded by lemon sucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Vanara Florencio; de Souza, Andre Mattos Brito; Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla Azevedo; Bombonatti, Juliana Campos Fraga Soares; Santiago, Sergio Lima

    2013-08-01

    An excessively acidic diet results in the progressive deterioration of dental health, with functional, esthetic, and biological consequences. Previously, rehabilitation required placing numerous full crowns and root canal treatments; however, with improved adhesive techniques, a more conservative approach may be utilized to preserve tooth structure. This article describes 2 cases that utilized conservative dental treatments (involving direct composite resins with minimal preparation of the tooth structure) to treat eroded dentition induced by lemon sucking.

  11. Predicting of soil erosion with regarding to rainfall erosivity and soil erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suif, Zuliziana; Razak, Mohd Amirun Anis Ab; Ahmad, Nordila

    2018-02-01

    The soil along the hill and slope are wearing away due to erosion and it can take place due to occurrence of weak and heavy rainfall. The aim of this study is to predict the soil erosion degree in Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) area focused on two major factor which is soil erodibility and rainfall erosivity. Soil erodibility is the possibilities of soil to detach and carried away during rainfall and runoff. The "ROM" scale was used in this study to determine the degree of soil erodibility, namely low, moderate, high, and very high. As for rainfall erosivity, the erosive power caused by rainfall that cause soil loss. A daily rainfall data collected from January to April was analyzed by using ROSE index classification to identify the potential risk of soil erosion. The result shows that the soil erodibilty are moderate at MTD`s hill, high at behind of block Lestari and Landslide MTD hill, and critical at behind the mess cadet. While, the highest rainfall erosivity was recorded in March and April. Overall, this study would benefit the organization greatly in saving cost in landslide protection as relevant authorities can take early measures repairing the most affected area of soil erosion.

  12. Abrasive wear on eroded root dentine after different periods of exposure to saliva in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Anderson Takeo; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Teixeira, Erica Capelletto Nogueira; Serra, Mônica Campos; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2003-10-01

    The effect of salivary exposure time on the abrasive wear of acid-eroded dentine was evaluated in situ. One-hundred and twenty bovine root dentine slabs were randomly assigned into six groups (A-F) and placed in intraoral palatal devices, which were worn by 10 volunteers for 4 d. On the first day, no erosive/abrasive procedures were carried out. On the following 3 d, erosive challenges were performed extraorally, two times per day, by immersing the device for 90 s in a soft drink. Subsequently, the group A specimens were immediately brushed (40 strokes), and the others were brushed after the following times: B, 20 min; C, 40 min; and D, 60 min. Group E specimens were only acid-eroded and those of group F were only brushed. Dentine wear was measured with a profilometer. anova and Dunnett's test showed that groups A-D did not differ statistically from the control group E but differed from the control group F. The lowest mean value was found for group F. Regression analysis was unable to show salivary effect on dentine wear reduction. The data suggest that the exposure time of saliva of up to 60 min has no effect on reducing the eroded dentine wear by toothbrushing.

  13. Mineralization rate of eroded organic C in Andosols of the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan Luis; Guerra, José Asterio; Armas, Cecilia María; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Antonio; Arbelo, Carmen Dolores; Notario, Jesús Santiago

    2007-05-25

    The aim of this paper is to determine the biological dynamism of the organic C forms bonded to soil particles mobilized by water erosion in Andosols of the Canary Islands, to evaluate their susceptibility towards mineralization processes and the role of sediments as sources or sinks of atmospheric CO(2) in these soils. The study was carried out in Tenerife (Canary Islands) on three 200 m(2) experimental plots of the RESEL Programme on silic Andosols under forest, 3 years after being subjected to clear-cutting. Eroded sediments were collected for analysis from five significant winter rainfall episodes. For each event, samples of surface (0-5 cm) soil in situ were also collected. CO(2)-C was measured by incubation in all the samples, as well as microbial biomass-linked C. The results obtained show an enrichment in the eroded sediments of microbial biomass (7.5+/-1.6 g kg(-1) vs. 3.8+/-1.5 g kg(-1)) and of potentially mineralizable C (1419 mg CO(2)-C kg(-1) vs. 386 mg CO(2)-C kg(-1)). In addition, there was twice as much mineralization of C compounds in eroded sediments as in the soil surface horizon.

  14. The Influence of Eroded Blades on Wind Turbine Performance Using Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schramm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During their operation, wind turbine blades are eroded due to rain and hail, or they are contaminated with insects. Since the relative inflow velocity is higher at the outer than at the inner part of the blades, erosion occurs mostly at the outer blade region. In order to prevent strong erosion, it is possible to install a leading edge protection, which can be applied to the blades after the initial installation, but changes the shape of the initial airfoil sections. It is unclear how this modification influences the aerodynamic performance of the turbine. Hence, it is investigated in this work. The NREL 5 MW turbine is simulated with clean and eroded blades, which are compared to coated blades equipped with leading edge protection. Aerodynamic polars are generated by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and load calculations are conducted using the blade element momentum theory. The analysis in this work shows that, compared to clean rotor blades, the worse aerodynamic behaviour of strongly eroded blades can lead to power losses of 9 % . In contrast, coated blades only have a small impact on the turbine power of less than 1 % .

  15. Chemical transfers along slowly eroding catenas developed on granitic cratons in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomo, Lesego; Bern, Carleton R.; Hartshorn, Anthony S.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2013-01-01

    A catena is a series of distinct but co-evolving soils arrayed along a slope. On low-slope, slowly eroding catenas the redistribution of mass occurs predominantly as plasma, the dissolved and suspended constituents in soil water. We applied mass balance methods to track how redistribution via plasma contributed to physical and geochemical differentiation of nine slowly eroding (~ 5 mm ky− 1) granitic catenas. The catenas were arrayed in a 3 × 3 climate by relief matrix and located in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Most of the catenas contained at least one illuviated soil profile that had undergone more volumetric expansion and less mass loss, and these soils were located in the lower halves of the slopes. By comparison, the majority of slope positions were eluviated. Soils from the wetter climates (550 and 730 mm precipitation yr− 1) generally had undergone greater collapse and lost more mass, while soils in the drier climate (470 mm yr− 1) had undergone expansion and lost less mass. Effects of differences in catena relief were less clear. Within each climate zone, soil horizon mass loss and strain were correlated, as were losses of most major elements, illustrating the predominant influence of primary mineral weathering. Nevertheless, mass loss and volumetric collapse did not become extreme because of the skeleton of resistant primary mineral grains inherited from the granite. Colloidal clay redistribution, as traced by the ratio of Ti to Zr in soil, suggested clay losses via suspension from catena eluvial zones. Thus illuviation of colloidal clays into downslope soils may be crucial to catena development by restricting subsurface flow there. Our analysis provides quantitative support for the conceptual understanding of catenas in cratonic landscapes and provides an endmember reference point in understanding the development of slowly eroding soil landscapes.

  16. Landslides as weathering reactors; links between physical erosion and weathering in rapidly eroding mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.

    2014-12-01

    The link between physical erosion and chemical weathering is generally modelled with a surface-blanketing weathering zone, where the supply of fresh minerals is tied to the average rate of denudation. In very fast eroding environments, however, sediment production is dominated by landsliding, which acts in a stochastic fashion across the landscape, contrasting strongly with more uniform denudation models. If physical erosion is a driver of weathering at the highest erosion rates, then an alternative weathering model is required. Here we show that landslides can be effective 'weathering reactors'. Previous work modelling the effect of landslides on chemical weathering (Gabet 2007) considered the fresh bedrock surfaces exposed in landslide scars. However, fracturing during the landslide motion generates fresh surfaces, the total surface area of which exceeds that of the exposed scar by many orders of magnitude. Moreover, landslides introduce concavity into hillslopes, which acts to catch precipitation. This is funnelled into a deposit of highly fragmented rock mass with large reactive surface area and limited hydraulic conductivity (Lo et al. 2007). This allows percolating water reaction time for chemical weathering; any admixture of macerated organic debris could yield organic acid to further accelerate weathering. In the South island of New Zealand, seepage from recent landslide deposits has systematically high solute concentrations, far outstripping concentration in runoff from locations where soils are present. River total dissolved load in the western Southern Alps is highly correlated with the rate of recent (<35yrs) landsliding, suggesting that landslides are the dominant locus of weathering in this rapidly eroding landscape. A tight link between landsliding and weathering implies that localized weathering migrates through the landscape with physical erosion; this contrasts with persistent and ubiquitous weathering associated with soil production. Solute

  17. The DNA damage response at eroded telomeres and tethering to the nuclear pore complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadaroo, Basheer; Teixeira, M Teresa; Luciano, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    to induce the recruitment of checkpoint and recombination proteins. Notably, a DNA damage response at eroded telomeres starts many generations before senescence and is characterized by the recruitment of Cdc13 (cell division cycle 13), replication protein A, DNA damage checkpoint proteins and the DNA repair......The ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes are protected by telomeres, which serve to ensure proper chromosome replication and to prevent spurious recombination at chromosome ends. In this study, we show by single cell analysis that in the absence of telomerase, a single short telomere is sufficient...

  18. Fractal dimension of soil aggregates as an index of soil erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Neyshabouri, Mohammad-Reza; Rouhipour, Hassan; Asadi, Hossein

    2011-04-01

    SummaryAggregate stability is an influential factor governing soil erodibility. The fractal dimension of soil aggregates has been related to their size distributions and stabilities. Several fractal models have been proposed for estimating fractal dimension of soil aggregates. This study was conducted to investigate how closely the soil interrill erodibility factor in WEPP model can be correlated to and predicted from soil aggregate size distribution or from their fractal dimensions. Samples from 36 soil series with contrasting properties were collected from northwest of Iran. The fractal dimensions of soil aggregates were calculated from Rieu and Sposito ( D n), Tyler and Wheatcraft ( D mT), and Young and Crawford ( D mY) models using aggregate size distribution (ASD) data. A rainfall simulator with drainable tilting flume (1 × 0.5 m) at slope of 9% was employed and total interrill erosion ( TIE), total splashed soil ( TS) and interrill erodibility factor ( K i) were calculated for 20, 37, and 47 mm h -1 rainfall intensities. Results showed that both D n and D mT estimated from aggregate wet-sieving data characterized ASD of the examined soils and significantly ( p < 0.01) correlated to TS, TIE and K i. Values of D n and D mT estimated from dry-sieving data only correlated to TS but not to TIE and K i. Using air-dried aggregates of 4.75-8 mm size range, instead of aggregates <4.75 mm, in wet-sieving was better for estimating D n as an index for the predication of TIE, TS and K i. Correction of ASD for the particle fraction greater than lower sieve mesh size in each size class decreased the correlation coefficient between TIE, TS or K i and D n or D mT. The values of D mY were not correlated to TS, TIE and K i. The correlation coefficient TIE and K i with D n and D mT derived from wet-sieving data, were higher than those with wet-aggregate stability (WAS), mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD), implying that D n and D mT may be better

  19. Terrestrial photography as method to identify sediment sources in eroding rills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Stefan; Remke, Alexander; Wengel, René; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2013-04-01

    One weak point in available studies on erosion processes in eroding rills is the lack of information about the real source of transported sediment. So far, such sources can only be identified by observation during the event or the experiment. Quantification is not possible by this way, additionally only large and clear visible changes are considered. In this study we present a method to quantify even small topographical changes in eroding rills during experiments or real rainfall events. We tested the suitability of DEMs created from terrestrial stereo photographies before and after application of artificial runoff to quantify eroded, transported and sedimented material in the rill. In 1 m intervals, pairs of photos are taken along the tested rills. The setup ensures that both cameras are moved with a constant parallax. The height of only about 1 m above ground level ensures that even low quantities of moved material can be identified. Based on technical data of the camera and the shot level, the theoretical accuracy of the images is below 1 mm horizontal ground resolution. The camera carrier bases on a rotating tower crane which has been developed from a customary survey tripod. The stereo images are combined with free-hand photographies from different angles of view to reach overhangs in rill sidewalls and ensure a fully 3D representation of the rill. In the analyses of the photographies 2 different kinds of software are used: The standard software Leica Photogrammetry Suite requires stereo images and ground control points whereas the open source software package is able to handle either stereo images as well as free-hand photographies. Ground control points are not needed, the software identifies point clusters which are to find in overlapping images. Using these feature-points, spatial marks are positioned which are used to match and rectify the single images to get an apposite panorama. By this way images from very different angles of view can be combined. The

  20. Predictive model for local scour downstream of hydrokinetic turbines in erodible channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mirko; Heisel, Michael; Guala, Michele

    2018-02-01

    A modeling framework is derived to predict the scour induced by marine hydrokinetic turbines installed on fluvial or tidal erodible bed surfaces. Following recent advances in bridge scour formulation, the phenomenological theory of turbulence is applied to describe the flow structures that dictate the equilibrium scour depth condition at the turbine base. Using scaling arguments, we link the turbine operating conditions to the flow structures and scour depth through the drag force exerted by the device on the flow. The resulting theoretical model predicts scour depth using dimensionless parameters and considers two potential scenarios depending on the proximity of the turbine rotor to the erodible bed. The model is validated at the laboratory scale with experimental data comprising the two sediment mobility regimes (clear water and live bed), different turbine configurations, hydraulic settings, bed material compositions, and migrating bedform types. The present work provides future developers of flow energy conversion technologies with a physics-based predictive formula for local scour depth beneficial to feasibility studies and anchoring system design. A potential prototype-scale deployment in a large sandy river is also considered with our model to quantify how the expected scour depth varies as a function of the flow discharge and rotor diameter.

  1. Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland catchment, southern Pennines, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Pawson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates for the first time the relative importance of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC in the fluvial carbon flux from an actively eroding peatland catchment in the southern Pennines, UK. Event scale variability in DOC and POC was examined and the annual flux of fluvial organic carbon was estimated for the catchment. At the event scale, both DOC and POC were found to increase with discharge, with event based POC export accounting for 95% of flux in only 8% of the time. On an annual cycle, exports of 35.14 t organic carbon (OC are estimated from the catchment, which represents an areal value of 92.47 g C m−2 a−1. POC was the most significant form of organic carbon export, accounting for 80% of the estimated flux. This suggests that more research is required on both the fate of POC and the rates of POC export in eroding peatland catchments.

  2. Remote Sensing Analysis of a Rapidly Eroding Sea Cliff at Point Grey, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, A. M.; Francioni, M.; Kremsater, R.; Stead, D.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    A range of remote sensing tools can be used to document hazardous and sensitive environments. Presented at this time are the first results of an ongoing study of a rapidly eroding, steep sea cliff in Vancouver, British Columbia. The sea cliff is formed in a 70-m-thick sequence of outwash sands and silts (Quadra Sand) deposited during the early part of the last glaciation, known locally as the Fraser Glaciation. The sea cliff is unstable and retreating due to wave attack, groundwater seepage, and shallow-seated landslides. If no measures are taken to stem wave erosion, the sea cliff will likely retreat faster with rising seas over the remainder of this century. The beach below the cliff is a popular recreational location, thus a hard engineering solution to the erosion problem might be unacceptable to Vancouver residents. We have used conventional photogrammetry, structures from motion, thermal imaging, and terrestrial full waveform laser scanning to provide base-line spatial data for the most rapidly eroding section of the cliff. Here, we present some of our results and discuss the challenges that we faced in characterizing this large soil slope.

  3. Sub ablative Er: YAG laser irradiation on surface roughness of eroded dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curylofo-Zotti, Fabiana Almeida; Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Colucci, Vivian; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation applied at varying pulse repetition rate on the surface roughness of eroded enamel. Bovine enamel slabs (n = 10) were embedded in polyester resin, ground, and polished. To erosive challenges, specimens were immersed two times per day in 20mL of concentrated orange juice (pH = 3.84) under agitation, during a two-day period. Specimens were randomly assigned to irradiation with the Er:YAG laser (focused mode, pulse energy of 60 mJ and energy density of 3.79 J/cm(2) ) operating at 1, 2, 3, or 4 Hz. The control group was left nonirradiated. Surface roughness measurements were recorded post erosion-like formation and further erosive episodes by a profilometer and observed through atomic force microscopy (AFM). Analysis of variance revealed that the control group showed the lowest surface roughness, while laser-irradiated substrates did not differ from each other following post erosion-like lesion formation. According to analysis of covariance, at further erosive episodes, the control group demonstrated lower surface roughness (P > 0.05), than any of the irradiated groups (P laser did not affect roughness of dental enamel eroded. The AFM images showed that the specimens irradiated by the Er:YAG laser at 1 Hz presented a less rough surface than those irradiated at 2, 3, and 4 Hz. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Granular flows on erodible layers: type and evolution of flow and deposit structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; De Blasio, F.; De Caro, M.; Volpi, G.; Frattini, P.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction of a fast moving landslide mass with the basal layer over which movement takes place has been discussed in previous contributions. Nevertheless, the evolution of the structures within the moving mass and the erodible layer are still to be described in detail (Hungr and Evans, 2004; Crosta et al., 1992, 2006, 2009, 2011; Dufresne et al., 2010; Mangeney et al., 2010) and modeling results (Crosta et al., 2006, 2009, 2011; Mangeney et al., 2010). We present some of the results from a campaign of laboratory experiments aimed at studying the evolution of a granular flow at the impact with and during the successive spreading over a cohesionless erodible layer. We performed these test to study the processes and to collect data and evidences to compare them with the results of numerical simulations and to verify capabilities of numerical codes. The laboratory setup consists of an inclined slope and an horizontal sector where release and transport, and deposition take place, respectively. Materials used for the tests are: a uniform rounded siliceous sand (Hostun sand; 0.125-0.5 mm) commonly adopted in lab tests because free of scale effects, and a gravel made of angular elements (12 mm in ave. size). Both the materials have been tested in dry conditions. Different slope angles have been tested (40, 45, 50, 55, 50, 66°) as well as different thicknesses of the erodible layer (0, 0.5, 1, 2 cm) and volumes of the released material (1.5, 3, 5, 9.6 liters). Tests have been monitored by means of a high speed camera and the pre- and post-failure geometries have been surveyed by means of a laser scanner. Deposit description allowed also the computation of volumes and the characterization of the different structures developed and frozen into the deposit. Experiments allowed us to observe the extreme processes occurring during the movement and the mise en place of the deposits. In particular, we observe the formation of a clear wave-like feature developing during the

  5. Numerical modelling of suffusion by discrete element method: a new internal stability criterion based on mechanical behaviour of eroded soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Hama Nadjibou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-cohesive soils subjected to a flow may have a behavior in which fine particles migrate through the interstices of the solid skeleton formed by the large particles. This phenomenon is termed internal instability, internal erosion or suffusion, and can occur both in natural soil deposits and also in geotechnical structures such as dams, dikes or barrages. Internal instability of a granular material is its inability to prevent the loss of its fine particles under flow effect. It is geometrically possible if the fine particles can migrate through the pores of the coarse soil matrix and results in a change in its mechanical properties. In this work, we uses the three-dimensional Particle Flow Code (PFC3D/DEM to study the stability/instability of granular materials and their mechanical behavior. Kenney and Lau criterion sets a safe boundary for engineering design. However, it tends to identify stable soils as unstable ones. The effects of instability and erosion, simulated by clipping fine particles from the grading distribution, on the mechanical behaviour of glass ball samples were analysed. The mechanical properties of eroded samples, in which erosion is simulated and gives a new approach for internal stability. A proposal for a new internal stability criterion is established, it is deduced from the analysis of relations between the mechanical behaviour and internal stability, including material contractance.

  6. Numerical modelling of suffusion by discrete element method: a new internal stability criterion based on mechanical behaviour of eroded soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoulaye Hama, Nadjibou; Ouahbi, Tariq; Taibi, Said; Souli, Hanène; Fleureau, Jean-Marie; Pantet, Anne

    2017-06-01

    Non-cohesive soils subjected to a flow may have a behavior in which fine particles migrate through the interstices of the solid skeleton formed by the large particles. This phenomenon is termed internal instability, internal erosion or suffusion, and can occur both in natural soil deposits and also in geotechnical structures such as dams, dikes or barrages. Internal instability of a granular material is its inability to prevent the loss of its fine particles under flow effect. It is geometrically possible if the fine particles can migrate through the pores of the coarse soil matrix and results in a change in its mechanical properties. In this work, we uses the three-dimensional Particle Flow Code (PFC3D/DEM) to study the stability/instability of granular materials and their mechanical behavior. Kenney and Lau criterion sets a safe boundary for engineering design. However, it tends to identify stable soils as unstable ones. The effects of instability and erosion, simulated by clipping fine particles from the grading distribution, on the mechanical behaviour of glass ball samples were analysed. The mechanical properties of eroded samples, in which erosion is simulated and gives a new approach for internal stability. A proposal for a new internal stability criterion is established, it is deduced from the analysis of relations between the mechanical behaviour and internal stability, including material contractance.

  7. Determination of interrill soil erodibility coefficient based on Fuzzy and Fuzzy-Genetic Systems

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    Habib Palizvan Zand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the fuzzy logic science has been used successfully in various sudies of hydrology and soil erosion, but in literature review no article was found about its performance for estimating of interrill erodibility. On the other hand, studies indicate that genetic algorithm techniques can be used in fuzzy models and finding the appropriate membership functions for linguistic variables and fuzzy rules. So this study was conducted to develop the fuzzy and fuzzy–genetics models and investigation of their performance in the estimation of soil interrill erodibility factor (Ki. Materials and Methods: For this reason 36 soil samples with different physical and chemical properties were collected from west of Azerbaijan province . soilsamples were also taken from the Ap or A horizon of each soil profile. The samples were air-dried , sieved and Some soil characteristics such as soil texture, organic matter (OM, cation exchange capacity (CEC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, EC and pH were determined by the standard laboratory methods. Aggregates size distributions (ASD were determined by the wet-sieving method and fractal dimension of soil aggregates (Dn was also calculated. In order to determination of soil interrill erodibility, the flume experiment performed by packing soil a depth of 0.09-m in 0.5 × 1.0 m. soil was saturated from the base and adjusted to 9% slope and was subjected to at least 90 min rainfall . Rainfall intensity treatments were 20, 37 and 47 mm h-1. During each rainfall event, runoff was collected manually in different time intervals, being less than 60 s at the beginning, up to 15 min near the end of the test. At the end of the experiment, the volumes of runoff samples and the mass of sediment load at each time interval were measured. Finally interrill erodibility values were calculated using Kinnell (11 Equation. Then by statistical analyses Dn and sand percent of the soils were selected as input variables and Ki as

  8. Variation of basal EROD activities in ten passerine bird species--relationships with diet and migration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainio, Miia J; Kanerva, Mirella; Wahlberg, Niklas; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Eeva, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Inter-specific differences in animal defence mechanisms against toxic substances are currently poorly understood. The ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) enzyme plays an important role in defence against toxic chemicals in a wide variety of animals, and it is an important biomarker for environmental contamination. We compared basal hepatic EROD activity levels among ten passerine species to see if there is inter-specific variation in enzyme activity, especially in relation to their diet and migration status. Migratory insectivores showed higher EROD activity compared to granivores. We hypothesize that the variable invertebrate diet of migratory insectivores contains a wider range of natural toxins than the narrower diet of granivores. This may have affected the evolution of mixed function oxidases (MFO) system and enzyme activities. We further tested whether metabolic rates or relative liver size were associated with the variation in detoxification capacity. We found no association between EROD activity and relative (per mass unit) basal metabolic rate (BMR). Instead, EROD activity and relative liver mass (% of body mass) correlated positively, suggesting that a proportionally large liver also functions efficiently. Our results suggest that granivores and non-migratory birds may be more vulnerable to environmental contaminants than insectivores and migratory birds. The diet and migration status, however, are phylogenetically strongly connected to each other, and their roles cannot be fully separated in our analysis with only ten passerine species.

  9. Análise da erodibilidade de saprolitos de gnaisse Erodibility analysis of gneiss saprolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Morais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As voçorocas são freqüentes em áreas com rochas do embasamento cristalino. A evolução destas feições é sempre fortemente condicionada pelos processos de erosão hídrica subsuperficial, embora os processos superficiais também sejam importantes. Este trabalho objetivou investigar os processos erosivos subsuperficiais atuantes nas voçorocas e compreender que fatores mineralógicos e texturais poderiam influenciar a erodibilidade dos saprolitos. Para tanto, foram realizados ensaios de caracterização e de avaliação da erodibilidade em amostras representativas, sendo o principal destes o ensaio de furo de agulha. Os resultados indicam que a erosão por carreamento não ocorre e que os saprolitos apresentam susceptibilidade variável à erosão por piping, mesmo quando derivados de uma mesma unidade litológica, mas superior à do horizonte B latossólico. Dados preliminares indicam que os saprolitos mais susceptíveis à erosão por piping são os de textura siltosa (determinados em ensaios granulométricos sem defloculante e agitação e pobres em minerais agregadores, como os argilominerais.Gully erosion are very common in areas with gneiss basement rocks. Their development is strongly influenced by subsuperficial processes, although the surface ones are also important. This study aimed to investigate the subsuperficial erosion mechanisms of these gullies and to understand how mineralogy and texture could influence the saprolite erodibility. Some basic trials and erodibility tests were carried out in representative samples, with imphasis to especially the pin-hole test. The results showed that seepage erosion does not occur and that saprolite present variable susceptibility to piping erosion, even if they are in the same geologic unit. The data confirm that soils with Bw horizon (Oxisols are less erodible than any of the tested saprolites. Preliminary data suggest that saprolites with a silty texture (determined without dispersant

  10. Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to non-engineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Nagarajan Rajkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leachate and groundwater samples were collected from Vendipalayam, Semur and Vairapalayam landfill sites in Erode city, Tamil Nadu, India, to study the possible impact of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Concentrations of various physicochemical parameters including heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn were determined in leachate samples and are reported. The concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ were found to be in considerable levels in the groundwater samples particularly near to the landfill sites, likely indicating that groundwater quality is being significantly affected by leachate percolation. Further they were proved to be the tracers for groundwater contamination near Semur and Vendipalayam dumpyards. The presence of contaminants in groundwater particularly near the landfill sites warns its quality and thus renders the associated aquifer unreliable for domestic water supply and other uses. Although some remedial measures are suggested to reduce further groundwater contamination via leachate percolation, the present study demands for the proper management of waste in Erode city.

  11. The fate of eroded soil organic carbon along a European transect – controls after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    The potential fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is key to understand carbon cycling in eroding landscapes. Globally, large quantities of sediments and SOC are redistributed by soil erosion on agricul-tural land, particularly after heavy precipitation events. Deposition...... of eroded SOC takes place on downslope soils within the catchment and in adjacent inland waters, i.e. substantial amounts of SOC are transferred from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. However, the net effect on C exchange between soils, atmosphere and inland waters is unknown. We hypothesize...... that the turnover of deposited C is significantly affected by soil and organic matter properties, and whether deposition occurs in terrestrial or aquatic environments. We sampled topsoils from 10 agricultural sites along a European transect, spanning a wide range of SOC and soil characteristics (e.g. texture...

  12. Stabilisation of erodible soil by fly ash and blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraratna, B.; Salim, W. [Civil Engineering Division, University of Wollongong, N.S.W., Wollongong (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Residual soils are found on large terrains which are often subjected to considerable erosion. This paper presents a detailed laboratory evaluation of the effect of fly ash and blast furnace slag on two different soils: (a) culluvium (sandy loam) from New South Wales, Australia and (b) erodible dispersive clay from northeast Thailand. Geotechnical tests were conducted to determine the compaction characteristics and the compressive and shear strength properties of the blended and natural soil specimens. The effect of the above mentioned industrial wastes on the rate of erosion and on the associated pH levels is also investigated. Fine grained fly ash is found to be useful as a void filler if used in substantial quantities, whereas selfhardening milled slag is more effective in terms of improving the internal friction angle of the treated soil. 18 refs.

  13. Natural geo-composites for grassing of eroded and degraded lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroumov Victor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Original, natural grass geocomposites (sods were developed on the basis of combination from unstuffy, needle-drive textile material, geo-net and soil-manure-peat or peat with grass cover from grass mixtures. The natural grass geocomposites have the next priorities: quickly grassing and reinforcing of eroded and degraded terrains; large uniformity and compactness of grass cove; long exploiting period; grassing of terrains with big slopes where the mechanization is difficult to use; the articles are with low mass, small thickness and high stability; they limit the growing of weed. The natural grass geocomposites are intend for control of soil erosion and reconstruction of natural landshaft. They can to reinforce ditches, grass collectors, side of the road slopes, as well as lay out lawn, parks, stadiums, ski racing tourist's beauty spot, etc.

  14. Turnover of eroded soil organic carbon after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    The fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is a large uncertainty in assessing the impact of soil erosion on C budgets. Globally, large amounts of SOC are transported by erosion and a substantial part is transferred into adjacent inland waters, linking terrestrial and aquatic C...... soil properties (e.g. texture, aggregation, etc.), SOC quantity and quality. In a 16-week incubation experiment, SOC turnover was determined for conditions reflecting downslope soils or inland waters. Moreover, we studied the impact of labile C inputs (‘priming’) on SOC stability using 13C labeled...... cellulose. Physical and chemical soil properties and SOC molecular composition were assessed as potential controls on C turnover. SOC deposition in aquatic environments resulted in upto 3.5 times higher C turnover than deposition on downslope soils. Labile C inputs enlarged total CO2 emissions...

  15. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in and around Gobichettipalayam Town Erode District, Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Palanisamy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water samples collected from different localities in and around Gobichettipalayam town, Erode District, Tamil Nadu were analyzed for their physico- chemical characteristics. This analysis result was compared with the WHO & ICMR standards of drinking water quality parameters with the following water quality parameters namely pH, Electrical conductivity, CN-, Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca & Mg in CaCO3 equivalents, phenolphthalein alkalinity, hydroxide alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, total solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, fluoride etc., The usefulness of these parameters in predicting ground water quality characteristics were discussed. Thus an attempt has been made to find the quality of ground water in and around Gobichettipalayam town, suitable for drinking purposes or not.

  16. Crop Performance and Soil Properties in Two Artificially-Eroded Soils in North-Central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Malhi, S. S.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E. D.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1991 to 1995 at Josephburg (Orthic Black Chernozem, Typic Cryoboroll) and Cooking Lake (Orthic Gray Luvisol, Typic Cryoboralf), Alberta, to determine impact of topsoil removal on selected soil properties, N-mineralization potential and crop yield, and effectiveness of various amendments for restoring the productivity of eroded soils. The simulated-erosion levels were established in the autumn of 1990 by removing 20 cm topsoil in 5-cm depth increments. The four amendments were: control, addition of 5 cm of topsoil, fertilizers to supply 100 kg N ha-1 and 20 kg P ha-1, and cattle manure at 75 Mg ha-1. Topsoil and manure were applied once in the autumn of 1990, while fertilizers were applied annually from 1991 to 1995. Available N and P, total C, N and P, and N-mineralization potential decreased, while bulk density increased with increasing depth of topsoil removal. Tiller number, plant height, spike density, thousand kernel weight, and leaf area index decreased with simulated erosion. Grain yield reductions due to simulated soil erosion were either linear or curvilinear functions of nutrient removal. Application of N and P fertilizers and manure improved grain yield and reduced the impact of yield loss due to erosion. Return of 5 cm of topsoil also increased grain yield, but to a lesser extent than manure or fertilizers. Grain yields were maximized when fertilizers were also applied to organic amendment treatments. In conclusion, the findings suggest the importance of integrated use of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers for best crop yields on severely-eroded soils.

  17. Towards prediction of soil erodibility using hyperspectral information: a case study in a semi-arid region of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostovari, Yaser; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Bahrami, Hossein-Ali

    2018-01-01

    Soil Visible–Near-Infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy has become an applicable and interesting technique to evaluate a number of soil properties because it is a fast, cost-effective, and non-invasive measurement technique. The main objective of the study to predict soil erodibility (K-factor), soil o...

  18. Effect of water potential and antecedent soil moisture on soil erodibility for coarse and fine-grained agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility has confounded researchers for decades. Difficulties arise with initiation of motion, pore-water status, physical, and perhaps biological, material properties and type of applied energy (i.e. rainfall, runoff, freeze/thaw, wind). Though specific tests have been developed to determin...

  19. Mulching as a strategy to improve soil properties and reduce soil erodibility in coffee farming systems of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Ritsema, C.J.; Stroosnijder, L.; Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    In Rwanda, mulch is applied in coffee fields to control soil erosion. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effects of different types of mulch on soil properties and soil erodibility in coffee farming systems in three different agro-ecological zones of the highlands of Rwanda. The

  20. Tracing the source of soil organic matter eroded from temperate forest catchments using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emma P. McCorkle; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Dale W. Johnson; Karis J. McFarlane; Marilyn L. Fogel; Stephen C. Hart

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion continuously redistributes soil and associated soil organic matter (SOM) on the Earth's surface, with important implications for biogeochemical cycling of essential elements and terrestrial carbon sequestration. Despite the importance of soil erosion, surprisingly few studies have evaluated the sources of eroded carbon (C). We used natural abundance...

  1. Asteroid surface archaeology: Identification of eroded impact structures by spectral properties on (4) Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M.; Nathues, A.; Schäfer, M.; Schmedemann, N.; Vincent, J.; Russell, C.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Vesta's surface material is characterized as a deep regolith [1,2], mobilized by countless impacts. The almost catastrophic impact near Vesta's south pole, which has created the Rheasilvia basin, and the partly overlapping older impact of similar size, Veneneia, have not only reshaped the areas of their interior (roughly 50 % of the Vesta surface), but also emplaced each time a huge ejecta blanket of similar size, thus covering the whole remaining surface. In this context, pristine and even younger morphologic features have been erased. However, the spectral signatures of the early differentiation and alteration products by impacts have partially remained in situ. While near the north pole several large old eroded impact features are visible, the equatorial zone close to the basin rims seems to be void of those. Since it is unlikely, that this zone has been entirely avoided by large projectiles, in this area the results of such impacts may have left morphologically not detectable remnants: Individual distribution of particle sizes and altered photometric properties, excavated layers, shock metamorphism, melt generation inside particles and on macroscopic scales, and emplacement of exogenous projectile material. An analysis by color ratio images and spatial profiles of diagnostic spectral parameters reveals such features. Results: Based on local spectroscopic evidence we have detected eroded impact features of three categories: 1) Small craters with diameters of a few kilometers, 2) Large craters or, if even larger, incipient impact basins, 3) Sub-global ejecta blankets. The eastern part of Feralia Planitia, diameter 140 km, has little evidence of a round outline in the shape model, but it features spectral gradients towards its center. A feature of similar size, centered north of Lucaria Tholus becomes only visible by a similar spectra gradient and a circular outline in specific spectral ratio mosaics. These features seem to be related to the

  2. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The carbon cycle is being affected by the human impacts (Novara et al., 2011; Yan-Gui et al., 2013), and one of those is the intensification in the soil erosion in agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009; García Orenes et al., 2009). Vineyards also are affected by the human activities (Fernández Calviño, 2012). Vineyards in Sicily are cultivated on 110.000 ha, 10% of which on >10% slope. Deficiencies of soil organic matter are typical of the semi arid Mediterranean environment especially where traditional intensive cropping practices are adopted (Novara et al., 2012; 2013). These practices in vineyards could lead soil to intensive erosion processes (Novara et al., 2011). The fate of SOC under erosion processes is difficult to understand because of the influence of the erosion impact on SOC pathway, which depends on the different features of the process involved (detachment, transport and/or deposition). Soil erosion must be considered a net C source (Lal, 2003), as eroded soils have lower net primary productivity (NPP) (Dick and Gregorich, 2004) caused by reduction in the effective rooting depth and all in all determining decline in soil quality. Breakdown of aggregates and soil dispersion expose SOM to microbial/enzymatic processes and chemical soil properties (Dimoyiannis, 2012; Kocyigit and Demirci, 2012). Moreover the light fraction, transported by runoff, is labile and easily mineralized determining CO2 emission in the atmosphere (Jacinthe and Lal, 2004). Therefore, the carbon pool is lower in eroded than in un-eroded soil scapes and the rate of mineralization of soil organic matter is higher in sediments than in original soil. In this survey we show a research conducted on a slope sequence of three soil profiles in an irrigated vineyard located in Sambuca di Sicilia, Italy (UTM33-WGS84: 4169367N; 325011E). The SOC content was measured at depth intervals of 10 cm up to a depth of 60 cm in each pedon. Wet aggregate-size fractions with no prior chemical

  3. Assessment of soil erodibility indices for conservation reserve program lands in southwestern Kansas using satellite imagery and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyurp; Egbert, Stephen L

    2005-12-01

    The soil erodibility index (EI) of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, which was the major criterion for CRP enrollment, was assessed for six counties in southwestern Kansas using USGS seamless digital elevation model data and Geographical Informational System techniques. The proportion of land areas with EI values of 8 or lower was less than 1% of the entire study area and most of the land areas (72.5%) were concentrated on EI values between 8 and 24. Although land acreage with EI values of 24 or higher decreased dramatically, the proportion of CRP lands to the other land-use types did not change much from low to high EI levels. The soil EI and physical soil characteristics of the CRP lands were compared to those of other land-use types. In general, the mean EI values of the land-use types were strongly correlated with physical soil properties, including organic matter content, clay content, available water capacity, permeability, and texture. CRP lands were compared in detail with cropland in terms of their soil characteristics to infer the pivotal cause of the land transformation. Although there was no significant statistical difference in EI between cropland and CRP soils, soil texture, soil family, and permeability were statistically different between the two. Statistical analyses of these three variables showed that CRP soils had coarser texture and higher permeability on average than cropland soils, indicating that CRP lands in the study area are drier than cropland soils. Therefore, soil moisture characteristics, not necessarily soil erosion potential, might have been the key factor for CRP enrollment in the study area.

  4. Effect of Various Organic Matter stimulates Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Plantations on Eroded Slopes in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha Vaidya, G.; Shrestha, K.; Wallander, H.

    2009-04-01

    Erosion resulting from landslides is a serious problem in mountainous countries such as Nepal. To restore such sites it is essential to establish plant cover that protects the soil and reduces erosion. Trees and shrubs on the lower hillsides in Nepal form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and these fungi are important for the uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil. In addition, the mycelia formed by these fungi have an important function in stabilizing the soil. The success of plantations of these eroded slopes is therefore highly dependent on the extent of mycorrhizal colonization of the plants. Mycorrhizal fungi growing in symbiosis with plants are essential in this respect because they improve both plant and nutrient uptake and soil structure. We investigated the influence of organic matter and P amendment on recently produced biomass of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in eroded slopes in Nepal. Eroded soil mixed with different types of organic matter was placed in mesh bags which were buried around the trees of Bauhinia purpurea and Leucaena diversifolia .This experiment were done in two seasons ( (the wet and the dry season). Signature fatty acids were used to determine bacterial and AM fungal biomass after the six month intervals. The amount and composition of AM fungal spores were analyzed in the mesh bags from the wet and dry seasons. More microbial biomass was produced during wet season than during dry season. Further more, organic matter addition enhanced the production of AM fungal and bacterial biomass during both seasons. The positive influence of organic matter addition on AM fungi could be an important contribution to plant survival, growth and nutrient composition in the soil in plantations on eroded slopes. Different AM spore communities and bacterial profiles were obtained with different organic amendments and this suggests a possible way of selecting for specific microbial communities in the management of eroded

  5. Polar bear hepatic cytochrome P450: Immunochemical quantitation, EROD/PROD activity and organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Centre for Analytical and Environmental Chemistry]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Canadian Wildlife Service

    1994-12-31

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are an ubiquitous mammal atop the arctic marine food chain and bioaccumulate lipophilic environmental contaminants. Antibodies prepared against purified rat liver cytochrome P450-1 Al, -1 A2, -2Bl and -3Al enzymes have been found to cross-react with structurally-related orthologues present in the hepatic microsomes of wild polar bears, immunochemically determined levels of P450-1 A and -2B proteins in polar bear liver relative to liver of untreated rats suggested enzyme induction, probably as a result of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants. Optical density quantitation of the most immunochemically responsive isozymes P450-I Al, -IA2 and -2Bi to polygonal rabbit anti-rat P450-IA/IA2 sera and -2BI antibodies in hepatic microsomes of 13 adult male polar bars from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic is presented. Correlations with EROD and PROD catalytic activities and levels of organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p-DDE) and their methyl sulfone (MeSO2-) metabolites are made to determine if compound-specific enzyme induction linkages exist. Inter-species immunochemical quantitation of isozymic P450 cytochromes can serve as an indicator of exposure to biologically active contaminant.

  6. Self-similar evolution of 2D aquatic dunes over an erodible bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Delphine; Lagrée, Pierre Yves; Gondret, Philippe; Rabaud, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Scale invariance of shape is a common feature of erosion patterns, such as barchan dunes, sand ripples under shoaling waves or scour holes. Due to their universal and fascinating crescentic shape, barchans dunes have received much attention and scaling laws have been deduced from field observations, satellite images and laboratory experiments. On the other hand, the dynamical long term evolution of ripples and dunes formed over an erodible bed has been far less studied while the temporal behavior of erosion patterns contains substantial information on the physical processes involved. Here, we present experimental results obtained in a linear, quasi-2D closed water channel. When a granular bed is submitted to a uniform shear flow, periodic sand ripples appear all along the channel. We found that the first ripple near the channel inlet exhibit unreported long-term scale-invariant growth. The self-similar dune shape and power-law growth exponent are extracted by image processing for several flow velocity. A simple linear model is built using mass conservation and a granular flux law, so that the bed form is described by a self-similar order 2 linear system. Experimental data fit nicely with the model results.

  7. Irrigation and Maize Cultivation Erode Plant Diversity Within Crops in Mediterranean Dry Cereal Agro-Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagúndez, Jaime; Olea, Pedro P.; Tejedo, Pablo; Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Gómez, David

    2016-07-01

    The intensification of agriculture has increased production at the cost of environment and biodiversity worldwide. To increase crop yield in dry cereal systems, vast farmland areas of high conservation value are being converted into irrigation, especially in Mediterranean countries. We analyze the effect of irrigation-driven changes on the farm biota by comparing species diversity, community composition, and species traits of arable plants within crop fields from two contrasting farming systems (dry and irrigated) in Spain. We sampled plant species within 80 fields of dry wheat, irrigated wheat, and maize (only cultivated under irrigation). Wheat crops held higher landscape and per field species richness, and beta diversity than maize. Within the same type of crop, irrigated wheat hosted lower plant diversity than dry wheat at both field and landscape scales. Floristic composition differed between crop types, with higher frequencies of perennials, cosmopolitan, exotic, wind-pollinated and C4 species in maize. Our results suggest that irrigation projects, that transform large areas of dry cereal agro-ecosystems into irrigated crop systems dominated by maize, erode plant diversity. An adequate planning on the type and proportion of crops used in the irrigated agro-ecosystems is needed in order to balance agriculture production and biodiversity conservation.

  8. Social perception of soil conservation benefits in Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A soil conservation project was implemented in Tanzania for over 30 years. This study applied a socio-economic approach to examine and analyse the benefits of soil conservation in the Kondoa eroded area of Tanzania by conducting a household survey of 240 households. The study findings show that 89% and 70% of respondents consider soil conservation activities have increased vegetation and soil fertility, respectively. Decreased soil erosion was perceived by 68% of respondents, increased firewood by 98%, increased fodder by 50%, high crop yields by 56%, and food sufficiency by 68%. These are the outcomes of conservation tillage, integrated farming and use of organic fertilizers, controlled stall feeding, agroforestry, construction of cut off drains, contour bunds and contour ridges cultivation, which are the main land use practices in the area. Access to extension services, household sizes, long term land ownership, crop incomes and awareness of soil conservation project were found to determine the level of participation in soil conservation. Major challenges are the lack of sustainability of those activities because of a recent policy decision to withdraw conservation investment. Despite the challenge, this study concluded that past government efforts on soil conservation activities initiated since the early 1970s through decentralization, institutional collaboration, socioeconomic support to farmers and continuous local community participation in restoring the degraded ecosystem of Kondoa have contributed to ensure environmental and socio-economic sustainability in the area.

  9. Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Apatite Structure of Eroded Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Mihailova, B.; Heidrich, S.; Bismayer, U.; Wang, X.; Klocke, A.; Klocke, A.

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid-induced changes in the structure of the mineral component of enamel stored in artificial saliva were studied by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy as well as complementary electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the application of artificial saliva for several hours (the minimum time period proved is 4 h) leads to slight, partial recovering of the local structure of eroded enamel apatite. However, artificial saliva surrounding cannot stop the process of loosening and breaking of P-O-Ca atomic linkages in enamel subjected to multiple citric acid treatments. Irreversible changes in the atomic bonding within 700 nm thick enamel surface layer are observed after three times exposure for 1 min to aqueous solution of citric acid having a ph value of 2.23, with a 24-hour interval between the individual treatments. The additional treatment with basic fluoride-containing solutions (1.0% NaF) did not demonstrate a protective effect on the enamel apatite structure per se.

  10. Vortex shedding and morphodynamic response of bed surfaces containing non-erodible roughness elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Sanderson, Robert Steven; Sutton, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    A series of wind tunnel experiments was carried out to investigate particle entrainment from surfaces in which one or more roughness elements were embedded. Thin sand strips were employed to eliminate impact and ejection, and thus isolate entrainment by fluid drag. The pattern of erosion is consistent with the presence of coherent vortices, inclusive of trailing vortices in the wake flow. The shape and orientation of the roughness element strongly influence this pattern. When an upwind supply of saltators is introduced, the majority of particles within the bed are entrained through impact, with the exception of a sand tail to the lee of the roughness element. That is, the effect of coherent structures within the airflow, as related to spatial variation in the fluid drag exerted on the bed surface, is completely overprinted by the saltation cloud and the blocking of particle trajectories by the upwind face of the roughness element. In a repeated set of experiments, the bed was allowed to fully adjust its morphology to the transport system. In this case, particle entrainment did not selectively occur within the zone of wake flow, and by inference the fluid stress across the test surface appeared to be uniform. These experiments support the hypothesis that vortex annihilation occurs on morphodynamically adjusted surfaces. In summary, the system response to the emergence of non-erodible roughness elements on surfaces affected by wind erosion involves a suite of geophysical processes, each of which attains varied levels of dominance within a given morphodynamic domain.

  11. Workplace bullying erodes job and personal resources: between- and within-person perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Neall, Annabelle M

    2014-10-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious psychosocial occupational hazard. Despite a wealth of empirical study, research has rarely examined the mechanisms through which bullying has its negative effects. Accordingly, using both between- and within-person approaches, we investigated the erosion of job (Study 1) and personal (Study 2) resources following workplace bullying, mediated by the depletion of emotional energy. In Study 1, self-report survey data were collected from 221 retail workers at 2 time-points spaced 6 months apart. Structural equation modeling revealed that over time bullying depletes coworker support, partially mediated by emotional exhaustion. In Study 2, a 6-week diary was completed by a separate sample of 45 workers employed in various occupations. Within-person weekly variability in bullying exposure was 34%. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that weekly emotional exhaustion partially mediated the negative effects of weekly workplace bullying on both optimism and self-efficacy. The consistent pattern across both studies supports the idea of a resource loss process whereby exposure to bullying at work erodes job and personal resources by depleting energy. Future research should clarify the role of exhaustion in utilizing resources to respond to bullying, focus on predictors of within-person variability in bullying exposure, and more explicitly model the resource loss spiral following workplace bullying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Fate and Stability of Eroding Wetland Soil Carbon in a Subsiding Deltaic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. R.; Steinmuller, H.; Chambers, L. G.; Fontenot, A.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands can respond to rapid rates of relative sea level rise via wetland submergence and/or erosion, which occur when wetlands are unable to vertically accrete to keep pace with sea level rise. As coastal wetlands erode, previously sequestered organic carbon is exposed to oxygen-rich estuarine water. This transition in redox from anaerobic to aerobic condition can trigger increased mineralization rates of decades to centuries'-old soil carbon. Barataria Bay, Louisiana has one of the highest coastal wetland land loss rates in the United States, primarily due to eustatic sea level rise coupled with coastal subsidence. Marsh-edge erosion rates measured over the past two years are on the order of 1.5 meters per year. Meter long soil cores were obtained from vegetated wetland sites and sectioned into 11 intervals to investigate aerobic and anaerobic mineralization rates with depth. In surface soils, organic carbon mineralization rates averaged 16 times greater than anaerobic mineralization rates. In deeper, older soils, the aerobic mineralization rate was still an order of magnitude greater than the anaerobic rate, suggesting a significant portion of this older, soil carbon is readily cycling back to the atmosphere after erosion followed by mineralization by microorganisms. These results have consequences for increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the future, as stable coastlines worldwide will be subjected to Barataria-bay levels of sea level rise in the next 50-75 years.

  13. Labile organic carbon regulates phosphorus release from eroded soil transported into anaerobic coastal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Jouni; Ekholm, Petri; Wahlström, Stella; Tallberg, Petra; Uusitalo, Risto

    2015-03-01

    Coastal eutrophication is expected to increase due to expanding and intensifying agriculture which causes a large amount of soil-associated P to be transported into aquatic systems. We performed anaerobic long-term incubations on field soil to mimic the conditions that eroded soil encounters in brackish sediments. The release of P from soil increased with the amount of labile organic C (acetate) addition and decreased with the soil/solution ratio. We deduce that in less-productive brackish systems, microbial Fe reduction allows for the maintenance of the coupled cycling of Fe and P and restricts the amount of P entering the oxic water. In more eutrophic systems, the formation of Fe sulfides as a result of SO4 reduction inactivates Fe, and leads to a higher release of P, thus generating an adverse feedback effect. The dependence of the fate of soil-bound Fe and P on the trophic status of the receiving water should be recognized in eutrophication management.

  14. Effect of Artificial Saliva on the Apatite Structure of Eroded Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid-induced changes in the structure of the mineral component of enamel stored in artificial saliva were studied by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy as well as complementary electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the application of artificial saliva for several hours (the minimum time period proved is 4 h leads to slight, partial recovering of the local structure of eroded enamel apatite. However, artificial saliva surrounding cannot stop the process of loosening and breaking of P–O–Ca atomic linkages in enamel subjected to multiple citric acid treatments. Irreversible changes in the atomic bonding within 700 nm thick enamel surface layer are observed after three times exposure for 1 min to aqueous solution of citric acid having a pH value of 2.23, with a 24-hour interval between the individual treatments. The additional treatment with basic fluoride-containing solutions (1.0% NaF did not demonstrate a protective effect on the enamel apatite structure per se.

  15. Evaluation of the WEPP hillslope model on stable and eroding semiarid woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, B.P.; Simanton, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate runoff and erosion prediction by the WEPP hillslope model for two pinyon-juniper sites in New Mexico: one has a low erosion rate (stable site) and the other (unstable site) is eroding at very rapid rates (as a result of landuse and climatic perturbations over the last century). Runoff and erosion measurements were made at plot and hillslope scales at both sites. WEPP was evaluated using both rainfall simulation and natural rainfall data. Rainfall simulation was performed on both vegetated and bare plots. Parameter values used were developed from rainfall simulation experiments and site characteristics. In general, runoff and erosion were underpredicted at both sites but to a much larger degree at the unstable site. On the unstable site predictions were much improved when we used hydraulic conductivity (Ke) derived from the bare plot rainfall simulation. Also of importance, at the unstable site we observed a large increase in erosion as scale increased from the plot to the hillslope as a result of a well developed channel network. These results are preliminary, in that only a few storms were evaluated, however, they do suggest some important strategies for predicting the impact of reduced vegetation cover to erosion in semiarid landscapes

  16. RNAi drives nonreciprocal translocations at eroding chromosome ends to establish telomere-free linear chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnis, Martina; Apte, Manasi S; Masuda, Hirohisa; Jain, Devanshi; Wheeler, David Lee; Cooper, Julia Promisel

    2018-04-13

    The identification of telomerase-negative HAATI (heterochromatin amplification-mediated and telomerase-independent) cells, in which telomeres are superseded by nontelomeric heterochromatin tracts, challenged the idea that canonical telomeres are essential for chromosome linearity and raised crucial questions as to how such tracts translocate to eroding chromosome ends and confer end protection. Here we show that HAATI arises when telomere loss triggers a newly recognized illegitimate translocation pathway that requires RNAi factors. While RNAi is necessary for the translocation events that mobilize ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tracts to all chromosome ends (forming "HAATI rDNA " chromosomes), it is dispensable for HAATI rDNA maintenance. Surprisingly, Dicer (Dcr1) plays a separate, RNAi-independent role in preventing formation of the rare HAATI subtype in which a different repetitive element (the subtelomeric element) replaces telomeres. Using genetics and fusions between shelterin components and rDNA-binding proteins, we mapped the mechanism by which rDNA loci engage crucial end protection factors-despite the absence of telomere repeats-and secure end protection. Sequence analysis of HAATI rDNA genomes allowed us to propose RNA and DNA polymerase template-switching models for the mechanism of RNAi-triggered rDNA translocations. Collectively, our results reveal unforeseen roles for noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in assembling a telomere-free chromosome end protection device. © 2018 Begnis et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Eroding dipoles and vorticity growth for Euler flows in {{{R}}}^{3}: the hairpin geometry as a model for finite-time blowup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Stephen; Gilbert, Andrew D.

    2018-02-01

    A theory of an eroding ‘hairpin’ vortex dipole structure in three-dimensions is developed, extending our previous study of an axisymmetric eroding dipole without swirl. The axisymmetric toroidal dipole was found to lead to maximal growth of vorticity, as {t}4/3. The hairpin is here similarly proposed as a model to produce large ‘self-stretching’ of vorticity, with the possibility of finite-time blow-up. We derive a system of partial differential equations of ‘generalized’ form, involving contour averaging of a locally two-dimensional Euler flow. We do not attempt here to solve the system exactly, but point out that non-existence of physically acceptable solutions would most probably be a result of the axial flow. Because of the axial flow the vorticity distribution within the dipole eddies is no longer of the simple Sadovskii type (vorticity constant over a cross-section) obtained in the axisymmetric problem. Thus the solution of the system depends upon the existence of a larger class of propagating two-dimensional dipoles. The hairpin model is obtained by formal asymptotic analysis. As in the axisymmetric problem a local transformation to ‘shrinking’ coordinates is introduced, but now in a self-similar form appropriate to the study of a possible finite-time singularity. We discuss some properties of the model, including a study of the helicity and a first step in iterating toward a solution from the Sadovskii structure. We also present examples of two-dimensional propagating dipoles not previously studied, which have a vorticity profile consistent with our model. Although no rigorous results can be given, and analysis of the system is only partial, the formal calculations are consistent with the possibility of a finite time blowup of vorticity at a point of vanishing circulation of the dipole eddies, but depending upon the existence of the necessary two-dimensional propagating dipole. Our results also suggest that conservation of kinetic energy as

  18. ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoubi, S.A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variability of soil erodibility and its relevant variables at MEHR watershed from Khorasan province, in northern Iran. Interested network was designed by 110 samples like nested- systematic with distance about 50, 100, 250 and 500 meter across the study area by preparing point map at GIS. Sampling points were identified in field by an Global Positioning system. Soil sampling was done at depth of 0-5cm of ground surface and permeability was studied at depth of 5-30 cm. Some soil properties such as particle distribution and organic mater were measured at laboratory. Particle size distribution was determined by Hydrometer method and Organic matter was measured by wet oxidation approach. Then spatial analysis was done. Variography analysis on soil attributes according to soil erodibility, showed that Gaussian, exponential and spherical models were the most models to predict spatial variability of soil parameters. The range of spatial dependencies was changed from 320 to 3200 m. Soil attribute maps prepared by kriging technique using models parameters. Then soil attributes were composed by Wischmeier (1978 formula in Illwis media to calculate K factor. Amount of soil erodibility changed from 0.13 to 0.91 that it's maximum and minimum was identified in east and southwest of studiedarea. Soil spatial variability pattern, is similar to silt pattern due to high effect of silt on soil rodibility, Also that is partially confirmed with geology map, indicated which soil

  19. [Effect of topical iron, fluoride application on eroded enamel in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Chong, Yan; Huang, Rui-zhe

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of supplementation containing iron and/or fluoride on eroded enamel in vitro. Eighty enamel specimens collected in orthodontic treatments were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 20 samples each: C (control,deionized water); Fe(2+)(15 mmol/L FeSO(4)); F(-)(1.23% NaF) and Fe(2+)+ F(-)(15 mmol/L FeSO(4) and 1.23% NaF ). Before all samples submitted to 6 alternating demineralization and remineralization cycles, they were pre-treated with one of the experimental solutions for 1 minute. One complete cycle consisted of the following steps: ①demineralization in 5 mL beverage (Coca-Cola, pH=2.58) for 5 minutes under gentle agitation; ②remineralization in 5 mL artificial saliva for 1 hour at 37°C. The effect of erosion was observed by enamel surface morphology and measured by superficial micro-hardness (SMH). One-way ANOVA was performed using SPSS18.0 software package for analysis of the data. The SMH of enamel after erosion by carbonated drinks was significantly lower than the SMH before erosion. When ferrous sulfate with or without fluoride was tested for the prevention of enamel demineralization, there was statistically significant increase in the SMH of enamel in comparison with the control (Pfluorine treatment ,and the damage degree of the enamel surface were reduced compared with the control. Iron and/or fluoride was shown to be effective to enhance the acid resistance of enamel,while the combined use of fluoride and iron in group Fe(2+)+F(-)had no cumulative effects.

  20. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in rainbow trout exposed to diluted oil sand wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, A.; Mackay, W.; Birkholz, D.

    1995-01-01

    Toxic industrial wastewaters, such as those from oil sands extraction, must be assessed for their potential sublethal effects before they can be safely disposed in the environment. The induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was assessed as a potential bioindicator of sublethal stress in rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of oil sands tailings water. The mixed-function oxygenase system in rainbow trout responded rapidly following a definable concentration-response relationship; however, it proved to be a relatively insensitive indicator of sublethal exposure to oil sands tailings water. Increased activity and maximal induction, as a result of exposure to 0.3 and 0.6 times the LC 50 (Toxic Units), occurred rapidly within 24 hours of exposure. The linearity of the relationship between the concentration of oil sands tailings pond water and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, expressed by the following regression equation, In EROD = 3.68 (conc.) + 3.20, had an r 2 value of 0.593. Maximal induction required 0.4--0.8 Toxic Units. The absolute level of maximal induction was only one-fifth to one-sixth of the potential induction as found in response to the positive control, 0.5 mg/kg β-naphthoflavone (i.p.). The authors also present data that suggests that the different levels of induction observed in trout exposed to tailings pond water vs those injected with 0.5 mg/kg β-naphthoflavone (i.p.) may be indicative of two different P450 isoforms, the CYP4Al isoform responding to the organic acidic surfactants in oil sands tailings pond water and the CYP1A1 isoform, the isoform generally associated with most xenobiotic transformation in fish, responding to β-naphthoflavone

  1. Molecular weight-dependent degradation and drug release of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Adam; Wang, Yingya; Harmankaya, Necati; Water, Jorrit J; Baldursdottír, Stefania; Almdal, Kristoffer; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC) is a unique biomaterial showing significant potential for controlled drug delivery applications. The current study investigated the impact of the molecular weight on the biological performance of drug-loaded PEC films. Following the preparation and thorough physicochemical characterization of diverse PEC (molecular weights: 85, 110, 133, 174 and 196kDa), the degradation and drug release behavior of rifampicin- and bovine serum albumin-loaded PEC films was investigated in vitro (in the presence and absence of cholesterol esterase), in cell culture (RAW264.7 macrophages) and in vivo (subcutaneous implantation in rats). All investigated samples degraded by means of surface erosion (mass loss, but constant molecular weight), which was accompanied by a predictable, erosion-controlled drug release pattern. Accordingly, the obtained in vitro degradation half-lives correlated well with the observed in vitro half-times of drug delivery (R 2 =0.96). Here, the PEC of the highest molecular weight resulted in the fastest degradation/drug release. When incubated with macrophages or implanted in animals, the degradation rate of PEC films superimposed the results of in vitro incubations with cholesterol esterase. Interestingly, SEM analysis indicated a distinct surface erosion process for enzyme-, macrophage- and in vivo-treated polymer films in a molecular weight-dependent manner. Overall, the molecular weight of surface-eroding PEC was identified as an essential parameter to control the spatial and temporal on-demand degradation and drug release from the employed delivery system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil profile dynamics in an eroding soil landscape - a catena through a kettle hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Kaczorek, Danuta; Hierold, Wilfried; Deumlich, Detlef; Koszinski, Sylvia; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The arable hummocky ground moraine soil landscapes are characterized by a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils at hilltops and slopes, and by colluviated soils in topographic depressions. After removal of forest in the middle ages, colluvium started covering the pre-existing Histosols and Gleysols within and Luvisols in the vicinity of kettle holes. A catena through originally peat-filled kettle-hole has hardly been described with respect to ongoing pedological modifications according to changes in landscape and hydrology. The objective was to derive the lateral continuum of soil horizons by identifying the location of the lateral boundaries between regions of clay mobilization/migration and gleisation (gleyic conditions), peat accumulation, and secondary carbonate accumulation. Data from an intensively-sampled field in northeastern Germany are presented. The start of colluviation could be dated by tree ring analyses of a buried stem. The location of the fossil topsoil A and peat horizons was determined from a dense grid of auger holes and geophysical explorations. In addition to older processes in the landscape, also younger redoximorphic processes were indicating changes in soil hydraulic properties and a modified hydrology of the arable soil landscape. We found in micromorphological analyses of soil thin sections that clay migration is an ongoing process; samples indicated vertical gradients in C-contents and secondary carbonate accumulation. The clay mobilization in the colluvium and the migration into the fossil horizons seemed to depend on the direction of soil water movement; anisotropic hydraulic conductivity indicated a potential for lateral water movement. The catena data suggest that the soil landscape development was relatively dynamic; the results may allow the reconstruction of former land surfaces, soil distributions, and erosion rates and may help predicting future developments.

  3. Granulation Tissue Eroding the Subchondral Bone Also Promotes New Bone Formation in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleil, Janine; Maier, Rene; Hempfing, Axel; Sieper, Joachim; Appel, Heiner; Syrbe, Uta

    2016-10-01

    We previously suggested that fibroblast-rich granulation tissue eroding the subchondral bone is instrumental in the joint remodeling that occurs in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The purpose of this study was to determine if this granulation tissue also carries bone-forming capabilities, which we approached by searching for bone-forming cells (hypertrophic chondrocytes, osteoblasts) in its vicinity. We also assessed adipogenic tissue transformation, which has been suggested to be an intermediate feature in AS bone formation based on imaging studies. The facet joints of AS patients, osteoarthritis (OA) patients, and autopsy subjects (controls) were screened for subchondral granulation tissue. We searched for hypertrophic chondrocytes by assessing RUNX-2, type X collagen, and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) expression, for osteoblasts by analyzing RUNX-2, CD56, and type I collagen expression, as well as for signs of new bone formation. Adipocytes and lipid accumulation were assessed in Safranin O-stained sections. In the joints of AS and OA patients, RUNX-2-positive cells were found to be lining the granulation tissue. These cells coexpressed type I collagen but lacked type X collagen and MMP-13 expression, confirming their osteoblastic nature. In 91% of AS joints and in 20% of OA joints (P granulation tissue and the cartilage. Joints containing bony spots showed greater replacement of the adjacent bone marrow by granulation tissue than did joints without bone formation (P granulation tissue often contained adipocytes and lipid accumulations. Replacement of the subchondral bone marrow by fat tissue was also frequently found but was not associated with new bone formation. The subchondral granulation tissue carries osteoblasts, which promote new bone formation, leading to intraarticular ankylosis of the facet joints in AS. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in rainbow trout exposed to diluted oil sand wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, A. [Chemex Labs Alberta Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Mackay, W. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Birkholz, D. [Enviro-Test Labs., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Toxic industrial wastewaters, such as those from oil sands extraction, must be assessed for their potential sublethal effects before they can be safely disposed in the environment. The induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was assessed as a potential bioindicator of sublethal stress in rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of oil sands tailings water. The mixed-function oxygenase system in rainbow trout responded rapidly following a definable concentration-response relationship; however, it proved to be a relatively insensitive indicator of sublethal exposure to oil sands tailings water. Increased activity and maximal induction, as a result of exposure to 0.3 and 0.6 times the LC{sub 50} (Toxic Units), occurred rapidly within 24 hours of exposure. The linearity of the relationship between the concentration of oil sands tailings pond water and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, expressed by the following regression equation, In EROD = 3.68 (conc.) + 3.20, had an r{sup 2} value of 0.593. Maximal induction required 0.4--0.8 Toxic Units. The absolute level of maximal induction was only one-fifth to one-sixth of the potential induction as found in response to the positive control, 0.5 mg/kg {beta}-naphthoflavone (i.p.). The authors also present data that suggests that the different levels of induction observed in trout exposed to tailings pond water vs those injected with 0.5 mg/kg {beta}-naphthoflavone (i.p.) may be indicative of two different P450 isoforms, the CYP4Al isoform responding to the organic acidic surfactants in oil sands tailings pond water and the CYP1A1 isoform, the isoform generally associated with most xenobiotic transformation in fish, responding to {beta}-naphthoflavone.

  5. Wind-Eroded Crater Floors and Intercrater Plains, Terra Sabaea, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Wray, James J.; Mest, Scott C.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2018-02-01

    Ancient impact craters with wind-eroded layering on their floors provide a record of resurfacing materials and processes on early Mars. In a 54 km Noachian crater in Terra Sabaea (20.2°S, 42.6°E), eolian deflation of a friable, dark-toned layer up to tens of meters thick has exposed more resistant, underlying light-toned material. These layers differ significantly from strata of similar tone described in other regions of Mars. The light-toned material has no apparent internal stratification, and visible/near-infrared spectral analysis suggests that it is rich in feldspar. Its origin is ambiguous, as we cannot confidently reject igneous, pyroclastic, or clastic alternatives. The overlying dark-toned layer is probably a basaltic siltstone or sandstone that was emplaced mostly by wind, although its weak cementation and inverted fluvial paleochannels indicate some modification by water. Negative-relief channels are not found on the crater floor, and fluvial erosion is otherwise weakly expressed in the study area. Small impacts onto this crater's floor have exposed deeper friable materials that appear to contain goethite. Bedrock outcrops on the crater walls are phyllosilicate bearing. The intercrater plains contain remnants of a post-Noachian thin, widespread, likely eolian mantle with an indurated surface. Plains near Hellas-concentric escarpments to the north are more consistent with volcanic resurfacing. A 48 km crater nearby contains similar dark-over-light outcrops but no paleochannels. Our findings indicate that dark-over-light stratigraphy has diverse origins across Mars and that some dark-toned plains with mafic mineralogy are not of igneous origin.

  6. Comparative study of soil erodibility and critical shear stress between loess and purple soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Hang; Huang, Yu-han; Chen, Xiao-yan; Luo, Bang-lin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2018-03-01

    Loess and purple soils are two very important cultivated soils, with the former in the loess region and the latter in southern sub-tropical region of China, featured with high-risks of erosion, considerable differences of soil structures due to differences in mineral and nutrient compositions. Study on soil erodibility (Kr) and critical shear stress (τc) of these two soils is beneficial to predict soil erosion with such models as WEPP. In this study, rill erosion experimental data sets of the two soils are used for estimating their Kr and τc before they are compared to understand their differences of rill erosion behaviors. The maximum detachment rates of the loess and purple soils are calculated under different hydrodynamic conditions (flow rates: 2, 4, 8 L/min; slope gradients: 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) through analytical and numerical methods respectively. Analytical method used the derivative of the function between sediment concentration and rill length to estimate potential detachment rates, at the rill beginning. Numerical method estimated potential detachment rates with the experimental data, at the rill beginning and 0.5 m location. The Kr and τc of these two soils are determined by the linear equation based on experimental data. Results show that the methods could well estimate the Kr and τc of these two soils as they remain basically unchanged under different hydrodynamic conditions. The Kr value of loess soil is about twice of the purple soil, whereas the τc is about half of that. The numerical results have good correlations with the analytical values. These results can be useful in modeling rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils.

  7. Temporal shift of sea turtle nest sites in an eroding barrier island beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2018-01-01

    Shoreline changes affect functionality of a sandy beach as a wildlife habitat and coastal erosion is among the primary causes of the changes. We examined temporal shifts in locations where loggerheads placed nests in relation to coastal erosion along a barrier island beach in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We first confirmed consistency in long-term (1855–2001), short-term (1976–2001), and more recent (2002–2012) shoreline change rates in two adjacent beach sections, one historically eroding (west beach) and the other accreting (east beach). The mean annual shoreline change rate in the two sections was significantly different in all time periods. The recent (1998–2012) mean change rate was −10.9 ± 9.9 m/year in the west beach and −2.8 ± 4.9 m/year in the east beach, which resulted in the loss of about 70% and 30% of area in the west and east beaches, respectively. Loggerheads nested significantly closer to the vegetation line in 2012 than in 2002 in the west beach but the difference between the two time periods was not significant in the east beach. However, the distance from nests to the vegetation line from 2002 to 2014 was significantly reduced annually in both beaches; on average, loggerheads nested closer to the vegetation line by 9 m/year in the west beach and 5.8 m/year in the east beach. The observed shoreline change rate and corresponding shift of nest placement sites, combined with the forecasted future beach loss, highlighted the importance of addressing the issue of beach erosion to conserve sandy beach habitats.

  8. Restoration of eroded soil in the Sonoran Desert with native leguminous trees using plant growth-promoting microorganisms and limited amounts of compost and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Yoav; Salazar, Bernardo G; Moreno, Manuel; Lopez, Blanca R; Linderman, Robert G

    2012-07-15

    Restoration of highly eroded desert land was attempted in the southern Sonoran Desert that had lost its natural capacity for self-revegetation. In six field experiments, the fields were planted with three native leguminous trees: mesquite amargo Prosopis articulata, and yellow and blue palo verde Parkinsonia microphylla and Parkinsonia florida. Restoration included inoculation with two of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and small quantities of compost. Irrigation was applied, when necessary, to reach a rainy year (300 mm) of the area. The plots were maintained for 61 months. Survival of the trees was marginally affected by all supplements after 30 months, in the range of 60-90%. This variation depended on the plant species, where all young trees were established after 3 months. Plant density was a crucial variable and, in general, low plant density enhanced survival. High planting density was detrimental. Survival significantly declined in trees 61 months after planting. No general response of the trees to plant growth-promoting microorganisms and compost was found. Mesquite amargo and yellow palo verde responded well (height, number of branches, and diameter of the main stem) to inoculation with PGPB, AM fungi, and compost supplementation after three months of application. Fewer positive effects were recorded after 30 months. Blue palo verde did not respond to most treatments and had the lowest survival. Specific plant growth parameters were affected to varying degrees to inoculations or amendments, primarily depending on the tree species. Some combinations of tree/inoculant/amendment resulted in small negative effects or no response when measured after extended periods of time. Using native leguminous trees, this study demonstrated that restoration of severely eroded desert lands was possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simulating dam-break over an erodible embankment using SWE-Exner model and semi-implicit staggered scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambara, M. D.; Gunawan, P. H.

    2018-03-01

    The impact of a dam-break wave on an erodible embankment with a steep slope has been studied recently using both experimental and numerical approaches. In this paper, the semi-implicit staggered scheme for approximating the shallow water-Exner model will be elaborated to describe the erodible sediment on a steep slope. This scheme is known as a robust scheme to approximate shallow water-Exner model. The results are shown in a good agreement with the experimental data. The comparisons of numerical results with data experiment using slopes Φ = 59.04 and Φ = 41.42 by coefficient of Grass formula Ag = 2 × 10‑5 and Ag = 10‑5 respectively are found the closest results to the experiment. This paper can be seen as the additional validation of semi-implicit staggered scheme in the paper of Gunawan, et al (2015).

  10. The function tests of ignitor electrode system and determination of the eroded mass of the ignitor cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lely Susita R M; Sudjatmoko; Bambang Siswanto; Agus Purwadi; Ihwanul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Ignitor electrode systems which serves to initiate plasma discharge consists of two ignitor electrodes equipped with a unit of ignitor discharge power supply. Ignitor electrode system consists of a cathode, an anode and an insulator between the cathode and the anode. Ignitor discharge power supply system has a 10 kV voltage specification and energy of 100 mJ, the voltage flowing through the anode and the insulator will form plasma spot on the surface of the cathode. Discharge currents that flow to the cathode becomes larger, then the resulting plasma spot also becomes larger so eroded cathode material becomes greater. In this study the ignitor electrode system function test was done, and the results of function test it can determine the mass and the particle size of the ignitor cathode material eroded which can be correlated to the age of the cathode due to the loss of material at the surface of the cathode after forming plasma spot. On the function and performance tests of the plasma cathode electron source were obtained the electron beam current of 34.3 A with a pulse width of 136 μs, for the plasma spot current of 10.58 A with a pulse width of 39 μs. The specification of cathode used in the ignitor electrode system is as follow: magnesium cathode materials in the form of a cylinder having a diameter of 6 mm and length of 20 mm. For repetition frequency of plasma spot of 10 Hz, cathode material will be eroded and diminished throughout of 17.64 μm, while the cathode material eroded to form a cone, then the cathode material will be reduced along 26.46 μm for a 5 hours of testing time of plasma cathode electron source. Form the erosion of the cathode materials is influenced by the current of plasma spot, pulse width and the vacuum of the plasma vessel. (author)

  11. ASSESSMENT SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL ERODIBILITY BY USING OF GEOSTATISTIC AND GIS (Case study MEHR watershed of SABZEVAR)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoubi, S.A; M. H. Alizadeh

    2005-01-01

    Soil erodibility is one of the key factors on some sediment and soil erosion models such as USLE, MUSLE, RUSLE, AUSLE (USLE modified in LS factor) and MMF and represents like K factor and is function of particle distribution, organic mater, soil structure and ermeability. Traditional methods do not take spatial variability and estimate precision of variables in to consideration and amount of them are constant across the whole of soil series .This study was performed to assess spatial variabil...

  12. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velando, Alberto; Munilla, Ignacio; Lopez-Alonso, Marta; Freire, Juan; Perez, Cristobal

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  13. EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velando, Alberto, E-mail: avelando@uvigo.e [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Munilla, Ignacio [Departamento de Botanica, Facultade de Farmacia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez-Alonso, Marta [Departamento de Patoloxia Animal, Facultade de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain); Freire, Juan [Grupo de Recursos Marinos y Pesquerias Universidade da Coruna, A Coruna (Spain); Perez, Cristobal [Departamento de Ecoloxia e Bioloxia Animal, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we measured via surgical sampling hepatic EROD activity in yellow-legged gulls from oiled and unoiled colonies, 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. We also analyzed stable isotope composition in feathers of the biopsied gulls, in an attempt to monitor oil incorporation into marine food web. We found that yellow-legged gulls in oiled colonies were being exposed to remnant oil as shown by hepatic EROD activity levels. EROD activity was related to feeding habits of individual gulls with apparent consequences on delayed lethality. Capture-recapture analysis of biopsied gulls suggests that the surgery technique did not affect gull survival, giving support to this technique as a monitoring tool for oil exposure assessment. Our study highlights the combination of different veterinary, toxicological and ecological methodologies as a useful approach for the monitoring of exposure to remnant oil after a large oil spill. - Two years after Prestige oil spill, seabirds were exposed to remnant oil related to their feeding habits with consequences on delayed lethality.

  14. Effects of land conversion from native shrub to pistachio orchard on soil erodibility in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Gundogan, Recep; Dindaroglu, Turgay; Kara, Zekeriya

    2017-10-29

    Land-use change through degrading natural vegetation for agricultural production adversely affects many of soil properties particularly organic carbon content of soils. The native shrub land and grassland of Gaziantep-Adiyaman plateau that is an important pistachio growing eco-region have been cleared to convert into pistachio orchard for the last 50 to 60 years. In this study, the effects of conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural uses on soil erodibility have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from surface of agricultural fields and adjacent natural vegetation areas, and samples were analyzed for some soil erodibility indices such as dispersion ratio (DR), erosion ratio (ER), structural stability index (SSI), Henin's instability index (I s ), and aggregate size distribution after wet sieving (AggSD). According to the statistical evaluation, these two areas were found as different from each other in terms of erosion indices except for I s index (P agriculture were found different in terms of AggSD in all aggregate size groups. As a contrary to expectations, correlation tests showed that there were no any interaction between soil organic carbon and measured erodibility indices in two areas. In addition, significant relationships were determined between measured variables and soil textural fractions as statistical. These obtaining findings were attributed to changing of textural component distribution and initial aggregate size distribution results from land-use change in the study area. Study results were explained about hierarchical aggregate formation mechanism.

  15. The evolution of stream coupled hillslopes by bedrock landsliding in a rapidly eroding mountain belt, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenske, Dirk; Jen, Chia-Hung; Böse, Margot; Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2010-05-01

    Being affected frequently by violent weather condition such as typhoons and regular seismic activity, the high mountains of Taiwan belong to the earth's most dynamic landscapes. In the fast-eroding mountain belt of Taiwan, hillslopes and valley systems have been reported to show a high level of coupling (Hovius et al. 2000). In the catchment of the Tachia river numerous bedrock landslides occur frequently as a result of seismic events and typhoons (Lin et al. 2006). This study attempts to take a closer look at the temporal and spatial pattern of hillslope evolution at two study sites in the upper catchement of the Tachia river. Therefore we have carried out a repeated field surveying of active slopes by means of traditional survey instruments and terrestrial laser scanning from early 2008 until late 2009 on a half year basis. Additionally, a set of aerial photos and satellite images from 1969, 1980,2001, 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009 is used to assess the long-term and short-term changes of the river channel. Near the town of Huan Shan, the valley bottom shows elevations around 1520 m above sea level and the river is draining and upstream area of 155 km². Downstream of Huan Shan lies the confluence of the Tachia River and two of its tributaries, namely the Nanhu River and the Hehuan River. Therefore, the catchment area upstream of second study area in Sung Mao is considerably larger being of 420 km², in that place, the current level of the channel varies around 1425 m above sea level. In the two study areas strong lateral erosion has been observed. In the case of the Sung Mao study area, the latter is linked to a severe aggradation of sediments in the channel since the building of the Dechi Dam downstream. The active hillslopes have been surveyed and their reaction to the typhoons in 2008 and 2009 is studied. Rates of sediment yield from the slopes have been calculated for three periods between April 2008, November 2008, April 2009 and November 2009. Furthermore, the

  16. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Soil Erodibility (KFFACT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the adjusted soil erodibility factor within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the...

  17. The 2010 Retirement Confidence Survey: confidence stabilizing, but preparations continue to erode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Ruth; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack

    2010-03-01

    20TH ANNUAL RCS: The 2010 Retirement Confidence Survey-the 20th annual wave of this survey-finds that the record-low confidence levels measured during the past two years of economic decline appear to have bottomed out. The percentage of workers veryconfident about having enough money for a comfortable retirement has stabilized at 16 percent, which is statistically equivalent to the 20-year low of 13 percent measured in 2009 (Fig. 1, pg. 7). Retiree confidence about having a financially secure retirement has also stabilized, with 19 percent saying now they are very confident (statistically equivalent to the 20 percent measured in 2009) (Fig. 2, pg. 8). Worker confidence about paying for basic expenses in retirement has rebounded slightly, with 29 percent now saying they are very confident about having enough money to pay for basic expenses during retirement (up from 25 percent in 2009, but still down from 34 percent in 2008) (Fig. 3, pg. 9). PREPARATIONS STILL ERODING: Fewer workers report that they and/or their spouse have saved for retirement (69 percent, down from 75 percent in 2009 but statistically equivalent to 72 percent in 2008) (Fig. 11, page 14). Moreover, fewer workers say that they and/or their spouse are currently saving for retirement (60 percent, down from 65 percent in 2009 but statistically equivalent to percentages measured in other years) (Fig. 13, pg. 15). MORE PEOPLE HAVE NO SAVINGS AT ALL: An increased percentage of workers report they have virtually no savings and investments. Among RCS workers providing this type of information, 27 percent say they have less than $1,000 in savings (up from 20 percent in 2009). In total, more than half of workers (54 percent) report that the total value of their household's savings and investments, excluding the value of their primary home and any defined benefit plans, is less than $25,000 (Fig. 14, pg. 16). CLUELESS ABOUT SAVINGS GOALS: Many workers continue to be unaware of how much they need to save for

  18. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  19. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  20. The concentrations of heavy metals and the incidence of micronucleated erythrocytes and liver EROD activity in two edible-fish from the Paraíba do Sul river basin in Brazil | Concentração de metais pesados e incidência de eritrócitos micronucleados e atividade de EROD hepática em duas espécies de peixes comestíveis na bacia do Rio Paraíba do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Estevam Martins Parente

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paraíba do Sul river (PSR basin crosses one of the most populated and industrialized regions of Brazil and receives effluent from the metallurgic, paper mill and agricultural industries. PSR water has multiple uses, including being a supply of potable water and riverine populations which consume some species of its fish. In the present study, we investigated the responses of two biomarkers of aquatic pollution, EROD activity in the liver and micronuclei frequency in peripheral blood, as well as the concentrations of seven heavy metals in the muscle tissue of two species of fish native to the PSR: Geophagus brasiliensis and Hypostomus sp. Sampling was performed in both the wet and dry seasons of 2003, with a total of 339 fish collected from 16 sites along the PSR basin. Fish collected at Levy Gasparian, Barra Mansa and Três Rios both had higher EROD activity and micronuclei frequency. The results also suggested a moderate induction of EROD activity in fish collected from S.L. Paraitinga and Sapucaia. Micronuclei frequency was elevated in fish from S.J. Campos, Além Paraíba, Campos and S.J. Barra. In all cases, heavy metal concentrations did not exceed the maximum considered safe for fish meat consumption. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A bacia do rio Paraíba do Sul (PSR atravessa uma das regiões mais povoadas e industrializadas do Brasil, recebendo efluentes de indústrias metalúrgicas, de papel e celulose e agrícolas. Os usos das águas do PSR são múltiplos, incluem o fornecimento de água potável, e as populações ribeirinhas consomem algumas de suas espécies de peixes. No presente trabalho foram investigadas as respostas de dois biomarcadores à poluição, a atividade hepática de EROD e a freqüência de micronúcleo em sangue periférico, e medidos os níveis de sete metais pesados no músculo de duas espécies de peixes nativas do PSR, Geophagus brasiliensis and

  1. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  2. Long-Term Bond Strength of Self-Etch Adhesives to Normal and Artificially Eroded Dentin: Effect of Relative Humidity and Saliva Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Fabienne; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of relative humidity and saliva contamination on short- and long-term bond strength of two self-etch adhesives to normal and artificially eroded dentin. A total of 480 dentin specimens were produced from extracted human molars. Half of the specimens (n = 240) were left untreated (normal dentin) whereas the other half (n = 240) were artificially eroded. The specimens were treated with Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) or Scotchbond Universal (SBU), and composite (Filtek Z250) was applied to the treated dentin surface under four experimental conditions: at a relative humidity of 45% or 85% without/with human saliva contamination. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured after storage for 24 h (100% humidity; 37°C) or 1 year (tap water; 37°C). SBS results were statistically analyzed with a nonparametric ANOVA followed by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests (significance level: α = 0.05). SBS was significantly influenced by the dentin substrate (normal or artificially eroded dentin) and adhesive (p  CSE on normal dentin (19.2) > SBU on artificially eroded dentin (17.1) > CSE on artificially eroded dentin (10.9). On normal dentin, the two self-etch adhesives showed stable bond strength over time even under adverse conditions such as high relative humidity and saliva contamination. However, erosively altered dentin had a detrimental effect on the bond strength of both the adhesives investigated.

  3. Lightweight High Temperature Non-Eroding Throat Materials for Propulsion Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation or passively cooled thrust chambers are used for a variety of chemical propulsion functions including apogee insertion, reaction control for launch...

  4. Effects of in vivo chronic exposure to pendimethalin on EROD activity and antioxidant defenses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lamour, François; Quentel, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Pendimethalin, an herbicide active substance frequently used in terrestrial systems, has detected in European aquatic ecosystems. Reliable indicators still need to be found in order to properly assess the impact of pesticides in fish. After an in vivo chronic exposure to pendimethalin, the detoxification process and the antioxidant defense system were assessed in 120 adult rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Four nominal exposure conditions were tested: control (C), 500 ng L(-1) (P500), 800 ng L(-1) (P800) and the commercial formulation Prowl(®) at 500 ng L(-1) (Pw500). Fish samples were made after a 28 day exposure period (D28) and after a fifteen day recovery period in clean fresh water (D43). At D28, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was not activated in liver in spite of the pendimethalin uptake in fish. At D43, EROD activity in fish exposed to the commercial product was lower than in control fish, which may be explained by the high presence of herbicide in fish (613±163 ng g bile(-1)). Furthermore, antioxidant defense responses were set up by trout in gills and liver following chronic exposure to 800 ng L(-1) of pendimethalin concentration. While the glutathione content (GSH) decreased in gills, it increased in liver associated with higher activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). These disturbances could lead to reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress in the vital organs in fish. After fifteen days in clean water, while the SOD activity was restored, the GSH content and GPx activity were still significantly disturbed in fish exposed to pendimethalin in comparison with control. These significant differences between treatments in antioxidant defenses parameters measured, attesting to the irreversibility of the effects. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Microbiology of Wind-eroded Sediments: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a threat to the sustainability and productivity of soils that takes place at local, regional, and global scales. Current estimates of cost of wind erosion have not included the costs associated with the loss of soil biodiversity and reduced ecosystem functions. Microorganisms carrie...

  6. Sex-ratio control erodes sexual selection, revealing evolutionary feedback from adaptive plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Kuijper, Bram; Weissing, Franz J.; Pen, Ido

    2011-01-01

    Female choice is a powerful selective force, driving the elaboration of conspicuous male ornaments. This process of sexual selection has profound implications for many life-history decisions, including sex allocation. For example, females with attractive partners should produce more sons, because

  7. Potential of surface-eroding poly(ethylene carbonate) for drug delivery to macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Water, Jorrit J; Wang, Yingya

    2016-01-01

    Films composed of poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), a biodegradable polymer, were compared with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films loaded with and without the tuberculosis drug rifampicin to study the characteristics and performance of PEC as a potential carrier for controlled drug delivery...... surface erosion (by cholesterol esterase). Drug release studies performed with polymer films indicated a diffusion/erosion dependent delivery behavior for PLGA while an almost zero-order drug release profile was observed from PEC due to the controlled polymer degradation process. When exposed to polymer...... for controlled drug release and could provide superior performance to PLGA for some drug delivery applications including the treatment of macrophage infections....

  8. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  9. The effects of Herba Andrographitis hedgerows on soil erodibility and fractal features on sloping cropland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; He, Binghui; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ma, Yun; Xi, Weimin

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate if hedgerows could improve the soil physicochemical properties and enhance the soil anti-scouring and anti-shearing capabilities, the effects of Herba Andrographitis hedgerows on soil erodibility and fractal features on sloping cropland in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were investigated. Results showed that: (1) the clay particle accumulation around the hedgerows was significantly affected by the hedgerows; (2) the fractal dimension of soil particles was positively correlated with both silt and clay contents and had a negative linear correlation with sand content; (3) fine-grained content significantly influenced fractal dimension of the soil particles; (4) soil erodibility K was significantly and positively correlated with the sand content (correlation coefficient r=0.870), but significantly and negatively correlated with the silt content (r=-0.538), clay content (r=-0.739), organic carbon content (r=-0.603), the aggregation degree (r=-0.486), and soil fractal dimension (r=-0.538); and (5) the contents of organic matter and clay particles in the soil were found to be the effective indicators for soil erodibility at the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The hedgerows may improve soil fractal features and decrease soil erodibility. The effective distance between hedgerows on a slope of 10° was less than 6 m.

  10. Erodibility of Titan ice bedrock constrained by laboratory measurements of ice strength and erosion by sediment impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, L. S.; Collins, G. C.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.; Zygielbaum, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's moon Titan has a remarkably earth-like surface morphology, with branching fluvial networks draining elevated terrain. A paucity of impact craters suggests fluvial dissection is active and that the pace of landscape evolution is rapid. A key limitation on modeling rates of incision by Titan's rivers of liquid methane has been a lack of information on the erodibility of water-ice bedrock at ultra-cold temperatures. Here we report results from laboratory measurements of ice resistance to tensile fracture and rates of erosion of Titan bedrock analogs by low-velocity sediment impacts. We apply these experimental results to modeling fluvial incision, and explore constraints on rates and frequency of channel cutting on Titan. We made test samples of polycrystalline ice with a narrow and wide size distribution of seed ice grains. For some samples we added solid impurities composed of basalt, urea, and ammonium-sulfate, to account for the possibility that Titan's ice bedrock also contains silicates from meteors, organic polymers derived from Titan's atmosphere, and ammonia-based compounds formed by cryovolcanism. The experiments were conducted in a walk-in freezer and environmental chamber, where we varied temperature between 260 and 110 K using dry ice and liquid nitrogen (LN). For terrestrial rocks, resistance to erosion by sediment impacts depends on the kinetic energy required to detach a unit volume, which has been shown to scale with the square of tensile strength. We measured the tensile strength of Titan bedrock analogs using the Brazilian splitting test and found that strength increases with decreasing temperature at 7 kPa/K, for all ice types tested. Ice at Titan temperatures is thus roughly twice as strong as at terrestrial conditions; ice is strengthened by increasing impurity concentrations, finer grain-size distributions, and lower porosity. To replicate erosion of ice bedrock by bedload sediment impacts, we filled a 55-gallon drum with various ice

  11. Hydrodynamic effects of eroded materials on response of plasma-facing component during a tokamak disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of plasma confinement causes surface and structural damage to plasma-facing materials (PFMs) and remains a major obstacle for tokamak reactors. The deposited plasma energy results in surface erosion and structural failure. The surface erosion consists of vaporization, spallation, and liquid splatter of metallic materials, while the structural damage includes large temperature increases in structural materials and at the interfaces between surface coatings and structural members. Comprehensive models (contained in the HEIGHTS computer simulation package) are being used self-consistently to evaluate material damage. Splashing mechanisms occur as a result of volume bubble boiling and liquid hydrodynamic instabilities and brittle destruction mechanisms of nonmelting materials. The effect of macroscopic erosion on total mass losses and lifetime is evaluated. The macroscopic erosion products may further protect PFMs from severe erosion (via the droplet-shielding effect) in a manner similar to that of the vapor shielding concept

  12. Efficacy of different strategies to treat root dentin eroded by liquid or gaseous hydrochloric acid associated with brushing abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraoni, Juliana Jendiroba; Torres Toro, Carmen Victoria; de Matos, Laís Lopes Machado; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate how casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) associated with Nd:YAG or Diode laser affects dentin exposed to hydrochloric acid (HCl) with or without tooth brushing. One hundred and sixty human root dentin blocks were selected after they were initially eroded with liquid HCl (pH 1.2) 3x for one day. The blocks were divided into the following groups: G1- liquid HCl (HCl-l), G2- HCl-l + brushing, G3- gaseous HCl (HCl-g), and G4- HCl-g + brushing. Each group was randomly assigned to the following treatments (n = 10): A) Control (no treatment), B) CPP-ACP, C) CPP-ACP associated with Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) (40 mJ, 10 Hz, 0.4 W, 15 s), and D) CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (λ = 980 nm) (0.5 W, 200 μs, 15 s). The treatment with CPP-ACP (G2, G3 and G4) was applied on the dentine surface for 5 min. Erosion (6x/day/20 s) and erosion (6x/day/20 s) with abrasion (2x/10 s) were performed for five days. Dentin volume loss was determined by 3D confocal laser microscopy. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. G1 - CPP-ACP (10.77 ± 1.66) and CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (9.98 ± 0.89) showed lower volume loss in relation Control group (12.86 ± 0.63) (p < 0.05). G2 - CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser (12.41 ± 1.08) elicited lower volume loss as compared to the Control (14.42 ± 1.24) (p < 0.05). As for G3 and G4, all treatments showed similar volume loss. CPP-ACP and CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser could control dental tissue loss in dentin eroded by liquid HCl. Moreover, CPP-ACP associated with Diode laser could effectively decrease dental tissue loss in dentin exposed to liquid HCl and brushing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  14. Fully Coupled Aero-Thermochemical-Elastic Simulations of an Eroding Graphite Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, E. L.; Reveles, N. D.; Nucci, M.; Maclean, M.

    2017-01-01

    A multiphysics simulation capability has been developed that incorporates mutual interactions between aerodynamics, structural response from aero/thermal loading, ablation/pyrolysis, heating, and surface-to-surface radiation to perform high-fidelity, fully coupled aerothermoelastic ablation simulations, which to date had been unattainable. The multiphysics framework couples CHAR (a 3-D implicit charring ablator solver), Loci/CHEM (a computational fluid dynamics solver for high-speed chemically reacting flows), and Abaqus (a nonlinear structural dynamics solver) to create a fully coupled aerothermoelastic charring ablative solver. The solvers are tightly coupled in a fully integrated fashion to resolve the effects of the ablation pyrolysis and charring process and chemistry products upon the flow field, the changes in surface geometry due to recession upon the flow field, and thermal-structural analysis of the body from the induced aerodynamic heating from the flow field. The multiphysics framework was successfully demonstrated on a solid rocket motor graphite nozzle erosion application. Comparisons were made with available experimental data that measured the throat erosion during the motor firing. The erosion data is well characterized, as the test rig was equipped with a windowed nozzle section for real-time X-ray radiography diagnostics of the instantaneous throat variations for deducing the instantaneous erosion rates. The nozzle initially undergoes a nozzle contraction due to thermal expansion before ablation effects are able to widen the throat. A series of parameters studies were conducted using the coupled simulation capability to determine the sensitivity of the nozzle erosion to different parameters. The parameter studies included the shape of the nozzle throat (flat versus rounded), the material properties, the effect of the choice of turbulence model, and the inclusion or exclusion of the mechanical thermal expansion. Overall, the predicted results match

  15. Sampling network stratification by terrain classification in eroded agricultural landscapes at plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penížek, Vít; Zádorová, Tereza; Kodešová, Radka

    2015-04-01

    The description of soil properties variability is important aspect in land management and food production at plot scale. We describe novelty approach for design of sampling network on agricultural plots with high relief variability. The terrain properties were used for improved spatial prediction of soil properties including design of the sampling network. Regular sampling network, random sampling network, systematic unaligned sampling network and stratified sampling network schemes were compared to prove the advantages of relief based stratified sampling networks. The study was performed for humus horizon depth prediction on agriculture plot of 6.5 ha with dissected relief where originally homogenous soil cover was differentiated by erosion and sedimentation into mosaic of Chernozem, Regosol and colluvial soils. Moreover the comparison was done on three levels of sampling density (65, 40 and 24 sampling points). The stratification of sampling network was based on unsupervised relief classification. The performance of the soil properties prediction based on different sampling network was assesed by RMSE calculation based on predicted values versus validation dataset. According the RMSE, the stratified sampling network performed the best (7.4 cm) comparing the regular sampling network (10.8 cm), random sampling network (17.7 cm) and systematic unaligned sampling network (11.2 cm). The accuracy of the soil properties spatial prediction decreased with the decreasing number of sampling points, but the stratified network performed significantly better that other used methods. The study showed that, for soil properties spatial variability description at certain accuracy level, relief-based stratified network can contain 25 % less sampling points comparing to regular network. This leads to potential financial and person cost reduction for the soil survey. The study was supported by grant nr. 13-07516P of the Czech science foundation and by grant nr. QJ1230319 of the

  16. Housing development erodes avian community structure in U.S. protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric M; Pidgeon, Anna M; Radeloff, Volker C.; Helmers, David; Culbert, Patrick D; Keuler, Nicholas S; Flather, Curtis H

    Protected areas are a cornerstone for biodiversity conservation, but they also provide amenities that attract housing development on inholdings and adjacent private lands. We explored how this development affects biodiversity within and near protected areas among six ecological regions throughout the United States. We quantified the effect of housing density within, at the boundary, and outside protected areas, and natural land cover within protected areas, on the proportional abundance and proportional richness of three avian guilds within protected areas. We developed three guilds from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, which included Species of Greatest Conservation Need, land cover affiliates (e.g., forest breeders), and synanthropic species associated with urban environments. We gathered housing density data for the year 2000 from the U.S. Census Bureau, and centered the bird data on this year. We obtained land cover data from the 2001 National Land Cover Database, and we used single- and multiple-variable analyses to address our research question. In all regions, housing density within protected areas was positively associated with the proportional abundance or proportional richness of synanthropes, and negatively associated with the proportional abundance or proportional richness of Species of Greatest Conservation Need. These relationships were strongest in the eastern forested regions and the central grasslands, where more than 70% and 45%, respectively, of the variation in the proportional abundance of synanthropes and Species of Greatest Conservation Need were explained by housing within protected areas. Furthermore, in most regions, housing density outside protected areas was positively associated with the proportional abundance or proportional richness of synanthropes and negatively associated with the proportional abundance of land cover affiliates and Species of Greatest Conservation Need within protected areas. However, these effects were

  17. Influence of toothbrushing on enamel softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel: an in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Machado, Maria Aparecida De Andrade Moreira; da Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the surface softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel with or without the influence of toothbrushing. Five volunteers took part in this in situ study of 5 days. They wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 6 bovine enamel blocks divided in two rows with 3 blocks, which corresponded to the studied groups: erosion without toothbrushing (GI) and erosion with toothbrushing (GII). The blocks were subjected to erosion by immersion of the appliances in a cola drink for 10 minutes, 4 times a day. After that, no treatment was performed in one row (GI), whereas the other row was brushed (GII). The appliance was then replaced into the mouth. Enamel alterations were determined using profilometry and microhardness tests. Data were tested using paired Students t test (p wear values (microm) and percentage of superficial microhardness change (%SMHC) were respectively: GI--2.77 +/- 1.21/91.61 +/- 3.68 and GII--3.80 +/- 0.91/58.77 +/- 11.47. There was a significant difference in wear (p = 0.001) and %SMHC (p = 0.001) between the groups. It was concluded that the wear was more pronounced when associated to toothbrushing abrasion. However, toothbrushing promoted less %SMHC due to the removal of the altered superficial enamel layer.

  18. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.

  19. Flow and transport through a damaged buffer - exploration of the impact of a cemented and an eroded buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, Ivars

    2006-12-01

    The compacted bentonite buffer that surrounds the canister with spent fuel is designed not to allow water to flow through it in any appreciable quantities. Should the buffer be severely damaged water could flow to the canister and bring with it corrosive agent such as sulphide. This could speed up the rate of copper corrosion. Should the canister have a damage or be corroded so that the spent fuel inside the canister comes in contact with the water radionuclides could dissolve in the water and be carried away. Two modes of canister damage and their consequences for solute transport are explored in this report. In one case the buffer can potentially be eroded by the water seeping in the fractures in the surrounding rock and attain a high hydraulic conductivity allowing water to flow through it, at least locally. In another case it is conjectured that the buffer is cemented and becomes brittle. Then a crack could conceivably form in the cemented buffer allowing water to flow through it directly to the canister surface. Both cases are hypothetical although in the erosion case the erosion rate could possibly be quantified. The cases studied are to be seen as exploratory calculations for 'what if' cases. Some worst case assumptions have been used to explore bounding scenarios. Thus for the erosion case it is assumed that the hydraulic conductivity is so high that the buffer exerts negligible resistance to water flow. This implies that all the water that can flow through the fractures intersecting the deposition hole can reach the canister. Similarly for the cemented buffer case it is assumed that the crack in the buffer directly connects the rock fracture to the canister surface. For these circumstances it is found that the flowrate that can enter the deposition hole will be approximately two times as large as the water flow that would pass a projected area equal to that of the deposition hole. Thus if the flux in the rock some distance from the deposition hole is 1

  20. Influence of Bristle Stiffness of Manual Toothbrushes on Eroded and Sound Human Dentin – An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Wolfgang H.; Domin, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the influence of manual toothbrushes with different bristle stiffness on the abrasivity on eroded and sound human dentin. Materials and Methods Dentin specimens were made from impacted third molars and attributed to three groups: erosion-abrasion (EA), abrasion (A) and erosion (E). The specimens from EA and E were treated with 1% citric acid (pH 2.3) for 1 min rinsed, and neutralized with artificial saliva for 15 min. This cycle was repeated five times. Thereafter, specimens from EA and A were treated with three toothbrushes types with different bristle stiffness (soft, medium, and hard) in a custom-made toothbrushing machine. The brushing was performed at a load of 3 N with a toothpaste slurry for 630 s. This procedure was repeated five times, in group EA after each erosion cycle. EA and A groups passed through five cycles with a total of 6300 strokes. The abrasivity was analyzed by contact-free profilometry. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed for statistical analysis. Results With respect to bristle stiffness there was no statistically significant difference in dentin loss within the EA group. In group A, a statistically significantly higher dentin loss was found for the soft in comparison to the hard bristles. No statistically significant differences were measured between soft/medium and medium/hard toothbrushes. The amount of dentin loss from specimens in the EA group was significantly higher than in the A group. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the dentin loss in the Abrasion group was higher with soft bristles than with hard ones. This result might have an influence on the toothbrush recommendations for patients with non-carious cervical lesions. PMID:27070901

  1. Influence of Bristle Stiffness of Manual Toothbrushes on Eroded and Sound Human Dentin--An In Vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Bizhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of manual toothbrushes with different bristle stiffness on the abrasivity on eroded and sound human dentin.Dentin specimens were made from impacted third molars and attributed to three groups: erosion-abrasion (EA, abrasion (A and erosion (E. The specimens from EA and E were treated with 1% citric acid (pH 2.3 for 1 min rinsed, and neutralized with artificial saliva for 15 min. This cycle was repeated five times. Thereafter, specimens from EA and A were treated with three toothbrushes types with different bristle stiffness (soft, medium, and hard in a custom-made toothbrushing machine. The brushing was performed at a load of 3 N with a toothpaste slurry for 630 s. This procedure was repeated five times, in group EA after each erosion cycle. EA and A groups passed through five cycles with a total of 6300 strokes. The abrasivity was analyzed by contact-free profilometry. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were performed for statistical analysis.With respect to bristle stiffness there was no statistically significant difference in dentin loss within the EA group. In group A, a statistically significantly higher dentin loss was found for the soft in comparison to the hard bristles. No statistically significant differences were measured between soft/medium and medium/hard toothbrushes. The amount of dentin loss from specimens in the EA group was significantly higher than in the A group.Within the limitations of this study, the dentin loss in the Abrasion group was higher with soft bristles than with hard ones. This result might have an influence on the toothbrush recommendations for patients with non-carious cervical lesions.

  2. Topography reconstruction of eroding landscapes - A case study from a hummocky ground moraine (CarboZALF-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, W. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Wallinga, J.; Hierold, W.; Sommer, M.

    2017-10-01

    Erosion processes, aggravated by human activity, have a large impact on the spatial variation of soil and topographic properties. Knowledge of the topography prior to human-induced erosion (paleotopography) in naturally stable landscapes is valuable for identifying vulnerable landscape positions and is required as starting point for erosion modelling exercises. However, developing accurate reconstructions of paleotopography provide a major challenge for geomorphologists. Here, we present a set of paleotopographies for a closed kettle hole catchment in north-east Germany (4 ha), obtained through different reconstruction approaches. Current soil and colluvium thickness, estimated from a dataset of 264 soil descriptions using Ordinary Kriging, were used as input for a mass balance, or were compared with a set of undisturbed soil thicknesses to estimate the amount of erosion. The performance of the different approaches was assessed with cross-validation and the count of mispredicted eroded, depositional or stable landscape positions. The paleotopographic reconstruction approach based on the average thickness of undisturbed soils in the study area showed the best performance. This thickness (1.00 m) is comparable to the average undisturbed soil thickness in the region and in line with global correlations of soil thickness as a function of rainfall and initial CaCO3 content. The performance of the different approaches depended more on mispredictions of landscape position due to the assumption of a spatially constant initial soil depth than on small variations in this depth. To conclude, we mention several methodological and practical points of attention for future topography reconstruction studies, concerning data quality and availability, spatial configuration of data and other processes affecting topography.

  3. A Study on Employee Perception Towards Effectiveness And Impact Of Environment Management System At Tamil Nadu Cooperative Textile Processing Mill Ltd., Erode

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan,, K; Panimalar, M

    2013-01-01

    The study attempt to investigate on An Employee Perception towards Effectiveness and impact of Environment Management System is the process of system of procedures, training, and methods to monitor an organizations impact on the environment and evaluate ways to minimize negative impacts on the environment.This study was conducted at the Tamilnadu textile processing mill society Ltd, erode This environment management system bring the environment clean and protective, it helps organizations tak...

  4. Proposição de modelos para estimativa da erodibilidade de latossolos brasileiros Proposition of models for erodibility estimation of brazilian oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Leandro Naves Silva

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos existentes para determinação indireta da erodibilidade não têm se mostrado adequados quando aplicados aos solos tropicais, particularmente no tocante aos latossolos brasileiros. Sendo assim, objetivou-se, com este estudo, desenvolver modelos para a estimativa da erodibilidade desse grupamento de solos, a partir de variáveis morfológicas, físicas, químicas e mineralógicas do solo. Foram feitas em 19 latossolos das várias regiões geográficas brasileiras, 129 determinações (variáveis independentes, cujos resultados foram submetidos à análise de regressão linear múltipla em "backward" utilizando o programa SAS, relacionando-se com a erodibilidade obtida diretamente no campo através de parcelas de perdas de solo (variável dependente. Foi possível desenvolver cinco modelos, com graus crescentes de complexidade e precisão para a estimativa da erodibilidade dos latossolos brasileiros, englobando 37 determinações que apresentam significância.The existent methods for indirect determination of erodibility have not been adequate when applied to tropical soils, mainly in relation to Brazilian (Oxisols. So, this study aimed to develop models for determination of erodibility of this soils group, from morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical variables of the soil. In this way, using 19 latosols from the various Brazilian geographical regions, 129 determinations (independent variables were made, whose results were submitted to multiple linear regression analyses in backward using the SAS program, correlating them with the erodibility directly obtained in the field through soil losses plots (dependent variable. It was possible to develop five models, with increasing degrees of complexity and precision, for the estimation of the erodibility of Brazilian latosols, involving 37 determinations that presented significance.

  5. Life-size experimentation of bioengineering for sedimentation control in eroded marly gullies (Francon catchment, Draix, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.; Mathys, N.; Puëch, C.; Jardin, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    On marly eroded terrains of the French Southern Alps, many researches are undertaken in order to better understand the role of vegetation and bioengineering works on erosion and sedimentation control. These researches in particular made it possible to develop tools of ecological engineering bound for the practitioners in order to conceive operations for mitigation of damage related to soil erosion. In particular they are methods of diagnosis and strategies for action with bioengineering techniques. These tools must make it possible to guide the choice of the gullies to be rehabilitated and that of the types of works of vegetalisation to be used, in particular via the establishment and the use of a gully typology. Before passing to phases of real use of these tools through expertise, as this is today considered on the scale of the large catchment area of the Durance in France (4000 km²), it appeared convenient to carry out a life-size test of application of these tools. This test was carried out on the marly catchment of Francon (73 ha), which belongs to the experimental complex of Draix (04), labellized Observatoire of Research in Environment (ORE) and of which the objectives are to improve knowledge on the formation of floods and bedload transport in small mountainous marly catchments. On this basin, 30 gullies, representing a total surface area of approximately 20 ha, were thus identified like "ecologically suitable for rehabilitation", i.e. on which it appeared possible and convenient to install bioengineering works. This test thus made it possible to check the relevance of the tools proposed to apply an action with bioengineering. An ecological operation of rehabilitation of this basin, carried out jointly with the French ‘Office National des Forêts (ONF)', was then carried out in April 2008 in accordance with the test results. It consisted of the construction of 672 bioengineering works, namely of "brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood

  6. Effects of in ovo 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure on hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction and growth-related parameters in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, D.M.; Bellward, G.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1994-12-31

    The effects of early in ovo TCDD exposure on CYP1A1 induction and indices of growth were determined in domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) and pigeon (Columba livia) hatchlings. TCDD (in corn oil) was injected into the air sac of eggs on embryonic day 4 (E4) (chickens, 0.1 {mu}g/kg egg; pigeons, 1.0 {mu}g/kg egg), and on E14 (pigeons, 3.0 {mu}g/kg egg). In chickens, hepatic EROD was induced 13, 15, 34, and 43-fold above control activities on E19, day of hatch (DO), day 2 after hatch (D2), and D4, respectively. Plasma thyroid hormone (T{sub 3} T{sub 4}) concentrations, which are known to peak during the perinatal period in chickens, were not affected by TCDD treatment when measured on E17, E19, D0, D2, and D4. In pigeons injected on E4, EROD was induced 15 and 6-fold on D0 and D7, respectively. There were significant decreases in yolk-free body weight, crown-rump, tibia, culmen, and wing lengths, and an elevated liver to body weight ratio (LSI) in TCDD-treated pigeons raised to D7 (p < 0.01). In pigeons injected on E14 (3{mu}g/kg), EROD was induced 14 and 10-fold on D0 and D7, respectively. Crown-rump and culmen lengths were decreased (p < 0.05) and LSI was increased (p < 0.01) on D0. There were significant decreases in all morphological parameters, and an increased LSI on D7 (p < 0.01) in TCDD-treated birds. These techniques will be used in further studies to investigate possible mechanisms of TCDD embryotoxicity in wild avian species, such as the great blue heron (Ardea herodias).

  7. Reconstruction of eroded and deposited sediment volumes in the floodplains of the embanked River Waal, the Netherlands, for the period 1650 - 1850 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Noortje; Makaske, Bart; Middelkoop, Hans

    2010-05-01

    The embanked floodplains of the River Waal developed as a result of stepwise downstream migration of meander bends between confining dykes. Accretion in the upstream limb of the outer bend - enhanced by groynes and trees - and erosion in the downstream limb have resulted in a series of successively developed sand bars, separated by secondary channels. On top of the sand bars and the secondary channel fills, fine-grained overbank sediments were deposited. Downstream migration ceased around 1850 AD, when the river bed was fixed by large-scale construction of groynes, and only overbank deposition continued. Eroded and deposited sediment volumes associated with downstream migration are affected by human activities. Goal of the present research is to estimate a sediment budget for a 12-km-long section along the River Waal, by quantifying the amount of erosion and deposition. We estimated these volumes for time slices of 50 years, between 1650 and 1850 AD, in order to be able to assess the variable impact of human interference during this period. To estimate erosion, we created geomorphological maps for all time slices, based on maps dating from the 17th century to present. In these maps, distinction is made between sand bars, residual channels, and older deposits (all sediments deposited before 1650 AD). Comparison between all maps allowed us to calculate the eroded area per time slice. Eroded volumes were hence estimated by multiplying the eroded area by the average river depth at that period, which is assumed to be the erosion depth. For estimation of deposition we used lithological cross-sections. These cross-sections are positioned such that every sand bar and every residual channel is represented in at least one cross-section. In every cross-section isochrones were drawn, based on OSL datings, chronologic interpretation of heavy metal profiles, and the historical maps. These isochrones are used to calculate the thickness of the sand bars, the residual channel fills

  8. Risk assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in human tissues related to major food items based on chemical analyses and micro-EROD assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, H L; Wu, S C; Wong, C K C; Leung, C K M; Tao, S; Wong, M H

    2009-10-01

    Nine groups of food items (freshwater fish, marine fish, pork, chicken, chicken eggs, leafy, non-leafy vegetables, rice and flour) and three types of human samples (human milk, maternal serum and cord serum) were collected for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. Results of chemical analysis revealed PCDD/Fs concentrations (pg g(-1) fat) in the following ascending order: pork (0.289 pg g(-1) fat), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (freshwater fish) (0.407), golden thread (Nemipterus virgatus) (marine fish) (0.511), chicken (0.529), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri) (marine fish) (0.535), chicken egg (0.552), and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) (marine fish) (1.219). The results of micro-EROD assay showed relatively higher PCDD/Fs levels in fish (2.65 pg g(-1) fat) when compared with pork (0.47), eggs (0.33), chicken (0.13), flour (0.07), vegetables (0.05 pg g(-1) wet wt) and rice (0.05). The estimated average daily intake of PCDD/Fs of 3.51 pg EROD-TEQ/kg bw/day was within the range of WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) and was higher than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTL) (70 pg for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) [Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Summary and conclusions of the fifty-seventh meeting, JECFA, 2001.]. Nevertheless, the current findings were significantly lower than the TDI (14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/bw/day) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food of the Europe Commission [European Scientific Committee on Food (EU SCF), Opinions on the SCF on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food, 2000.]. However, it should be noted that micro-EROD assay overestimates the PCDD/Fs levels by 2 to 7 folds which may also amplify the PCDD/Fs levels accordingly. Although the levels of PCDD/Fs obtained from micro-EROD assay were much higher than those obtained by chemical analysis by 2 to 7 folds, it provides a cost-effective and

  9. Estimativa da erodibilidade em entressulcos de latossolos do Rio Grande do Sul Prediction of interrill soil erodibility of oxisols in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cândida Moitinho Nunes

    2008-12-01

    oxalato amônio ácido (Fe o, explicaram 97 % (p Models of soil water erosion prediction and estimation are generally based on a series of parameters, normally determined by applying simulated rainfall in the field or laboratory. The use of simpler, faster and cheaper parameters such as texture, content and oxide type and aggregate water stability may contribute to facilitate the estimation of the factor interrill soil erodibility (Ki. The purpose of this study was: i to determine the interrill soil erodibility of three Brazilian Oxisols; ii evaluate the use of soil sand and clay contents in the prediction of interrill soil erodibility, as in the WEPP model; iii verify the correlation among some soil properties and the interrill soil erodibility factor. The interrill soil erosion rates were determined in laboratory, using three Oxisols with different clay content of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, under a mean intensity of simulated rainfall of 88 mm h-1, applied during 180 min on bare soil, using experimental interrill plots of 0.36 m² at a slope of 0.09 m m-1 and an initial water tension of 6 kPa. The susceptibility of soils with high clay and Fe oxide contents and higher water aggregate stability to interrill erosion was lower. The experimentally determined values of interrill soil erodibility (Ki factor varied from 0.76 x 10(6 kg s m-4 to 1.48 x10(6 kg s m-4 for the studied Oxisols. The aggregate water stability index was highly correlated with the interrill soil erodibility factor (r= -0.90**. The use of soil sand and clay contents, as suggested by the WEPP model, did not prove adequate to estimate the interrill soil erodibility (Ki factor. The variation in clay and Fe oxide contents explained 97 % (p<0.01 of the interrill soil erodibility variation.

  10. DNA damage, EROD activity, condition indices, and their linkages with contaminants in female flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Kopko, Orest; Góra, Agnieszka; Waszak, Ilona; Walkusz-Miotk, Jolanta

    2014-10-15

    The Baltic Sea is considered as one of the marine areas most exposed to human impacts. A variety of chemical contaminants pose a threat to the habitants. Female flounder (Platichthys flesus) collected from three locations in the southern Baltic Sea in February 2010 were examined for biomarkers of exposure to genotoxic agents (DNA damage), AhR-active contaminants (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD activity), and somatic condition indexes. Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were also measured in individual flounder to evaluate the biological responses in the context of contaminant burden. The genotoxicity, mildly exceeding a background level, revealed a significant relationship with mono-ortho substituted PCB (m-oPCB). Hepatic EROD activity was highly induced, yet showed no association with any of the contaminants measured other than biliary 1-OH pyrene normalized to pigment absorbance. Significant negative relationships were observed for lipid-based OCs and the gonado-somatic index (GSI) as well as for Ʃm-oPCB concentrations and the condition factor (CF). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed an overall connection between somatic condition indexes, biomarkers, and chemical variables. Of the three locations, flounder inhabiting the Gulf of Gdańsk had the greatest contaminant burden and appeared to be the most affected. Of great concern is the reduced GSI in this location which can be attributed to the effects of contaminants and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Remineralization of eroded enamel by a NaF rinse containing a novel calcium phosphate agent in an in situ model: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett T Amaechi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bennett T Amaechi1, Ramalingam Karthikeyan1, Poornima K Mensinkai1, Kaveh Najibfard1, Allen C Mackey2, Robert L Karlinsey21University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA; 2Indiana Nanotech, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: An in situ study evaluated the remineralization potential of 225 ppm fluoride (F rinses with and without a calcium phosphate agent (TCP-Si-Ur on eroded enamel.Methods: 20 human patients participated in this IRB approved study. Enamel blocks extracted from 20 human molars were assigned to each of the three study phases (G1, G2, G3. Each block was eroded using 1% citric acid (pH = 2.5, with a slice cut from each block to establish baseline lesion parameters (ie, integrated mineral loss ∆Z, and lesion depth LD using ­transverse microradiography (TMR. Participants and assigned blocks were randomly divided into three 28-day phases. The blocks were mounted into modified orthodontic brackets and bonded to the buccal surface of one of the subject’s mandibular molars. The appliance remained in the ­subject’s mouth for 28 days. Prior to each study phase, participants observed a one-week-washout period using a fluoride-free dentifrice. In each phase, participants brushed with the fluoride-free ­dentifrice for 1 min, followed by one of the following coded treatments: G1: 225 ppm F + 40 ppm ­TCP-Si-Ur rinse (1 min; G2: 225 ppm F rinse (1 min; G3: no rinse (saliva-only. After each phase, appliances were removed and specimens were analyzed using TMR.Results: TMR data (ie, ∆Z and LD revealed all three groups significantly remineralized eroded enamel (paired t-tests, P , 0.001. Net mineralization (% change in ∆Z, LD were as follows (mean (std.dev.: G1: 44.1 (22.6, 30.5 (27.0; G2: 30.0 (7.4, 29.4 (10.5; G3: 23.8 (16.4, 25.7 (15.5. Furthermore, G1 was found to cause significantly more remineralization than G2 (P = 0.039 and G3, (P = 0.002.Conclusion: Mouthrinse containing 225 ppm F plus TCP

  12. CHUVAS, EROSIVIDADE, ERODIBILIDADE, USO DO SOLO E SUAS RELAÇÕES COM FOCOS EROSIVOS LINEARES NA ALTA BACIA DO RIO ARAGUAIA / Rainfall, erosivity, erodibility, land use and their relationships with erosion sites in the upper Araguaia River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvando Carlos da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensive process of land occupation by farmers in the tropical savanna region of MidwestBrazil during the last three decades has promoted several environment impacts, such as theoccurrence of gully erosion processes as a consequence of intensive deforestation. Just in theUpper Araguaia River Basin, it was identified more than 300 large and medium gully features,which are related with the high natural susceptibility of the sandy soils; high erosivity and erodibility; inadequate land-use; lack of soil conservation practices; and a high annual rainfallindex during the rainy season. The objective of this research was to identify spatial relationshipsbetween rainfall distribution, erosivity, erodibility, land-use, and gully erosion distribution,which may support environmental planning actions related to land use conservation.Quantitative results show a high correlation between gully erosion distribution and higherosivity/erodibility and inadequate land-use.

  13. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  14. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  15. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  16. Non-Intrusive Sensor for In-Situ Measurement of Recession Rate of Ablative and Eroding Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, George (Inventor); Tiliakos, Nicholas (Inventor); Benel, Gabriel (Inventor); Thomson, Clint (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A non-intrusive sensor for in-situ measurement of recession rate of heat shield ablatives. An ultrasonic wave source is carried in the housing. A microphone is also carried in the housing, for collecting the reflected ultrasonic waves from an interface surface of the ablative material. A time phasing control circuit is also included for time-phasing the ultrasonic wave source so that the waves reflected from the interface surface of the ablative material focus on the microphone, to maximize the acoustic pressure detected by the microphone and to mitigate acoustic velocity variation effects through the material through a de-coupling process that involves a software algorithm. A software circuit for computing the location off of which the ultrasonic waves scattered to focus back at the microphone is also included, so that the recession rate of the heat shield ablative may be monitored in real-time through the scan-focus approach.

  17. Full-mouth adhesive rehabilitation of a severely eroded dentition: the three-step technique. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati, Francesca; Belser, Urs Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, a full-mouth rehabilitation based on full-crown coverage has been recommended treatment for patients affected by severe dental erosion. Nowadays, thanks to improved adhesive techniques, the indications for crowns have decreased and a more conservative approach may be proposed. Even though adhesive treatments simplify both the clinical and laboratory procedures, restoring such patients still remains a challenge due to the great amount of tooth destruction. To facilitate the clinician's task during the planning and execution of a full-mouth adhesive rehabilitation, an innovative concept has been developed: the three-step technique. Three laboratory steps are alternated with three clinical steps, allowing the clinician and the laboratory technician to constantly interact to achieve the most predictable esthetic and functional outcome. During the first step, an esthetic evaluation is performed to establish the position of the plane of occlusion. In the second step, the patient's posterior quadrants are restored at an increased vertical dimension. Finally, the third step reestablishes the anterior guidance. Using the three-step technique, the clinician can transform a full-mouth rehabilitation into a rehabilitation for individual quadrants. The present article focuses on the second step, explaining all the laboratory and clinical steps necessary to restore the posterior quadrants with a defined occlusal scheme at an increased vertical dimension. A brief summary of the first step is also included.

  18. Will the introduction of non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing erode informed choices? An experimental study of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Ananda; Chitty, Lyn; Dormandy, Elizabeth; Newson, Ainsley; Deans, Zuzana; Attwood, Sophie; Haynes, Shelley; Marteau, Theresa M

    2010-01-01

    Informed choice is a fundamental concept within prenatal care. The present study assessed the extent to which the introduction of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) of Down's syndrome may undermine the process of making informed choices to undergo prenatal testing or screening for Down's syndrome by altering the quality and quantity of pre-test counselling. 231 obstetricians and midwives were randomly allocated one of three vignettes, each describing a different type of test: (a) invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD), (b) non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) or (c) Down's syndrome screening (DSS). Participants were then asked to complete a questionnaire assessing (1) the information considered important to communicate to women, (2) whether test offer and uptake should take place on different days, and (3) whether signed consent forms should be obtained prior to testing. Across the three test types, five out of the seven presented topics were considered equally important to communicate, including the information that testing is the woman's choice. Compared with participants receiving the IPD vignette, those receiving the NIPD and DSS vignettes were less likely to report that counselling and testing should occur on different days (IPD 94.7% versus 74.1% and 73.9% for NIPD and DSS respectively, p=.001) and that written consent was a necessity (IPD 96.1% versus 68.3% and 75.4% for NIPD and DSS respectively, pprenatal diagnostic testing for conditions like DS. Given the importance of informed choice in reproductive decision-making, implementation of any programme based on NIPD should be designed to facilitate this.

  19. Is the Market Eroding Moral Norms? A Micro-analytical Validation of Some Ideas of Anomie Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Burkatzki

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Anomie theorists have been reporting the suppression of shared welfare orientations by the overwhelming dominance of economic values within capitalist societies since before the outset of neoliberalism debate. Obligations concerning common welfare are more and more often subordinated to the overarching aim of realizing economic success goals. This should be especially valid with for social life in contemporary market societies. This empirical investigation examines the extent to which market imperatives and values of the societal community are anchored within the normative orientations of market actors. Special attention is paid to whether the shape of these normative orientations varies with respect to the degree of market inclusion. Empirical analyses, based on the data of a standardized written survey within the German working population carried out in 2002, show that different types of normative orientation can be distinguished among market actors. These types are quite similar to the well-known types of anomic adaptation developed by Robert K. Merton in “Social Structure and Anomie” and are externally valid with respect to the prediction of different forms of economic crime. Further analyses show that the type of normative orientation actors adopt within everyday life depends on the dregree of market inclusion. Confirming anomie theory, it is shown that the individual willingness to subordinate matters of common welfare to the aim of economic success—radical market activism—gets stronger the more actors are included in the market sphere. Finally, the relevance of reported findings for the explanation of violent behavior, especially with view to varieties of corporate violence, is discussed.

  20. Estimativa da erodibilidade pela desagregação por ultra-som e atributos de solos com horizonte B textural Estimating soil erodibility from sonication indexes and other attributes of textural B horizon soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Carolino de Sá

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A erodibilidade de solos é um fator importante na estimativa das perdas por erosão. Este fator é uma expressão da combinação de atributos do solo, os quais possibilitam sua estimativa por meio de equações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi medir atributos químicos e mineralógicos que, combinados com índices de estabilidade de agregados determinados por ultra-som, pudessem ser utilizados como variáveis em modelos na estimativa da erodibilidade de solos com horizonte B textural do Brasil. Estes atributos foram determinados em 22 solos de erodibilidade conhecida, medida diretamente em parcelas no campo. Atributos de 21 dos solos foram utilizados no ajuste dos modelos. Um dos solos (Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo foi escolhido ao acaso para teste. De 96 variáveis, 15 foram incluídas nos modelos de estimativa da erodibilidade. A maioria delas é representada por índices de desagregação por sonificação de amostras do horizonte A. Foram obtidos quatro modelos para estimar a erodibilidade, com R² variando entre 0,83** e 0,91**. A erodibilidade pode ser estimada com base na estabilidade de agregados por ultra-som.Soil erodibility is an important factor for estimating soil erosion losses. This factor is an expression of combined soil attributes, which make possible its estimation by equations. The objective of this study was to measure some chemical and mineralogical attributes, and to combine them with aggregate stability indexes from sonication analysis, in equations in order to estimate soil erodibility of textural B horizon soils from Brazil. These attributes were measured for 22 soils that had their erodibility measured from field plots. Attributes of 21 soils were used to adjust the equations. One of the soils (Red-Yellow Argisol was used to test the equations. From 96 variables, 15 were significantly correlated to soil erodibility. Most of them are represented by the disruption indexes from sonication analysis of A horizon samples. This

  1. Raja Gopal, Prof. Erode Subramanian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), D.Sc. (h.c.), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 12 May 1936. Specialization: Solid State Physics, Statistical Physics and Instrumentation Address: Emeritus Scientist, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ERODED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Maya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La degradación del suelo causada por erosión hídrica amenaza seriamente la calidad de los recursos de los que depende el hombre para su subsistencia, como el agua, suelos y cultivos. El diagnóstico de los suelos a partir de variables ambientales es indispensable para la planeación e implementación de planes de manejo para el mejoramiento de este recurso. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de algunas de las herramientas tecnológicas que se utilizan para evaluar la degradación del suelo causada por erosión hídrica a diversas escalas, considerando los factores determinantes en cada nivel. Las escalas analizadas son: agregados superficiales del suelo, parcela o potrero y cuenca hidrológica. Se mencionan en cada caso las variables indicadoras de la erosión, así como los métodos y herramientas que se utilizan para su evaluación. Se presenta un estudio caso.

  3. From source to sink: Unravelling the complex in situ cosmogenic 10Be-14C signature in eroding bedrock surfaces and river sediment from the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippe, Kristina; Lupker, Maarten; Gordijn, Tiemen; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kober, Florian; Christl, Marcus; Wacker, Lukas; Hajdas, Irka; Wieler, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Sediment storage is a critical component of fluvial sedimentary systems. By interrupting transport processes, intermittent sediment storage can effectively decouple source from sink and buffer the transmission of signals of environmental change (e.g., in climate, vegetation, human impact) through the fluvial system. Combined in situ cosmogenic 14C-10Be analysis in fluvial sediment provides a unique method to simultaneously assess sediment transit times (in situ 14C signal) and long-term sediment production rates from bedrock erosion (10Be signal). The key is the much shorter half-life of in situ 14C compared to 10Be which causes a rapid decrease of the in situ 14C concentration when sediment is buried during sediment storage and creates an offset to 10Be. Here, we use the in situ 14C-10Be chronometer to determine changes in surface erosion and estimate absolute rates of sediment transfer in a catchment on the Bolivian Altiplano. Previous research in the study area has found a significant offset in the in situ 14C-10Be inventories from river sediments with much lower in situ 14C concentrations than expected from the 10Be content for steady-state conditions. This offset has been interpreted to reflect sediment storage over the past 11-20 ka [1]. Additional analyses of in situ 14C and 10Be in a dense network of sediment samples from the main channel and tributaries agree with previous data and yield very low in situ 14C concentrations that suggest an increase in storage duration by a few ka with downstream distance. However, analyses of in situ 14C-10Be in hilltop samples from the eroding source area reveal an almost as large offset as in the river sediments. Such complex in situ 14C-10Be inventories in the source area have a severe impact on the quantification of sediment storage times and strongly challenge previous data interpretation. The most straightforward explanation for the in situ 14C-10Be offset at hilltop locations is a change in denudation rate during the

  4. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (uranium was measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Sediment storage zones were also examined in the upper 8km of the system to determine where uranium is preferentially stored in canyon systems. This information will quantify the downstream transport of constituents associated with the Hack Canyon waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  5. New views on "old" carbon in the Amazon River: Insight from the source of organic carbon eroded from the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. E.; Hilton, R. G.; West, A. J.; Malhi, Y.; Gröcke, D. R.; Bryant, C. L.; Ascough, P. L.; Robles Caceres, A.; New, M.

    2013-05-01

    rivers play a key role in the delivery of particulate organic carbon (POC) to large river systems and the ocean. Due to the extent of its drainage area and runoff, the Amazon River is one of Earth's most important biogeochemical systems. However, the source of POC eroded from the humid region of the Eastern Andes and the input of fossil POC from sedimentary rocks (POCfossil) remains poorly constrained. Here we collected suspended sediments from the Kosñipata River during flood events to better characterize Andean POC, measuring the nitrogen to organic carbon ratio (N/C), stable carbon isotopes (δ13Corg) and radiocarbon (Δ14Corg). Δ14Corg values ranged from -711‰ to -15‰, and significant linear trends between Δ14Corg, N/C and δ13Corg suggested that this reflects the mixing of POCfossil with very young organic matter (Δ14Corg 50‰) from the terrestrial biosphere (POCnon-fossil). Using N/C and Δ14Corg in an end-member mixing analysis, we quantify the fraction of POCfossil (to within 0.1) and find that it contributes a constant proportion of the suspended sediment mass (0.37 ± 0.03%) and up to 80% of total POC. In contrast, the relative contribution of POCnon-fossil was variable, being most important during the rising limb and peak discharges of flood events. The new data shed light on published measurements of "old" POC (low Δ14Corg) in Andean-fed tributaries of the Amazon River, with their Δ14Corg and δ13Corg values consistent with variable addition of POCfossil. The findings suggest a greater persistence of Andean POC in the lowland Amazon than previously recognized.

  6. Soil erodibility mapping using the RUSLE model to prioritize erosion control in the Wadi Sahouat basin, North-West of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubal, Abderrezak Kamel; Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain; Dehni, Abdelatif

    2018-03-12

    Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km 2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P). The average annual soil loss rate in the Wadi Sahouat basin ranges from 0 to 255 t ha -1  year -1 , maximum values being observed over steep slopes of more than 25% and between 600 and 1000 m elevations. 3.4% of the basin is classified as highly susceptible to erosion, 4.9% with a medium risk, and 91.6% at a low risk. Google Earth reveals a clear conformity with the degree of zones to erosion sensitivity. Based on the soil loss map, 32 sub-basins were classified into three categories by priority of intervention: high, moderate, and low. This priority is available to sustain a management plan against sediment filling of the Ouizert dam at the basin outlet. The method enhancing the RUSLE model and confrontation with Google Earth can be easily adapted to other watersheds.

  7. Erodabilidad de suelos del sur de la Región Semiárida argentina Erodibility of soils in the south of the semiarid region of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E Echeverría

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La erodabilidad de los suelos se puede medir a campo mediante simuladores de lluvia o predecir mediante modelos matemáticos como USLE y WEPP. El objetivo del trabajo fue medir la erodabilidad de tres suelos representativos del Sur de la Región semiárida argentina y compararla con la estimada por los modelos WEPP y USLE. En los suelos Bahía Blanca (SBB y Cabildo (SC -Paleustoles Petrocálcicos- y Villarino (SV -Calciustol Petrocálcicose aplicaron, mediante un simulador portátil, dos lluvias consecutivas de 32 mm en 30 minutos. Las pérdidas de suelo debido a la 1° y 2° lluvia indicaron: SV 3,26 y 5,86 Mg ha-1 h-1; SC 2,04 y 5,53 Mg ha-1 h-1; SBB 0,75 y 2,66 Mg ha-1 h-1, respectivamente. La resistencia del suelo a la erosión correlacionó con la relación limo: arcilla (r:0,60, CO (r:0,55 y estabilidad estructural (r:0,56.Las tasas de escurrimiento y sedimentación promedio fueron para SV: 12,4 10-6 m s-1 y 15,6 10-5 kg s-1 m-2; para SC: 9,9 10-6 m s-1 y 13,5 10-5 kg s-1 m-2 y para SBB: 9,6 10-6 m s-1 y 6,1 10-5 kg s-1 m-2, respectivamente. El comportamiento de SV se debió al rápido sellado del horizonte superficial, mientras que el de SBB y el SC se relacionó con la estabilidad estructural. En el modelo WEPP, la erodabilidad medida entre surcos (Ki fue, para SV: 2,5; SC: 1,89 y SBB: 1,39 (10(6 kg s m-4; mientras que la estimada (Kib fue significativamente más alta, SV: 6,26; SC: 10,2 y SBB: 10,2 (10(6 kg s m-4. Los índices de erosión (IE fueron, SV: 0,30; SC: 0,21 y SBB: 0,10 Mg MJ-1 y discreparon significativamente de los valores K estimados a partir del nomograma, confirmando que las predicciones del mismo resultan poco confiables en suelos con el 65% o más de arenas.Water erodibility of soils can be measured in the field using rainfall simulators or be predicted with mathematical models as USLE and WEPP. The objective of our research was to determine water erodibility of three representative soils in the southern semiarid

  8. [Soil anti-erodibility of abandoned lands during different succession stages of plant community in hilly-gullied region of the Loess Plateau: Take Fangta small watershed as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang-chen; Jiao, Ju-ying; Cao, Bin-ting; Yu, Wei-jie; Wei, Yan-hong; Kou, Meng; Hu, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Field survey and laboratory experiment were conducted to study the soil anti-erodibility of abandoned croplands during different vegetation succession stages in hilly-gullied region of the Loess Plateau, based on the analysis of soil particle composition, size distribution and group characteristics, soil aggregate fractal dimensions and stability. The results showed that in the earlier stages of succession from annual to perennial herbs in abandoned croplands, soil size distribution changed a little bit, the fractal dimension of soil particle increased, soil structure improved, fractal dimension and damage percent of soil aggregate structure decreased, soil stability increased, thus soil anti-erodibility increased. Therefore, natural restoration of vegetation is of great significance to improve the soil structure, increase soil erosion resistance, reduce soil erosion and promote sustainable development of regional ecological environment.

  9. Venlafaxine: in vitro inhibition of CYP2D6 dependent imipramine and desipramine metabolism; comparative studies with selected SSRIs, and effects on human hepatic CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Simon E.; Ahern, Dennis; Scatina, Joann; Kao, John

    1997-01-01

    Aims In order to anticipate drug-interactions of potential clinical significance the ability of the novel antidepressant, venlafaxine, to inhibit CYP2D6 dependent imipramine and desipramine 2-hydroxylation was investigated in human liver microsomes. The data obtained were compared with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, fluoxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine and paroxetine. Venlafaxine’s potential to inhibit several other major P450s was also studied (CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP1A2). Methods Ki values for venlafaxine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and sertraline as inhibitors of imipramine and desipramine 2-hydroxylation were determined from Dixon plots of control and inhibited rate data in human hepatic microsomal incubations. The inhibitory effect of imipramine and desipramine on liver microsomal CYP2D6 dependent venlafaxine O-demethylation was determined similarly. Venlafaxine’s IC50 values for CYP3A4, CYP1A2 CYP2C9 were determined based on inhibition of probe substrate activities (testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase and tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation, respectively). Results Fluoxetine, paroxetine, and fluvoxamine were potent inhibitors of imipramine 2-hydroxylase activity (Ki values of 1.6±0.8, 3.2±0.8 and 8.0±4.3 μm, respectively; mean±s.d., n=3), while sertraline was less inhibitory (Ki of 24.7±8.9 μm ). Fluoxetine also markedly inhibited desipramine 2-hydroxylation with a Ki of 1.3±0.5 μm. Venlafaxine was less potent an inhibitor of imipramine 2-hydroxylation (Ki of 41.0±9.5 μm ) than the SSRIs that were studied. Imipramine and desipramine gave marked inhibition of CYP2D6 dependent venlafaxine O-demethylase activity (Ki values of 3.9±1.7 and 1.7±0.9 μm, respectively). Venlafaxine did not inhibit ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP1A2), tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase (CYP2C9) or testosterone 6β-hydroxylase (CYP3A4) activities at concentrations of up to 1 mm. Conclusions It is concluded that

  10. Using shallow seismic tomography to characterize patterns of near-surface weathering and the mobile-immobile regolith transition: Implications for the erodibility and morphology of hillslopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, B. A.; Kirby, E.; Burbank, D. W.; West, N.

    2014-12-01

    We use 2D tomography of P- and S-wave velocities (Vp, Vs), based on seismic refraction and surface wave analyses, to characterize subsurface architecture and erodibility of hillslopes. Calibrating the seismic imagery with direct field observations allows us to quantify mechanical properties, image depth-dependent variations in weathering intensity, and identify the mobile-immobile regolith transition and differences in transport efficiency of mobile layers. We conducted a cross-CZO comparison of N- and S-facing slopes at Boulder Creek and Shale Hills CZOs (BcCZO and SSHCZO) to investigate how near-surface weathering and hillslope morphology are influenced by differences in regional geology and climatic as well as local variations in aspect-controlled microclimate. Niwot Ridge (BcCZO) is a high alpine site with minimal soil/veg cover, characterized by steeper S-facing hillslopes; whereas, SSHCZO is a temperate, densely-forested, soil-mantled site with steeper N-facing slopes. On Niwot Ridge, the depth of the weathering front and thickness of mobile regolith are substantially greater on shallower N-facing slopes; however, velocity-based estimates of transport efficiency are higher on S-facing slopes. Although, thin mobile regolith on S-facing slopes may be weaker (slower V), the lower gradient of N-facing slopes and southward asymmetry of the ridge divide, suggests greater transport efficiency on N-facing aspects. This can be explained by the dominance of frost/freeze process on N-facing slopes, which can efficiently develop and transport the thick mobile regolith. At SSHCZO, depths of weathering fronts are invariant with slope aspect, suggesting that aspect control is not a predominant mechanism driving regolith production. Mobile regolith thickness, however, is more than 2-fold greater on N-facing slopes. Additionally, mobile regolith on both slope aspects is primarily composed of well-developed soils. N-facing soils are thicker with greater cohesion, moisture, and

  11. Erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento em solos de estradas não pavimentadas Erodibility and critical shear stress on unpaved road soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F. de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A falta de um sistema adequado para drenagem de águas pluviais em estradas não pavimentadas é um dos principais fatores que causam a sua degradação e, para que referidos sistemas possam ser adequadamente planejados e dimensionados é necessário o conhecimento de parâmetros de resistência dos solos. Com este trabalho se teve, por objetivo, determinar a erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento para diferentes solos de estradas não pavimentadas. Utilizou-se um simulador de escoamento superficial instalado diretamente nos canais das estradas, sob condição natural e se determinou a perda de solo para diferentes lâminas de escoamento. A erodibilidade e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento foram determinadas por meio do ajuste de curvas relacionando-se a perda de solo em função da tensão cisalhante provocada pelo escoamento. Os resultados alcançados mostraram variações nos valores de erodibilidade e de tensão crítica de cisalhamento das estradas avaliadas. Os valores de erodibilidade encontrados mostraram, quando comparados com valores observados na literatura, elevada suscetibilidade à erosão para as condições de estradas, sendo mais elevados nos solos de textura mais arenosa e siltosa. Os valores de tensão crítica se mostraram bastante próximos aos observados em outros trabalhos.The absence of an adequate drainage system in unpaved roads is one of the main factors for their degradation. For adequate planning knowledge of the resistance parameters of soil is necessary. This study had as its objective the determinatiom of the erodibility and critical shear stress of unpaved road soils. For this work, a runoff simulator was directly installed on road channels, under natural conditions. Different flow depths were applied and the soil loss was measured for each depth. The erodibility and the critical shear stress were determined through adjusted curves relating soil disaggregation and flow shear stress. The results

  12. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  13. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  14. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  15. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  16. Resprout and Survival of Willow ( Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow ( Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45 %. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56 %) than brush layers (37 %). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51 % cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  17. Erosividade da chuva e erodibilidade de Cambissolo e Latossolo na região de Lavras, sul de Minas Gerais Rainfall erosivity and erodibility of Cambisol (Inceptisol and Latosol (Oxisol in the region of Lavras, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda são relativamente poucos os estudos envolvendo erodibilidade do solo, principalmente Cambissolos, dada a morosidade na obtenção dos resultados de experimentos com chuva natural. O conhecimento dos índices de erosividade e de erodibilidade é importante para o planejamento conservacionista, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade dos solos. Este estudo teve como objetivos determinar a erosividade da chuva e a erodibilidade de Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico e Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, sob chuva natural, em Lavras (MG, no período de 1998 a 2002. Os dados de precipitação pluviométrica foram obtidos na Estação Climatológica Principal de Lavras, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, próxima das unidades experimentais de perdas de solo. A erosividade (EI30 foi determinada a partir do produto da energia cinética da chuva pela sua intensidade máxima em 30 min. Estes dados, correlacionados com as perdas de solo, permitiram obter o índice de erodibilidade dos solos. A precipitação total média anual foi 1.287 mm e a erosividade média foi de 4.865 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1. A erodibilidade foi 0,0355 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Cambissolo e 0,0032 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1 para o Latossolo, em consonância com seus atributos mineralógicos, químicos, físicos e morfológicos diferenciais.Relatively few studies in Brazil have investigated soil erodibility, mainly for Cambisols (Inceptisols, due to the tediousness of data collection in natural rainfall experiments. Knowledge about erodibility and erosivity is important for conservation planning, which contributes to soil sustainability. This study aimed at evaluating the rainfall erosivity and erodibility of a typic dystrophic Tb Haplic Cambisol (Inceptisol and a typic dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol under natural rainfall, in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1998 and 2002. Pluvial precipitation data were obtained from the main weather

  18. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  19. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  20. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  1. Equipamento para determinação da erodibilidade e tensão crítica de cisalhamento do solo em canais de estradas Equipment to determine erodibility and critical shear stress of soil in road channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nori P. Griebeler

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A erosão provocada pela água no leito e nas margens de estradas não-pavimentadas, está intimamente relacionada à má drenagem. Para que o sistema de drenagem seja feito de forma adequada, o conhecimento da erodibilidade e da tensão crítica de cisalhamento do solo é essencial. Neste sentido, desenvolveu-se um equipamento que permite a simulação do escoamento superficial e o acompanhamento das perdas de solo diretamente no leito ou no canal da estrada, possibilitando a determinação da tensão crítica de cisalhamento e da erodibilidade do solo. O equipamento consiste em um conjunto composto por um reservatório de água, uma caixa de nível constante, uma calha para simulação do escoamento superficial e por um sistema de armazenamento da água escoada e filtragem dos sedimentos erodidos. Com base nos resultados obtidos com o uso do equipamento, constatou-se que este se mostrou satisfatório quanto aos aspectos de instalação, simulação de escoamento e quantificação de perdas para diferentes tensões aplicadas, permitindo a determinação da erodibilidade e da tensão crítica de cisalhamento do solo. No que tange à sua praticidade, o equipamento apresentou aspectos inconvenientes, sobretudo no que se refere à necessidade de mão-de-obra e consumo de água.Water erosion on unpaved roads is directly related with poor drainage. The knowledge of the soil erodibility and critical shear stress is essential for correct design of drainage systems. In this paper equipment was developed which allows to simulate the surface runoff in the road channels and to determine, consequently, the soil erodibility and the critical shear stress for the soil. The equipment consists of a water reservoir, a box to control water level, a channel where the surface runoff simulation is made and a system to store the water and the sediments which are detached by surface runoff. The equipment had a good performance to determine the soil erodibility and the

  2. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  3. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  4. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  5. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  6. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  7. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  8. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  9. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...

  10. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  11. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  12. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  13. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  14. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  15. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  16. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  17. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  18. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  19. Power generation method including membrane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  20. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  1. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  2. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-11-03

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Open literature review of threats including sabotage and theft of fissile material transport in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, John Russell; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2005-01-01

    This report is a review of open literature concerning threats including sabotage and theft related to fissile material transport in Japan. It is intended to aid Japanese officials in the development of a design basis threat. This threat includes the external threats of the terrorist, criminal, and extremist, and the insider threats of the disgruntled employee, the employee forced into cooperation via coercion, the psychotic employee, and the criminal employee. Examination of the external terrorist threat considers Japanese demographics, known terrorist groups in Japan, and the international relations of Japan. Demographically, Japan has a relatively homogenous population, both ethnically and religiously. Japan is a relatively peaceful nation, but its history illustrates that it is not immune to terrorism. It has a history of domestic terrorism and the open literature points to the Red Army, Aum Shinrikyo, Chukaku-Ha, and Seikijuku. Japan supports the United States in its war on terrorism and in Iraq, which may make Japan a target for both international and domestic terrorists. Crime appears to remain low in Japan; however sources note that the foreign crime rate is increasing as the number of foreign nationals in the country increases. Antinuclear groups' recent foci have been nuclear reprocessing technology, transportation of MOX fuel, and possible related nuclear proliferation issues. The insider threat is first defined by the threat of the disgruntled employee. This threat can be determined by studying the history of Japan's employment system, where Keiretsu have provided company stability and lifetime employment. Recent economic difficulties and an increase of corporate crime, due to sole reliability on the honor code, have begun to erode employee loyalty

  4. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  5. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  6. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  7. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  8. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  9. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  10. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  11. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  12. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C

    2010-02-01

    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  14. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  15. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  16. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  17. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  18. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  19. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  20. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)

  1. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  2. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Resection of thymoma should include nodal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weksler, Benny; Pennathur, Arjun; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Nason, Katie S

    2015-03-01

    Thymoma is best treated by surgical resection; however, no clear guidelines have been created regarding lymph node sampling at the time of resection. Additionally, the prognostic implications of nodal metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic implications of nodal metastases in thymoma. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients who underwent surgical resection of thymoma with documented pathologic examination of lymph nodes. The impact of nodal status on survival and thymoma staging was examined. We identified 442 patients who underwent thymoma resection with pathologic evaluation of 1 or more lymph nodes. A median of 2 nodes were sampled per patient. Fifty-nine patients (59 of 442, 13.3%) had ≥ 1 positive node. Patients with positive nodes were younger and had smaller tumors than node-negative patients. Median survival in the node-positive patients was 98 months, compared with 144 months in node-negative patients (P = .013). In multivariable analysis, the presence of positive nodes had a significant, independent, adverse impact on survival (hazard ratio 1.945, 95% confidence interval 1.296-2.919, P = .001). The presence of nodal metastases resulted in a change in classification to a higher stage in 80% of patients, the majority from Masaoka-Koga stage III to stage IV. Nodal status seems to be an important prognostic factor in patients with thymoma. Until the prognostic significance of nodal metastases is better understood, surgical therapy for thymoma should include sampling of regional lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  5. It took two decades for private payor contracts to erode the bottom line: plan on a 2+ year comeback--here's how, Part V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Penny

    2008-01-01

    Parts I through IV of this article series covered getting organized, financial analysis, negotiating strategies, and solutions for a handful of lopsided contract provisions. This last article in the series offers some final contract provisions that if accepted "as is" in the payors' or networks' proposed agreements will afford the payers with too much control over key financial, administrative, and clinical issues related to serving patients covered under the contract. Among those discussed in this article are: medical necessity, confidentiality, term/termination/evergreen, favored nation, products to be included in the agreement, EOB and ID card identifiers, and "drafted jointly" issues. You may not win on all of these, but to not request these changes is an implied acceptance of the agreement terms, perpetuating the unfairness. Ask yourself as you read through this last article, "If my deal-breaker changes are not made, am I ready to walk?" There is no right or wrong answer, but if it is '"yes," then your negotiating power just increased tremendously.

  6. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  7. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  8. Mediastinal lymphoma eroding the right atrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Mangi, S.A.; Ahmad, R.; Rashid, A.

    2013-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumours are an uncommon cause of intra-cardiac mass. Most common intra-cardiac mass is thrombus followed by infiltrating secondary cardiac tumours. These secondary tumours are more likely to invade the cardiac chambers when they arise from close vicinity of the heart. We report an unusual case of mediastinal lymphoma in a 55 years old lady presenting as an intra-cardiac mass in the right atrium, which was detected by a transthoracic echocardiogram and later confirmed with more specific modalities. (author)

  9. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment

  10. RWOPS abuse 'eroding ethical standards of juniors'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to control illegal immigration (which sends patient loads soaring), failing equipment, lack of maintenance and dysfunctional management. 'What's clearly not happening is [doctors] understanding and balancing their primary employment commitment with their private work,' she concluded. Chris Bateman chrisb@hmpg.co.za.

  11. Giant Submandibular Calculus Eroding Oral Cavity Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng Haw Lim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sialolithiasis is the formation of calculi or sialoliths in the salivary gland. It is the most common benign condition of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis can occur in all salivary glands. The submandibular gland is most commonly affected followed by the parotid gland. Calculi commonly measure less than 10 mm. Calculi of more than 15 mm are termed giant salivary gland calculi and are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of unusually large submandibular gland calculus of 5 cm in greatest dimension which caused erosion of the oral cavity.

  12. Giant Submandibular Calculus Eroding Oral Cavity Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eng Haw; Nadarajah, Sanjeevan; Mohamad, Irfan

    2017-09-01

    Sialolithiasis is the formation of calculi or sialoliths in the salivary gland. It is the most common benign condition of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis can occur in all salivary glands. The submandibular gland is most commonly affected followed by the parotid gland. Calculi commonly measure less than 10 mm. Calculi of more than 15 mm are termed giant salivary gland calculi and are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of unusually large submandibular gland calculus of 5 cm in greatest dimension which caused erosion of the oral cavity.

  13. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  14. Erodibilidade de um nitossolo háplico alumínico determinada em condições de campo Erodibility of a typic hapludox evaluated under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O termo erodibilidade do solo (fator K na Equação Universal de Perda de Solo - EUPS expressa a suscetibilidade natural do solo à erosão hídrica. O fator K representa a taxa de perda de solo por unidade de erosividade da chuva (fator R na EUPS. O conhecimento do fator K, juntamente com os demais fatores do modelo EUPS, é importante no planejamento conservacionista, pois, por meio desse modelo, estimam-se as perdas médias anuais de solo esperadas para determinadas condições. Dados de perda de solo, obtidos em campo em solo sem cultivo e com preparo convencional, sob condições de chuva simulada, no período de novembro de 2001 a março de 2004, no sul do Planalto Catarinense, foram utilizados para calcular o fator K de um Nitossolo Háplico alumínico típico, com declividade média de 0,15 m m-1. O fator K foi calculado pela razão entre as perdas de solo e a erosividade das chuvas e, ainda, estimado por análise de regressão linear simples entre estas duas variáveis. Foram utilizados valores de erosividade das chuvas (EI30 de 11 testes de chuva simulada e suas respectivas perdas de solo, obtidas em parcelas de 3,5 x 11,0 m, desprovidas de vegetação e de crosta superficial, após terem sido mantidas sem cultivo e sob preparo de solo contínuo por dois anos. O preparo do solo, executado no sentido do declive, duas vezes ao ano, consistiu de uma aração e duas gradagens. A crosta superficial e as plantas espontâneas eram mecanicamente eliminadas por meio de escarificação e de capina manual com enxada. O fator erodibilidade do solo determinado para o Nitossolo Háplico alumínico foi de 0,011 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1 quando calculado por meio da razão entre os valores anuais de perda de solo e do índice de erosividade das chuvas e de 0,012 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1 quando estimado por meio de regressão linear simples entre estas duas variáveis.The term soil erodibility (factor K in the Universal Soil Loss Equation - USLE expresses

  15. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  16. Erodibilidade e suscetibilidade à erosão dos solos de cerrado com plantio de Acacia mangium em Roraima.= Erodibility and susceptibility to erosion of the savannah (cerrado soils planted with Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Frutuoso do Vale Júnior

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar erodibilidade e suscetibilidade à erosão de solos sob cerrados e plantios de Acácia mangium no estado de Roraima, foram realizadas visitas nas áreas objeto de estudo para identifi cação geomorfopedológica e feito coleta de solo representativo de 121 perfi s distribuídos nas áreas de plantio de Acacia mangium pertencentes ao projeto Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda. Os perfi s descritos e coletados foram georreferenciados através de GPS e plotados sobre mapas de declividades no software ARCMAPE 8.0 permitindo cruzar os valores de R com a declividade. Foi avaliada as relações do tipo de solo, sua posição na paisagem e suscetibilidade a erosão. Os resultados revelaram que as áreas de estudo estão inseridas em duas unidades geomorfopedológicas distintas: Jacitara/Mucajaí/Santa Cecília (JMSta e Serra da Lua (SL, apresentando suscetibilidade à erosão bem contrastantes; As unidades JMSta apresentam maiores valores de R, inseridas em relevo plano, com declividade entre 1% a 3%, os solos da unidade SL, apresentam menores valores de R e estão posicionados em relevo com declividade entre 3 a 13%, o que a torna mais vulneráveis a erosão; as classes de solos em ordem decrescente em valores de R são: Neossolos (RQo, Argissolos (PAd, Gleissolos (GXbd, Latossolos (LAd, LVd, LVAd, LVA Plintico, Plintossolos (FFCd, concluindo-se então, a necessidade da adoção de práticas simples de conservação de solos, tais como plantio em curva de nível e até terraceamento. = With the objective to evaluate the erodibility and susceptibility to erosion of the cerrado and plantations with Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima, visits to the areas were done for geomorfopedologic identifi cation and collection of soils representative of 121 profi les distributed in the areas pertaining to the plantation of Acacia mangium of the Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda project. The described and collected profiles were geo

  17. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Doctors usually diagnose Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, infection ...

  18. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  19. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  20. Dictionary of scientific units including dimensionless numbers and scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrard, H.G; McNeill, D.B

    1992-01-01

    .... The text includes the most recently accepted values of all units. Several disciplines, which have in the past employed few scientific principles and the dictionary has been extended to include examples of these.

  1. 75 FR 16513 - B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70, 975A] B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From B&C Services... October 2, 2009, applicable to workers of B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, including on-site...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United...

  3. 24 CFR 220.822 - Claim computation; items included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim computation; items included. 220.822 Section 220.822 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... computation; items included. (a) Assignment of loan. Upon an acceptable assignment of the note and security...

  4. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  5. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this section...

  6. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  7. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory are...

  8. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  9. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to mean... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency...

  10. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  11. Distributed soil loss estimation system including ephemeral gully development and tillage erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. N. Vieira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new modelling system is being developed to provide spatially-distributed runoff and soil erosion predictions for conservation planning that integrates the 2D grid-based variant of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, version 2 model (RUSLER, the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Estimator (EphGEE, and the Tillage Erosion and Landscape Evolution Model (TELEM. Digital representations of the area of interest (field, farm or entire watershed are created using high-resolution topography and data retrieved from established databases of soil properties, climate, and agricultural operations. The system utilizes a library of processing tools (LibRaster to deduce surface drainage from topography, determine the location of potential ephemeral gullies, and subdivide the study area into catchments for calculations of runoff and sheet-and-rill erosion using RUSLER. EphGEE computes gully evolution based on local soil erodibility and flow and sediment transport conditions. Annual tillage-induced morphological changes are computed separately by TELEM.

  12. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life

  13. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  14. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  15. Including estimates of the future in today's financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Barth

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains why the question is how, not if, today's financial statements should include estimates of the future. Including such estimates is not new, but their use is increasing. This increase results primarily because standard setters believe asset and liability measures that reflect current economic conditions and up-to-date expectations of the future will result in more useful information for making economic decisions, which is the objective of financial reporting. This is why sta...

  16. The management of metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer requires an integrated approach including both directed and systemic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Shamil D; Topliss, Duncan J

    2017-01-01

    A 58-year-old man with metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) presented with left thigh and right flank numbness. He had known progressive and widespread bony metastases, for which he received palliative radiotherapy, and multiple bilateral asymptomatic pulmonary metastases. CT scan and MRI of the spine revealed metastases at right T10-L1 vertebrae with extension into the central canal and epidural disease at T10 and T11 causing cord displacement and canal stenosis but retention of spinal cord signal. Spinal surgery was followed by palliative radiotherapy resulting in symptom resolution. Two months later, sorafenib received approval for use in Australia and was commenced and up-titrated with symptomatic management of mild adverse effects. Follow-up CT scan three months after commencement of sorafenib revealed regression of pulmonary metastases but no evident change in most bone metastases except for an advancing lesion eroding into the right acetabulum. The patient underwent a right total hip replacement, intra-lesional curettage and cementing. After six months of sorafenib therapy, CT scanning showed enlarging liver lesions with marked elevation of serum thyroglobulin. Lenvatinib was commenced and sorafenib was ceased. He now has stable disease with a falling thyroglobulin more than 5 years after metastatic radioiodine-refractory DTC was diagnosed. In DTC, 5% of distant metastases become radioiodine-refractory, resulting in a median overall survival of 2.5-3.5 years. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has recently been demonstrated to increase progression-free survival in these patients but poses some unique management issues and is best used as part of an integrated approach with directed therapy. Directed therapies may have greater potential to control localised disease and related symptoms when compared to systemic therapies.Consider TKI therapy in progressive disease where benefits outweigh risks.Active surveillance and

  17. Evaluation of influence of the protection gases containing different CO{sub 2} contents on the characteristics of the welded coatings aiming at the repair of cavitation eroded turbines; Avaliacao da influencia de gases de protecao contendo diferentes teores de CO{sub 2} nas caracteristicas dos revestimentos soldados visando o reparo de turbinas erodidas por cavitacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Ricardo Luiz; Prado, Eron Marcos do; Okimoto, Paulo Cesar [Parana Univ., Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. Aplicado em Tecnologia da Sodagem; Paredes, Ramon S. Cortes; Procopiak, Luiz Alberto [LACTEC - Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Cutitiba, PR (Brazil); LEME - Laboratorio de Emissoes Veiculares, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the different protection gases influence on the Mig/Mag welding of carbon steel plate coatings, by simulating a repair of the cavitation eroded areas. The simulation used E410NiMo and E309LT1 wires, and a deposition of four layers on a 25.4 mm thick carbon steel plate. The study conducted the verification of the CO{sub 2} different contents protection gases influence on the chemical composition of the deposited wires, microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of the welded joint. The results show that the carbon content of the welding wires is affected by the type of the protection gas resulting in microstructural and mechanical properties variations.

  18. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  19. Ceramic substrate including thin film multilayer surface conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Joseph Ambrose; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-09

    A ceramic substrate comprises a plurality of ceramic sheets, a plurality of inner conductive layers, a plurality of vias, and an upper conductive layer. The ceramic sheets are stacked one on top of another and include a top ceramic sheet. The inner conductive layers include electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of each ceramic sheet excluding the top ceramic sheet. The vias are formed in each of the ceramic sheets with each via being filled with electrically conductive material. The upper conductive layer includes electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of the top ceramic sheet. The upper conductive layer is constructed from a stack of four sublayers. A first sublayer is formed from titanium. A second sublayer is formed from copper. A third sublayer is formed from platinum. A fourth sublayer is formed from gold.

  20. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  1. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  2. Dynamical criteria for a unified gauge theory (including gravity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that local gauge invariance together with dynamical (and possibly Higgs) symmetry breaking can be taken as a basis for a unified gauge theory including gravity. The criterion for the breakdown of the linear gauge symmetry of the space-time sector turns out to be the absence of a prior geometry. The usual postulates of general relativity, such as general coordinate invariance, etc., follow from the above two criteria. Gravity actions that are natural from the point of view are discussed. The extension to superspace relevant to gauge supergroups is also given, including a large number of linear and quadratic superspace invariants

  3. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  4. Meta-structure and tunable optical device including the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon; Papadakis, Georgia Theano; Atwater, Harry

    2017-12-26

    A meta-structure and a tunable optical device including the same are provided. The meta-structure includes a plurality of metal layers spaced apart from one another, an active layer spaced apart from the plurality of metal layers and having a carrier concentration that is tuned according to an electric signal applied to the active layer and the plurality of metal layers, and a plurality of dielectric layers spaced apart from one another and each having one surface contacting a metal layer among the plurality of metal layers and another surface contacting the active layer.

  5. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  6. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  7. Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life Expectancy. ... of long-term complications, development of short-term complications, and physical symptoms and lifestyle changes resulting from the demands of the diabetic ... Key words: Type 2 Diabetes, quality of life, life expectancy, diabetic complications.

  8. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  9. 25 CFR 20.308 - What does earned income include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does earned income include? 20.308 Section 20.308 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND..., the sale of farm crops, livestock, or professional artists producing art work); and (b) With regard to...

  10. 34 CFR 661.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 661.20 Section 661.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BUSINESS AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM How Does One Apply for a...

  11. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  12. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  13. Towards a general framework for including noise impacts in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Heijungs, Reinout; Ohlau, Katrin

    Purpose Several damages have been associated with the exposure of human beings to noise. These include auditory effects, i.e., hearing impairment, but also non-auditory physiological ones such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, or psychological ones such as annoyance, depression, sleep

  14. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....403 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE... services, which may include, but are not limited to, the following: (i) Investigating and reporting on... for assistance in solving the social problems of individuals, families, and children. (5) Coordinating...

  15. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  16. Including Leap Year in the Canonical Birthday Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandor, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest benefit of including leap year in the calculation is not to increase precision, but to show students that a problem can be solved without such presumption. A birthday problem is analyzed showing that calculating a leap-year birthday probability is not a frivolous computation.

  17. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MG van Veen; FDH Koedijk; IVF van der Broek; ELM Op de Coul; IM de Boer; AI van Sighem; MAB van der Sande; soa-centra; Stichting HIV Monitoring; EPI/Cib

    2007-01-01

    The nationally covered low threshold STI centres offering STI care targeted at high risk groups, provide surveillance data to monitor national trends in STI, including HIV. In 2006, chlamydia remained the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in the Netherlands in the STI centres, in spite of

  18. Three-humped fission barrier transmission including vibrational damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabretta, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Ingrao, G.

    1978-01-01

    The total penetrability through a three-humped fission barrier including vibrational damping is calculated by using an optical model for fission. The Bondorf's stationary probability current theory is used for transitions among class-1, class-2 and class-3 phases. A method to calculate the partial-transmission coefficients is developed

  19. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  20. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  1. Including Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Alper, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents five systematic phases for bringing about successful regular education inclusion of students with severe disabilities. Phases include develop networks within the community, assess school and community resources, review strategies for integration, install strategies that lead to integration, and develop a system of feedback and…

  2. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper ...

  3. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  4. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.11 What must an IRP include? (a) General. Integrated resource planning is a planning process for new energy... projected durability of such savings measured over time; and must treat demand and supply resources on a...

  5. LTRACK: Beam-transport calculation including wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Cooper, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    LTRACK is a first-order beam-transport code that includes wakefield effects up to quadrupole modes. This paper will introduce the readers to this computer code by describing the history, the method of calculations, and a brief summary of the input/output information. Future plans for the code will also be described

  6. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  7. 34 CFR 429.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 429.20 Section 429.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS, AND TECHNIQUES PROGRAM...

  8. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  9. Oat have multifunctional uses including animal feed, human food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akademia Rolnicza

    2014-07-11

    Jul 11, 2014 ... Abstract. The objective of the work was to evaluate the influence of genetic and mechanical removal of hulls from oat grains on their nutrient content. The studies included three cultivars and six lines of oat grains. In grain samples of hulled (5 samples), dehulled (5 samples) and naked (4 samples) oats, the ...

  10. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  11. Including the gifted learner: perceptions of South African teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative content analysis revealed the following themes: inclusive education and the learner who is gifted; curriculum differentiation; obstacles to curriculum differentiation; and possible solutions for more effectively including the gifted learner. Despite their diversity in terms of culture, language and positioning by the ...

  12. Payment Services for Global Online Systems Including Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebeck, Bill; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A panel of four conference presenters address issues related to paying for services provided through online systems. Discussion includes the following topics: metering devices; electronic/digital cash; working within existing banking/credit card structures; provision of payment mechanisms in countries without extensive credit card usage; and…

  13. Restructuring the Public School Curriculum To Include Parenting Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…

  14. Can We Include The Third Dimension During Image Mining?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Can We Include The Third Dimension During Image Mining? Retrieve An Image · Content-Based Retrieval · Problem Statement · Slide 5 · CBIR Methodology · Slide 7 · Illustration : Logo Search · Illustration: Arbitrary Query · Limitations · Illustration: Change in View · Slide 12 · Illustration: Depth Variation.

  15. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  16. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  18. How Do We Include Underrepresented Voices in the Sustainability Conversation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virajita Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In a speech given at the Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships 20th Anniversary Statewide Event in the Cargill Building on the St. Paul Campus of the University of Minnesota on November 21, 2017, Virajita Singh, Assistant Vice Provost in the Office for Equity and Diversity, addressed the question, “How do we include underrepresented voices in the sustainability conversation?” The speech describes the work of The Partnerships as observed by the speaker, and its connection to the Design for Community Resilience program. It also introduces the concepts of Partnership and Design Thinking, and suggests a process for including underrepresented voices in the work informed by Design Thinking.  

  19. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Survey of state legislative programs that include passive solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S

    1979-06-01

    This report surveys and evaluates state-level solar-incentive programs, including passive solar energy. The range of programs examined focuses on financial and legal incentives designed to speed the implementation of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. They have been evaluated by probing the wording of the incentive legislation and by interviewing state program administrators in each state to determine: (1) the extent, if any, of passive inclusion in solar-incentive programs, and (2) the level of success that various implementation techniques have achieved for encouraging passive solar designs as opposed to the more-commonly-understood active systems. Because no states have initiated incentive legislation designed exclusively to encourage passive solar techniques, it has been essential to determine whether legislative programs explicitly or implicitly include passive solar or if they explicitly exclude it.

  1. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  2. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: richard.n.grugel@nasa.gov [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  3. QCD Reggeon field theory for every day: Pomeron loops included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Kovner, Alex; Peressutti, Javier; Lublinsky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We derive the evolution equation for hadronic scattering amplitude at high energy. Our derivation includes the nonlinear effects of finite partonic density in the hadronic wave function as well as the effect of multiple scatterings for scattering on dense hadronic target. It thus includes Pomeron loops. It is based on the evolution of the hadronic wave function derived in /cite{foam}. The kernel of the evolution equation defines the second quantized Hamiltonian of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory, H RFT beyond the limits considered so far. The two previously known limits of the evolution: dilute target (JIMWLK limit) and dilute projectile (KLWMIJ limit) are recovered directly from our final result. The Hamiltonian H RFT is applicable for the evolution of scattering amplitude for arbitrarily dense hadronic projectiles/targets - from 'dipole-dipole' to 'nucleus-nucleus' scattering processes.

  4. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming i...

  5. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1985-05-01

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  6. Information to Include in Curriculum Vitae | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applicants are encouraged to use their current curriculum vitae and to add any necessary information. Please include your name and a page number on each page of the curriculum vitae. Some of the information requested below will not be applicable to all individuals. Please do not print or type your information on this page. Personal Information Name (First middle last) Gender (optional) Race (optional) Date of birth Place of birth (city,

  7. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  8. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20% reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launc...

  9. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  10. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  11. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  13. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  14. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  15. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  16. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  17. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izacard, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time scales. The results

  18. Early Course in Obstetrics Increases Likelihood of Practice Including Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Westra, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice. Cross-tabulations with Fisher's exact test were applied and odds ratios calculated for factors affecting likelihood of eventual practice including obstetrics. Participation in the OBLC was successful in increasing exposure, awareness, and comfort in caring for obstetrical patients and feeling more prepared for the OB-GYN Clerkship. A total of 50.5% of course participants felt the OBLC influenced their choice of specialty. For participants who are currently physicians, 51% are practicing family medicine with obstetrics or OB-GYN. Of the cohort of family physicians, 65.2% made the decision whether to include obstetrics in practice during medical school. Odds ratios show the likelihood of practicing obstetrics is higher when participants have completed the OBLC and also are practicing in a rural community. Early exposure to obstetrics, as provided by the OBLC, appears to increase the likelihood of including obstetrics in practice, especially if eventual practice is in a rural community. This course may be a tool to help create a pipeline for future rural family physicians providing obstetrical care.

  19. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  20. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming innovations. The article is of interest to smart farming’s decision makers (from farmers to governance actors and a broader audience – anyone interested in engendering equity through innovation-led societal transitions.

  1. Luminous variable stars with naked eye: data reduction including extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    The observation of variable stars from urban contexts is hampered by city lights and field of view. Some bright stars like Betelgeuse and Antares are visible from the majority of cities, and during clear nights can be accurately estimated with the naked eye. The reference stars should be bright stars, not necessarily at the same altitude, including the atmospheric extinction in the data reduction. The software Stellarium 0.12.4 calculates well the standard atmospheric extinction with stars at least 10 degrees above the horizon. The accuracy of visual estimations is better than 0.1 magnitudes.

  2. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  3. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  4. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  5. Including Torsional Anharmonicity in Canonical and Microcanonical Reaction Path Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-07-09

    We reformulate multistructural variational transition state theory by removing the approximation of calculating torsional anharmonicity only at stationary points. The multistructural method with torsional anharmonicity is applied to calculate the reaction-path free energy of the hydrogen abstraction from the carbon-1 position in isobutanol by OH radical. The torsional potential anharmonicity along the reaction path is taken into account by a coupled torsional potential. The calculations show that it can be critical to include torsional anharmonicity in searching for canonical and microcanonical variational transition states. The harmonic-oscillator approximation fails to yield reasonable free energy curves along the reaction path.

  6. Solution of neutron slowing down equation including multiple inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Saad, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work is devoted the presentation of an analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non absorbing homogeneous medium. On the basis of the Central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. A formula for the flux at any lethargy O (u) after any number of collisions is derived. An equation for the asymptotic flux is also obtained

  7. Computer Simulation of the Solidification Process Including Air Gap Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczak T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach of numerical modelling of alloy solidification in permanent mold and transient heat transport between the casting and the mold in two-dimensional space. The gap of time-dependent width called "air gap", filled with heat conducting gaseous medium is included in the model. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of the gas filling the space between the casting and the mold is small enough to introduce significant thermal resistance into the heat transport process. The mathematical model of heat transport is based on the partial differential equation of heat conduction written independently for the solidifying region and the mold. Appropriate solidification model based on the latent heat of solidification is also included in the mathematical description. These equations are supplemented by appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The formation process of air gap depends on the thermal deformations of the mold and the casting. The numerical model is based on the finite element method (FEM with independent spatial discretization of interacting regions. It results in multi-mesh problem because the considered regions are disconnected.

  8. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  9. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  10. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  11. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  12. Study on 'Tannix' an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ''Tannix'' was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ''Tannix'' was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  13. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  14. APORTACIONES DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EUROPEA INCLUD-ED PARA LA REDUCCIÓN DEL ABANDONO ESCOLAR PREMATURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Padrós Cuxart

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of reducing early school leaving in Europe, with special pressure in Spain, leads to the need of evidence based educational policies and measures. This paper presents measures to prevend and reduce early school leaving that have been identified within the research Project INCLUD-ED. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion in Europe from education. This is the research Project with a higher level and resources developed  since now  in Europe regarding school education. The identified solutions are already being addressed in documents of the European Commission, such as the recent Communication to the European Parliament "Tackiling early school leaving: a key contribution to the Europe 2020 Agenda".

  15. PASCAL for engineers: A course including OMEGASOFT PASCAL for microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    These are the notes of a PASCAL course for controls engineers at CERN. The course starts with 'Standard Pascal' and includes OMEGASOFT Pascal, a powerful extension of Pascal towards real-time and systems applications. It demonstrates how a language such as Pascal, with adequate extensions for systems programming and embedded microprocessor-driven systems, can substantially increase the productivity of programmers and the reliability of their products. Also enhanced will be the legibility of the programs and their maintainability, since programming in Pascal automatically leads to autodocumentation. Simple examples show how OMEGASOFT-PASCAL can be used for efficient programming of embedded systems for real-time data acquisition and control using the MC6809 microprocessor. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    blades and includes the effect of centrifugal stiffening due to rotation. The foundation of the structure is modeled as a rigid gravity based foundation with two DOF whose movement is related to the surrounding soil by means of complex impedance functions generated using cone model. Transfer functions...... for displacement of the turbine system are obtained and the modal frequencies of the combined turbine-foundation system are estimated. Simulations are presented for the MDOF turbine structure subjected to wind loading for different soil stiffness conditions. Steady state and turbulent wind loading, developed using...... blade element momentum theory and the Kaimal spectrum, have been considered. Soil stiffness and damping properties acquired from DNV/Risø standards are used as a comparison. The soil-structure interaction is shown to affect the response of the wind turbine. This is examined in terms of the turbine...

  17. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  18. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  19. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  20. Benefits of including methane measurements in selection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Oddy, V H

    2016-09-01

    Estimates of genetic/phenotypic covariances and economic values for slaughter weight, growth, feed intake and efficiency, and three potential methane traits were compiled to explore the effect of incorporating methane measurements in breeding objectives for cattle and meat sheep. The cost of methane emissions was assumed to be zero (scenario A), A$476/t (based on A$14/t CO equivalent and methane's 100-yr global warming potential [GWP] of 34; scenario B), or A$2,580/t (A$30/t CO equivalent combined with methane's 20-yr GWP of 86; scenario C). Methane traits were methane yield (MY; methane production divided by feed intake based on measurements over 1 d in respiration chambers) or short-term measurements of methane production adjusted for live weight (MPadjWt) in grazing animals, e.g., 40-60 min measurements in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) on 1 or 3 occasions, or measurements for 1 wk using a GreenFeed Emissions Monitor (GEM) on 1 or 3 occasions. Feed costs included the cost of maintaining the breeding herd and growth from weaning to slaughter. Sheep were assumed to be grown and finished on pasture (A$50/t DM). Feed costs for cattle included 365 d on pasture for the breeding herd and averages of 200 d postweaning grow-out on pasture and 100 d feedlot finishing. The greatest benefit of including methane in the breeding objective for both sheep and cattle was as a proxy for feed intake. For cattle, 3 GEM measurements were estimated to increase profit from 1 round of selection in scenario A (no payment for methane) by A$6.24/animal (from A$20.69 to A$26.93) because of reduced feed costs relative to gains in slaughter weight and by A$7.16 and A$12.09/animal, respectively, for scenarios B and C, which have payments for reduced methane emissions. For sheep, the improvements were more modest. Returns from 1 round of selection (no methane measurements) were A$5.06 (scenario A), A$4.85 (scenario B), and A$3.89 (scenario C) compared to A$5.26 (scenario A), A$5

  1. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  2. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  3. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  4. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  5. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two...

  6. Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsch H.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.

  7. Assessing bias in osteoarthritis trials included in Cochrane reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Bolvig; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Boutron, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    the first appearing forest plot for overall pain in the Cochrane review. Treatment effect sizes will be expressed as standardised mean differences (SMDs), where the difference in mean values available from the forest plots is divided by the pooled SD. To empirically assess the risk of bias in treatment......INTRODUCTION: The validity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis depends on methodological quality and unbiased dissemination of trials. Our objective is to evaluate the association of estimates of treatment effects with different bias-related study characteristics in meta...... benefits, we will perform stratified analyses of the trials from the included meta-analyses and assess the interaction between trial characteristics and treatment effect. A relevant study-level covariate is defined as one that decreases the between-study variance (τ(2), estimated as Tau...

  8. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  9. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  10. Optimage central organised image quality control including statistics and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, A.; Schilz, C.; Shannoun, F.; Schreiner, A.; Hermen, J.; Moll, C.

    2008-01-01

    Quality control of medical imaging systems is performed using dedicated phantoms. As the imaging systems are more and more digital, adequate image processing methods might help to save evaluation time and to receive objective results. The developed software package OPTIMAGE is focusing on this with a central approach: On one hand, OPTIMAGE provides a framework, which includes functions like database integration, DICOM data sources, multilingual user interface and image processing functionality. On the other hand, the test methods are implemented using modules which are able to process the images automatically for the common imaging systems. The integration of statistics and reporting into this environment is paramount: This is the only way to provide these functions in an interactive, user-friendly way. These features enable the users to discover degradation in performance quickly and document performed measurements easily. (authors)

  11. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  12. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  13. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  14. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  15. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  16. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  17. Internet interventions for chronic pain including headache: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Buhrman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a major health problem and behavioral based treatments have been shown to be effective. However, the availability of these kinds of treatments is scarce and internet-based treatments have been shown to be promising in this area. The objective of the present systematic review is to evaluate internet-based interventions for persons with chronic pain. The specific aims are to do an updated review with a broad inclusion of different chronic pain diagnoses and to assess disability and pain and also measures of catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. A systematic search identified 891 studies and 22 trials were selected as eligible for review. Two of the selected trials included children/youth and five included individuals with chronic headache and/or migraine. The most frequently measured domain reflected in the primary outcomes was interference/disability, followed by catastrophizing. Result across the studies showed a number of beneficial effects. Twelve trials reported significant effects on disability/interference outcomes and pain intensity. Positive effects were also found on psychological variable such as catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. Several studies (n = 12 were assessed to have an unclear level of risk bias. The attrition levels ranged from 4% to 54% where the headache trials had the highest drop-out levels. However, findings suggest that internet-based treatments based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT are efficacious measured with different outcome variables. Results are in line with trials in clinical settings. Meta-analytic statistics were calculated for interference/disability, pain intensity, catastrophizing and mood ratings. Results showed that the effect size for interference/disability was Hedge's g = −0.39, for pain intensity Hedge's g = −0.33, for catastrophizing Hedge's g = −0.49 and for mood variables (depression Hedge's g = −0.26.

  18. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  19. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  20. Solving the high energy evolution equation including running coupling corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2007-01-01

    We study the solution of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation with the recently calculated running coupling corrections [I. I. Balitsky, Phys. Rev. D 75, 014001 (2007). and Y. Kovchegov and H. Weigert, Nucl. Phys. A784, 188 (2007).]. Performing a numerical solution we confirm the earlier result of Albacete et al. [Phys. Rev. D 71, 014003 (2005).] (obtained by exploring several possible scales for the running coupling) that the high energy evolution with the running coupling leads to a universal scaling behavior for the dipole-nucleus scattering amplitude, which is independent of the initial conditions. It is important to stress that the running coupling corrections calculated recently significantly change the shape of the scaling function as compared to the fixed coupling case, in particular, leading to a considerable increase in the anomalous dimension and to a slow-down of the evolution with rapidity. We then concentrate on elucidating the differences between the two recent calculations of the running coupling corrections. We explain that the difference is due to an extra contribution to the evolution kernel, referred to as the subtraction term, which arises when running coupling corrections are included. These subtraction terms were neglected in both recent calculations. We evaluate numerically the subtraction terms for both calculations, and demonstrate that when the subtraction terms are added back to the evolution kernels obtained in the two works the resulting dipole amplitudes agree with each other. We then use the complete running coupling kernel including the subtraction term to find the numerical solution of the resulting full nonlinear evolution equation with the running coupling corrections. Again the scaling regime is recovered at very large rapidity with the scaling function unaltered by the subtraction term

  1. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  2. STXBP1 encephalopathy: A neurodevelopmental disorder including epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamberger, Hannah; Nikanorova, Marina; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Accorsi, Patrizia; Angriman, Marco; Baier, Hartmut; Benkel-Herrenbrueck, Ira; Benoit, Valérie; Budetta, Mauro; Caliebe, Almuth; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Casara, Gianluca; Courage, Carolina; Deprez, Marie; Destrée, Anne; Dilena, Robertino; Erasmus, Corrie E; Fannemel, Madeleine; Fjær, Roar; Giordano, Lucio; Helbig, Katherine L; Heyne, Henrike O; Klepper, Joerg; Kluger, Gerhard J; Lederer, Damien; Lodi, Monica; Maier, Oliver; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Michelberger, Nina; Minetti, Carlo; Muhle, Hiltrud; Phalin, Judith; Ramsey, Keri; Romeo, Antonino; Schallner, Jens; Schanze, Ina; Shinawi, Marwan; Sleegers, Kristel; Sterbova, Katalin; Syrbe, Steffen; Traverso, Monica; Tzschach, Andreas; Uldall, Peter; Van Coster, Rudy; Verhelst, Helene; Viri, Maurizio; Winter, Susan; Wolff, Markus; Zenker, Martin; Zoccante, Leonardo; De Jonghe, Peter; Helbig, Ingo; Striano, Pasquale; Lemke, Johannes R; Møller, Rikke S; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2016-03-08

    To give a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of STXBP1 encephalopathy (STXBP1-E) by systematically reviewing newly diagnosed and previously reported patients. We recruited newly diagnosed patients with STXBP1 mutations through an international network of clinicians and geneticists. Furthermore, we performed a systematic literature search to review the phenotypes of all previously reported patients. We describe the phenotypic features of 147 patients with STXBP1-E including 45 previously unreported patients with 33 novel STXBP1 mutations. All patients have intellectual disability (ID), which is mostly severe to profound (88%). Ninety-five percent of patients have epilepsy. While one-third of patients presented with Ohtahara syndrome (21%) or West syndrome (9.5%), the majority has a nonsyndromic early-onset epilepsy and encephalopathy (53%) with epileptic spasms or tonic seizures as main seizure type. We found no correlation between severity of seizures and severity of ID or between mutation type and seizure characteristics or cognitive outcome. Neurologic comorbidities including autistic features and movement disorders are frequent. We also report 2 previously unreported adult patients with prominent extrapyramidal features. De novo STXBP1 mutations are among the most frequent causes of epilepsy and encephalopathy. Most patients have severe to profound ID with little correlation among seizure onset, seizure severity, and the degree of ID. Accordingly, we hypothesize that seizure severity and ID present 2 independent dimensions of the STXBP1-E phenotype. STXBP1-E may be conceptualized as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder rather than a primary epileptic encephalopathy. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  4. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Van Dongen, M.J.; Hampton, A.S.; Komatsu, C.H.; Trowell, K.T.; Havas, K.C.; Davis, C.M.; DeSanto, C.L. [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Hays, K.; Wagner, M.J. [Chemistry Department, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052 United States (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, T{sub max} and χ{sub max}, ordering temperatures T{sub c}, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that T{sub max} of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD{sub 2}O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser T{sub max} than do nH{sub 2}O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these. - Highlights: • The magnetism of Ni(II) chloride and bromide dihydrates and monohydrates is studied. • Effects of replacing H{sub 2}O by D{sub 2}O are examined for both hydration states and both halides. • Exchange interactions in bromides are weaker than in corresponding chlorides. • Exchange interactions are weaker in D{sub 2}O than in corresponding H{sub 2}O containing systems. • The unit cell of NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O.

  5. Including geological information in the inverse problem of palaeothermal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A reliable reconstruction of sediment thermal history is of central importance to the assessment of hydrocarbon potential and the understanding of basin evolution. However, only rarely do sedimentation history and borehole data in the form of present day temperatures and vitrinite reflectance constrain the past thermal evolution to a useful level of accuracy (Gallagher and Sambridge,1992; Nielsen,1998; Trautner and Nielsen,2003). This is reflected in the inverse solutions to the problem of determining heat flow history from borehole data: The recent heat flow is constrained by data while older values are governed by the chosen a prior heat flow. In this paper we reduce this problem by including geological information in the inverse problem. Through a careful analysis of geological and geophysical data the timing of the tectonic processes, which may influence heat flow, can be inferred. The heat flow history is then parameterised to allow for the temporal variations characteristic of the different tectonic events. The inversion scheme applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach (Nielsen and Gallagher, 1999; Ferrero and Gallagher,2002), which efficiently explores the model space and futhermore samples the posterior probability distribution of the model. The technique is demonstrated on wells in the northern North Sea with emphasis on the stretching event in Late Jurassic. The wells are characterised by maximum sediment temperature at the present day, which is the worst case for resolution of the past thermal history because vitrinite reflectance is determined mainly by the maximum temperature. Including geological information significantly improves the thermal resolution. Ferrero, C. and Gallagher,K.,2002. Stochastic thermal history modelling.1. Constraining heat flow histories and their uncertainty. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, 633-648. Gallagher,K. and Sambridge, M., 1992. The resolution of past heat flow in sedimentary basins from non-linear inversion

  6. The protean nature of Whipple's disease includes multiorgan arteriopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T N

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge about the arterial abnormalities in Whipple's disease can be useful for our better understanding of both Whipple's disease and the more general question of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. There are several notable morphological features of Whipple's arteriopathy. First, it appears to involve primarily arteries one millimeter or less in diameter. Second, there is very little evidence of inflammation accompanying invasion of any or all three layers of the walls of affected arteries, and there is almost no evidence of local attraction of platelets to these sites of arterial injury. Third, the nature of arterial injury appears to be one of slow progression. The few sites of actual arteritis are most likely attributable to some other coinciding microbial organism not yet identified. Although the arteriopathy in Whipple's disease is seen mainly in small arteries (the aorta is a notable exception), their significance can be illustrated by consideration of this fact as it applies to the coronary circulation (and probably the arteries of all other organs). In the heart these small arteries comprise almost the entire collateral circulation, the principal blood supply to each component of the conduction system, and most pragmatically, these small arteries represent the terminal distribution of every larger epicardial artery. Small arteries are important. The "cardiomyopathy" so often a feature of Whipple's disease (very much including his original case) is most logically attributable to recurring bouts of focal ischemia and subsequent focal fibrosis ending in myocardial incompetence. However, direct bacillary invasion of cardiac myocytes (22) also occurs. In lamina propria of jejunum, there is also arteriopathy, as there is in brain, lung, kidney, spleen, liver, gall bladder, rectum, stomach, lymph nodes and testis. It is likely that no organ in the body is spared. There is growing evidence that a wide variety of chronic infections (occurring concomitantly or

  7. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  8. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  9. Understanding type 2 diabetes: including the family member's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members. METHODS: A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions. RESULTS: When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

  10. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  12. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  13. Falling vertical chain of oscillators, including collisions, damping, and pretensioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, R. H.; Borum, A. D.; Holmes, D. P.; Dillard, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    A chain of point masses connected by linear springs and sometimes dashpots is considered. The chain hangs in a vertical equilibrium configuration, held by its top mass. Then the top mass is released, and the chain falls. Internal damping, modeled by the dashpots, causes the bottom mass to move faster. As the system falls, upper masses sometimes accelerate faster than gravitational acceleration, and collisions may occur between adjacent masses. The types of collisions treated here include elastic, inelastic, and perfectly inelastic (in which colliding masses often stick together thereafter). The unstretched lengths of the springs, and a compressive force caused by pretensioning, may significantly affect the characteristics of the motion. Analytical and numerical results are presented for cases involving a few masses, and some generalizations are made for systems with an arbitrary number of masses. Also, the vertical chain may be used to model the motion of a falling Slinky after release at its top end. The bottom of the continuous Slinky does not move until the coils above it have collapsed onto it, and the collapse time is estimated here using the discrete chain model. For a metal Slinky with 86 masses, the estimated time is close to that previously obtained by a continuous elastic analysis.

  14. Cosmological constraints on the neutrino mass including systematic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchot, F.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Perdereau, O.; Plaszczynski, S.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Spinelli, M.; Tristram, M.

    2017-10-01

    When combining cosmological and oscillations results to constrain the neutrino sector, the question of the propagation of systematic uncertainties is often raised. We address this issue in the context of the derivation of an upper bound on the sum of the neutrino masses (Σmν) with recent cosmological data. This work is performed within the ΛCDM model extended to Σmν, for which we advocate the use of three mass-degenerate neutrinos. We focus on the study of systematic uncertainties linked to the foregrounds modelling in cosmological microwave background (CMB) data analysis, and on the impact of the present knowledge of the reionisation optical depth. This is done through the use of different likelihoods built from Planck data. Limits on Σmν are derived with various combinations of data, including the latest baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) results. We also discuss the impact of the preference for current CMB data for amplitudes of the gravitational lensing distortions higher than expected within the ΛCDM model, and add the Planck CMB lensing. We then derive a robust upper limit: Σmνcosmological parameters is also reported, for different assumptions on the neutrino mass repartition, and different high and low multipole CMB likelihoods.

  15. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  16. Apparatus including concave reflectors and a line of optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus including a radiation source which emits in a multiplicity of directions for focusing radiation on an object which may receive radiation within a certain solid angle. It comprises a first reflector and a second reflector, the first reflector being elliptical in cross section and having a first focus and a second focus, the second reflector being circular in cross section and having a center, and a radius equal to the distance between the second reflector and the first focus, the first reflector and the second reflector being arranged so that a concave reflecting surface of the first reflector faces a concave reflecting surface of the second reflector, and so arranged that the first focus of the first reflector corresponds to the center of the second reflector, the radiation source being an elongated discharge bulb, the object being a group of two or more optical fibers defining at least one line of optical fibers which are located at the second focus of the first reflector

  17. Efficient Algorithms for Electrostatic Interactions Including Dielectric Contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coarse-grained models of soft matter are usually combined with implicit solvent models that take the electrostatic polarizability into account via a dielectric background. In biophysical or nanoscale simulations that include water, this constant can vary greatly within the system. Performing molecular dynamics or other simulations that need to compute exact electrostatic interactions between charges in those systems is computationally demanding. We review here several algorithms developed by us that perform exactly this task. For planar dielectric surfaces in partial periodic boundary conditions, the arising image charges can be either treated with the MMM2D algorithm in a very efficient and accurate way or with the electrostatic layer correction term, which enables the user to use his favorite 3D periodic Coulomb solver. Arbitrarily-shaped interfaces can be dealt with using induced surface charges with the induced charge calculation (ICC* algorithm. Finally, the local electrostatics algorithm, MEMD(Maxwell Equations Molecular Dynamics, even allows one to employ a smoothly varying dielectric constant in the systems. We introduce the concepts of these three algorithms and an extension for the inclusion of boundaries that are to be held fixed at a constant potential (metal conditions. For each method, we present a showcase application to highlight the importance of dielectric interfaces.

  18. Pubertal induction in hypogonadism: Current approaches including use of gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Primary disorders of the gonad or those secondary to abnormalities of the hypothalamic pituitary axis result in hypogonadism. The range of health problems of childhood and adolescence that affect this axis has increased, as most children now survive chronic illness, but many have persisting deficits in gonadal function as a result of their underlying condition or its treatment. An integrated approach to hormone replacement is needed to optimize adult hormonal and bone health, and to offer opportunities for fertility induction and preservation that were not considered possible in the past. Timing of presentation ranges from birth, with disorders of sexual development, through adolescent pubertal failure, to adult fertility problems. This review addresses diagnosis and management of hypogonadism and focuses on new management strategies to address current concerns with fertility preservation. These include Turner syndrome, and fertility presevation prior to childhood cancer treatment. New strategies for male hormone replacement therapy that may impinge upon future fertility are emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  20. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  1. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  2. Kalaeloa Energy System Redevelopment Options Including Advanced Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanderMey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In June 2016, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Branch for the Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO), the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), the United States Navy (Navy), and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) established a project to 1) assess the current functionality of the energy infrastructure at the Kalaeloa Community Development District, and 2) evaluate options to use both existing and new distributed and renewable energy generation and storage resources within advanced microgrid frameworks to cost-effectively enhance energy security and reliability for critical stakeholder needs during both short-term and extended electric power outages. This report discusses the results of a stakeholder workshop and associated site visits conducted by Sandia in October 2016 to identify major Kalaeloa stakeholder and tenant energy issues, concerns, and priorities. The report also documents information on the performance and cost benefits of a range of possible energy system improvement options including traditional electric grid upgrade approaches, advanced microgrid upgrades, and combined grid/microgrid improvements. The costs and benefits of the different improvement options are presented, comparing options to see how well they address the energy system reliability, sustainability, and resiliency priorities identified by the Kalaeloa stakeholders.

  3. Advocacy for women's health should include lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Dibble, Suzanne L; Hagan, H Jennifer J; Davids, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    Although research confirms that homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexuality, established scientific studies are often not reflected in laws and judicial opinions for lesbians with regard to employment, taxation, pensions, disability, healthcare, immigration, military service, marriage, custody, and adoption. The expression of homosexual attraction or behavior is sometimes met by disdain or violence. Psychological and epidemiological research confirms that the public discriminatory attitudes and second-class legal status cause physical, emotional, and financial harm to lesbians, their families, and their children. Some lesbians experience discrimination in healthcare and avoid routine primary healthcare. To decrease the harm, and improve the health of lesbians, medical institutions can include sexual orientation and gender identity in their nondiscrimination policies and offer domestic partner coverage in employment benefits. Our specialty societies should review current laws and judicial opinions and advocate for change. Further, specialty societies can effect change by issuing policy statements about issues of orientation and by writing orientation/identity curricula for public schools, colleges, and postcollegiate education to improve their accuracy, reduce sexually transmitted diseases, delay sexual activity, and reduce morbidity from homophobic violence.

  4. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  5. Nuclear resonance apparatus including means for rotating a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus including magnet apparatus for generating a homogeneous static magnetic field between its magnetic poles, shims of a magnetic substance mounted on the magnetic poles to apply a first gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in a direction orthogonal as to the direction of line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field, gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus for generating a second gradient magnetic field having a gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in superimposition with the static magnetic field and for changing the magnetic field gradient of the first gradient magnetic field, an oscillator for generating an oscillating output having a frequency corresponding to the nuclear magnetic resonance condition of an atomic nucleus to be measured, a coil wound around a body to be examined for applying the output of said oscillator as electromagnetic waves upon the body, a receiver for detecting the nuclear magnetic resonance signals received by the coil, a gradient magnetic field controller making a magnetic field line equivalent to the combined gradient magnetic fields and for rotating the line along the section of the body to be examined by controlling said gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus and devices for recording the nuclear magnetic resonance signals, for reconstructing the concentration distribution of the specific atomic nuclei in the section of the body, and a display unit for depicting the result of reconstruction

  6. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  7. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  8. Why include phenomenological analysis in a Research Methods course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana R

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines for Spanish university curricula include the descriptor Quantitative and Qualitative Methods, but the latter are still poorly represented. To inform the argument for phenomenological methods, the last 20-year interval of ISI databases has been content-analyzed with the following codes: discourse analysis, grounded theory, narrative analysis, phenomenological analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, that is, four qualitative methods and a prototypical quantitative one. In absolute terms, the most frequent qualitative method is grounded theory, followed by discourse analysis, phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. However, taking into account content categories, only phenomenological analysis shows a clear psychological profile, similar to confirmatory factor analysis. We recommend starting qualitative training with a method that does not require either big groups, or big funding, and that has a procedural core that is simple, relatively well-delimited and "secularizable," a variety of thematic analysis. Historical reasons and the clear psychological profile evidenced by our results enhance our argument to foster the inclusion of phenomenological analysis in research method courses in psychology.

  9. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  10. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  11. Four new massive pulsating white dwarfs including an ultramassive DAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curd, Brandon; Gianninas, A.; Bell, Keaton J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Romero, A. D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of four massive (M > 0.8 M⊙) ZZ Ceti white dwarfs, including an ultramassive 1.16 M⊙ star. We obtained ground-based, time series photometry for 13 white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and Data Release 10 whose atmospheric parameters place them within the ZZ Ceti instability strip. We detect monoperiodic pulsations in three of our targets (J1015, J1554 and J2038) and identify three periods of pulsation in J0840 (173, 327 and 797 s). Fourier analysis of the remaining nine objects does not indicate variability above the 4 detection threshold. Our preliminary asteroseismic analysis of J0840 yields a stellar mass M = 1.14 ± 0.01 M⊙, hydrogen and helium envelope masses of MH = 5.8 × 10-7 M⊙ and MHe = 4.5 × 10-4 M⊙ and an expected core crystallized mass ratio of 50-70 per cent. J1015, J1554 and J2038 have masses in the range 0.84-0.91 M⊙ and are expected to have a CO core; however, the core of J0840 could consist of highly crystallized CO or ONeMg given its high mass. These newly discovered massive pulsators represent a significant increase in the number of known ZZ Ceti white dwarfs with mass M > 0.85 M⊙, and detailed asteroseismic modelling of J0840 will allow for significant tests of crystallization theory in CO and ONeMg core white dwarfs.

  12. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  13. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (including the orbit): results of orbital irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, B.; Haik, B.G.; Ong, R.; Ghavimi, F.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with parameningeal (including orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)) were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) between July 1971 and January 1983. Twenty were children with a mean age of 6 and 3 were adults. In 6 patients, the primary tumor was from the orbit, whereas the remaining 17 had other parameningeal primary sites. The tumors were in a very progressive local stage, with extensive destruction of the facial bones in 19 patients. Eight patients were treated with T2 chemotherapy protocol and 15 received T6. Seven patients received 5,000 to 7,200 rad delivered to the primary tumor in 11-16 weeks, 15 patients received between 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4-7 weeks, and 1 patient received 3,000 rad in 3 weeks for residual microscopic disease following surgery. Two patients were treated with radiation to the whole brain; no patients received radiation of the whole central nervous axis (CNA). Fifteen of the 23 patients (65%) are alive and well with a medical follow-up time of 5 years. Two patients died of therapeutic complications and six died of tumor spread. In five patients, involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) was the cause of death. The prognosis of orbital RMS with parameningeal involvement is no better than in other tumors of parameningeal sites. In those patients who had impaired vision because of optic nerve damage prior to treatment, the vision did not improve following treatment. There was no impaired vision seen due to radiation damage of eye structures except in the lens

  14. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Medina, J A; Trelles, O

    2016-10-25

    DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR), the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP) is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB) and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  15. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  16. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  17. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  18. How Might Industry Governance Be Broadened To Include Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Broadening industry governance to support nonproliferation could provide significant new leverage in preventing the spread/diversion of nuclear, radiological, or dual-use material or technology that could be used in making a nuclear or radiological weapon. Industry is defined broadly to include (1) the nuclear industry, (2) dual-use industries, and (3) radioactive source manufacturers and selected radioactive source-user industries worldwide. This paper describes how industry can be an important first line of defense in detecting and thwarting proliferation, such as an illicit trade network or an insider theft case, by complementing and strengthening existing governmental efforts. For example, the dual-use industry can play a critical role by providing export, import, or security control information that would allow a government or the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to integrate this information with safeguards, export, import, and physical protection information it has to create a more complete picture of the potential for proliferation. Because industry is closest to users of the goods and technology that could be illicitly diverted throughout the supply chain, industry information can potentially be more timely and accurate than other sources of information. Industry is in an ideal position to help ensure that such illicit activities are detected. This role could be performed more effectively if companies worked together within a particular industry to promote nonproliferation by implementing an industry-wide self-regulation program. Performance measures could be used to ensure their materials and technologies are secure throughout the supply chain and that customers are legitimately using and/or maintaining oversight of these items. Nonproliferation is the overarching driver that industry needs to consider in adopting and implementing a self-regulation approach. A few foreign companies have begun such an approach to date; it is believed that

  19. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    criticism. Generating unique variance in irony detection, ironic praise can be postulated as worthwhile to include in future studies—especially when studying the role of mental ability, personality, and humor in irony detection.

  20. Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Karla

    2012-04-10

    ITGs and TEMs in a tokamak configuration. The results show that collisions reduce the growth rate of slab ITGs in cylinder geometry, whereas they do not affect ITGs in a tokamak, which are mainly curvature-driven. However it is important to note that the pitch-angle scattering operator does not conserve momentum, which is most critical in the parallel direction. Therefore, the damping found in a cylinder could be the consequence of this missing feature and not a physical result [Dimits and Cohen 1994]. Nonetheless, the results are useful to determine whether the instability is mainly being driven by a slab or toroidal ITG mode. EUTERPE also has the feature of including kinetic electrons, which made simulations of TEMs with collisions possible. The combination of collisions and kinetic electrons made the numerical calculations extremely time-consuming, since the time step had to be small enough to resolve the fast electron motion. In contrast to the ITG results, it was observed that collisions are extremely important for TEMs in a tokamak, and in some special cases, depending on whether they were mainly driven by density or temperature gradients, collisions could even suppress the mode (in agreement with [Angioni et al. 2005, Connor et al. 2006]). In the case of stellarators it was found that ITGs are highly dependent on the device configuration. For LHD it was shown that collisions slightly reduce the growth rate of the instability, but for Wendelstein 7-X they do not affect it and the growth rate showed a similar trend with collisionality to that of the tokamak case. Collisions also tend to make the ballooning structure of the modes less pronounced.

  1. Prioritization of Soil Conservation Measures using Erodibility Indices ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    Central Agricultural University. Ranipool; (E) Sikkim- 737135 (INDIA). Email: kusrebharat@gmail.com .... administrative restrictions. A total of 33 samples were collected from the district. Dumroese et ... not be accessed due to administrative restriction. Keeping these points in mind it is considered that the sample size is ...

  2. Professional Drift, "Yahweh Complex" Erode J-Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Sam G.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes that journalism education in general has been drifting in a strong research current for some years and is at present uncertain how to treat growing opposition by professional journalists to such a research emphasis. (RL)

  3. Homeschooling, Virtual Learning, and the Eroding Public/Private Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiger, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Regulators ubiquitously dichotomize schooling into two discrete sectors: "public" and "private". Although homeschooling is regulated in some contexts as a third sector, the general approach is to treat it as a species of private education by subjecting it to public regulation while simultaneously denying it public funds. But…

  4. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and sediment transport modelling in a curved channel (Chang 1988). ... spiral motion of the flow directed normal to the main flow and the super-elevation of the water surface. The secondary current, which develops upon entering a channel bend, will eventually ... from flume studies and calibrated using the river data.

  5. Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew G; Wolf, Christopher; Ripple, William J; Phalan, Ben; Millers, Kimberley A; Duarte, Adam; Butchart, Stuart H M; Levi, Taal

    2017-07-27

    Global biodiversity loss is a critical environmental crisis, yet the lack of spatial data on biodiversity threats has hindered conservation strategies. Theory predicts that abrupt biodiversity declines are most likely to occur when habitat availability is reduced to very low levels in the landscape (10-30%). Alternatively, recent evidence indicates that biodiversity is best conserved by minimizing human intrusion into intact and relatively unfragmented landscapes. Here we use recently available forest loss data to test deforestation effects on International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List categories of extinction risk for 19,432 vertebrate species worldwide. As expected, deforestation substantially increased the odds of a species being listed as threatened, undergoing recent upgrading to a higher threat category and exhibiting declining populations. More importantly, we show that these risks were disproportionately high in relatively intact landscapes; even minimal deforestation has had severe consequences for vertebrate biodiversity. We found little support for the alternative hypothesis that forest loss is most detrimental in already fragmented landscapes. Spatial analysis revealed high-risk hot spots in Borneo, the central Amazon and the Congo Basin. In these regions, our model predicts that 121-219 species will become threatened under current rates of forest loss over the next 30 years. Given that only 17.9% of these high-risk areas are formally protected and only 8.9% have strict protection, new large-scale conservation efforts to protect intact forests are necessary to slow deforestation rates and to avert a new wave of global extinctions.

  6. Parameterization of erodibility in the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The magnitude of erosion from a hillslope is governed by the availability of sediment and connectivity of runoff and erosion processes. For undisturbed rangelands, sediment is primarily detached and transported by rainsplash and sheetflow (splash-sheet) processes in isolated bare batches, but sedime...

  7. Using Inflation to Erode the U.S. Public Debt

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Marion, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    As a share of GDP, the U.S. Federal debt held by the public exceeds 50 percent in FY2009, the highest debt ratio since 1955. Projections indicate the debt ratio may be in the 70- 100 percent range within ten years. In many respects, the temptation to inflate away some of this debt burden is similar to that at the end of World War II. In 1946, the debt ratio was 108.6 percent. Inflation reduced this ratio about 40 percent within a decade. Yet there are some important differences –short...

  8. Using inflation to erode the US public debt

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Marion, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    As a share of GDP, the U.S. Federal debt held by the public exceeds 50 percent in FY2009, the highest debt ratio since 1955. Projections indicate the debt ratio may be in the 70-100 percent range within ten years. In many respects, the temptation to inflate away some of this debt burden is similar to that at the end of World War II. In 1946, the debt ratio was 108.6 percent. Inflation reduced this ratio about 40 percent within a decade. Yet there are some important differences -shorter debt m...

  9. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration follows a power function with normalized depth. Average bed-material concentration at the reach level is computed from observed sediment profiles, and is compared against various sediment transport functions. Results show that the sediment transport function ...

  10. sessment of ground water contamination in Erode District, Tamilnadu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 6 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. bioremediation of an erodable soil inoculated with erathworms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ertugrul ESMERAY

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... 4316 Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 2. Winter season, activity concentrations of gross alpha and gross beta in water supplies samples in Konya city. (Esmeray and Aydın,2006). Sample location α Radioactivity (Bq/l) β Radioactivity (Bq/l). Apa Dam. 0.072 ± 0.0023. 0.20 ± 0.004. Anit. 0.079 ± 0.0026. 0.08 ± 0.004.

  12. Journalism and science: how to erode the idea of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of the relationship between the scientific community and the public at large. Inspired by the European public debate on genetically modified crops and food, ethical challenges to the scientific community are highlighted. This is done by a discussion of changes that are likely to occur to journalistic attitudes--mirroring changing attitudes in the wider society--towards science and scientific researchers. Two journalistic conventions--those of science transmission and of investigative journalism--are presented and discussed in relation to the present drive towards commercialization within the world of science: how are journalists from these different schools of thought likely to respond to the trend of commercialization? Likely journalistic reactions could, while maintaining the authority of the scientific method, be expected to undermine public trust in scientists. In the long term, this may lead to an erosion of the idea of knowledge as something that cannot simply be reduced to the outcome of negotiation between stakeholders. It is argued that science is likely to be depicted as a fallen angel. This may be countered, it is posited, by science turning human, by recognizing its membership of society, and by recognizing that such membership entails more than just commercial relations. To rethink its relationship with the public at large--and, in particular, to rethink the ideal of disinterested science--is an ethical challenge facing the scientific community.

  13. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Local variation of sediment transport is primarily controlled by active bank erosion, land spur and sand bar formation. Vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration follows a power function with normalized depth. Average bed-material concentration at the reach level is computed from observed sediment profiles, ...

  14. Sediment transport in an active erodible channel bend of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spatial variation of sediment transport in an alluvial sand-bed river bend needs to be understood with ... Local variation of sediment transport is primarily controlled by active bank erosion, land spur and sand bar ..... of Water, Environment, Energy and Society (WEES)-2009, New Delhi, India, 1670–1676. Karmaker T, Dutta S ...

  15. Rainfall pattern effects on crusting, infiltration and erodibility in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainfall characteristics affect crust formation, infiltration rate and erosion depending on intrinsic soil properties such as texture and mineralogy. The current study investigated the effects of rainfall pattern on crust strength, steady state infiltration rate (SSIR) and erosion in soils with various texture and minerals. Soil samples ...

  16. Will drought erode the competitiveness of Australia's wine industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Glyn Wittwer

    2008-01-01

    Australia's 2007 vintage was smaller than the previous few vintages as a consequence of drought and frost in 2006. Then the worst happened in the following year with an unprecedented second year of drought that resulted in severe cuts to water allocations for irrigators in the southern Murray-Darling Basin. This paper examines the medium-term prospects for the Australian wine industry using global projections to 2016 with the World Wine Model. The international growth prospects of commercial-...

  17. assessment of soil wash and soil erodibility indices on miniature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    1976-02-03

    Feb 3, 1976 ... Greenwich Meridian in the savanna region with Aw type of climate. The study site at ... negative geomorphic processes such as accelerated .... The Aw climate is characterised by six months dry season from. November to April and six months rainy season from May to October. The vegetation is southern.

  18. Invasive plant erodes local song diversity in a migratory passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; Aubree Benson; Erick Greene

    2014-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions threaten ecosystems globally, but we still know little about the specific consequences for animals. Invasive plants can alter the quality of breeding habitat for songbirds, thereby impacting important demographic traits such as dispersal, philopatry, and age structure. These demographic effects may in turn alter song-learning conditions to affect...

  19. Assessing The Ecological Status Of Woody Plant Species At Eroded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woody plant species up to 0.10 m and above in height growing in and within 0.5 m from the edges of ten gully erosion areas of Abia and Imo states of Nigeria were enumerated in January and July 2000 through July 2003. Questionnaires were served to find the causal factors of each gully. The plants were enumerated and ...

  20. Characterization of electro-eroded surface of Ti alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, V.; Peřina, Vratislav; Bačáková, Lucie; Jirka, Ivan; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Fencl, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, - (2008), 012004-012004 E-ISSN 1742-6596 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/06/0226; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN101120701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Ti alloys * surface properties * bone implants Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  1. The effects of gender, age, ethnicity, and liver cirrhosis on cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes and inducibility in cultured human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, Andrew; Mudra, Daniel R.; Johnson, Cory; Dwyer, Anne; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in nearly 150 samples of human liver microsomes and 64 samples of cryopreserved human hepatocytes, and we have performed induction studies in over 90 preparations of cultured human hepatocytes. We have analyzed these data to examine whether the expression of CYP enzyme activity in liver microsomes and isolated hepatocytes or the inducibility of CYP enzymes in cultured hepatocytes is influenced by the gender, age, or ethnicity of the donor (the latter being limited to Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics due to a paucity of livers from Asian donors). In human liver microsomes, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in CYP activity as a function of age, gender, or ethnicity with one exception. 7-Ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP1A2) activity was greater in males than females, which is consistent with clinical observation. Liver microsomal testosterone 6β-hydroxylase (CYP3A4) activity was slightly greater in females than males, but the difference was not significant. However, in cryopreserved human hepatocytes, the gender difference in CYP3A4 activity (females = twice males) did reach statistical significance, which supports the clinical observation that females metabolize certain CYP3A4 substrates faster than do males. Compared with those from Caucasians and African Americans, liver microsomes from Hispanics had about twice the average activity of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP2C8 and half the activity of CYP1A2, although this apparent ethnic difference may be a consequence of the relatively low number of Hispanic donors. Primary cultures of hepatocytes were treated with β-naphthoflavone, an inducer of CYP1A2, phenobarbital or rifampin, both of which induce CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4, albeit it to different extents. Induction of these CYP enzymes in freshly cultured hepatocytes did not appear to be influenced by the gender or age of the donor. Furthermore, CYP3A4 induction in

  2. Influence of toothbrushing on enamel softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel: an in situ study Influência da escovação no amolecimento superficial do esmalte e desgaste do esmalte bovino erodido: um estudo in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rios

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the surface softening and abrasive wear of eroded bovine enamel with or without the influence of toothbrushing. Five volunteers took part in this in situ study of 5 days. They wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 6 bovine enamel blocks divided in two rows with 3 blocks, which corresponded to the studied groups: erosion without toothbrushing (GI and erosion with toothbrushing (GII. The blocks were subjected to erosion by immersion of the appliances in a cola drink for 10 minutes, 4 times a day. After that, no treatment was performed in one row (GI, whereas the other row was brushed (GII. The appliance was then replaced into the mouth. Enamel alterations were determined using profilometry and microhardness tests. Data were tested using paired Student’s t test (p Este estudo avaliou o amolecimento superficial e o desgaste do esmalte bovino erodido com ou sem influência da escovação. Cinco voluntários fizeram parte deste estudo in situ de 5 dias. Eles usaram aparelhos palatinos de acrílico contendo 6 blocos de esmalte bovino divididos em 2 fileiras com 3 blocos, cada fileira correspondeu a um grupo em estudo: erosão sem escovação dentária (GI e erosão seguida de escovação dentária (GII. Os blocos foram submetidos à erosão por imersão do aparelho em uma bebida à base de cola por 10 minutos, 4 vezes ao dia. Depois disso, nenhum tratamento foi realizado em uma fileira (GI, enquanto a outra fileira foi escovada (GII. Em seguida, o aparelho foi recolocado na boca. Alterações do esmalte foram determinadas por teste de perfilometria e microdureza. Os dados foram analisados usando-se teste t de Student (p < 0,05. O valor médio de desgaste (µm e da porcentagem de perda de microdureza superficial (%PDS foi respectivamente: GI - 2,77 ± 1,21/91,61 ± 3,68 e GII - 3,80 ± 0,91/58,77 ± 11,47. Houve uma diferença estatisticamente significante no desgaste (p = 0,001 e na %PDS (p = 0,001 entre grupos. Conclui

  3. 76 FR 76436 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ..., Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including Power Over Ethernet Telephones, Switches... products containing the same, including power over ethernet telephones, switches, wireless access points... certain communication equipment, components thereof, and products containing the same, including power...

  4. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION..., Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information regarding a 60-day notice that...

  5. 76 FR 45878 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ...,420B] Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation...., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

  6. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  7. 78 FR 34132 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2958] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Correction to Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation... of complaint entitled Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and...

  8. J. Genet. classic 227 NOTE: The pagination in the original included ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , December 2005. 227. NOTE: The pagination in the original included the reverse of plate 1 on p. 445, which was a blank. The blank is not included here, but the original page numbers have been retained.

  9. 78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Seoul, Republic of Korea, and Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC of... certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  10. 76 FR 19467 - Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters Including On-Site Leased... to workers of Weyerhaeuser Company, Corporate Headquarters, including on-site leased workers from Volt Services, Adecco, and Manpower, Federal Way, Washington. The workers supply corporate and...

  11. 78 FR 70584 - ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI... Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Mason, Ohio. The workers are engaged in... of ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, including workers whose...

  12. 26 CFR 1.61-2 - Compensation for services, including fees, commissions, and similar items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including Christmas bonuses), termination or severance pay, rewards, jury fees, marriage fees and other...). For the special rules relating to the includibility in an employee's gross income of an amount equal...

  13. 29 CFR 516.3 - Bona fide executive, administrative, and professional employees (including academic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employees (including academic administrative personnel and teachers in elementary or secondary schools), and... professional employees (including academic administrative personnel and teachers in elementary or secondary... employed in the capacity of academic administrative personnel or teachers in elementary or secondary...

  14. 30 CFR 285.906 - What must my decommissioning application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide one paper copy and one electronic copy of the application. Include the following information in... discharge of pollutants, including marine trash and debris, into the offshore waters. (k) A statement of...

  15. 77 FR 53234 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-817] Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including Power Over Ethernet Telephones, Switches... products containing the same, including power over ethernet telephones, switches, wireless access points...

  16. 77 FR 36291 - Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-817] Certain Communication Equipment, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same, Including Power Over Ethernet Telephones, Switches... communication equipment, components thereof, and products containing the same, including power over ethernet...

  17. New records of nematodes from Korea, including Paratylenchus pandus n.sp. (Paratylenchidae nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Raski, D J

    1977-07-01

    Five new records of Paratylenchus, including P. pandus n.sp., are reported from Korea. An amended key to the genus is included on the basis of these findings. Macroposthonia tulagonovi is also reported with additional descriptions and illustrations.

  18. 12 CFR 563b.255 - What must the form of proxy include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must the form of proxy include? 563b.255... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Proxy Solicitation § 563b.255 What must the form of proxy include? The form of proxy must include all of the following: (a) A statement in bold face type...

  19. 21 CFR 179.30 - Radiofrequency radiation for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including microwave frequencies. 179.30 Section 179.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... for the heating of food, including microwave frequencies. Radiofrequency radiation, including microwave frequencies, may be safely used for heating food under the following conditions: (a) The radiation...

  20. 25 CFR 115.616 - What information will be included in BIA's final decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information will be included in BIA's final decision... Account § 115.616 What information will be included in BIA's final decision? BIA's final written decision to the parties involved in the proceeding will include: (a) BIA's decision to remove or retain the...